Science.gov

Sample records for detailed structural measurements

  1. Review of Ship Structural Details

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    8 4.3 Knee and Beam Brackets 4-11 4.3.1 Brackets for Girders and Deep Webs 4-11 4.3.2 Brackets Connecting Rolled Sections 4-15 4.4 Tripping...are shell stringers penetrating deep web frames and longitudinal girders penetrating deep transverses. This is not a common detail. If double...34. 3-76 ^"SECTION ’’.’(-K PLAJ iNG * S v *^ 4Fb^:TH»r.KNF.^ SAME AS FLAMGE ► BULKHFADQR DEEP WEB SS- 9 Detail Type: STANCHION END

  2. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  3. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  4. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  5. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  6. Structured detailed opto-mechanical tolerance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    Opto-mechanical tolerancing is a complex art, which is often reduced to inadequate tabled data of allowable tilts and decentres. During the process the respective roles of optical- and mechanical designers can become entangled and a source of conflict. A framework of principles is introduced to guide the design team through these murky waters. From these principles the development of a catalogue of models, practices and past precedents are proposed. An example is presented to serve as illustration. The final result is a model, of opto-mechanical tolerances, which allows a structured flow of tolerances into optical performance prediction.

  7. Interior detail of structural elements section; camera facing east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of structural elements section; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Structural details below roadway, looking north from south abutment. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structural details below roadway, looking north from south abutment. - Pleasantville Covered Bridge, Spanning Little Manatawny Creek at Covered Bridge Road (State Route 1030), Manatawny, Berks County, PA

  9. INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 31. View southeast from north side of structure noting detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. View southeast from north side of structure noting detail of Section 2 of the Metal Bent portion of the structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  11. Detailed electrical measurements on sago starch biopolymer solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rahul; Baghel, Jaya; Shukla, S.; Bhattacharya, B.; Rhee, Hee-Woo; Singh, Pramod K.

    2014-12-01

    The biopolymer solid electrolyte has been synthesized and characterized. Potassium iodide (KI) has been added in polymer matrix to develop solid polymer electrolyte. Relationships between electrical, ionic transport parameter and mechanism have been studied in detail. Impedance spectroscopy reveals the detailed electrical studies and ion transport mechanism. The ion dissociation factor is compared with a measured dielectric constant at a fixed frequency. The dielectric data are calculated which support the ionic conductivity data.

  12. 8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  13. 7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  14. 12. Exterior detail view of roof structure at eave, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Exterior detail view of roof structure at eave, showing exposed rafter tails, skip sheathing and gutter - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  15. 18. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING SAWTOOTH MONITOR ROOF AND TYPICAL STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING SAWTOOTH MONITOR ROOF AND TYPICAL STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION OF TOP STORY, NORTH SECTION, THIRD FLOOR, LOOKING WEST INTO SOUTH SECTION - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. View to northeast. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  17. 11. Detail, southeast corner, showing decorative elements of main structure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail, southeast corner, showing decorative elements of main structure, and window at the second story of the hose tower. - Independent Hose Company No. 3, Nineteenth & Belmont Streets, Bellaire, Belmont County, OH

  18. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF TYPICAL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; CROSSBAY 3 BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF TYPICAL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; CROSSBAY 3 BETWEEN D & E BAYS; LOOKING WSW. (Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE HIGH BAY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE HIGH BAY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND WINDOW ILLUMINATION AT THE SHRINK PIT AREA, S END OF B BAY; LOOKING SSE. (Ceronie) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  20. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  1. 14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. Note failure of sandstone lintel above window. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  2. 15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  3. 22. Detail taken from center of bridge showing upper structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail taken from center of bridge showing upper structure and roadway, from northwest. - Brady Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at South Twenty-second Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 32. DETAIL OF BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHTS AND SUSPENSION STRUCTURE BETWEEN BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHTS AND SUSPENSION STRUCTURE BETWEEN BRIDGE NOS. 12 AND 13. LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 30. DETAIL OF COLLAPSED BRIDGE NO. 14 SUSPENSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL OF COLLAPSED BRIDGE NO. 14 SUSPENSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  6. 91. Virginia Route 608 grade separation structure. Detail of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. Virginia Route 608 grade separation structure. Detail of the scored wing walls and T beams. Looking southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. 6. DETAIL OF DRIVE TRUCK ASSEMBLY. MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE SPANNING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF DRIVE TRUCK ASSEMBLY. MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE SPANNING LAUNCHER BUILDING WITH FLAME DUCT FAR RIGHT; VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28416, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. 2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING 168 (1960 HOG KILL) IS BENEATH HOG RUN - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. Visitor center flight room, detail of twin structural piers at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Visitor center flight room, detail of twin structural piers at northeast corner supporting flight room dome - Wright Brothers National Memorial Visitor Center, Highway 158, Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC

  10. 35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106359. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106359. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Interior detail of third level structural elements at south end; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of third level structural elements at south end; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. 6. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH SECTION, SHOWING ROOF STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH SECTION, SHOWING ROOF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTH AND UP - Marvine Colliery, Oil House, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. Detail of the wharf support structure with four pipes running ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of the wharf support structure with four pipes running across - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Crane Wharf, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF BARREL ROOF STRUCTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF BARREL ROOF STRUCTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  15. 6. Detail of heavy timber structural system at ground floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of heavy timber structural system at ground floor level of Tender Frame Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Tender Frame Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. Detailed analysis of structure and particle trajectories in sheared suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jeffrey; Katyal, Bhavana

    1999-11-01

    The structure and particle dynamics of sheared suspensions of hard spheres over a range of shear strength to Brownain motion (Péclet number, Pe) have been studied by detailed analysis of extended sampling of Stokesian Dynamics simulations of simple shear. The emphasis is upon large Pe. The structure has been analyzed by decomposition of the pair distribution function, g(r), into spherical harmonics; the harmonics are a complete set for the decompositon. The results indicate a profound and very marked change in structure due to shearing. It is shown that as Pe increases, the structure is increasingly distorted from teh equilibrium spherical symmetry and the number of harmonics required to recompose the original data to within an arbitrary accuracy increases, and this variation depends upon particle fraction. We present information on the content of the dominant harmonics as a function of radial distance for a pair, and interpret the results in terms of preferred directions in the material. Dynamic particle trajectories at time scales long relative to that used for the Brownian step are analyzed in a novel fashion by simple differential geometric measures, such as root mean square path curvature and torsion. Preliminary results illustrate that the path variation from mean flow correlates with the particle stress.

  17. 10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the test stand deck to east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE AND PART OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE, SEEN FROM THE ARROYO SECO BELOW THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry building on west side of structure; view east - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  20. DETAIL VIEW OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE BASE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE BASE OF THE TEST STAND AND THE TAIL SECTION OF A REDSTONE (JUPITER) ROCKET. NOTE THE FLAME DEFLECTOR BEHIND THE STRUCTURE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-11-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  2. 5. STANDPIPE STRUCTURE DETAIL SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO PENSTOCKS, RIVETED SECTIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STANDPIPE STRUCTURE DETAIL SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO PENSTOCKS, RIVETED SECTIONAL CONSTRUCTION OF TWO OF THE THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES (PHOTO RIGHT), WELDED SECTIONAL CONSTRUCTION OF FOURTH STANDPIPE, AND MODERN VENTILATION VALVES ON FIFTH PENSTOCK AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER BETWEEN FOURTH STANDPIPE AND ORIGINAL TWO. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  3. 31. Detail of Southeast Light lens and roof structure of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Detail of Southeast Light lens and roof structure of light gallery, 1985. Taken day after Hurricane Gloria, courtesy of Gerald F. Abbott and Block Island Historical Society. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  4. Detail of array structural elements through axis of array, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of array structural elements through axis of array, looking north-northeast - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Columbia Falls Radar Site Receive Sector Two Antenna Array, At the end of Shadagee Ridge Road, Columbia Falls, Washington County, ME

  5. 52. INTERIOR OF BRIDGE SUSPENSION STRUCTURE AND DETAIL OF LIFTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. INTERIOR OF BRIDGE SUSPENSION STRUCTURE AND DETAIL OF LIFTING SCREW MACHINERY ABOVE BRIDGE NOS. 12 AND 11. LOOKING NORTH. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  6. Interior detail of the north side roof structure and windows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of the north side roof structure and windows in the sail loft. View facing east northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Shipfitter's Shop, Seventh Street near Avenue C, Adjacent to Repair Basins, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 26. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE OF TOP FLOOR OF MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE OF TOP FLOOR OF MILL, ABOVE ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF STAIRWAY IN CA-290-25. THE PIPE AT CENTER WAS USED TO SPREAD CRUSHED ORE COMING FROM THE JAW CRUSHER EVENLY TO ALL AREA OF THE ORE BIN BELOW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. 6. Exterior view, showing structural details and instrumentation at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Exterior view, showing structural details and instrumentation at the walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 10. Exterior view, showing the structural details and tanks above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Exterior view, showing the structural details and tanks above at walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking west. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Structure A, architectural sections & details. Drawing no. H2, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structure A, architectural sections & details. Drawing no. H2, revised as-built dated October 11, 1951. Original drawing by Black & Veatch, consulting engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, prepared for the U.S. Department of the Army, Office of Engineers, Military Construction Division, Washington, D.C. dated October 1. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  11. Detail interior view of northeast stay tower at parking structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail interior view of northeast stay tower at parking structure in Section A showing graffiti, looking south between levels B3 and B4. Graffiti reads "God bless our local 3 brothers who gave their lives on 9-11-01 and all the rest! Amen" (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  12. Detail Hframe structure about five and onefourth miles southwest of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail H-frame structure about five and one-fourth miles southwest of Morony Dam and Powerhouse showing one modern non-ceramic insulator and two historic porcelain suspension insulators - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Morony-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of the Missouri River, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  13. Detail of insulator array at first line structure showing historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of insulator array at first line structure showing historic porcelain suspension insulators in strings of eight, porcelain jumper support insulators in strings of six, arch rings and ball weights - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Morony-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of the Missouri River, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  14. 5. Interior Detail of Roof Structure and Trusses Note: Photographs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior Detail of Roof Structure and Trusses Note: Photographs Nos. CA-1543F-6 through CA-1543F-19 are photocopies of construction drawings (various dates). Originals located at Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Staff Civil Engineer's Office. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Chemical Cleaning Facility, North of Fourteenth Street, between California & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. 35. DETAIL VIEW OF THE UNDERSIDE AND SUPPORT STRUCTURE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL VIEW OF THE UNDERSIDE AND SUPPORT STRUCTURE OF THE ORE BINS. VIEW WAS TAKEN FROM THE STAIR LANDING BETWEEN THE BREAKER LEVEL AND THE STAMP LEVEL. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  16. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF STRUCTURAL DETAIL IN FROZEN BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS

    PubMed Central

    Steere, Russell L.

    1957-01-01

    A procedure is described whereby preshadowed replicas can be obtained from frozen biological specimens which have been cut and then etched by sublimation of the ice from their surfaces. Electron micrographs showing details of the internal structure of plant virus crystals are presented to demonstrate the values of the procedure. Crystals of purified tobacco ringspot virus and squash mosaic virus and some portions of turnip yellow mosaic virus crystals have been shown to exhibit hexagonal packing. Sections through in situ crystals of tobacco mosaic virus show the rods to be parallel within each layer and arranged in a square net as viewed end on. Individual rods in each layer of the latter measure 300 mµ in length and are somewhat tilted with respect to the rods of adjacent layers. This results in the formation of a herring-bone appearance when a crystal is cut perpendicular to its hexagonal face. It is suggested that the procedure outlined here might well serve to supplement other procedures for the preparation of many cytological specimens for electron microscopy. PMID:13416310

  17. Detailed stress tensor measurements in a centrifugal compressor vaneless diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Pinarbasi, A.; Johnson, M.W.

    1996-04-01

    Detailed flow measurements have been made in the vaneless diffuser of a large low-speed centrifugal compressor using hot-wire anemometry. The three time mean velocity components and full stress tensor distributions have been determined on eight measurement plans within the diffuser. High levels of Reynolds stress result in the rapid mixing out of the blade wake. Although high levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found in the passage wake, they are not associated with strong Reynolds stresses and hence the passage wake mixes out only slowly. Low-frequency meandering of the wake position is therefore likely to be responsible for the high kinetic energy levels. The anisotropic nature of the turbulence suggests that Reynolds stress turbulence models are required for CFD modeling of diffuser flows.

  18. Predicting contrast detail performance from objective measurements in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Kenneth C.; Alsager, Abdulaziz; Dance, David R.; Oduko, Jennifer M.; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2009-02-01

    European Guidelines for quality control in digital mammography specify minimum and achievable standards of image quality in terms of threshold contrast, based on readings of images of the CDMAM test object by human observers. However the methodology is time-consuming and has large inter- and intra-observer error. To overcome these problems a software program is available to automatically read CDMAM images. An alternative approach would be to predict threshold contrast from measurements of DQE and MTF using a model of the imaging process. A simple signal-matched noise-integration model has been used to predict the contrast detail response of five different types of commercial digital mammography system (Siemens Inspiration, GE Senographe DS, and three types of Konica Minolta computerised radiography system). Measurements were made of the MTF and DQE of each detector and the noise equivalent apertures calculated. For each system sets of 16 images of the CDMAM test object were acquired at a range of dose levels and contrast-detail plots obtained using human observers and automated reading. The theoretically and experimentally determined threshold contrasts were compared. An encouragingly good level of agreement was found between the experimental data and theoretical predictions.

  19. Detailed signal model of coherent wind measurement lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuechao; Li, Sining; Lu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Lidar is short for light detection and ranging, which is a tool to help measuring some useful information of atmosphere. In the recent years, more and more attention was paid to the research of wind measurement by lidar. Because the accurate wind information can be used not only in weather report, but also the safety guarantee of the airplanes. In this paper, a more detailed signal model of wind measurement lidar is proposed. It includes the laser transmitting part which describes the broadening of the spectral, the laser attenuation in the atmosphere, the backscattering signal and the detected signal. A Voigt profile is used to describe the broadening of the transmitting laser spectral, which is the most common situation that is the convolution of different broadening line shapes. The laser attenuation includes scattering and absorption. We use a Rayleigh scattering model and partially-Correlated quadratic-Velocity-Dependent Hard-Collision (pCqSDHC) model to describe the molecule scattering and absorption. When calculate the particles scattering and absorption, the Gaussian particles model is used to describe the shape of particles. Because of the Doppler Effect occurred between the laser and atmosphere, the wind velocity can be calculated by the backscattering signal. Then, a two parameter Weibull distribution is used to describe the wind filed, so that we can use it to do the future work. After all the description, the signal model of coherent wind measurement lidar is decided. And some of the simulation is given by MATLAB. This signal model can describe the system more accurate and more detailed, so that the following work will be easier and more efficient.

  20. Detailed Uncertainty Analysis of the ZEM-3 Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are critical to the investigation of all thermoelectric systems. Therefore, it stands that the measurement uncertainty must be well understood to report ZT values which are accurate and trustworthy. A detailed uncertainty analysis of the ZEM-3 measurement system has been performed. The uncertainty analysis calculates error in the electrical resistivity measurement as a result of sample geometry tolerance, probe geometry tolerance, statistical error, and multi-meter uncertainty. The uncertainty on Seebeck coefficient includes probe wire correction factors, statistical error, multi-meter uncertainty, and most importantly the cold-finger effect. The cold-finger effect plagues all potentiometric (four-probe) Seebeck measurement systems, as heat parasitically transfers through thermocouple probes. The effect leads to an asymmetric over-estimation of the Seebeck coefficient. A thermal finite element analysis allows for quantification of the phenomenon, and provides an estimate on the uncertainty of the Seebeck coefficient. The thermoelectric power factor has been found to have an uncertainty of +9-14 at high temperature and 9 near room temperature.

  1. 9. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; CABLE TUNNEL, PLAN, SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; CABLE TUNNEL, PLAN, SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications No. OC1-55-72-(Rev.); Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 43 of 148; file no. AF 1320/94, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 12. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; DEFLECTOR PIT DETAILS, SHEET NO. 1." ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; DEFLECTOR PIT DETAILS, SHEET NO. 1." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 41 of 148; file no. 1320/92, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. 9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2) SHOWING DIVERSION GATE TO LAKE LADORA. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. DETAIL VIEW, STRUCTURAL TIMBER AND FLOOR JOISTS, SOUTH GARRET. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, STRUCTURAL TIMBER AND FLOOR JOISTS, SOUTH GARRET. THIS TIMBER IS ONE OF TWO EXTENDING OUT FROM THE HOUSE AND JOINED TO VERTICAL POSTS LOCATED WITHIN THE WOOD TUSCAN COLUMNS LOCATED AT THE PORTICO’S TWO OUTER CORNERS. THE TIMBERS AND THE VISIBLE FLOOR JOISTS WERE PART OF THE HOUSE’S INITIAL CA. 1770 CONSTRUCTION - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 5. "TEST STAND 13, CONCRETE STRUCTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAILS." Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. "TEST STAND 1-3, CONCRETE STRUCTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. OC12-50-10; Drawing No. 60-09-06; no sheet number within title block. D.O. SERIES 1109/17, Rev. A. Stamped: AS BUILT; NO CHANGES. Date of Revision A: 11/1/50. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-3, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Detail View looking at the protected structure and landing gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail View looking at the protected structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Structural details, pathways, and energetics of unfolding apomyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Onufriev, Alexey; Case, David A; Bashford, Donald

    2003-01-17

    Protein folding is often difficult to characterize experimentally because of the transience of intermediate states, and the complexity of the protein-solvent system. Atomistic simulations, which could provide more detailed information, have had to employ highly simplified models or high temperatures, to cope with the long time scales of unfolding; direct simulation of folding is even more problematic. We report a fully atomistic simulation of the acid-induced unfolding of apomyoglobin in which the protonation of acidic side-chains to simulate low pH is sufficient to induce unfolding at room temperature with no added biasing forces or other unusual conditions; and the trajectory is validated by comparison to experimental characterization of intermediate states. Novel insights provided by their analysis include: characterization of a dry swollen globule state forming a barrier to initial unfolding or final folding; observation of cooperativity in secondary and tertiary structure formation and its explanation in terms of dielectric environments; and structural details of the intermediate and the completely unfolded states. These insights involve time scales and levels of structural detail that are presently beyond the range of experiment, but come within reach through the simulation methods described here. An implicit solvation model is used to analyze the energetics of protein folding at various pH and ionic strength values, and a reasonable estimate of folding free energy is obtained. Electrostatic interactions are found to disfavor folding.

  8. Detailed Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has been gaining recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to characterize the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the MODIS bow-tie effects and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show preliminary results of the MODIS FRP data analysis, including comparisons with airborne measurements.

  9. Aircraft wing structural detail design (wing, aileron, flaps, and subsystems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Robert; Zable, Mike; Hughes, James; Heiser, Terry; Adrian, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, in detail, the wing, flaps, and ailerons for a primary flight trainer. Integrated in this design are provisions for the fuel system, the electrical system, and the fuselage/cabin carry-through interface structure. This conceptual design displays the general arrangement of all major components in the wing structure, taking into consideration the requirements set forth by the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR23) as well as those established in the statement of work.

  10. Structural details of the glycosyltransferase step of peptidoglycan assembly.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Andrew L; Gretes, Michael; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2008-10-01

    The importance of peptidoglycan in forming the basis of the bacterial cell wall has led to many studies investigating its synthesis. The step of cross-linkage via transpeptidation, and its inhibition by penicillins, has been extremely well characterized yet knowledge of the preceding glycosyltransfer reaction remained elusive until recently. The structures of two glycosyltransferase enzymes, catalyzing membrane-based polymerization of the lipid II monomer unit, have presented a means of elucidating the molecular details of this highly desirable antibiotic target. Evidence acquired before the publication of the structures is related here to these new findings, with particular emphasis on the recognition of substrates and inhibitors.

  11. Partially Assembled Nucleosome Structures at Atomic Detail.

    PubMed

    Rychkov, Georgy N; Ilatovskiy, Andrey V; Nazarov, Igor B; Shvetsov, Alexey V; Lebedev, Dmitry V; Konev, Alexander Y; Isaev-Ivanov, Vladimir V; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2017-02-07

    The evidence is now overwhelming that partially assembled nucleosome states (PANS) are as important as the canonical nucleosome structure for the understanding of how accessibility to genomic DNA is regulated in cells. We use a combination of molecular dynamics simulation and atomic force microscopy to deliver, in atomic detail, structural models of three key PANS: the hexasome (H2A·H2B)·(H3·H4)2, the tetrasome (H3·H4)2, and the disome (H3·H4). Despite fluctuations of the conformation of the free DNA in these structures, regions of protected DNA in close contact with the histone core remain stable, thus establishing the basis for the understanding of the role of PANS in DNA accessibility regulation. On average, the length of protected DNA in each structure is roughly 18 basepairs per histone protein. Atomistically detailed PANS are used to explain experimental observations; specifically, we discuss interpretation of atomic force microscopy, Förster resonance energy transfer, and small-angle x-ray scattering data obtained under conditions when PANS are expected to exist. Further, we suggest an alternative interpretation of a recent genome-wide study of DNA protection in active chromatin of fruit fly, leading to a conclusion that the three PANS are present in actively transcribing regions in a substantial amount. The presence of PANS may not only be a consequence, but also a prerequisite for fast transcription in vivo.

  12. 115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of three movable stage floor sections. An inclined steel angle track attached to the web of the floor beam allows the sections to roll under the fixed floor. The upper section of the inclined track is hinged so it can be moved upward by a cam mechanism to raise the end of the movable section level with the stage floor. A similar mechanism was used to open and close the floor sections for the star lifts (see sheet 4 of 9, note 6; sheet 8 of 9, details 5, 6A and 6B; sheet 6 of 9, notes 2A, 2B, and 3; and photo IL-1007-120). The pulley, and tongue extending out from the end of the movable section, were used to move the sections back and forth. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. Detailed electromagnetic simulation for the structural color of butterfly wings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R Todd; Smith, Glenn S

    2009-07-20

    Many species of butterflies exhibit interesting optical phenomena due to structural color. The physical reason for this color is subwavelength features on the surface of a single scale. The exposed surface of a scale is covered with a ridge structure. The fully three-dimensional, periodic, finite-difference time-domain method is used to create a detailed electromagnetic model of a generic ridge. A novel method for presenting the three-dimensional observed color pattern is developed. Using these tools, the change in color that is a result of varying individual features of the scale is explored. Computational models are developed that are similar to three butterflies: Morpho rhetenor, Troides magellanus, and Ancyluris meliboeus.

  14. Detailed temporal structure of communication networks in groups of songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, David

    2016-01-01

    Animals in groups often exchange calls, in patterns whose temporal structure may be influenced by contextual factors such as physical location and the social network structure of the group. We introduce a model-based analysis for temporal patterns of animal call timing, originally developed for networks of firing neurons. This has advantages over cross-correlation analysis in that it can correctly handle common-cause confounds and provides a generative model of call patterns with explicit parameters for the influences between individuals. It also has advantages over standard Markovian analysis in that it incorporates detailed temporal interactions which affect timing as well as sequencing of calls. Further, a fitted model can be used to generate novel synthetic call sequences. We apply the method to calls recorded from groups of domesticated zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) individuals. We find that the communication network in these groups has stable structure that persists from one day to the next, and that ‘kernels’ reflecting the temporal range of influence have a characteristic structure for a calling individual's effect on itself, its partner and on others in the group. We further find characteristic patterns of influences by call type as well as by individual. PMID:27335223

  15. Detailed temporal structure of communication networks in groups of songbirds.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Dan; Gill, Lisa; Clayton, David

    2016-06-01

    Animals in groups often exchange calls, in patterns whose temporal structure may be influenced by contextual factors such as physical location and the social network structure of the group. We introduce a model-based analysis for temporal patterns of animal call timing, originally developed for networks of firing neurons. This has advantages over cross-correlation analysis in that it can correctly handle common-cause confounds and provides a generative model of call patterns with explicit parameters for the influences between individuals. It also has advantages over standard Markovian analysis in that it incorporates detailed temporal interactions which affect timing as well as sequencing of calls. Further, a fitted model can be used to generate novel synthetic call sequences. We apply the method to calls recorded from groups of domesticated zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) individuals. We find that the communication network in these groups has stable structure that persists from one day to the next, and that 'kernels' reflecting the temporal range of influence have a characteristic structure for a calling individual's effect on itself, its partner and on others in the group. We further find characteristic patterns of influences by call type as well as by individual.

  16. The impact of model detail on power grid resilience measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, S.; Kleis, K.; Schultz, P.; Kurths, J.; Hellmann, F.

    2016-05-01

    Extreme events are a challenge to natural as well as man-made systems. For critical infrastructure like power grids, we need to understand their resilience against large disturbances. Recently, new measures of the resilience of dynamical systems have been developed in the complex system literature. Basin stability and survivability respectively assess the asymptotic and transient behavior of a system when subjected to arbitrary, localized but large perturbations in frequency and phase. To employ these methods that assess power grid resilience, we need to choose a certain model detail of the power grid. For the grid topology we considered the Scandinavian grid and an ensemble of power grids generated with a random growth model. So far the most popular model that has been studied is the classical swing equation model for the frequency response of generators and motors. In this paper we study a more sophisticated model of synchronous machines that also takes voltage dynamics into account, and compare it to the previously studied model. This model has been found to give an accurate picture of the long term evolution of synchronous machines in the engineering literature for post fault studies. We find evidence that some stable fix points of the swing equation become unstable when we add voltage dynamics. If this occurs the asymptotic behavior of the system can be dramatically altered, and basin stability estimates obtained with the swing equation can be dramatically wrong. We also find that the survivability does not change significantly when taking the voltage dynamics into account. Further, the limit cycle type asymptotic behaviour is strongly correlated with transient voltages that violate typical operational voltage bounds. Thus, transient voltage bounds are dominated by transient frequency bounds and play no large role for realistic parameters.

  17. Investigating structural details of lipid-cholesterol-A β interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Durgesh; Anunciado, Divina; Heller, William; O'Neill, Hugh; Urban, Volker; Qian, Shuo

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people around the world by 2050. Amyloid beta (A β) -peptide, a peptide composed of 40- 42 amino acids that is the product of cleavage from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is regarded to play a major role in the development of AD. In addition, accumulating evidence points to a positive association between cholesterol and AD. Here, we present results from our studies about A β-peptide and cholesterol in bilayer by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) using a combination of dimyristoyl, phosphocholine (DMPC) and partially deuterated cholesterol (cholesterol-d7) with and without A β. We compare the results using grazing incidence and transmission SANS on lipid bilayer films and unilamellar vesicles respectively. The structural details on vesicles and bilayers work in conjunction with the circular dichroism on peptide in solution and oriented circular dichroism in bilayer films. The studies confirm a positive association of A β with the membrane layers. The results from different studies will be compared and contrasted in presentation.

  18. Detailed slab and mantle structure beneath westernmost Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Miller, M. S.; Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    The geological evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean holds an important piece of the puzzle of how whole western Mediterranean evolved due to the convergence of Africa with Eurasia. Detailed upper mantle seismological images are crucial to test two controversial ideas about the dynamic process of the westernmost Mediterranean during the Cenozoic: slab rollback and lithosphere delamination. Recent tomographic images based on the dense seismic network in Spain and northern Morocco reveal a high-resolution continuous high-velocity anomaly to the transition zone depth under the Alboran domain [Bezada and Humphreys, 2013], which was used to support the slab roll back hypothesis for the westernmost Mediterranean tectonic evolution. However, the slab shape, width, and sharpness of its edges are not well resolved. Furthermore, the deep 2010 earthquake beneath Granada, Spain suggests possible oceanic crust material existing at ~ 600 km depth, which cannot be resolved by current tomography models. The study of multipathing and waveform broadening around sharp features has proven an efficient way to study those features. Here, we use both P and S waveform data from the PICASSO array to produce a detailed image. For the deep Granada earthquake, high frequency second arrivals and long coda after the P and S arrivals are shown on stations in the Rif Mountains of Morocco. By fitting both SH and P waveform data, we suggest that a low-velocity layer (LVL, 2 km thickness, δVs = -10%), possibly old oceanic crust, sits on top of the slab. The seismic waves travel through the LVL as guided waves preserving their high frequency energy. The strength of the second arrivals are very sensitive to the relative location between the deep earthquake and the LVL, which indicates the 2010 deep earthquake was most-likely within the subducted oceanic crust. Using both teleseismic and regional data, we conclude that the width of the sub-vertical slab is ~150 km, which is sharper than the

  19. Detailed requirements for a next generation nuclear data structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2016-07-05

    This document attempts to compile the requirements for the top-levels of a hierarchical arrangement of nuclear data such as found in the ENDF format. This set of requirements will be used to guide the development of a new data structure to replace the legacy ENDF format.

  20. Detailed Structural Characterization of Unbound Protein Phosphatase 1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dancheck, Barbara; Nairn, Angus C.; Peti, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is an essential and ubiquitous serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is regulated by more than 100 known inhibitor and targeting proteins. It is currently unclear how protein inhibitors distinctly and specifically regulate PP1 to enable rapid responses to cellular alterations. We demonstrate that two PP1 inhibitors, I-2 and DARPP-32, belong to the class of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). We show that both inhibitors have distinct preferences for transient local and long range structure. These preferences are likely their structural signature for their interaction with PP1. Furthermore, we show that upon phosphorylation of Thr34 in DARPP-32, which turns DARPP-32 into a potent inhibitor of PP1, neither local nor long range structure of DARPP-32 is altered. Therefore, our data suggests a role for these transient 3-dimensional topologies in binding mechanisms that enable extensive contacts with PP1's invariant surfaces. Together, these interactions enable potent and selective inhibition of PP1. PMID:18954090

  1. Cutinisation of tomato fruit epidermis: Structural and morphological details

    PubMed Central

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In tomato, the ovary is covered with a thin, electron-dense and uniform cuticle. The first 10 d after anthesis are critical in the cutinisation of the outer epidermal wall. During this period, singular cytoplasmic domains have been identified in the epidermal cells which seem to be involved in lipid biosynthesis. Moreover, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles of different size that seemed to migrate from the cytoplasm to the procuticle. These electron-dense particles are postulated to play an important role in early cutin synthesis. PMID:27031163

  2. Content, Structure, and Sequence of the Detailing Discipline at Kendall College of Art and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Bruce E.

    A study identified the appropriate general content, structure, and sequence for a detailing discipline that promoted student achievement to professional levels. Its focus was the detailing discipline, a sequence of studio courses within the furniture design program at Kendall College of Art and Design, Grand Rapids, Michigan. (Detailing, an…

  3. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  4. Detailed flow-field measurements over a 75 deg swept delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjelgaard, Scott O.; Sellers, William L., III

    1990-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation documenting the flowfield over a 75 deg swept delta wing at an angle-of-attack of 20.5 deg are presented. Results obtained include surface flow visualization, off-body flow visualization, and detailed flowfield surveys for various Reynolds numbers. Flowfield surveys at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 million based on the root chord were conducted with both a Pitot pressure probe and a 5-hole pressure probe; and 3-component laser velocimeter surveys were conducted at a Reynolds number of 1.0 million. The Pitot pressure surveys were obtained at 5 chordwise stations, the 5-hole probe surveys were obtained at 3 chordwise stations and the laser velocimeter surveys were obtained at one station. The results confirm the classical roll up of the flow into a pair of primary vortices over the delta wing. The velocity measurements indicate that Reynolds number has little effect on the global structure of the flowfield for the Reynolds number range investigated. Measurements of the non-dimensional axial velocity in the core of the vortex indicate a jet like flow with values greater than twice freestream. Comparisons between velocity measurements from the 5-hole pressure probe and the laser velocimeter indicate that the pressure probe does a reasonable job of measuring the flowfield quantities where the velocity gradients in the flowfield are low.

  5. Creating Imaginative Worlds: Unique Details and Structure in Norma Fox Mazer's Young Adult Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how writer Norma Fox Mazer has helped many readers make the leap between reality and imagination simply in the way she handles details in the lives of her characters. Explores the ideas of communicating with detail, experimenting with structure, and playing with time in crucial scenes. (SG)

  6. 36. ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS OF ELEVATOR HOUSING, NaK HEATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS OF ELEVATOR HOUSING, NaK HEATER STACK ROOF FLASHING, HOOD ELEVATION DETAIL. INCLUDES PARTIAL 'BILL OF MATERIAL.' INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106361. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-11. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Detail of antenna tower structure, looking northnorthwest OvertheHorizon Backscatter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of antenna tower structure, looking north-northwest - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  8. 22. U.S. Route 60 grade separation structure. Detail of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. U.S. Route 60 grade separation structure. Detail of the arch stones on the east elevation. View facing north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  9. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Protein Structure Details Refines the Proteome Signature for Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röwer, Claudia; Koy, Cornelia; Hecker, Michael; Reimer, Toralf; Gerber, Bernd; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Glocker, Michael O.

    2011-03-01

    Early diagnosis as well as individualized therapies are necessary to reduce the mortality of breast cancer, and personalized patient care strategies rely on novel prognostic or predictive factors. In this study, with six breast cancer patients, 2D gel analysis was applied for studying protein expression differences in order to distinguish invasive ductal breast carcinoma, the most frequent breast tumor subtype, from control samples. In total, 1203 protein spots were assembled in a 2D reference gel. Differentially abundant spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting for protein identification. Twenty proteins with their corresponding 38 differentially expressed 2D gel spots were contained in our previously reported proteome signature, suggesting that distinct protein forms were contributing. In-depth MS/MS measurements enabled analyses of protein structure details of selected proteins. In protein spots that significantly contributed to our signature, we found that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was N-terminally truncated, pyruvate kinase M2 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase A but not other isoforms of these proteins were of importance, and nucleophosmin phosphorylation at serine residues 106 and 125 were clearly identified. Principle component analysis and hierarchical clustering with normalized quantitative data from the 38 spots resulted in accurate separation of tumor from control samples. Thus, separation of tissue samples as in our initial proteome signature could be confirmed even with a different proteome analysis platform. In addition, detailed protein structure investigations enabled refining our proteome signature for invasive ductal breast carcinoma, opening the way to structure-/function studies with respect to disease processes and/or therapeutic intervention.

  10. Simulating photon scattering effects in structurally detailed ventricular models using a Monte Carlo approach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Martin J; Plank, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    Light scattering during optical imaging of electrical activation within the heart is known to significantly distort the optically-recorded action potential (AP) upstroke, as well as affecting the magnitude of the measured response of ventricular tissue to strong electric shocks. Modeling approaches based on the photon diffusion equation have recently been instrumental in quantifying and helping to understand the origin of the resulting distortion. However, they are unable to faithfully represent regions of non-scattering media, such as small cavities within the myocardium which are filled with perfusate during experiments. Stochastic Monte Carlo (MC) approaches allow simulation and tracking of individual photon "packets" as they propagate through tissue with differing scattering properties. Here, we present a novel application of the MC method of photon scattering simulation, applied for the first time to the simulation of cardiac optical mapping signals within unstructured, tetrahedral, finite element computational ventricular models. The method faithfully allows simulation of optical signals over highly-detailed, anatomically-complex MR-based models, including representations of fine-scale anatomy and intramural cavities. We show that optical action potential upstroke is prolonged close to large subepicardial vessels than further away from vessels, at times having a distinct "humped" morphology. Furthermore, we uncover a novel mechanism by which photon scattering effects around vessels cavities interact with "virtual-electrode" regions of strong de-/hyper-polarized tissue surrounding cavities during shocks, significantly reducing the apparent optically-measured epicardial polarization. We therefore demonstrate the importance of this novel optical mapping simulation approach along with highly anatomically-detailed models to fully investigate electrophysiological phenomena driven by fine-scale structural heterogeneity.

  11. Simulating photon scattering effects in structurally detailed ventricular models using a Monte Carlo approach

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Martin J.; Plank, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    Light scattering during optical imaging of electrical activation within the heart is known to significantly distort the optically-recorded action potential (AP) upstroke, as well as affecting the magnitude of the measured response of ventricular tissue to strong electric shocks. Modeling approaches based on the photon diffusion equation have recently been instrumental in quantifying and helping to understand the origin of the resulting distortion. However, they are unable to faithfully represent regions of non-scattering media, such as small cavities within the myocardium which are filled with perfusate during experiments. Stochastic Monte Carlo (MC) approaches allow simulation and tracking of individual photon “packets” as they propagate through tissue with differing scattering properties. Here, we present a novel application of the MC method of photon scattering simulation, applied for the first time to the simulation of cardiac optical mapping signals within unstructured, tetrahedral, finite element computational ventricular models. The method faithfully allows simulation of optical signals over highly-detailed, anatomically-complex MR-based models, including representations of fine-scale anatomy and intramural cavities. We show that optical action potential upstroke is prolonged close to large subepicardial vessels than further away from vessels, at times having a distinct “humped” morphology. Furthermore, we uncover a novel mechanism by which photon scattering effects around vessels cavities interact with “virtual-electrode” regions of strong de-/hyper-polarized tissue surrounding cavities during shocks, significantly reducing the apparent optically-measured epicardial polarization. We therefore demonstrate the importance of this novel optical mapping simulation approach along with highly anatomically-detailed models to fully investigate electrophysiological phenomena driven by fine-scale structural heterogeneity. PMID:25309442

  12. AN ASSESSMENT OF SIMPLIFIED VS. DETAILED METHODOLOGIES FOR SSI ANALYSES OF DEEPLY EMBEDDED STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.MILLER,C.HOFMAYER,C.GRAVES,H.

    2004-03-04

    Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to develop a technical basis to support the safety evaluation of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) structures as proposed for advanced reactor designs. In this program, the methods and computer programs established for the assessment of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects for the current generation of light water reactors are evaluated to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of DEB structures. This paper presents an assessment of the simplified vs. detailed methodologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures. In this assessment, a lump-mass beam model is used for the simplified approach and a finite element representation is employed for the detailed method. A typical containment structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized, considering various embedment depths from shallow to full burial. BNL used the CARES program for the simplified model and the SASSI2000 program for the detailed analyses. The calculated response spectra at the key locations of the DEB structure are used for the performance assessment of the applied methods for different depths of burial. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of both the simplified and detailed models for the SSI analyses of the DEB structure, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different depths of burial between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of DEB structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

  13. Detailed high-accuracy megavoltage transmission measurements: A sensitive experimental benchmark of EGSnrc

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: There are three goals for this study: (a) to perform detailed megavoltage transmission measurements in order to identify the factors that affect the measurement accuracy, (b) to use the measured data as a benchmark for the EGSnrc system in order to identify the computational limiting factors, and (c) to provide data for others to benchmark Monte Carlo codes. Methods: Transmission measurements are performed at the National Research Council Canada on a research linac whose incident electron parameters are independently known. Automated transmission measurements are made on-axis, down to a transmission value of {approx}1.7%, for eight beams between 10 MV (the lowest stable MV beam on the linac) and 30 MV, using fully stopping Be, Al, and Pb bremsstrahlung targets and no fattening filters. To diversify energy differentiation, data are acquired for each beam using low-Z and high-Z attenuators (C and Pb) and Farmer chambers with low-Z and high-Z buildup caps. Experimental corrections are applied for beam drifts (2%), polarity (2.5% typical maximum, 6% extreme), ion recombination (0.2%), leakage (0.3%), and room scatter (0.8%)-the values in parentheses are the largest corrections applied. The experimental setup and the detectors are modeled using EGSnrc, with the newly added photonuclear attenuation included (up to a 5.6% effect). A detailed sensitivity analysis is carried out for the measured and calculated transmission data. Results: The developed experimental protocol allows for transmission measurements with 0.4% uncertainty on the smallest signals. Suggestions for accurate transmission measurements are provided. Measurements and EGSnrc calculations agree typically within 0.2% for the sensitivity of the transmission values to the detector details, to the bremsstrahlung target material, and to the incident electron energy. Direct comparison of the measured and calculated transmission data shows agreement better than 2% for C (3.4% for the 10 MV beam) and

  14. Structure A, reinforcing details. Drawing No. H2302, as built, Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structure A, reinforcing details. Drawing No. H2-302, as built, Original drawing by Black & Veatch, Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, prepared for the U.S. Department of the Army, Office of Engineers, Military Construction Division, Washington, D.C. dated October 1, 1951. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. Detail of insulator array at Hframe structure on RyantoRainbow Line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of insulator array at H-frame structure on Ryan-to-Rainbow Line 1 about three miles southwest of Ryan Dam. Array has one historic porcelain suspension insulator and two non-ceramic insulators - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  16. Detail of insulator array at Hframe structure on RyantoRainbow Line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of insulator array at H-frame structure on Ryan-to-Rainbow Line 2 about three and one-fourth miles southwest of Ryan Dam. Array has three historic porcelain suspension insulators - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  17. Detail of MoronytoRainbow Hframe structure just east of Ryan Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Morony-to-Rainbow H-frame structure just east of Ryan Dam Road showing three historic porcelain suspension insulators in strings of six. View to east - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Morony-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of the Missouri River, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  18. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS LABELED FOR PLUGS FROM SPECIFIC SIZE GROUPS IN THE MTR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-811-2, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0611-00-098-100694, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. STRUCTURAL DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601). INL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STRUCTURAL DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-291-103079. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 542-11-B-73. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Optical grating evaluator - A device for detailed measurement of diffraction grating efficiencies in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michels, D. J.; Hunter, W. R.; Mikes, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    A device for detailed measurement of diffraction grating efficiencies and over-all performance in the VUV has been designed and constructed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The system employs semiautomated mechanisms to scan the face of the grating with a narrow monochromatic beam, and an efficiency map of the grating surface is produced on a strip chart recorder. Grating efficiency in the various diffracted orders and intensity of light scattered between orders may also be measured. A unique feature is the ability to determine the angle and effectiveness of grating blaze and variations in blaze under different conditions of illumination.

  1. Detailed Studies on the Structure and Dynamics of Reacting Dusty Flows at Normal and Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andac, M. Gurhan; Cracchiola, Brad; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Campbell, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    Dusty reacting flows are of particular interest for a wide range of applications. Inert particles can alter the flammability and extinction limits of a combustible mixture. Reacting particles can release substantial amount of heat and can be used either for power generation or propulsion. Accumulation of combustible particles in air can result in explosions which, for example, can occur in grain elevators, during lumber milling and in mine galleries. Furthermore, inert particles are used as flow velocity markers in reacting flows, and their velocity is measured by non-intrusive laser diagnostic techniques. Despite their importance, dusty reacting flows have been less studied and understood compared to gas phase as well as sprays. The addition of solid particles in a flowing gas stream can lead to strong couplings between the two phases, which can be of dynamic, thermal, and chemical nature. The dynamic coupling between the two phases is caused by the inertia that causes the phases to move with different velocities. Furthermore, gravitational, thermophoretic, photophoretic, electrophoretic, diffusiophoretic, centrifugal, and magnetic forces can be exerted on the particles. In general, magnetic, electrophoretic, centrifugal, photophoretic, and diffusiophoretic can be neglected. On the other hand, thermophoretic forces, caused by steep temperature gradients, can be important. The gravitational forces are almost always present and can affect the dynamic response of large particles. Understanding and quantifying the chemical coupling between two phases is a challenging task. However, all reacting particles begin this process as inert particles, and they must be heated before they participate in the combustion process. Thus, one must first understand the interactions of inert particles in a combustion environment. The in-detail understanding of the dynamics and structure of dusty flows can be only advanced by considering simple flow geometries such as the opposed

  2. Improving wildlife habitat model performance: Sensitivity to the scale and detail of vegetation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lance Jay, Jr.

    Monitoring the impacts of resource use and landscape change on wildlife habitat over large areas is a daunting assignment. Forest land managers could benefit from linking the frequent decisions of resource use (timber harvesting) with a system of wildlife habitat accounting, but to date these tools are not widely available. I examined aspects of wildlife habitat modeling that: (in Chapter 2) could potentially lead to the establishment of wildlife habitat accounting within a resource decision support tool, (in Chapter 3) improve our theoretical understanding and methods to interpret the accuracy of wildlife habitat models, (in Chapter 4) explore the effects of vegetation classification systems on wildlife habitat model results, and (in Chapter 5) show that forest structural estimates from satellite imagery can improve potential habitat distribution models (GAP) for forest bird species. The majority of the analyses in this dissertation were done using a forest resource inventory developed by the State of Michigan (IFMAP). Paired with field vegetation and bird samples from sites across the lower peninsula of Michigan, we compared the relative accuracy of wildlife habitat relationship models built with plot-scale vegetation samples and stand-scale forest inventory maps. Recursive partitioning trees were used to build wildlife habitat models for 30 bird species. The habitat distribution maps from the Michigan Gap Analysis (MIGAP) were used as a baseline for comparison of model accuracy results. Both the plot and stand-scale measurements achieved high accuracy and there were few large differences between plot and stand-scale models for any individual species. Where the plot and stand-scale models were different, they tended to be species associated with mixed habitats. This may be evidence that scale of vegetation measurement has a larger influence on species associated with edges and ecotones. Habitat models that were built solely with land cover data were less accurate

  3. Detailed measurements in the SSME high pressure fuel turbine with smooth rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Susan T.

    1993-07-01

    Several tests of the Rocketdyne configuration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) Turbine have been completed in the Turbine Test Equipment (TTE) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The tests involved using scaled performance parameters and model measurements to predict the performance of the turbine. The overall performance has been the primary objective of the tests to date, but more detailed measurements are also of interest. During the most recent test of the Rocketdyne configuration of the HPFTP turbine with smooth rotor blades, several different measurement techniques were used to study the turbine inlet and exit velocity profiles, boundary layer thicknesses, turbulence intensities, etc. Data has been obtained using various hot film probes and three-hole cobra probes. Laser Velocimeter measurements were also made. The test plan and test data will be presented and discussed as well as lessons learned on how to obtain the various types of data.

  4. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. SUMP TANK (DIAMETER 33 FEET; CAPACITY 100,000 GALLONS) LOCATION IN HIGH ROOF SECTION ON WEST SIDE. REPAIR SHOP AND STORAGE AREA IN LOW-ROOF AREA. WALL DETAILS: THICKNESS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE RANGES FROM 1'-6" TO 2' THICK. FOUNDATIONS FOR FIVE CELLS ENCLOSING PUMPS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-805-2, 12/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0605-62-098-100658, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Detailed noise measurements on the SR-7A propeller: Tone behavior with helical tip Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.

    1991-12-01

    Detailed noise measurements were taken on the SR-7A propeller to investigate the behavior of the noise with helical tip Mach number and then to level off as Mach number was increased further. This behavior was further investigated by obtaining detailed pressure-time histories of data. The pressure-time histories indicate that a portion of the primary pressure pulse is progressively cancelled by a secondary pulse which results in the noise leveling off as the helical tip Mach number is increased. This second pulse appears to originate on the same blade as the primary pulse and is in some way connected to the blade itself. This leaves open the possibility of redesigning the blade to improve the cancellation; thereby, the propeller noise is reduced.

  6. Detailed noise measurements on the SR-7A propeller: Tone behavior with helical tip Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed noise measurements were taken on the SR-7A propeller to investigate the behavior of the noise with helical tip Mach number and then to level off as Mach number was increased further. This behavior was further investigated by obtaining detailed pressure-time histories of data. The pressure-time histories indicate that a portion of the primary pressure pulse is progressively cancelled by a secondary pulse which results in the noise leveling off as the helical tip Mach number is increased. This second pulse appears to originate on the same blade as the primary pulse and is in some way connected to the blade itself. This leaves open the possibility of redesigning the blade to improve the cancellation; thereby, the propeller noise is reduced.

  7. Detailed requirements document for the integrated structural analysis system, phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainey, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements are defined for a software system entitled integrated Structural Analysis System (ISAS) Phase B which is being developed to provide the user with a tool by which a complete and detailed analysis of a complex structural system can be performed. This software system will allow for automated interface with numerous structural analysis batch programs and for user interaction in the creation, selection, and validation of data. This system will include modifications to the 4 functions developed for ISAS, and the development of 25 new functions. The new functions are described.

  8. Processing of Uav Based Range Imaging Data to Generate Detailed Elevation Models of Complex Natural Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohoutek, T. K.; Eisenbeiss, H.

    2012-07-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters) UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM) camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies) carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre level. The RIM

  9. New contrast-detail phantoms for improved precision in lesion detection measurements.

    PubMed

    Smith, S W; Insana, M F; Lopez, H

    1989-01-01

    The previous design of our ultrasound contrast-detail (C-D) phantom is limited in its ability to evaluate the quality of diagnostic ultrasound imaging systems. There is uncertainty in the contrast-detail measurements due to the single available viewing angle for each target and the resulting single realization of the ultrasound speckle pattern. Two new contrast-detail phantom designs are described which enable many independent realizations of the speckle noise for observer C-D experiments of improved precision. In the first design, a single tissue-mimicking cone is located on the axis of a tissue-mimicking cylinder. Cross-sectional images of the cone which simulate focal lesions can be obtained from any orientation by rotating the cylinder under the transducer. In the second new design, a tissue-mimicking cone is positioned in a tissue-mimicking slurry of agar/graphite spheres. Gentle stirring of the slurry and rotation of the cone produce many independent realizations of the speckle. In both new phantoms, the lesion contrast can be specified and is frequency/transducer independent.

  10. 12. "OBSERVATION POSTS, STRUCTURAL PLANS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. OC25572; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. "OBSERVATION POSTS, STRUCTURAL PLANS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. OC2-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 89 of 148; file no. 1321/40, Rev. A. Very faint stamp above note reads: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Structure A, protective alarm installation details. Drawing no. H3709, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structure A, protective alarm installation details. Drawing no. H3-709, revised as-built dated August 28, 1952. Original drawing by Black & Veatch, consulting engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, prepared for the U.S. Department of the Army, Office of Engineers, Military Construction Division, Washington, D.C. dated October 1, 1951. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. FIRST FLOOR PLAN WITH STRUCTURAL DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. FIRST FLOOR PLAN WITH STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FLOOR SLABS AND HATCHES. SHOWER/LOCKER ROOM. STAIRWAYS. TWENTY-INCH-THICK WALL DIVIDES SUMP AND SEAL TANK CHAMBERS FROM REST OF FLOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-805-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0605-62-098-100659, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. A&M. TAN607. Construction detail showing structural steel framework with reinforcing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Construction detail showing structural steel framework with reinforcing steel in place prior to pouring concrete for biparting doors between hot shop and special equipment service (SES) room. Facing north. Hot shop to left, SES room to right. slot for north half of door shows at upper left of view. Date: May 21, 1954. INEEL negative no. 10548 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Measurement fidelity of heart rate variability signal processing: the devil is in the details.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Giovanniello, Sabrina; Poirier, Paul; Lambert, Marie

    2012-10-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a particularly valuable quantitative marker of the flexibility and balance of the autonomic nervous system. Significant advances in software programs to automatically derive HRV have led to its extensive use in psychophysiological research. However, there is a lack of systematic comparisons across software programs used to derive HRV indices. Further, researchers report meager details on important signal processing decisions making synthesis across studies challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the measurement fidelity of time- and frequency-domain HRV indices derived from three predominant signal processing software programs commonly used in clinical and research settings. Triplicate ECG recordings were derived from 20 participants using identical data acquisition hardware. Among the time-domain indices, there was strong to excellent correspondence (ICC(avg)=0.93) for SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD, and pNN50. The frequency-domain indices yielded excellent correspondence (ICC(avg)=0.91) for LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio, except for VLF which exhibited poor correspondence (ICC(avg)=0.19). Stringent user-decisions and technical specifications for nuanced HRV processing details are essential to ensure measurement fidelity across signal processing software programs.

  15. Seismic retroftting of RC columns with RC jackets and wing walls with different structural details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shuenn-Yih; Chen, Ting-Wei; Tran, Ngoc-Cuong; Liao, Wen-I.

    2014-06-01

    An original reinforced concrete (RC) column and four strengthened specimens, two with RC jackets and two with wing walls, were tested in this study. The original column specimen was designed to comply with older (pre-1999) design standards so that the usual detailing deficiencies in existing school buildings in Taiwan could be simulated. Two different structural details were chosen to fabricate the full-scale specimens for each retrofitting technique. The study confirmed that either RC jacketing or the installation of wing walls with two different structural details can effectively improve the stiffness and strength of an existing column. RC jacketing shows a better improvement in energy dissipation and ductility when compared to the columns with wing walls installed. This is because the two RC jacketed columns experienced a flexural failure, while a shear failure was found in the two columns with the wing walls installed, and thus led to a drastic decrease of the maximum lateral strengths and ductility. Since many factors may affect the installation of a post-installed anchor, it is better to use standard hooks to replace post-installed anchors in some specific points when using RC jacketing or installing wing walls.

  16. Formulation of probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail using the reference ratio method.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Jan B; Andreetta, Christian; Boomsma, Wouter; Bottaro, Sandro; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Frellsen, Jes; Mardia, Kanti V; Tian, Pengfei; Hamelryck, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    We propose a method to formulate probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail, for a given amino acid sequence, based on Bayesian principles, while retaining a close link to physics. We start from two previously developed probabilistic models of protein structure on a local length scale, which concern the dihedral angles in main chain and side chains, respectively. Conceptually, this constitutes a probabilistic and continuous alternative to the use of discrete fragment and rotamer libraries. The local model is combined with a nonlocal model that involves a small number of energy terms according to a physical force field, and some information on the overall secondary structure content. In this initial study we focus on the formulation of the joint model and the evaluation of the use of an energy vector as a descriptor of a protein's nonlocal structure; hence, we derive the parameters of the nonlocal model from the native structure without loss of generality. The local and nonlocal models are combined using the reference ratio method, which is a well-justified probabilistic construction. For evaluation, we use the resulting joint models to predict the structure of four proteins. The results indicate that the proposed method and the probabilistic models show considerable promise for probabilistic protein structure prediction and related applications.

