Science.gov

Sample records for detailed structural measurements

  1. Detailing 'measures that matter'.

    PubMed

    Heavisides, Bob

    2010-04-01

    In a paper originally presented at last October's Healthcare Estates conference in Harrogate, Bob Heavisides, director of facilities at the Milton Keynes NHS Foundation Trust, explains how estates and facilities directors can provide a package of information based on a number of "measures that matter" to demonstrate to their boards that safe systems of work, operational efficiency and effectiveness, and operational parameters, are within, or better than, equivalent-sized Trusts.

  2. Aircraft empennage structural detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    This project involved the detailed design of the aft fuselage and empennage structure, vertical stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator for the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate the integration of the control systems devices used in the tail surfaces and their necessary structural supports as well as the elevator trim, navigational lighting system, electrical systems, tail-located ground tie, and fuselage/cabin interface structure. Accommodations for maintenance, lubrication, adjustment, and repairability were devised. Weight, fabrication, and (sub)assembly goals were addressed. All designs were in accordance with the FAR Part 23 stipulations for a normal category aircraft.

  3. Aircraft empennage structural detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesnewski, David; Snow, Russ M.; Combs, Lisa M.; Paufler, David; Schnieder, George; Athousake, Roxanne

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide an empennage structural assembly that will withstand the operational loads defined in FAR Part 23, as well as those specified in the statement of work, i.e. snow, rain, humidity, tiedown forces, etc. The goal is to provide a simple yet durable lightweight structure that will transfer the aerodynamic forces produced by the tail surfaces through the most efficient load path to the airframe. The structure should be simple and cost-effective to manufacture and repair. All structures meet or exceed loading and fatigue criteria. The structure provides for necessary stiffness and ease of maintenance.

  4. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  5. Detailed scour measurements around a debris accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Parola, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed scour measurements were made at Farm-Market 2004 over the Brazos River near Lake Jackson, Tex. during flooding in October 1994. Woody debris accumulations on bents 6, 7, and 8 obstructed flow through the bridge, causing scour of the streambed. Measurements at the site included three-dimensional velocities, channel bathymetry, water-surface elevations, water-surface slope, and discharge. Channel geometry upstream from the bridge caused approach conditions to be nonuniform.

  6. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  7. FIM measurement properties and Rasch model details.

    PubMed

    Wright, B D; Linacre, J M; Smith, R M; Heinemann, A W; Granger, C V

    1997-12-01

    To summarize, we take issue with the criticisms of Dickson & Köhler for two main reasons: 1. Rasch analysis provides a model from which to approach the analysis of the FIM, an ordinal scale, as an interval scale. The existence of examples of items or individuals which do not fit the model does not disprove the overall efficacy of the model; and 2. the principal components analysis of FIM motor items as presented by Dickson & Köhler tends to undermine rather than support their argument. Their own analyses produce a single major factor explaining between 58.5 and 67.1% of the variance, depending upon the sample, with secondary factors explaining much less variance. Finally, analysis of item response, or latent trait, is a powerful method for understanding the meaning of a measure. However, it presumes that item scores are accurate. Another concern is that Dickson & Köhler do not address the issue of reliability of scoring the FIM items on which they report, a critical point in comparing results. The Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMRSM) expends extensive effort in the training of clinicians of subscribing facilities to score items accurately. This is followed up with a credentialing process. Phase 1 involves the testing of individual clinicians who are submitting data to determine if they have achieved mastery over the use of the FIM instrument. Phase 2 involves examining the data for outlying values. When Dickson & Köhler investigate more carefully the application of the Rasch model to their FIM data, they will discover that the results presented in their paper support rather than contradict their application of the Rasch model! This paper is typical of supposed refutations of Rasch model applications. Dickson & Köhler will find that idiosyncrasies in their data and misunderstandings of the Rasch model are the only basis for a claim to have disproven the relevance of the model to FIM data. The Rasch model is a mathematical theorem (like

  8. FIM measurement properties and Rasch model details.

    PubMed

    Wright, B D; Linacre, J M; Smith, R M; Heinemann, A W; Granger, C V

    1997-12-01

    To summarize, we take issue with the criticisms of Dickson & Köhler for two main reasons: 1. Rasch analysis provides a model from which to approach the analysis of the FIM, an ordinal scale, as an interval scale. The existence of examples of items or individuals which do not fit the model does not disprove the overall efficacy of the model; and 2. the principal components analysis of FIM motor items as presented by Dickson & Köhler tends to undermine rather than support their argument. Their own analyses produce a single major factor explaining between 58.5 and 67.1% of the variance, depending upon the sample, with secondary factors explaining much less variance. Finally, analysis of item response, or latent trait, is a powerful method for understanding the meaning of a measure. However, it presumes that item scores are accurate. Another concern is that Dickson & Köhler do not address the issue of reliability of scoring the FIM items on which they report, a critical point in comparing results. The Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMRSM) expends extensive effort in the training of clinicians of subscribing facilities to score items accurately. This is followed up with a credentialing process. Phase 1 involves the testing of individual clinicians who are submitting data to determine if they have achieved mastery over the use of the FIM instrument. Phase 2 involves examining the data for outlying values. When Dickson & Köhler investigate more carefully the application of the Rasch model to their FIM data, they will discover that the results presented in their paper support rather than contradict their application of the Rasch model! This paper is typical of supposed refutations of Rasch model applications. Dickson & Köhler will find that idiosyncrasies in their data and misunderstandings of the Rasch model are the only basis for a claim to have disproven the relevance of the model to FIM data. The Rasch model is a mathematical theorem (like

  9. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  10. Interior detail of structural elements section; camera facing east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of structural elements section; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  12. INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 7. Photocopy of measured drawing, ca. 1881; details of castiron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of measured drawing, ca. 1881; details of cast-iron tower, stairway, cast-iron lantern and balcony balustrade - Faro de los Morillos de Cabo Rojo, Los Morillos de Cabo Rojo, Cabo Rojo, Cabo Rojo Municipio, PR

  14. 21. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 22. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Detailed electrical measurements on sago starch biopolymer solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rahul; Baghel, Jaya; Shukla, S.; Bhattacharya, B.; Rhee, Hee-Woo; Singh, Pramod K.