  17. Detailed design of an SMA-actuated self-locking device for rotary feed structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyu, Qin; Xiaojun, Yan; Xiaoyong, Zhang; Weibing, Wang; Lianghai, Li

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a detailed design of a locking device which is used to lock the rotary feed structure of a space-borne microwave radiometer during the launching stage. This locking device employs two redundant shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as the actuating elements, uses a self-locking structure to achieve the locking function and a step structure to ensure a safety clearance after release. Based on the design concept, preliminary design of the locking/release unit and the clamp unit are performed. Then, a more accurate simulation of the release process and the cyclic property of the device is carried out by using an improved Brinson’s SMA constitutive model and a heat transfer equation. After the design and simulation, four prototypes are fabricated and their performance tests are carried out to evaluate the self-locking property, lifetime and thermal tolerance.

  18. A detailed procedure for measuring turbulent velocity fluctuations using constant-voltage anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed-Taifour, Abdelouahab; Weiss, Julien; Sadeghi, Atabak; Vétel, Jérôme; Jondeau, Emmanuel; Comte-Bellot, Geneviève

    2015-09-01

    A detailed procedure to use a constant-voltage anemometer (CVA) for the accurate measurement of turbulent flows is proposed. The procedure is based on the usual small-perturbation analysis of hot-wire signals. It consists in three steps: (1) the calibration of internal elements, required to estimate the two main electrical parameters of the CVA circuitry that are needed in the data analysis, (2) a flow calibration to relate the CVA output voltage and the hot-wire time constant to the flow velocity, and (3) a data-processing algorithm to recover the fluctuating flow quantities from the output voltage. The procedure is tested in two classical turbulent flows: a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer and a round jet. In both cases, the CVA results are shown to be essentially indistinguishable from the results obtained with a research-grade constant-temperature anemometer.

  19. Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Jones, T.V.

    1995-04-01

    Short pin-fin and pin-fin arrays are frequently used in turbine blade internal cooling systems to enhance cooling and stiffen the structure. The present work has shown that a knowledge of the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution is required to predict the cooling effect of such devices accurately. The heat flow process has been numerically modeled at typical engine conditions with the detailed heat transfer distribution measured by the transient heat transfer method being used as the thermal boundary conditions. The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

  20. A Detailed Study on the Low-Energy Structures of Charged Colloidal Clusters.

    PubMed

    Cruz, S M A; Marques, J M C

    2016-04-07

    The target of this investigation is the systematic characterization of the low-energy structures of charged colloidal clusters that may be important to understand the self-assembling process of biomolecules. The aggregation of charged colloidal particles is governed by the attractive short-ranged Morse potential and the Yukawa repulsive tail to describe the long-range charge effect. A global optimization strategy, based on our own evolutionary algorithm, was adopted to discover the low-energy structures of colloidal clusters composed of up to 20 particles. A detailed analysis of the low-energy structures involving charged particles shows that the appearance of the Bernal spiral as the most stable motif occurs, first, at N = 6, but it is favored for larger clusters (N ≥ 13); for 6 ≤ N ≤ 12, there is a competition between the spiral (which is favored for higher charges) and more spherical-like structures. Finally, we study binary clusters composed by two sets of differently charged colloidal particles. Although a great diversity of low-energy structures is observed (especially for aggregates with one of the components in excess), the global minimum is disputed by three structural motifs depending on the composition of the cluster and, in some cases, on the range of the Morse potential.

  1. The E-ELT project: the telescope main structure detailed design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Busatta, Andrea; Ghedin, Leonardo; De Lorenzi, Simone

    2012-09-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) is the biggest telescope in the world. Within the Detailed Design activities, ESO has awarded EIE GROUP (European Industrial Engineering) a contract for the Design of the Main Structure to the point where the concept of the telescope has been consolidated, from a construction point of view. All the Design activities have been developed in order to create an integrated system in terms of functionality and performance, while the engineering activities have been performed with the aim of obtaining a telescope that can be built, transported, integrated, with a reduced maintainability.

  2. On the effect of accelerated winds on the wave growth through detailed laboratory measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert; Osuna, Pedro; Hernández, Aldo

    2013-04-01

    The possible influence of accelerated winds on air-water momentum fluxes is being studied through detailed laboratory measurements in a large wind-wave flume. Wind stress over the water surface, waves and surface drift are measured in the 40m long wind-wave tank at IRPHE, Marseille. While momentum fluxes are estimated directly through the eddy correlation method in a station about the middle of the tank, they provide information corresponding to rather short non-dimensional fetch not previously reported. Wave evolution along the tank is determined through a series of wave gauges, and the wind-induced surface drift is obtained at one of the first measuring stations at the beginning of the tank. At each experimental run very low wind was on (about 1m/s) for a certain period and suddenly it was constantly accelerated to reach about 13 m/s (as well as 8 and 5 m/s during different runs) in about 15 sec to as long as 600 sec. The wind was kept constant at that high speed for 2 to 10 min, and then suddenly and constantly decelerate to 0. Data from the constant high winds provided us with reference equilibrium conditions for at least 3 different wind speed. We, nevertheless, focus in the recordings while wind was being constantly accelerated expecting some contribution to the understanding of gustiness, the implied wind wave growth and the onset of surface drift. Wind-wave growth is observed to lag behind the wind stress signal, and furthermore, a two regime wind stress is noticed, apparently well correlated with a) the incipient growth and appearance of the first waves and b) the arrival of waves from the up-wind section of the tank. Results of non-dimensional wave energy as a function of non-dimensional fetch represent an extension of at least 2 decades shorter non-dimensional fetch to the wave growth curves typically found in the literature. The linear tendency of wave growth compares very well only when wind is reaching its maximum, while during the accelerated wind

  3. Detailed Measurements of Turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm J. Andrews, Ph.D.

    2004-12-14

    This project has two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. Also, studies of multi-layer mixing with the existing water channel facility. Over the last twelve (12) months there has been excellent progress, detailed in this report, with both tasks. As of December 10, 2004, the air/helium facility is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Currently experiments with air/helium up to Atwood numbers of 0.25 (the maximum is 0.75, but the highest Reynolds numbers are at 0.25) are being performed. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget, and we expect this to continue for 2005. With interest expressed from LLNL we have continued with initial condition studies using the water channel. This work has also progressed well, with one of the graduate Research Assistants (Mr. Nick Mueschke) visiting LLNL the past two summers to work with Dr. O. Schilling. Several journal papers are in preparation that describe the work. Two MSc.'s have been completed (Mr. Nick Mueschke, and Mr. Wayne Kraft, 12/1/03). Nick and Wayne are both pursuing Ph.D.s' funded by this DOE Alliances project. Presently three (3) Ph.D. graduate Research Assistants are supported on the project, and two (2) undergraduate Research Assistants. During the year two (2) journal papers and two (2) conference papers have been published, ten (10) presentations made at conferences, and three (3) invited presentations.

  4. Measuring the IMF and Detailed Abundance Patterns from the Integrated Light of Old Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of unresolved stellar systems holds key information regarding the detailed abundance pattern, star formation history, dust properties, and initial mass function (IMF) of the underlying stellar population(s). This information can only be extracted with the aid of stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. Such models have been employed to estimate basic properties such as the star formation rate, metallicity (Z, and in certain contexts, alpha-enhancement), and total stellar mass (assuming an IMF). However, much more information is available in the SED than can be extracted by the current generation of SPS models because existing models are plagued by incomplete and poorly calibrated ingredients. The proposers request funds to develop a next generation SPS model capable of measuring the IMF and detailed abundance patterns from the SEDs of composite stellar systems. In particular, we intend to develop an SPS model that makes accurate predictions for the SEDs (from 0.1-3mu m at a resolving power of ~5,000) of composite systems as a function of the IMF, stellar age, metallicity, and individual elemental abundances (including C, N, O, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr, and Ba). This will require the construction of a new synthetic stellar spectral library and a new isochrone library. This new model will be the first to make predictions for the full SED shape as a function of individual abundance ratios, age, and the IMF. We will extensively calibrate the model predictions against data on individual stars and globular clusters. The new model will be essential for interpreting optical-NIR spectra obtained from the James Webb Space Telescope as well as both present and future ground-based facilities.

  5. High-resolution crystal structure reveals molecular details of target recognition by bacitracin

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacitracin is a metalloantibiotic agent that is widely used as a medicine and feed additive. It interferes with bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate, a lipid carrier that serves as a critical intermediate in cell wall production. Despite bacitracin’s broad use, the molecular details of its target recognition have not been elucidated. Here we report a crystal structure for the ternary complex of bacitracin A, zinc, and a geranyl-pyrophosphate ligand at a resolution of 1.1 Å. The antibiotic forms a compact structure that completely envelopes the ligand’s pyrophosphate group, together with flanking zinc and sodium ions. The complex adopts a highly amphipathic conformation that offers clues to antibiotic function in the context of bacterial membranes. Bacitracin’s efficient sequestration of its target represents a previously unseen mode for the recognition of lipid pyrophosphates, and suggests new directions for the design of next-generation antimicrobial agents. PMID:23940351

  6. Detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Li, H.; Li, M. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in similar diffusion bonding as well as on the fabrication of high quality martensitic stainless steel hollow structural components. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to observe the extent of surface asperity deformation under different bonding pressures. Results showed that an undamaged hollow structural component has been obtained with full interfacial contact and the same shear strength to that of base material. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity deformation as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity deformation mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity deformation not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also released deformation heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity deformation readily introduced stored energy difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail.

  7. Measurement of angle and axis of rotation in a carousel interferometer: a detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Ghazanfar; Ikram, Masroor

    2010-02-20

    A detailed analysis of a carousel interferometer is presented for the measurement of an unknown angle and axis of rotation. The technique exploits a set of compensator glass plates and a right-angle prism that is placed in each of the two arms of the interferometer. The two sets are placed at the same rotational stage, while the end mirrors of the interferometer are static. When rotation takes place, individual and relative optical path differences are generated in the two beams of the interferometer. The generated phase differences contribute toward finding the angle and axis of rotation. The analysis is presented for any initial position of the interferometer, i.e., the radial vector from the axis of rotation to the apex of one of the prisms used. The results show the slight variations in the error and nonlinearity when different parameters are manipulated. Moreover, the trade-off between the maximum size of the prisms and the radial distances are also presented.

  8. Deconvolution-Based CT and MR Brain Perfusion Measurement: Theoretical Model Revisited and Practical Implementation Details.

    PubMed

    Fieselmann, Andreas; Kowarschik, Markus; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Hornegger, Joachim; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Deconvolution-based analysis of CT and MR brain perfusion data is widely used in clinical practice and it is still a topic of ongoing research activities. In this paper, we present a comprehensive derivation and explanation of the underlying physiological model for intravascular tracer systems. We also discuss practical details that are needed to properly implement algorithms for perfusion analysis. Our description of the practical computer implementation is focused on the most frequently employed algebraic deconvolution methods based on the singular value decomposition. In particular, we further discuss the need for regularization in order to obtain physiologically reasonable results. We include an overview of relevant preprocessing steps and provide numerous references to the literature. We cover both CT and MR brain perfusion imaging in this paper because they share many common aspects. The combination of both the theoretical as well as the practical aspects of perfusion analysis explicitly emphasizes the simplifications to the underlying physiological model that are necessary in order to apply it to measured data acquired with current CT and MR scanners.

  9. Global Snow Mass Measurements and the Effect of Stratigraphic Detail on Inversion of Microwave Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark; Davenport, Ian; Gurney, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Snow provides large seasonal storage of freshwater, and information about the distribution of snow mass as snow water equivalent (SWE) is important for hydrological planning and detecting climate change impacts. Large regional disagreements remain between estimates from reanalyses, remote sensing and modelling. Assimilating passive microwave information improves SWE estimates in many regions, but the assimilation must account for how microwave scattering depends on snow stratigraphy. Physical snow models can estimate snow stratigraphy, but users must consider the computational expense of model complexity versus acceptable errors. Using data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cold Land Processes Experiment and the Helsinki University of Technology microwave emission model of layered snowpacks, it is shown that simulations of the brightness temperature difference between 19 and 37 GHz vertically polarised microwaves are consistent with advanced microwave scanning radiometer-earth observing system and special sensor microwave imager retrievals once known stratigraphic information is used. Simulated brightness temperature differences for an individual snow profile depend on the provided stratigraphic detail. Relative to a profile defined at the 10-cm resolution of density and temperature measurements, the error introduced by simplification to a single layer of average properties increases approximately linearly with snow mass. If this brightness temperature error is converted into SWE using a traditional retrieval method, then it is equivalent to ±13 mm SWE (7 % of total) at a depth of 100 cm. This error is reduced to ±5.6 mm SWE (3 % of total) for a two-layer model.

  10. Structural Unemployment: Theory and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penz, G. Peter

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a theoretical framework useful for measuring structural unemployment. Developed on the basis of a literature review, this framework was applied to Canadian data. The approach which explains structural unemployment in terms of the causes of labor displacement is inadequate because it ignores impediments…

  11. Measurement of Family Affective Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Three studies demonstrate that the Inventory of Family Feelings, a measure of family affective structure, has high reliability and construct and concurrent validity. It is appropriate for affective comparisons by age, sex, and ordinal position of children and for measuring change after family or marital therapy, or after predictable stress…

  12. Probing the Detailed Seismic Velocity Structure of Subduction Zones Using Advanced Seismic Tomography Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Subduction zones are one of the most important components of the Earth's plate tectonic system. Knowing the detailed seismic velocity structure within and around subducting slabs is vital to understand the constitution of the slab, the cause of intermediate depth earthquakes inside the slab, the fluid distribution and recycling, and tremor occurrence [Hacker et al., 2001; Obara, 2002].Thanks to the ability of double-difference tomography [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] to resolve the fine-scale structure near the source region and the favorable seismicity distribution inside many subducting slabs, it is now possible to characterize the fine details of the velocity structure and earthquake locations inside the slab, as shown in the study of the Japan subduction zone [Zhang et al., 2004]. We further develop the double-difference tomography method in two aspects: the first improvement is to use an adaptive inversion mesh rather than a regular inversion grid and the second improvement is to determine a reliable Vp/Vs structure using various strategies rather than directly from Vp and Vs [see our abstract ``Strategies to solve for a better Vp/Vs model using P and S arrival time'' at Session T29]. The adaptive mesh seismic tomography method is based on tetrahedral diagrams and can automatically adjust the inversion mesh according to the ray distribution so that the inversion mesh nodes are denser where there are more rays and vice versa [Zhang and Thurber, 2005]. As a result, the number of inversion mesh nodes is greatly reduced compared to a regular inversion grid with comparable spatial resolution, and the tomographic system is more stable and better conditioned. This improvement is quite valuable for characterizing the fine structure of the subduction zone considering the highly uneven distribution of earthquakes within and around the subducting slab. The second improvement, to determine a reliable Vp/Vs model, lies in jointly inverting Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs using P, S, and S

  13. Crystal Structures of a Poplar Xyloglucan Endotransglycosylase Reveal Details of Transglycosylation Acceptor Binding

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Patrik; Brumer, Harry; Baumann, Martin J.; Kallas, Åsa M.; Henriksson, Hongbin; Denman, Stuart E.; Teeri, Tuula T.; Jones, T. Alwyn

    2004-01-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases (XETs) cleave and religate xyloglucan polymers in plant cell walls via a transglycosylation mechanism. Thus, XET is a key enzyme in all plant processes that require cell wall remodeling. To provide a basis for detailed structure–function studies, the crystal structure of Populus tremula x tremuloides XET16A (PttXET16A), heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, has been determined at 1.8-Å resolution. Even though the overall structure of PttXET16A is a curved β-sandwich similar to other enzymes in the glycoside hydrolase family GH16, parts of its substrate binding cleft are more reminiscent of the distantly related family GH7. In addition, XET has a C-terminal extension that packs against the conserved core, providing an additional β-strand and a short α-helix. The structure of XET in complex with a xyloglucan nonasaccharide, XLLG, reveals a very favorable acceptor binding site, which is a necessary but not sufficient prerequisite for transglycosylation. Biochemical data imply that the enzyme requires sugar residues in both acceptor and donor sites to properly orient the glycosidic bond relative to the catalytic residues. PMID:15020748

  14. Porous electrode apparatus for electrodeposition of detailed metal structures or microelectronic interconnections

    DOEpatents

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Nilson, Robert H.; Hruby, Jill M.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and procedure for performing microfabrication of detailed metal structures by electroforming metal deposits within small cavities. Two primary areas of application are: the LIGA process which manufactures complex three-dimensional metal parts and the damascene process used for electroplating line and via interconnections of microelectronic devices. A porous electrode held in contact or in close proximity with a plating substrate or mold top to ensure one-dimensional and uniform current flow into all mold cavities is used. Electrolyte is pumped over the exposed surface of the porous electrode to ensure uniform ion concentrations at this external surface. The porous electrode prevents electrolyte circulation within individual mold cavities, avoiding preferential enhancement of ion transport in cavities having favorable geometries. Both current flow and ion transport are one-dimensional and identical in all mold cavities, so all metal deposits grow at the same rate eliminating nonuniformities of the prior art.

  15. Crystal structure of listeriolysin O reveals molecular details of oligomerization and pore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Stefan; van Pee, Katharina; Hudel, Martina; Leustik, Martin; Rhinow, Daniel; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Chakraborty, Trinad; Yildiz, Özkan

    2014-04-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is an essential virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes that causes listeriosis. Listeria monocytogenes owes its ability to live within cells to the pH- and temperature-dependent pore-forming activity of LLO, which is unique among cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. LLO enables the bacteria to cross the phagosomal membrane and is also involved in activation of cellular processes, including the modulation of gene expression or intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Neither the pore-forming mechanism nor the mechanisms triggering the signalling processes in the host cell are known in detail. Here, we report the crystal structure of LLO, in which we identified regions important for oligomerization and pore formation. Mutants were characterized by determining their haemolytic and Ca2+ uptake activity. We analysed the pore formation of LLO and its variants on erythrocyte ghosts by electron microscopy and show that pore formation requires precise interface interactions during toxin oligomerization on the membrane.

  16. Possibility of supervision over detailed structure of ocean currents by MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklyarov, V. E.

    2008-02-01

    The report focuses on the analysis of the detail structure of ocean currents in areas of dust storms distribution or intensive phytoplankton's development. Dust storms represent the global phenomenon occurring regularly and, thus, atmospheric streams transfer a significant amount of the sand and dust (more than 2000 million tons) from deserts of Gobi, Sahara, Namibia, and Arabian Peninsula etc. The dust from Sahara achieves Caribbean Sea and southeast areas of USA for 5-7 days, and traces of the Asian dust storm, which have crossed Pacific Ocean, were found out in Great Lakes. For the purposes of our research the influence of sand and a dust dropping out from atmosphere on optical properties of the top layer of the ocean is represented especially significant. We shall note, that this question is poorly covered in the scientific literature. On our data, there are only separate certificates that return dispersion in green area of a spectrum for the top layer of the ocean is considerably increased after passage of a dust storm. It occurs due to saturation of the ocean top layer sand particles were sunlight diffusion is good. On the other hand, these particles, being a passive tracer, are easily involved by separate jets of currents in local circulation. These factors create a real basis for space observations on details mesoscale ocean circulation. As a trial experiment, author of the report have leaded the multispectral analysis data from MODIS (satellite AQUA), received on a northwest part Indian Ocean and Gulf of Aden. Results of the analysis confirm the made hypothesis.

  17. Indoor and soil gas radon simultaneous measurements for the purpose of detail analysis of radon entry pathways into houses.

    PubMed

    Froňka, A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of radon transport mechanisms from the subsoil into the indoor environment is essential for the correct interpretation of results of short-term indoor radon measurements and for proper and effective design of radon mitigation systems. Radon transfer factor time variations have been studied based on simultaneous continuous indoor and soil gas radon measurements within the framework of complex radon diagnosis of individual buildings. In this context, the key influencing factors have been identified and analysed in order to provide satisfactory explanation on radon entry variations under different measurement conditions. Moreover, a new significant manner of radon entry into the indoor environment has been identified and will be discussed in detail.

  18. The detailed crystal and electronic structures of the cotunnite-type ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Duan, Li; Ji, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The detailed crystal and orbital-decomposed electronic structures of cotunnite-type ZrO2 have been investigated by using the first-principles projector augmented wave (PAW) potential within the generalized gradient approximation as well as taking into account on-site Coulomb repulsive interaction (GGA+U). The optimized structure shows that the OI and OII anions are surrounded by an arbitrary tetrahedron of four Zr cations and an arbitrary pentahedron of five Zr cations, respectively, in turn, the Zr cation is surrounded by an arbitrary tetrakaidecahedron formed by nine oxygen ligands. Although one more Zr cation is coordinated to OII, the larger bond lengths between OII and its adjacent five Zr cations (dOII-Zr) than those between OI and its adjacent four Zr cations (dOI-Zr) makes density of states (DOS) of s and three p (px , py and pz) states of the OII anion driving down in lower energy region and driving up in higher energy region. No crystal-field splitting is observed between three p (px , py and pz) states of anions OI and OII (between three p (px , py and pz) states and five d (dxy , dyz , dxz , dz2 and dx2-y2) states of cation Zr) is resulted from the arrangements of the surrounding cations (anions) do not have any symmetry. The additional covalent character upon Zr-O ionic bonds is attributed to the hybridization of itinerant Zr(5s) and less filled Zr(4d) states to the separated O(2s) and O(2p) states.

  19. Numerical prediction of oblique detonation wave structures using detailed and reduced reaction mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaker, A. A.; Chelliah, H. K.

    1997-12-01

    Modelling of the structure and the limiting flow turning angles of an oblique detonation wave, established by a two-dimensional wedge, requires the implementation of detailed chemical kinetic models involving a large number of chemical species. In this paper, a method of reducing the computational effort involved in simulating such high-speed reacting flows by implementing a systematically reduced reaction mechanism is presented. For a hydrogen - air mixture, starting with an elementary mechanism having eight species in 12 reactions, three alternate four-step reduced reaction mechanisms are developed by introducing the steady-state approximation for the reaction intermediates HO2, O and OH, respectively. Additional reduction of the computational effort is achieved by introducing simplifications to the thermochemical data evaluations. The influence of the numerical grid used in predicting the induction process behind the shock is also investigated. Comparisons of the induction zone predicted by two-dimensional oblique detonation wave calculations with that of a static reactor model (with initial conditions of the gas mixture specified by those behind the nonreactive oblique shock wave) are also presented. The reasonably good agreement between the three four-step reduced mechanism predictions and the starting mechanism predictions indicates that further reduction to a two-step mechanism is feasible for the physical flow time scales (corresponding to inflow Mach numbers of 8 - 10) considered here, and needs to be pursued in the future.

  20. Water replacement hypothesis in atomic detail--factors determining the structure of dehydrated bilayer stacks.

    PubMed

    Golovina, Elena A; Golovin, Andrey V; Hoekstra, Folkert A; Faller, Roland

    2009-07-22

    According to the water replacement hypothesis, trehalose stabilizes dry membranes by preventing the decrease of spacing between membrane lipids under dehydration. In this study, we use molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of trehalose on the area per lipid (APL) and related structural properties of dehydrated bilayers in atomic detail. The starting conformation of a palmitoyloleolylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer in excess water was been obtained by self-assembly. A series of molecular-dynamics simulations of palmitoyloleolylphosphatidylcholine with different degrees of dehydration (28.5, 11.7, and 5.4 waters per lipid) and different molar trehalose/lipid ratios (<1:1, 1:1, and >1:1) were carried out in the NPT ensemble. Water removal causes the formation of multilamellar "stacks" through periodic boundary conditions. The headgroups reorient from pointing outward to inward with dehydration. This causes changes in the electrostatic interactions between interfaces, resulting in interface interpenetration. Interpenetration creates self-spacing of the bilayers and prevents gel-phase formation. At lower concentrations, trehalose does not separate the interfaces, and acting together with self-spacing, it causes a considerable increase of APL. APL decreases at higher trehalose concentrations when the layer of sugar physically separates the interfaces. When interfaces are separated, the model confirms the water replacement hypothesis.

  1. Atomically detailed folding simulation of the B domain of staphylococcal protein A from random structures

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Jorge A.; Ripoll, Daniel R.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2003-01-01

    The conformational space of the 10–55 fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A has been investigated by using the electrostatically driven Monte Carlo (EDMC) method. The ECEPP/3 (empirical conformational energy program for peptides) force-field plus two different continuum solvation models, namely SRFOPT (Solvent Radii Fixed with atomic solvation parameters OPTimized) and OONS (Ooi, Oobatake, Némethy, and Scheraga solvation model), were used to describe the conformational energy of the chain. After an exhaustive search, starting from two different random conformations, three of four runs led to native-like conformations. Boltzmann-averaged root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) for all of the backbone heavy atoms with respect to the native structure of 3.35 Å and 4.54 Å were obtained with SRFOPT and OONS, respectively. These results show that the protein-folding problem can be solved at the atomic detail level by an ab initio procedure, starting from random conformations, with no knowledge except the amino acid sequence. To our knowledge, the results reported here correspond to the largest protein ever folded from a random conformation by an initial-value formulation with a full atomic potential, without resort to knowledge-based information. PMID:14638943

  2. A global/local analysis method for treating details in structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Ransom, Jonathan B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for analyzing global/local behavior of plate and shell structures is described. In this approach, a detailed finite element model of the local region is incorporated within a coarser global finite element model. The local model need not be nodally compatible (i.e., need not have a one-to-one nodal correspondence) with the global model at their common boundary; therefore, the two models may be constructed independently. The nodal incompatibility of the models is accounted for by introducing appropriate constraint conditions into the potential energy in a hybrid variational formulation. The primary advantage of this method is that the need for transition modeling between global and local models is eliminated. Eliminating transition modeling has two benefits. First, modeling efforts are reduced since tedious and complex transitioning need not be performed. Second, errors due to the mesh distortion, often unavoidable in mesh transitioning, are minimized by avoiding distorted elements beyond what is needed to represent the geometry of the component. The method is applied reduced to a plate loaded in tension and transverse bending. The plate has a central hole, and various hole sixes and shapes are studied. The method is also applied to a composite laminated fuselage panel with a crack emanating from a window in the panel. While this method is applied herein to global/local problems, it is also applicable to the coupled analysis of independently modeled components as well as adaptive refinement.

  3. Detailed fault structure of the 2000 Western Tottori, Japan, earthquake sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fukuyama, E.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Waldhauser, F.; Kubo, A.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the faulting process of the aftershock region of the 2000 western Tottori earthquake (Mw 6.6) by combining aftershock hypocenters and moment tensor solutions. Aftershock locations were precisely determined by the double difference method using P- and S-phase arrival data of the Japan Meteorological Agency unified catalog. By combining the relocated hypocenters and moment tensor solutions of aftershocks by broadband waveform inversion of FREESIA (F-net), we successfully resolved very detailed fault structures activated by the mainshock. The estimated fault model resolves 15 individual fault segments that are consistent with both aftershock distribution and focal mechanism solutions. Rupture in the mainshock was principally confined to the three fault elements in the southern half of the zone, which is also where the earliest aftershocks concentrate. With time, the northern part of the zone becomes activated, which is also reflected in the postseismic deformation field. From the stress tensor analysis of aftershock focal mechanisms, we found a rather uniform stress field in the aftershock region, although fault strikes were scattered. The maximum stress direction is N107??E, which is consistent with the tectonic stress field in this region. In the northern part of the fault, where no slip occurred during the mainshock but postseismic slip was observed, the maximum stress direction of N130??E was possible as an alternative solution of stress tensor inversion.

  4. Detailed imaging of flowing structures at depth using microseismicity: a tool for site investigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytharouli, S.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2011-12-01

    Field evidence shows that faults and fractures can act as focused pathways or barriers for fluid migration. This is an important property for modern engineering problems, e.g., CO2 sequestration, geological radioactive waste disposal, geothermal energy exploitation, land reclamation and remediation. For such applications the detailed characterization of the location, orientation and hydraulic properties of existing fractures is necessary. These investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment (excavator or drill rigs), which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they only provide information for discrete sample 'windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), have been used as tools for site investigations. Their imaging ability is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. Our research has shown that high quality seismic data can be successfully used in the detailed imaging of sub-surface structures at depth; using induced microseismicity data recorded beneath the Açu reservoir in Brazil we identified orientations and values of average permeability of open shear fractures at depths up to 2.5km. Could microseismicity also provide information on the fracture width in terms of stress drops? First results from numerical simulations showed that higher stress drop values correspond to narrower fractures. These results were consistent with geological field observations. This study highlights the great potential of using microseismicity data as a supplementary tool for site investigation. Individual large-scale shear fractures in large rock volumes cannot currently be identified by any other geophysical dataset. The resolution of the method is restricted by the detection threshold of the local

  5. Accuracy assessment of modeling architectural structures and details using terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzierski, M.; Walczykowski, P.; Orych, A.; Czarnecka, P.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important aspects when performing architectural documentation of cultural heritage structures is the accuracy of both the data and the products which are generated from these data: documentation in the form of 3D models or vector drawings. The paper describes an assessment of the accuracy of modelling data acquired using a terrestrial phase scanner in relation to the density of a point cloud representing the surface of different types of construction materials typical for cultural heritage structures. This analysis includes the impact of the scanning geometry: the incidence angle of the laser beam and the scanning distance. For the purposes of this research, a test field consisting of samples of different types of construction materials (brick, wood, plastic, plaster, a ceramic tile, sheet metal) was built. The study involved conducting measurements at different angles and from a range of distances for chosen scanning densities. Data, acquired in the form of point clouds, were then filtered and modelled. An accuracy assessment of the 3D model was conducted by fitting it with the point cloud. The reflection intensity of each type of material was also analyzed, trying to determine which construction materials have the highest reflectance coefficients, and which have the lowest reflection coefficients, and in turn how this variable changes for different scanning parameters. Additionally measurements were taken of a fragment of a building in order to compare the results obtained in laboratory conditions, with those taken in field conditions.

  6. A detailed study of nucleon structure function in nuclei in the valence quark region

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, N.

    1994-04-01

    The so called {open_quotes}EMC effect{close_quotes} discovered during the 1980`s, has caused a big controversy in the community of nuclear and high energy physicists; during the last ten years, five experiments have been performed in different laboratories and several hundreds of papers about the possible interpretation of the modification of the nucleon structure function inside nuclei have been published. However, from the experimental point of view, the main goal of four experiments (EMC, BCDMS, NMC, FNAL) has been to emphasize the region of low x{sub b}, where shadowing effects appear. In the region of valence quarks and nuclear effects (x{sub b} > 0.1 - 0.2) the most reliable data presently available are from the SLAC E139 experiment performed in 1983 with only 80 hours of beam time. New precise data in the valence quark region are necessary to measure separate structure functions F{sub 2}(x{sub b}, Q{sup 2}) and R{sup lt}(x{sub b},Q{sup 2}) = {sigma}{sub l}/{sigma}{sub t}, and to investigate the real A-dependence of the ratio between bound and free-nucleon structure functions which is not completely defined by the SLAC data. Moreover, from the nuclear physics point of view, a measurement on some unexplored nuclei, like {sup 3}He and {sup 48}Ca, would be of great interest. The intermediate scaling region (0.1 < x{sub b} < 0.7) would be accessible at CEBAF if the machine energy will reach 6-8 GeV, as suggested by all the tests performed on the RF cavities. This physics program has been already presented in two letter of intents.

  7. A detailed study of the structure of the nested planetary nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A.; Edwards, M. L.; Winge, C. E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx E-mail: cwinge@gemini.edu

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H{sub 2} (2.1214 μm), and Br{sub γ} (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H{sub 2} emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Br{sub γ} recombination lines. The H{sub 2} emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ∼30 km s{sup –1}. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Br{sub γ} emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at ≤30 km s{sup –1}. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Br{sub γ} emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ∼ ± 40 km s{sup –1}.

  8. Detailed plasma potential measurements in a radio-frequency expanding plasma obtained from various electrostatic probes

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, T.; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.

    2009-04-15

    On-axis plasma potential measurements have been made with an emissive probe in a low pressure (0.044 Pa) rf expanding plasma containing an ion beam. The beam is detected with a retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA), and is seen to disappear at high pressure (0.39 Pa). The emissive probe measurements are in very good agreement with corresponding measurements made with two separate RFEAs, and the results indicate that the floating potential of the strongly emitting probe gives an accurate measure of the plasma potential under the present conditions.

  9. Toward a detailed understanding of search trajectories in fragment assembly approaches to protein structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Handl, Julia; Lovell, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Energy functions, fragment libraries, and search methods constitute three key components of fragment‐assembly methods for protein structure prediction, which are all crucial for their ability to generate high‐accuracy predictions. All of these components are tightly coupled; efficient searching becomes more important as the quality of fragment libraries decreases. Given these relationships, there is currently a poor understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the sampling approaches currently used in fragment‐assembly techniques. Here, we determine how the performance of search techniques can be assessed in a meaningful manner, given the above problems. We describe a set of techniques that aim to reduce the impact of the energy function, and assess exploration in view of the search space defined by a given fragment library. We illustrate our approach using Rosetta and EdaFold, and show how certain features of these methods encourage or limit conformational exploration. We demonstrate that individual trajectories of Rosetta are susceptible to local minima in the energy landscape, and that this can be linked to non‐uniform sampling across the protein chain. We show that EdaFold's novel approach can help balance broad exploration with locating good low‐energy conformations. This occurs through two mechanisms which cannot be readily differentiated using standard performance measures: exclusion of false minima, followed by an increasingly focused search in low‐energy regions of conformational space. Measures such as ours can be helpful in characterizing new fragment‐based methods in terms of the quality of conformational exploration realized. Proteins 2016; 84:411–426. © 2016 The Authors Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26799916

  10. Technique for direct measurement of thermal conductivity of elastomers and a detailed uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralphs, Matthew I.; Smith, Barton L.; Roberts, Nicholas A.

    2016-11-01

    High thermal conductivity thermal interface materials (TIMs) are needed to extend the life and performance of electronic circuits. A stepped bar apparatus system has been shown to work well for thermal resistance measurements with rigid materials, but most TIMs are elastic. This work studies the uncertainty of using a stepped bar apparatus to measure the thermal resistance and a tensile/compression testing machine to estimate the compressed thickness of polydimethylsiloxane for a measurement on the thermal conductivity, k eff. An a priori, zeroth order analysis is used to estimate the random uncertainty from the instrumentation; a first order analysis is used to estimate the statistical variation in samples; and an a posteriori, Nth order analysis is used to provide an overall uncertainty on k eff for this measurement method. Bias uncertainty in the thermocouples is found to be the largest single source of uncertainty. The a posteriori uncertainty of the proposed method is 6.5% relative uncertainty (68% confidence), but could be reduced through calibration and correlated biases in the temperature measurements.

  11. DETAILED MEASUREMENTS OF THE ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE EFFICIENCY ON DIIID

    SciTech Connect

    PETTY, C.C.; PRATER, R.; LOHR, J.; LUCE, T.C.; FOX,W.R.; HARVEY, R.W.; KINSEY, J.E.; LAO, L.L.; MAKOWSKI, M.A.

    2002-05-01

    Electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments on the DIII-D tokamak are solidifying the physics basis for localized, off-axis current drive, the goal being to validate a predictive model for ECCD. The ECCD profiles are determined from the magnetic field pitch angles measured by motional Stark effect (MSE) polarimetry. The measured ECCD switches from the co to the counter direction as the toroidal injection angle is varied with a profile width that is in accordance with ray tracing calculations. Tests of electron trapping in low beta plasmas show that the ECCD efficiency decreases rapidly as the deposition is moved off-axis and towards the outboard side of the plasma, but the detrimental effects of electron trapping on the current drive are greatly reduced in high beta plasmas. Overall, the measured ECCD is in good agreement with theoretical calculations using a quasilinear Fokker-Planck code over a wide range of injection angles and plasma parameters.

  12. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  13. Toward a detailed understanding of search trajectories in fragment assembly approaches to protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Kandathil, Shaun M; Handl, Julia; Lovell, Simon C

    2016-04-01

    Energy functions, fragment libraries, and search methods constitute three key components of fragment-assembly methods for protein structure prediction, which are all crucial for their ability to generate high-accuracy predictions. All of these components are tightly coupled; efficient searching becomes more important as the quality of fragment libraries decreases. Given these relationships, there is currently a poor understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the sampling approaches currently used in fragment-assembly techniques. Here, we determine how the performance of search techniques can be assessed in a meaningful manner, given the above problems. We describe a set of techniques that aim to reduce the impact of the energy function, and assess exploration in view of the search space defined by a given fragment library. We illustrate our approach using Rosetta and EdaFold, and show how certain features of these methods encourage or limit conformational exploration. We demonstrate that individual trajectories of Rosetta are susceptible to local minima in the energy landscape, and that this can be linked to non-uniform sampling across the protein chain. We show that EdaFold's novel approach can help balance broad exploration with locating good low-energy conformations. This occurs through two mechanisms which cannot be readily differentiated using standard performance measures: exclusion of false minima, followed by an increasingly focused search in low-energy regions of conformational space. Measures such as ours can be helpful in characterizing new fragment-based methods in terms of the quality of conformational exploration realized.

  14. Solution Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Reveals Structural Details of Lipid Domains in Ternary Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, J.; Kiss, A; Pramudya, Y; Nguyen, L; Hirst, L

    2009-01-01

    The influence of cholesterol on lipid bilayer structure is significant and the effect of cholesterol on lipid sorting and phase separation in lipid-raft-forming model membrane systems has been well investigated by microscopy methods on giant vesicles. An important consideration however is the influence of fluorescence illumination on the phase state of these lipids and this effect must be carefully minimized. In this paper, we show that synchrotron x-ray scattering on solution lipid mixtures is an effective alternative technique for the identification and characterization of the l o (liquid ordered) and l d (liquid disordered) phases. The high intensity of synchrotron x rays allows the observation of up to 5 orders of diffraction from the l o phase, whereas only two are clearly visible when the l d phase alone is present. This data can be collected in approximately 1 min/sample, allowing rapid generation of phase data. In this paper, we measure the lamellar spacing in both the liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases simultaneously, as a function of cholesterol concentration in two different ternary mixtures. We also observe evidence of a third gel-phaselike population at 10-12 mol % cholesterol and determine the thickness of the bilayer for this phase. Importantly we are able to look at phase coexistence in the membrane independent of photoeffects.

  15. A Detailed Derivation of Gaussian Orbital-Based Matrix Elements in Electron Structure Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, T.; Hellsing, B.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed derivation of analytic solutions is presented for overlap, kinetic, nuclear attraction and electron repulsion integrals involving Cartesian Gaussian-type orbitals. It is demonstrated how s-type orbitals can be used to evaluate integrals with higher angular momentum via the properties of Hermite polynomials and differentiation with…

  16. Detailed flow and force measurements in a rotated triangular tube bundle subjected to two-phase cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettigrew, M. J.; Zhang, C.; Mureithi, N. W.; Pamfil, D.

    2005-05-01

    Two-phase cross-flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers. A detailed knowledge of the characteristics of two-phase cross-flow in tube bundles is required to understand and formulate flow-induced vibration parameters such as damping, fluidelastic instability, and random excitation due to turbulence. An experimental program was undertaken with a rotated-triangular array of cylinders subjected to air/water flow to simulate two-phase mixtures. The array is made of relatively large diameter cylinders (38 mm) to allow for detailed two-phase flow measurements between cylinders. Fiber-optic probes were developed to measure local void fraction. Local flow velocities and bubble diameters or characteristic lengths of the two-phase mixture are obtained by using double probes. Both the dynamic lift and drag forces were measured with a strain gauge instrumented cylinder.

  17. In situ spatiotemporal measurements of the detailed azimuthal substructure of the substorm current wedge

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, C; Fazakerley, A N; Rae, I J; J Watt, C E; Murphy, K; Wild, J A; Karlsson, T; Mutel, R; Owen, C J; Ergun, R; Masson, A; Berthomier, M; Donovan, E; Frey, H U; Matzka, J; Stolle, C; Zhang, Y

    2014-01-01

    The substorm current wedge (SCW) is a fundamental component of geomagnetic substorms. Models tend to describe the SCW as a simple line current flowing into the ionosphere toward dawn and out of the ionosphere toward dusk, linked by a westward electrojet. We use multispacecraft observations from perigee passes of the Cluster 1 and 4 spacecraft during a substorm on 15 January 2010, in conjunction with ground-based observations, to examine the spatial structuring and temporal variability of the SCW. At this time, the spacecraft traveled east-west azimuthally above the auroral region. We show that the SCW has significant azimuthal substructure on scales of 100 km at altitudes of 4000–7000 km. We identify 26 individual current sheets in the Cluster 4 data and 34 individual current sheets in the Cluster 1 data, with Cluster 1 passing through the SCW 120–240 s after Cluster 4 at 1300–2000 km higher altitude. Both spacecraft observed large-scale regions of net upward and downward field-aligned current, consistent with the large-scale characteristics of the SCW, although sheets of oppositely directed currents were observed within both regions. We show that the majority of these current sheets were closely aligned to a north-south direction, in contrast to the expected east-west orientation of the preonset aurora. Comparing our results with observations of the field-aligned current associated with bursty bulk flows (BBFs), we conclude that significant questions remain for the explanation of SCW structuring by BBF-driven “wedgelets.” Our results therefore represent constraints on future modeling and theoretical frameworks on the generation of the SCW. Key Points The substorm current wedge (SCW) has significant azimuthal structure Current sheets within the SCW are north-south aligned The substructure of the SCW raises questions for the proposed wedgelet scenario PMID:26167439

  18. Detailed Anatomical Orientations for Certain Types of Morphometric Measurements Can Be Determined Automatically With Geometric Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Winchester, Julia M; Glynn, Chris; Puente, Jesus

    2015-11-01

    Morphometric datasets only convey useful information about variation when measurement landmarks and relevant anatomical axes are clearly defined. We propose that anatomical axes of 3D digital models of bones can be standardized prior to measurement using an algorithm that automatically finds a universal geometric alignment among sampled bones. As a case study, we use teeth of "prosimian" primates. In this sample, equivalent occlusal planes are determined automatically using the R-package auto3dgm. The area of projection into the occlusal plane for each tooth is the measurement of interest. This area is used in computation of a shape metric called relief index (RFI), the natural log of the square root of crown area divided by the square root of occlusal plane projection area. We compare mean and variance parameters of area and RFI values computed from these automatically orientated tooth models with values computed from manually orientated tooth models. According to our results, the manual and automated approaches yield extremely similar mean and variance parameters. The only differences that plausibly modify interpretations of biological meaning slightly favor the automated treatment because a greater proportion of differences among subsamples in the automated treatment are correlated with dietary differences. We conclude that-at least for dental topographic metrics-automated alignment recovers a variance pattern that has meaning similar to previously published datasets based on manual data collection. Therefore, future applications of dental topography can take advantage of automatic alignment to increase objectivity and repeatability.

  19. Obtaining detailed structural information about supramolecular systems on surfaces by combining high-resolution force microscopy with ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shigeki; Sadeghi, Ali; Xu, Feng; Feng, Xu; Peng, Lifen; Lifen, Peng; Pawlak, Rémy; Glatzel, Thilo; Willand, Alexander; Orita, Akihiro; Otera, Junzo; Goedecker, Stefan; Meyer, Ernst

    2013-10-22

    State-of-the art experimental techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy have great difficulties in extracting detailed structural information about molecules adsorbed on surfaces. By combining atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy with ab initio calculations, we demonstrate that we can obtain a wealth of detailed structural information about the molecule itself and its environment. Studying an FFPB molecule on a gold surface, we are able to determine its exact location on the surface, the nature of its bonding properties with neighboring molecules that lead to the growth of one-dimensional strips, and the internal torsions and bendings of the molecule.

  20. Measurements of Alpha-dicarbonyl Compounds: A Detailed Instrument Intercomparison at the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza Romero, M.; Rickard, A.; Peppe, S.; Muñoz, A.; Ball, S.; Ródenas, M.; Sánchez, P.; Daniels, M.; Volkamer, R.; Thalman, R.; Keutsch, F.; Henry, S.; Monks, P.; Goodall, I.; Borrás, E.; Vázquez, M.

    2012-04-01

    The α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal (GLY, CH(O)CHO) and methylglyoxal (MGLY, CH3C(O)CHO)) are ubiquitous intermediates formed in the photooxidation of a wide range of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Recent measurements demonstrate that large uncertainties exist in the amount of glyoxal formed from isoprene photooxidation, the dominant VOC emitted into the atmosphere (1, 2). In addition, α-dicarbonyls are known to be precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and can potentially form a significant fraction of the missing global SOA in atmospheric models (3, 4). However, the exact role of such compounds is still not well established. One of the main reasons for such uncertainties is the difficulty in measuring them, as they are very reactive and difficult to handle experimentally. In order to elucidate both the chemical and instrumental issues related to the quantitative measurement of these compounds, a short experimental chamber campaign was carried out in the EUPHORE photo-reactor in Valencia, Spain to compare a number of currently available techniques (both optical and spectrometric). The campaign comprised a set of experiments simulating typical urban and semi-rural conditions. Measurements were performed over a range of concentrations in order to investigate the impacts of the presence of potential interferants in the gas mixtures sampled from the chamber (i.e. aerosol, NOx, short chain carbonyls and ozone). The gas and aerosol phase compositional evolution was monitored simultaneously. Different amounts of GLY and/or MGLY were added directly to the chamber or were generated in-situ from the oxidation of various VOC precursors. The following instrumental techniques were employed during the campaign: (Blue) LED-CE-DOAS (cavity enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy), long-path DOAS, SPME (solid phase micro extraction) -GC/MS, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, GC-ECD (electron capture detection

  1. In situ spatiotemporal measurements of the detailed azimuthal substructure of the substorm current wedge.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, C; Fazakerley, A N; Rae, I J; J Watt, C E; Murphy, K; Wild, J A; Karlsson, T; Mutel, R; Owen, C J; Ergun, R; Masson, A; Berthomier, M; Donovan, E; Frey, H U; Matzka, J; Stolle, C; Zhang, Y

    2014-02-01

    The substorm current wedge (SCW) is a fundamental component of geomagnetic substorms. Models tend to describe the SCW as a simple line current flowing into the ionosphere toward dawn and out of the ionosphere toward dusk, linked by a westward electrojet. We use multispacecraft observations from perigee passes of the Cluster 1 and 4 spacecraft during a substorm on 15 January 2010, in conjunction with ground-based observations, to examine the spatial structuring and temporal variability of the SCW. At this time, the spacecraft traveled east-west azimuthally above the auroral region. We show that the SCW has significant azimuthal substructure on scales of 100 km at altitudes of 4000-7000 km. We identify 26 individual current sheets in the Cluster 4 data and 34 individual current sheets in the Cluster 1 data, with Cluster 1 passing through the SCW 120-240 s after Cluster 4 at 1300-2000 km higher altitude. Both spacecraft observed large-scale regions of net upward and downward field-aligned current, consistent with the large-scale characteristics of the SCW, although sheets of oppositely directed currents were observed within both regions. We show that the majority of these current sheets were closely aligned to a north-south direction, in contrast to the expected east-west orientation of the preonset aurora. Comparing our results with observations of the field-aligned current associated with bursty bulk flows (BBFs), we conclude that significant questions remain for the explanation of SCW structuring by BBF-driven "wedgelets." Our results therefore represent constraints on future modeling and theoretical frameworks on the generation of the SCW.

  2. Design details of Intelligent Instruments for PLC-free Cryogenic measurements, control and data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Joby; Mathuria, D. S.; Chaudhary, Anup; Datta, T. S.; Maity, T.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogenic network for linear accelerator operations demand a large number of Cryogenic sensors, associated instruments and other control-instrumentation to measure, monitor and control different cryogenic parameters remotely. Here we describe an alternate approach of six types of newly designed integrated intelligent cryogenic instruments called device-servers which has the complete circuitry for various sensor-front-end analog instrumentation and the common digital back-end http-server built together, to make crateless PLC-free model of controls and data acquisition. These identified instruments each sensor-specific viz. LHe server, LN2 Server, Control output server, Pressure server, Vacuum server and Temperature server are completely deployed over LAN for the cryogenic operations of IUAC linac (Inter University Accelerator Centre linear Accelerator), New Delhi. This indigenous design gives certain salient features like global connectivity, low cost due to crateless model, easy signal processing due to integrated design, less cabling and device-interconnectivity etc.

  3. Terrestrial bodies orbiter, LUNAR - A system for detailed global measurements of a planet's properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Lunar Polar Orbiter, to be launched by a Delta vehicle in 1980, is designed to perform a global exploration of such moon properties as the gravity field, figure, and surface composition, as well as a lunar resource survey. The paper reviews the mission, spacecraft, and data system concepts in terms of baseline mission sequence, choice of orbits, spacecraft configuration requirements, mission sequence requirements and data system and operations. Scientific experiments planned for the Orbiter mission include geophysical altimetry and gravity experiments, heat flow experiment, magnetic field experiments, measurements of the moon's natural gamma-ray spectrum, X-ray fluorescence of lunar surface materials, sunlight reflectance spectroscopy, and spectro-stereo imaging. Characteristics of instruments designed for use in these investigations are examined. Through the use of advanced sensors and data-system techniques, coupled with well-developed spacecraft systems, the mission promises to return a very large quantity and variety of lunar data at a cost comparable with that of simpler missions in the past.

  4. Detailed simulation of structural color generation inspired by the Morpho butterfly.

    PubMed

    Steindorfer, Michael A; Schmidt, Volker; Belegratis, Maria; Stadlober, Barbara; Krenn, Joachim R

    2012-09-10

    The brilliancy and variety of structural colors found in nature has become a major scientific topic in recent years. Rapid-prototyping processes enable the fabrication of according structures, but the technical exploitation requires a profound understanding of structural features and material properties regarding the generation of reflected color. This paper presents an extensive simulation of the reflectance spectra of a simplified 2D Morpho butterfly wing model by utilizing the finite-difference time-domain method. The structural parameters are optimized for reflection in a given spectral range. A comparison to simpler models, such as a plane dielectric layer stack, provides an understanding of the origin of the reflection behavior. We find that the wavelength of the reflection maximum is mainly set by the lateral dimensions of the structures. Furthermore small variations of the vertical dimensions leave the spectral position of the reflectance wavelength unchanged, potentially reducing grating effects.

  5. Detailed pressure distribution measurements obtained on several configurations of an aspect-ratio-7 variable twist wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed pressure distribution measurements were made for 11 twist configurations of a unique, multisegmented wing model having an aspect ratio of 7 and a taper ratio of 1. These configurations encompassed span loads ranging from that of an untwisted wing to simple flapped wings both with and without upper-surface spoilers attached. For each of the wing twist configurations, electronic scanning pressure transducers were used to obtain 580 surface pressure measurements over the wing in about 0.1 sec. Integrated pressure distribution measurements compared favorably with force-balance measurements of lift on the model when the model centerbody lift was included. Complete plots and tabulations of the pressure distribution data for each wing twist configuration are provided.

  6. Detailed Studies on the Structure and Dynamics of Reacting Dusty Flows at Normal and Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Campbell, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    Two-phase reacting flows are substantially less understood compared to gas phase flows. While extensive work has been done on sprays, less attention has been given to the details of dusty reacting flows. Dusty flows are of particular interest for a wide range of applications. Particles can be present in a gas intentionally or unintentionally, and they can be inert or reacting. Inert particles can be also present in an otherwise reacting gas flow, and that can lead to flame cooling and modification of the extinction limits of a combustible mixture. Reacting solid particles can release substantial amounts of heat upon oxidation, and can be used either for propulsion (e.g. Al, B, Mg) or power generation (coal). Furthermore, accidents can occur when a reacting dust accumulates in air and which, in the presence of an ignition source, can cause explosion. Such explosions can occur during lumber milling, in grain elevators, and in mine galleries.

  7. Mechanistic Details of Glutathione Biosynthesis Revealed by Crystal Structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glutamate Cysteine Ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Biterova, Ekaterina I.; Barycki, Joseph J.

    2009-12-01

    Glutathione is a thiol-disulfide exchange peptide critical for buffering oxidative or chemical stress, and an essential cofactor in several biosynthesis and detoxification pathways. The rate-limiting step in its de novo biosynthesis is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase, a broadly expressed enzyme for which limited structural information is available in higher eukaryotic species. Structural data are critical to the understanding of clinical glutathione deficiency, as well as rational design of enzyme modulators that could impact human disease progression. Here, we have determined the structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutamate cysteine ligase (ScGCL) in the presence of glutamate and MgCl{sub 2} (2.1 {angstrom}; R = 18.2%, R{sub free} = 21.9%), and in complex with glutamate, MgCl{sub 2}, and ADP (2.7 {angstrom}; R = 19.0%, R{sub free} = 24.2%). Inspection of these structures reveals an unusual binding pocket for the {alpha}-carboxylate of the glutamate substrate and an ATP-independent Mg{sup 2+} coordination site, clarifying the Mg{sup 2+} dependence of the enzymatic reaction. The ScGCL structures were further used to generate a credible homology model of the catalytic subunit of human glutamate cysteine ligase (hGCLC). Examination of the hGCLC model suggests that post-translational modifications of cysteine residues may be involved in the regulation of enzymatic activity, and elucidates the molecular basis of glutathione deficiency associated with patient hGCLC mutations.

  8. Detailed Study of the TE band structure of two dimensional metallic photonic crystals with square symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Valiaghaie, Soma; Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi

    2014-10-01

    By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.

  9. Unraveling of a detailed-balance-preserved quantum master equation and continuous feedback control of a measured qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, JunYan; Jin, Jinshuang; Wang, Shi-Kuan; Hu, Jing; Huang, Yixiao; He, Xiao-Ling

    2016-03-01

    We present a generic unraveling scheme for a detailed-balance-preserved quantum master equation applicable for stochastic point processes in mesoscopic transport. It enables us to investigate continuous measurement of a qubit on the level of single quantum trajectories, where essential correlations between the inherent dynamics of the qubit and detector current fluctuations are revealed. Based on this unraveling scheme, feedback control of the charge qubit is implemented to achieve a desired pure state in the presence of the detailed-balance condition. With sufficient feedback strength, coherent oscillations of the measured qubit can be maintained for arbitrary qubit-detector coupling. Competition between the loss and restoration of coherence entailed, respectively, by measurement back action and feedback control is reflected in the noise power spectrum of the detector's output. It is demonstrated unambiguously that the signal-to-noise ratio is significantly enhanced with increasing feedback strength and could even exceed the well-known Korotkov-Averin bound in quantum measurement. The proposed unraveling and feedback scheme offers a transparent and straightforward approach to effectively sustaining ideal coherent oscillations of a charge qubit in the field of quantum computation.

  10. The effects of design details on cost and weight of fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. D.; Metschan, S. L.; Morris, M. R.; Kassapoglou, C.

    1993-01-01

    Crown panel design studies showing the relationship between panel size, cost, weight, and aircraft configuration are compared to aluminum design configurations. The effects of a stiffened sandwich design concept are also discussed. This paper summarizes the effect of a design cost model in assessing the cost and weight relationships for fuselage crown panel designs. Studies were performed using data from existing aircraft to assess the effects of different design variables on the cost and weight of transport fuselage crown panel design. Results show a strong influence of load levels, panel size, and material choices on the cost and weight of specific designs. A design tool being developed under the NASA ACT program is used in the study to assess these issues. The effects of panel configuration comparing postbuckled and buckle resistant stiffened laminated structure is compared to a stiffened sandwich concept. Results suggest some potential economy with stiffened sandwich designs for compression dominated structure with relatively high load levels.

  11. Detailed Study of Emission Structures in the Vicinity of LkHα 198

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgyan, M. H.; Movsessian, T. A.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Magakian, T. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Results from a study of collimated flows near the star LkHα 198 are reported. Observations were made using the VAGR multipupil spectrograph installed on the 2.6-m telescope at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory. The morphology and kinematics of emission structures in the vicinity of LkHα 198, including HH 161, were studied and electron density charts obtained. Besides the HH 161 object, our data revealed an arc-shaped emission structure with LkHα 198 at its apex. A shape of this kind is usually a direct indication of the presence of a cavity in a dark cloud blown out by a directed outflow. In addition, a faint "tail" extending in the direction of the central star is observed in HH 161. A comparison of these results with radio frequency observations shows that the probable source of HH 161 is the binary system LkHα 198.

  12. A detailed view of a ribosomal active site: the structure of the L11-RNA complex.

    PubMed

    Wimberly, B T; Guymon, R; McCutcheon, J P; White, S W; Ramakrishnan, V

    1999-05-14

    We report the crystal structure of a 58 nucleotide fragment of 23S ribosomal RNA bound to ribosomal protein L11. This highly conserved ribonucleoprotein domain is the target for the thiostrepton family of antibiotics that disrupt elongation factor function. The highly compact RNA has both familiar and novel structural motifs. While the C-terminal domain of L11 binds RNA tightly, the N-terminal domain makes only limited contacts with RNA and is proposed to function as a switch that reversibly associates with an adjacent region of RNA. The sites of mutations conferring resistance to thiostrepton and micrococcin line a narrow cleft between the RNA and the N-terminal domain. These antibiotics are proposed to bind in this cleft, locking the putative switch and interfering with the function of elongation factors.

  13. The detailed spatial structure of field-aligned currents comprising the substorm current wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Kyle R.; Mann, Ian R.; Rae, I. Jonathan; Waters, Colin L.; Frey, Harald U.; Kale, Andy; Singer, Howard J.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje

    2013-12-01

    We present a comprehensive two-dimensional view of the field-aligned currents (FACs) during the late growth and expansion phases for three isolated substorms utilizing in situ observations from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment and from ground-based magnetometer and optical instrumentation from the Canadian Array for Realtime Investigations of Magnetic Activity and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms ground-based arrays. We demonstrate that the structure of FACs formed during the expansion phase and associated with the substorm current wedge is significantly more complex than a simple equivalent line current model comprising a downward FAC in the east and upward FAC in the west. This two-dimensional view demonstrates that azimuthal bands of upward and downward FACs with periodic structuring in latitude form across midnight and can span up to 8 h of magnetic local time. However, when averaged over latitude, the overall longitudinal structure of the net FACs resembles the simpler equivalent line current description of the substorm current wedge (SCW). In addition, we demonstrate that the upward FAC elements of the structured SCW are spatially very well correlated with discrete aurora during the substorm expansion phase and that discrete changes in the FAC topology are observed in the late growth phase prior to auroral substorm expansion phase onset. These observations have important implications for determining how the magnetosphere and ionosphere couple during the late growth phase and expansion phase, as well as providing important constraints on the magnetospheric generator of the FACs comprising the SCW.

  14. A new Monte Carlo method for investigating geometrical structures of lipid membranes with atomistic detail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sara; Qiu, Liming; Cheng, K.; Vaughn, Mark

    2011-10-01

    The distribution statistics of the surface area, volume and voids of lipid molecules are important parameters to characterize the structures of self-assembling lipid membranes. Traditional methods are mostly based on various assumptions of the thickness of the lipid membrane and the volumes of certain types of lipid molecules. However, those methods usually lead to an over- or underestimation of the average surface area of lipid molecules when compared to the experimental results of the pure lipid systems. We developed a new Monte Carlo method that is able to estimate the distributions and averages of surface area, volume and void space of the lipid molecules in the absence and presence of proteins of the MD simulation results of lipid membranes at the atomistic scale. We successfully validated our new method on an ordered hard-sphere system and on a phospholipid/cholesterol binary lipid system, all with known structural parameters. Using this new method, the structural perturbation of the conformal annular lipids in close proximity to the embedded protein in a lipid/protein system will also be presented.

  15. Detailed Post-Soft Impact Progressive Damage Assessment for Hybrid Structure Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddens, Aaron; Bayandor, Javid; Celestina, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, certification of engine designs for resistance to bird strike is reliant on physical tests. Predictive modeling of engine structural damage has mostly been limited to evaluation of individual forward section components, such as fan blades within a fixed frame of reference, to direct impact with a bird. Such models must be extended to include interactions among engine components under operating conditions to evaluate the full extent of engine damage. This paper presents the results of a study aim to develop a methodology for evaluating bird strike damage in advanced propulsion systems incorporating hybrid composite/metal structures. The initial degradation and failure of individual fan blades struck by a bird were investigated. Subsequent damage to other fan blades and engine components due to resultant violent fan assembly vibrations and fragmentation was further evaluated. Various modeling parameters for the bird and engine components were investigated to determine guidelines for accurately capturing initial damage and progressive failure of engine components. Then, a novel hybrid structure modeling approach was investigated and incorporated into the crashworthiness methodology. Such a tool is invaluable to the process of design, development, and certification of future advanced propulsion systems.

  16. Crystal structure of α5β1 integrin ectodomain: Atomic details of the fibronectin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nagae, Masamichi; Re, Suyong; Mihara, Emiko; Nogi, Terukazu; Sugita, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Integrin α5β1 is a major cellular receptor for the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin and plays a fundamental role during mammalian development. A crystal structure of the α5β1 integrin headpiece fragment bound by an allosteric inhibitory antibody was determined at a 2.9-Å resolution both in the absence and presence of a ligand peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence. The antibody-bound β1 chain accommodated the RGD ligand with very limited structural changes, which may represent the initial step of cell adhesion mediated by nonactivated integrins. Furthermore, a molecular dynamics simulation pointed to an important role for Ca2+ in the conformational coupling between the ligand-binding site and the rest of the molecule. The RGD-binding pocket is situated at the center of a trenchlike exposed surface on the top face of α5β1 devoid of glycosylation sites. The structure also enabled the precise prediction of the acceptor residue for the auxiliary synergy site of fibronectin on the α5 subunit, which was experimentally confirmed by mutagenesis and kinetic binding assays. PMID:22451694

  17. The structure of apo human glutamate dehydrogenase details subunit communication and allostery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas J; Schmidt, Timothy; Fang, Jie; Wu, Jane; Siuzdak, Gary; Stanley, Charles A

    2002-05-03

    The structure of human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been determined in the absence of active site and regulatory ligands. Compared to the structures of bovine GDH that were complexed with coenzyme and substrate, the NAD binding domain is rotated away from the glutamate-binding domain. The electron density of this domain is more disordered the further it is from the pivot helix. Mass spectrometry results suggest that this is likely due to the apo form being more dynamic than the closed form. The antenna undergoes significant conformational changes as the catalytic cleft opens. The ascending helix in the antenna moves in a clockwise manner and the helix in the descending strand contracts in a manner akin to the relaxation of an extended spring. A number of spontaneous mutations in this antenna region cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome by decreasing GDH sensitivity to the inhibitor, GTP. Since these residues do not directly contact the bound GTP, the conformational changes in the antenna are apparently crucial to GTP inhibition. In the open conformation, the GTP binding site is distorted such that it can no longer bind GTP. In contrast, ADP binding benefits by the opening of the catalytic cleft since R463 on the pivot helix is pushed into contact distance with the beta-phosphate of ADP. These results support the previous proposal that purines regulate GDH activity by altering the dynamics of the NAD binding domain. Finally, a possible structural mechanism for negative cooperativity is presented.

  18. Structural details of the Orion Nebula - Detection of a network of stringlike ionized features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.

    1990-09-01

    Continuum observations of the Orion Nebula, obtained at 20 cm using the A, B, C, and D configurations of the VLA during 1986-1987, are reported. Radio images of resolution 1.8 x 1.6 arcsec are presented and analyzed, with a focus on (1) the complex cone structure of M 42 and (2) an extended network of bright stringlike features concentrated near the Trapezium cluster. Possible theoretical explanations of these features are explored, starting from the blister model of H II regions developed by Tenorio and Tagle (1979).

  19. Detailed design of a lattice composite fuselage structure by a mixed optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Toropov, V.; Hühne, C.; Armani, U.

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a procedure for designing a lattice fuselage barrel is developed. It comprises three stages: first, topology optimization of an aircraft fuselage barrel is performed with respect to weight and structural performance to obtain the conceptual design. The interpretation of the optimal result is given to demonstrate the development of this new lattice airframe concept for the fuselage barrel. Subsequently, parametric optimization of the lattice aircraft fuselage barrel is carried out using genetic algorithms on metamodels generated with genetic programming from a 101-point optimal Latin hypercube design of experiments. The optimal design is achieved in terms of weight savings subject to stability, global stiffness and strain requirements, and then verified by the fine mesh finite element simulation of the lattice fuselage barrel. Finally, a practical design of the composite skin complying with the aircraft industry lay-up rules is presented. It is concluded that the mixed optimization method, combining topology optimization with the global metamodel-based approach, allows the problem to be solved with sufficient accuracy and provides the designers with a wealth of information on the structural behaviour of the novel anisogrid composite fuselage design.

  20. A detailed three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure in Italy from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stefano, Raffaele; Castello, Barbara; Chiarabba, Claudio; Grazia Ciaccio, Maria

    2010-05-01

    We here present an updated high resolution tomographic P-wave velocity model of the lithosphere in Italy, obtained by adding about 296,600 P-wave arrival observations from ~7.200 earthquakes, from the preliminary update of the CSI 2.0, recorded in the period 2003-2007, to the previously inverted dataset (165,000 P-wave arrivals).Additional events have been strictly selected for location quality (azimuthal gap < 135°; horizontal error <= 2km; vertical error <= 4km; rms < 1s) and a number of P-wave observations >= 8. Our results confirm the main structural features in the best resolved parts of the inverted volume and show a much better resolution in some of the previously less resolved areas, due to both the larger number of inverted phases and the more even distribution of seismic stations. Surface basins and relationships between the Adriatic, Tyrrhenian, and European plates are better imaged. The integrated analysis of 20 years of seismicity and the high resolution tomographic images obtained, allows us to add new constraints to the kynematics and the geodynamics of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in this region. We also present preliminary results obtained by thickening the nodes spacing from 15km x15km to 10km x 10km and we finally compare the complex velocity structures imaged by the inversion of the two different grid spacing.

  1. Validation of brief questionnaire measures of sun exposure and skin pigmentation against detailed and objective measures including vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Jessica; Lucas, Robyn M; Gies, Peter; King, Kerryn; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Allen, Martin W; Banks, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Self-reported sun exposure is commonly used in research, but how well this represents actual sun exposure is poorly understood. From February to July 2011, a volunteer sample (n = 47) of older adults (≥45 years) in Canberra, Australia, answered brief questions on time outdoors (weekdays and weekends) and natural skin color. They subsequently maintained a sun diary and wore an ultraviolet radiation (UVR) digital dosimeter for 7 days. Melanin density was estimated using reflectance spectrophotometry; lifetime sun damage was assessed using silicone casts of the back of the hand; and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was assayed. Questionnaire-reported time outdoors correlated significantly with diary-recorded time outdoors (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46, 0.80; P < 0.001) and UVR dosimeter dose (r(s ) = 0.46; 95% CI 0.18, 0.68; P = 0.003), but not 25(OH)D concentration (r(s) = 0.24; 95% CI -0.05, 0.50; P = 0.10). Questionnaire-reported untanned skin color correlated significantly with measured melanin density at the inner upper arm (r(s) = 0.49; 95% CI 0.24, 0.68; P < 0.001). In a multiple linear regression model, statistically significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentration were self-reported frequency of physical activity, skin color and recent osteoporosis treatment (R(2) = 0.54). In this study, brief questionnaire items provided valid rankings of sun exposure and skin color, and enabled the development of a predictive model for 25(OH)D concentration.

  2. Unveiling details of defect structures in chiral and achiral nematic droplets by improving simulations of optical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mur, Urban; Čopar, Simon; Ravnik, Miha; Čančula, Miha; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-09-01

    There is a great increase of interest in the nematic defect structures, where interplay of confinement, elasticity, anchoring, and chirality leads to complex ordering fields with singular topological defects and nonsingular solitonic deformations. Beside numerous advanced microscopy techniques, the standard polarized optical microscopy is still an elementary first-to-take tool in use. To fully capture its potential and understand the limitations in unveiling the details of complex structures, we apply a recently extended Jones matrix approach based on ray-tracing that allows to include also effects of focusing and numerical aperture. The approach is illustrated with results of recent studies of cholesteric droplets.

  3. Detailed Analysis of the Structural Changes of Bone Matrix During the Demineralization Process Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Zherdeva, L. A.; Timchenko, P. E.; Volova, L. T.; Ponomareva, U. V.

    The results of experimental research of human cortical bone tissue depending on demineralization time were represented using Raman spectroscopy. Depending on demineralization time the ratio of the mineral (РO43- and CO32-) and organic components (amide I) of bone tissue, as well as changes in the spectral regions responsible for the structural integrity of the collagen fibers in bone tissue (1200-1460 cm-1 and 2880-3000 cm-1) were investigated. The observed changes show a decrease in mineral components: thus, the value of Raman band intensity at 956 and 1069 cm-1 for 5 minutes demineralization is 68.5 and 77.3%, for 20 minutes - 55.1 and 61.1%, for 120 minutes - 32.8 and 37% from Raman intensity values of not demineralized tissue objects respectively.

  4. Deciphering fine molecular details of proteins' structure and function with a Protein Surface Topography (PST) method.

    PubMed

    Koromyslova, Anna D; Chugunov, Anton O; Efremov, Roman G

    2014-04-28

    Molecular surfaces are the key players in biomolecular recognition and interactions. Nowadays, it is trivial to visualize a molecular surface and surface-distributed properties in three-dimensional space. However, such a representation trends to be biased and ambiguous in case of thorough analysis. We present a new method to create 2D spherical projection maps of entire protein surfaces and manipulate with them--protein surface topography (PST). It permits visualization and thoughtful analysis of surface properties. PST helps to easily portray conformational transitions, analyze proteins' properties and their dynamic behavior, improve docking performance, and reveal common patterns and dissimilarities in molecular surfaces of related bioactive peptides. This paper describes basic usage of PST with an example of small G-proteins conformational transitions, mapping of caspase-1 intersubunit interface, and intrinsic "complementarity" in the conotoxin-acetylcholine binding protein complex. We suggest that PST is a beneficial approach for structure-function studies of bioactive peptides and small proteins.

  5. Detailed measurement of the magnitude and orientation of thermal gradients in lined boreholes for characterizing groundwater flow in fractured rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehme, Peeter; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.; Blohm, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments have led to revitalization of the use of temperature logging for characterizing flow through fractured rock. The sealing of boreholes using water-filled, flexible impermeable liners prevents vertical cross connection between fractures intersecting the hole and establishes a static water column with a temperature stratification that mimics that in the surrounding formation. Measurement of the temperature profile of the lined-hole, water column (using a high sensitivity single-point probe achieving resolution on the order of 0.001 °C) has identified fractures with active flow under ambient groundwater conditions (without cross connecting flow along the borehole). Detection of flow in fractures was further improved with the use of a heater to create thermal disequilibrium in the active line source (ALS) technique and eliminate normal depth limitations in the process. This paper presents another advancement; detailed measurement of the magnitude and direction of the thermal gradient to characterize flow through fractured rock. The temperature within the water column is measured along the length of the lined hole using a temperature vector probe (TVP): four high sensitivity sensors arranged in a tetrahedral pattern oriented using three directional magnetometers. Based on these data, the horizontal and vertical components of the thermal field, as well as the direction of temperature gradient are determined, typically at depth intervals of less than 0.01 m. This probe was assessed and refined by trials in over 30 lined boreholes; the results from two holes through a fractured dolostone aquifer in Guelph, Ontario are used as exampled. Since no other device exists for measuring flow magnitude and direction under the ambient flow condition created by lined holes, the performance of the TVP is assessed by examining the reproducibility of the temperature measurements through an ALS test, and by the consistency of the results relative to other types of

  6. Detailed Structure of the Outer Disk Around HD 169142 with Polarized Light in H-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momose, Munetake; Morita, Ayaka; Fukagawa, Misato; Muto, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Hashimoto, Jun; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Grady, Carol A.; Sitko, Michael L.; Akiyama, Eiji; Currie, Thayne; Follette, Katherine B.; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; McElwain, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coronagraphic imagery of the circumstellar disk around HD 169142 in H-band polarized intensity (PI) with Subaru/HiCIAO is presented. The emission scattered by dust particles at the disk surface in 0.''2=r=1.''2, or 29=r=174 AU, is successfully detected. The azimuthally-averaged radial profile of the PI shows a double power-law distribution, in which the PIs in r = 29-52 AU and r = 81.2-145 AU respectively show r-3-dependence. These two power-law regions are connected smoothly with a transition zone (TZ), exhibiting an apparent gap in r = 40-70 AU. The PI in the inner power-law region shows a deep minimum whose location seems to coincide with the point source at lambda = 7 mm. This can be regarded as another sign of a protoplanet in TZ. The observed radial profile of the PI is reproduced by a minimally flaring disk with an irregular surface density distribution or with an irregular temperature distribution or with the combination of both. The depletion factor of surface density in the inner power-law region (r <50 AU) is derived to be =0.16 from a simple model calculation. The obtained PI image also shows small scale asymmetries in the outer power-law region. Possible origins for these asymmetries include corrugation of the scattering surface in the outer region, and shadowing effect by a puffed up structure in the inner power-law region.

  7. A detailed structural comparison between the charge relay system in chymotrypsinogen and in alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Birktoft, J J; Kraut, J; Freer, S T

    1976-10-05

    An improved 2.5-A electron density map of chymotrypsinogen was calculated by incorporating heavy-atom anomalous scattering effects and a new model of the molecule was constructed. Phases from x-ray structure factors (R = 0.43) computed from this model were then used in the calculation of another electron density map against which the model was further refined. The catalytic Ser-195 side chain in the new model is in the "down" or "acyl" orientation and its Ogamma atom is in position to form a normal hydrogen bond with Nepsilon2 of His-57. In contrast, the corresponding hydrogen bond in alpha-chymotrypsin (Birktoft, J.J., and Blow, D.M. (1972), J.Mol. Biol. 68, 187) is severely distorted, probably as a consequence of a 1.5-A shift in the relative positions of the two cylindrical folding domains composing most of the molecule. We suggest that this activiation induced distortion of the charge-relay, hydrogen-bonding system plays an important role in the genesis of enzymic activity, in accord with an earlier proposal by Wang concerning the role of bent hydrogen bonds in enzyme catalysis (Wang, J.J. (1970), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 66, 874).

  8. Conjugation of α-amylase with dextran for enhanced stability: process details, kinetics and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swati B; Singhal, Rekha S

    2012-11-06

    The influence of enzyme polysaccharide interaction on enzyme stability and activity was elucidated by covalently binding dextran to a model enzyme, α-amylase. The conjugation process was optimized with respect to concentration of oxidizing agent, pH of enzyme solution, ratio of dextran to enzyme concentration, temperature and time of conjugate formation, and was found to affect the stability of α-amylase. α-Amylase conjugated under optimized conditions showed 5% loss of activity but with enhanced thermal and pH stability. Lower inactivation rate constant of conjugated α-amylase within the temperature range of 60-80 °C implied its better stability. Activation energy for denaturation of α-amylase increased by 8.81 kJ/mol on conjugation with dextran. Analysis of secondary structure of α-amylase after covalent binding with dextran showed helix to turn conversion without loss of functional properties of α-amylase. Covalent bonding was found to be mandatory for the formation of conjugate.

  9. Calculation of stellar structure. IV. Results using a detailed energy generation subroutine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, C. A.

    1995-12-01

    The results from two solar model calculations using the "energy.for" energy generation and neutrino flux code (Bahcall & Pinsonneault 1992) are presented. The models of the present Sun were generated using the program described in the first three papers of this series and using only the helium abundance profile from the Bahcall & Ulrich (1988) (BU) standard model in the present model structure calculations. One model is a simulation of the BU model and yields a ^37^Cl solar neutrino counting rate of 7.0SNU (compared to 7.9SNU for the BU model) and a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 112 and 137SNU (compared to 132SNU for the BU model). The second model has a postulated small high-Z core (Rouse 1983) and yields a ^37^Cl neutrino experiment counting rate of 2.45SNU that is within one sigma of the Homestake Collaboration observed rate of (2.55+/-0.25)SNU (see Parke 1995). It yields a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 89 and 103SNU that is within one sigma of the GALLEX Collaboration neutrino experiment observed rate of (79+/-12)SNU (see Parke 1995). The theoretical ^8^B solar neutrino flux and the observed Kamiokande ^8^B flux (Hirata et al. 1989) are discussed regarding the puzzle of explaining both the chlorine experiment results and the Kamiokande results. The modification of the energy.for code for use in the current Rouse program is described. Consistency of a high-Z core solar model with theories of star formation from pre-stellar nuclei (Krat 1952; Urey 1956; Huang 1957) is suggested.

  10. Detailed structure of the outer disk around HD 169142 with polarized light in H-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momose, Munetake; Morita, Ayaka; Fukagawa, Misato; Muto, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Hashimoto, Jun; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Grady, Carol A.; Sitko, Michael L.; Akiyama, Eiji; Currie, Thayne; Follette, Katherine B.; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; McElwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-10-01

    Coronagraphic imagery of the circumstellar disk around HD 169142 in H-band polarized intensity (PI) with Subaru/HiCIAO is presented. The emission scattered by dust particles at the disk surface in 0{^''.}2 ≤ r ≤ 1{^''.}2, or 29 ≤ r ≤ 174 au, is successfully detected. The azimuthally averaged radial profile of the PI shows a double power-law distribution, in which the PIs in r = 29-52 au and r = 81.2-145 au respectively show r-3 dependence. These two power-law regions are connected smoothly with a transition zone (TZ), exhibiting an apparent gap in r = 40-70 au. The PI in the inner power-law region shows a deep minimum whose location seems to coincide with the point source at λ = 7 mm. This can be regarded as another sign of a protoplanet in the TZ. The observed radial profile of the PI is reproduced by a minimally flaring disk with an irregular surface density distribution, an irregular temperature distribution, or with a combination of both. The depletion factor of surface density in the inner power-law region (r < 50 au) is derived to be ≥ 0.16 from a simple model calculation. The obtained PI image also shows small-scale asymmetries in the outer power-law region. Possible origins for these asymmetries include corrugation of the scattering surface in the outer region, and a shadowing effect by a puffed-up structure in the inner power-law region.

  11. Detailed studies on substrate structure requirements of glycoamidases A and F.

    PubMed

    Fan, J Q; Lee, Y C

    1997-10-24

    Glycoamidases (peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase, EC 3.5.1.52; also known as peptide: N-glycanases (PNGases) release N-linked oligosaccharides from glycopeptides and/or glycoproteins by hydrolyzing the glycosylated beta-amide bond of the asparagine side chain. The most widely used glycoamidases are those from Flavobacterium meningosepticum (glycoamidase F or PNGase F) and almond emulsin (glycoamidase A or PNGase A). To study the substrate structure requirement of these enzymes systematically, we synthesized >30 glycopeptides containing cellobiose, lactose, GlcNAc, and di-N,N'-acetylchitobiose (CTB). The length of the peptide was varied from one to five amino acids, and glycosylamines were linked to either Asn or Gln located at different positions in the peptide, including NH2 and COOH termini. Neither enzyme could cleave cellobiose and lactose glycopeptides, indicating that the 2-acetamido group on the Asn-linked GlcNAc is important in the recognition by both glycoamidases A and F. GlcNAc peptides could be cleaved by both enzymes, albeit not as effectively as CTB glycopeptides. Neither enzyme requires the Asn-Xaa-(Ser/Thr) sequence (required for N-glycosylation) for activity. Glycoamidase A could even hydrolyze a Gln-bound CTB glycopeptide, whereas the action of glycoamidase F on this substrate is minimal. While glycoamidase A could act on CTB dipeptides, glycoamidase F preferred a tripeptide or longer. The Km and Vmax values of glycoamidase A for t-butoxycarbonyl-(CTB)-Asn-Ala-Ser-OMe were 2.1 mM and 0.66 micromol/min/mg, respectively. A natural glycodipeptide, Man9-GlcNAc2-Asn-Phe, was also completely hydrolyzed by glycoamidase A.

  12. Economic gains from targeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Brian H; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-06-15

    From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the natural nitrate reduction in the groundwater more precisely than before using a plot size down to 1ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains for the farmer when using this information to reach a given N-loss level. Targeted measures are especially relevant where the subsurface N-reduction varies significantly within the same farm and national analyses have shown that a cost reduction of around 20-25% using targeted measures is likely. The analyses show an increasing potential with increasing variation in N-reduction in the catchment. In this analysis, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to place measures like catch crops or set-a-side at locations with the greatest effect on 10 case farms in the Norsminde Catchment, Denmark. The findings suggest that the gains are from 0 to 32€/ha and the average farm would gain approximately 14-21€/ha/year from the targeted measures approach. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is greater than the costs of providing the detailed maps of 5-10€/ha/year. When N-loss reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are greater. When combined with new measures like mini-wetlands and early sowing the economic advantage is increased further. The paper also shows that not all farms can use the detailed information on N-reduction and there is not a clear link between spatial variation in N-reduction at the farm level and possible economic gains for all these 10 farms.

  13. NMR Crystallography of Enzyme Active Sites: Probing Chemically-Detailed, Three-Dimensional Structure in Tryptophan Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus NMR crystallography – the synergistic combination of X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry – offers unprecedented insight into three-dimensional, chemically-detailed structure. From its initial role in refining diffraction data of organic and inorganic solids, NMR crystallography is now being developed for application to active sites in biomolecules, where it reveals chemically-rich detail concerning the interactions between enzyme site residues and the reacting substrate that is not achievable when X-ray, NMR, or computational methodologies are applied in isolation. For example, typical X-ray crystal structures (1.5 to 2.5 Å resolution) of enzyme-bound intermediates identify possible hydrogen-bonding interactions between site residues and substrate, but do not directly identify the protonation state of either. Solid-state NMR can provide chemical shifts for selected atoms of enzyme-substrate complexes, but without a larger structural framework in which to interpret them, only empirical correlations with local chemical structure are possible. Ab initio calculations and molecular mechanics can build models for enzymatic processes, but rely on chemical details that must be specified. Together, however, X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry can provide consistent and testable models for structure and function of enzyme active sites: X-ray crystallography provides a coarse framework upon which models of the active site can be developed using computational chemistry; these models can be distinguished by comparison of their calculated NMR chemical shifts with the results of solid-state NMR spectroscopy experiments. Conceptually, each technique is a puzzle piece offering a generous view of the big picture. Only when correctly pieced together, however, can they reveal the big picture at highest resolution. In this Account, we detail our first steps in the development of NMR

  14. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-08-12

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed.

  15. EM-fold: de novo atomic-detail protein structure determination from medium-resolution density maps.

    PubMed

    Lindert, Steffen; Alexander, Nathan; Wötzel, Nils; Karakaş, Mert; Stewart, Phoebe L; Meiler, Jens

    2012-03-07

    Electron density maps of membrane proteins or large macromolecular complexes are frequently only determined at medium resolution between 4 Å and 10 Å, either by cryo-electron microscopy or X-ray crystallography. In these density maps, the general arrangement of secondary structure elements (SSEs) is revealed, whereas their directionality and connectivity remain elusive. We demonstrate that the topology of proteins with up to 250 amino acids can be determined from such density maps when combined with a computational protein folding protocol. Furthermore, we accurately reconstruct atomic detail in loop regions and amino acid side chains not visible in the experimental data. The EM-Fold algorithm assembles the SSEs de novo before atomic detail is added using Rosetta. In a benchmark of 27 proteins, the protocol consistently and reproducibly achieves models with root mean square deviation values <3 Å.

  16. Measurements of glottal structure dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.; Burke, Gerry J.; Champagne, Nathan J.; Kallman, Jeffrey S.; Sharpe, Robert M.; Kobler, James B.; Hillman, Robert E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2005-03-01

    Low power, radarlike electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors, operating in a homodyne interferometric mode, are being used to measure tissue motions in the human vocal tract during speech. However, when these and similar sensors are used in front of the laryngeal region during voiced speech, there remains an uncertainty regarding the contributions to the sensor signal from vocal fold movements versus those from pressure induced trachea-wall movements. Several signal-source hypotheses are tested by performing experiments with a subject who had undergone tracheostomy, and who still was able to phonate when her stoma was covered (e.g., with a plastic plate). Laser-doppler motion-measurements of the subject's posterior trachea show small tissue movements, about 15 microns, that do not contribute significantly to signals from presently used EM sensors. However, signals from the anterior wall do contribute. EM sensor and air-pressure measurements, together with 3-D EM wave simulations, show that EM sensors measure movements of the vocal folds very well. The simulations show a surprisingly effective guiding of EM waves across the vocal fold membrane, which, upon glottal opening, are interrupted and reflected. These measurements are important for EM sensor applications to speech signal de-noising, vocoding, speech recognition, and diagnostics. .

  17. Hyperfine Structure measurements of 45Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. D.; Rossi, D. M.; Minamisono, K.; Miller, A. J.; Asberry, H.; Mantica, P. F.

    2015-10-01

    A chain of charge radii shows discontinuity at nucleon magic numbers. This signature of the shell closure, however, is missing at the neutron magic number N = 20 for Ar, Ca and K isotopes. A collinear laser spectroscopy experiment on the stable 45Sc isotope, which is one proton added to Ca, was performed as a prerequisite of radioactive beam experiments on Sc across N = 20 to further investigate the abnormal behavior. The experiment was performed at BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL and a hyperfine spectrum was measured for the electronic transition of 3 d 4 s 3D1 --> 3 d 4 p 3F2 at λ = 364 . 3 nm in 45ScII. The magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine coupling constants A and B of both the lower and upper states were obtained from the hyperfine structure by fitting a pseudo-Voigt profile. The results obtained from these data are in good agreement with previous values and have smaller statistical errors. The detail of experiment and analysis will be discussed. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-11-02511.

  18. Coronal Structures Observed by Radio Propagation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes (1) advances in our knowledge of coronal structures inferred from radio propagation measurements, and (2) gains in our understanding of the relationship between radio propagation and white-light coronagraph measurements. Radio propagation measurements confirm that streamers are ray-like structures as depicted in coronagraph pictures, but also reveal a hierarchy of filamentary structures throughout the corona, extending from the size of streamers down to scale sizes as small as about 1 km at the Sun (10(ghe) arcsec). Doppler scintillation measurements, therefore, open a new window on small-scale structure that has long eluded coronagraph measurements. In addition, high precision ranging measurements make it possible to investigate large-scale structures not yet observed in corona graphs, such as plumes in equatorial coronal regions.

  19. Application of detailed temperature profile measurements for improving data quality check by Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Water plays a key role in the functionality and sustainability of the ecosystems. In the light of the predicted climate change research should be focused on the water cycle and its individual components. Apart from the runoff, the major component of the water balance which drives the water from the ecosystems is represented by the evapotranspiration (ET). One of the standard methods for measuring ET is Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method (BREB). It is based on the assumption that the water vapour and heat are transported by identical eddies with equal efficiency. In fact, this basic premise is based on a more complicated Monin-Obukhov similarity theory that explains the relationship between the profiles of wind, temperature and water vapour in the surface layer of the atmosphere. When BREB method is used we assume that the profiles of temperature and air humidity are ideally logarithmic or at least consistent. However, as this method is usually based on the measurements of temperature and humidity in only two heights, it is difficult to verify this assumption. We therefore conducted a field experiment using 4m high measurement-mast with 20 thermocouples connected to data-logger for detailed measurement of air temperature profile above different covers, e.g. grassland, spring barley, poplar plantation. The main goal of our effort was to capture so called "kink" in the profile of the temperature and verify if the assumptions made by BREB hold under various weather conditions and over different canopies testing the basic requirements of the BREB method use. Finally we devised a technique improving data selection for subsequent ET calculation. This study was funded by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248,PASED - project supported by Czech program KONTAKT II No. LH12037 "Development of models for assessment of abiotic stresses in selected bioenergy plants" and LD130030 project supporting COST action ES1106.

  20. Structural measures for multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2014-03-01

    Many real-world complex systems consist of a set of elementary units connected by relationships of different kinds. All such systems are better described in terms of multiplex networks, where the links at each layer represent a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes rather than in terms of (single-layer) networks. In this paper we present a general framework to describe and study multiplex networks, whose links are either unweighted or weighted. In particular, we propose a series of measures to characterize the multiplexicity of the systems in terms of (i) basic node and link properties such as the node degree, and the edge overlap and reinforcement, (ii) local properties such as the clustering coefficient and the transitivity, and (iii) global properties related to the navigability of the multiplex across the different layers. The measures we introduce are validated on a genuinely multiplex data set of Indonesian terrorists, where information among 78 individuals are recorded with respect to mutual trust, common operations, exchanged communications, and business relationships.

  1. Measurement of elastic 12C+alpha scattering: details of the experiment, analysis, and discussion of phase shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Aaron Joseph; Detwiler, Rebecca; Gorres, Joachim; Stech, Edward J; Ugalde, Claudio; Wiescher, Michael C F; Heil, Michael; Kappeler, Franz; Azuma, Richard E; Buchmann, Lothar

    2009-01-01

    Recent global analyses of {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O have incorporated both elastic-scallering and {beta}-decay data in addition to direct measurements. In that context, it has been shown that an improvement in the available elastic-scallering data could help determine the contribution of the two subthreshold states, 6.92(2{sup +}) and 7.12(1{sup -}) MeV, and with excellent statistics could restrict resonance parameters above the threshold. To this end angular distributions of {sup 12}C({alpha}, {alpha}){sup 12}C in the {alpha}-energy range of 2.6-8.2 MeV, at angles from 24 to 166 have been measured at the University of Notre Dame using an array of 32 silicon detectors. Details of the experiment are reported. In the present analysis, the phase shifts have been determined from our previously reported R-matrix fit to these data. The uncertainties in the R-matrix phase shifts ({ell} = 0...6) are derived by a new Monte Carlo analysis technique as described in the article. We provide these phase shifts here for general use, in particular for the improved analysis and extrapolation of the {alpha} radiative capture to low energies.

  2. Factor Structure of the Group Engagement Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Newman, Frederick L.

    2005-01-01

    The Group Engagement Measure (GEM) assesses a commonly used, but rarely measured, process in group work. Earlier studies examined the reliability and validity of the GEM, but none empirically examined its factor structure. The authors examined the seven-factor, 37-item structure of the GEM, using confirmatory factor analysis involving a combined…

  3. An image-based model of the whole human heart with detailed anatomical structure and fiber orientation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dongdong; Jiao, Peifeng; Ye, Xuesong; Xia, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Many heart anatomy models have been developed to study the electrophysiological properties of the human heart. However, none of them includes the geometry of the whole human heart. In this study, an anatomically detailed mathematical model of the human heart was firstly reconstructed from the computed tomography images. In the reconstructed model, the atria consisted of atrial muscles, sinoatrial node, crista terminalis, pectinate muscles, Bachmann's bundle, intercaval bundles, and limbus of the fossa ovalis. The atrioventricular junction included the atrioventricular node and atrioventricular ring, and the ventricles had ventricular muscles, His bundle, bundle branches, and Purkinje network. The epicardial and endocardial myofiber orientations of the ventricles and one layer of atrial myofiber orientation were then measured. They were calculated using linear interpolation technique and minimum distance algorithm, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first anatomically-detailed human heart model with corresponding experimentally measured fibers orientation. In addition, the whole heart excitation propagation was simulated using a monodomain model. The simulated normal activation sequence agreed well with the published experimental findings.

  4. Detailed characterization of a Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) instrument for ambient OH reactivity measurements: experiments vs. modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, Vincent; Locoge, Nadine; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    The Hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main daytime oxidant in the troposphere, leading to the oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the formation of harmful pollutants such as ozone (O3) and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). While OH plays a key role in tropospheric chemistry, recent studies have highlighted that there are still uncertainties associated with the OH budget, i.e the identification of sources and sinks and the quantification of production and loss rates of this radical. It has been demonstrated that ambient measurements of the total OH loss rate (also called total OH reactivity) can be used to identify and reduce these uncertainties. In this context, the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM), developed by Sinha et al. (ACP, 2008), is a promising technique to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air and has already been used during several field campaigns. This technique relies on monitoring competitive reactions of OH with ambient trace gases and a reference compound (pyrrole) in a sampling reactor to derive ambient OH reactivity. However, this technique requires a complex data processing chain that has yet to be carefully investigated in the laboratory. In this study, we present a detailed characterization of a CRM instrument developed at Mines Douai, France. Experiments have been performed to investigate the dependence of the CRM response on humidity, ambient NOx levels, and the pyrrole-to-OH ratio inside the sampling reactor. Box modelling of the chemistry occurring in the reactor has also been performed to assess our theoretical understanding of the CRM measurement. This work shows that the CRM response is sensitive to both humidity and NOx, which can be accounted for during data processing using parameterizations depending on the pyrrole-to-OH ratio. The agreement observed between laboratory studies and model results suggests a good understanding of the chemistry occurring in the sampling reactor and gives confidence in the CRM

  5. A detailed Raman and X-ray study of UO2+x oxides and related structure transitions.

    PubMed

    Elorrieta, J M; Bonales, L J; Rodríguez-Villagra, N; Baonza, V G; Cobos, J

    2016-10-12

    This work presents a detailed study of hyperstoichiometric UO2+x (0 < x < 0.25) oxides and an assessment of the structural evolution taking place as oxidation proceeds. For this purpose, different UO2+x powder samples with controlled degree of non-stoichiometry have been identified by thermogravimetric analysis and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD analysis reflects that the commonly assumed Vegard's law is not applicable over the whole hyperstoichiometry range, since a slight increase of the lattice constant is observed for 0.13 < x < 0.20. A quantitative Raman analysis of the UO2+x spectra as a function of the oxidation degree is also shown. A new method to characterize any UO2+x sample (for x < 0.20), based on the shift of the 630 cm(-1) band observed in the Raman spectrum, is proposed here for the first time. Moreover, three structure transitions have been detected at x = 0.05, 0.11 and 0.20, giving rise to four distinct regions associated with consecutive structural rearrangements over the hyperstoichiometry range: x < 0.05, 0.05 < x < 0.11, 0.11 < x < 0.20 and 0.20 < x < 0.25.

  6. Strategies and Techniques Measuring Historical Channel Change by Integrating Spatially-Robust Data with Detailed Site Measurements, Green River and Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    Analysis of river channel change and calculation of sediment budgets demands integration of detailed but spatially-limited topographic and stratigraphic data with spatially-robust, but temporally-limited, aerial photograph data. Geomorphologists typically rely on analysis of aerial photographs to assess channel change, because photos are widely available and provide spatially rich data. But air photos present several challenges: (1) aerial photos provide limited detail relative to ground-based measurements and historical aerial photos can be even more difficult to use, having shadows or poor resolution; (2) photos have poor temporal resolution and historical data are often limited to one flight per decade; and (3) long-term trends can be difficult to identify if there is high within-reach variability. We present several methods that we have used to integrate spatially-robust mapping from aerial photos with detailed site measurements and observations to develop robust analyses of channel change for over 400 km of the Green River in Utah and Colorado and for approximately 100 km of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. We improve the precision of our analyses by integrating aerial photo-based mapping with ground surveys, channel cross-section measurements, and historical oblique photos. We improve our temporal resolution by integrating aerial photo-based mapping with USGS gage station records. In the case of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, we address the problems of variability by applying analyses and statistical methods that take advantage of the unique characteristics of eddy sand bars. Because sand bars do not migrate in reaches with fan-eddy complexes, the total extent of possible sediment storage in eddies can be objectively defined, allowing the derivation of metrics that describe the reach-average sediment storage condition for comparison with other reaches and other times. In alluvial reaches, we rely on analysis of temporally-detailed

  7. Understanding the structure of skill through a detailed analysis of Individuals' performance on the Space Fortress game.

    PubMed

    Towne, Tyler J; Boot, Walter R; Ericsson, K Anders

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach to the study of individual differences in acquired skilled performance in complex laboratory tasks based on an extension of the methodology of the expert-performance approach (Ericsson & Smith, 1991) to shorter periods of training and practice. In contrast to more traditional approaches that study the average performance of groups of participants, we explored detailed behavioral changes for individual participants across their development on the Space Fortress game. We focused on dramatic individual differences in learning and skill acquisition at the individual level by analyzing the archival game data of several interesting players to uncover the specific structure of their acquired skill. Our analysis revealed that even after maximal values for game-generated subscores were reached, the most skilled participant's behaviors such as his flight path, missile firing, and mine handling continued to be refined and improved (Participant 17 from Boot et al., 2010). We contrasted this participant's behavior with the behavior of several other participants and found striking differences in the structure of their performance, which calls into question the appropriateness of averaging their data. For example, some participants engaged in different control strategies such as "world wrapping" or maintaining a finely-tuned circular flight path around the fortress (in contrast to Participant 17's angular flight path). In light of these differences, we raise fundamental questions about how skill acquisition for individual participants should be studied and described. Our data suggest that a detailed analysis of individuals' data is an essential step for generating a general theory of skill acquisition that explains improvement at the group and individual levels.

  8. Dynamism & Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    New material discovered in the study of cell research is presented for the benefit of biology teachers. Huge amounts of data are being generated in fields like cellular dynamics, and it is felt that people's understanding of the cell is becoming much more complex and detailed.

  9. Structural health monitoring using piezoelectric impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyuhae; Inman, Daniel J

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an overview and recent advances in impedance-based structural health monitoring. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply high-frequency structural excitations (typically greater than 30kHz) through surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers, and measure the impedance of structures by monitoring the current and voltage applied to the piezoelectric transducers. Changes in impedance indicate changes in the structure, which in turn can indicate that damage has occurred. An experimental study is presented to demonstrate how this technique can be used to detect structural damage in real time. Signal processing methods that address damage classifications and data compression issues associated with the use of the impedance methods are also summarized. Finally, a modified frequency-domain autoregressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) is described. The frequency-domain ARX model, constructed by measured impedance data, is used to diagnose structural damage with levels of statistical confidence.

  10. Some experiments in swirling flows: Detailed velocity measurements of a vortex breakdown using a laser Doppler anemometer. Ph.D. Thesis - Cornell Univ. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faler, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of spiraling flows in a slightly diverging, circular duct are reported. Seven types of flow disturbances were observed. In addition to the spiral and axisymmetric vortex breakdowns and the double helix mode, four other forms were identified and are reported. The type and axial location of the disturbance depended on the Reynolds and circulation numbers of the flow. Detailed velocity measurements were made by using a laser Doppler anemometer. Measurements made far upstream of any disturbance showed that the introduction of swirl resulted in the formation of a high axial velocity jet centered around the vortex center. A mapping of the velocity field of a so-called axisymmetric breakdown, formed at a Reynolds number of 2560, revealed that the recirculation zone is a two-celled structure, with four stagnation points on the vortex axis marking the axial extremes of the concentric cells. The dominant feature of the flow inside the bubble was the strong, periodic velocity fluctuations. Existing theoretical models do not predict the two-celled structure and the temporal velocity fluctuations that were observed.

  11. Structural Integrity in Measures of Self Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenner, A. Jackson; Katzenmeyer, W.G.

    Structural integrity of a measure is defined in terms of its replicability, constancy, invariance, and stability. Work completed in the development and validation of the Self Observation Scales (SOS) Primary Level (Stenner and Katzenmeyer, 1973) serves to illustrate one method of establishing structural integrity. The name of each scale of the SOS…

  12. Antifreeze (glyco)protein mimetic behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol): detailed structure ice recrystallization inhibition activity study.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Thomas; Notman, Rebecca; Gibson, Matthew I

    2013-05-13

    This manuscript reports a detailed study on the ability of poly(vinyl alcohol) to act as a biomimetic surrogate for antifreeze(glyco)proteins, with a focus on the specific property of ice-recrystallization inhibition (IRI). Despite over 40 years of study, the underlying mechanisms that govern the action of biological antifreezes are still poorly understood, which is in part due to their limited availability and challenging synthesis. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been shown to display remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity despite its major structural differences to native antifreeze proteins. Here, controlled radical polymerization is used to synthesize well-defined PVA, which has enabled us to obtain the first quantitative structure-activity relationships, to probe the role of molecular weight and comonomers on IRI activity. Crucially, it was found that IRI activity is "switched on" when the polymer chain length increases from 10 and 20 repeat units. Substitution of the polymer side chains with hydrophilic or hydrophobic units was found to diminish activity. Hydrophobic modifications to the backbone were slightly more tolerated than side chain modifications, which implies an unbroken sequence of hydroxyl units is necessary for activity. These results highlight that, although hydrophobic domains are key components of IRI activity, the random inclusion of addition hydrophobic units does not guarantee an increase in activity and that the actual polymer conformation is important.

  13. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    PubMed

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-07

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm.

  14. Detailed transient heme structures of Mb-CO in solution after CO dissociation: an X-ray transient absorption spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Stickrath, Andrew B; Mara, Michael W; Lockard, Jenny V; Harpham, Michael R; Huang, Jier; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Attenkofer, Klaus; Chen, Lin X

    2013-04-25

    Although understanding the structural dynamics associated with ligand photodissociation is necessary in order to correlate structure and function in biological systems, few techniques are capable of measuring the ultrafast dynamics of these systems in solution-phase at room temperature. We present here a detailed X-ray transient absorption (XTA) study of the photodissociation of CO-bound myoglobin (Fe(II)CO-Mb) in room-temperature aqueous buffer solution with a time resolution of 80 ps, along with a general procedure for handling biological samples under the harsh experimental conditions that transient X-ray experiments entail. The XTA spectra of (Fe(II)CO-Mb) exhibit significant XANES and XAFS alterations following 527 nm excitation, which remain unchanged for >47 μs. These spectral changes indicate loss of the CO ligand, resulting in a five-coordinate, domed heme, and significant energetic reorganization of the 3d orbitals of the Fe center. With the current experimental setup, each X-ray pulse in the pulse train, separated by ~153 ns, can be separately discriminated, yielding snapshots of the myoglobin evolution over time. These methods can be easily applied to other biological systems, allowing for simultaneous structural and electronic measurements of any biological system with both ultrafast and slow time resolutions, effectively mapping out all of the samples' relevant physiological processes.

  15. Measures of Complexity to quantify Bone Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saparin, Peter; Gowin, Wolfgang; Kurths, Jürgen; Felsenberg, Dieter

    1998-03-01

    We propose a technique to assess structure of the bone in its spatial distribution by describing and quantifying the structural architecture as a whole. The concept of measures of complexity based on symbolic dynamics is applied to computed tomography (CT) - images obtained from human lumbar vertebra. CT-images have been transformed into images consisting of 5 different symbols, whereby both statical and dynamical coding are included. Different aspects of the bone structure are quantified by several measures which have been introduced: index of global ensemble of elements composing the bone; complexity, homogeneity and dynamics within the bone architecture; complexity and inhomogeneity of the trabecular net. This leads to new insides to the understanding of bone's internal structure. The results give the first experimental and quantitative evidence of the theoretical prediction that complexity of bone structure declines rapidly with the increased disintegration of bone structures leading to the loss of bone mass and specify experimentally that bone structure is exponentially related to its density. Especially, osteoporotic vertebrae are less complex organized than normal ones. In addition, this method is significantly sensitive to changes in bone structure and provides improvements of diagnostic of pathological structural loss.

  16. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  17. A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Jörg H; Saade, Anastasia; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Ackermann, Katrin; Jilg, Antje; Sebestény, Tamás; Maronde, Erik

    2011-08-01

    The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain. Through the nocturnally elevated synthesis and release of the neurohormone melatonin, the pineal gland encodes and disseminates information on circadian time, thus coupling the outside world to the biochemical and physiological internal demands of the body. Approaches to better understand molecular details behind the rhythmic signalling in the human pineal gland are limited but implicitly warranted, as human chronobiological dysfunctions are often associated with alterations in melatonin synthesis. Current knowledge on melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland is based on minimally invasive analyses, and by the comparison of signalling events between different vertebrate species, with emphasis put on data acquired in sheep and other primates. Together with investigations using autoptic pineal tissue, a remnant silhouette of premortem dynamics within the hormone's biosynthesis pathway can be constructed. The detected biochemical scenario behind the generation of dynamics in melatonin synthesis positions the human pineal gland surprisingly isolated. In this neuroendocrine brain structure, protein-protein interactions and nucleo-cytoplasmic protein shuttling indicate furthermore a novel twist in the molecular dynamics in the cells of this neuroendocrine brain structure. These findings have to be seen in the light that an impaired melatonin synthesis is observed in elderly and/or demented patients, in individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease, Smith-Magenis syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and sleep phase disorders. Already, recent advances in understanding signalling dynamics in the human pineal gland have significantly helped to counteract chronobiological dysfunctions through a proper restoration of the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  18. Attenuation tomography in the western central Andes: A detailed insight into the structure of a magmatic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, Christian; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2001-06-01

    High-quality data from 1498 local earthquakes recorded by the PISCO '94 (Proyecto de Investigatión Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental, 1994) and ANCORP '96 (Andean Continental Research Project, 1996) temporary seismological networks allowed the detailed determination of the three-dimensional (3-D) attenuation structure (Qp-1) beneath the recent magmatic arc in the western central Andes (20° to 24°S). Assuming a frequency-independent Qp-1 in a frequency band between 1 and 30 Hz, whole path attenuation (t*) was estimated from the amplitude spectra of the P waves using spectral ratios and a spectral inversion technique. The damped least squares inversion (tomography) of the data reveals a complex attenuation structure. Crust and mantle of the forearc and subducting slab are generally characterized by low attenuation (Qp > 1000). Crust and mantle beneath the magmatic arc show elevated attenuation. The strongest anomaly of extremely low Qp is found in the crust between 22° and 23°S beneath the recent volcanic arc (Qp < 100). N-S variations can be observed: The western flank of the crustal attenuation anomaly follows the curved course of the volcanic front. North of 21°S the attenuation is less developed. In the northern part of the study area the low-Qp zone penetrates in the forearc mantle down to the subducting slab. In the south a deeper zone of high attenuation is resolved between 23° and 24°S directly above the subducting slab. Low Qp in the mantle correlates with earthquake clusters. The strong crustal attenuation is confined to the distribution of young ignimbrites and silicic volcanism and is interpreted as a thermally weakened zone with partial melts. The attenuation pattern in the upper mantle might reflect the variable extent of the asthenosphere and maps variations of subduction-related hydration processes in the mantle wedge from slab-derived fluids.

  19. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Visualisation of details of a complicated inner structure of model objects by the method of diffusion optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tret'yakov, Evgeniy V.; Shuvalov, Vladimir V.; Shutov, I. V.

    2002-11-01

    An approximate algorithm is tested for solving the problem of diffusion optical tomography in experiments on the visualisation of details of the inner structure of strongly scattering model objects containing scattering and semitransparent inclusions, as well as absorbing inclusions located inside other optical inhomogeneities. The stability of the algorithm to errors is demonstrated, which allows its use for a rapid (2 — 3 min) image reconstruction of the details of objects with a complicated inner structure.