    2014-12-01

    The biopolymer solid electrolyte has been synthesized and characterized. Potassium iodide (KI) has been added in polymer matrix to develop solid polymer electrolyte. Relationships between electrical, ionic transport parameter and mechanism have been studied in detail. Impedance spectroscopy reveals the detailed electrical studies and ion transport mechanism. The ion dissociation factor is compared with a measured dielectric constant at a fixed frequency. The dielectric data are calculated which support the ionic conductivity data.

  17. 91. Virginia Route 608 grade separation structure. Detail of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. Virginia Route 608 grade separation structure. Detail of the scored wing walls and T beams. Looking southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. 15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. 14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. Note failure of sandstone lintel above window. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  20. Interior detail of third level structural elements at south end; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of third level structural elements at south end; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. 2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING 168 (1960 HOG KILL) IS BENEATH HOG RUN - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  2. Visitor center flight room, detail of twin structural piers at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Visitor center flight room, detail of twin structural piers at northeast corner supporting flight room dome - Wright Brothers National Memorial Visitor Center, Highway 158, Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC

  3. 43. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of air vent VIEW NORTHWEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  4. 42. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape hatch, elevator and air vent VIEW SOUTH - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  5. 36. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail showing elevator, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail showing elevator, air ventilators and personnel entrance VIEW SOUTHEAST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  6. 37. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of personnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of personnel entrance VIEW NORTH - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  7. 40. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape hatch and decontamination shower VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  8. 38. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of conduit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of conduit service junction - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  9. 41. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of elevator and air vents VIEW NORTHEAST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  10. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF TYPICAL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; CROSSBAY 3 BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF TYPICAL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; CROSSBAY 3 BETWEEN D & E BAYS; LOOKING WSW. (Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  11. 20. Detail of lantern roof structure, with revolving lens beneath. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail of lantern roof structure, with revolving lens beneath. (Blurred due to apparatus motion.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  12. 8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  13. 7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  14. Detail of roof trusses showing phoenix columns. Note structural phoenix ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of roof trusses showing phoenix columns. Note structural phoenix column in foreground. - Phoenix Iron Company, Rolling Mill, North of French Creek, west of Fairview Avenue, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  15. 30. DETAIL OF COLLAPSED BRIDGE NO. 14 SUSPENSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL OF COLLAPSED BRIDGE NO. 14 SUSPENSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  16. 21. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL BAY ON NORTH ELEVATION OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL BAY ON NORTH ELEVATION OF BUILDING 216 (AMMUNITION MAINTENANCE SHOP) IN ASSEMBLY AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  17. Detail of east side, showing roof structure and open racks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east side, showing roof structure and open racks for building materials storage - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Storage Sheds, Northeast Corner of West Pennington Avenue & North Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. 15. DETAIL OF LANTERN ON DAM STRUCTURE WHICH IS IDENTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF LANTERN ON DAM STRUCTURE WHICH IS IDENTICAL TO THE ORIGINAL LIGHT FIXTURES ON THE BRIDGE WHICH ARE NO LONGER EXTANT, VIEW NORTHEAST - Menominee River Bridge, Spanning Menominee River at County Truck Higway "K", Amberg, Marinette County, WI

  19. 9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. View to northeast. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  20. 7. STRUCTURAL DETAILS AT ENTRANCE OF LOCOMOTIVE ROUNDHOUSE, SHEET NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STRUCTURAL DETAILS AT ENTRANCE OF LOCOMOTIVE ROUNDHOUSE, SHEET NO. 1-9-2/89.1 (DRAWING DATED 1942). - Oakland Army Base, Railroad Engine Shop, Engineer Road & Wake Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  2. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF BARREL ROOF STRUCTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF BARREL ROOF STRUCTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  3. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM 87, SHOWING STOPLOG STRUCTURE (PARTIALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM 87, SHOWING STOPLOG STRUCTURE (PARTIALLY HIDDEN BY MARSH GRASSES IN LOWER PART OF PHOTO) AT RIGHT (WEST) END OF SPILLWAY - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 87, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  4. 35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106359. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106359. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 15. Photocopy of Engineering Drawing, Structural Steel Details (from City ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of Engineering Drawing, Structural Steel Details (from City of Norton Shores) - William S. Antisdale Memorial State Reward Bridge, Spanning Mona Lake at Henry Street, Norton Shores, Muskegon County, MI

  6. 11. Detail, southeast corner, showing decorative elements of main structure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail, southeast corner, showing decorative elements of main structure, and window at the second story of the hose tower. - Independent Hose Company No. 3, Nineteenth & Belmont Streets, Bellaire, Belmont County, OH

  7. 109. Detail view of structural frame supporting torch arm; cylindrical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Detail view of structural frame supporting torch arm; cylindrical object in foreground is part of ventilating system. February 1984. - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  8. 5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing southeast - Cold Mountain Fire Lookout Station, Lookout Tower, Krassel District, Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, Dixie, Idaho County, ID

  9. Section A, detail view parking structure, northwest stair tower, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A, detail view parking structure, northwest stair tower, showing smoke damage under floors, looking north/northeast. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  10. 39. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE STRUCTURAL DETAILS. Sheet 33, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE - STRUCTURAL DETAILS. Sheet 33, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/72. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  11. 31. LOWER CHORD / FLOOR STRUCTURE DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. LOWER CHORD / FLOOR STRUCTURE DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTH. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  12. 32. LOWER CHORD / FLOOR STRUCTURE DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. LOWER CHORD / FLOOR STRUCTURE DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTH. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  13. 10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the test stand deck to east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE AND PART OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE, SEEN FROM THE ARROYO SECO BELOW THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Hangar no. 2 structural details of west door at SW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 structural details of west door at SW corner. Note door tracks in underside of upper door structure. Looking 4 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  16. Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry building on west side of structure; view east - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE BASE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE BASE OF THE TEST STAND AND THE TAIL SECTION OF A REDSTONE (JUPITER) ROCKET. NOTE THE FLAME DEFLECTOR BEHIND THE STRUCTURE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Detailed transonic flow field measurements about a supercritical airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, F. X.; Spaid, F. W.; Roos, F. W.; Stivers, L. S., Jr.; Bandettini, A.

    1975-01-01

    The transonic flow field about a Whitcomb-type supercritical airfoil profile was measured in detail. In addition to the usual surface pressure distributions and wake surveys, schlieren photographs were taken and velocity vector profiles were determined in the upper surface boundary layer and in the near wake. Spanwise variations in the measured pressures were also determined. The data are analyzed with the aid of an inviscid transonic finite-difference computer program as well as with boundary layer modeling and calculation schemes.

  19. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  20. Detail Hframe structure about five and onefourth miles southwest of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail H-frame structure about five and one-fourth miles southwest of Morony Dam and Powerhouse showing one modern non-ceramic insulator and two historic porcelain suspension insulators - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Morony-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of the Missouri River, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  1. Detail of insulator array at first line structure showing historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of insulator array at first line structure showing historic porcelain suspension insulators in strings of eight, porcelain jumper support insulators in strings of six, arch rings and ball weights - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Morony-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of the Missouri River, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  2. Section A, detail view at parking structure of heatblistered paint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A, detail view at parking structure of heat-blistered paint on column J3/10. Level B2, looking west/southwest. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  3. Detail of array structural elements through axis of array, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of array structural elements through axis of array, looking north-northeast - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Columbia Falls Radar Site Receive Sector Two Antenna Array, At the end of Shadagee Ridge Road, Columbia Falls, Washington County, ME

  4. Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior work spaces. Note concrete piers and cross bracing. Seen at trusses no. 42, 43, & 44. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  5. Structure A, architectural sections & details. Drawing no. H2, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structure A, architectural sections & details. Drawing no. H2, revised as-built dated October 11, 1951. Original drawing by Black & Veatch, consulting engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, prepared for the U.S. Department of the Army, Office of Engineers, Military Construction Division, Washington, D.C. dated October 1. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  6. 5. Interior Detail of Roof Structure and Trusses Note: Photographs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior Detail of Roof Structure and Trusses Note: Photographs Nos. CA-1543F-6 through CA-1543F-19 are photocopies of construction drawings (various dates). Originals located at Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Staff Civil Engineer's Office. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Chemical Cleaning Facility, North of Fourteenth Street, between California & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. 10. Exterior view, showing the structural details and tanks above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Exterior view, showing the structural details and tanks above at walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking west. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  8. 6. Exterior view, showing structural details and instrumentation at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Exterior view, showing structural details and instrumentation at the walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Detail interior view of northeast stay tower at parking structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail interior view of northeast stay tower at parking structure in Section A showing graffiti, looking south between levels B3 and B4. Graffiti reads "God bless our local 3 brothers who gave their lives on 9-11-01 and all the rest! Amen" (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  10. 31. Detail of Southeast Light lens and roof structure of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Detail of Southeast Light lens and roof structure of light gallery, 1985. Taken day after Hurricane Gloria, courtesy of Gerald F. Abbott and Block Island Historical Society. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  11. 26. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE OF TOP FLOOR OF MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE OF TOP FLOOR OF MILL, ABOVE ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF STAIRWAY IN CA-290-25. THE PIPE AT CENTER WAS USED TO SPREAD CRUSHED ORE COMING FROM THE JAW CRUSHER EVENLY TO ALL AREA OF THE ORE BIN BELOW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. 25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO TOP FLOOR OF MILL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SECOND FLOOR OF MILL. PORTION OF ORE BIN ON RIGHT, STAIRS ON LEFT. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. 73. DETAIL OF 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PROJECTILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. DETAIL OF 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PROJECTILE CAR, CAMERA TOWER, CANTILEVERED WALKWAYS AND ELECTRICAL GEAR, August 17, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & PLATES FOR PIERS 4, 5, AND 6, DWG. NO. 97, 1-1/2" = 1', MADE BY A.F., JUNE 13, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet is in possession of Ball State University, Drawings and Documents Archive, COllege of Architecture and Planing, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, 47306 - Kidner Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River at County Road 700 South, Upland, Grant County, IN

  16. 5. STANDPIPE STRUCTURE DETAIL SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO PENSTOCKS, RIVETED SECTIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STANDPIPE STRUCTURE DETAIL SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO PENSTOCKS, RIVETED SECTIONAL CONSTRUCTION OF TWO OF THE THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES (PHOTO RIGHT), WELDED SECTIONAL CONSTRUCTION OF FOURTH STANDPIPE, AND MODERN VENTILATION VALVES ON FIFTH PENSTOCK AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER BETWEEN FOURTH STANDPIPE AND ORIGINAL TWO. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  17. Temperature Measurements of Dense Plasmas by Detailed Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Holl, A; Redmer, R; Ropke, G; Reinholz, H; Thiele, R; Fortmann, C; Forster, E; Cao, L; Tschentscher, T; Toleikis, S; Glenzer, S H

    2006-03-14

    Plasmas at high electron densities of n{sub e} = 10{sup 20} - 10{sup 26} cm{sup -3} and moderate temperatures T{sub e} = 1 - 20 eV are important for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. These plasmas are usually referred to as Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and are characterized by a coupling parameter of {Lambda} {approx}> 1 where correlations become important. The characterization of such plasmas is still a challenging task due to the lack of direct measurement techniques for temperatures and densities. They propose to measure the Thomson scattering spectrum of vacuum-UV radiation off density fluctuations in the plasma. Collective Thomson scattering provides accurate data for the electron temperature applying first principles. Further, this method takes advantage of the spectral asymmetry resulting from detailed balance and is independent of collisional effects in these dense systems.