  20. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank, Brian D.; Smith, Nicole

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag

  1. On the structure and dynamics of Ellerman bombs. Detailed study of three events and modelling of Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello González, N.; Danilovic, S.; Kneer, F.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We study the structure and dynamics of three Ellerman bombs (EBs) observed in an evolving active region. Methods: The active region NOAA 11271 was observed with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife on August 18, 2011. We used the two-dimensional Triple Etalon SOlar Spectrometer (TESOS) to obtain time sequences of the active region and of EBs in Hα at a cadence of 15 s. Simultaneously, we obtained full Stokes profiles with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) in the two magnetically sensitive Fe i infrared lines (IR) at 1.56 μ, scanning spatial sections of the area with cadences of 28-46 s. The Hα data were reconstructed with speckle methods to study the evolution of the atmospheric stratification. Two methods were used to extract magnetic field information from the IR Stokes profiles: 1) fitting of the (Q,U,V) profiles by Gaussians; and 2) applying the Milne-Eddington approximation, assuming two separate magnetic structures in the resolution element and fitting by trial and error some profiles from the EB areas. Data from SDO-HMI and -AIA were also used. We performed two-dimensional (2D) non-LTE radiative transfer calculations of Hα in parameterised models of EBs. Results: The three EBs studied in detail occurred in a complex active region near sunspots. They were very bright with a factor of 1.5-2.8 brighter than the nearby area. They lived for 1/2 h and longer. They were related to broadband faculae, but the latter were not the brightest features in the field of view. The EBs occurred in magnetic field configurations with opposite polarity close together. One EB was located at the outskirts of a penumbra of a complex sunspot and showed repeated "flaring" in SDO-AIA data. Another was close to a strong field patch and moved into this during the end of its lifetime. The third EB showed clear changes of field structure during the time it was observed. We obtained from the 2D modelling that heating and increase in Hα opacity

  2. Differential Measurement Periodontal Structures Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to a periodontal structure mapping system employing a dental handpiece containing first and second acoustic sensors for locating the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) and measuring the differential depth between the CEJ and the bottom of the periodontal pocket. Measurements are taken at multiple locations on each tooth of a patient, observed, analyzed by an optical analysis subsystem, and archived by a data storage system for subsequent study and comparison with previous and subsequent measurements. Ultrasonic transducers for the first and second acoustic sensors are contained within the handpiece and in connection with a control computer. Pressurized water is provided for the depth measurement sensor and a linearly movable probe sensor serves as the sensor for the CEJ finder. The linear movement of the CEJ sensor is obtained by a control computer actuated by the prober. In an alternate embodiment, the CEJ probe is an optical fiber sensor with appropriate analysis structure provided therefor.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Multi-Sensor Data Fusion on Command and Control Operations in the Halifax Class Frigate: Recommendations for Measures for Performance and Detailed Test Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    Recommendations for Measures of Performance and Detailed Test Plan. by: M.L. Matthews, R.D.G. Webb, A.R. Keeble Humansystems Incorporated® 111...and operational performance in the Halifax class operations room. The plan details an incremental approach to T&E that will generate reliable and...valid performance data for a range of critical tasks performed by the Ops Room team, with a general focus on the role of ORO. A series of data

  4. COAXIAL WIRE MEASUREMENTS IN NLC ACCELERATING STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Roger M

    2002-06-20

    The coaxial wire method provides an experimental way of measuring wake fields without the need for a particle beam. A special setup has been designed and is in the process of being fabricated at SLAC to measure the loss factors and synchronous frequencies of dipole modes in both traveling and standing wave structures for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The method is described and predictions based on electromagnetic field simulations are discussed.

  5. The Family Relationships Grid: Measuring Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Anne P.; And Others

    This study examined the Family Relationships Grid (FRG), a new measure of family structure that evaluates alliances, identification, isolation, and the relative strength of sibling and marital relationships. Subjects were 52 female and 35 male adolescents who were recruited through a university course and who each had at least one sibling.…

  6. Th-substituted SmFeAsO: Structural details and superconductivity with Tc above 50 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Weyeneth, S.; Puzniak, R.; Moll, P. J. W.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Keller, H.; Batlogg, B.

    2010-08-01

    We report structural, magnetic, and transport properties of polycrystalline samples and single crystals of superconducting Sm1-xThxFeAsO with maximal Tc above 50 K, prepared under high pressure. Bulk superconducting samples do not undergo a structural phase transition from tetragonal to orthorhombic symmetry at low temperatures. The unit-cell parameters a and c shrink with Th substitution and the fractional atomic coordinate of the As site zAs remains almost unchanged while that of Sm/Th zSm/Th increases. Upon warming from 5 to 295 K the increase in the FeAs layer thickness is dominant, while the changes in the other structural building blocks are minor, and they compensate each other, since the As-Sm/Th distance contracts by about the same amount as the O-Sm/Th expands. The polycrystalline and single-crystalline samples are characterized by a full diamagnetic response in low magnetic field, by a high intergrain critical current density for polycrystalline samples, and by a critical current density on the order of 8×105A/cm2 for single crystals at 2 K in fields up to 7 T. The magnetic penetration depth anisotropy γλ increases with decreasing temperature, in a similar way to that of SmFeAsO1-xFy single crystals. The upper critical field estimated from resistance measurements is anisotropic with slopes of ˜5.4T/K ( H∥ab plane) and ˜2.7T/K ( H∥c axis), at temperatures sufficiently far below Tc . The low-temperature upper critical field anisotropy γH is in the range of ˜2 , consistent with the tendency of a decreasing γH with decreasing temperature, previously reported for SmFeAsO1-xFy single crystals.

  7. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex. III. Detailed cloud structure and feedback effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccatagliata, V.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Gaczkowski, B.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The star formation process in large clusters/associations can be strongly influenced by the feedback from high-mass stars. Whether the resulting net effect of the feedback is predominantly negative (cloud dispersal) or positive (triggering of star formation due to cloud compression) is still an open question. Aims: The Carina Nebula complex (CNC) represents one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We use our Herschel far-infrared observations to study the properties of the clouds over the entire area of the CNC (with a diameter of ≈3.2°, which corresponds to ≈125 pc at a distance of 2.3 kpc). The good angular resolution (10''-36'') of the Herschel maps corresponds to physical scales of 0.1-0.4 pc, and allows us to analyze the small-scale (i.e., clump-size) structures of the clouds. Methods: The full extent of the CNC was mapped with PACS and SPIRE in the 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm bands. We determined temperatures and column densities at each point in these maps by modeling the observed far-infrared spectral energy distributions. We also derived a map showing the strength of the UV radiation field. We investigated the relation between the cloud properties and the spatial distribution of the high-mass stars and computed total cloud masses for different density thresholds. Results: Our Herschel maps resolve for the first time the small-scale structure of the dense clouds over the entire spatial extent of the CNC. Several particularly interesting regions, including the prominent pillars south of η Car, are analyzed in detail. We compare the cloud masses derived from the Herschel data with previous mass estimates based on sub-mm and molecular line data. Our maps also reveal a peculiar wave-like pattern in the northern part of the Carina Nebula. Finally, we characterize two prominent cloud complexes at the periphery of our Herschel maps, which are probably molecular clouds in the Galactic background. Conclusions: We find that the

  8. A meta-structural understanding of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Maul, Andrew; Torres Irribarra, David; Wilson, Mark

    2016-11-01

    It is not always clear to what extent the logic and vocabulary of measurement as used in different scientific disciplines are mutually coherent, nor how measurement can be demarcated from, say, opinion. In recent decades there have been a number of attempts to provide necessary and/or sufficient sets of conditions for when measurement is achieved, usually in terms either of inputs (e.g., whether an evaluated property is a quantity), or outputs (e.g., whether a procedure assigns numbers according to a rule). We argue instead that the public trust attributed to measurement is best justified in terms of the structural features of the process rather than of its inputs or outputs.

  9. Investigation of detailed spatial structure of the Moscow urban heat island with application of the newest meteorological observations and regional climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Pavel, Konstantinov; Timofey, Samsonov

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, the network of metrological observation in Moscow megacity and its neighborhoods, forming the biggest urban agglomeration in Europe, was significantly extended. Several new weather stations and completely new dense network of air-quality monitoring appears during the last decade. In addition, several microwave meteorological profilers MTP 5, which are available to measure temperature at the heights from 0 to 1000 meters with 50-m resolution, were installed in the city and its surrounding. All these measurements allow revealing undiscovered features of Moscow urban climate and urban heat island (UHI). In our research, bases on this data, we covered several topics related to urban climatology: - Investigation of detailed spatial structure of Moscow UHI and its relationships with building features, such as land use and morphology of the street canyons, obtained by GIS-algorithms according (Samsonov et. al, 2015); - Investigation of three-dimensional structure of the UHI, including its vertical extend and influence on the stratification of the atmosphere, and three-dimensional structure of the urban heat island advection and urban heat plumes; - Application of the newest data for validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM, coupled with TEB urban scheme (Masson, 2000; Trusilova et. al., 2013), launched for Moscow region with 1-km spatial resolution. References: 1. Masson V. A. Physically-Based Scheme for the Urban Energy Budget in Atmospheric models. Bound. Layer Meteor. 2000. V. 94 (3). P. 357-397. 2. Trusilova K., Früh B., Brienen S., Walter A., Masson V., Pigeon G., Becker P. Implementation of an Urban Parameterization Scheme into the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. V. 52. P. 2296-2311. 3. Samsonov T.E., Konstantinov P.I., Varentsov M.I. Object-oriented approach to urban canyon analysis and its applications in meteorological modeling. Urban Climate. 2015. Vol. 13. P. 122-139.

  10. Structure in the Rotation Measure Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stil, J. M.; Taylor, A. R.; Sunstrum, C.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of structure in rotation measure (RM) across the sky based on the RM catalog of Taylor et al. is presented. Several resolved RM structures are identified with structure in the local interstellar medium, including radio loops I, II, and III, the Gum nebula, and the Orion-Eridanus superbubble. Structure functions (SFs) of RM are presented for selected areas, and maps of SF amplitude and slope across the sky are compared with Hα intensity and diffuse polarized intensity. RM variance on an angular scale of 1° is correlated with length of the line of sight through the Galaxy, with a contribution from local structures. The slope of the SFs is less concentrated to the Galactic plane and less correlated with length of the line of sight through the Galaxy, suggesting a more local origin for RM structure on angular scales ~10°. The RM variance is a factor of ~2 higher toward the South Galactic Pole than toward the North Galactic Pole, reflecting a more wide-spread asymmetry between the northern and southern Galactic hemispheres. Depolarization of diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission at latitudes <30° can be explained largely by Faraday dispersion related to small-scale variance in RM, but the errors allow a significant contribution from differential Faraday rotation along the line of sight.

  11. A dual resolution measurement based Monte Carlo simulation technique for detailed dose analysis of small volume organs in the skull base region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chi-Yuan; Tung, Chuan-Jung; Chao, Tsi-Chain; Lin, Mu-Han; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dose distribution of a skull base tumor and surrounding critical structures in response to high dose intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a dual resolution sandwich phantom. The measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) method (Lin et al., 2009) was adopted for the study. The major components of the MBMC technique involve (1) the BEAMnrc code for beam transport through the treatment head of a Varian 21EX linear accelerator, (2) the DOSXYZnrc code for patient dose simulation and (3) an EPID-measured efficiency map which describes non-uniform fluence distribution of the IMRS treatment beam. For the simulated case, five isocentric 6 MV photon beams were designed to deliver a total dose of 1200 cGy in two fractions to the skull base tumor. A sandwich phantom for the MBMC simulation was created based on the patient's CT scan of a skull base tumor [gross tumor volume (GTV)=8.4 cm3] near the right 8th cranial nerve. The phantom, consisted of a 1.2-cm thick skull base region, had a voxel resolution of 0.05×0.05×0.1 cm3 and was sandwiched in between 0.05×0.05×0.3 cm3 slices of a head phantom. A coarser 0.2×0.2×0.3 cm3 single resolution (SR) phantom was also created for comparison with the sandwich phantom. A particle history of 3×108 for each beam was used for simulations of both the SR and the sandwich phantoms to achieve a statistical uncertainty of <2%. Our study showed that the planning target volume (PTV) receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (VPTV95) was 96.9%, 96.7% and 99.9% for the TPS, SR, and sandwich phantom, respectively. The maximum and mean doses to large organs such as the PTV, brain stem, and parotid gland for the TPS, SR and sandwich MC simulations did not show any significant difference; however, significant dose differences were observed for very small structures like the right 8th cranial nerve, right cochlea, right malleus and right semicircular canal. Dose

  12. Measuring Structural Parameters Through Stacking Galaxy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yubin; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Peng; Wen, Zhang Zheng; Guo, Kexin; An, Fang Xia

    2016-12-01

    It remains challenging to detect the low surface brightness structures of faint high-z galaxies, which are key to understanding the structural evolution of galaxies. The technique of image stacking allows us to measure the averaged light profile beneath the detection limit and probe the extended structure of a group of galaxies. We carry out simulations to examine the recovery of the averaged surface brightness profile through stacking model Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images of a set of galaxies as functions of the Sérsic index (n), effective radius (R e) and axis ratio (AR). The Sérsic profile best fitting the radial profile of the stacked image is taken as the recovered profile, in comparison with the intrinsic mean profile of the model galaxies. Our results show that, in general, the structural parameters of the mean profile can be properly determined through stacking, though systematic biases need to be corrected when spreads of R e and AR are counted. We find that the Sérsic index is slightly overestimated and R e is underestimated at {AR}\\lt 0.5 because the stacked image appears to be more compact due to the presence of inclined galaxies; the spread of R e biases the stacked profile to have a higher Sérsic index. We stress that the measurements of structural parameters through stacking should take these biases into account. We estimate the biases in the recovered structural parameters from stacks of galaxies when the samples have distributions of {R}{{e}}, AR and n seen in local galaxies.

  13. Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

  14. Direct Measurement of Large, Diffuse, Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saif, Babak N.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee; Wyant, J. C.; Atkinson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is a well-established method for the measurement of diffuse objects in experimental mechanics. DSPIs are phase shifting interferometers. Three or four bucket temporal phase shifting algorithms are commonly used to provide phase shifting. These algorithms are sensitive to vibrations and can not be used to measure large optical structures far away from the interferometer. In this research a simultaneous phase shifted interferometer, PhaseCam product of 4D Technology Corporation in Tucson Arizona, is modified to be a Simultaneous phase shifted Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometer (SDSPI). Repeatability, dynamic range, and accuracy of the SDSPI are characterized by measuring a 5 cm x 5 cm carbon fiber coupon.

  15. Nearly complete rRNA genes from 371 Animalia: updated structure-based alignment and detailed phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, Jon; Craig, Catherine Waggoner; Yoder, Matthew J

    2012-09-01

    This study presents a manually constructed alignment of nearly complete rRNA genes from most animal clades (371 taxa from ~33 of the ~36 metazoan phyla), expanded from the 197 sequences in a previous study. This thorough, taxon-rich alignment, available at http://www.wsu.edu/~jmallatt/research/rRNAalignment.html and in the Dryad Repository (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1v62kr3q), is based rigidly on the secondary structure of the SSU and LSU rRNA molecules, and is annotated in detail, including labeling of the erroneous sequences (contaminants). The alignment can be used for future studies of the molecular evolution of rRNA. Here, we use it to explore if the larger number of sequences produces an improved phylogenetic tree of animal relationships. Disappointingly, the resolution did not improve, neither when the standard maximum-likelihood method was used, nor with more sophisticated methods that partitioned the rRNA into paired and unpaired sites (stem, loop, bulge, junction), or accounted for the evolution of the paired sites. For example, no doublet model of paired-site substitutions (16-state, 16A and 16B, 7A-F, or 6A-C models) corrected the placement of any rogue taxa or increased resolution. The following findings are from the simplest, standard, ML analysis. The 371-taxon tree only imperfectly supported the bilaterian clades of Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa, and this problem remained after 17 taxa with unstably positioned sequences were omitted from the analysis. The problem seems to stem from base-compositional heterogeneity across taxa and from an overrepresentation of highly divergent sequences among the newly added taxa (e.g., sequences from Cephalopoda, Rotifera, Acoela, and Myxozoa). The rogue taxa continue to concentrate in two locations in the rRNA tree: near the base of Arthropoda and of Bilateria. The approximately uncertain (AU) test refuted the monophyly of Mollusca and of Chordata, probably due to long-branch attraction of the highly

  16. Detailed measurements and shaping of gate profiles for microchannel-plate-based X-ray framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A.; Bell, P.M.; Abare, A. |; Bradley, D.K. |

    1994-10-03

    Gated, microchannel-plate-based (MCP) framing cameras are increasingly used worldwide for x-ray imaging of subnanosecond laser-plasma phenomena. Large dynamic range (> 1,000) measurements of gain profiles for gated microchannel plates (MCP) are presented. Temporal profiles are reconstructed for any point on the microstrip transmission line from data acquired over many shots with variable delay. No evidence for significant pulse distortion by voltage reflections at the ends of the microstrip is observed. The measured profiles compare well to predictions by a time-dependent discrete dynode model down to the 1% level. The calculations do overestimate the contrast further into the temporal wings. The role of electron transit time dispersion in limiting the minimum achievable gate duration is then investigated by using variable duration flattop gating pulses. A minimum gate duration of 50 ps is achieved with flattop gating, consistent with a fractional transit time spread of {approx} 15%.

  17. In-situ spatio-temporal measurements of the detailed substructure of the substorm current wedge and its evolution (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, C.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Rae, I. J.; Watt, C. E.; Murphy, K. R.; Wild, J. A.; Karlsson, T.; Mutel, R. L.; Owen, C. J.; Ergun, R.; Masson, A.; Donovan, E.; Frey, H. U.; Matzka, J.; Stolle, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The substorm current wedge (SCW) is a fundamental component of geomagnetic substorms. Models tend to describe the SCW as a simple line current flowing into the ionosphere towards dawn and out of the ionosphere towards dusk, linked by a westward electrojet. We use multi-spacecraft observations from perigee passes of the Cluster 1 and 4 spacecraft during a substorm on 15 Jan 2010, in conjunction with ground-based observations, to examine the spatial structuring and temporal variability of the SCW. At this time, the spacecraft travelled east-west azimuthally above the auroral region. We show that the SCW has significant azimuthal sub-structure on scales of 100s km at altitudes of 4,000-7,000 km. We identify 26 individual current sheets in the Cluster 4 data and 34 individual current sheets in the Cluster 1 data, with Cluster 1 passing through the SCW 120-240 s after Cluster 4 at 1,300-2,000 km higher altitude. Both spacecraft observed large-scale regions of net upward and downward field-aligned current, consistent with the large-scale characteristics of the SCW, although sheets of oppositely directed currents were observed within both regions. We show that the majority of these current sheets were closely aligned to a north-south direction, in contrast to the expected east-west orientation of the pre-onset aurora. Comparing our results with observations of the field-aligned current associated with bursty bulk flows (BBFs) we conclude that the structuring of the SCW cannot solely be due to BBF driven "wedgelets". Our results therefore represent constraints on future modeling and theoretical frameworks on the generation of the SCW.

  18. Detailed measurements of local heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic wall temperature beneath an array of impinging jets

    SciTech Connect

    Van Treuren, K.W.; Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Jones, T.V. . Dept. of Engineering Science)

    1994-07-01

    A transient method of measuring the local heat transfer under an array of impinging jets has been developed. The use of a temperature-sensitive coating consisting of three encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystal materials has allowed the calculation of both the local adiabatic wall temperature and the local heat transfer coefficient over the complete surface of the target plate. The influence of the temperature of the plate through which the impingment gas flows on the target plate heat transfer has been quantified. Results are presented for a single in-line array configuration over a range of jet Reynolds numbers.

  19. Detailed beam and plasma measurements on the vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) Penning H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.

    2016-02-01

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) is operational at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). This project supports and guides the overall ion source R&D effort for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at RAL. The VESPA produces 100 mA of pulsed H- beam, but perveance scans indicate that the source is production-limited at extraction voltages above 12 kV unless the arc current is increased. A high resolution optical monochromator is used to measure plasma properties using argon as a diagnostic gas. The atomic hydrogen temperature increases linearly with arc current, up to 2.8 eV for 50 A; whereas the electron temperature has a slight linear decrease toward 2.2 eV. The gas density is 1021 m-3, whilst the electron density is two orders of magnitude lower. Densities follow square root relationships with arc current, with gas density decreasing whilst electron (and hence ion) density increases. Stopping and range of ions in matter calculations prove that operating a high current arc with an argon admixture is extremely difficult because cathode-coated cesium is heavily sputtered by argon.

  20. Towards detailed knowledge of atomic nuclei—the past, present and future of nuclear structure investigations at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Wollersheim, H. J.

    2016-10-01

    Selected experimental nuclear structure physics results are presented which have been obtained at GSI since the mid 70ties employing the UNILAC and the SIS/FRS accelerator facility. It is shown how stable heavy-ion beams as well as radioactive isotope beams of this facility together with state-of-the-art instrumentation produced many discoveries and led to a multitude of important results covering many aspects of nuclear structure. Finally, we discuss the future directions of nuclear structure research at GSI with the FAIR/NUSTAR project.

  1. The use of ultraviolet Thomson scattering as a versatile diagnostic for detailed measurements of a collisional laser produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Mark David

    1993-01-08

    Collective Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic waves at 266nm is used to obtain spatially resolved, two-dimensional electron density, sound speed, and radial drift profiles of a collisional laser plasma. An ultraviolet diagnostic wavelength minimizes the complicating effects of inverse bremsstrahlung and refractive turning in the coronal region of interest, where the electron densities approach nc/10. Laser plasmas of this type are important because they model some of the aspects of the plasmas found in high-gain laser-fusion pellets irradiated by long pulse widths where the laser light is absorbed mostly in the corona. The experimental results and LASNEX simulations agree within a percent standard deviation of 40% for the electron density and 50% for the sound speed and radial drift velocity. Thus it is shown that the hydrodynamics equations with classical coefficients and the numerical approximations in LASNEX are valid models of laser-heated, highly collisional plasmas. The versatility of Thomson scattering is expanded upon by extending existing theory with a Fokker-Planck based model to include plasmas that are characterized by (0 ≤ kiaλii ≤ ∞) and ZTe/Ti, where kia is the ion- acoustic wave number, λii is the ion-ion mean free path, Z is the ionization state of the plasma, and Te. Ti are the electron and ion temperatures in electron volts respectively. The model is valid for plasmas in which the electrons are approximately collisionless, (kiaλei, kiaλee ≥ 1), and quasineutrality holds, (α ≥1), where α = 1/kλDE and λDe is the electron Debye length. This newly developed model predicts the lineshape of the ion-acoustic Thomson spectra and when fit to experimental data provides a direct measurement of the relative thermal flow velocity between the electrons and ions.

  2. Measurement of surface scratches on aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    In assuring the quality of aircraft, the skin quality must be free of surface imperfections. Surface imperfections such as scratches are unacceptable for cosmetic and structural reasons. Scratches beyond a certain depth are not repairable, resulting in costly replacement of an aircraft's part. Measurements of aircraft exterior surfaces require a ladder or cherry picker for positioning the inspector. Commercially-available computer vision systems are not portable, easy to use, or ergonomic. The machine vision system must be designed with these criteria in mind. The scratch measurement system (SMS) uses computer vision, digital signal processing, and automated inspection methods. The system is portable and battery powered. It is certified for measuring the depth and width of the anomaly. The SMS provides a comprehensive, analytical, and accurate reading. A hardcopy output provides a permanent record of the analysis. The graphical data shows the surface profile and provides substantial information of the surface anomaly. The factory and flight line use the SMS at different stages of aircraft production. Six systems have been built for use within Boeing. A patent was issued for the SMS in February 1994.

  3. Implications of Model Structure and Detail for Utility Planning: Scenario Case Studies Using the Resource Planning Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Barrows, Clayton; Lopez, Anthony; Hale, Elaine; Dyson, Mark; Eurek, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    In this report, we analyze the impacts of model configuration and detail in capacity expansion models, computational tools used by utility planners looking to find the least cost option for planning the system and by researchers or policy makers attempting to understand the effects of various policy implementations. The present analysis focuses on the importance of model configurations — particularly those related to capacity credit, dispatch modeling, and transmission modeling — to the construction of scenario futures. Our analysis is primarily directed toward advanced tools used for utility planning and is focused on those impacts that are most relevant to decisions with respect to future renewable capacity deployment. To serve this purpose, we develop and employ the NREL Resource Planning Model to conduct a case study analysis that explores 12 separate capacity expansion scenarios of the Western Interconnection through 2030.

  4. Predicted 3D structures of olfactory receptors with details of odorant binding to OR1G1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Goddard, William A.

    2014-12-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are responsible for mediating the sense of smell; they allow humans to recognize an enormous number of odors but the connection between binding and perception is not known. We predict the ensemble of low energy structures for the human OR1G1 (hOR1G1) and also for six other diverse ORs, using the G protein-coupled receptor Ensemble of Structures in Membrane BiLayer Environment complete sampling method that samples 13 trillion different rotations and tilts using four different templates to predict the 24 structures likely to be important in binding and activation. Our predicted most stable structures of hOR1G1 have a salt-bridge between the conserved D3.49 and K6.30 in the D(E)RY region, that we expect to be associated with an inactive form. The hOR1G1 structure also has specific interaction in transmembrane domains (TMD) 3-6 (E3.39 and H6.40), which is likely an important conformational feature for all hORs because of the 94 to 98 % conservation among all hOR sequences. Of the five ligands studied (nonanal, 9-decen-1-ol, 1-nonanol, camphor, and n-butanal), we find that the 4 expected to bind lead to similar binding energies with nonanol the strongest.

  5. 10. DETAIL, CAB SIDE. DETAIL, END OF BOOM. DETAIL, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL, CAB SIDE. DETAIL, END OF BOOM. DETAIL, LOWER PART OF TOWER, SHOWING METAL WHEELS AND CABLE SPOOLS. DETAIL, LOOKING UP AT THE UNDERSIDE OF THE REVOLVING PLATFORM ATOP THE TOWER. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  6. Structural Imaging Measures of Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    During the course of normal aging, biological changes occur in the brain that are associated with changes in cognitive ability. This review presents data from neuroimaging studies of primarily “normal” or healthy brain aging. As such, we focus on research in unimpaired or nondemented older adults, but also include findings from lifespan studies that include younger and middle aged individuals as well as from populations with prodromal or clinically symptomatic disease such as cerebrovascular or Alzheimer’s disease. This review predominantly addresses structural MRI biomarkers, such as volumetric or thickness measures from anatomical images, and measures of white matter injury and integrity respectively from FLAIR or DTI, and includes complementary data from PET and cognitive or clinical testing as appropriate. The findings reveal highly consistent age-related differences in brain structure, particularly frontal lobe and medial temporal regions that are also accompanied by age-related differences in frontal and medial temporal lobe mediated cognitive abilities. Newer findings also suggest that degeneration of specific white matter tracts such as those passing through the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum may also be related to age-related differences in cognitive performance. Interpretation of these findings, however, must be tempered by the fact that comorbid diseases such as cerebrovascular and Alzheimer’s disease also increase in prevalence with advancing age. As such, this review discusses challenges related to interpretation of current theories of cognitive aging in light of the common occurrence of these later-life diseases. Understanding the differences between “Normal” and “Healthy” brain aging and identifying potential modifiable risk factors for brain aging is critical to inform potential treatments to stall or reverse the effects of brain aging and possibly extend cognitive health for our aging society. PMID:25146995

  7. Structural outline of the detailed mechanism for elongation factor Ts-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange on elongation factor Tu.

    PubMed

    Thirup, Søren S; Van, Lan Bich; Nielsen, Tine K; Knudsen, Charlotte R

    2015-07-01

    Translation elongation factor EF-Tu belongs to the superfamily of guanine-nucleotide binding proteins, which play key cellular roles as regulatory switches. All G-proteins require activation via exchange of GDP for GTP to carry out their respective tasks. Often, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors are essential to this process. During translation, EF-Tu:GTP transports aminoacylated tRNA to the ribosome. GTP is hydrolyzed during this process, and subsequent reactivation of EF-Tu is catalyzed by EF-Ts. The reaction path of guanine-nucleotide exchange is structurally poorly defined for EF-Tu and EF-Ts. We have determined the crystal structures of the following reaction intermediates: two structures of EF-Tu:GDP:EF-Ts (2.2 and 1.8Å resolution), EF-Tu:PO4:EF-Ts (1.9Å resolution), EF-Tu:GDPNP:EF-Ts (2.2Å resolution) and EF-Tu:GDPNP:pulvomycin:Mg(2+):EF-Ts (3.5Å resolution). These structures provide snapshots throughout the entire exchange reaction and suggest a mechanism for the release of EF-Tu in its GTP conformation. An inferred sequence of events during the exchange reaction is presented.

  8. Greenland annual accumulation along the EGIG line, 1959-2004, from ASIRAS airborne radar and detailed neutron-probe density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overly, T. B.; Hawley, R. L.; Helm, V.; Morris, E. M.; Chaudhary, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    We report annual snow accumulation rates from 1959 to 2004 along a 250 km segment of the Expéditions Glaciologiques Internationales au Groenland (EGIG) line across central Greenland using Airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) radar layers and detailed neutron-probe (NP) density profiles. ASIRAS-NP accumulation rates are not statistically different (C.I. 95 %) from in situ EGIG accumulation measurements from 1985 to 2004. Below 3000 m elevation, ASIRAS-NP increases by 20 % for the period 1995 to 2004 compared to 1985 to 1994. Above 3000 m elevation, accumulation increases by 13 % for 1995-2004 compared to 1985-1994. Model snow accumulation results from the calibrated Fifth Generation Mesoscale Model modified for polar climates (Polar MM5) underestimate mean annual accumulation by 16 % compared to ASIRAS-NP from 1985 to 2004. We test radar-derived accumulation rates sensitivity to density using modelled density profiles in place of detailed NP data. ASIRAS radar layers combined with Herron and Langway (1980) model density profiles (ASIRAS-HL) produce accumulation rates within 3.5 % of ASIRAS-NP estimates. We suggest using Herron and Langway (1980) density profiles to calibrate radar layers detected in dry snow regions of ice sheets lacking detailed in situ density measurements, such as those observed by the IceBridge campaign.

  9. Thermodynamics and Interior Structure Measurements of Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, S.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Bills, B. G.; Castillo, J. C.; Choukroun, M.; Jackson, J. M.; Kedar, S.; Tsai, V. C.

    2015-12-01

    Extending thermodynamics of aqueous solutions to elevated salinity and pressure is key to understanding icy moon oceans. Such a project is intrinsically linked to future seismic investigations, which would offer the most comprehensive views into the deep interiors of planetary bodies. The InSight Mars mission and Europa Lander mission concept both identify seismology as a critical measurement to constrain interior structure and thermal state of astrobiological targets. By pinpointing the radial depths of compositional interfaces, seismology in a broad frequency range can address uncertainty in interior structures inferred from gravity and magnetometry studies, such as those planned for the NASA's Europa and ESA's JUICE missions. Seismology also offers information about fluid motions within or beneath ice, which complement magnetic studies; and can record the dynamics of ice layers, which would reveal mechanisms and spatiotemporal occurrence of crack formation and propagation. Investigating these in the future calls for detailed modeling of seismic sources and signatures. Thermodynamic measurements of sound velocities and elastic moduli can provide needed seismic model inputs, as well as associated densities, thermal expansion, heat capacities, and chemical potentials for modeling interior structure. Sound speed profiles built from our internal structure models for Ganymede (Vance et al. 2014), using thermodynamically consistent data (Shaw 1986, Vance and Brown 2013) point to needed research, both in developing thermodynamic data from new laboratory measurements and applying them to problems in planetary geophysics. Comparing these profiles with simulated electrical conductivities of MgSO4 along the geotherms illustrates how dual seismology-magnetometry investigations can infer ocean density structure and salinity. Electrical conductivities are based on measurements by Larionov (1984) and Huang and Papangelakis (2006), and extrapolation to 273 K by Hand and Chyba

  10. Inferring electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensity from low altitude POES proton flux measurements: A detailed case study with conjugate Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Shi, Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu, Xudong; Zhang, Xianguo; Zuo, Pingbing; Fu, Song; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Cao, Xing; Zou, Zhengyang

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the magnetospheric particle dynamics and can lead to resonant pitch-angle scattering and ultimate precipitation of ring current protons. Commonly, the statistics of in situ EMIC wave measurements is adopted for quantitative investigation of wave-particle interaction processes, which however becomes questionable for detailed case studies especially during geomagnetic storms and substorms. Here we establish a novel technique to infer EMIC wave amplitudes from low-altitude proton measurements onboard the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). The detailed procedure is elaborated regarding how to infer the EMIC wave intensity for one specific time point. We then test the technique with a case study comparing the inferred root-mean-square (RMS) EMIC wave amplitude with the conjugate Van Allen Probes EMFISIS wave measurements. Our results suggest that the developed technique can reasonably estimate EMIC wave intensities from low-altitude POES proton flux data, thereby providing a useful tool to construct a data-based, near-real-time, dynamic model of the global distribution of EMIC waves once the proton flux measurements from multiple POES satellites are available for any specific time period.

  11. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  12. Detailed structural study of β-artemether: Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of Infrared, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrational circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jianchao; Li, Linwei; Zhou, Zhixu; Geng, Yiding; Sun, Tiemin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical studies on the structure of β-artemether are presented. The optimized molecular structure, Mulliken atomic charges, vibrational spectra (IR, Raman and vibrational circular dichroism), and molecular electrostatic potential have been calculated by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method with the 6-311++G (2d, p) basis set. Reliable vibrational assignments for Artemether have been made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) has been explored by ab initio calculations, and then was used to compare with the experimental VCD. The consistence between them confirmed the absolute configuration of Artemether. In addition, HOMO-LUMO of the title compound as well as thermo-dynamical parameters has illustrated the stability of β-artemether.

  13. The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor acetylenes - A detailed investigation of structure-property relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, A. E.; Graham, Eva; Khundkar, Lutfur R.; Perry, Joseph W.; Cheng, L.-T.; Perry, Kelly J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of donor-acceptor acetylene compounds was synthesized in which systematic changes in both the conjugation length and the donor-acceptor strength were made. The effect of these structural changes on the spectroscopic and electronic properties of the molecules and, ultimately, on the measured second-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities (beta) was investigated. It was found that increases in the donor-acceptor strength resulted in increases in the magnitude of beta. For this class of molecules, the increase is dominated by the energy of the intramolecular charge-transfer transition, while factors such as the ground to excited-state dipole moment change and the transition-moment integral are much less important. Increasing the conjugation length from one to two acetylene linkers did not result in an increase in the value of beta; however, beta increased sharply in going from two acetylenes to three. This increase is attributed to the superposition of several nearly isoenergetic excited states.

  14. SMS crew station (C and D panels and forward structures). CEI part 1: Detail specification, type 1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Established are the requirements for performance, design, test and qualification of one type of equipment identified as SMS C&D panels and forward structures. This CEI is used to provide all hardware and wiring necessary for the C&D panels to be properly interfaced with the computer complex/signal conversion equipment (SCE), crew station, and software requirements as defined in other CEI specifications.

  15. Detailed Relationship Between Local Structure Polarons and Magnetization for La1-xCaxMnO3 (0.21 lt x lt 0.45)

    SciTech Connect

    F Bridges; L Downward; J Neumeier; T Tyson

    2011-12-31

    We present detailed local structure measurements (using the extended x-ray absorption fine structure technique) for the colossal magnetoresistive material La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (0.21 < x < 0.45) as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The local distortions of the Mn-O bonds are parameterized using {sigma}, the width of the Mn-O pair-distribution function (PDF). After subtracting thermal phonon contributions, we show that the contributions to {sigma}{sup 2} from polaron and Jahn-Teller (JT) distortions, {sigma}{sub JT/polaron}{sup 2}, are a universal function of the magnetization, independent of how the magnetization is achieved via changes in temperature or magnetic field. However this universal behavior is only observed for B fields {ge} 2 T, likely as a result of domain canting in low B fields. The resulting curve is well described by two straight lines with significantly different slopes. These regimes represent two distinctly differ distortions of the oxygen octahedra about the Mn. For low magnetizations up to {approx}65% of the theoretical maximum magnetization, M{sub T}, the slope is low and the distortion removed as the sample becomes magnetized is small - we argue this arises from polarons which have a low distortion around two (or possibly three) Mn sites. At high magnetizations large distortions per Mn site are removed as these sites become magnetized. The data are also analyzed in terms of a two Mn-O peak distribution using experimental standards for Mn-O. The results agree well with recent neutron PDF results but not with some earlier results. We discuss the limitations of assuming a two peak distribution in view of the two distortions needed to describe the Mn-O distortions as a function of T and B for B {ge} 2 T. It is likely that there is a distribution of longer bonds. Finally we show that with increasing B field, the Mn-Mn peak also has a small B-field-induced change - a measure at the unit cell level of magnetostriction but find

  16. Micro- and nano-structural details of a spider's filter for substrate vibrations: relevance for low-frequency signal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Erko, Maxim; Younes-Metzler, Osnat; Rack, Alexander; Zaslansky, Paul; Young, Seth L.; Milliron, Garrett; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Barth, Friedrich G.; Fratzl, Peter; Tsukruk, Vladimir; Zlotnikov, Igor; Politi, Yael

    2015-01-01

    The metatarsal lyriform organ of the Central American wandering spider Cupiennius salei is its most sensitive vibration detector. It is able to sense a wide range of vibration stimuli over four orders of magnitude in frequency between at least as low as 0.1 Hz and several kilohertz. Transmission of the vibrations to the slit organ is controlled by a cuticular pad in front of it. While the mechanism of high-frequency stimulus transfer (above ca 40 Hz) is well understood and related to the viscoelastic properties of the pad's epicuticle, it is not yet clear how low-frequency stimuli (less than 40 Hz) are transmitted. Here, we study how the pad material affects the pad's mechanical properties and thus its role in the transfer of the stimulus, using a variety of experimental techniques, such as X-ray micro-computed tomography for three-dimensional imaging, X-ray scattering for structural analysis, and atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for surface imaging. The mechanical properties were investigated using scanning acoustic microscopy and nanoindentation. We show that large tarsal deflections cause large deformation in the distal highly hydrated part of the pad. Beyond this region, a sclerotized region serves as a supporting frame which resists the deformation and is displaced to push against the slits, with displacement values considerably scaled down to only a few micrometres. Unravelling the structural arrangement in such specialized structures may provide conceptual ideas for the design of new materials capable of controlling a technical sensor's specificity and selectivity, which is so typical of biological sensors. PMID:25631567

  17. Properties of sesame oil by detailed 1H and 13C NMR assignments before and after ozonation and their correlation with iodine value, peroxide value, and viscosity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sega, Alessandro; Zanardi, Iacopo; Chiasserini, Luisa; Gabbrielli, Alessandro; Bocci, Velio; Travagli, Valter

    2010-02-01

    Gaseous ozone chemically reacts with unsaturated triglyceride substrates leading to ozonated derivatives with a wide potential applications, ranging from the petrochemical to the pharmaceutical industry. To date, an ultimate understanding of the ozone reactivity during sesame oil ozonation process as well as detailed (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments are lacking. A practical advantage of NMR is that a single NMR sample measurement can explain many issues, while similar analysis by traditional methods may require several independent and time-consuming measurements. Moreover, significant relationships among NMR spectra and both conventional chemical analysis and viscosity measurements have been found. Eventually, NMR could play an important role for quality attributes of ozonated oil derivatives.

  18. Structural Details of Ufd1 Binding to p97 and Their Functional Implications in ER-Associated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Le, Oanh Thi Tu; Lee, Sang Yoon; Yang, Jin Kuk

    2016-01-01

    The hexameric ATPase p97 has been implicated in diverse cellular processes through interactions with many different adaptor proteins at its N-terminal domain. Among these, the Ufd1-Npl4 heterodimer is a major adaptor, and the p97-Ufd1-Npl4 complex plays an essential role in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), acting as a segregase that translocates the ubiquitinated client protein from the ER membrane into the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. We determined the crystal structure of the complex of the N-terminal domain of p97 and the SHP box of Ufd1 at a resolution of 1.55 Å. The 11-residue-long SHP box of Ufd1 binds at the far-most side of the Nc lobe of the p97 N domain primarily through hydrophobic interactions, such that F225, F228, N233 and L235 of the SHP box contact hydrophobic residues on the surface of the p97 Nc lobe. Mutating these key interface residues abolished the interactions in two different binding experiments, isothermal titration calorimetry and co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, cycloheximide chase assays showed that these same mutations caused accumulation of tyrosinase-C89R, a well-known ERAD substrate, thus implying decreased rate of protein degradation due to their defects in ERAD function. Together, these results provide structural and biochemical insights into the interaction between p97 N domain and Ufd1 SHP box. PMID:27684549

  19. Structure and mutational analysis of the PhoN protein of Salmonella typhimurium provide insight into mechanistic details.

    PubMed

    Makde, Ravindra D; Mahajan, Suresh K; Kumar, Vinay

    2007-02-27

    The Salmonella typhimurium PhoN protein is a nonspecific acid phosphatase and belongs to the phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 (PAP2) superfamily. We report here the crystal structures of phosphate-bound PhoN, the PhoN-tungstate complex, and the T159D mutant of PhoN along with functional characterization of three mutants: L39T, T159D, and D201N. Invariant active site residues, Lys-123, Arg-130, Ser-156, Gly-157, His-158, and Arg-191, interact with phosphate and tungstate oxyanions. Ser-156 also accepts a hydrogen bond from Thr-159. The T159D mutation, surprisingly, severely diminishes phosphatase activity, apparently by disturbing the active site scaffold: Arg-191 is swung out of the active site resulting in conformational changes in His-158 and His-197 residues. Our results reveal a hitherto unknown functional role of Arg-191, namely, restricting the active conformation of catalytic His-158 and His-197 residues. Consistent with the conserved nature of Asp-201 in the PAP2 superfamily, the D201N mutation completely abolished phosphatase activity. On the basis of this observation and in silico analysis we suggest that the crucial mechanistic role of Asp-201 is to stabilize the positive charge on the phosphohistidine intermediate generated by the transfer of phosphoryl to the nucleophile, His-197, located within hydrogen bond distance to the invariant Asp-201. This is in contrast to earlier suggestions that Asp-201 stabilizes His-197 and the His197-Asp201 dyad facilitates formation of the phosphoenzyme intermediate through a charge-relay system. Finally, the L39T mutation in the conserved polyproline motif (39LPPPP43) of dimeric PhoN leads to a marginal reduction in activity, in contrast to the nearly 50-fold reduction observed for monomeric Prevotella intermedia acid phosphatase, suggesting that the varying quaternary structure of PhoN orthologues may have functional significance.

  20. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal scalar structure of a turbulent plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimaldi, J. P.; Koseff, J. R.

    Two techniques are described for measuring the scalar structure of turbulent flows. A planar laser-induced fluorescence technique is used to make highly resolved measurements of scalar spatial structure, and a single-point laser-induced fluorescence probe is used to make highly resolved measurements of scalar temporal structure. The techniques are used to measure the spatial and temporal structure of an odor plume released from a low-momentum, bed-level source in a turbulent boundary layer. For the experimental setup used in this study, a spatial resolution of 150μm and a temporal resolution of 1,000Hz are obtained. The results show a wide range of turbulent structures in rich detail; the nature of the structure varies significantly in different regions of the plume.

  1. Detailed crustal structure in the area of the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Koulakov, I.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new seismic velocity model for the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border region with the aim to better define the crustal structures at the northern edge of the Ionian subduction zone. This sector also includes the Pollino Mts. area, where a seismic sequence of thousands of small to moderate earthquakes has been recorded between spring 2010 and 2013. In this sector a seismic gap was previously hypothesized by paleoseismological evidences associated with the lack of major earthquakes in historical catalogs. To perform the tomographic inversion we selected ca. 3600 earthquakes that have occurred in the last thirty years and recorded by permanent and temporary networks managed by INGV and Calabria University. Using for the first time the Local Tomography Software for passive tomography inversion (LOTOS hereinafter) to crustal analysis in southern Italy, we have computed the distribution of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio. The obtained velocity model, jointly evaluated with results of synthetic modeling, as well as with the hypocenter distribution and geological information, gives us new constraints on the geodynamical and structural knowledge of the study area. The comparison between the shallow tomography sections and surface geology shows good correlation between velocity patterns and the main geological features of the study area. In the upper crust a low-velocity anomaly of P- and S-waves is detectable beneath the Pollino Mts. area and seems to separate the Calabrian and southern Apennines domains, characterized by higher velocities. The distributions of high Vp/Vs ratio, representing strongly fractured rocks with likely high fluid content, clearly correlate with areas of significant seismicity. In the lower crust we detect a clear transition from high to low seismic velocities in correspondence with the Tyrrhenian coast of the study area, which may represent the transition from the thinner Tyrrhenian crust to the thicker one beneath Calabria. In this

  2. The GEISEIR Cruise: Detailed Investigation of the Southeast Indian Ridge Seeking for a Geochemical Scan of the Upper Mantle Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemond, C.; Albarede, F.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic heterogeneities along mid-ocean ridges reflect the dynamics of the underlying mantle. Present studies on the Mid Atlantic Ridge obtained on a 50 km step sampling (nearly 500 isotopic analyses of Pb, Nd, Hf and Sr) have revealed that they are dominated by a range of wavelengths between 600 and 5 000 km, which we interpret as reflecting the stretching and refolding of ancient lithospheric plates by mantle convection. It is time to go back to the ridges to deepen our knowledge of the fine mantle source structure underneath them. Graham and Lyon coworkers (2006) recently discovered that, along the South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR), Hf isotope compositions of MORB toggle over some 3000 km between two groups of values separated by a prominent gap. We interpret this pattern as reflecting the presence of striations between isotopically distinct mantle sources. The cumulated number of "toggles" is proportional to the distance along the ridge, which demonstrates the Poissonian character of the striation occurrences (random mixing). This GEISEIR cruise aims at further exploring the hypothesis that the unique isotopic patterns observed along the SEIR reveal striations between ancient mantle sources and recycled material. The isotopic analysis of the 150 samples recovered by the cruises Boomerang 6 and Westward 10 between St Paul and the Australia- Antarctica Discordance is completed. We consider, however, that the present sampling (roughly at a 50 km step) is too crude for an efficient spectral analysis of the data set. In order to improve this, the GEISEIR cruise will allow us to fill up a few existing gaps at 50 km intervals between 82 et 89° E but also to sample the ridge with a step of 10 km between 89° et 96° E and a step of 5 km between 96 and 99° E. This will allow us to obtain statistical distributions for isotope compositions and to assess the effect of sample density by a local decimation of the data. This cruise is scheduled for January-February 2009 on

  3. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  4. Detailed quantification of delta subsidence, compaction and interaction with man-made structures: the case of the NCA airport, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, O.; Sladen, A.; Kelner, M.

    2015-06-01

    River deltas are dynamic costal systems and their evolutions are closely monitored as it often concentrates vital natural resources for the surrounding areas. Many deltas, worldwide, experience subsidence due to geological processes (sediment loading and compaction) or human activities (groundwater or hydrocarbon extraction, land reclamation). This causes shoreline erosion or wetland loss which represent serious issues for the population. In this study, we investigate the dynamic of the Var delta (France) where reclaimed lands over sea have been built to host the Nice côte d'Azur airport (NCA). Actually, the stability of this infrastructure is a permanent concern since, in 1979, a newly built extension of the runway platform collapsed in the sea, causing important damages. The project of land extension stopped, but the present airport platform is still located on reclaimed land. Factors that can trigger such catastrophic landslide are thought to be linked to the delta activity and the artificial airport platform load. We used, therefore, Envisat InSAR data to measure accurately the ground deformation of the area that includes the Var delta and NCA airport. Combining data from ascending and descending orbits, we estimated the east-west and vertical components of the deformation and obtained very accurate displacement rate (with a 1σ error of 0.25 mm yr-1). We found that nearly all the deformation is vertical and impacts the whole Var delta. The Var valley subsides at a very low rate (0.5-1 mm yr-1) but downstream the subsidence rate increases and a clear jump is observed at the transition with the reclaimed lands (1-2 mm yr-1). On average, the reclaimed lands subside at 3 mm yr-1. Since the subsidence rate increases in correlation with the sediment thickness, we interpret it as the compaction of the delta quaternary sedimentary wedge. In addition, three areas subsides faster (between 5 and 10 mm yr-1), with one calling for more attention as it is the largest and

  5. Detailed quantification of delta subsidence, compaction and interaction with man-made structures: the case of the NCA airport, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, O.; Sladen, A.; Kelner, M.

    2015-09-01

    River deltas are dynamic coastal systems and their evolutions are closely monitored as it often concentrates vital natural resources for the surrounding areas. Many deltas worldwide experience subsidence due to geological processes (sediment loading and compaction) or human activities (groundwater or hydrocarbon extraction, land reclamation). This causes shoreline erosion or wetland loss which represent serious issues for the population. In this study we investigate the dynamic of the Var delta (France) where reclaimed lands over sea have been built to host the Nice côte d'Azur airport (NCA). Actually, the stability of this infrastructure is a permanent concern since, in 1979, a newly built extension of the runway platform collapsed in the sea, causing important damages. The project of land extension stopped, but the present airport platform is still located on reclaimed land. Factors that can trigger such catastrophic landslide are thought to be linked to the delta activity and the artificial airport platform load. We used, therefore, Envisat InSAR data to measure accurately the ground deformation of the area that includes the Var delta and NCA airport. Combining data from ascending and descending orbits, we estimated the east-west and vertical components of the deformation and obtained very accurate displacement rate (with a 1σ error of 0.25 mm yr-1). We found that nearly all the deformation is vertical and impacts the whole Var delta. The Var valley subsides at a very low rate (0.5-1 mm yr-1) but downstream the subsidence rate increases and a clear jump is observed at the transition with the reclaimed lands (1-2 mm yr-1). On average, the reclaimed lands subside at 3 mm yr-1. Since the subsidence rate increases in correlation with the sediment thickness, we interpret it as the compaction of the delta quaternary sedimentary wedge. In addition, three areas subside faster (between 5 and 10 mm yr-1), with one calling for more attention as it is the largest and

  6. Validity of Structure, Coherence, and Quality Measures in Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Sharon L.; Fitzgerald, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Investigates convergent and divergent validity of inferences from selected measures of structure, coherence, and quality for compositions. Finds (1) strong support for validity of inferences from the structure measures, serious questions of inferences from coherence measures, and weak support for quality measures; (2) some evidence for the…

  7. Measurement Systems Viewed as Cognitive Structures. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, William H.

    This report contains a variety of material. There is first a brief summary of work done under the contract. This is followed by a detailed outline of a graduate seminar entitled "Modern Topics in Measurement and Scaling III." The six major divisions are: (1) introduction and philosophy of measurement; (2) mathematical and axiomatic foundations of…

  8. Detailed film cooling effectiveness and three component velocity field measurements on a first stage turbine vane subject to high freestream turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanka, Marcus Damian

    1999-11-01

    This experimental program studied the effects of high freestream turbulence on film cooling for a turbine vane. This investigation focussed on the showerhead and pressure surface of an airfoil. An emphasis of this study was to acquire highly detailed film cooling effectiveness and velocity measurements in the showerhead region. Acquisition of both pieces of information resulted in detailed knowledge of the physics involved in the interaction of the coolant jets and the freestream flow in this region of an airfoil. By generating a 18% turbulence level at the leading edge of the airfoil, the impact of elevated freestream turbulence was also studied. Of further interest was the affect of a highly turbulent flow resulting from both the freestream flow as well as that generated from the showerhead jets themselves, further downstream. The impact of this turbulent approach flow will have significant consequence on downstream film cooling designs. In order to achieve the desired goals, modification to the existing closed loop wind tunnel facility was required. The new tunnel consisted of a test section containing a center, instrumented airfoil with inner and outer walls positioned to match the flow parameters around the center airfoil. The center airfoil was built at a nine times scale ratio. In utilizing this large scale vane and still matching the engine conditions, a better understanding of leading edge film cooling was gained. This was a result of the high spatial resolution of the flow field gained from the large scale of the airfoil. This benefited both the Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system for velocity measurements and the infrared camera used for thermal field measurements. High effectiveness levels were measured throughout the showerhead region. This was attributed to a build up of coolant along the span of the airfoil. The introduction of a high freestream turbulence level increased the uniformity at the expense of lower overall effectiveness levels

  9. MEASURING DETAILED CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES FROM CO-ADDED MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. I. TESTS USING MILKY WAY DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Lei; Peng, Eric W.; Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2013-05-01

    The ability to measure metallicities and {alpha}-element abundances in individual red giant branch (RGB) stars using medium-resolution spectra (R Almost-Equal-To 6000) is a valuable tool for deciphering the nature of Milky Way dwarf satellites and the history of the Galactic halo. Extending such studies to more distant systems like Andromeda is beyond the ability of the current generation of telescopes, but by co-adding the spectra of similar stars, we can attain the necessary signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to make detailed abundance measurements. In this paper, we present a method to determine metallicities and {alpha}-element abundances using the co-addition of medium-resolution spectra. We test the method of spectral co-addition using high-S/N spectra of more than 1300 RGB stars from Milky Way globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies obtained with the Keck II telescope/DEIMOS spectrograph. We group similar stars using photometric criteria and compare the weighted ensemble average abundances ([Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]) of individual stars in each group with the measurements made on the corresponding co-added spectrum. We find a high level of agreement between the two methods, which permits us to apply this co-added spectra technique to more distant RGB stars, like stars in the M31 satellite galaxies. This paper outlines our spectral co-addition and abundance measurement methodology and describes the potential biases in making these measurements.