  18. 9. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; CABLE TUNNEL, PLAN, SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; CABLE TUNNEL, PLAN, SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications No. OC1-55-72-(Rev.); Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 43 of 148; file no. AF 1320/94, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 12. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; DEFLECTOR PIT DETAILS, SHEET NO. 1." ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; DEFLECTOR PIT DETAILS, SHEET NO. 1." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 41 of 148; file no. 1320/92, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2) SHOWING DIVERSION GATE TO LAKE LADORA. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. Detail View looking at the protected structure and landing gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail View looking at the protected structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Detailed Uncertainty Analysis of the ZEM-3 Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are critical to the investigation of all thermoelectric systems. Therefore, it stands that the measurement uncertainty must be well understood to report ZT values which are accurate and trustworthy. A detailed uncertainty analysis of the ZEM-3 measurement system has been performed. The uncertainty analysis calculates error in the electrical resistivity measurement as a result of sample geometry tolerance, probe geometry tolerance, statistical error, and multi-meter uncertainty. The uncertainty on Seebeck coefficient includes probe wire correction factors, statistical error, multi-meter uncertainty, and most importantly the cold-finger effect. The cold-finger effect plagues all potentiometric (four-probe) Seebeck measurement systems, as heat parasitically transfers through thermocouple probes. The effect leads to an asymmetric over-estimation of the Seebeck coefficient. A thermal finite element analysis allows for quantification of the phenomenon, and provides an estimate on the uncertainty of the Seebeck coefficient. The thermoelectric power factor has been found to have an uncertainty of +9-14 at high temperature and 9 near room temperature.

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD THE REAR OF THE STRUCTURE. THE WHEELS AT THE TOP OF THE TRAM BUCKETS RODE OFF THE STATIONARY CABLES ONTO THE TRACK SUPPORTED BY THE "C" IRONS SUSPENDED FROM THE TOP TIMBERS, CLEARLY SEEN AT THE TOP OF THE FRAME. THE ANCHOR POINTS FOR THE TWO STATIONARY CABLES ARE AT BOTTOM CENTER, JUST BELOW THE CABLE WHEEL. THE MAIN CABLE WHEEL IS IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER LEFT. THE ORE CHUTES COMING FROM THE ORE BIN ARE AT LEFT CENTER EDGE. TRAM BUCKETS WERE CHARGED HERE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. Aircraft wing structural detail design (wing, aileron, flaps, and subsystems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Robert; Zable, Mike; Hughes, James; Heiser, Terry; Adrian, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, in detail, the wing, flaps, and ailerons for a primary flight trainer. Integrated in this design are provisions for the fuel system, the electrical system, and the fuselage/cabin carry-through interface structure. This conceptual design displays the general arrangement of all major components in the wing structure, taking into consideration the requirements set forth by the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR23) as well as those established in the statement of work.

  5. Detailed Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has been gaining recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to characterize the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the MODIS bow-tie effects and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show preliminary results of the MODIS FRP data analysis, including comparisons with airborne measurements.

  6. 115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of three movable stage floor sections. An inclined steel angle track attached to the web of the floor beam allows the sections to roll under the fixed floor. The upper section of the inclined track is hinged so it can be moved upward by a cam mechanism to raise the end of the movable section level with the stage floor. A similar mechanism was used to open and close the floor sections for the star lifts (see sheet 4 of 9, note 6; sheet 8 of 9, details 5, 6A and 6B; sheet 6 of 9, notes 2A, 2B, and 3; and photo IL-1007-120). The pulley, and tongue extending out from the end of the movable section, were used to move the sections back and forth. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD THE FRONT OF THE STRUCTURE. THE WHEELS AT THE TOP OF THE TRAM BUCKETS RODE OFF THE STATIONARY CABLES ONTO THE TRACK SUPPORTED BY THE "C" IRONS SUSPENDED FROM THE TOP TIMBERS ON THE LEFT AND RIGHT. THE BUCKET OPENING MECHANISM IS ON THE LEFT, AND PART OF THE CLOSING MECHANISM ON THE RIGHT EDGE OF THE FRAME. THE TWO CABLES AT CENTER ARE THE STATIONARY TRAM CABLES THAT RUN ALONG THE TOP OF THE SUPPORT TOWERS ON WHICH THE WHEELS OF THE TRAM BUCKETS RODE. THEY ARE ANCHORED AT GROUND LEVEL JUST OFF FRAME TO THE LOWER LEFT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Detailed temporal structure of communication networks in groups of songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, David

    2016-01-01

    Animals in groups often exchange calls, in patterns whose temporal structure may be influenced by contextual factors such as physical location and the social network structure of the group. We introduce a model-based analysis for temporal patterns of animal call timing, originally developed for networks of firing neurons. This has advantages over cross-correlation analysis in that it can correctly handle common-cause confounds and provides a generative model of call patterns with explicit parameters for the influences between individuals. It also has advantages over standard Markovian analysis in that it incorporates detailed temporal interactions which affect timing as well as sequencing of calls. Further, a fitted model can be used to generate novel synthetic call sequences. We apply the method to calls recorded from groups of domesticated zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) individuals. We find that the communication network in these groups has stable structure that persists from one day to the next, and that ‘kernels’ reflecting the temporal range of influence have a characteristic structure for a calling individual's effect on itself, its partner and on others in the group. We further find characteristic patterns of influences by call type as well as by individual. PMID:27335223

  9. Detailed temporal structure of communication networks in groups of songbirds.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Dan; Gill, Lisa; Clayton, David

    2016-06-01

    Animals in groups often exchange calls, in patterns whose temporal structure may be influenced by contextual factors such as physical location and the social network structure of the group. We introduce a model-based analysis for temporal patterns of animal call timing, originally developed for networks of firing neurons. This has advantages over cross-correlation analysis in that it can correctly handle common-cause confounds and provides a generative model of call patterns with explicit parameters for the influences between individuals. It also has advantages over standard Markovian analysis in that it incorporates detailed temporal interactions which affect timing as well as sequencing of calls. Further, a fitted model can be used to generate novel synthetic call sequences. We apply the method to calls recorded from groups of domesticated zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) individuals. We find that the communication network in these groups has stable structure that persists from one day to the next, and that 'kernels' reflecting the temporal range of influence have a characteristic structure for a calling individual's effect on itself, its partner and on others in the group. We further find characteristic patterns of influences by call type as well as by individual.

  10. Detailed temporal structure of communication networks in groups of songbirds.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Dan; Gill, Lisa; Clayton, David

    2016-06-01

    Animals in groups often exchange calls, in patterns whose temporal structure may be influenced by contextual factors such as physical location and the social network structure of the group. We introduce a model-based analysis for temporal patterns of animal call timing, originally developed for networks of firing neurons. This has advantages over cross-correlation analysis in that it can correctly handle common-cause confounds and provides a generative model of call patterns with explicit parameters for the influences between individuals. It also has advantages over standard Markovian analysis in that it incorporates detailed temporal interactions which affect timing as well as sequencing of calls. Further, a fitted model can be used to generate novel synthetic call sequences. We apply the method to calls recorded from groups of domesticated zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) individuals. We find that the communication network in these groups has stable structure that persists from one day to the next, and that 'kernels' reflecting the temporal range of influence have a characteristic structure for a calling individual's effect on itself, its partner and on others in the group. We further find characteristic patterns of influences by call type as well as by individual. PMID:27335223

  11. The impact of model detail on power grid resilience measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, S.; Kleis, K.; Schultz, P.; Kurths, J.; Hellmann, F.

    2016-05-01

    Extreme events are a challenge to natural as well as man-made systems. For critical infrastructure like power grids, we need to understand their resilience against large disturbances. Recently, new measures of the resilience of dynamical systems have been developed in the complex system literature. Basin stability and survivability respectively assess the asymptotic and transient behavior of a system when subjected to arbitrary, localized but large perturbations in frequency and phase. To employ these methods that assess power grid resilience, we need to choose a certain model detail of the power grid. For the grid topology we considered the Scandinavian grid and an ensemble of power grids generated with a random growth model. So far the most popular model that has been studied is the classical swing equation model for the frequency response of generators and motors. In this paper we study a more sophisticated model of synchronous machines that also takes voltage dynamics into account, and compare it to the previously studied model. This model has been found to give an accurate picture of the long term evolution of synchronous machines in the engineering literature for post fault studies. We find evidence that some stable fix points of the swing equation become unstable when we add voltage dynamics. If this occurs the asymptotic behavior of the system can be dramatically altered, and basin stability estimates obtained with the swing equation can be dramatically wrong. We also find that the survivability does not change significantly when taking the voltage dynamics into account. Further, the limit cycle type asymptotic behaviour is strongly correlated with transient voltages that violate typical operational voltage bounds. Thus, transient voltage bounds are dominated by transient frequency bounds and play no large role for realistic parameters.

  12. Investigating structural details of lipid-cholesterol-A β interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Durgesh; Anunciado, Divina; Heller, William; O'Neill, Hugh; Urban, Volker; Qian, Shuo

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people around the world by 2050. Amyloid beta (A β) -peptide, a peptide composed of 40- 42 amino acids that is the product of cleavage from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is regarded to play a major role in the development of AD. In addition, accumulating evidence points to a positive association between cholesterol and AD. Here, we present results from our studies about A β-peptide and cholesterol in bilayer by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) using a combination of dimyristoyl, phosphocholine (DMPC) and partially deuterated cholesterol (cholesterol-d7) with and without A β. We compare the results using grazing incidence and transmission SANS on lipid bilayer films and unilamellar vesicles respectively. The structural details on vesicles and bilayers work in conjunction with the circular dichroism on peptide in solution and oriented circular dichroism in bilayer films. The studies confirm a positive association of A β with the membrane layers. The results from different studies will be compared and contrasted in presentation.

  13. Detailed Northern Anatolian Fault Zone crustal structure from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, D. G.; Kahraman, M.; Thompson, D. A.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.

    2013-12-01

    locations at either of the NAFZ fault branches. We observe first-order differences in crustal structure between the crustal blocks that are separated by the faults. Each crustal block also contains regions of strong anisotropy at various depths that will be analyzed further with the full seismological dataset and compared to petrofabric analyses of exhumed fault segments. We will compare our results with other seismological imaging techniques to attempt to resolve the distribution of fault zone deformation with respect to depth. This information will be useful to other complementary Faultlab techniques that will add a detailed insight into the fault structure and dynamics of the NAFZ and contribute more broadly into ongoing research into major strike-slip fault zones.

  14. An array for measuring detailed soil temperature profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature dynamics can provide insights into soil variables which are much more difficult or impossible to measure. We designed an array to measure temperature at precise depth increments. Data was collected to determine if the construction materials influence surface and near-surface tempera...