  10. Structural measures to track the evolution of SNOMED CT hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Duo; Helen Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Ochs, Christopher; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is an extensive reference terminology with an attendant amount of complexity. It has been updated continuously and revisions have been released semi-annually to meet users' needs and to reflect the results of quality assurance (QA) activities. Two measures based on structural features are proposed to track the effects of both natural terminology growth and QA activities based on aspects of the complexity of SNOMED CT. These two measures, called the structural density measure and accumulated structural measure, are derived based on two abstraction networks, the area taxonomy and the partial-area taxonomy. The measures derive from attribute relationship distributions and various concept groupings that are associated with the abstraction networks. They are used to track the trends in the complexity of structures as SNOMED CT changes over time. The measures were calculated for consecutive releases of five SNOMED CT hierarchies, including the Specimen hierarchy. The structural density measure shows that natural growth tends to move a hierarchy's structure toward a more complex state, whereas the accumulated structural measure shows that QA processes tend to move a hierarchy's structure toward a less complex state. It is also observed that both the structural density and accumulated structural measures are useful tools to track the evolution of an entire SNOMED CT hierarchy and reveal internal concept migration within it.

  11. Structural Measures to Track the Evolution of SNOMED CT Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying (Helen); Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Ochs, Christopher; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is an extensive reference terminology with an attendant amount of complexity. It has been updated continuously and revisions have been released semi-annually to meet users’ needs and to reflect the results of quality assurance (QA) activities. Two measures based on structural features are proposed to track the effects of both natural terminology growth and QA activities based on aspects of the complexity of SNOMED CT. These two measures, called the structural density measure and accumulated structural measure, are derived based on two abstraction networks, the area taxonomy and the partial-area taxonomy. The measures derive from attribute relationship distributions and various concept groupings that are associated with the abstraction networks. They are used to track the trends in the complexity of structures as SNOMED CT changes over time. The measures were calculated for consecutive releases of five SNOMED CT hierarchies, including the Specimen hierarchy. The structural density measure shows that natural growth tends to move a hierarchy’s structure toward a more complex state, whereas the accumulated structural measure shows that QA processes tend to move a hierarchy’s structure toward a less complex state. It is also observed that both the structural density and accumulated structural measures are useful tools to track the evolution of an entire SNOMED CT hierarchy and reveal internal concept migration within it. PMID:26260003

  12. Three-dimensional structure measurement of diamond crowns based on stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhiguo; Cai, Lilong

    2009-11-01

    We present an effective method for reconstructing and measuring the three-dimensional (3D) structures of diamond crowns based on stereo vision. To reach high measurement accuracy, the influences of 3D measurement errors are analyzed in detail. Then, a method to accurately extract the linear features of diamond edges based on virtual motion control is described. Depending on the obtained linear features, the 3D structure of a diamond crown can be reconstructed with least squares error. The validity of the proposed method is verified by experiments. The results show that the proposed method can be used to measure the 3D structures of diamond crowns with satisfactory accuracy and efficiency, and it also can be used to extract linear features and measure other similar artificial objects that can be represented by line segments.

  13. Details of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 18, discusses the details of meiosis, beginning with the structure and number of chiasmata, i.e., the cytological term for two homologous chromosomes forming a bivalent which begin to repel each other until they are held together only at the point of crossing-over. The synaptonemal complex which consists of two lateral elements which contain protein and RNA is also discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of meiosis in polyploids, human meiosis, and the behavior of X and Y chromosomes. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Threshold contrast detail detectability measurement of the fluoroscopic image quality of a dynamic solid-state digital x-ray image detector.

    PubMed

    Davies, A G; Cowen, A R; Kengyelics, S M; Bury, R F; Bruijns, T J

    2001-01-01

    Solid-state digital x-ray imaging detectors of flat-panel construction will play an increasingly important role in future medical imaging facilities. Solid-state detectors that will support both dynamic (including fluoroscopic) and radiographic image recording are under active development. The image quality of an experimental solid-state digital x-ray image detector operating in a continuous fluoroscopy mode has been investigated. The threshold contrast detail detectability (TCDD) technique was used to compare the fluoroscopic imaging performance of an experimental dynamic solid-state digital x-ray image detector with that of a reference image intensifier television (IITV) fluoroscopy system. The reference system incorporated Plumbicon TV. Results were presented as a threshold detection index, or H(T)(A), curves. Measurements were made over a range of mean entrance air kerma (EAK) rates typically used in conventional IITV fluoroscopy. At the upper and mid EAK rate range (440 and 220 nGy/s) the solid-state detector outperformed the reference IITV fluoroscopy system as measured by TCDD performance. At the lowest measured EAK rate (104 nGy/s), the solid-state detector produces slightly inferior TCDD performance compared with the reference system. Although not statistically significant at this EAK rate, the difference will increase as EAK is lowered further. Overall the TCDD results and early clinical experiences support the proposition that a current design of dynamic solid-state detector produces image quality competitive with that of modern IITV fluoroscopy systems. These findings encourage the development of compact and versatile universal x-ray imaging systems based upon solid-state detector technology to support R & F and vascular/interventional applications.

  15. Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Caged Structural Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, H.; Hida, K.; Kase, N.; Nakano, T.; Takeda, N.

    Thermal conductivity of Ca3Rh4Sn13 and Sr3Ir4Sn13 were measured in magnetic fields to reveal superconducting state. From magnetic susceptibility χ(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) measurements, superconducting transition temperature Tc of Ca3Rh4Sn13 and Sr3Ir4Sn13 is determined to be 8 and 5 K, respectively. Thermal conductivity κ(T) of Ca3Rh4Sn13 indicates that superconducting state is nodeless s-wave, because residual thermal conductivity κ0/T in zero magnetic field is very small. On the other hand, κ(T) of Sr3Ir4Sn13 in zero magnetic field suggests that superconductivity possesses nodal gap rather than full gap. Whether nodal superconducting gap exists or not still remains to be clarified, because there is a possibility that the achieving temperature is insufficient to discuss superconducting state.

  16. Measuring and modelling the structure of chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.; Fryer, Peter J.; Smart, Ian; Bakalis, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    The cocoa butter present in chocolate exists as six different polymorphs. To achieve the desired crystal form (βV), traditional chocolate manufacturers use relatively slow cooling (<2°C/min). A newer generation of rapid cooling systems has been suggested requiring further understanding of fat crystallisation. To allow better control and understanding of these processes and newer rapid cooling processes, it is necessary to understand both heat transfer and crystallization kinetics. The proposed model aims to predict the temperature in the chocolate products during processing as well as the crystal structure of cocoa butter throughout the process. A set of ordinary differential equations describes the kinetics of fat crystallisation. The parameters were obtained by fitting the model to a set of DSC curves. The heat transfer equations were coupled to the kinetic model and solved using commercially available CFD software. A method using single crystal XRD was developed using a novel subtraction method to quantify the cocoa butter structure in chocolate directly and results were compared to the ones predicted from the model. The model was proven to predict phase change temperature during processing accurately (±1°C). Furthermore, it was possible to correctly predict phase changes and polymorphous transitions. The good agreement between the model and experimental data on the model geometry allows a better design and control of industrial processes.

  17. Oceanic crustal structure from seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    The primary source of our knowledge of the structure of oceanic crust is the interpretation of seismic refraction experiments. The first classic compilation of seismic data of Raitt (in The Sea, 1963) subdivided the crust into three distinct layers, which have formed the reference basis for seismic profiles for the last decades. Today we know that the upper igneous crust (layer 2) is a region of strong velocity gradients, while the lower crust (layer 3) is relatively homogeneous, although it does show an increase in velocity with depth. Further, the upper crust has been sub-divided the in Layer 2A, composed of extruded basalts, and Layer 2B, formed by basaltic sheeted dikes. The lower crust, or Layer 3, often called the "oceanic layer", is inferred to be composed of gabbros. As crust ages, sediments accumulate on the igneous basement, creating layer 1. The velocity structure of the oceanic crust formed by seafloor spreading is inherently related to the process of mantle melting. The amount of melt produced by adiabatic decompression of the mantle and the composition of the resultant igneous crust depend on the temperature, composition, and water content of the mantle source. Normal oceanic crust with a thickness of 6-7 km and Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) like composition is the result of decompressional melting of a mantle source composed of dry pyrolite with a mantle temperature of ~1300°C. Thus, crustal formation occurs as passive response to seafloor spreading (i.e., passive upwelling). Higher mantle temperatures or compositional anomalies may cause buoyant upwelling of the mantle (i.e. active upwelling). The combination of active upwelling and higher mantle temperatures, or the presence of a more fertile mantle source, will produce larger amounts of melting and, likely, a thicker crust. Steady state mantle melting models can be used to investigate the relationship between mantle temperature, upwelling, and mantle composition on one hand and lower crustal

  18. Measurements of turbulence and vegetation structure across a forest clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queck, R.; Bernhofer, C.; Bienert, A.; Maas, H.-G.

    2012-04-01

    Detailed knowledge of the energy and mass exchange between forests and atmosphere is essential for the assessment of carbon sequestration of forests and their capacity for absorption and emission of atmospheric trace gases. Compared to agricultural land uses the vegetation layer of forests is much larger, involves significant currents of air and acts as storage for energy and gases. Advective fluxes within and above a forest canopy occur as a result of the heterogeneity of the soil conditions and the vegetation composition. Turbulent and advective fluxes change with meteorological conditions (e.g. radiation, wind speed and direction) but also with the state of the canopy. The influence of the canopy structure on the fluxes is rarely investigated. To address this topic and to improve the parameterisation of unresolved exchange effects at inhomogeneities in numerical models the TurbEFA experiment was designed. TurbEFA is the acronym for the interdisciplinary project "Turbulent Exchange processes between Forested areas and the Atmosphere", it encompasses the work of five groups applying terrestrial laser scanning, meteorological field measurements, wind tunnel measurements, boundary layer modelling and large eddy simulation. Subject of investigation is the FluxNet site `Anchor Station Tharandt' which is located about 20 km southwest of the city of Dresden in Germany (N 50°57'49", E 13°34'01", 380 m a.s.l.). From May 2008 to May 2009 intensive measurements took place across the forest clearing "Wildacker" in the vicinity of the FluxNet site. Sonic anemometers at 32 measurement positions in total are used to record the turbulent flow at 4 towers (heights: 40m, 40m, 40m, 30m) and five ground level positions (2 m). The forest stands around the clearing (500 m x 60 m) were scanned applying a terrestrial laser scanner. Thereby scans from different ground positions and from the top of two towers (height: 40m) were accomplished. The scans were filtered and combined to a

  19. Detailed Structural and Quantitative Analysis Reveals the Spatial Organization of the Cell Walls of in Vivo Grown Mycobacterium leprae and in Vitro Grown Mycobacterium tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Bhamidi, Suresh; Scherman, Michael S.; Jones, Victoria; Crick, Dean C.; Belisle, John T.; Brennan, Patrick J.; McNeil, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The cell wall of mycobacteria consists of an outer membrane, analogous to that of Gram-negative bacteria, attached to the peptidoglycan (PG) via a connecting polysaccharide arabinogalactan (AG). Although the primary structure of these components is fairly well deciphered, issues such as the coverage of the PG layer by covalently attached mycolates in the outer membrane and the spatial details of the mycolic acid attachment to the arabinan have remained unknown. It is also not understood how these components work together to lead to the classical acid-fast staining of mycobacteria. Because the majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in established experimental animal infections are acid-fast negative, clearly cell wall changes are occurring. To address both the spatial properties of mycobacterial cell walls and to begin to study the differences between bacteria grown in animals and cultures, the cell walls of Mycobacterium leprae grown in armadillos was characterized and compared with that of M. tuberculosis grown in culture. Most fundamentally, it was determined that the cell wall of M. leprae contained significantly more mycolic acids attached to PG than that of in vitro grown M. tuberculosis (mycolate:PG ratios of 21:10 versus 16:10, respectively). In keeping with this difference, more arabinogalactan (AG) molecules, linking the mycolic acids to PG, were found. Differences in the structures of the AG were also found; the AG of M. leprae is smaller than that of M. tuberculosis, although the same basic structural motifs are retained. PMID:21555513

  20. Detailed structural and quantitative analysis reveals the spatial organization of the cell walls of in vivo grown Mycobacterium leprae and in vitro grown Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bhamidi, Suresh; Scherman, Michael S; Jones, Victoria; Crick, Dean C; Belisle, John T; Brennan, Patrick J; McNeil, Michael R

    2011-07-01

    The cell wall of mycobacteria consists of an outer membrane, analogous to that of gram-negative bacteria, attached to the peptidoglycan (PG) via a connecting polysaccharide arabinogalactan (AG). Although the primary structure of these components is fairly well deciphered, issues such as the coverage of the PG layer by covalently attached mycolates in the outer membrane and the spatial details of the mycolic acid attachment to the arabinan have remained unknown. It is also not understood how these components work together to lead to the classical acid-fast staining of mycobacteria. Because the majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in established experimental animal infections are acid-fast negative, clearly cell wall changes are occurring. To address both the spatial properties of mycobacterial cell walls and to begin to study the differences between bacteria grown in animals and cultures, the cell walls of Mycobacterium leprae grown in armadillos was characterized and compared with that of M. tuberculosis grown in culture. Most fundamentally, it was determined that the cell wall of M. leprae contained significantly more mycolic acids attached to PG than that of in vitro grown M. tuberculosis (mycolate:PG ratios of 21:10 versus 16:10, respectively). In keeping with this difference, more arabinogalactan (AG) molecules, linking the mycolic acids to PG, were found. Differences in the structures of the AG were also found; the AG of M. leprae is smaller than that of M. tuberculosis, although the same basic structural motifs are retained.

  1. Structural Studies of Medicago truncatula Histidinol Phosphate Phosphatase from Inositol Monophosphatase Superfamily Reveal Details of Penultimate Step of Histidine Biosynthesis in Plants.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-05-06

    The penultimate enzyme in the histidine biosynthetic pathway catalyzes dephosphorylation of l-histidinol 1-phosphate (HOLP) into l-histidinol. The recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana plant-type histidinol phosphate phosphatase (HPP) shares no homology with the two other HPP superfamilies known previously in prokaryotes and resembles myo-inositol monophosphatases (IMPases). In this work, identification of an HPP enzyme from a model legume, Medicago truncatula (MtHPP) was based on the highest sequence identity to A. thaliana enzyme. Biochemical assays confirmed that MtHPP was able to cleave inorganic phosphate from HOLP but not from d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate, the main substrate of IMPases. Dimers of MtHPP, determined by size exclusion chromatography, in the presence of CO2 or formaldehyde form mutual, methylene-bridged cross-links between Lys(158) and Cys(245) residues. Four high resolution crystal structures, namely complexes with HOLP (substrate), l-histidinol (product), and PO4 (3-) (by-product) as well as the structure showing the cross-linking between two MtHPP molecules, provide detailed structural information on the enzyme. Based on the crystal structures, the enzymatic reaction mechanism of IMPases is accustomed to fit the data for MtHPP. The enzymatic reaction, which requires Mg(2+) cations, is catalyzed mainly by amino acid residues from the N-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain, sharing little identity with IMPases, is responsible for the substrate specificity (i.e. allows the enzyme to distinguish between HOLP and d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate). Structural features, mainly the presence of a conserved Asp(246), allow MtHPP to bind HOLP specifically.

  2. High-density properties of integral-equation theories of fluids: Universal analytic structure and details for the one-component plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Yaakov

    1986-03-01

    We study the analytic properties of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and soft-mean-spherical (SMSA) theories in the asymptotic high-density limit (AHDL). The scaling properties of the inverse power potentials lead to the introduction of the SMSA-Ewald functions, which correspond to the ``overlap-volume'' functions for hard spheres. The HNC and SMSA theories for soft interactions, as well as the Percus-Yevick theory for hard spheres, feature the same AHDL analytic structure of the pair correlation functions, which is dictated by the hard-sphere Ewald functions. The general discussion is supplemented by detailed results for the one-component plasma. Implications to the analysis of the density-functional theory, of dense matter, near its exact Thomas-Fermi limit are pointed out.

  3. Revealing the Detailed Structure of the Galactic Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8 with X-Ray Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Jayant; Park, Sangwook; Schenck, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We present our results on the adaptive-mesh mapping of the chemical composition and thermodynamic parameters of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 using our deep Chandra observation. Our maps cover the entire supernova remnant and show the detailed spatial distributions of the metal-rich ejecta, circumstellar medium, and the X-ray pulsar wind nebula-dominated regions. Our results suggest radial and azimuthal variations in the ejecta composition and the thermodynamic parameters, underscoring the rich and complex nature of this text book type supernova remnant. Combining our results from this study and our previous work on the ejecta radial velocity distribution (derived from our Chandra HETG data), we discuss the three dimensional structure of the remnant. Some implications on the nature of the progenitor star and explosion scenarios are discussed.

  4. Comparing the Performance of Three Land Models in Global C Cycle Simulations: A Detailed Structural Analysis: Structural Analysis of Land Models

    SciTech Connect

    Rafique, Rashid; Xia, Jianyang; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Leng, Guoyong; Asrar, Ghassem; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-04-01

    Land models are valuable tools to understand the dynamics of global carbon (C) cycle. Various models have been developed and used for predictions of future C dynamics but uncertainties still exist. Diagnosing the models’ behaviors in terms of structures can help to narrow down the uncertainties in prediction of C dynamics. In this study three widely used land surface models, namely CSIRO’s Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) with 9 C pools, Community Land Model (version 3.5) combined with Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CLM-CASA) with 12 C pools and Community Land Model (version 4) (CLM4) with 26 C pools were driven by the observed meteorological forcing. The simulated C storage and residence time were used for analysis. The C storage and residence time were computed globally for all individual soil and plant pools, as well as net primary productivity (NPP) and its allocation to different plant components’ based on these models. Remotely sensed NPP and statistically derived HWSD, and GLC2000 datasets were used as a reference to evaluate the performance of these models. Results showed that CABLE exhibited better agreement with referenced C storage and residence time for plant and soil pools, as compared with CLM-CASA and CLM4. CABLE had longer bulk residence time for soil C pools and stored more C in roots, whereas, CLM-CASA and CLM4 stored more C in woody pools due to differential NPP allocation. Overall, these results indicate that the differences in C storage and residence times in three models are largely due to the differences in their fundamental structures (number of C pools), NPP allocation and C transfer rates. Our results have implications in model development and provide a general framework to explain the bias/uncertainties in simulation of C storage and residence times from the perspectives of model structures.

  5. Structural Implications of new Geologic Mapping and a Detailed Gravity Traverse in the Brooks Range Foothills, Chandler Lake Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peapples, P. R.; Saltus, R. W.; Swenson, R.; Brown, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    A fold and thrust belt in northern Alaska occupies the structural transition from the imbricate thrust sheets (or allochthons) of the Brooks Range to the North Slope coastal plain. Understanding this complexly deformed zone is critical to hydrocarbon assessment in the state-owned lands south of Prudhoe Bay. New geologic mapping and geophysical studies are focused on this important region. Detailed (1:63,360 scale) geologic mapping along the drainages of Tiglukpuk Creek and the Siksikpuk River documents exposures of deep structural levels and provides important constraints for a structural model of this region. A south-to-north structural transect encompasses the transition from the highly deformed thrust sheets of the Endicott Mountains Allochthon (EMA) at the mountain front to the inferred triangle zone at the Tuktu Escarpment 45 miles to the north. Mississippian Carbonates to Triassic siliciclastics make up the EMA north of the mountain front where there is an abrupt transition in structural style from north-vergent asymmetric overturned folding to gentle warping above shallowly dipping fault ramps. Tiglukpuk Anticline represents a fenster where the EMA is overlain in thrust contact by a melange of more distal Ipnavik River Allochthon (IRA) rocks. Parallel synclinoria contain the Okpikruak siliciclastics of the IRA assemblage and the Brookian syntectonic siliciclastics of the Fortress Mountain formation, carried atop the EMA thrust sheets during the latest phase of deformation. This complex structural style abruptly ends at the Tuktu Escarpment which likely represents a backthrust/triangle zone that places shallow north dipping coarse clastics of the Nanushuk Formation over the less competent and highly deformed Torok shale. The structural complexity and associated steeply dipping strata in the foothills belt were not well imaged by existing conventional seismic data in this region. To provide additional subsurface control, we collected ground station gravity

  6. Measuring Dynamic Patterns in the Structure of Substate Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Richard; And Others

    The objective of this study was to explore a new method of analyzing the performance of substate economies. Conventional analyses of economic diversity and growth are limited by their reliance on static measures of economic structure. Such measures do not capture the patterns of growth dynamics or structural change a region may be experiencing.…

  7. Dual-scale hydrothermal circulation inferred from detailed heat flow measurements in the Suiyo Seamount Hydrothermal System, Izu-Bonin Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomado, M.; Kinoshita, M.

    2002-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity within the caldera of Suiyo Seamount was investigated in detail using manned or remotely-operated submersibles, and by deep-tow imagery and seismic surveys. Hydrothermal regime in the Suiyo-seamount is characterized by a geochemically uniform fluid, shallow reservoir depth, very permeable seafloor, and venting without creating big chimneys. Detailed heat flow surveys were carried out through four research cruises conducted in 2001-2002. Geothermal probes, called SAHF (Stand-Alone Heat Flow) meter, are 1m in length, and five thermistors are installed at 11-12 cm intervals. Heat flow is highest (> 10 W/m2) within the active area. These values were obtained close to black smokers, thus are affected by the venting or very shallow reservoirs. To the east, heat flow is uniform around 4 W/m2. Since there were no indications of discharge, this area is dominated by thermal conduction, and its heat source would be a hydrothermal reservoir capped by some impermeable layer. To the west, we detected very low heat flow values of less than 0.3 W/m2, only several tens of meters away from the active area. A similar heat flow anomaly was detected in the TAG hyudrothermal mound of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Becker et al., 1996). We penetrated at 1-2 m away from two isolated active sulfide mounds. At both sites subbottom temperatures were about 40 degC at 10-20 cm depth, then they decreased to about 20 degC at 30-40cm. The temperature reversals suggest a meter-scale hydrothermal circulation, where a hot fluid discharges as a branch flow from the main vent to the mound. An impermeable structure of the mound and a permeable sediment surrounding the mound would make this very local circulation possible. We suggest a dual scale hydrothermal circulation system, one with several meters scale, and the other with few tens of meters scale. The former would be driven by a suction created by discrete venting of high temperature fluid, and the latter is a regional

  8. Detailed structure of the Philippine Sea plate subducting along the Nankai Trough, western Japan, inferred from high-frequency seismic wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumura, T.; Padhy, S.; Maeda, T.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed structure of the subducting Philippine Sea plate (PHP) along the Nankai trough in western Japan was studied by analyzing waveforms recorded at dense Hi-net stations in Japan. It is well recognized that the waveforms from intraplate earthquakes dominate in high-frequency (f >1 Hz) signals due to the waveguide effect of the subducting slab (Furumura and Kennett, 2005; 2008). This results in distorted pattern of intensity and peak ground acceleration (PGA) above the hypocenter with a substantial elongation of isoseismic contours correlated with the configuration of the isodepth contours of the subducting PHP beneath western Japan. A detailed analysis of the dense Hi-net waveform data from the intermediate-depth PHP event shows that the high-frequency S-wave signals suddenly disappear as the waves propagate the zone away from the Kii Channel to the boundary of Hyogo and Okayama prefectures and large S-to-P conversion occurs before the arrival of S-wave. Such anomalies do not occur for shallow and deep earthquakes occurring outside the PHP. These observations support the recent debate on the complexities of the configuration of the PHP subducting beneath western Japan such as that shown by Shiomi et al. (2008) based on receiver function images and the PHP-split model beneath the Kii channel shown by Ide et al.(2010) based on the analysis of comprehensive geophysical data. In order to explain the observations associated with sudden lateral change in the PHP structure, we conducted finite difference method (FDM) simulations of seismic wave propagation taking the detailed PHP model into account. It is confirmed that high-frequency guided wave energy decouple from waveguide where the shape of the PHP is suddenly deformed, which results in dramatic attenuation of high-frequency signals associating with large S-to-P conversions developed at sharp plate boundary. The present results also support the recently proposed complicated PHP-split model, however, further

  9. Using Hyperspectral Frame Images from Unmanned Airborne Vehicle for Detailed Measurement of Boreal Forest 3D Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Raquel A.; Tommaselli, Antonio M. G.; Honkavaara, Eija

    2016-10-01

    Objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using multi-image matching and information extracted from image classification to improve strategies in generation of point clouds of 3D forest scene. Image data sets were collected by a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral frame camera on-board a UAV in a boreal forest area. The results of the new method are analysed and compared with commercial software and LiDAR data. Experiments showed that the point clouds generated with the proposed algorithm fitted better with the LiDAR data at the ground level, which is favourable for digital terrain model (DTM) extraction.

  10. Raman spectroscopy adds complementary detail to the high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of photosynthetic PsbP from Spinacia oleracea.

    PubMed

    Kopecky, Vladimir; Kohoutova, Jaroslava; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Hofbauerova, Katerina; Sovova, Zofie; Ettrichova, Olga; González-Pérez, Sergio; Dulebo, Alexander; Kaftan, David; Smatanova, Ivana Kuta; Revuelta, Jose L; Arellano, Juan B; Carey, Jannette; Ettrich, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Raman microscopy permits structural analysis of protein crystals in situ in hanging drops, allowing for comparison with Raman measurements in solution. Nevertheless, the two methods sometimes reveal subtle differences in structure that are often ascribed to the water layer surrounding the protein. The novel method of drop-coating deposition Raman spectropscopy (DCDR) exploits an intermediate phase that, although nominally "dry," has been shown to preserve protein structural features present in solution. The potential of this new approach to bridge the structural gap between proteins in solution and in crystals is explored here with extrinsic protein PsbP of photosystem II from Spinacia oleracea. In the high-resolution (1.98 Å) x-ray crystal structure of PsbP reported here, several segments of the protein chain are present but unresolved. Analysis of the three kinds of Raman spectra of PsbP suggests that most of the subtle differences can indeed be attributed to the water envelope, which is shown here to have a similar Raman intensity in glassy and crystal states. Using molecular dynamics simulations cross-validated by Raman solution data, two unresolved segments of the PsbP crystal structure were modeled as loops, and the amino terminus was inferred to contain an additional beta segment. The complete PsbP structure was compared with that of the PsbP-like protein CyanoP, which plays a more peripheral role in photosystem II function. The comparison suggests possible interaction surfaces of PsbP with higher-plant photosystem II. This work provides the first complete structural picture of this key protein, and it represents the first systematic comparison of Raman data from solution, glassy, and crystalline states of a protein.

  11. Quantitative characterizations of phasic structure developments by local measurement methods in two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C.S.; Leung, W.H.; Wu, Q.; Ueno, T.; Ishii, M.

    1995-06-01

    An experimental study on the internal structure an a out in a 25.4 mm ID pipe. The local void fraction and interfacial area concentration were measured by a double-sensor probe. The flow structure development was visualized by measuring the radial distribution of these two parameters at three axial, locations (L/D = 12, 62, and 112). A more detailed study on the fully developed flow structure was conducted at L/D = 120. The interfacial structure were measured by the double- and four-sensor probes. A bubbly to-=slug transition region was defined according to the local data.The area-averaged void fraction measurements were given by a gamma densitometer. Other parameters such as the Taylor bubble film thickness, bubble length and slug unit length in slug flow were measured by a film robe. The redundant measurements were made to calibrate the local probe measurements. The quantitative representation of the phasic structure can then be used for modeling.

  12. Model updating of nonlinear structures from measured FRFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canbaloğlu, Güvenç; Özgüven, H. Nevzat

    2016-12-01

    There are always certain discrepancies between modal and response data of a structure obtained from its mathematical model and experimentally measured ones. Therefore it is a general practice to update the theoretical model by using experimental measurements in order to have a more accurate model. Most of the model updating methods used in structural dynamics are for linear systems. However, in real life applications most of the structures have nonlinearities, which restrict us applying model updating techniques available for linear structures, unless they work in linear range. Well-established frequency response function (FRF) based model updating methods would easily be extended to a nonlinear system if the FRFs of the underlying linear system (linear FRFs) could be experimentally measured. When frictional type of nonlinearity co-exists with other types of nonlinearities, it is not possible to obtain linear FRFs experimentally by using low level forcing. In this study a method (named as Pseudo Receptance Difference (PRD) method) is presented to obtain linear FRFs of a nonlinear structure having multiple nonlinearities including friction type of nonlinearity. PRD method, calculates linear FRFs of a nonlinear structure by using FRFs measured at various forcing levels, and simultaneously identifies all nonlinearities in the system. Then, any model updating method can be used to update the linear part of the mathematical model. In this present work, PRD method is used to predict the linear FRFs from measured nonlinear FRFs, and the inverse eigensensitivity method is employed to update the linear finite element (FE) model of the nonlinear structure. The proposed method is validated with different case studies using nonlinear lumped single-degree of freedom system, as well as a continuous system. Finally, a real nonlinear T-beam test structure is used to show the application and the accuracy of the proposed method. The accuracy of the updated nonlinear model of the

  13. Should the reorganization of addiction-related research across all the National Institutes of Health be structural?--The devil is truly in the details.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Messing, Robert O; Charness, Michael E; Crabbe, John C; Goldman, Mark S; Harris, R Adron; Kranzler, Henry R; Mitchell, Mack C; Nixon, Sara Jo; Riley, Edward P; Schuckit, Marc A; Sher, Kenneth J; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2011-04-01

    The recent proposal to dissolve the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Institute on Drug Abuse and create a new institute for substance use, abuse, and addiction will require significant effort by the staff of both institutes, the Advisory Councils, and outside experts to overcome complex challenges that could threaten its success. Although integration of the grants portfolios can be achieved, harmonization of goals and policies related to legal use of alcohol versus illegal consumption of drugs will present serious challenges. Consolidating the infrastructure of the 2 existing institutes would entail avoiding encroachment on grant funding. A new institute for substance use, abuse, and addiction would require an enormous amount of cooperation from other institutes as the portfolios of research on alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse should logically be transferred to the new institute. In the near term, a structural reorganization would be less efficient and more costly than the individual institutes are currently. Increasing efficiency and reducing costs over time will necessitate careful strategic planning. Success in this difficult task would be made easier and less costly by first implementing carefully placed building blocks of increasing functional reorganization. The newly created institute should increase opportunities for specialization within disorders of addiction, attract new leadership, and build a novel strategic plan that will energize scientists and staff and incorporate ideas of stakeholders to advance the public good in preventing and treating alcohol, tobacco, and all addictions. Attention must be paid to the devil in the details.

  14. SHOULD THE REORGANIZATION OF ADDICTION-RELATED RESEARCH ACROSS ALL THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH BE STRUCTURAL?—THE DEVIL IS TRULY IN THE DETAILS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bankole A.; Messing, Robert O.; Charness, Michael E.; Crabbe, John C.; Goldman, Mark S.; Harris, R. Adron; Kranzler, Henry R.; Mitchell, Mack C.; Nixon, Sara Jo; Riley, Edward P.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    The recent proposal to dissolve the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Institute on Drug Abuse and create a new institute for substance use, abuse, and addiction will require significant effort by the staff of both institutes, the Advisory Councils, and outside experts to overcome complex challenges that could threaten its success. Although integration of the grants portfolios can be achieved, harmonization of goals and policies related to legal use of alcohol versus illegal consumption of drugs will present serious challenges. Consolidating the infrastructure of the two existing institutes would entail avoiding encroachment on grant funding. A new institute for substance use, abuse, and addiction would require an enormous amount of cooperation from other institutes since the portfolios of research on alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse should logically be transferred to the new institute. In the near term, a structural reorganization would be less efficient and more costly than the individual institutes are currently. Increasing efficiency and reducing costs over time will necessitate careful strategic planning. Success in this difficult task would be made easier and less costly by first implementing carefully placed building blocks of increasing functional reorganization. The newly created institute should increase opportunities for specialization within disorders of addiction, attract new leadership, and build a novel strategic plan that will energize scientists and staff and incorporate ideas of stakeholders to advance the public good in preventing and treating alcohol, tobacco, and all addictions. Attention must be paid to the devil in the details. PMID:21443646

  15. Geological Features and Crustal Structure of the Cretaceous Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria: Insights from Detailed Analysis and Modelling of Magnetic and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anudu, G. K.; Stephenson, R.; Macdonald, D.

    2015-12-01

    The middle Benue Trough is the middle (central) segment of the Nigerian Benue Trough, an intra-continental rift that developed during the second phase of rifting of the Gondwana supercontinent that resulted in the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea and separation of South America from Africa in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Airborne magnetic and terrestrial gravity data from the area have been analysed and modelled in detail. Results obtained using a variety of edge enhancement (derivative) methods applied to high-resolution, airborne magnetic data reveal widespread magmatic intrusions (mainly volcanic/sub-volcanic rocks, with an areal extent greater than 12000 km2) and numerous geological structures. Rose (azimuth frequency) plots show that the geological structural trends are predominantly NE - SW, NW - SE and ESE - WNW with minor ENE -WSW/N - S trends and thus suggest that the area has undergone several phases of tectonic deformation at different geological times. Integrated two-dimensional (2-D) gravity and magnetic modelling along five profiles constrained by 2-D magnetic depth-to-source estimates and available seismological velocity models indicates the presence of a number of distinct crustal bodies and thin crust. Moho depth varies from ca. 21 - 29 km, while the crustal thickness ranges between ca. 19 and 29 km. Shallower Moho and thinner crust are observed along the trough axis. Results from the study also reveal that the amount of crustal thinning and crustal stretching factor (β) across the area varies from 3.3 - 14.5 km and 1.11 - 1.78, respectively. Broad positive to near positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region of the trough axis are due to the combined effects of dense (intermediate to basic) magmatic intrusions (both intra-sedimentary and intra-basement/crustal ones), shallow basement horsts (basement uplift zones) and thin crust replaced by dense abnormal upper mantle bodies. Reactivated intra-basement structures

  16. Structures of human sirtuin 3 complexes with ADP-ribose and with carba-NAD+ and SRT1720: binding details and inhibition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang Thi Tuyet; Schaefer, Susanne; Gertz, Melanie; Weyand, Michael; Steegborn, Clemens

    2013-08-01

    Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that regulate metabolism and aging processes and are considered to be attractive therapeutic targets. Most available sirtuin modulators are little understood mechanistically, hindering their improvement. SRT1720 was initially described as an activator of human Sirt1, but it also potently inhibits human Sirt3. Here, the molecular mechanism of the inhibition of Sirt3 by SRT1720 is described. A crystal structure of Sirt3 in complex with SRT1720 and an NAD(+) analogue reveals that the compound partially occupies the acetyl-Lys binding site, thus explaining the reported competition with the peptide substrate. The compound packs against a hydrophobic protein patch and binds with its opposite surface to the NAD(+)  nicotinamide, resulting in an exceptionally tight sandwich-like interaction. The observed arrangement rationalizes the uncompetitive inhibition with NAD(+), and binding measurements confirm that the nicotinamide moiety of NAD(+) supports inhibitor binding. Consistently, no inhibitor is bound in a second crystal structure of Sirt3 that was solved complexed with ADP-ribose and crystallized in the presence of SRT1720. These results reveal a novel sirtuin inhibitor binding site and mechanism, and provide a structural basis for compound improvement.

  17. Evaluation of Strain Measurement Devices for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litteken, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    Inflatable structures provide a significant volume savings for future NASA deep space missions. The complexity of these structures, however, provides difficulty for engineers in designing, analyzing, and testing. Common strain measurement systems for metallic parts cannot be used directly on fabrics. New technologies must be developed and tested to accuractly measure the strain of inflatable structures. This paper documents the testing of six candidate strain measurement devices for use on fabrics. The resistance devices tested showed significant hysteresis during creep and cyclic testing. The capacitive device, however, showed excellent results and little-to-no hysteresis. Because of this issue, only two out of the six proposed devices will continue in development. The resulting data and lessons learned from this effort provides direction for continued work to produce a structural health monitoring system for inflatable habitats.

  18. Simultaneous expansion and orthogonalization of measured modes for structure identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Beattie, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    Tests of large structures on-orbit will be performed with measurements at a relatively few structure points. Values for the unmeasured degrees of freedom (dofs) can be estimated based on measured dofs and analytical model dynamic information. These 'expanded' mode shapes are useful for optimal-update identification and damage location as well as test/analysis correlation. A new method of expansion for test mode shape vectors is developed from the orthogonal Procrustes problem from computational linear algebra. A subspace defined by the set of measured dofs is compared to a subspace defined by mode shapes from an analytical model of the structure. The method simultaneously expands and orthogonalizes the mode shape vectors. Two demonstration problems are used to compare the new method to current expansion techniques. One demonstration uses test data from a laboratory scale-model truss structure. Performance of the new method is comparable or superior to that of the previous expansion methods which require separate orthogonalization.

  19. Evaluation of Strain Measurement Devices for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litteken, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Inflatable structures provide a significant volume savings for future NASA deep space missions. The complexity of these structures, however, provides difficulty for engineers in designing, analyzing, and testing. Common strain measurement systems for metallic parts cannot be used directly on fabrics. New technologies must be developed and tested to accurately measure the strain of inflatable structures. This paper documents the testing of six candidate strain measurement devices for use on fabrics. The resistance devices tested showed significant hysteresis during creep and cyclic testing. The capacitive device, however, showed excellent results and little-to-no hysteresis. Because of this issue, only two out of the six proposed devices will continue in development. The resulting data and lessons learned from this effort provides direction for continued work to produce a structural health monitoring system for inflatable habitats.

  20. An analysis of source structure effects in radio interferometry measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    To begin a study of structure effects, this report presents a theoretical framework, proposes an effective position approach to structure corrections based on brightness distribution measurements, and analyzes examples of analytical and measured brightness distributions. Other topics include the effect of the frequency dependence of a brightness distribution on bandwidth synthesis (BWS) delay, the determination of the absolute location of a measured brightness distribution, and structure effects in dual frequency calibration of charged particle delays. For the 10 measured distributions analyzed, it was found that the structure effect in BWS delay at X-band (3.6 cm) can reach 30 cm, but typically falls in the range of 0 to 5 cm. A trial limit equation that is dependent on visibility was successfully tested against the 10 measured brightness distributions (seven sources). If the validity of this particular equation for an upper limit can be established for nearly all sources, the structure effect in BWS delay could be greatly reduced without supplementary measurements of brightness distributions.

  1. Wheel pose measurement based on cross structure light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Ding, Xun; Wang, Xian; Zhao, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    It's necessary for automobile to detect and adjust four-wheel alignment parameters regularly, due to the significant effect on improving stability, enhancing security and reducing tire wear of automobiles. In order to measure the parameters that determined by relative position and posture of four wheels to the automobile cab, this paper proposes a method which applies monocular vision of linear structure light to wheel pose measurement. Firstly, space coordinates of feature point cloud are calculated out from the principle of structured light. Then, an algorithm is designed to determine the normal vector of wheel tangent plane and measure the wheel pose. Finally, actual experiments that by evaluation of adjusted wheel angle measurement are carried out to verify the system accuracy. The corresponding studies can be applied in designing and developing 3D four-wheel alignment system that based on structured light.

  2. Development of Oceanic Core Complexes on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 13-14N: Deep-Towed Geophysical Measurements and Detailed Seafloor Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, R.; MacLeod, C.; Murton, B.; Mallows, C.; Casey, J.; Achenbach, K.; Unsworth, S.; Harris, M.

    2007-12-01

    The first scientific cruise of research vessel James Cook in March-April 2007 targeted the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 13-14°N, to investigate details of lithospheric generation and development in a low-magmatic setting. Overall objectives were to 1) investigate the 3D pattern of mantle upwelling and melt focusing; 2) study how plate accretion and separation mechanisms differ between magma-rich and magma-poor areas; and 3) test mechanisms of detachment faulting and extensional strain localisation in the lower crust and upper mantle. Smith et al. (Nature 2006) had shown this to be an area of widespread detachment faulting and formation of oceanic core complexes (OCC), and published bathymetry showed an extensive area of blocky rather than lineated topography, which elsewhere has correlated with areas of low effusive magmatism. We conducted a TOBI deep-towed geophysical survey over a 70 km length of ridge extending to magnetic chron C2n (1.9 Ma) on each flank. This included sidescan sonar and high resolution bathymetry and magnetic measurements on 13 E-W tracks spaced 3 - 6 km apart. The area includes 1 active, 1 dying, and 1 defunct OCC and borders well-lineated, apparently magmatically robust seafloor to the north. The geophysical survey was complimented by recovery of 7 oriented and 18 unoriented core and 29 dredge samples, including some from a probable OCC south of the TOBI survey. Deep-towed sidescan, bathymetry and video show the OCCs typically comprise a steeply outward tilted volcanic ridge marking the breakaway (as suggested by Smith et al., 2006); a high, rugged central massif that is complexly deformed as a result of uplift and bending, and may be separated from the breakaway ridge by what we interpret as a late outward dipping normal fault; and a smooth, corrugated surface that generally dips c. 20° towards the ridge axis at the termination but gradually rotates to horizontal or gently outward dipping near its junction with the central massif. Older OCCs

  3. Nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) metallo-intercalators: structural details of the DNA-binding by a combined experimental and computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Lauria, Antonino; Bonsignore, Riccardo; Terenzi, Alessio; Spinello, Angelo; Giannici, Francesco; Longo, Alessandro; Almerico, Anna Maria; Barone, Giampaolo

    2014-04-28

    We present a thorough characterization of the interaction of novel nickel(II) (1), copper(II) (2) and zinc(II) (3) Schiff base complexes with native calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA), in buffered aqueous solution at pH 7.5. UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and viscometry titrations provided clear evidence of the intercalative mechanism of the three square-planar metal complexes, allowing us to determine the intrinsic DNA-binding constants (K(b)), equal to 1.3 × 10(7), 2.9 × 10(6), and 6.2 × 10(5) M(-1) for 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Preferential affinity, of one order of magnitude, toward AT compared to GC base pair sequences was detected by UV-vis absorption titrations of 1 with [poly(dG-dC)]2 and [poly(dA-dT)]2. Structural details of the intercalation site of the three metal complexes within [dodeca(dA-dT)]2 were obtained by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations followed by density functional theory/molecular mechanics (DFT/MM) calculations. The calculations revealed that three major intermolecular interactions contribute to the strong affinity between DNA and the three metal complexes: (1) the electrostatic attraction between the two positively charged triethylammoniummethyl groups of the metal complexes and the negatively charged phosphate groups of the DNA backbone; (2) the intercalation of the naphthalene moiety within the four nitrogen bases of the intercalation site; (3) the metal coordination by exocyclic donor atoms of the bases, specifically the carbonyl oxygen and amine nitrogen atoms. Remarkably, the Gibbs formation free energy calculated for the intercalation complexes of 1, 2 and 3 with [dodeca(dA-dT)]2 in the implicit water solution is in agreement with the experimental Gibbs free energy values obtained from the DNA-binding constants as ΔG° = -RT ln(K(b)). In particular, the DNA-binding affinity trend, 1 > 2 > 3, is reproduced. Finally, the first shell coordination distances calculated for the intercalation complex 3/[dodeca(dA-dT)]2 are in

  4. Isotopic quantum effects in water structure measured with high energy photon diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomberli, B.; Benmore, C. J.; Egelstaff, P. A.; Neuefeind, J.; Honkimäki, V.

    2000-03-01

    High energy electromagnetic radiation scattering techniques have been used to measure the structural differences between light and heavy water: we have studied both intra- and intermolecular effects. These methods and our data analysis are described in detail. We have observed a maximum isotopic effect of 1.6% relative to the magnitude of the x-ray structure factor. Our uncertainties are an order of magnitude smaller than those of previous icons/Journals/Common/gamma" ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> -ray measurements (Root J H, Egelstaff P A and Hime A 1986 Chem. Phys. 109 5164) and this has permitted us to test accurately the available quantum simulation results on water. The SPC and TIP4P potentials reproduce the measured results in r -space moderately well for intermolecular effects at distances greater than 2.5 Å. These results show that H2 O is a slightly more disordered liquid than D2 O at the same temperature.

  5. A Detailed 3D Seismic Velocity Structure of the Subducting Pacific Slab Beneath Hokkaido, Tohoku and Kanto, Japan, by Double-Difference Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Y.; Nakajima, J.; Kita, S.; Okada, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional heterogeneous structure beneath northeastern (NE) Japan has been investigated by previous studies and an inclined seismic low-velocity zone is imaged in the mantle wedge sub-parallel to the down-dip direction of the subducting slab (Zhao et al., 1992, Nakajima et al., 2001). However, the heterogeneous structure within the slab has not been well studied even though it is very important to understand the whole process of water transportation from the slab to the surface. Here we show a detailed 3D seismic velocity structure within the subducted Pacific slab around Japan and propose a water-transportation path from the slab to the mantle wedge. In this study, we estimated 3D velocity structure within the Pacific slab by the double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We divided the study area, from Hokkaido to Kanto, into 6 areas due to the limitation of memory and computation time. In each area, arrival-time data of 7,500-17,000 events recorded at 70-170 stations were used in the analysis. The total number of absolute travel-time data was about 140,000-312,000 for P wave and 123,000-268,000 for S wave, and differential data were about 736,000-1,920,000 for P wave and 644,000-1,488,000 for S wave. Horizontal and vertical grid separations are 10-25 km and 6.5 km, respectively. RMS residuals of travel times for P wave decreased from 0.23s to 0.09s and for S wave from 0.35s to 0.13s. The obtained results are as follows: (1) a remarkable low-Vs zone exists in the uppermost part of the subducting slab, (2) it extends down to a depth of about 80 km, (3) the termination of this low-Vs zone almost corresponds to the "seismic belt" recently detected in the upper plane of the double seismic zone (Kita et al.,2006; Hasegawa et al., 2007), (4) at depths deeper than 80 km, a low-Vs and high-Vp/Vs zone is apparently distributed in the mantle wedge, immediately above the slab crust. We consider that these features reflect water-transportation processes

  6. Measuring the structure and composition of circumstellar debris disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, Nicholas Paul

    In this dissertation, I measure the structure and composition of circumstellar debris disks to probe the underlying planetary systems. In Chapter 1, I provide an introduction to the field of debris disks. I highlight our current observational and theoretical understanding of the field, rather than providing a detailed history. This is intended to give the reader context and motivation for the subsequent chapters. I also describe important developments in debris disk science that are not the focus of this dissertation, but are nevertheless vital for a complete overview. In Chapter 2, I describe my analysis of a large sample of cold (<130 K) debris disks seen in Spitzer/IRS data. Previous work had suggested a common temperature for these disk components, regardless of spectral type. I find that there is trend with spectral type and argue that the locations of cold disks are not set by snow lines, but more likely by the formation/evolution of planets. This work was published in Ballering et al. (2013). In Chapter 3, I turn my focus to the warm (˜190 K) debris components identified in Chapter 2--specifically those exhibiting silicate emission features. I show that these features arise from exozodiacal dust in the habitable zones around these stars. This was published in Ballering et al. (2014). In Chapter 4, I examine the remainder of the warm disks to investigate what mechanism sets their location. I find that for many systems, the locations trace the water snow line in the primordial protoplanetary disk, rather than the current snow line. This favors the interpretation that warm debris components arise from asteroid belts in these systems. This study will be published soon. In Chapter 5, I analyze images of the debris disk around beta Pictoris at five different wavelengths, including in thermal emission and scattered light. I find that matching the disk brightness at all wavelengths constrains the composition of the dust, with a mixture of astronomical silicates and

  7. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-07-09

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement.

  8. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement. PMID:26184197

  9. SU-E-T-170: Characterization of the Location, Extent, and Proximity to Critical Structures of Target Volumes Provides Detail for Improved Outcome Predictions Among Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Z; Moore, J; Rosati, L; Mian, O; Narang, A; Herman, J; McNutt, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, size, location and proximity of the target to critical structures influence treatment decisions. It has been shown that proximity of the target predicts dosimetric sparing of critical structures. In addition to dosimetry, precise location of disease has further implications such as tumor invasion, or proximity to major arteries that inhibit surgery. Knowledge of which patients can be converted to surgical candidates by radiation may have high impact on future treat/no-treat decisions. We propose a method to improve our characterization of the location of pancreatic cancer and treatment volume extent with respect to nearby arteries with the goal of developing features to improve clinical predictions and decisions. Methods: Oncospace is a local learning health system that systematically captures clinical outcomes and all aspects of radiotherapy treatment plans, including overlap volume histograms (OVH) – a measure of spatial relationships between two structures. Minimum and maximum distances of PTV and OARs based on OVH, PTV volume, anatomic location by ICD-9 code, and surgical outcome were queried. Normalized distance to center from the left and right kidney was calculated to indicate tumor location and laterality. Distance to critical arteries (celiac, superior mesenteric, common hepatic) is validated by surgical status (borderline resectable, locally advanced converted to resectable). Results: There were 205 pancreas stereotactic body radiotherapy patients treated from 2009–2015 queried. Location/laterality of tumor based on kidney OVH show strong trends between location by OVH and by ICD-9. Compared to the locally advanced group, the borderline resectable group showed larger geometrical distance from critical arteries (p=0.03). Conclusion: Our platform enabled analysis of shape/size-location relationships. These data suggest that PTV volume and attention to distance between PTVs and surrounding OARs and major arteries may be

  10. Estimating discharged plutonium using measurements of structural material activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, W. S.; Lumley-Woodyear, A. de; Budlong-Sylvester, K. W.

    2002-01-01

    As the US and Russia move to lower numbers of deployed nuclear weapons, transparency regarding the quantity of weapons usable fissile material available in each country may become more important. In some cases detailed historical information regarding material production at individual facilities may be incomplete or not readily available, e.g., at decommissioned facilities. In such cases tools may be needed to produce estimates of aggregate material production as part of a bilateral agreement. Such measurement techniques could also provide increased confidence in declared production quantities.

  11. Pipelines subject to slow landslide movements: Structural modeling vs field measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Glavina, S.; Spinazze, M.; Tomassini, D.; Bonanni, S.; Cuscuna, S.

    1996-12-01

    In recent years finite element techniques have been increasingly used to investigate the behavior of buried pipelines subject to soil movements. The use of these tools provides a rational basis for the definition of minimum wall thickness requirements in landslide crossings. Furthermore the design of mitigation measures or monitoring systems which control the development of undesirable strains in the pipe wall over time, requires a detailed structural modeling. The scope of this paper is to discuss the use of dedicated structural modeling with relevant calibration to field measurements. The strain measurements used were regularly gathered from pipe sections, in two different sites over a period of time long enough to record changes of axial strain due to soil movement. Detailed structural modeling of pipeline layout in both sites and for operating conditions, is applied. Numerical simulations show the influence of the distribution of soil movement acting on the pipeline with regards to the state of strain which can be developed in certain locations. The role of soil nature and direction of relative movements in the definition of loads transferred to the pipeline, is also discussed.

  12. A fingerprint based metric for measuring similarities of crystalline structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Li; Fuhrer, Tobias; Schaefer, Bastian; Grauzinyte, Migle; Goedecker, Stefan; Amsler, Maximilian; Faraji, Somayeh; Rostami, Samare; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Sadeghi, Ali; Wolverton, Chris

    2016-01-21

    Measuring similarities/dissimilarities between atomic structures is important for the exploration of potential energy landscapes. However, the cell vectors together with the coordinates of the atoms, which are generally used to describe periodic systems, are quantities not directly suitable as fingerprints to distinguish structures. Based on a characterization of the local environment of all atoms in a cell, we introduce crystal fingerprints that can be calculated easily and define configurational distances between crystalline structures that satisfy the mathematical properties of a metric. This distance between two configurations is a measure of their similarity/dissimilarity and it allows in particular to distinguish structures. The new method can be a useful tool within various energy landscape exploration schemes, such as minima hopping, random search, swarm intelligence algorithms, and high-throughput screenings.

  13. A fingerprint based metric for measuring similarities of crystalline structures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Amsler, Maximilian; Fuhrer, Tobias; Schaefer, Bastian; Faraji, Somayeh; Rostami, Samare; Ghasemi, S Alireza; Sadeghi, Ali; Grauzinyte, Migle; Wolverton, Chris; Goedecker, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    Measuring similarities/dissimilarities between atomic structures is important for the exploration of potential energy landscapes. However, the cell vectors together with the coordinates of the atoms, which are generally used to describe periodic systems, are quantities not directly suitable as fingerprints to distinguish structures. Based on a characterization of the local environment of all atoms in a cell, we introduce crystal fingerprints that can be calculated easily and define configurational distances between crystalline structures that satisfy the mathematical properties of a metric. This distance between two configurations is a measure of their similarity/dissimilarity and it allows in particular to distinguish structures. The new method can be a useful tool within various energy landscape exploration schemes, such as minima hopping, random search, swarm intelligence algorithms, and high-throughput screenings.

  14. GS-align for glycan structure alignment and similarity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Sun; Jo, Sunhwan; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Park, Sang-Jun; Skolnick, Jeffrey; Lee, Jooyoung; Im, Wonpil

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Glycans play critical roles in many biological processes, and their structural diversity is key for specific protein-glycan recognition. Comparative structural studies of biological molecules provide useful insight into their biological relationships. However, most computational tools are designed for protein structure, and despite their importance, there is no currently available tool for comparing glycan structures in a sequence order- and size-independent manner. Results: A novel method, GS-align, is developed for glycan structure alignment and similarity measurement. GS-align generates possible alignments between two glycan structures through iterative maximum clique search and fragment superposition. The optimal alignment is then determined by the maximum structural similarity score, GS-score, which is size-independent. Benchmark tests against the Protein Data Bank (PDB) N-linked glycan library and PDB homologous/non-homologous N-glycoprotein sets indicate that GS-align is a robust computational tool to align glycan structures and quantify their structural similarity. GS-align is also applied to template-based glycan structure prediction and monosaccharide substitution matrix generation to illustrate its utility. Availability and implementation: http://www.glycanstructure.org/gsalign. Contact: wonpil@ku.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25857669

  15. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  16. One Single Static Measurement Predicts Wave Localization in Complex Structures.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Gondel, Alexane; Dubois, Marc; Atlan, Michael; Feppon, Florian; Labbé, Aimé; Gillot, Camille; Garelli, Alix; Ernoult, Maxence; Mayboroda, Svitlana; Filoche, Marcel; Sebbah, Patrick

    2016-08-12

    A recent theoretical breakthrough has brought a new tool, called the localization landscape, for predicting the localization regions of vibration modes in complex or disordered systems. Here, we report on the first experiment which measures the localization landscape and demonstrates its predictive power. Holographic measurement of the static deformation under uniform load of a thin plate with complex geometry provides direct access to the landscape function. When put in vibration, this system shows modes precisely confined within the subregions delineated by the landscape function. Also the maxima of this function match the measured eigenfrequencies, while the minima of the valley network gives the frequencies at which modes become extended. This approach fully characterizes the low frequency spectrum of a complex structure from a single static measurement. It paves the way for controlling and engineering eigenmodes in any vibratory system, especially where a structural or microscopic description is not accessible.