  15. Detailed analysis of the structural consequences of railgun augumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W.

    1988-06-01

    The advantage of augmenting a plasma railgun is to provide the same driving force on the projectile as in an unaugmented railgun at a lower plasma arc current, thus producing less erosion and barrel damage. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). For each core, a two-dimensional dynamic finite element structural analysis is performed. The loadings, applied sequentially, consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. The magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. A maximum rail current is found for which the unaugmented railgun can be fired without permanent deformation of the gun bore, thus allowing repeated firings. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations are shown. 7 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cutinisation of tomato fruit epidermis: Structural and morphological details

    PubMed Central

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In tomato, the ovary is covered with a thin, electron-dense and uniform cuticle. The first 10 d after anthesis are critical in the cutinisation of the outer epidermal wall. During this period, singular cytoplasmic domains have been identified in the epidermal cells which seem to be involved in lipid biosynthesis. Moreover, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles of different size that seemed to migrate from the cytoplasm to the procuticle. These electron-dense particles are postulated to play an important role in early cutin synthesis. PMID:27031163

  17. Cutinisation of tomato fruit epidermis: Structural and morphological details.

    PubMed

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In tomato, the ovary is covered with a thin, electron-dense and uniform cuticle. The first 10 d after anthesis are critical in the cutinisation of the outer epidermal wall. During this period, singular cytoplasmic domains have been identified in the epidermal cells which seem to be involved in lipid biosynthesis. Moreover, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles of different size that seemed to migrate from the cytoplasm to the procuticle. These electron-dense particles are postulated to play an important role in early cutin synthesis.

  18. Content, Structure, and Sequence of the Detailing Discipline at Kendall College of Art and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Bruce E.

    A study identified the appropriate general content, structure, and sequence for a detailing discipline that promoted student achievement to professional levels. Its focus was the detailing discipline, a sequence of studio courses within the furniture design program at Kendall College of Art and Design, Grand Rapids, Michigan. (Detailing, an…

  19. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  20. Detailed flow-field measurements over a 75 deg swept delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjelgaard, Scott O.; Sellers, William L., III

    1990-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation documenting the flowfield over a 75 deg swept delta wing at an angle-of-attack of 20.5 deg are presented. Results obtained include surface flow visualization, off-body flow visualization, and detailed flowfield surveys for various Reynolds numbers. Flowfield surveys at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 million based on the root chord were conducted with both a Pitot pressure probe and a 5-hole pressure probe; and 3-component laser velocimeter surveys were conducted at a Reynolds number of 1.0 million. The Pitot pressure surveys were obtained at 5 chordwise stations, the 5-hole probe surveys were obtained at 3 chordwise stations and the laser velocimeter surveys were obtained at one station. The results confirm the classical roll up of the flow into a pair of primary vortices over the delta wing. The velocity measurements indicate that Reynolds number has little effect on the global structure of the flowfield for the Reynolds number range investigated. Measurements of the non-dimensional axial velocity in the core of the vortex indicate a jet like flow with values greater than twice freestream. Comparisons between velocity measurements from the 5-hole pressure probe and the laser velocimeter indicate that the pressure probe does a reasonable job of measuring the flowfield quantities where the velocity gradients in the flowfield are low.

  1. A Detailed Comparison Between Probe Measurements and Numerical Simulation in RMF Driven FRCs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, R. D.; Miller, K. E.; Slough, J. T.

    2001-10-01

    A detailed set of magnetic and Langmuire probe measurements have been made in both the STX^1 and TCS^2 devices at the University of Washington. These probes provide a direct measure of the magnetic field, density and electron temperature as a function of radius at the axial mid-plane. These measurements are compared with the predictions of a two-dimensional (r-θ) numerical model^3, which was developed to study RMF current drive in an FRC. Two sorts of comparison are made. In the first we compare the phase and magnitude of the B_θ component as a function of radius with that of the code, to infer the 2-D structure of the RMF as it penetrates. We look for evidence of “magnetic structures” that rotate relative to the RMF, that were predicted by the code for some conditions. In the second, we compare equilibrium profiles to estimate the plasma resistivity, and gain information about the physical processes that are required to sustain equilibrium. ^1J.T. Slough and K. E. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1444 (2000) ^2H.Y. Guo, et.al., Submitted to Phys. Plasmas. ^3Richard D. Milroy, Phys. Plasmas 7, 4135 (2000)

  2. Creating Imaginative Worlds: Unique Details and Structure in Norma Fox Mazer's Young Adult Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how writer Norma Fox Mazer has helped many readers make the leap between reality and imagination simply in the way she handles details in the lives of her characters. Explores the ideas of communicating with detail, experimenting with structure, and playing with time in crucial scenes. (SG)

  3. 36. ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS OF ELEVATOR HOUSING, NaK HEATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS OF ELEVATOR HOUSING, NaK HEATER STACK ROOF FLASHING, HOOD ELEVATION DETAIL. INCLUDES PARTIAL 'BILL OF MATERIAL.' INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106361. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-11. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 22. U.S. Route 60 grade separation structure. Detail of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. U.S. Route 60 grade separation structure. Detail of the arch stones on the east elevation. View facing north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. 17. DETAIL, ROOF STRUCTURE (4 x 5 NEGATIVE) U.S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL, ROOF STRUCTURE (4 x 5 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Detail of antenna tower structure, looking northnorthwest OvertheHorizon Backscatter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of antenna tower structure, looking north-northwest - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  7. View south; interior structural detail at column A13 south bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south; interior structural detail at column A13 south bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. View northeast; interior structural detail Naval Base PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast; interior structural detail - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Simulating photon scattering effects in structurally detailed ventricular models using a Monte Carlo approach