  17. Measuring Form Factors and Structure Functions with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    G.P. Gilfoyle

    2007-09-10

    The physics program at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility includes a strong effort to measure form factors and structure functions to probe the structure of hadronic matter, reveal the nature of confinement, and develop an understanding of atomic nuclei using quark-gluon degrees of freedom. The CLAS detector is a large acceptance device occupying one of the end stations. We discuss here two programs that use CLAS; measuring the magnetic form factor of the neutron and the virtual photon asymmetry of the proton. The form factor has been measured with unprecedented kinematic coverage and precision up to Q2=4.7 GeV2 and is consistent within 5%-10% of the dipole parameterization. The proton virtual photon asymmetry has been measured across a wide range in Bjorken x. The data exceed the SU(6)-symmetric quark prediction and show evidence of a smooth approach to the scaling limit prescribed by perturbative QCD.

  18. The direct measurement of structural mass, stiffness and damping properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. G.; Dobson, B. J.

    1991-02-01

    A method is described for directly evaluating the spatial properties (i.e., mass, stiffness and damping) of a structure from experimentally measured frequency response data. The resulting structural model can be compared directly with an equivalent finite element idealization. The effects of model reduction, such as the Guyan method, which can be employed to ensure that the experimental and theoretical models contain comparable degrees of freedom, are discussed. It is shown that it is possible to detect regions within the structure at which differences exist between the experimental and theoretical models. Further, it is demonstrated that the resulting experimentally derived models can be used to predict the effects of structural modifications upon the frequency response behaviour of the structure.

  19. The study of precision measurement of pelvis spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang; Ouyang, Jianfei; Qu, Xinghua

    2009-12-01

    Osteometry is fundamental for anthropometry. It provides the key technology and value to the study of palaeoanthropology, medicine, and criminal investigation. The traditional osteometry that has been widely accepted and used since 18th century has no longer met the information demand for modern research and application. It is significant and necessary to create an advanced 3-dimensional osteometry technique for anthropometry. This paper presents a new quick and accurate method to measure human pelvis through mathematical modeling. The pelvis is a complex combination of bones, which consists of three connected parts: hipbones, sacrum, and coccyx. There are over 40 items to be measured for the 1-dimension characteristics. In this paper, a combined measuring technology is developed for pelvis measurement. It uses machine vision systems and a portable measuring arm to obtain key geometry parameters of the pelvis. The mathematics models of the pelvis spatial structure and its parts are created through the process of data collecting, digging, assembling, and modeling. The experiment shows that the proposed technology can meet traditional osteometry and obtain entire 1D geometric parameters of the pelvis, such as maximum breadth and height, diameter of obstetric conjugata, inclination angle, and sakralneigungswinkel, etc. at the same time after modeling. Besides making the measurements above, the proposed technology can measure the geometry characteristics of pelvis and its parts, such as volume, surface area, curvature, and spatial structure, which are almost impossible for traditional technology. The overall measuring error is less than 0.1mm.

  20. The study of precision measurement of pelvis spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang; Ouyang, Jianfei; Qu, Xinghua

    2010-03-01

    Osteometry is fundamental for anthropometry. It provides the key technology and value to the study of palaeoanthropology, medicine, and criminal investigation. The traditional osteometry that has been widely accepted and used since 18th century has no longer met the information demand for modern research and application. It is significant and necessary to create an advanced 3-dimensional osteometry technique for anthropometry. This paper presents a new quick and accurate method to measure human pelvis through mathematical modeling. The pelvis is a complex combination of bones, which consists of three connected parts: hipbones, sacrum, and coccyx. There are over 40 items to be measured for the 1-dimension characteristics. In this paper, a combined measuring technology is developed for pelvis measurement. It uses machine vision systems and a portable measuring arm to obtain key geometry parameters of the pelvis. The mathematics models of the pelvis spatial structure and its parts are created through the process of data collecting, digging, assembling, and modeling. The experiment shows that the proposed technology can meet traditional osteometry and obtain entire 1D geometric parameters of the pelvis, such as maximum breadth and height, diameter of obstetric conjugata, inclination angle, and sakralneigungswinkel, etc. at the same time after modeling. Besides making the measurements above, the proposed technology can measure the geometry characteristics of pelvis and its parts, such as volume, surface area, curvature, and spatial structure, which are almost impossible for traditional technology. The overall measuring error is less than 0.1mm.

  1. The refined 1.9-A X-ray crystal structure of D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone-inhibited human alpha-thrombin: structure analysis, overall structure, electrostatic properties, detailed active-site geometry, and structure-function relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bode, W.; Turk, D.; Karshikov, A.

    1992-01-01

    Thrombin is a multifunctional serine proteinase that plays a key role in coagulation while exhibiting several other key cellular bioregulatory functions. The X-ray crystal structure of human alpha-thrombin was determined in its complex with the specific thrombin inhibitor D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone (PPACK) using Patterson search methods and a search model derived from trypsinlike proteinases of known spatial structure (Bode, W., Mayr, I., Baumann, U., Huber, R., Stone, S.R., & Hofsteenge, J., 1989, EMBO J. 8, 3467-3475). The crystallographic refinement of the PPACK-thrombin model has now been completed at an R value of 0.156 (8 to 1.92 A); in particular, the amino- and the carboxy-termini of the thrombin A-chain are now defined and all side-chain atoms localized; only proline 37 was found to be in a cis-peptidyl conformation. The thrombin B-chain exhibits the characteristic polypeptide fold of trypsinlike serine proteinases; 195 residues occupy topologically equivalent positions with residues in bovine trypsin and 190 with those in bovine chymotrypsin with a root-mean-square (r.m.s.) deviation of 0.8 A for their alpha-carbon atoms. Most of the inserted residues constitute novel surface loops. A chymotrypsinogen numbering is suggested for thrombin based on the topological equivalences. The thrombin A-chain is arranged in a boomeranglike shape against the B-chain globule opposite to the active site; it resembles somewhat the propeptide of chymotrypsin(ogen) and is similarly not involved in substrate and inhibitor binding. Thrombin possesses an exceptionally large proportion of charged residues. The negatively and positively charged residues are not distributed uniformly over the whole molecule, but are clustered to form a sandwichlike electrostatic potential; in particular, two extended patches of mainly positively charged residues occur close to the carboxy-terminal B-chain helix (forming the presumed heparin-binding site) and on the surface of loop segment 70

  2. New Observables for Measuring Rapidity Correlation Structure in Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carzon, Patrick; Gavin, Sean; Moschelli, George; Zin, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The rapidity dependence of two-particle momentum correlations can be used to probe the viscosity of the liquid produced in heavy nuclei collisions at RHIC. In addition, more refined rapidity structure of these correlations can be used to measure the isotropization time scale τπ of this liquid. While earlier theory and measurements have focused on correlations of the transverse momentum pt, the interpretation of these measurements is ambiguous because pt is not a conserved quantity. Correlations of the Cartesian components of transverse momenta, px and py are easier to understand because they are conserved. We use the heavy ion simulation code AMPT to explore the correlations of these quantities.

  3. A Structured-Grid Quality Measure for Simulated Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    A structured-grid quality measure is proposed, combining three traditional measurements: intersection angles, stretching, and curvature. Quality assesses whether the grid generated provides the best possible tradeoffs in grid stretching and skewness that enable accurate flow predictions, whereas the grid density is assumed to be a constraint imposed by the available computational resources and the desired resolution of the flow field. The usefulness of this quality measure is assessed by comparing heat transfer predictions from grid convergence studies for grids of varying quality in the range of [0.6-0.8] on an 8'half-angle sphere-cone, at laminar, perfect gas, Mach 10 wind tunnel conditions.

  4. Measuring RNA structure transcriptome-wide with icSHAPE.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dalen; Feng, Chao; Spitale, Robert C

    2017-03-20

    RNA molecules can be found at the heart of nearly every aspect of gene regulation: from gene expression to protein translation. The ability of RNA molecules to fold into intricate structures guides their function. Chemical methods to measure RNA structure have been part of the RNA biologists toolkit for several decades. These methods, although often cumbersome and difficult to perform on large RNAs, are notable for their accuracy and precision of structural measurements. Recent extension of these methods to transcriptome-wide analyses has opened the door to interrogating the structure of complete RNA molecules inside cells. Within this manuscript we describe the biochemical basis for the methodology behind a novel technology, icSHAPE, which measures RNA flexibility and single-strandedness in RNA. Novel methods such as icSHAPE have greatly expanded our understanding of RNA function and have paved the way to expansive analyses of large groups of RNA structures as they function inside the native environment of the cell.

  5. Skin phantoms with realistic vessel structure for OCT measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. V.; Popov, A. P.; Kinnunen, M.; Prykäri, T.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Myllylä, R.

    2010-11-01

    We present here a novel phantom for optical coherence tomography (OCT) made of polyvinyl chloride-plastisol (PVCP). The optical properties of PVCP were estimated by the Mie theory and deduced from OCT measurements. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder and black plastic colour (light-absorbing plastic ink) were used to introduce scattering to the phantom and create capillary structure, respectively.

  6. Uncertainty Quantification for Monitoring of Civil Structures from Vibration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhler, Michael; Mevel, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Health Monitoring of civil structures can be performed by detecting changes in the modal parameters of a structure, or more directly in the measured vibration signals. For a continuous monitoring the excitation of a structure is usually ambient, thus unknown and assumed to be noise. Hence, all estimates from the vibration measurements are realizations of random variables with inherent uncertainty due to (unknown) process and measurement noise and finite data length. In this talk, a strategy for quantifying the uncertainties of modal parameter estimates from a subspace-based system identification approach is presented and the importance of uncertainty quantification in monitoring approaches is shown. Furthermore, a damage detection method is presented, which is based on the direct comparison of the measured vibration signals without estimating modal parameters, while taking the statistical uncertainty in the signals correctly into account. The usefulness of both strategies is illustrated on data from a progressive damage action on a prestressed concrete bridge. References E. Carden and P. Fanning. Vibration based condition monitoring: a review. Structural Health Monitoring, 3(4):355-377, 2004. M. Döhler and L. Mevel. Efficient multi-order uncertainty computation for stochastic subspace identification. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 38(2):346-366, 2013. M. Döhler, L. Mevel, and F. Hille. Subspace-based damage detection under changes in the ambient excitation statistics. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 45(1):207-224, 2014.

  7. Factor Structure and Validation of a Set of Readiness Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Maurice; Lynch, Mervin

    A study was undertaken to identify the factor structure of a battery of readiness measures and to demonstrate the concurrent and predictive validity of one instrument in that battery--the Pre-Reading Screening Procedures (PSP). Concurrent validity was determined by examining the correlation of the PSP with the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT),…

  8. The Effect of Quantum-Mechanical Interference on Precise Measurements of the n = 2 Triplet P Fine Structure of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Marsman, A.; Horbatsch, M.; Hessels, E. A.

    2015-09-15

    For many decades, improvements in both theory and experiment of the fine structure of the n = 2 triplet P levels of helium have allowed for an increasingly precise determination of the fine-structure constant. Recently, it has been observed that quantum-mechanical interference between neighboring resonances can cause significant shifts, even if such neighboring resonances are separated by thousands of natural widths. The shifts depend in detail on the experimental method used for the measurement, as well as the specific experimental parameters employed. Here, we review how these shifts apply for the most precise measurements of the helium 2{sup 3}P fine-structure intervals.

  9. Lidar Measurements of the Thermic Structure in the Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Ch.

    1973-01-01

    Lidar measurements by UTHE (1972) and similar measurements with acoustic radar by HALL (1972) have shown, that short time variations in the troposphere can be determined. Aerosol backscatter measurements give the vertical structure. A series of such results shows the time variation of the tropospheric structure. The Figure is an example for a measuring period during half an hour in summer 1972 (1 pulse per minute). These variations were produced by humidity variations. For example, at humidity variations from 75% to 77% aerosol particles with 1 micron radius change their radii during 50 to 100 milliseconds. By lidar technique it is possible to determine this effect qualitatively. With a pulse repetition rate of 1 per second we plan to investigate the thermic structure at different weather conditions. By simultaneous measurements of the nitrogen Raman component it would be possible to compare the short time variations by temperature and humidity. The influence of wind can be determined by scanning a defined region (region or space). The meteorologist is interested in results of short time variations in the troposphere (microscale). By this remote sensing method he can get these values continuously.

  10. Structural Measurements from Images of Noble Gas Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadman, Robert V.; Kadlecek, Stephen J.; Emami, Kiarash; MacDuffie Woodburn, John; Vahdat, Vahid; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of externally polarized noble gases such as ^3He has been used for pulmonary imaging for more than a decade. Because gas diffusion is impeded by the alveoli, the diffusion coefficient of gas in the lung, measured on a time scale of milliseconds, is reduced compared to that of the same gas mixture in the absence of restrictions. When the alveolar walls decay, as in emphysema, diffusivity in the lung increases. In this paper, the relationship between diffusion measurements and the size of the restricting structures will be discussed. The simple case of diffusion in an impermeable cylinder, a structure similar to the upper respiratory airways in mammals, has been studied. A procedure will be presented by which airways of order 2 mm in diameter may be accurately measured; demonstration experiments with plastic tubes will also be presented. The additional developments needed before this technique becomes practical will be briefly discussed.

  11. Measurement of the proton structure function F 2 from the 1993 HERA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Thron, J.; Arzarello, F.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Ciralli, F.; Contin, A.; D'Auria, S.; Frasconi, F.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Katz, U. F.; Mari, S. M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, Ch.; Schattevoy, R.; Schneider, J.-L.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Morgado, C. J. S.; Norman, D. J. P.; O'Mara, J. A.; Tapper, R. J.; Wilson, S. S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R. R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Gialas, I.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Eskreys, K.; Jeleń, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarębska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zając, J.; Kędzierski, T.; Kotański, A.; Przybycień, M.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Bienlein, J. K.; Böttcher, S.; Coldewey, C.; Drews, G.; Flasiński, M.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Göttlicher, P.; Gutjahr, B.; Haas, T.; Hagge, L.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Heßling, H.; Hultschig, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Köpke, L.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kröger, W.; Krüger, J.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Löwe, M.; Lüke, D.; Mainusch, J.; Mańczak, O.; Ng, J. S. T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.; Roldán, J.; Schneekloth, U.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Voß, T.; Westphal, D.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Grabosch, H. J.; Leich, A.; Meyer, A.; Rethfeldt, C.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Pelfer, P.; Anzivino, G.; Maccarrone, G.; de Pasquale, S.; Qian, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Freidhof, A.; Poser, T.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Schroeder, J.; Theisen, G.; Trefzger, T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Fleck, I.; Jamieson, V. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Utley, M. L.; Wilson, A. S.; Dannemann, A.; Holm, U.; Horstmann, D.; Kammerlocher, H.; Krebs, B.; Neumann, T.; Sinkus, R.; Wick, K.; Badura, E.; Burow, B. D.; Fürtjes, A.; Lohrmann, E.; Milewski, J.; Nakahata, M.; Pavel, N.; Poelz, G.; Schott, W.; Terron, J.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Beuselinck, R.; Butterworth, I.; Gallo, E.; Harris, V. L.; Hung, B. H.; Long, K. R.; Miller, D. B.; Morawitz, P. P. O.; Prinias, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Whitfield, A. F.; Mallik, U.; McCliment, E.; Wang, M. Z.; Zhang, Y.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; An, S. H.; Hong, S. M.; Nam, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Suh, M. H.; Yon, S. H.; Imlay, R.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Nadendla, V. K.; Barreiro, F.; Cases, G.; Graciani, R.; Hernández, J. M.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; Del Peso, J.; Puga, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Ikraiam, F.; Mayer, J. K.; Smith, G. R.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D. S.; Hartmann, J.; Hung, L. W.; Lim, J. N.; Matthews, C. G.; Mitchell, J. W.; Patel, P. M.; Sinclair, L. E.; Stairs, D. G.; St. Laurent, M.; Ullmann, R.; Bashkirov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Stifutkin, A.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Kobrin, V. D.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Savin, A. A.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Solomin, A. N.; Zotov, N. P.; Bentvelsen, S.; Botje, M.; Chlebana, F.; Dake, A.; Engelen, J.; de Jong, P.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; O'Dell, V.; Tenner, A.; Tiecke, H.; Verkerke, W.; Vreeswijk, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Acosta, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Honscheid, K.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; McLean, K. W.; Murray, W. N.; Park, I. H.; Romanowski, T. A.; Seidlein, R.; Bailey, D. S.; Blair, G. A.; Byrne, A.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Daniels, D.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Harnew, N.; Lancaster, M.; Luffman, P. E.; Lindemann, L.; McFall, J.; Nath, C.; Quadt, A.; Uijterwaal, H.; Walczak, R.; Wilson, F. F.; Yip, T.; Abbiendi, G.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; de Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Bulmahn, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Feild, R. G.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; D'Agostini, G.; Iori, M.; Marini, G.; Mattioli, M.; Nigro, A.; Tassi, E.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Prytz, K.; Shah, T. P.; Short, T. L.; Barberis, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Dubbs, T.; Heusch, C.; van Hook, M.; Hubbard, B.; Lockman, W.; Rahn, J. T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Biltzinger, J.; Seifert, R. J.; Walenta, A. H.; Zech, G.; Abramowicz, H.; Briskin, G.; Dagan, S.; Levy, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishii, T.; Kuze, M.; Mine, S.; Nagasawa, Y.; Nagira, T.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, I.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Homma, K.; Kitamura, S.; Nagayama, S.; Nakamitsu, Y.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Lamberti, L.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Benard, F.; Brkic, M.; Crombie, M. B.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hartner, G. F.; Joo, K. K.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Sampson, C. R.; Teuscher, R. J.; Catterall, C. D.; Jones, T. W.; Kaziewicz, P. B.; Lane, J. B.; Saunders, R. L.; Shulman, J.; Blankenship, K.; Kochocki, J.; Lu, B.; Mo, L. W.; Bogusz, W.; Charchula, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kasprzak, M.; Krzyżanowski, M.; Muchorowski, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Eisenberg, Y.; Glasman, C.; Karshon, U.; Revel, D.; Shapira, A.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Dasu, S.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Loveless, R. J.; Reeder, D. D.; Silverstein, S.; Smith, W. H.; Tsurugai, T.; Bhadra, S.; Frisken, W. R.; Furutani, K. M.

    1995-09-01

    The ZEUS detector has been used to measure the proton structure function F 2. During 1993 HERA collided 26.7 GeV electrons on 820 GeV protons. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 0.54 pb-1, representing a twenty fold increase in statistics compared to that of 1992. Results are presented for 7< Q 2<104 GeV2 and x values as low as 3×10-4. The rapid rise in F 2 as x decreases observed previously is now studied in greater detail and persists for Q 2 values up to 500 GeV2.

  12. Advanced optical measuring systems for measuring the properties of fluids and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Four advanced optical models are reviewed for the measurement of visualization of flow and structural properties. Double-exposure, diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry can be used for three-dimensional flow visualization. When this method is combined with optical heterodyning, precise measurements of structural displacements or fluid density are possible. Time-average holography is well known as a method for displaying vibrational mode shapes, but it also can be used for flow visualization and flow measurements. Deflectometry is used to measure or visualize the deflection of light rays from collimation. Said deflection occurs because of refraction in a fluid or because of reflection from a tilted surface. The moire technique for deflectometry, when combined with optical heterodyning, permits very precise measurements of these quantities. The rainbow schlieren method of deflectometry allows varying deflection angles to be encoded with colors for visualization.

  13. Topography measurement of micro structure by modulation-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Tang, Yan; Liu, Junbo; Deng, Qinyuan; Cheng, Yiguang; Hu, Song

    2016-10-01

    Dimensional metrology for micro structure plays an important role in addressing quality issues and observing the performance of micro-fabricated products. Different from the traditional white-light interferometry approach, the modulation-based method is expected to measure topography of micro structure by the obtained modulation of each interferometry image. Through seeking the maximum modulation of every pixel respectively in Z direction, the method could obtain the corresponding height of individual pixel and finally get topography of the structure. Owing to the characteristic of modulation, the proposed method which is not influenced by the change of background light intensity caused by instable light source and different reflection index of the structure could be widely applied with high stability. The paper both illustrates the principle of this novel method and conducts the experiment to verify the feasibility.

  14. Detailed Geological Modelling in Urban Areas focused on Structures relevant to the Near Surface Groundwater Flow in the context of Climatic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, T.; Pallesen, T. M.; Jensen, N. P.; Mielby, S.; Sandersen, P.; Kristensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a practical example from the city of Odense (DK) where new geological modeling techniques has been developed and used in the software GeoScene3D, to create a detailed voxel model of the anthropogenic layer. The voxel model has been combined with a regional hydrostratigraphic layer model. The case is part of a pilot project partly financed by VTU (Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector) and involves many different datatypes such as borehole information, geophysical data, human related elements (landfill, pipelines, basements, roadbeds etc). In the last few years, there has been increased focus on detailed geological modeling in urban areas. The models serve as important input to hydrological models. This focus is partly due to climate changes as high intensity rainfalls are seen more often than in the past, and water recharge is a topic too. In urban areas, this arises new challenges. There is a need of a high level of detailed geological knowledge for the uppermost zone of the soil, which typically are problematic due to practically limitations, especially when using geological layer models. Furthermore, to accommodate the need of a high detail, all relevant available data has to be used in the modeling process. Human activity has deeply changed the soil layers, e.g. by constructions as roadbeds, buildings with basements, pipelines, landfill etc. These elements can act as barriers or pathways regarding surface near groundwater flow and can attribute to local flooding or mobilization and transport of contaminants etc. A geological voxel model is built by small boxes (a voxel). Each box can contain several parameters, ex. lithology, transmissivity or contaminant concentration. Human related elements can be implemented using tools, which gives the modeler advanced options for making detailed small-scale models. This case demonstrates the workflow and the resulting geological model for the pilot area.

  15. Measuring the robustness of network community structure using assortativity

    PubMed Central

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; Farine, Damien R.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of discrete social clusters, or ‘communities’, is a common feature of social networks in human and nonhuman animals. The level of such community structure in networks is typically measured using an index of modularity, Q. While modularity quantifies the degree to which individuals associate within versus between social communities and provides a useful measure of structure in the social network, it assumes that the network has been well sampled. However, animal social network data is typically subject to sampling errors. In particular, the associations among individuals are often not sampled equally, and animal social network studies are often based on a relatively small set of observations. Here, we extend an existing framework for bootstrapping network metrics to provide a method for assessing the robustness of community assignment in social networks using a metric we call community assortativity (rcom). We use simulations to demonstrate that modularity can reliably detect the transition from random to structured associations in networks that differ in size and number of communities, while community assortativity accurately measures the level of confidence based on the detectability of associations. We then demonstrate the use of these metrics using three publicly available data sets of avian social networks. We suggest that by explicitly addressing the known limitations in sampling animal social network, this approach will facilitate more rigorous analyses of population-level structural patterns across social systems. PMID:26949266

  16. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  17. Deriving Structural Information from Experimentally Measured Data on Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Allison, Jane R; Daura, Xavier; Dolenc, Jožica; Hansen, Niels; Mark, Alan E; Oostenbrink, Chris; Rusu, Victor H; Smith, Lorna J

    2016-12-23

    During the past half century, the number and accuracy of experimental techniques that can deliver values of observables for biomolecular systems have been steadily increasing. The conversion of a measured value Q(exp) of an observable quantity Q into structural information is, however, a task beset with theoretical and practical problems: 1) insufficient or inaccurate values of Q(exp) , 2) inaccuracies in the function Q(r→) used to relate the quantity Q to structure r→ , 3) how to account for the averaging inherent in the measurement of Q(exp) , 4) how to handle the possible multiple-valuedness of the inverse r→(Q) of the function Q(r→) , to mention a few. These apply to a variety of observable quantities Q and measurement techniques such as X-ray and neutron diffraction, small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering, free-electron laser imaging, cryo-electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, circular dichroism, Förster resonance energy transfer, atomic force microscopy and ion-mobility mass spectrometry. The process of deriving structural information from measured data is reviewed with an eye to non-experts and newcomers in the field using examples from the literature of the effect of the various choices and approximations involved in the process. A list of choices to be avoided is provided.

  18. DESDynI Lidar Measurements of Forest Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranson, J.; Cook, B. D.; Blair, B.; Dubayah, R.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, NASA received directions from the National Academy of Science through its report “Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond” report to launch a mission to study the Earth’s forested ecosystems, ice sheets and glaciers and areas prone to volcanoes and earthquakes. Two complementary technologies were recommended: 1) Multi-Beam LiDAR, and 2) L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to be flown as the Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics ( DESDynI) mission. The emphasis of the SAR is solid earth and cryosphere, whereas the lidar will focus on ecosystem structure and also make ice sheet and glacier elevation measurements. The mission will launch the lidar and radar as separate platforms beginning as early as October 2017. The horizontal and vertical structure of ecosystems are a key features that enable quantification of carbon storage, the effects of such disturbances as fire, and species habitats. Above-ground woody biomass and its associated below-ground biomass store a large pool of terrestrial carbon. Quantifying changes in the size of the pool, its horizontal distribution, and its vertical structure resulting from natural and human-induced perturbations, such as deforestation and fire, and the recovery processes is critical for measuring ecosystem change. The DESDynI LiDAR data will accurately above ground sample vegetation 3-D parameters (including canopy height, vertical profile and high levels of biomass) over all the Earth;s forests. The LiDAR measurements include vegetation height, the vertical profile of canopy elements (i.e., leaves, stems, branches), and/or the volume scattering of canopy elements. This set of measurements is critical for reducing uncertainties in the global carbon budget. A complete set of ecosystem structure measurements requires LiDAR waveforms and polarimetric SAR. The fusion of these types of data will be important to provide accurate and higher resolution data

  19. Final Results from Mexnext-I: Analysis of detailed aerodynamic measurements on a 4.5 m diameter rotor placed in the large German Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, J. G.; Boorsma, K.; Munduate, X.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the final results from the first phase of IEA Task 29 'Mexnext'. Mexnext was a joint project in which 20 parties from 11 different countries cooperated. The main aim of Mexnext was to analyse the wind tunnel measurements which have been taken in the EU project 'MEXICO'. In the MEXICO project 10 institutes from 6 countries cooperated in doing experiments on an instrumented, 3 bladed wind turbine of 4.5 m diameter placed in the 9.5 by 9.5 m2 open section of the Large Low-speed Facility (LLF) of DNW in the Netherlands. Pressure distributions on the blades were obtained from 148 Kulite pressure sensors, distributed over 5 sections at 25, 35, 60, 82 and 92 % radial position respectively. Blade loads were monitored through two strain-gauge bridges at each blade root. Most interesting however are the extensive PIV flow field measurements, which have been taken simultaneously with the pressure and load measurements. As a result of the international collaboration within this task a very thorough analysis of the data could be carried out and a large number of codes were validated not only in terms of loads but also in terms of underlying flow field. The paper will present several results from Mexnext-I, i.e. validation results and conclusion on modelling deficiencies and directions for model improvement. The future plans of the Mexnext consortium are also briefly discussed. Amongst these are Mexnext-II, a project in which also aerodynamic measurements other than MEXICO are included, and 'New MEXICO' in which additional measurement on the MEXICO model are performed.

  20. NOSS Altimeter Detailed Algorithm specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Mcmillan, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The details of the algorithms and data sets required for satellite radar altimeter data processing are documented in a form suitable for (1) development of the benchmark software and (2) coding the operational software. The algorithms reported in detail are those established for altimeter processing. The algorithms which required some additional development before documenting for production were only scoped. The algorithms are divided into two levels of processing. The first level converts the data to engineering units and applies corrections for instrument variations. The second level provides geophysical measurements derived from altimeter parameters for oceanographic users.

  1. Microwave Sensor for Blade Tip Clearance and Structural Health Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Mark R.; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of microwave based sensors for the health monitoring of rotating machinery is being explored at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The microwave sensor works on the principle of sending a continuous signal towards a rotating component and measuring the reflected signal. The phase shift of the reflected signal is proportional to the distance between the sensor and the component that is being measured. This type of sensor is beneficial in that it has the ability to operate at extremely high temperatures and is unaffected by contaminants that may be present in the rotating machinery. It is intended to use these probes in the hot sections of turbine engines for closed loop turbine clearance control and structural health measurements. Background on the sensors, an overview of their calibration and preliminary results from using them to make blade tip clearance and health measurements on a large axial vane fan will be presented.

  2. Business process performance measurement: a structured literature review of indicators, measures and metrics.

    PubMed

    Van Looy, Amy; Shafagatova, Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of business processes has become a central issue in both academia and business, since organizations are challenged to achieve effective and efficient results. Applying performance measurement models to this purpose ensures alignment with a business strategy, which implies that the choice of performance indicators is organization-dependent. Nonetheless, such measurement models generally suffer from a lack of guidance regarding the performance indicators that exist and how they can be concretized in practice. To fill this gap, we conducted a structured literature review to find patterns or trends in the research on business process performance measurement. The study also documents an extended list of 140 process-related performance indicators in a systematic manner by further categorizing them into 11 performance perspectives in order to gain a holistic view. Managers and scholars can consult the provided list to choose the indicators that are of interest to them, considering each perspective. The structured literature review concludes with avenues for further research.

  3. Fluorescent target array killing assay: a multiplex cytotoxic T-cell assay to measure detailed T-cell antigen specificity and avidity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Quah, Benjamin J C; Wijesundara, Danushka K; Ranasinghe, Charani; Parish, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe a multiplex, fluorescence-based, in vivo cytotoxic T-cell assay using the three vital dyes carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, cell trace violet, and cell proliferation dye efluor 670. When used to label cells in combination, these dyes can discriminate >200 different target cell populations in the one animal due to each target population having a unique fluorescence signature based on fluorescence intensity and the different emission wavelengths of the dyes. This allows the simultaneous measurement of the in vivo killing of target cells pulsed with numerous peptides at different concentrations and the inclusion of many replicates. This fluorescent target array killing assay can be used to measure the fine antigen specificity and avidity of polyclonal cytotoxic T-cell responses in vivo, immunological parameters that were previously impossible to monitor.

  4. Evaluation of multilayered pavement structures from measurements of surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryden, N.; Lowe, M.J.S.; Cawley, P.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  5. The combustion chemistry of a fuel tracer: Measured flame speeds and ignition delays and a detailed chemical kinetic model for the oxidation of acetone

    SciTech Connect

    Pichon, S.; Black, G.; Simmie, J.M.; Curran, H.J.; Chaumeix, N.; Yahyaoui, M.; Donohue, R.

    2009-02-15

    Acetone ignition delay and stretch-free laminar flame speed measurements have been carried out and a kinetic model has been developed to simulate these and literature data for acetone and for ketene, which was found to be an important intermediate in its oxidation. The mechanism has been based on one originally devised for dimethyl ether and modified through validation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane sub-mechanisms. Acetone oxidation in argon was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1340-1930 K, at 1 atm and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1 and 2; it is also shown that the addition of up to 15% acetone to a stoichiometric n-heptane mixture has no effect on the measured ignition delay times. Flame speeds at 298 K and 1 atm of pure acetone in air were measured in a spherical bomb; a maximum flame speed of {proportional_to}35 cm s{sup -1} at {phi}=1.15 is indicated. (author)

  6. A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

    2013-01-01

    This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

  7. Light scattering measurements supporting helical structures for chromatin in solution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A M; Cotter, R I; Pardon, J F

    1978-05-01

    Laser light scattering measurements have been made on a series of polynucleosomes containing from 50 to 150 nucleosomes. Radii of gyration have been determined as a function of polynucleosome length for different ionic strength solutions. The results suggest that at low ionic strength the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure rather than a random coil. The helix becomes more regular on increasing the ionic strength, the dimension resembling those proposed by Finch and Klug for their solenoid model.

  8. Spin structure functions: Proton / deuteron measurements in the resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Jones; RSS Collaboration

    2006-02-01

    The RSS experiment ran in Hall C at Jefferson Lab and measured the proton and deuteron beam-target asymmetries for parallel and perpendicular target fields over a W range from pion threshold to 1.9 GeV at Q{sup 2} {approx} 1.3 GeV{sup 2}. Preliminary results for the proton spin structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} are presented.

  9. Direct mapping of chemical oxidation of individual graphene sheets through dynamic force measurements at the nanoscale† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further details regarding the measurement, UV/ozone treatment, adhesion measurement, graphene height characterization, detailed sample preparation, flow chart of the measurement, PeakForce mode, environmental stabilization and Raman spectra of treated samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr05799c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Froning, Jens P.; Lazar, Petr; Pykal, Martin; Li, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide is one of the most studied nanomaterials owing to its huge application potential in many fields, including biomedicine, sensing, drug delivery, optical and optoelectronic technologies. However, a detailed description of the chemical composition and the extent of oxidation in graphene oxide remains a key challenge affecting its applicability and further development of new applications. Here, we report direct monitoring of the chemical oxidation of an individual graphene flake during ultraviolet/ozone treatment through in situ atomic force microscopy based on dynamic force mapping. The results showed that graphene oxidation expanded from the graphene edges to the entire graphene surface. The interaction force mapping results correlated well with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data quantifying the degree of chemical oxidation. Density functional theory calculations confirmed the specific interaction forces measured between a silicon tip and graphene oxide. The developed methodology can be used as a simple protocol for evaluating the chemical functionalization of other two-dimensional materials with covalently attached functional groups. PMID:27735008

  10. Evaluation of measured data for identification of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laermann, Karl-Hans

    2002-05-01

    Supervising and health monitoring of engineering structures presupposes application of experimental mechanics methods. They have to yield the data-base, i.e. the state of displacement and strain respectively to control the design data and to determine the internal parameters like the stress-state, the structural response, the reliability, safety and probable service-life. To obtain these finally wanted information the measured quantities are to evaluate. This leads to inverse problems, the solution of which requires proper mathematical/numerical methods. With concern to truss- and frame-works as well as to plane- and shell- structures some algorithms will be presented, which have been proven by a few examples.

  11. Measurement of the Structural Unit in magnetic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, T.; Bissell, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the Structural Unit (SU - containing both the solid phase and trapped­fluid within their associated structures) in magnetic dispersions has been carried out using Hindered Settling (HS) analysis that uses scanning column magnetometry and cone & plate rheology techniques. From this, an equivalent Stokes' particle diameter, d, of (5.2 ≤ d ≤ 8.2) microns was determined that is approximately 22 times larger than the iron oxide particles of our formulation. A previous computer simulation based on HS theory produces complete concentration­height profiles of the sedimenting system over time that compare well when using a correspondingly large trapped­liquid fraction of around the 84% of the SU volume determined here, giving confidence in the result. As interest in iron oxide suspensions for potential biomedical and chemical decontamination/catalysis applications continues to grow an understanding of their structures is likely to become increasingly important.

  12. Measuring robustness of community structure in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Wang, Hao; Chen, Luonan

    2014-12-01

    The theory of community structure is a powerful tool for real networks, which can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks derived from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the robustness of community structure is an urgent and important task. In this letter, we employ the critical threshold of resolution parameter in Hamiltonian function, γC , to measure the robustness of a network. According to spectral theory, a rigorous proof shows that the index we proposed is inversely proportional to robustness of community structure. Furthermore, by utilizing the co-evolution model, we provides a new efficient method for computing the value of γC . The research can be applied to broad clustering problems in network analysis and data mining due to its solid mathematical basis and experimental effects.

  13. [Model-based FTIR reflectometry measurement system for deep trench structures of DRAM].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-yuan; Zhang, Chuan-wei; Shen, Hong-wei; Gu, Hua-yong

    2009-04-01

    A method and system for measuring deep trench structures of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) reflectometry is proposed. The principle of the measurement system is presented, along with a detailed description of the optical path design. By regulating the slit aperture to decrease the size of the detection spot and optimizing the incidence angle onto the wafer, the reflection from the backside of the wafer is suppressed, thus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the measurement is increased significantly. The experiments carried out on the deep trench structures of DRAM demonstrate that the trench geometric parameters can be extracted with a nanometer scale accuracy using the proposed system, thus the technique is proven to provide a non-contact, nondestructive, time-effective, low-cost and high resolution tool for the measurement of deep trench structures. It is expected that the proposed technique will find potential applications in the on-line monitoring and process control for microelectronics and microelectromechanical system (MEMS) manufacturing.

  14. System for Measuring Flexing of a Large Spaceborne Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Kuhnert, Andreas; Kovalik, Joseph; Hadaegh, Fred; Shaddock, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    An optoelectronic metrology system is used for determining the attitude and flexing of a large spaceborne radar antenna or similar structure. The measurements are needed for accurate pointing of the antenna and correction and control of the phase of the radar signal wavefront. The system includes a dual-field-of-view star tracker; a laser ranging unit (LRU) and a position-sensitive-detector (PSD)-based camera mounted on an optical bench; and fiducial targets at various locations on the structure. The fiducial targets are illuminated in sequence by laser light coupled via optical fibers. The LRU and the PSD provide measurements of the position of each fiducial target in a reference frame attached to the optical bench. During routine operation, the star tracker utilizes one field of view and functions conventionally to determine the orientation of the optical bench. During operation in a calibration mode, the star tracker also utilizes its second field of view, which includes stars that are imaged alongside some of the fiducial targets in the PSD; in this mode, the PSD measurements are traceable to star measurements.

  15. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.

  16. Method of pectus excavatum measurement based on structured light technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech; Sitnik, Robert; Witkowski, Marcin; Kocoń, Hanna; Bolewicki, Pawel; Górecki, Andrzej

    2009-07-01

    We present an automatic method for assessment of pectus excavatum severity based on an optical 3-D markerless shape measurement. A four-directional measurement system based on a structured light projection method is built to capture the shape of the body surface of the patients. The system setup is described and typical measurement parameters are given. The automated data analysis path is explained. Their main steps are: normalization of trunk model orientation, cutting the model into slices, analysis of each slice shape, selecting the proper slice for the assessment of pectus excavatum of the patient, and calculating its shape parameter. We develop a new shape parameter (I3ds) that shows high correlation with the computed tomography (CT) Haller index widely used for assessment of pectus excavatum. Clinical results and the evaluation of developed indexes are presented.

  17. Measuring the Internal Structure and Physical Conditions in Star and Planet Forming Clouds Cores: Towards a Quantitative Description of Cloud Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    This grant funds a research program to use infrared extinction measurements to probe the detailed structure of dark molecular cloud cores and investigate the physical conditions which give rise to star and planet formation. The goals of this program are to acquire, reduce and analyze deep infrared and molecular-line observations of a carefully selected sample of nearby dark clouds in order to determine the detailed initial conditions for star formation from quantitative measurements of the internal structure of starless cloud cores and to quantitatively investigate the evolution of such structure through the star and planet formation process.

  18. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  19. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  20. Detailed beam and plasma measurements on the vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) Penning H{sup −} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.

    2016-02-15

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) is operational at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). This project supports and guides the overall ion source R&D effort for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at RAL. The VESPA produces 100 mA of pulsed H{sup −} beam, but perveance scans indicate that the source is production-limited at extraction voltages above 12 kV unless the arc current is increased. A high resolution optical monochromator is used to measure plasma properties using argon as a diagnostic gas. The atomic hydrogen temperature increases linearly with arc current, up to 2.8 eV for 50 A; whereas the electron temperature has a slight linear decrease toward 2.2 eV. The gas density is 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, whilst the electron density is two orders of magnitude lower. Densities follow square root relationships with arc current, with gas density decreasing whilst electron (and hence ion) density increases. Stopping and range of ions in matter calculations prove that operating a high current arc with an argon admixture is extremely difficult because cathode-coated cesium is heavily sputtered by argon.

  1. Ground-based measurements of the 1.3 to 0.3 millimeter spectrum of Jupiter and Saturn, and their detailed calibration.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Juan R; Serabyn, Eugene; Wiedner, Martina C; Moreno, Raphäel; Orton, Glenn

    2017-07-01

    One of the legacies of the now retired Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) is presented in this paper. We measured for the first time the emission of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn across the 0.3 to 1.3 mm wavelength range using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer mounted on the 10.4-meter dish of the CSO at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, 4100 meters above sea level. A careful calibration, including the evaluation of the antenna performance over such a wide wavelength range and the removal of the Earth's atmosphere effects, has allowed the detection of broad absorption lines on those planets' atmospheres. The calibrated data allowed us to verify the predictions of standard models for both planets in this spectral region, and to confirm the absolute radiometry in the case of Jupiter. Besides their physical interest, the results are also important as both planets are calibration references in the current era of operating ground-based and space-borne submillimeter instruments.

  2. A standard format for reporting atomic positions in measured or calculated surface structures: The CIF file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Laurence D.

    2010-06-01

    In his editorial in this issue, the editor-in-chief emphasizes the editorial policy that any paper which involves a crystallographic structure (whether experimentally measured or theoretically calculated) must also include a complete listing of all the atomic positions within the crystal structure, either as supporting information or directly within the paper itself. He also strongly recommends that the complete crystallographic data set be included as supporting information. At the request of the editor-in-chief, I outline here the reasons why this is scientifically desirable. Furthermore, I propose here that the Surface Science community adopt the same standard format for reporting these as is already widely used in bulk crystallography publications, namely the inclusion of a Crystallographic Information Format file (or CIF file) as supporting information. Finally, I describe the details of this specific file format, with illustrative examples.

  3. Remote online monitoring and measuring system for civil engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawińska, Malgorzata; Sitnik, Robert; Dymny, Grzegorz; Karaszewski, Maciej; Michoński, Kuba; Krzesłowski, Jakub; Mularczyk, Krzysztof; Bolewicki, Paweł

    2009-06-01

    In this paper a distributed intelligent system for civil engineering structures on-line measurement, remote monitoring, and data archiving is presented. The system consists of a set of optical, full-field displacement sensors connected to a controlling server. The server conducts measurements according to a list of scheduled tasks and stores the primary data or initial results in a remote centralized database. Simultaneously the server performs checks, ordered by the operator, which may in turn result with an alert or a specific action. The structure of whole system is analyzed along with the discussion on possible fields of application and the ways to provide a relevant security during data transport. Finally, a working implementation consisting of a fringe projection, geometrical moiré, digital image correlation and grating interferometry sensors and Oracle XE database is presented. The results from database utilized for on-line monitoring of a threshold value of strain for an exemplary area of interest at the engineering structure are presented and discussed.

  4. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  5. Detection Enhancement of Protein Structural Vibrations: Measurements and Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Katherine; Xu, Mengyang; Snell, Edward; Cody, Vivian; Pace, James; Schmidt, Marius; Markelz, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Narrow band intramolecular protein vibrations have been successfully measured using crystal anisotropy THz microscopy (CATM), a near-field technique, on protein crystals. To address the question of how these motions are related to protein function we developed a variation of this technique to rapidly measure a variety of protein crystals. The variation anisotropy measurement consists of introducing a wire-grid polarizer in the THz path and rotating the polarizer between measurements, instead of the sample. While the resulting anisotropic spectra confirm reproducibility and protein specific nature of the response the signal is not directly related to the absorption spectra and in fact shows more structure than CATM. This is due to the polarization sensitivity of the electro-optical detection crystal and the changing THz polarization direction and amplitude at the detector. This combination leads to an enhancement of specific resonances and increased sensitivity to rotation of the THz polarization from the sample itself. Preliminary calculations suggest that the technique is sensitive to the birefringence associated with anisotropic absorbance. The results and significance of these measurements on protein and sucrose crystals and the calculated expected response will be discussed.

  6. Detailed structure of the low-energy magnetic dispersion of the diagonal incommensurate phase in La1.975Sr0.025CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, M.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.; Tranquada, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been performed on lightly doped La1.975Sr0.025CuO4, which contains a hole concentration slightly higher than the critical concentration for three-dimensional long-range antiferromagnetic order. We previously found that the magnetic excitation spectrum in the insulating phase with a diagonal incommensurate spin modulation has similarities to that in the superconducting regime, where the spin modulation is bond parallel. In this study, we investigate the excitations in detail around Ecross, at which the excitations become most nearly commensurate. It is found that both the magnitude and the anisotropy of the momentum width of the excitations change abruptly at Ecross. Our experimental results suggest that the magnetic excitations rising from the pair of (diagonally) incommensurate wave vectors merge at Ecross into isotropic excitations.

  7. A thermal stack structure for measurement of fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hao; Mitchell, S. J. N.; Campbell, D. H.; Gamble, Harold S.

    2003-03-01

    A stacked thermal structure for fluid flow sensing has been designed, fabricated, and tested. A double-layer polysilicon process was employed in the fabrication. Flow measurement is based on the transfer of heat from a temperature sensor element to the moving fluid. The undoped or lightly doped polysilicon temperature sensor is located on top of a heavily doped polysilicon heater element. A dielectric layer between the heater and the sensor elements provides both thermal coupling and electrical isolation. In comparison to a hot-wire flow sensor, the heating and sensing functions are separated, allowing the electrical characteristics of each to be optimized. Undoped polysilicon has a large temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) up to 7 %/K and is thus a preferred material for the sensor. However, heavily doped polysilicon is preferred for the heater due to its lower resistance. The stacked flow sensor structure offers a high thermal sensitivity making it especially suitable for medical applications where the working temperatures are restricted. Flow rates of various fluids can be measured over a wide range. The fabricated flow sensors were used to measure the flow rate of water in the range μl - ml/min and gas (Helium) in the range 10 - 100ml/min.

  8. Improving Canopy Vertical Structure Measurements with Dual-Wavelength Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Jupp, D. L. B.; Howe, G.; Hewawasam, K.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E. J.; Yang, X.; Yao, T.

    2015-12-01

    Forest canopy structure regulates radiation interception through the canopy, affects the canopy microclimate, and consequently influences the energy, water, and carbon fluxes between soil, vegetation and atmosphere through its interaction with leaf physiological functioning. To observe vertical canopy forest structure in finer and more accurate detail, we retrieved vertical profiles of leaf and woody components separately with a terrestrial laser scanner, the Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar (DWEL). DWEL scans of a hardwood site at the Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts, USA, in early May and in late September in 2014, revealed the spatial heterogeneity of the canopy vertical structure of the two vegetation components: leaves and woody materials. The DWEL collects simultaneous scans of forests with two lasers at different wavelengths, 1064 nm (NIR) and 1548 nm (SWIR). Power returned from leaves is much lower than from woody materials such as trunks and branches at the SWIR wavelength due to the liquid water absorption by leaves, whereas returned power at the NIR wavelength is similar from both leaves and woody materials. This spectral contrast between leaves and woody materials, along with spatial context information. discriminates leaves and woody materials accurately in 3-D space, thus allowing the measurement of separate leaf and woody area profiles. We also captured the change in the canopy vertical structure over the seven years by a comparison between the current measurements by the DWEL in 2014 and past measurements in 2007 at the same site by the DWEL's predecessor, a single-wavelength terrestrial lidar, the Echidna Validation Instrument. The comparison also demonstrates the advantage of dual-wavelength laser scanning by the DWEL for canopy structure measurements.

  9. UNCOVERING THE ORIGINS OF SPIRAL STRUCTURE BY MEASURING RADIAL VARIATION IN PATTERN SPEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Rand, Richard J.; Merrifield, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    Current theories of spiral and bar structure predict a variety of pattern speed behaviors, calling for detailed, direct measurement of the radial variation of pattern speeds. Our recently developed Radial Tremaine-Weinberg (TWR) method allows this goal to be achieved for the first time. Here, we present TWR spiral pattern speed estimates for M101, IC 342, NGC 3938, and NGC 3344 in order to investigate whether spiral structure is steady or winding, whether spirals are described by multiple pattern speeds, and the relation between bar and spiral speeds. Where possible, we interpret our pattern speeds estimates according to the resonance radii associated with each (established with the disk angular rotation), and compare these to previous determinations. By analyzing the high-quality H I and CO data cubes available for these galaxies, we show that it is possible to determine directly multiple pattern speeds within these systems, and hence identify the characteristic signatures of the processes that drive the spiral structure. Even this small sample of galaxies reveals a surprisingly complex taxonomy, with the first direct evidence for the presence of resonant coupling of multiple patterns found in some systems, and the measurement of a simple single-pattern speed in others. Overall, this study demonstrates that we are now in a position to uncover more of the apparently complex physics that lies behind spiral structure.

  10. Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm/sup 2/ of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4..sqrt..nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 < Q/sup 2/ < 200 GeV/sup 2//c/sup 2/. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda../sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references.

  11. Optimal ground motion intensity measure for long-period structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to select the most appropriate ground motion intensity measure (IM) that is used in selecting earthquake records for the dynamic time history analysis of long-period structures. For this purpose, six reinforced concrete frame-core wall structures, designed according to modern seismic codes, are studied through dynamic time history analyses with a set of twelve selected earthquake records. Twelve IMs and two types of seismic damage indices, namely, the maximum seismic response-based and energy-based parameters, are chosen as the examined indices. Selection criteria such as correlation, efficiency, and proficiency are considered in the selection process. The optimal IM is identified by means of a comprehensive evaluation using a large number of data of correlation, efficiency, and proficiency coefficients. Numerical results illustrate that peak ground velocity is the optimal one for long-period structures and peak ground displacement is also a close contender. As compared to previous reports, the spectral-correlated parameters can only be taken as moderate IMs. Moreover, the widely used peak ground acceleration in the current seismic codes is considered inappropriate for long-period structures.

  12. Photonic structures and their application for measuring material parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Usanov, D. A. Skripal', A. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Bogolyubov, A. S.; Kulikov, M. Yu.

    2009-12-15

    A computer simulation and an experimental study of the frequency dependences of the transmission coefficients of photonic crystals are carried out on the basis of microstrip lines with distortion in their periodicity in the form of change in the microstrip dimensions and the permittivity of a substrate of one of the alternate pieces of the microstrip line in the range of 0-20 GHz. Good quantitative agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data is obtained. It is shown that there is a possibility of using open microwave transmission lines, namely, microstrip photonic structures, to implement a method for measuring the parameters of material samples with the specified geometrical shape and a certain size that perform a function of nonuniformity in the photonic structure.

  13. Exploring the Factor Structure of Neurocognitive Measures in Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patrício Soares; Amorim, Liliana; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Cunha, Pedro; Cotter, Jorge; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Here we focus on factor analysis from a best practices point of view, by investigating the factor structure of neuropsychological tests and using the results obtained to illustrate on choosing a reasonable solution. The sample (n=1051 individuals) was randomly divided into two groups: one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the number of factors underlying the neurocognitive variables; the second to test the “best fit” model via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For the exploratory step, three extraction (maximum likelihood, principal axis factoring and principal components) and two rotation (orthogonal and oblique) methods were used. The analysis methodology allowed exploring how different cognitive/psychological tests correlated/discriminated between dimensions, indicating that to capture latent structures in similar sample sizes and measures, with approximately normal data distribution, reflective models with oblimin rotation might prove the most adequate. PMID:25880732

  14. In situ analysis of measurements of auroral dynamics and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mella, Meghan R.

    Two auroral sounding rocket case studies, one in the dayside and one in the nightside, explore aspects of poleward boundary aurora. The nightside sounding rocket, Cascades-2 was launched on 20 March 2009 at 11:04:00 UT from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska, and flew across a series of poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs). Each of the crossings have fundamentally different in situ electron energy and pitch angle structure, and different ground optics images of visible aurora. The different particle distributions show signatures of both a quasistatic acceleration mechanism and an Alfvenic acceleration mechanism, as well as combinations of both. The Cascades-2 experiment is the first sounding rocket observation of a PBI sequence, enabling a detailed investigation of the electron signatures and optical aurora associated with various stages of a PBI sequence as it evolves from an Alfvenic to a more quasistatic structure. The dayside sounding rocket, Scifer-2 was launched on 18 January 2008 at 7:30 UT from the Andoya Rocket Range in Andenes, Norway. It flew northward through the cleft region during a Poleward Moving Auroral Form (PMAF) event. Both the dayside and nightside flights observe dispersed, precipitating ions, each of a different nature. The dispersion signatures are dependent on, among other things, the MLT sector, altitude, source region, and precipitation mechanism. It is found that small changes in the shape of the dispersion have a large influence on whether the precipitation was localized or extended over a range of altitudes. It is also found that a single Maxwellian source will not replicate the data, but rather, a sum of Maxwellians of different temperature, similar to a Kappa distribution, most closely reproduces the data. The various particle signatures are used to argue that both events have similar magnetospheric drivers, that is, Bursty Bulk Flows in the magnetotail.

  15. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven

    2006-04-01

    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  16. Precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure functions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomensky, Y.G.

    1997-02-01

    In experiment E154 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n} (x, Q{sup 2}) of the neutron was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 48.3 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized {sup 3}He target. The high beam energy allowed the author to extend the kinematic coverage compared to the previous SLAC experiments to 0.014 {le} x {le} 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 GeV{sup 2}. The author reports the integral of the spin dependent structure function in the measured range to be {integral}{sub 0.014}{sup 0.7} dx g{sub 1}{sup n}(x, 5 GeV{sup 2}) = {minus}0.036 {+-} 0.004(stat.) {+-} 0.005(syst.). The author observes relatively large values of g{sub 1}{sup n} at low x that call into question the reliability of data extrapolation to x {r_arrow} 0. Such divergent behavior disagrees with predictions of the conventional Regge theory, but is qualitatively explained by perturbative QCD. The author performs a Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on the nucleon spin dependent structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n} paying careful attention to the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Using the parameterizations of the helicity-dependent parton distributions obtained in the analysis, the author evolves the data to Q{sup 2} = 5 GeV{sup 2}, determines the first moments of the polarized structure functions of the proton and neutron, and finds agreement with the Bjorken sum rule.

  17. Structure of the human FOXO4-DBD-DNA complex at 1.9 Å resolution reveals new details of FOXO binding to the DNA.

    PubMed

    Boura, Evzen; Rezabkova, Lenka; Brynda, Jiri; Obsilova, Veronika; Obsil, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    FOXO4 is a member of the FOXO subgroup of forkhead transcription factors that constitute key components of a conserved signalling pathway that connects growth and stress signals to transcriptional control. Here, the 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of human FOXO4 (FOXO4-DBD) bound to a 13 bp DNA duplex containing a FOXO consensus binding sequence is reported. The structure shows a similar recognition of the core sequence as has been shown for two other FOXO proteins. Helix H3 is docked into the major groove and provides all of the base-specific contacts, while the N-terminus and wing W1 make additional contacts with the phosphate groups of DNA. In contrast to other FOXO-DBD-DNA structures, the loop between helices H2 and H3 has a different conformation and participates in DNA binding. In addition, the structure of the FOXO4-DBD-DNA complex suggests that both direct water-DNA base contacts and the unique water-network interactions contribute to FOXO-DBD binding to the DNA in a sequence-specific manner.

  18. Tetragonal-strain-induced local structural modifications in InAsxP1-x/InP superlattices: A detailed x-ray-absorption investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascarelli, S.; Boscherini, F.; Lamberti, C.; Mobilio, S.

    1997-07-01

    We report a comprehensive investigation of the local structure around As in thin InAsxP1-x strained layers in InAsxP1-x/InP superlattices by fluorescence-detected x-ray-absorption fine structure; seven superlattice samples are studied as a function of composition, and compared to six unstrained, bulk samples of similar composition. Contributions up to the third coordination shell around As are clearly visible in the spectra, and are analyzed taking into account important multiple-scattering contributions. Results show that structural modifications due to tetragonal distortion appear mainly in the second and third coordination shells, while nearest-neighbor bond lengths remain closer to the values in unstrained bulk alloys. This implies that in semiconductor alloys tetragonal strain accommodation is mainly obtained through bond-angle distortions, in analogy to the situation in bulk pseudobinary alloys. A model which combines macroscopic elastic theory and the known local structure in bulk pseudobinary alloys is presented, and is found to fit the data very well.

  19. Friction measurement in MEMS using a new test structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crozier, B.T.; De Boer, M.P.; Redmond, J.M.; Bahr, D.F.; Michalske, T.A.

    1999-12-09

    A MEMS test structure capable of measuring friction between polysilicon surfaces under a variety of test conditions has been refined from previous designs. The device is applied here to measuring friction coefficients of polysilicon surfaces under different environmental, loading, and surface conditions. Two methods for qualitatively comparing friction coefficients ({mu}) using the device are presented. Samples that have been coated with a self-assembled monolayer of the lubricating film perfluorinated-decyltrichorosilane (PFTS) have a coefficient of friction that is approximately one-half that of samples dried using super-critical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) drying. Qualitative results indicate that {mu} is independent of normal pressure. Wear is shown to increase {mu} for both supercritically dried samples and PFTS coated samples, though the mechanisms appear to be different. Super critically dried surfaces appear to degrade continuously with increased wear cycles, while PFTS coated samples reach a steady state friction value after about 10{sup 4} cycles.

  20. Understanding the structure details when drying hydrate crystals of pharmaceuticals - interpretations from diffuse scattering and inter-modulation satellites of a partially dehydrated crystal.

    PubMed

    Chan, E J; Gao, Q; Dabros, M

    2014-06-01

    Simplified models for the crystal lattice of the sesquihydrate form of the hemi-sulfate salt of (5S,6S,9R)-5-amino-6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[b]pyridin-9-yl 4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol[4,5b]pyridin-1-yl)-1-piperidine carboxylate (BMS-927711, C28H29F2N6O3(+)) are used to calculate diffuse diffraction features in order to develop a mechanistic understanding of the dehydration process with respect to disruption of the lattice, since a Bragg model cannot be established. The model demonstrates that what we observe when the water leaves the crystal is partial transformation from the parent form to a child form (a new form, less hydrated and structurally related to the parent). Yet this `dried' structure is not a pure phase. It consists of semi-random layers of both child, parent and an interfacial layer which has a modulated structure that represents a transitory phase. Understanding the fact that a single `dried' crystal can have the disordered layer structure described as well as understanding mechanistic relationships between the phases involved can have implications in understanding the effect of common large scale bulk drying procedures. During the development of BMS-927711, difficulties did arise during characterization of the dried bulk when using only routine solid-state analysis. The material is now better understood from this diffraction study. The diffraction experiments also reveal intermodulation satellites, which upon interpretation yield even more structural information about the crystal transformation. The model suggests the mechanism of transformation is laminar in which layers of the crystal are driven to approach a stable B-centered supercell phase of lower water content.

  1. Detailed structure and tectonics of the Ninetyeast Ridge near Site ODP 758 (on new geophysical data from KNOX06RR cruise of R/V Roger Revelle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, O.; Eisin, A. E.; Ivanenko, A. N.; Marinova, J. G.; Paul, C. F.; Sborshchikov, I. M.; Sager, W. W.

    2008-12-01

    Detailed geophysical survey was carried out during the NSF-funded KNOX06RR cruise of R/V Roger Revelle in July 2007 over the ~70×70 km area near ODP Site 758, the northern Ninetyeast Ridge (NER). In addition to multibeam echo-sounder bathymetry, 3.5 kHz echo-sounder profiles, magnetic, and gravity data, high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection data were collected on eight orthogonal profiles of total length ~270 km. Large NE-trending depressions with complicated horst and graben morphology dominate the whole detailed survey area. The numerous basement faults extend upward into overlying sediments filling out these depressions. Thickness of the sedimentary fill is highly variable due to very rough basement topography, and is up to 800 m maximum. This fill is divided in two clear sedimentary layers: transparent pelagic sediments above and stratified shallow-water ones below. Two high ~400-450 m isometric seamounts extend from the surrounding NER seafloor. High-resolution seismic records show that these igneous basement highs are covered by thin transparent pelagic sediments which hamper the dredging of volcanic rocks. Seismic stratigraphy analyses for sedimentary cover over the seamounts buried slopes suggest that they seem to be recent volcanoes superimposed on the main NER edifice. Both volcanoes are clearly delineated in the constructed map of total anomaly magnetic field. Since water depths are ~2.5 km above these seamounts, the lower edge of the magnetic body in these volcanoes is situated deep at ~7 km under sea level. That appears to represent deep roots of the volcanoes. Preliminary magnetic modeling shows that they were generated during negative chron of the geomagnetic scale rather not long ago and not far from their present location, seeming to confirm the inference that these volcanoes are recent in origin. In general, one may assume a secondary phase of magmatic activity on the NER. It is important to reveal, any recent phase of tectonic and

  2. Measurement of valence band structure in arbitrary dielectric films

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.

    2012-10-15

    A new way of measuring the band structure of various dielectric materials using the secondary electron emission from Auger neutralization of ions is introduced. The first example of this measurement scheme is the magnesium oxide (MgO) films with respect to the application of the films in the display industries. The density of state in the valence bands of MgO film and MgO film with a functional layer (FL) deposited over a dielectric surface reveals that the density peak of film with a FL is considerably less than that of film, thereby indicating a better performance of MgO film with functional layer in display devices. The second example of the measurement is the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films with respect to the application of the films to the development of solar cells. The measurement of density of state in BZO film suggests that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film. Secondary electron emission by the Auger neutralization of ions is highly instrumental for the determination of the density of states in the valence band of dielectric materials.

  3. Shock structure measured in a transonic fan using laser anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Jerry R.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Simonyi, P. Susan

    1987-01-01

    Shock structure measurements acquired in a low aspect ratio transonic fan rotor are presented and analyzed. The rotor aspect ratio is 1.56 and the design tip relative Mach number is 1.38. The rotor flowfield was surveyed at near maximum efficiency and near stall operating conditions. Intra-blade velocity measurements acquired with a laser fringe anemometer on blade-to-blade planes in the supersonic region from 10 to 60 percent span are presented. The three-dimensional shock surface determined from the velocity measurments is used to determine the shock surface normal Mach number in order to properly calculate the ideal shock jump conditions. The ideal jump conditions are calculated based upon the Mach numbers measured on a surface of revolution and based upon the normal Mach number to indicate the importance of accounting for shock three dimensionality in turbomachinery design. Comparison of the shock locations with those predicted by a 3-D Euler code showed very good agreement and indicated the usefulness of integrating computational and experimental work to enhance the understanding of the flow physics occurring in transonic turbomachinery passages.

  4. LF460 detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final technical report documenting the detail design of the LF460, and advanced turbotip lift fan intended for application with the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet jet generator to a V/STOL transport research aircraft. Primary objective of the design was to achieve a low noise level while maintaining the high thrust/weight ratio capability of a high pressure ratio lift fan. Report covers design requirements and summarizes activities and final results in the areas of aerodynamic and mechanical design, component and system performance, acoustic features and final noise predictions.

  5. Crystal structures of two bacterial HECT-like E3 ligases in complex with a human E2 reveal atomic details of pathogen-host interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, David Yin-wei; Diao, Jianbo; Chen, Jue

    2012-12-10

    In eukaryotes, ubiquitination is an important posttranslational process achieved through a cascade of ubiquitin-activating (E1), conjugating (E2), and ligase (E3) enzymes. Many pathogenic bacteria deliver virulence factors into the host cell that function as E3 ligases. How these bacterial 'Trojan horses' integrate into the eukaryotic ubiquitin system has remained a mystery. Here we report crystal structures of two bacterial E3s, Salmonella SopA and Escherichia coli NleL, both in complex with human E2 UbcH7. These structures represent two distinct conformational states of the bacterial E3s, supporting the necessary structural rearrangements associated with ubiquitin transfer. The E2-interacting surface of SopA and NleL has little similarity to those of eukaryotic E3s. However, both bacterial E3s bind to the canonical surface of E2 that normally interacts with eukaryotic E3s. Furthermore, we show that a glutamate residue on E3 is involved in catalyzing ubiquitin transfer from E3 to the substrate, but not from E2 to E3. Together, these results provide mechanistic insights into the ubiquitin pathway and a framework for understanding molecular mimicry in bacterial pathogenesis.

  6. Controlled co-deposition of FePt nanoparticles embedded in MgO: a detailed investigation of structure and electronic and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addato, S.; Grillo, V.; di Bona, A.; Luches, P.; Frabboni, S.; Valeri, S.; Lupo, P.; Casoli, F.; Albertini, F.

    2013-12-01

    Films of FePt nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in MgO were obtained by controlled co-deposition of FePt NPs pre-formed by a gas aggregation source and of Mg evaporated in an oxygen atmosphere. Assemblies of core-shell FePt@MgO NPs and films of FePt NPs embedded in MgO matrix could be obtained by varying FePt and Mg deposition rates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution-TEM revealed the core-shell structure of the NPs, with an FePt core (of average diameter = 4.75 nm) presenting a multitwinned icosahedral structure, and MgO partially in crystalline form. The functional effect of the MgO shell in shielding the FePt core from external oxidation was shown with XPS. Upon controlled annealing, a transition from A1 to L10 ordering could be obtained, with structural and morphological re-arrangement. The magnetic hysteresis loops obtained from alternating gradient field magnetometry at room temperature show a ‘wasp-waist’ shape, with small values of coercive field (Hc = 300-1400 Oe), decreasing at increasing amounts of co-deposited MgO.

  7. Controlled co-deposition of FePt nanoparticles embedded in MgO: a detailed investigation of structure and electronic and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    D'Addato, S; Grillo, V; di Bona, A; Luches, P; Frabboni, S; Valeri, S; Lupo, P; Casoli, F; Albertini, F

    2013-12-13

    Films of FePt nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in MgO were obtained by controlled co-deposition of FePt NPs pre-formed by a gas aggregation source and of Mg evaporated in an oxygen atmosphere. Assemblies of core-shell FePt@MgO NPs and films of FePt NPs embedded in MgO matrix could be obtained by varying FePt and Mg deposition rates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution-TEM revealed the core-shell structure of the NPs, with an FePt core (of average diameter (d) = 4.75 nm) presenting a multitwinned icosahedral structure, and MgO partially in crystalline form. The functional effect of the MgO shell in shielding the FePt core from external oxidation was shown with XPS. Upon controlled annealing, a transition from A1 to L10 ordering could be obtained, with structural and morphological re-arrangement. The magnetic hysteresis loops obtained from alternating gradient field magnetometry at room temperature show a 'wasp-waist' shape, with small values of coercive field (Hc = 300-1400 Oe), decreasing at increasing amounts of co-deposited MgO.

  8. Detailed Shallow Structure and Seismic Catalog Based on Data of a Spatially-Dense Array on the San Jacinto Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    I review results on imaging the shallow structure of San Jacinto fault zone and detection/location of seismic energy sources using data of a spatially-dense Nodal array centered on the Clark branch of the fault. The array operated at the Sage Brush site south of Anza for about 4 weeks in 2014 with 1108 vertical (10 Hz) geophones in about 650 m x 700 m box configuration. Continuous waveforms with signals generated by the ambient seismic noise, earthquakes, and Betsy gunshots were recorded with useable frequencies up to 200 Hz. Imaging the shallow structure is done with surface and body waves extracted from the ambient noise, arrivals from local and teleseismic earthquakes, and waves generated by the gunshots. The results reveal shallow material with very low seismic velocities and attenuation coefficients, strong lateral and vertical variations, seismic trapping structure, local sedimentary basin, and overall lithology contrast across the fault. The detection/location techniques include stacking, beamforming, matched field processing, and templates generated by these methods. The analysis uncovers many hundred of daily earthquakes not detected by the regional networks and several different types of surface noise sources.

  9. Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bubacz, Jacob A; Chmielewski, Hana T; Pape, Alexander E; Depersio, Andrew J; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K; Boone, Shane

    2011-11-01

    A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.

  10. The Selective Mutism Questionnaire: Measurement Structure and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire. Method Diagnostic interviews were administered via telephone to 102 parents of children identified with selective mutism (SM) and 43 parents of children without SM from varying U.S. geographic regions. Children were between the ages of 3 and 11 inclusive and comprised 58% girls and 42% boys. SM diagnoses were determined using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children - Parent Version (ADIS-C/P); SM severity was assessed using the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ); and behavioral and affective symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to investigate the dimensionality of the SMQ and a modified parallel analysis procedure was used to confirm EFA results. Internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental validity were also examined. Results The EFA yielded a 13-item solution consisting of three factors: a) Social Situations Outside of School, b) School Situations, and c) Home and Family Situations. Internal consistency of SMQ factors and total scale ranged from moderate to high. Convergent and incremental validity were also well supported. Conclusions Measure structure findings are consistent with the 3-factor solution found in a previous psychometric evaluation of the SMQ. Results also suggest that the SMQ provides useful and unique information in the prediction of SM phenomenon beyond other child anxiety measures. PMID:18698268

  11. Temporal correlations and structural memory effects in break junction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyarkuti, A.; Lauritzen, K. P.; Balogh, Z.; Nyáry, A.; Mészáros, G.; Makk, P.; Solomon, G. C.; Halbritter, A.

    2017-03-01

    We review data analysis techniques that can be used to study temporal correlations among conductance traces in break junction measurements. We show that temporal histograms are a simple but efficient tool to check the temporal homogeneity of the conductance traces, or to follow spontaneous or triggered temporal variations, like structural modifications in trained contacts, or the emergence of single-molecule signatures after molecule dosing. To statistically analyze the presence and the decay time of temporal correlations, we introduce shifted correlation plots. Finally, we demonstrate that correlations between the opening and subsequent closing traces may indicate structural memory effects in atomic-sized metallic and molecular junctions. Applying these methods on measured and simulated gold metallic contacts as a test system, we show that the surface diffusion induced flattening of the broken junctions helps to produce statistically independent conductance traces at room temperature, whereas at low temperature repeating tendencies are observed as long as the contacts are not closed to sufficiently high conductance setpoints. Applying opening-closing correlation analysis on Pt-CO-Pt single-molecule junctions, we demonstrate pronounced contact memory effects and recovery of the molecule for junctions breaking before atomic chains are formed. However, if chains are pulled the random relaxation of the chain and molecule after rupture prevents opening-closing correlations.

  12. Imaging Dot Patterns for Measuring Gossamer Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrington, A. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Jones, T. W.; Pappa, R. S.; Connell, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    A paper describes a photogrammetric method for measuring the changing shape of a gossamer (membrane) structure deployed in outer space. Such a structure is typified by a solar sail comprising a transparent polymeric membrane aluminized on its Sun-facing side and coated black on the opposite side. Unlike some prior photogrammetric methods, this method does not require an artificial light source or the attachment of retroreflectors to the gossamer structure. In a basic version of the method, the membrane contains a fluorescent dye, and the front and back coats are removed in matching patterns of dots. The dye in the dots absorbs some sunlight and fluoresces at a longer wavelength in all directions, thereby enabling acquisition of high-contrast images from almost any viewing angle. The fluorescent dots are observed by one or more electronic camera(s) on the Sun side, the shade side, or both sides. Filters that pass the fluorescent light and suppress most of the solar spectrum are placed in front of the camera(s) to increase the contrast of the dots against the background. The dot image(s) in the camera(s) are digitized, then processed by use of commercially available photogrammetric software.

  13. Topological and geometric measurements of force-chain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Chad; Papadopoulos, Lia; Owens, Eli T.; Daniels, Karen E.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-09-01

    Developing quantitative methods for characterizing structural properties of force chains in densely packed granular media is an important step toward understanding or predicting large-scale physical properties of a packing. A promising framework in which to develop such methods is network science, which can be used to translate particle locations and force contacts into a graph in which particles are represented by nodes and forces between particles are represented by weighted edges. Recent work applying network-based community-detection techniques to extract force chains opens the door to developing statistics of force-chain structure, with the goal of identifying geometric and topological differences across packings, and providing a foundation on which to build predictions of bulk material properties from mesoscale network features. Here we discuss a trio of related but fundamentally distinct measurements of the mesoscale structure of force chains in two-dimensional (2D) packings, including a statistic derived using tools from algebraic topology, which together provide a tool set for the analysis of force chain architecture. We demonstrate the utility of this tool set by detecting variations in force-chain architecture with pressure. Collectively, these techniques can be generalized to 3D packings, and to the assessment of continuous deformations of packings under stress or strain.

  14. Observations and Measurements on Unsteady Cloud Cavitation Flow Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, L. X.; Yan, G. J.; Huang, B.

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this paper are to investigate the unsteady structures and hydrodynamics of cavitating flows. Experimental results are presented for a Clark-Y hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=0°, 5° and 8°. The high-speed video camera and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applied to investigate the transient flow structures. The dynamic measurement system is used to record the dynamic characteristics. The cloud cavitation exhibits noticeable unsteady characteristics. For the case of α=0°, there exit strong interactions between the attached cavity and the re-entrant flow. While for the case of α=8°, the re-entrant flow is relatively thin and the interaction between the cavity and re-entrant flow is limited. The results also present that the periodic collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavitation, which leads to substantial increase of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the cavity region. Experimental evidence indicates that the hydrodynamics are clearly affected by the cavitating flow structures, the amplitude of load fluctuation are much higher for the cloud cavitating cases.

  15. An Overview of Longitudinal Spin Structure Measurements from JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Sulkosky, Vincent A.

    2013-08-01

    Jefferson Lab is currently one of the facilities leading the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past 15 years, several high precision measurements have been completed, extending our knowledge of the polarized structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} down to Q{sup 2} = 0.02 GeV{sup 2}. In particular, the low-Q{sup 2} range ({<=} 0.1 GeV{sup 2}) from these data allows us to make a benchmark-check of Chiral Perturbation theory ({chi}PT). Previous results for the moments of the spin structure functions in this region have shown mixed agreement. For {Gamma}{sub 1}, the first moment of g{sub 1}, we find good consistency between data and theory. However, we have seen a surprisingly large discrepancy with {chi}PT calculations for the {delta}{sub LT} spin polarizability on the neutron, which is significantly less sensitive to the {Delta}-resonance contribution. These proceedings will discuss the recent experimental effort at low Q{sup 2} from Jefferson Lab, including a discussion of preliminary results on the neutron. The new results on the neutron still show a sizeable discrepancy between data and theory. However, new calculations show improved agreement with data for some observables. In addition, new proton data for g{sub 2} is also expected to help resolve the disagreement for {delta}{sub LT}.

  16. Topological and geometric measurements of force-chain structure.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Chad; Papadopoulos, Lia; Owens, Eli T; Daniels, Karen E; Bassett, Danielle S

    2016-09-01

    Developing quantitative methods for characterizing structural properties of force chains in densely packed granular media is an important step toward understanding or predicting large-scale physical properties of a packing. A promising framework in which to develop such methods is network science, which can be used to translate particle locations and force contacts into a graph in which particles are represented by nodes and forces between particles are represented by weighted edges. Recent work applying network-based community-detection techniques to extract force chains opens the door to developing statistics of force-chain structure, with the goal of identifying geometric and topological differences across packings, and providing a foundation on which to build predictions of bulk material properties from mesoscale network features. Here we discuss a trio of related but fundamentally distinct measurements of the mesoscale structure of force chains in two-dimensional (2D) packings, including a statistic derived using tools from algebraic topology, which together provide a tool set for the analysis of force chain architecture. We demonstrate the utility of this tool set by detecting variations in force-chain architecture with pressure. Collectively, these techniques can be generalized to 3D packings, and to the assessment of continuous deformations of packings under stress or strain.

  17. Application of symmetry operation measures in structural inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Jorge; Alvarez, Santiago

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an application of the recently proposed symmetry operation measures to the determination of the effective symmetry point group of coordination polyhedra in inorganic solids. Several structure types based on octahedra are found to present distinct distortion patterns each, not strictly attached to the crystallographic site symmetry. These include the (NH4)2[CuCl4], CdI2 (brucite), FeS2 (pyrite), TiO2 (rutile), CaCl2, GdFeO3, PbTiO3,LiNbO3, BiI3, CrCl3, Al2O3, and NiWO4 structures. It is shown that a similar analysis can be applied to the Bailar and tetragonal Jahn-Teller distortions of molecular transition metal complexes, as well as to solids based on tetrahedra, such as the ZnCl2, FeS, BeCl2, SiS2, and KFeS2 structure types.

  18. Expansion and orthogonalization of measured modes for structure identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Suzanne Weaver

    1989-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate a new simultaneous expansion/orthogonalization method in comparison with two previously published expansion methods and a widely used orthogonalization technique. Each expansion method uses data from an analytical model of the structure to complete the estimate of the mode shape vectors. Berman and Nagy used Guyan expansion in their work with improving analytical models. In this method, modes are expanded one at a time, producing a set not orthogonal with respect to the mass matrix. Baruch and Bar Itzhack's optimal orthogonalization procedure was used to subsequently adjust the expanded modes. A second expansion technique was presented by O'Callahan, Avitabile, and Reimer and separately by Kammer. Again, modes are expanded individually and orthogonalized after expansion with the same optimal technique as above. Finally, a simultaneous expansion/orthogonalization method was developed from the orthogonal Procrustes problem of computational mathematics. In this method modes are optimally expanded as a set and orthogonal with respect to the mass matrix as a result. Two demonstation problems were selected for the comparison of the methods described. The first problem is an 8 degree of freedom spring-mass problem first presented by Kabe. Several conditions were examined for expansion method including the presence of errors in the measured data and in the analysis models. As a second demonstration problem, data from tests of laboratory scale model truss structures was expanded for system identification. Tests with a complete structure produced a correlated analysis model and the stiffness and mass matrices. Tests of various damaged configurations produced measured data for 6 modes at 14 dof locations.

  19. Measurement and structural invariance of the antisocial process screening device.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lu; Wu, Hao; Waldman, Irwin D

    2014-06-01

    Despite increasing study of psychopathic traits in children and adolescents, evidence regarding the factor structure of these traits has been inconsistent across community, clinic-referred, and incarcerated samples. Empirical support exists for both 2-factor (Impulsivity-Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional) and 3-factor (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) models, and factorial invariance across various samples has not been either tested or supported in the extant literature. We conducted confirmatory factor analyses of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001) in 838 nonreferred twin pairs (M = 10.57 years, SD = 3.19 years) and 251 clinic-referred children (M = 10.82 years, SD = 3.39 years). Factorial invariance was tested across zygosity (monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins), sex (males vs. females), and age (younger vs. older children, divided by median age of 10.37 years) in the community sample and across sample type in both the community and clinic-referred samples. Results suggested that the 3-factor model fit better than did the 2-factor model in both community and clinic-referred samples. Using the best fitting 3-factor model, full measurement and structural invariance were found across zygosity, sex, and age in the community sample. Full measurement and structural invariance were also found across sample type except for differences in factor means across samples, suggesting excellent psychometric properties of the APSD. These results strongly support the robustness of the 3-factor model of psychopathic traits in children as well as the generalizability of the APSD across samples.

  20. Attention to detail helps Clarian measure ROI.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Clarian Health takes a risk and embarks on a branding strategy. Taking a multi-integrated approach, with The Heavy Weights in Indianapolis, Clarian started managing its marketing by tracking return on investment (ROI) and making the most of a CRM database. In a groundbreaking approach, it found that it was actually able to turn its marketing effort into a money-maker, leading higher-ups to see its outreach efforts as necessity.

  1. The challenge of measuring lung structure. On the "Standards for the Quantitative Assessment of Lung Structure".

    PubMed

    Weibel, Ewald R

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to call attention of respiratory scientists to an Official Policy Statement jointly issued by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society on "Standards for the Quantitative Assessment of Lung Structure", based on an extended report of a joint task force of 20 experts, and recently published in the Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. This document provides investigators of normal and diseased lung structure with a review of the stereological methods that allow measurements to be done on sections. It critically discusses the preparation procedures, the conditions for unbiased sampling of the lung for microscopic study, and the potential applications of such methods. Here we present some case studies that underpin the importance of using accurate methods of structure quantification and outline paths into the future for structure-function studies on lung diseases.

  2. Measuring asthma-specific quality of life: structured review.

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, C J; Hankins, M; Stenner, P; Frew, A J; Smith, H E

    2011-04-01

    Measuring quality of life (QoL) has become an increasingly important dimension of assessing patient well-being and drug efficacy. As there are now several asthma QoL questionnaires to choose from, it is important to appreciate their strengths and weaknesses. To assist in this choice, we have reviewed the existing questionnaires in a structured way. Information relating to the conceptual and measurement model, reliability, validity, interpretability, burden, administration format and translations was extracted from the published literature. The instruments differ in almost all criteria considered, and therefore it cannot be assumed that they measure the same thing. We recommend the selection of questionnaires that are designed only for asthma and that do not assess symptoms as part of QoL. Only two of the questionnaires reviewed fulfill these requirements: the Sydney Asthma QoL Questionnaire (AQLQ-S) and the Living with Asthma Questionnaire (LWAQ). However, for multinational studies, it may be convenient or practical to use questionnaires that have been linguistically validated in many languages (AQLQ-J, SGRQ). It remains unclear which of these questionnaires best reflects patient perceptions of QoL. Our review did not involve patients, so for the time being choosing from existing questionnaires requires a compromise based on the rigor of the development process and the target patient group.

  3. Die Parting welt marks' measurement using structured laser analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Mullen, Joey H.

    1997-01-01

    Heating and cooling air for an aircraft interior is transported using metal ducts. These ducts vary in size from a few centimeters to twelve centimeters in diameter. In the assembly of aircraft air ducts, coupling is swaged onto the ducts. In assuring the mechanical dies are operating properly the die parting welt mark is inspected. The current method of visual inspection and checking with calipers does not allow implementation of statistical process control methods. In an effort to improve this process check, a new measurement method is being developed. A feasibility study indicated that a structured light laser system would be a good approach. A few requirements are: it must be portable to be used at different locations within the fabrication area, it must be fast, it should be easy to use by the mechanic, the reading must be accurate, a hard copy print out is required, and it must be non-destructive. Due to the mechanical configuration of the duct and coupling, a camera with magnification optics is used. The measurement of the bump has a maximum height of 50.8 microns. The prototype systems uses computer vision and custom software written in the C language. This paper discusses different measurement methods tested and the benefits of each technology. The development of a specialized system is justified for production use. This paper describes the prototype system and some of its configuration for factory testing.

  4. Bio-mimetic optical sensor for structural deflection measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Streeter, Robert W.; Khan, Md. A.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2014-03-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a primary goal of NASA aeronautics research. One approach to achieve this goal is to build lighter weight aircraft, which presents complex challenges due to a corresponding increase in structural flexibility. Wing flexibility can adversely affect aircraft performance from the perspective of aerodynamic efficiency and safety. Knowledge of the wing position during flight can aid active control methods designed to mitigate problems due to increased wing flexibility. Current approaches to measuring wing deflection, including strain measurement devices, accelerometers, or GPS solutions, and new technologies such as fiber optic strain sensors, have limitations for their practical application to flexible aircraft control. Hence, it was proposed to use a bio-mimetic optical sensor based on the fly-eye to track wing deflection in real-time. The fly-eye sensor has several advantages over conventional sensors used for this application, including light weight, low power requirements, fast computation, and a small form factor. This paper reports on the fly-eye sensor development and its application to real-time wing deflection measurement.

  5. Exploring details about structure requirements based on novel CGRP receptor antagonists urethanamide, aspartate, succinate and pyridine derivatives by in silico methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; He, Haoran; Wang, Jinghui; Han, Chunxiao; Feng, Jiaqi; Zhang, Shuwei; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    The migraine never fails to afflict individuals in the world that knows no lack of such cases. CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) is found closely related to migraine and olcegepant (BIBN4096) is effective in alleviating the pain. In our work, the combination of ligand- and receptor-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies along with molecular docking was applied to provide us insights about how urethanamide, pyridine and aspartate and succinate derivatives (novel CGRP receptor antagonists) play a part in inhibiting the activity of CGRP receptor. The optimal CoMSIA model shows the Q2 of 0.505, R2ncv of 0.992 and its accurate predictive ability was confirmed by checking out an independent test set which gave R2pred value of 0.885. Besides, the 3D contour maps help us identify how different groups affect the antagonist activity while connecting to some key positions. In addition, the docking analysis shows the binding site emerging as the distorted “V” shape and including two binding pockets: one of them is hydrophobic, fixing the structural part 3 of compound 80, the other anchors the part 1 of compound 80. The docking analysis also shows the interaction mechanism between compound 80 and CGRP receptor, similar to the interaction between olcegepant and CGRP receptor. The findings derived from this work reveal the mechanism of related antagonists and facilitate the future rational design of novel antagonists with higher potency.

  6. Detail of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers (330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color. JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  7. Detail of Triton's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers(330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  8. Brain Genomics Superstruct Project initial data release with structural, functional, and behavioral measures

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Avram J.; Hollinshead, Marisa O.; O’Keefe, Timothy M.; Petrov, Victor I.; Fariello, Gabriele R.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Fischl, Bruce; Rosen, Bruce R.; Mair, Ross W.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Brain Genomics Superstruct Project (GSP) is to enable large-scale exploration of the links between brain function, behavior, and ultimately genetic variation. To provide the broader scientific community data to probe these associations, a repository of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans linked to genetic information was constructed from a sample of healthy individuals. The initial release, detailed in the present manuscript, encompasses quality screened cross-sectional data from 1,570 participants ages 18 to 35 years who were scanned with MRI and completed demographic and health questionnaires. Personality and cognitive measures were obtained on a subset of participants. Each dataset contains a T1-weighted structural MRI scan and either one (n=1,570) or two (n=1,139) resting state functional MRI scans. Test-retest reliability datasets are included from 69 participants scanned within six months of their initial visit. For the majority of participants self-report behavioral and cognitive measures are included (n=926 and n=892 respectively). Analyses of data quality, structure, function, personality, and cognition are presented to demonstrate the dataset’s utility. PMID:26175908

  9. Energetic loads and informational entropy during insect metamorphosis: measuring structural variability and self-organization.

    PubMed

    Damos, Petros T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Rigas, Alexandros; Savopoulou-Soultani, Matilda

    2011-10-07

    In this work an information theory approach is presented for measuring structural variability during insect metamorphosis. Following a self-organizational perspective, the underlying assumption is that an insect pupa is a cybernetic bio-system, which displays a homeostatic control during its metamorphosis. The description of structural variability was based on biochemical data (lipids, glycogen, carbohydrates and proteins) analysed at different time intervals during the metamorphosis of Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Probabilities of biochemical variables were further treated by considering a finite countable set of progressive metamorphosis states having Markov properties at isothermal conditions (25 °C, 16:8h L:D, 65 ± 5%RH). The probabilities of the biochemical variables, as well as the related informational entropies, are affected when the system moves one step forward for each successive state. In most cases, but protein, there is some observable evidence that histolysis could be related to a decrease in informational entropy H ('disorganization of the system'), followed by a 'stable balance period' during the middle stages of metamorphosis. An initial increase in H is measured at the last stages of metamorphosis, which theoretically correspond to histogenesis ('reorganization of the system'). In this context, the temporal evolution of pupal structural variability was probabilistically quantified according to the classical information theory. The principles of the proposed holistic system are independent of its detailed dynamics and the proposed model can potentially describe part of the observable experimental data during metamorphosis of a holometabolous insect.

  10. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  11. Southeast Elevation; Dome Rafter Detail; Piazza Rafter Detail; Main Block ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Elevation; Dome Rafter Detail; Piazza Rafter Detail; Main Block Bracket Detail - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Administration Building, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  12. Electrical and thermal transport measurements on nano-structured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Wei

    This thesis discusses electrical and thermal transport measurements on C60, carbon nanotubes, and boron-nitride nanotubes. Chapter 1 describes the anomalous resistivity behavior of Ag films on C60 crystals. The correlation of the resistivity anomaly and the structural phase transition is established. Chapter 2 gives an introduction to the physical properties and the synthesis methods of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. Chapter 3 shows two different approaches on chemical functionalization of boron-nitride nanotubes. Chapter 4 gives the theoretical background of thermal conductivity, especially for nano-structured materials. A summary of theoretical and experimental works on the thermal conductivity of nanotubes is given. Chapter 5 discusses the experimental results of thermal conductivity of nanotube mats. An absolute value of the thermal conductivity of boron nitride nanotubes is bracketed and can be compared to the results of the following chapters on individual nanotubes. Chapter 6 describes the experimental methods of measuring thermal conductivity of individual nanotubes. Chapter 7 shows the 2 temperature dependent thermal conductivity and thermopower of individual nanotubes. Chapter 8 discusses the isotope effect and the diameter dependence of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes. In chapter 9, it is shown that the thermal conductivity of nanotubes is robust against electron irradiation and structural deformation. Importantly, the observation challenges current understandings on the thermal transport of nano-structured materials. In chapter 10, it is shown that it is possible to reversibly tune the thermal conductivity of a multiwalled nanotube by controllably sliding the outer-shells against inner cores. Chapter 11 describes a thermal rectifier by engineering the mass distribution along a nanotube. The observed non-zero thermal rectification effect provides strong evidence for solitons in nanotubes. The soliton model also coherently explains many

  13. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  14. PIV measurement of the vertical cross-flow structure over tube bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaki, C.; Cheong, K. H.; Monji, H.; Matsui, G.

    Shell and tube heat exchangers are among the most commonly used types of heat exchangers. Shell-side cross-flow in tube bundles has received considerable attention and has been investigated extensively. However, the microscopic flow structure including velocity distribution, wake, and turbulent structure in the tube bundles needs to be determined for more effective designs. Therefore, in this study, in order to clarify the detailed structure of cross-flow in tube bundles with particle image velocimetry (PIV), experiments were conducted using two types of model; in-line and staggered bundles with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5, containing 20 rows of five 15 mm O.D. tubes in each row. The velocity data in the whole flow field were measured successfully by adjusting the refractive index of the working fluid to that of the tube material. The flow features were characterized in different tube bundles with regards to the velocity vector field, vortex structure, and turbulent intensity.

  15. Isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements in titanium I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, P.; Vetter, R.; Bauche-Arnoult, C.; Bauche, J.

    1994-09-01

    High accuracy measurements of hyperfine structure due to47Ti and49Ti in the 3 d 2 4 s 2 a 3 F 2-3 d 2 4 s4 p z 5 D 1 absorption line at σ=18482.772 cm-1 have been performed by use of a Doppler-free experiment, where a beam of titanium atoms is crossed by a CW single mode tunable dye laser. They have allowed for the determination of isotope shifts between46Ti,47Ti,48Ti,49Ti and50Ti. By use of accurate values of mean square nuclear charge radii for the even isotopes, it has been possible to separate mass shifts from field shifts and to determine accurate values for the mean square nuclear charge radii of47Ti and49Ti. The field shift presents a marked odd-even staggering.

  16. Mode shape identification using residues of measured offshore structure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Fushun; Lu, Hongchao

    2017-04-01

    Compared to traditional mode shape identification methods such as eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA), this article proposes a mode shape identification method based on estimated residues of measured data and the theoretical relationship between the estimated residues and the mode shapes from the state space model is obtained by defining a coefficient matrix. A mass-spring model with five degrees of freedom (DOFs) is utilized to demonstrate the approach. The numerical results indicate that the estimated residues are the mode shapes of structures, but with a coefficient matrix to maintain consistency with the mode shapes from the ERA. Using MATLAB a complicated numerical jacket platform is built to further study the proposed method. The results show that mode shapes consistent with those from the ERA could be obtained by taking the defined coefficient matrix into account, which is also demonstrated by a physical beam model that was built at Ocean University of China.

  17. Summer Support of the Advanced Structures and Measurements Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuber, Alexander Lee

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is my exit presentation summarizing the work that I did this summer during my 10 week summer internship. It is primarily focused on tensile testing of composite coupons including the use of the ARAMIS optical strain measurement system, but it also includes some discussion of other support that I provided for the Dryden composites working group effort. My main efforts in that area were focused on T-joint design for an upcoming hands-on-workshop as well as design of a fixture to test joint coupons. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the other small projects that I worked on, including support of structurally integrated thermal protection system (STIPS) research and the Global Observer wing loads test.

  18. Compendium of Student, Teacher, and Classroom Measures Used in NCEE Evaluations of Educational Interventions: Volume II. Technical Details, Measure Profiles, and Glossary (Appendices A-G). NCEE 2010-4013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Lizabeth M.; Cabili, Charlotte; Henderson, Jamila; Esposito, Andrea Mraz; Coolahan, Kathleen; Henke, Juliette; Asheer, Subuhi; O'Toole, Meghan; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Boller, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This report contains resources to help researchers and policymakers review measures used in NCEE evaluations of educational interventions. The measures included in the Compendium are applicable to settings for preschool through grade 12. The Compendium discusses criteria and their importance in selecting measures for assessing intervention impacts…

  19. Coarse-grained/molecular mechanics of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: experimentally-validated detailed structural prediction of agonist binding.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Alessandro; Capece, Luciana; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Gasparini, Paolo; Behrens, Maik; Carloni, Paolo; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Bitter molecules in humans are detected by ∼25 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The lack of atomic resolution structure for any of them is complicating an in depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying bitter taste perception. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants of the interaction of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor with its agonists phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and propylthiouracil (PROP). We use the recently developed hybrid Molecular Mechanics/Coarse Grained (MM/CG) method tailored specifically for GPCRs. The method, through an extensive exploration of the conformational space in the binding pocket, allows the identification of several residues important for agonist binding that would have been very difficult to capture from the standard bioinformatics/docking approach. Our calculations suggest that both agonists bind to Asn103, Phe197, Phe264 and Trp201, whilst they do not interact with the so-called extra cellular loop 2, involved in cis-retinal binding in the GPCR rhodopsin. These predictions are consistent with data sets based on more than 20 site-directed mutagenesis and functional calcium imaging experiments of TAS2R38. The method could be readily used for other GPCRs for which experimental information is currently lacking.

  20. Crystal structure details of La- and Bi-substituted hydroxyapatites: Evidence for LaO+ and BiO+ with a very short metal-oxygen bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazin, Pavel E.; Pogosova, Mariam A.; Trusov, Lev A.; Kolesnik, Irina V.; Magdysyuk, Oxana V.; Dinnebier, Robert E.

    2016-05-01

    Crystal structures of substituted apatites with general formula Ca10-xMx(PO4)6(OH1-δ)2-xOx, where M=La, Bi, 0≤x<2, were refined using high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Individual positions for Ca2+ and M3+-ions localized near Ca2-site were determined. The M3+-ion was found shifted toward the hexagonal channel center with respect to the Ca2+-ion, forming very short bond with the intrachannel O2-, while leaving considerably longer distances to other oxygen atoms, which suggested the existence of a MO+ ion. Distinct bands of stretching M-O modes were observed in the Raman and FT-IR spectra of the compounds. The bond lengths for BiO+ and LaO+ were estimated to be 2.05(1) and 2.09(1) Å correspondingly. The latter was almost 0.3 Å lower than the shortest La-O bond in La2O3. The realization of such a strong lanthanide-oxygen bond in a crystal lattice could provide a very high axial ligand field and might be implemented to develop high-energy-barrier single-molecule magnets as well as to tune properties of lanthanide-based luminophores.

  1. Effect of Eu ion incorporation on the emission behavior of Y2O3 nanophosphors: A detailed study of structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Y.; Pal, Mou; Herrera, M.; Mathew, X.

    2016-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of doping concentration on the luminescence behavior of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) europium (Eu) doped nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method. Incorporation of Eu ion in Y2O3 matrix is clearly reflected in structural and optical properties of the doped Y2O3 phosphor. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy proves the presence of strong Eu3+ emissions along with the presence of an additional weak band corresponding to electronic transitions 4f65d1 (7FJ) - 4f7 (8S7/2) of the Eu2+. The presence of Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions in Y2O3 nanoparticles have been additionally confirmed by XPS analysis. Luminescence band corresponding to Eu3+ ions appears in both CL and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, covering the orange-red emissions from 580 to 710 nm. Vibrational properties analyzed through Raman spectroscopy have revealed the evolution of different peaks associated with Eu emission in the doped Y2O3 nanocrystals.

  2. Can atom-surface potential measurements test atomic structure models?

    PubMed

    Lonij, Vincent P A; Klauss, Catherine E; Holmgren, William F; Cronin, Alexander D

    2011-06-30

    van der Waals (vdW) atom-surface potentials can be excellent benchmarks for atomic structure calculations. This is especially true if measurements are made with two different types of atoms interacting with the same surface sample. Here we show theoretically how ratios of vdW potential strengths (e.g., C₃(K)/C₃(Na)) depend sensitively on the properties of each atom, yet these ratios are relatively insensitive to properties of the surface. We discuss how C₃ ratios depend on atomic core electrons by using a two-oscillator model to represent the contribution from atomic valence electrons and core electrons separately. We explain why certain pairs of atoms are preferable to study for future experimental tests of atomic structure calculations. A well chosen pair of atoms (e.g., K and Na) will have a C₃ ratio that is insensitive to the permittivity of the surface, whereas a poorly chosen pair (e.g., K and He) will have a ratio of C₃ values that depends more strongly on the permittivity of the surface.

  3. Structure Measurements of Leaf and Woody Components of Forests with Dual-Wavelength Lidar Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Howe, G.; Martel, J.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E. J.; Wang, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L. B.; Schaefer, M.; Newnham, G.

    2014-12-01

    Forest structure plays a critical role in the exchange of energy, carbon and water between land and atmosphere and nutrient cycle. We can provide detailed forest structure measurements of leaf and woody components with the Dual Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), which acquires full-waveform scans at both near-infrared (NIR, 1064 nm) and shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1548 nm) wavelengths from simultaneous laser pulses. We collected DWEL scans at a broadleaf forest stand and a conifer forest stand at Harvard Forest in June 2014. Power returned from leaves is much lower than from woody materials such as trunks and branches at the SWIR wavelength due to the liquid water absorption by leaves, whereas returned power at the NIR wavelength is similar from both leaves and woody materials. We threshold a normalized difference index (NDI), defined as the difference between returned power at the two wavelengths divided by their sum, to classify each return pulse as a leaf or trunk/branch hit. We obtain leaf area index (LAI), woody area index (WAI) and vertical profiles of leaf and woody components directly from classified lidar hits without empirical wood-to-total ratios as are commonly used in optical methods of LAI estimation. Tree heights, diameter at breast height (DBH), and stem count density are the other forest structure parameters estimated from our DWEL scans. The separation of leaf and woody components in tandem with fine-scale forest structure measurements will benefit studies on carbon allocation of forest ecosystems and improve our understanding of the effects of forest structure on ecosystem functions. This research is supported by NSF grant, MRI-0923389

  4. 3D shape measurement of shoeprint impression with structured illumination and fringe pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xianyu; Cao, Yiping; Xiang, Liqun; Chen, Wenjing

    2002-06-01

    The shoeprint impressions of suspect left at the crime scene can sometimes tell investigators what type of shoes to be looked for. These shoeprint impressions as one of the important evidence are useful in the detection of criminals. In this paper we propose a novel technique for identifying and analyzing the 3D characteristics of shoeprint impressions. We also design 3D shoeprint impression analysis system based on the combination the 3D shape measurement with structured illumination and fringe pattern analysis. We give a detail discussion on the principle and configuration of the system. Laboratory experiments show the technique is efficient in the detection of shoeprint and in the offering the reference for judicial evidence.

  5. Dynamic-structure-factor measurements on a model Lorentz gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egelstaff, P. A.; Eder, O. J.; Glaser, W.; Polo, J.; Renker, B.; Soper, A. K.

    1990-02-01

    A model system for the Lorentz gas can be made [Eder, Chen, and Egelstaff, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 89, 833 (1966); McPherson and Egelstaff, Can. J. Phys. 58, 289 (1980)] by mixing small quantities of hydrogen with an argon host. For neutron-scattering experiments the large H-to-Ar cross section ratio (~200) makes the argon relatively invisible. Dynamic-structure-factor [S(Q,ω) for H2] measurements at room temperature have been made on this system using the IN4 spectrometer at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France. Argon densities between 1.9 and 10.5 atoms/nm3 were used for 0.4measurements were made with a He gas host at densities of 4 and 10.5 atoms/nm3; helium is relatively invisible also compared to hydrogen. These experiments are described, and some examples of the results are presented to show the qualitative effects observed. The principle observation is a pronounced narrowing of S(Q,ω) as a function of ω as the argon density is increased. This effect is large at low Q and decreases with increasing Q, and also decreases substantially when helium is used in place of argon. In addition, the shape of S(Q,ω) is more complex than can be accommodated within a simple model, but slightly less complicated than a computer simulation so showing the significance of multiple-collision processes.

  6. The fine structure of colleterial glands in two cockroaches and three termites, including a detailed study of Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattaria, Cryptocercidae) and Mastotermes darwiniensis (Isoptera, Mastotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Courrent, Annie; Quennedey, André; Nalepa, Christine A; Robert, Alain; Lenz, Michael; Bordereau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The colleterial glands of insects are organs associated with the female genital apparatus. In cockroaches, these glands produce secretions that cover two parallel rows of eggs during oviposition, and in oviparous species, these secretions become the tanned, sculpted, rigid outer casing of the ootheca. The goal of this study was to compare the gross anatomy of the colleterial glands and the ultrastructure of their component tubules in the phylogenetically significant genera Cryptocercus (Blattaria) and Mastotermes (Isoptera). Recent studies indicate that cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus are the sister group of termites, and Mastotermes is the only termite known to produce a cockroach-like ootheca. One additional oviparous cockroach, Therea, and two additional termites, Zootermopsis and Pseudacanthotermes, were also examined. As in other cockroaches, the colleterial glands of Cryptocercus and Therea are asymmetrical, with a well developed bipartite left gland and a smaller right gland. In the termites Mastotermes, Zootermopsis, and Pseudacanthotermes, the colleterial glands are composed of a well-developed, paired, anterior gland and a small posterior gland; histological staining and cytological evidence suggest that these are homologues of the left and the right colleterial glands of cockroaches, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, colleterial gland tubules are made of cells belonging to a modified class 1 type cell in the cockroaches, in Mastotermes, and in Zootermopsis; the latter lays its eggs singly, without a surrounding ootheca-like structure. In the advanced termite Pseudacanthotermes, the tubules are made of secretory units belonging to the class 3 cell type. This study demonstrates that the cytological characteristics of colleterial glands in basal termites are similar to those of cockroaches, whether the termite secretes an oothecal casing that covers two parallel rows of eggs, as in Mastotermes, or lays its eggs singly, as in Zootermopsis

  7. Measuring the structure factor of simple fluids under extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weck, Gunnar

    2013-06-01

    The structure and dynamics of fluids, although a long standing matter of investigations, is still far from being well established. In particular, with the existence of a first order liquid-liquid phase transition (LLT) discovered in liquid phosphorus at 0.9 GPa and 1300 K it is now recognized that the fluid state could present complex structural changes. At present, very few examples of LLTs have been clearly evidenced, which may mean that a larger range of densities must be probed. First order transitions between a molecular and a polymeric liquid have been recently predicted by first principles calculations in liquid nitrogen at 88 GPa and 2000 K and in liquid CO2 at 45 GPa and 1850 K. The only device capable of reaching these extreme conditions is the diamond anvil cell (DAC), in which, the sample is sandwiched between two diamond anvils of thickness 100 times larger. Consequently, the diffracted signal from the sample is very weak compared to the Compton signal of the anvils, and becomes hardly measurable for pressures above ~20 GPa. A similar problem has been faced by the high pressure community using large volume press so as to drastically reduce the x-ray background from the sample environment. In the angle-dispersive diffraction configuration, it was proposed to use a multichannel collimator (MCC). This solution has been implemented to fit the constraints of the Paris-Edimburg (PE) large volume press and it is now routinely used on beamline ID27 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. In this contribution, we present our adaptation of the MCC device accessible at ID27 for the DAC experiment. Because of the small sample volume a careful alignment procedure between the MCC slits and the DAC had to be implemented. The data analysis procedure initially developed by Eggert et al. has also been completed in order to take into account the complex contribution of the MCC slits. A large reduction of the Compton diffusion from the diamond anvils is obtained

  8. Large tree crowns in closed forest canopies: Measuring structure and estimating light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolosin, Michael Stephen

    Trees compete for light. Crown traits are the result of an evolutionary history dominated by this fact, and species exhibit a range of strategies including characteristic shapes and light-foraging abilities in response to this competition. Shape plasticity and crown asymmetry result from the growth and death of branches over long time scales. It is impossible to track every branch in stand-scale forest models, and there are no good approaches that accurately capture the emergent tree-level properties of this branch-scale process. Most forest models therefore ignore tree shape and asymmetry. Models of tree size and shape are important in both scientific research and in evaluating policy questions. Light absorption in large canopy trees determines their own demographic rates and sets the template of light levels that drives understory growth and mortality, driving both community and ecosystem processes. Models that ignore crown shape and asymmetry could lead to faulty inferences and predictions. Our work attempts to overcome some of the difficulties in both measuring and modeling large crown shape and light availability. We develop a new approach to extracting three-dimensional crown structural information from high resolution digital stereo imagery to accurately measure crown structure of over nine hundred well-studied large canopy trees. We also present a statistical model that integrates multiple data sources into estimates of the "true" but unmeasurable light available to individual trees. Third, we develop two crown models for forest simulations that capture their space-filling nature with minimum detail, and we parameterize these models from data; one models crown shape, the other crown location. Fourth, we investigate the relationship between light availability and growth. We extract extensive fine-scale structural detail from the imagery, and generate detailed crown envelopes. We find that light availability predicts the growth rates of large trees primarily

  9. Imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH): Details of passive-source seismic deployment and preliminary 3-D velocity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K. C.; Moran, S. C.; Abers, G. A.; Denlinger, R. P.; Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Vidale, J. E.; Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Schultz, A.

    2014-12-01

    The imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment aims to delineate the extent of the magmatic system beneath Mount St. Helens (MSH) in Washington State. The experiment involves active- and passive-source seismology, magnetotellurics, and geochemistry/petrology. Seventy passive-source broadband seismometers were deployed in a 100-km-diameter array centered on MSH, with an average spacing of 10 km, and a planned duration of two years. The deployment over two weeks in June 2014 involved a group of 18 people split into 6 teams. Approximately half of the seismic stations have aircell batteries and/or pole-mounted solar panels in order to maintain power through deep snow at higher elevations during the winter months. Data will be retrieved 2-4 times a year throughout the duration of the experiment. The first service run performed in mid-July 2014 had a 98.4% data recovery. This is one of the largest wide-aperture two-dimensional arrays covering a volcano anywhere. The active-source portion of the experiment successfully set off 23 shots in late-July 2014. These were recorded clearly at permanent stations run by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network up to 200 km away, and are expected to be well-recorded on many of the 70 broadband seismometers in addition to the 2500 Reftek "Texans" deployed temporarily for this purpose. For the 2-4 weeks of broadband data collected in July, local earthquakes down to magnitude 0 are recorded across the array, with clear P- and S- arrivals. Earthquakes of this size occur daily within 50 km of MSH. We are keeping a careful catalog of all activity in the region for the duration of the iMUSH experiment. We will pick P- and S-wave travel times at the 70 broadband stations from local earthquakes and active shots, for available data from between June and October 2014. We will also use a tomographic code (Preston et al, 2003, Science) to invert the travel times to obtain preliminary earthquake location and 3-D velocity structure.