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Martin J.; Plank, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    Light scattering during optical imaging of electrical activation within the heart is known to significantly distort the optically-recorded action potential (AP) upstroke, as well as affecting the magnitude of the measured response of ventricular tissue to strong electric shocks. Modeling approaches based on the photon diffusion equation have recently been instrumental in quantifying and helping to understand the origin of the resulting distortion. However, they are unable to faithfully represent regions of non-scattering media, such as small cavities within the myocardium which are filled with perfusate during experiments. Stochastic Monte Carlo (MC) approaches allow simulation and tracking of individual photon “packets” as they propagate through tissue with differing scattering properties. Here, we present a novel application of the MC method of photon scattering simulation, applied for the first time to the simulation of cardiac optical mapping signals within unstructured, tetrahedral, finite element computational ventricular models. The method faithfully allows simulation of optical signals over highly-detailed, anatomically-complex MR-based models, including representations of fine-scale anatomy and intramural cavities. We show that optical action potential upstroke is prolonged close to large subepicardial vessels than further away from vessels, at times having a distinct “humped” morphology. Furthermore, we uncover a novel mechanism by which photon scattering effects around vessels cavities interact with “virtual-electrode” regions of strong de-/hyper-polarized tissue surrounding cavities during shocks, significantly reducing the apparent optically-measured epicardial polarization. We therefore demonstrate the importance of this novel optical mapping simulation approach along with highly anatomically-detailed models to fully investigate electrophysiological phenomena driven by fine-scale structural heterogeneity. PMID:25309442

  10. Interpretation of ground-based microwave measurements of the moon using a detailed regolith properties model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.; Keihm, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed model for the regolith's thermophysical and microwave properties has been used for the interpretation of ground-based measurements of the moon's microwave brightness temperature variation with lunar phase and changes during eclipses. The ground-based measurements include some crucial new lunation variation observations at 2.8, 6.0 and 13.1 cm. The many parameters in the regolith properties model were assigned values based on a careful review of Apollo in situ and lab sample measurements of thermophysical and electrical properties. The first identification of a wavelength-dependent component of scattering is reported.

  11. 11. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'CONTROL STATION STRUCTURAL DETAILS' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'CONTROL STATION STRUCTURAL DETAILS' drawn at 1 1/2'=1'-0'. (BUORD Sketch # 208401). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Control Station, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Detail of insulator array at Hframe structure on RyantoRainbow Line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of insulator array at H-frame structure on Ryan-to-Rainbow Line 2 about three and one-fourth miles southwest of Ryan Dam. Array has three historic porcelain suspension insulators - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  13. Detail of insulator array at Hframe structure on RyantoRainbow Line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of insulator array at H-frame structure on Ryan-to-Rainbow Line 1 about three miles southwest of Ryan Dam. Array has one historic porcelain suspension insulator and two non-ceramic insulators - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  14. Detail of MoronytoRainbow Hframe structure just east of Ryan Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Morony-to-Rainbow H-frame structure just east of Ryan Dam Road showing three historic porcelain suspension insulators in strings of six. View to east - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Morony-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of the Missouri River, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  15. Section A, detail view at parking structure of column J4/12 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A, detail view at parking structure of column J4/12 at level B2, looking southeast, showing smoke damage at drop panel. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601). INL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STRUCTURAL DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-291-103079. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 542-11-B-73. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Hangar no. 2 structural detail. Tool room/GSE between trusses no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 structural detail. Tool room/GSE between trusses no. 38 an no. 39. South side of room seen from window. Note footing for concrete piers and cross bracing. Looking 180 S. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  18. Hangar no. 2 structural detail. Tool room/GSE between trusses no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 structural detail. Tool room/GSE between trusses no. 38 an no. 39. North side of room seen from door. Note footing for concrete piers and cross bracing. Looking 2 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. Structure A, reinforcing details. Drawing No. H2302, as built, Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structure A, reinforcing details. Drawing No. H2-302, as built, Original drawing by Black & Veatch, Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, prepared for the U.S. Department of the Army, Office of Engineers, Military Construction Division, Washington, D.C. dated October 1, 1951. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  20. A&M. TAN607. Storage pool vestibule wall. Sections and structural details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Storage pool vestibule wall. Sections and structural details. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-S137. Date: December 1952. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-62-693-106781 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS LABELED FOR PLUGS FROM SPECIFIC SIZE GROUPS IN THE MTR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-811-2, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0611-00-098-100694, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. A&M. Outside turntable, TAN705. Structural plan and details. Ralph M. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Outside turntable, TAN-705. Structural plan and details. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-705-S-149. Date: January 1953. Approved by INEEL index code no. 034-0705-60-693-106793 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Detailed high-accuracy megavoltage transmission measurements: A sensitive experimental benchmark of EGSnrc

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: There are three goals for this study: (a) to perform detailed megavoltage transmission measurements in order to identify the factors that affect the measurement accuracy, (b) to use the measured data as a benchmark for the EGSnrc system in order to identify the computational limiting factors, and (c) to provide data for others to benchmark Monte Carlo codes. Methods: Transmission measurements are performed at the National Research Council Canada on a research linac whose incident electron parameters are independently known. Automated transmission measurements are made on-axis, down to a transmission value of {approx}1.7%, for eight beams between 10 MV (the lowest stable MV beam on the linac) and 30 MV, using fully stopping Be, Al, and Pb bremsstrahlung targets and no fattening filters. To diversify energy differentiation, data are acquired for each beam using low-Z and high-Z attenuators (C and Pb) and Farmer chambers with low-Z and high-Z buildup caps. Experimental corrections are applied for beam drifts (2%), polarity (2.5% typical maximum, 6% extreme), ion recombination (0.2%), leakage (0.3%), and room scatter (0.8%)-the values in parentheses are the largest corrections applied. The experimental setup and the detectors are modeled using EGSnrc, with the newly added photonuclear attenuation included (up to a 5.6% effect). A detailed sensitivity analysis is carried out for the measured and calculated transmission data. Results: The developed experimental protocol allows for transmission measurements with 0.4% uncertainty on the smallest signals. Suggestions for accurate transmission measurements are provided. Measurements and EGSnrc calculations agree typically within 0.2% for the sensitivity of the transmission values to the detector details, to the bremsstrahlung target material, and to the incident electron energy. Direct comparison of the measured and calculated transmission data shows agreement better than 2% for C (3.4% for the 10 MV beam) and