  10. Requirements for a mobile communications satellite system. Volume 3: Large space structures measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akle, W.

    1983-01-01

    This study report defines a set of tests and measurements required to characterize the performance of a Large Space System (LSS), and to scale this data to other LSS satellites. Requirements from the Mobile Communication Satellite (MSAT) configurations derived in the parent study were used. MSAT utilizes a large, mesh deployable antenna, and encompasses a significant range of LSS technology issues in the areas of structural/dynamics, control, and performance predictability. In this study, performance requirements were developed for the antenna. Special emphasis was placed on antenna surface accuracy, and pointing stability. Instrumentation and measurement systems, applicable to LSS, were selected from existing or on-going technology developments. Laser ranging and angulation systems, presently in breadboard status, form the backbone of the measurements. Following this, a set of ground, STS, and GEO-operational were investigated. A third scale (15 meter) antenna system as selected for ground characterization followed by STS flight technology development. This selection ensures analytical scaling from ground-to-orbit, and size scaling. Other benefits are cost and ability to perform reasonable ground tests. Detail costing of the various tests and measurement systems were derived and are included in the report.

  11. Detailed residential electric determination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  12. Introduction of a test measurement for a monitoring technology inside a large-scale civil engineering structure using muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannomiya, A.; Tanaka, H.

    2012-04-01

    Akira Sannomiya1*, Koichiro Tada1*, Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka2* Chigasaki Research Institute, Technology Development Center, Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.1, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Japan2 Introduction The technology that enables us to observe the internal structure of a volcano and the city foundation is being developed by utilizing the muon's significant penetration power. From the possibility to use this technology for the surveillance inside a large-scale civil engineering structure, we are planning an experimental measurement. General Instruction A final target is safety judgment of the condition of a large-scale civil engineering structure. It is important for safety judgment to grasp the internal density contract, such as the crack and slack levels of a base rock or the structure, and degradation and groundwater levels. However, feasibility of application of muon radiography to monitoring inside the large-scale civil engineering structure has not confirmed yet. Therefore, as a test experiment, we attempt to measure the fluctuation of the groundwater level in order to evaluate and examine the method. Measurement will be carried out from the inside of a scupper tunnel in the base rock. The result will be compared with the independent groundwater level measurement in order to perform quantitative evaluation of muon radiography. In addition, this test measurement will start the near future. About a detailed plan, it is under examination now.

  13. Spin structure measurements from E143 at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the proton and deuteron spin structure functions, g{sub 1}{sup p} at beam energies of 29.1, 16.2, and 9.7 GeV, and g{sub 2}{sup p} and g{sub 2}{sup d} at a beam energy of 29.1 GeV. The integrals {Gamma}{sub p} = {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1} g{sub 1}{sup p} (x, Q{sup 2})dx and {Gamma}{sub d} = {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1} g{sub 1}{sup d}(x, Q{sup 2})dx have been evaluated at fixed Q{sup 2} = 3 (GeV/c){sup 2} using the 29.1 GeV data to yield {Gamma}{sub p} = 0.127 {+-} 0.004(stat.) {+-} 0.010(syst.) and {Gamma}{sub d} = 0.041 {+-} 0.003 {+-} 0.004. The Q{sup 2} dependence of the ratio g{sub 1}/F{sub 1} has been studied and is found to be small for Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Within experimental precision, the g{sub 2} data are well-described by the twist-2 contribution, g{sub 2}{sup ww}. Twist-3 matrix elements have been extracted and are compared to theoretical predictions. The asymmetry A{sub 2} has also been measured and is found to be significantly smaller than the positivity limit {radical}R for both targets A{sub 2}{sup p} is found to be positive and inconsistent with zero.

  14. Characteristics of wave structures derived from lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Kathrin; Gerding, Michael; Höffner, Josef; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2016-04-01

    A daylight capable Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar is in operation since summer 2010 at the mid-latitude station at Kühlungsborn (54° N, 12° E). The RMR lidar system is used for measuring wave structures at day and night to investigate short and long periodic atmospheric waves, like gravity waves (GW) and thermal tides (with diurnal, semidiurnal and terdiurnal components). About 6150 h of data have been acquired so far, with each sounding lasting for at least 6 h. For such long lasting data sets the general problem is the separation of the different wave contributions from the observed superposition of GW, tides or even longer periodic waves in the time series of temperature profiles. For extracting wave induced temperature deviations the most common method is to calculate these from the daily mean. Using this method the daylight capability allows the characterization of tides for a long lasting measurement. We will present the variability of tidal amplitudes on scales of days that are not represented in monthly averages. Because short periodic GW can at least partly hide behind those temperature deviations induced by tides, we use spectral filter methods for extracting GW induced temperature deviations. We will show a comparison of different methods with regard to gravity waves. GW activity and characteristics are derived in an altitude range between ~30 and ~70 km. The results demonstrate that the gravity wave potential energy density (GWPED) strongly depends on the used filter method. The contribution of different spectral ranges to the total GWPED will be presented.

  15. Rain simulator as a standardized laboratory measurement of soil structural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Luz; Cancelo González, Javier; Benito, Elena; Álvarez, Manuel; Barral, Maria Teresa; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulations are used since the 30's by scientist and technicians to study the soil erosion and soil hydrology. The basis of the rainfall simulation is that can reproduce the natural soil degradation processes, more accurately than the traditional methods used for the determination of structural stability. A rainfall simulator was built in 2006 based on those made by Guitián and Méndez (1961), and Morin (1967), to obtain standardized laboratory measurements of soil structural stability and a final implementation were made in the rainfall simulator to incorporate a intermittent fan-like water yet system with four sieves of 250 micrometres where the soil samples can be placed, and allow the simultaneous measurement of soil losses in the samples. Data obtained in the rainfall simulator, using different soils of the study basins, are related with the Ig Henin index and the results of the Emerson structural stability test. At the same time with the laboratory test, 10 water sampling surveys were carried out during the hydrological years 2004/05 and 2005/06, in two basins located in the humid region of NW Spain belonging to the Anllons River basin, one of the main basins of Galicia-Costa, that has been subject of detailed hydrological studies since 2000 (Rial, M., 2007 and Devesa, R., 2009) and had continuous records of streamflow. The selected subbasins have 57,62 and 50,05 square kilometres respectively, and presents significative geological differences; being one of them formed, mainly, by schists and a lower area with granites and, the other one formed mainly by gabbros. The suspended sediments in the samples were separated by centrifugation and weighted in the laboratory to study the possible relationship between soil losses in the rainfall simulations and the sediment fluxes in the river. The analysis revealed a good relationship between the sediments delivery to the streams and soil losses measured in the rainfall simulations.

  16. On repeated measures designs: hierarchical structures and time trends.

    PubMed

    Morton, R Hugh

    2005-05-01

    The basic anatomy of an experimental design is used as an expository introduction to the examination of several repeated measures experiments described in recent pages of this and other journals. This examination reveals problematic issues concerning some common design and analysis features of such experimental designs. In particular, the hierarchical structures and/or presence of time trends is highlighted. These issues are discussed in an attempt to assist researchers to recognize such problems, to avoid the associated difficulties in the future, and to exploit the advantages of sound design with appropriate, efficient and informative analysis. While alternate reanalyses of the data of these experiments might reveal the conclusions to be unaffected by such issues, researchers should still be cautious. In retrospect, such occurrences should be seen as fortuitous, not as justification for inefficient or less informative analyses. More importantly, such reanalyses could reveal more enlightening information, and I argue that if a design permits such information to be discovered, then it behoves researchers to perform such analyses and to make such discoveries.

  17. Measuring grassland structure for recovery of grassland species at risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xulin; Gao, Wei; Wilmshurst, John

    2005-09-01

    An action plan for recovering species at risk (SAR) depends on an understanding of the plant community distribution, vegetation structure, quality of the food source and the impact of environmental factors such as climate change at large scale and disturbance at small scale, as these are fundamental factors for SAR habitat. Therefore, it is essential to advance our knowledge of understanding the SAR habitat distribution, habitat quality and dynamics, as well as developing an effective tool for measuring and monitoring SAR habitat changes. Using the advantages of non-destructive, low cost, and high efficient land surface vegetation biophysical parameter characterization, remote sensing is a potential tool for helping SAR recovery action. The main objective of this paper is to assess the most suitable techniques for using hyperspectral remote sensing to quantify grassland biophysical characteristics. The challenge of applying remote sensing in semi-arid and arid regions exists simply due to the lower biomass vegetation and high soil exposure. In conservation grasslands, this problem is enhanced because of the presence of senescent vegetation. Results from this study demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing could be the solution for semi-arid grassland remote sensing applications. Narrow band raw data and derived spectral vegetation indices showed stronger relationships with biophysical variables compared to the simulated broad band vegetation indices.

  18. The interior structure of Enceladus from Cassini gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iess, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    The Cassini spacecraft flew by the small Saturnian moon Enceladus in three close flybys (April 28, 2010, November 30, 2010 and May 2, 2012, to carry out measurements of the satellite's gravity field [1]. One of the main motivations was the search for a hemispherical asymmetry in the gravity field, the gravitational counterpart of the striking North-South asymmetry shown by optical imaging and other Cassini instruments in the geological features of the moon. The estimation of Enceladus' gravity field by Cassini was especially complex because of the small surface gravity (0.11 m/s2), the short duration of the gravitational interaction (only a few minutes) and the small, nearly impulsive, neutral particles drag occurring when the spacecraft crossed the south polar plume during the first and the third flyby. Including the non-gravitational acceleration due to the plume in the dynamical model was crucial to obtain a reliable solution for the gravity field. In order to maximize the sensitivity to the hemispherical asymmetry, controlled by the spherical harmonic coefficient J3, the closest approaches occurred at the low altitudes (respectively 100, 48 and 70 km), and at high latitudes in both hemispheres (89°S, 62°N, and 72°S). Enceladus' gravity field is dominated by large quadrupole terms not far from those expected for a body in a relaxed shape. Although the deviations from the hydrostaticity are weak (J2/C22=3.55±0.05), the straightforward application of the Radau-Darwin approximation yields a value of the moment of inertia factor (MOIF=C/MR2) that is incompatible (0.34) with the differentiated interior structure suggested by cryovolcanism and the large heat flow. The other remarkable feature of the gravity field is the small but still statistically significant value of J3 (106 x J3 = -115.3±22.9). A differentiated interior structure (corresponding to a smaller MOIF) may be reconciled with the gravity measurement by assuming that the rocky core has retained some

  19. Identification and classification of structural soil conservation measures based on very high resolution stereo satellite data.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Sandra; Tesfay Ghebremicael, Selamawit; Hurni, Hans; Kohler, Thomas

    2017-05-15

    Land degradation affects large areas of land around the globe, with grave consequences for those living off the land. Major efforts are being made to implement soil and water conservation measures that counteract soil erosion and help secure vital ecosystem services. However, where and to what extent such measures have been implemented is often not well documented. Knowledge about this could help to identify areas where soil and water conservation measures are successfully supporting sustainable land management, as well as areas requiring urgent rehabilitation of conservation structures such as terraces and bunds. This study explores the potential of the latest satellite-based remote sensing technology for use in assessing and monitoring the extent of existing soil and water conservation structures. We used a set of very high resolution stereo Geoeye-1 satellite data, from which we derived a detailed digital surface model as well as a set of other spectral, terrain, texture, and filtered information layers. We developed and applied an object-based classification approach, working on two segmentation levels. On the coarser level, the aim was to delimit certain landscape zones. Information about these landscape zones is useful in distinguishing different types of soil and water conservation structures, as each zone contains certain specific types of structures. On the finer level, the goal was to extract and identify different types of linear soil and water conservation structures. The classification rules were based mainly on spectral, textural, shape, and topographic properties, and included object relationships. This approach enabled us to identify and separate from other classes the majority (78.5%) of terraces and bunds, as well as most hillside terraces (81.25%). Omission and commission errors are similar to those obtained by the few existing studies focusing on the same research objective but using different types of remotely sensed data. Based on our results

  20. Direct observation of asymmetric band structure of bilayer graphene through quantum capacitance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Kaoru; Nagashio, Kosuke; Nishimura, Tomonori; Toriumi, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Although upper conduction and valence sub-bands in bilayer graphene are known to be asymmetric, a detailed analysis based on the electrical measurements is very limited due to the infirm quality of gate insulator. In this study, the electrical quality of the top-gate Y2O3 insulator is drastically improved by the high-pressure O2 post-deposition annealing at 100 atm and the carrier density of ~8*1013 cm-2 is achieved. In quantum capacitance measurements, the drastic increase of the density of states is observed in addition to the van Hove singularity, suggesting that the Fermi energy reaches upper sub-band. At the same carrier density, the sudden reduction of the conductivity is observed, indicating that the inter-band scattering occurs. The estimated carrier density required to fill the upper sub-bands is different between electron and hole sides, i.e., asymmetric band structure between upper conduction and valence bands is revealed by the electrical measurements.

  1. Atmospheric structure from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter accelerometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G.; Bougher, S.; Theriot, M.; Zurek, R.; Blanchard, R.; Tolson, R.; Murphy, J.

    Designed for aerobraking, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005, achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI), March 10, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. By small propulsive adjustments of the apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude is fine tuned to the density surface that will safely use the atmosphere of Mars to aerobrake over 500 orbits. MRO periapsis precesses from the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis is brought dramatically from ˜40,000km at MOI to 460 km at aerobraking completion (ABX) mid September 2006. After ABX, a few small propulsive maneuvers will establish the Primary Science Orbit (PSO), which without aerobraking would have required an additional 400 kg of fuel. Each of the 500 plus aerobraking orbits provides a vertical structure and distribution of density, scale heights, and temperatures, along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (> 100 km) processes. One of the major questions for scientists studying Mars is: "Where did the water go?" Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities at the requests of The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin. The improved accelerometer sensitivities allowed density measurements to exceed 200km, at least 40 km higher than with Mars Odyssey (MO). This extends vertical structures from MRO into the neutral lower exosphere, a region where various processes may allow atmospheric gasses to escape. Over the eons, water may have been lost in both the lower atmosphere and the upper atmosphere, thus the water balance throughout the entire atmosphere from subsurface to exosphere may be equally critical. Comparisons of data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), MO and MRO will help characterize key temporal and spatial cycles including: polar vortices, winter polar

  2. Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of Sixth Street Bridge. Looking northeast - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon framing, including full two-story studs notched to carry girts supporting second story floor joists (210mm lens) - Scandia Hotel, 225 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  4. 58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards northeast of the pinion and bull gears of the winding machinery. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Multifractal structures in radial velocity measurements for exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sordo, Fabio; Sahil Agarwal, Debra A. Fischer, John S. Wettlaufer

    2015-01-01

    The radial velocity method is a powerful way to search for exoplanetary systems and it led to many discoveries of exoplanets in the last 20 years.Nevertheless, in order observe Earth-like planets, such method needs to be refined, i.e. one needs to improve the signal-to-noise ratio.On one hand this can be achieved by building spectrographs with better performances, but on the other hand it is also central to understand the noise present in the data.Radial-velocity data are time-series which contains the effect of planets as well as of stellar disturbances. Therefore, they are the result of different physical processes which operate on different time-scales, acting in a not always periodic fashionI present here a possible approach to such problem, which consists in looking for multifractal structures in the time-series coming from radial velocity measurements, identifying the underlying long-range correlations and fractal scaling properties, and connecting them to the underlying physical processes, like stellar oscillation, granulation, rotation, and magnetic activity.This method has been previously applied to satellite data related to Arctic sea albedo, relevant for identify trends and noise in the Arctic sea ice (Agarwal, Moon and Wettlaufer, Proc. R. Soc., 2012).Here we use such analysis for exoplanetary data related to possible Earth-like planets.Moreover, we apply the same procedure to synthetic data from numerical simulation of stellar dynamos, which give insight on the mechanism responsible for the noise. In such way we can therefore raise the signal-to-noise ratio in the data using the synthetic data as predicted noise to be subtracted from the observations.

  6. Quantum structures due to fluctuations of the measurement situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Diederik

    1993-12-01

    We analyze the meaning of the nonclassical aspects of quantum structures. We proceed by introducing a simple mechanistic macroscopic experimental situation that gives rise to quantum-like structures. We use this situation as a guiding example for our attempts to explain the origin of the nonclassical aspects of quantum structures. We see that the quantum probabilities can be introduced as a consequence of the presence of fluctuations on the experimental apparatuses, and show that the full quantum structure can be obtained in this way. We define the classical limit as the physical situation that arises when the fluctuations on the experiment apparatuses disappear. In the limit case we come to a classical structure, but in between we find structures that are neither quantum nor classical. In this sense, our approach not only gives an explanation for the nonclassical structure of quantum theory, but also makes it possible to define and study the structure describing the intermediate new situations. By investigating how the nonlocal quantum behavior disappears during the limiting process, we can explain the“apparent”locality of the classical macroscopic world. We come to the conclusion that quantum structures are the ordinary structures of reality, and that our difficulties of becoming aware of this fact are due to prescientific prejudices, some of which we point out.

  7. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing.

  8. Characterization of Unsteady Flow Structures Near Leading-Edge Slat. Part 1; PIV Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been performed at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program to investigate the unsteady flow near a leading-edge slat of a two-dimensional, high-lift system. This paper focuses on the experimental effort conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART) where Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data was acquired in the slat cove and at the slat trailing edge of a three-element, high-lift model at 4, 6, and 8 degrees angle of attack and a freestream Mach Number of 0.17. Instantaneous velocities obtained from PIV images are used to obtain mean and fluctuating components of velocity and vorticity. The data show the recirculation in the cove, reattachment of the shear layer on the slat lower surface, and discrete vortical structures within the shear layer emanating from the slat cusp and slat trailing edge. Detailed measurements are used to examine the shear layer formation at the slat cusp, vortex shedding at the slat trailing edge, and convection of vortical structures through the slat gap. Selected results are discussed and compared with unsteady, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations for the same configuration in a companion paper by Khorrami, Choudhari, and Jenkins (2004). The experimental dataset provides essential flow-field information for the validation of near-field inputs to noise prediction tools.

  9. Structure of an adsorbed dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer measured with specular reflection of neutrons.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S J; Bayerl, T M; McDermott, D C; Adam, G W; Rennie, A R; Thomas, R K; Sackmann, E

    1991-01-01

    Using specular reflection of neutrons, we investigate for the first time the structure of a single dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer adsorbed to a planar quartz surface in an aqueous environment. We demonstrate that the bilayer is strongly adsorbed to the quartz surface and is stable to phase state changes as well as exchange of the bulk aqueous phase. Our results show that the main phase transition is between the L alpha phase and the metastable L beta'* phase, with formation of the P beta' ripple phase prevented by lateral stress on the adsorbed bilayer. By performing contrast variation experiments, we are able to elucidate substantial detail in the interfacial structure. We measure a bilayer thickness of 43.0 +/- 1.5 A in the L alpha phase (T = 31 degrees C) and 46.0 +/- 1.5 A in the L beta'* phase (T = 20 degrees C). The polar head group is 8.0 +/- 1.5 A thick in the L alpha phase. The water layer between the quartz and bilayer is 30 +/- 10 A for the lipid in both the L alpha and L'* phase. Our results agree well with those previously reported from experiments using lipid vesicles and monolayers, thus establishing the feasibility of our experimental methods. PMID:2009353

  10. Measurements and theory for transport layer structure in intense bed-load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraccarollo, L.; Capart, H.

    2012-04-01

    We focus on sediment laden flows driven by turbulent open-channel flows where the bed surface is fully mobilized and nonetheless the thickness of the bedload layer is conveniently smaller than the flow depth. This regime presents dynamic and kinematic features which persist in the range of applied Shields stress between about 0.3 and 3. Below the lower limit the moving grains do not develop significant stresses compared to the applied ones; above the upper limit, debris-flow type frictional contacts develop in a non negligible portion of the bedload layer. We report laboratory experiments in which, using high-speed cameras and a laser light sheet, detailed profiles of granular velocity and concentration have been measured. We checked that the transversal bed profile is flat and that the sidewall measurements are representative of the interior domain. The profiles provide new information on transport layer structure and its relation to the applied Shields stress. Contrary to expectations, we find that intense bed-load layers respond to changes in flow conditions by adjusting their granular concentration at the base. Two mechanisms account for the resulting behavior: stresses generated by immersed granular collisions, and equilibration by density stratification. Without parameter adjustment, the deduced constitutive relations capture the responses of velocity, concentration, and layer thickness in the above reported ten-fold increase Shields-stress range. Away from this intermediate range, in both directions, we show how the flow features rapidly change and the theoretical inferences decay.

  11. The measurement of the ground wind structure at Wallops Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielman, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mean and turbulence characteristics of the surface wind measured near the Atlantic coast were measured. The experimental data were acquired from a 76 meter tall instrumented micrometeorological tower. Mean wind and turbulence measurements were made with two types of instrumentation consisting of cup vane and temperature probes, primarily used for mean profile measurements of velocity and temperature respectively. The second system, a hot film and thermocouple system, was used for measurement of turbulence variances and covariances and spectra. The cup vane system was used to acquire data from all wind directions, while the hot film system was primarily used for turbulence measurements from the two prevailing wind directions, south and northwest. The micrometeorological tower is a self standing nonguyed tower with five working platforms at 15.2m (50 ft.) intervals, with cup vane and aspirated temperature probes mounted at each platform.

  12. PIV Measurement of Transient 3-D (Liquid and Gas Phases) Flow Structures Created by a Spreading Flame over 1-Propanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, M. I.; Kuwana, K.; Saito, K.

    2001-01-01

    In the past, we measured three-D flow structure in the liquid and gas phases that were created by a spreading flame over liquid fuels. In that effort, we employed several different techniques including our original laser sheet particle tracking (LSPT) technique, which is capable of measuring transient 2-D flow structures. Recently we obtained a state-of-the-art integrated particle image velocimetry (IPIV), whose function is similar to LSPT, but it has an integrated data recording and processing system. To evaluate the accuracy of our IPIV system, we conducted a series of flame spread tests using the same experimental apparatus that we used in our previous flame spread studies and obtained a series of 2-D flow profiles corresponding to our previous LSPT measurements. We confirmed that both LSPT and IPIV techniques produced similar data, but IPIV data contains more detailed flow structures than LSPT data. Here we present some of newly obtained IPIV flow structure data, and discuss the role of gravity in the flame-induced flow structures. Note that the application of IPIV to our flame spread problems is not straightforward, and it required several preliminary tests for its accuracy including this IPIV comparison to LSPT.

  13. 3rd year final contractor report for: U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program Project Title: Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm J. Andrews

    2006-04-14

    This project had two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. This report describes work done in the last twelve (12) months of the project, and also contains a summary of the complete work done over the three (3) life of the project. As of April 1, 2006, the air/helium facility (Task 1) is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Initial condition studies (Task 2) is also comp lete. Detailed experiments with air/helium with Atwood numbers up to 0.1 have been completed, and Atwood numbers of 0.25. Within the last three (3) months we have been able to successfully run the facility at Atwood numbers of 0.5. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget. We have finished the initial condition studies using the water channel, and this work has been accepted for publication on the Journal of Fluid Mechanics (the top fluid mechanics journal). Mr. Nick Mueschke and Mr. Wayne Kraft are continuing with their studies to obtain PhDs in the same field, and will also continue their collaboration visits to LANL and LLNL. Over its three (3) year life the project has supported two(2) Ph.D.’s and three (3) MSc’s, and produced nine (9) international journal publications, twenty four (24) conference publications, and numerous other reports. The highlight of the project has been our close collaboration with LLNL (Dr. Oleg Schilling) and LANL (Drs. Dimonte, Ristorcelli, Gore, and Harlow).

  14. An Attempt to Validate a Measure of Structure in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassol, David J.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty male adolescents were given a structure inventory (CASI) devised by the author, and also the Locus Of Control (I-E) instrument, and the Adjective Check List (ACL), in an attempt to validate the first-named inventory. (Editor)

  15. Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of measuring science based on a bibliometric methodology. The 2 main lines of this methodology are discussed. First, the measurement of research performance is addressed, including aspects such as interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and knowledge users. It is demonstrated that advanced bibliometric methods are an…

  16. A neutron diffraction and isotopic substitution measurement of the structure of liquid Cu2Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, M. A.; Barnes, A. C.; Beck, U.; Buchanan, P.; Howells, W. S.

    2000-11-01

    The partial structure factors and pair distribution functions of liquid Cu2Se have been determined by neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution. The structure shows characteristics typical of those of an ionic 2:1 melt consisting of Cu+ and Se2- ions with the cations moving through a more ordered Se2- sub-structure. A detailed comparison has been made with recent results obtained for liquid Ag2Se. The structure is similar although there is no evidence of the double peak structure in the cation-cation partial structure factor, SCuCu(Q), as has been found in SAgAg(Q) for liquid Ag2Se and, to a more limited extent, for liquid Ag2Te. There is also less order in the Se2- sub-structure based on a comparison of SSeSe(Q) and the Bhatia-Thornton concentration-concentration structure factor, SCC(Q), for the two liquids.

  17. Transient thermal analysis as measurement method for IC package structural integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanß, Alexander; Schmid, Maximilian; Liu, E.; Elger, Gordon

    2015-06-01

    Practices of IC package reliability testing are reviewed briefly, and the application of transient thermal analysis is examined in great depth. For the design of light sources based on light emitting diode (LED) efficient and accurate reliability testing is required to realize the potential lifetimes of 105 h. Transient thermal analysis is a standard method to determine the transient thermal impedance of semiconductor devices, e.g. power electronics and LEDs. The temperature of the semiconductor junctions is assessed by time-resolved measurement of their forward voltage (Vf). The thermal path in the IC package is resolved by the transient technique in the time domain. This enables analyzing the structural integrity of the semiconductor package. However, to evaluate thermal resistance, one must also measure the dissipated energy of the device (i.e., the thermal load) and the k-factor. This is time consuming, and measurement errors reduce the accuracy. To overcome these limitations, an innovative approach, the relative thermal resistance method, was developed to reduce the measurement effort, increase accuracy and enable automatic data evaluation. This new way of evaluating data simplifies the thermal transient analysis by eliminating measurement of the k-factor and thermal load, i.e. measurement of the lumen flux for LEDs, by normalizing the transient Vf data. This is especially advantageous for reliability testing where changes in the thermal path, like cracks and delaminations, can be determined without measuring the k-factor and thermal load. Different failure modes can be separated in the time domain. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by its application to high-power white InGaN LEDs. For detailed analysis and identification of the failure mode of the LED packages, the transient signals are simulated by time-resolved finite element (FE) simulations. Using the new approach, the transient thermal analysis is enhanced to a powerful tool for reliability

  18. Neutron Spin Structure Measurements in JLab Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Recently, the high polarized luminosity available at Jefferson Lab (JLab) has allowed the study of the nucleon spin structure at an unprecedented precision, enabling us to access the hard-to-reach valence quark (high-x) region and also to accurately map the intermediate to low Q{sup 2} region. The high-x region is of special interest, because this is where the valence quark contributions are expected to dominate. With sea quarks and explicit gluon contributions expected not to be important, it is a clean region to test our understanding of nucleon structure.

  19. 15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 (PIER 5) AND NO. 66 (PIER 6), DWG. 83, CH BY AF, ECL, APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY, MAY 18, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. Electromagnetic Modeling and Measurement of Adaptive Metamaterial Structural Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    via electrodes , the permittivity is shifted, thereby shifting the resonance of the device [24]. Figure 35. Geometry of a tunable FSS structure that...2.5.6 Series SRR Particles. Nicholson and Ghorbani present a series SRR design with interdigital capacitors patterned on a barium strontium titanate

  1. Evaluation of structure from motion for soil microtopography measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments in low cost structure from motion (SFM) technologies offer new opportunities for geoscientists to acquire high resolution soil microtopography data at a fraction of the cost of conventional techniques. However, these new methodologies often lack easily accessible error metrics an...

  2. The Structural Validity of Daidalos: A Measure of Career Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybwad, Tom-Erik

    2008-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the structural validity of Daidalos, a 20-item inventory designed to assess the factors that might inhibit or promote successful career decision making, or career maturity. The sample consisted of 776 high school students; 367 were male and 409 were female. Participants ranged in age from 16…

  3. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawken, A. J.; Michelett, D.; Granett, B.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.

    2016-10-01

    Using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres we identified 245 voids in the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We show how by modelling the anisotropic void-galaxy cross correlation function we can probe the growth rate of structure.

  4. Measuring Social Capital and Its Differentials by Family Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Social capital has often been invoked to explain differences in children's well-being by family structure. That is, developmental outcome for children in lone or step parent family is not at par with that of children from intact family because parental investments on children may be lower not only in financial and human capital but also in social…

  5. Measuring Extended Structure in Stars Using the Keck Interferometer Nuller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koresko, Chris; Colavita, M. Mark; Serabyn, Eugene; Booth, Andrew; Garcia, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The Keck Interferometer Nuller is designed to detect faint off-axis mid-infrared light a few tens to a few hundreds of milliarcseconds from a bright central star. The starlight is suppressed by destructive combination along the long (85 m) baseline, which produces a fringe spacing of 25 mas at a wavelength of 10 m, with the central null crossing the position of the star. The strong, variable mid-infrared background is subtracted using interferometric phase chopping along the short (5 m) baseline. This paper presents an overview of the observing and data reduction strategies used to produce a calibrated measurement of the off-axis light. During the observations, the instrument cycles rapidly through several calibration and measurement steps, in order to monitor and stabilize the phases of the fringes produced by the various baselines, and to derive the fringe intensity at the constructive peak and destructive null along the long baseline. The data analysis involves removing biases and coherently demodulating the short-baseline fringe with the long-baseline fringe tuned to alternate between constructive and destructive phases, combining the results of many measurements to improve the sensitivity, and estimating the part of the null leakage signal which is associated with the finite angular size of the central star. Comparison of the results of null measurements on science target and calibrator stars permits the instrumental leakage - the "system null leakage" - to be removed and the off-axis light to be measured.

  6. Measuring Displacements in Engineering Structures by Means of a Coordinate Laser Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztubecki, Jacek; Bujarkiewicz, Adam; Sztubecka, Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    The application of geodetic methods to examine structures consists in the determination of their displacements relative to an established geodetic reference datum or in the definition of the geometry of their individual components. Such examinations form a picture of changes happening between specific points in time. Modern measurement technologies used in geodetic engineering enable undertaking more and more challenging measurements with increasing accuracy. The purpose of this article is to present a measurement technique involving a Leica TDRA 6000 total station to measure displacements in engineering structures. The station features a direct drive technology to achieve an accuracy of 0.25 mm in 3-dimensional measurements. Supported by appropriate software, the unit makes a perfect instrument for the monitoring of civil engineering structures. The article presents the results of measurement of static and dynamic displacements in a few engineering structures. The measurements were carried out both in laboratory conditions and on actual, operated civil engineering structures.

  7. Regulatory assessment of supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking on structural measures for existing single-hull tankers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This Regulatory Assessment (RA) examines certain alternative pollution prevention measures on a selected range of existing single-hull tank vessel categories. First, a screening analysis was conducted to evaluate the impacts of certain structural measures on a selected number of baseline analytical tank vessel models. The screening analysis included an estimation of onetime expenses associated with refitting the vessel at a shipyard, the cost of losing cargo carrying capacity due to the implementation of a measure that would not allow cargo carriage in certain tanks or above certain levels, and other costs such as loss of revenue during the shipyard period. Second, a detailed analysis was conducted to estimate the costs and benifits of those measures which were deemed the most effective at reducing oil outflow on the affected existing single-hull tank vessel fleet. The detailed analysis included a breakdown of costs and benefits, and included a cost-benefit analysis over the potential 19-year period that this regulation would be in effect.

  8. Measuring Core/Facesheet Bond Toughness in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines two test methods to evaluate the peel toughness of the skin to core debond of sandwich panels. The methods tested were the climbing drum (CD) peel test and the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. While the CD peel test is only intended for qualitative measurements, it is shown in this study that qualitative measurements can be performed and compare well with DCB test data. It is also shown that artificially stiffening the facesheets of a DCB specimen can cause the test to behave more like a flatwise tensile test than a peel test.

  9. Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Richard; Benmore, Chris J; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Wilding, Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

  10. Force measurement reveals structure of a confined liquid: Observation of the impenetrable space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Eisuke; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Onishi, Hiroshi; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2015-11-01

    Understanding of the structure of a confined liquid is an important subject for developments in surface science, tribology, biophysics, etc. In this study, we propose its measurement theory and conduct a test of the theory. The measurement theory uses a force curve obtained by surface force apparatus and transforms the force curve into the confined liquid structure. To check the validity of the measurement theory, we perform a verification test in a computer. It is found that the theory can semi-quantitatively reproduce the confined liquid structure. The theory will lead to the first step toward measuring a liquid structure confined between optically impenetrable substrates.

  11. Dynamical measurements of the interior structure of exoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Juliette C.; Batygin, Konstantin

    2013-12-01

    Giant gaseous planets often reside on orbits in sufficient proximity to their host stars for the planetary quadrupole gravitational field to become non-negligible. In presence of an additional planetary companion, a precise characterization of the system's orbital state can yield meaningful constraints on the transiting planet's interior structure. However, such methods can require a very specific type of system. This paper explores the dynamic range of applicability of these methods and shows that interior structure calculations are possible for a wide array of orbital architectures. The HAT-P-13 system is used as a case study, and the implications of perturbations arising from a third distant companion on the feasibility of an interior calculation are discussed. We find that the method discussed here is likely to be useful in studying other planetary systems, allowing the possibility of an expanded survey of the interiors of exoplanets.

  12. High Resolution Measurements of OH Infrared Airglow Structure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    and Space Science 19:561-566. Rayleigh , Lord ( Strutt , R.J.). 1931. On a Night Sky of Exceptional Brightness, and on the Distinction between the Polar...Air Force apeito isexpressed toD.DrnBkrfor his excellent direction and guidance. Also appreciation is extended to Dr. Kay Baker, Dr. William Pendleton...decades +rom 1930 to 1970, however, failed to recognize the nature o+ the airglow structure phenomenon. Rayleigh E19313 was among the first 3 to recoq

  13. Versatile Measurement Techniques to Validate Analytical Structural Mechanical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    ATM of IEST, Banaszak and Parin , Phoenix, AZ, 8 May 2006 presentation. 9. "Exploring Fiber Optic Strain Sensors for Testing Future Aerospace...Vehicles Directorate-Structures Division Wright Patterson AFB, OH David.Banaszak@wpafb.af.mil Damping Technology, Inc. - Mishawaka, IN Michael L. Parin ...27 Patch Installation Procedures Installed by Mike Parin during October 2003 President - Damping Technology, Inc. Applied 5 Pieces Total 12” x 3” One

  14. First Optical Hyperfine Structure Measurement in an Atomic Anion

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Canali, C.; Warring, U.; Kellerbauer, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2010-02-19

    We have investigated the hyperfine structure of the transition between the 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 2} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{sup e} ground state and the 5d{sup 6}6s{sup 2}6p {sup 6}D{sub J}{sup o} excited state in the negative osmium ion by high-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy. This transition is unique because it is the only known electric-dipole transition in atomic anions and might be amenable to laser cooling. From the observed hyperfine structure in {sup 187}Os{sup -} and {sup 189}Os{sup -} the yet unknown total angular momentum of the bound excited state was found to be J=9/2. The hyperfine structure constants of the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{sup e} ground state and the {sup 6}D{sub 9/2}{sup o} excited state were determined experimentally and compared to multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Using the knowledge of the ground and excited state angular momenta, the full energy level diagram of {sup 192}Os{sup -} in an external magnetic field was calculated, revealing possible laser cooling transitions.

  15. Mental Imagery Scale: a new measurement tool to assess structural features of mental representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ercole, Martina; Castelli, Paolo; Giannini, Anna Maria; Sbrilli, Antonella

    2010-05-01

    Mental imagery is a quasi-perceptual experience which resembles perceptual experience, but occurring without (appropriate) external stimuli. It is a form of mental representation and is often considered centrally involved in visuo-spatial reasoning and inventive and creative thought. Although imagery ability is assumed to be functionally independent of verbal systems, it is still considered to interact with verbal representations, enabling objects to be named and names to evoke images. In literature, most measurement tools for evaluating imagery capacity are self-report instruments focusing on differences in individuals. In the present work, we applied a Mental Imagery Scale (MIS) to mental images derived from verbal descriptions in order to assess the structural features of such mental representations. This is a key theme for those disciplines which need to turn objects and representations into words and vice versa, such as art or architectural didactics. To this aim, an MIS questionnaire was administered to 262 participants. The questionnaire, originally consisting of a 33-item 5-step Likert scale, was reduced to 28 items covering six areas: (1) Image Formation Speed, (2) Permanence/Stability, (3) Dimensions, (4) Level of Detail/Grain, (5) Distance and (6) Depth of Field or Perspective. Factor analysis confirmed our six-factor hypothesis underlying the 28 items.

  16. Computed tomography:the details.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  17. Occupation Competency Profile: Steel Detailer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the steel detailer program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  18. The structure of evaporating and combusting sprays: Measurements and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Solomon, A. S. P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to provide measurements in open sprays with no zones of recirculation, in order to provide well-defined conditions for use in evaluating spray models. Measurements were completed in a gas jet, in order to test experimental methods, and are currently in progress for nonevaporating sprays. A locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model where interphase transport rates are assumed to be infinitely fast; a separated flow (SF) model which allows for finite interphase transport rates but neglects effects of turbulent fluctuations on drop motion; and a stochastic SF model which considers effects of turbulent fluctuations on drop motion were evaluated using existing data on particle-laden jets. The LHF model generally overestimates rates of particle dispersion while the SF model underestimates dispersion rates. The stochastic SF flow yield satisfactory predictions except at high particle mass loadings where effects of turbulence modulation may have caused the model to overestimate turbulence levels.

  19. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Measurements of Effective Schottky Barrier in Inverse Extraordinary Optoconductance Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, L. C.; Werner, F. M.; Solin, S. A.; Gilbertson, Adam; Cohen, L. F.

    2013-03-01

    Individually addressable optical sensors with dimensions as low as 250nm, fabricated from metal semiconductor hybrid structures (MSH) of AuTi-GaAs Schottky interfaces, display a transition from resistance decreasing with intensity in micron-scale sensors (Extraordinary Optoconductance, EOC) to resistance increasing with intensity in nano-scale sensors (Inverse Extraordinary Optoconductance I-EOC). I-EOC is attributed to a ballistic to diffusive crossover with the introduction of photo-induced carriers and gives rise to resistance changes of up to 9462% in 250nm devices. We characterize the photo-dependence of the effective Schottky barrier in EOC/I-EOC structures by the open circuit voltage and reverse bias resistance. Under illumination by a 5 mW, 632.8 nm HeNe laser, the barrier is negligible and the Ti-GaAs interface becomes Ohmic. Comparing the behavior of two devices, one with leads exposed, another with leads covered by an opaque epoxy, the variation in Voc with the position of the laser can be attributed to a photovoltaic effect of the lead metal and bulk GaAs. The resistance is unaffected by the photovoltaic offset of the leads, as indicated by the radial symmetry of 2-D resistance maps obtained by rastering a laser across EOC/IEOC devices. SAS has a financial interest in PixelEXX, a start-up company whose mission is to market imaging arrays.

  1. Magnetic Field Structure in Molecular Clouds by Polarization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. P.; Su, B. H.; Eswaraiah, C.; Pandey, A. K.; Wang, C. W.; Lai, S. P.; Tamura, M.; Sato, S.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a program to delineate magnetic field structure inside molecular clouds by optical and infrared polarization observations. An ordered magnetic field inside a dense cloud may efficiently align the spinning dust grains to cause a detectable level of optical and near-infrared polarization of otherwise unpolarized background starlight due to dichroic extinction. The near-infrared polarization data were taken by SIRPOL mounted on IRSF in SAAO. Here we present the SIRPOL results in RCW 57, for which the magnetic field is oriented along the cloud filaments, and in Carina Nebula, for which no intrinsic polarization is detected in the turbulent environment. We further describe TRIPOL, a compact and efficient polarimer to acquire polarized images simultaneously at g', r', and i' bands, which is recently developed at Nagoya University for adaption to small-aperture telescopes. We show how optical observations probe the translucent outer parts of a cloud, and when combining with infrared observations probing the dense parts, and with millimeter and submillimeter observations to sutdy the central embedded protostar, if there is one, would yield the magnetic field structure on different length scales in the star-formation process.

  2. Detailed anatomy of the capsulopalpebral fascia.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yong Seok; Han, Seung-Ho; Shin, Sun Young

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the capsulopalpebral fascia (CPF) and capsulopalpebral head (CPH), and their relationships to the inferior rectus muscle (IRM). In this cohort study, 40 eyes from 20 cadavers were observed macroscopically. Dissection was carried out from the CPF origin to its insertion, and the CPF origin pattern was photographed in each specimen. The width, length, and tensile strength of the CPF were measured. The CPF originated 25.07 ± 1.07 mm laterally and 24.86 ± 1.10 mm medially from the origin of the IRM and extended to the lower border of the inferior oblique muscle, and it firmly adhered to the IRM surface and formed into the CPH. The CPH was 4.31 ± 0.86 mm laterally and 6.18 ± 1.94 mm medially in length and 7.47 ± 0.81 mm in width. The CPF originated from the total width or 3/4 temporal part of the IRM in 32 (80%) of 40 faces. There was asymmetry in the pattern of the CPF origin between the left and right eyes in 4 of 20 paired specimens (20%). The tensile strength of the posterior layer was 19.12 ± 11.22 N, which was significantly higher than that of the anterior layer (8.59 ± 3.88 N) (P = 0.001). This study provided a good understanding of the CPF structures conducive to performing IRM surgery.

  3. Measuring spin-dependent structure functions at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, A.

    1994-04-01

    The author analyses whether CEBAF with a 10 GeV beam could contribute significantly to the understanding of spin-dependent deep-inelastic scattering as well as semi-inclusive reactions. The main advantage of CEBAF is the much better attainable statistics, its great disadvantage its comparably low energy, which limits the accessible x-range to about 0.15 to 0.7. Within these constraints CEBAF could provide (1) high precision data which would be very valuable to understand the Q{sup 2} dependence of the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1}(x) and G{sub 2}(x) and (2) the by far most precise determination of the third moments of g{sub 1}(x) and g{sub 2}(x) the latter of which the author argues to be related to a fundamental property of the nucleon.

  4. Phase Correlations and Topological Measures of Large-Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, P.

    The process of gravitational instability initiated by small primordial density perturbations is a vital ingredient of cosmological models that attempt to explain how galaxies and large-scale structure formed in the Universe. In the standard picture (the "concordance" model), a period of accelerated expansion ("inflation") generated density fluctuations with simple statistical properties through quantum processes (Starobinsky [82], [83], [84]; Guth [39]; Guth & Pi [40]; Albrecht & Steinhardt [2]; Linde [55]). In this scenario the primordial density field is assumed to form a statistically homogeneous and isotropic Gaussian random field (GRF). Over years of observational scrutiny this paradigm has strengthened its hold in the minds of cosmologists and has survived many tests, culminating in those furnished by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP; Bennett et al. [7]; Hinshaw et al. [45].

  5. Contactless measurement of alternating current conductance in quantum Hall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Drichko, I. L.; Diakonov, A. M.; Malysh, V. A.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Ilyinskaya, N. D.; Usikova, A. A.; Galperin, Y. M.; Kummer, M.; Känel, H. von

    2014-10-21

    We report a procedure to determine the frequency-dependent conductance of quantum Hall structures in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is based on the combination of two known probeless methods—acoustic spectroscopy and microwave spectroscopy. By using the acoustic spectroscopy, we study the low-frequency attenuation and phase shift of a surface acoustic wave in a piezoelectric crystal in the vicinity of the electron (hole) layer. The electronic contribution is resolved using its dependence on a transverse magnetic field. At high frequencies, we study the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave in a coplanar waveguide. To quantitatively calibrate these data, we use the fact that in the quantum-Hall-effect regime the conductance at the maxima of its magnetic field dependence is determined by extended states. Therefore, it should be frequency independent in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is verified by studies of a well-characterized p-SiGe/Ge/SiGe heterostructure.

  6. The Finer Details: Climate Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    If you want to know whether you will need sunscreen or an umbrella for tomorrow's picnic, you can simply read the local weather report. However, if you are calculating the impact of gas combustion on global temperatures, or anticipating next year's rainfall levels to set water conservation policy, you must conduct a more comprehensive investigation. Such complex matters require long-range modeling techniques that predict broad trends in climate development rather than day-to-day details. Climate models are built from equations that calculate the progression of weather-related conditions over time. Based on the laws of physics, climate model equations have been developed to predict a number of environmental factors, for example: 1. Amount of solar radiation that hits the Earth. 2. Varying proportions of gases that make up the air. 3. Temperature at the Earth's surface. 4. Circulation of ocean and wind currents. 5. Development of cloud cover. Numerical modeling of the climate can improve our understanding of both the past and, the future. A model can confirm the accuracy of environmental measurements taken. in, the past and can even fill in gaps in those records. In addition, by quantifying the relationship between different aspects of climate, scientists can estimate how a future change in one aspect may alter the rest of the world. For example, could an increase in the temperature of the Pacific Ocean somehow set off a drought on the other side of the world? A computer simulation could lead to an answer for this and other questions. Quantifying the chaotic, nonlinear activities that shape our climate is no easy matter. You cannot run these simulations on your desktop computer and expect results by the time you have finished checking your morning e-mail. Efficient and accurate climate modeling requires powerful computers that can process billions of mathematical calculations in a single second. The NCCS exists to provide this degree of vast computing capability.

  7. Superwoman Schema: Using Structural Equation Modeling to Investigate Measurement Invariance in a Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Teneka C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument is critical to understanding how well an instrument measures what it intends to measure, and ensuring proposed use and interpretation of questionnaire scores are valid. The current study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to examine the factorial structure and…

  8. Measuring Learning in Serious Games: A Case Study with Structural Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Pieter; van der Spek, Erik D.; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of serious games is often measured with verbal assessment. As an alternative we propose Pathfinder structural assessment (defined as measuring the learners' knowledge organization and compare this with a referent structure) which comprises three steps: knowledge elicitation, knowledge representation and knowledge evaluation. We…

  9. Measuring the Internal Structure and Physical Conditions in Star and Planet Forming Clouds Core: Toward a Quantitative Description of Cloud Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    This grant funds a research program to use infrared extinction measurements to probe the detailed structure of dark molecular cloud cores and investigate the physical conditions which give rise to star and planet formation. The goals of this program are to acquire, reduce and analyze deep infrared and molecular-line observations of a carefully selected sample of nearby dark clouds in order to internal structure of starless cloud cores and to quantitatively investigate the evolution of such structure through the star and planet formation process. During the second year of this grant, progress toward these goals is discussed.

  10. Target micro-displacement measurement by a "comb" structure of intensity distribution in laser plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.

    2015-05-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.

  11. Real-time structured light intraoral 3D measurement pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Radu; Tchouprakov, Andrei; Sokolov, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is increasingly becoming a standard feature and service provided to patients in dentist offices and denture manufacturing laboratories. Although the quality of the tools and data has slowly improved in the last years, due to various surface measurement challenges, practical, accurate, invivo, real-time 3D high quality data acquisition and processing still needs improving. Advances in GPU computational power have allowed for achieving near real-time 3D intraoral in-vivo scanning of patient's teeth. We explore in this paper, from a real-time perspective, a hardware-software-GPU solution that addresses all the requirements mentioned before. Moreover we exemplify and quantify the hard and soft deadlines required by such a system and illustrate how they are supported in our implementation.

  12. An instrument for precision magnetic measurements of large magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, D.; Bordas, J.; Campmany, J.; Molins, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Traveria, M.

    2001-02-01

    A high precision-system for measuring the three-dimensional distribution of magnetic fields over large volumes, such as those produced by accelerator magnets, has been designed and commissioned. This instrument can be calibrated to a precision of ±1 G for magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T by means of an NMR system. A moving arm containing a 3D Hall probe scans the volume (up to 500×250×3000 mm 3) with a precision of ±50 μm in any direction. After appropriate identification of the various sources of error, and the optimisation of the various parts of the instrument where they are generated, an overall precision of ±2 G has been achieved, i.e. a relative precision of ±2×10 -4 for a nominal field of 1 T.

  13. The structure of evaporating and combusting sprays: Measurements and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Solomon, A. S. P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus developed, to allow observations of monodisperse sprays, consists of a methane-fueled turbulent jet diffusion flame with monodisperse methanol drops injected at the burner exit. Mean and fluctuating-phase velocities, drop sizes, drop-mass fluxes and mean-gas temperatures were measured. Initial drop diameters of 100 and 180 microns are being considered in order to vary drop penetration in the flow and effects of turbulent dispersion. Baseline tests of the burner flame with no drops present were also conducted. Calibration tests, needed to establish methods for predicting drop transport, involve drops supported in the post-flame region of a flat-flame burner operated at various mixture ratios. Spray models which are being evaluated include: (1) locally homogeneous flow (LFH) analysis, (2) deterministic separated flow (DSF) analysis and (3) stochastic separated flow (SSF) analysis.

  14. Flow structure measurement by beam scan type LDV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, M.; Nadaoka, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Hironaga, K.; Muramoto, T.

    1987-05-01

    A new type of laser Doppler velocimeter called SLV (Scan-Type Laser-Doppier Velocimeter) which can measure the velocity field almost continuously and simultaneously has been developed and tested. The principle of the apparatus is to traverse the focal point of split laser beams by reflecting them with a rotating polygon mirror or an oscillating mirror which is driven (and controlled) by a stepping motor and to receive the scattered Doppler signals by a photomultiplier by focusing them through a cylindrical lens. The signals from the photomultiplier and the driving pulse of the stepping motor were transmitted to a persona] computer and processed on-line. Experiments on the oscillatory boundary layer, Kármán vortices, and vortex rings were carried out to check the performance.

  15. In-situ measurements of velocity structure within turbidity currents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.A.; Rosenfeld, L.K.

    2004-01-01

    Turbidity currents are thought to be the main mechanism to move ???500,000 m3 of sediments annually from the head of the Monterey Submarine Canyon to the deep-sea fan. Indirect evidence has shown frequent occurrences of such turbidity currents in the canyon, but the dynamic properties of the turbidity currents such as maximum speed, duration, and dimensions are still unknown. Here we present the first-ever in-situ measurements of velocity profiles of four turbidity currents whose maximum along-canyon velocity reached 190 cm/s. Two turbidity currents coincided with storms that produced the highest swells and the biggest stream flows during the year-long deployment. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. An Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing In-Flight Strain Measurements for Determining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkarayev, S.; Krashantisa, R.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    An important and challenging technology aimed at the next generation of aerospace vehicles is that of structural health monitoring. The key problem is to determine accurately, reliably, and in real time the applied loads, stresses, and displacements experienced in flight, with such data establishing an information database for structural health monitoring. The present effort is aimed at developing a finite element-based methodology involving an inverse formulation that employs measured surface strains to recover the applied loads, stresses, and displacements in an aerospace vehicle in real time. The computational procedure uses a standard finite element model (i.e., "direct analysis") of a given airframe, with the subsequent application of the inverse interpolation approach. The inverse interpolation formulation is based on a parametric approximation of the loading and is further constructed through a least-squares minimization of calculated and measured strains. This procedure results in the governing system of linear algebraic equations, providing the unknown coefficients that accurately define the load approximation. Numerical simulations are carried out for problems involving various levels of structural approximation. These include plate-loading examples and an aircraft wing box. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are discussed in detail. The experimental validation of the methodology by way of structural testing of an aircraft wing is also discussed.

  17. 41. DETAIL OF NEW YORK TOWER SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. DETAIL OF NEW YORK TOWER SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST THROUGH STRUCTURE TOWARDS MANHATTAN - George Washington Bridge, Spanning Hudson River between Manhattan & Fort Lee, NJ, New York County, NY

  18. 13. Detail showing canopy at southeast corner; note single column ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail showing canopy at southeast corner; note single column supporting structure - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  19. Measuring the significance of community structure in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanqing; Nie, Yuchao; Yang, Hua; Cheng, Jie; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2010-12-01

    Many complex systems can be represented as networks, and separating a network into communities could simplify functional analysis considerably. Many approaches have recently been proposed to detect communities, but a method to determine whether the detected communities are significant is still lacking. In this paper, an index to evaluate the significance of communities in networks is proposed based on perturbation of the network. In contrast to previous approaches, the network is disturbed gradually, and the index is defined by integrating all of the similarities between the community structures before and after perturbation. Moreover, by taking the null model into account, the index eliminates scale effects. Thus, it can evaluate and compare the significance of communities in different networks. The method has been tested in many artificial and real-world networks. The results show that the index is in fact independent of the size of the network and the number of communities. With this approach, clear communities are found to always exist in social networks, but significant communities cannot be found in protein interactions and metabolic networks.

  20. A "comb" structure measurement of a micrometer displacement in laser plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.; Xing, J.; Wu, X. W.

    2014-08-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is achieved to measure target displacements at the micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion experiments. Compared with single-beam and double-beam detection, the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film targets with a velocity lower than 10-2 m/s. Combined with a light-electric monitor, the "comb" structure can be used to measure a velocity range from 10-3 to 1 m/s. Using this "comb" structure, the coupling coefficient of aluminum ablated by nanosecond pulse laser in air is determined and compared. The results indicate that this "comb" structure is an effective experimental approach.