  4. Detailed Seismic Velocity Structure of the Plate Boundary, Cascadia Subduction Zone, from Prestack Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, W.; Holbrook, W.; Tobin, H. J.; Keranen, K. M.; Everson, E.; Mallick, S.; Padhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the geologic makeup of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) has great importance for understanding seismic hazards in the coastal margin of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The Cascadia margin is a potential earthquake and tsunami threat to the many millions who live in the area, yet details of its structure and mechanics remain poorly understood. In particular, the character of the subduction interface is elusive due to the CSZ's relatively aseismic behavior and low seismic reflectivity, making imaging difficult for passive and active source methods, respectively. In July 2012 seismic data were acquired as a part of the COAST project, spanning the important transition from the Cascadia basin, across the deformation front, and into the accretionary wedge. This modern data, coupled with sophisticated pre-stack full waveform seismic inversion methods, allows us to create highly detailed velocity models. While still computationally expensive, current computing clusters can perform these inversions with enough lateral density to yield highly detailed velocity information in both the vertical and horizontal. Here we present pre-stack full waveform inversions of a seismic line from the center of the COAST survey offshore Washington state as a cross section of the velocity structure of the CSZ. This detailed velocity model is a necessary initial step toward a detailed porosity cross section to be used to determine the role of fluids in the CSZ. Using these new data we investigate the lateral variability in reflectivity of the subducting plate boundary reflection in terms of its seismic velocity.

  5. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. SUMP TANK (DIAMETER 33 FEET; CAPACITY 100,000 GALLONS) LOCATION IN HIGH ROOF SECTION ON WEST SIDE. REPAIR SHOP AND STORAGE AREA IN LOW-ROOF AREA. WALL DETAILS: THICKNESS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE RANGES FROM 1'-6" TO 2' THICK. FOUNDATIONS FOR FIVE CELLS ENCLOSING PUMPS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-805-2, 12/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0605-62-098-100658, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Detailed requirements document for the integrated structural analysis system, phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainey, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements are defined for a software system entitled integrated Structural Analysis System (ISAS) Phase B which is being developed to provide the user with a tool by which a complete and detailed analysis of a complex structural system can be performed. This software system will allow for automated interface with numerous structural analysis batch programs and for user interaction in the creation, selection, and validation of data. This system will include modifications to the 4 functions developed for ISAS, and the development of 25 new functions. The new functions are described.

  7. Detailed flow measurements and predictions for a three-stage transonic fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, W. J.; Stapleton, A. W.

    1994-04-01

    Detailed flow measurements were taken at DRA Pyestock on a Rolls-Royce three-stage transonic research fan using advanced laser transit velocimetry and holography techniques to supplement the fixed pressure and temperature instrumentation. The results have been compared with predictions using the DRA S1-S2 quasi-three-dimensional flow calculation system at a range of speeds. The agreement was generally encouraging, both for the overall performance and for details of the internal flow such as positions of shock waves. Taken together with the computational efficiency of the calculations and previous experience on single-stage transonic fans and core compressors, this establishes the S1-S2 system as a viable design tool for future multistage transonic fans.

  8. Detailed noise measurements on the SR-7A propeller: Tone behavior with helical tip Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed noise measurements were taken on the SR-7A propeller to investigate the behavior of the noise with helical tip Mach number and then to level off as Mach number was increased further. This behavior was further investigated by obtaining detailed pressure-time histories of data. The pressure-time histories indicate that a portion of the primary pressure pulse is progressively cancelled by a secondary pulse which results in the noise leveling off as the helical tip Mach number is increased. This second pulse appears to originate on the same blade as the primary pulse and is in some way connected to the blade itself. This leaves open the possibility of redesigning the blade to improve the cancellation; thereby, the propeller noise is reduced.

  9. 12. "OBSERVATION POSTS, STRUCTURAL PLANS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. OC25572; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. "OBSERVATION POSTS, STRUCTURAL PLANS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. OC2-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 89 of 148; file no. 1321/40, Rev. A. Very faint stamp above note reads: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Structure A, protective alarm installation details. Drawing no. H3709, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structure A, protective alarm installation details. Drawing no. H3-709, revised as-built dated August 28, 1952. Original drawing by Black & Veatch, consulting engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, prepared for the U.S. Department of the Army, Office of Engineers, Military Construction Division, Washington, D.C. dated October 1, 1951. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  11. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. FIRST FLOOR PLAN WITH STRUCTURAL DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. FIRST FLOOR PLAN WITH STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FLOOR SLABS AND HATCHES. SHOWER/LOCKER ROOM. STAIRWAYS. TWENTY-INCH-THICK WALL DIVIDES SUMP AND SEAL TANK CHAMBERS FROM REST OF FLOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-805-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0605-62-098-100659, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. A&M. TAN607. Construction detail showing structural steel framework with reinforcing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Construction detail showing structural steel framework with reinforcing steel in place prior to pouring concrete for biparting doors between hot shop and special equipment service (SES) room. Facing north. Hot shop to left, SES room to right. slot for north half of door shows at upper left of view. Date: May 21, 1954. INEEL negative no. 10548 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. NMR crystallography of enzyme active sites: probing chemically detailed, three-dimensional structure in tryptophan synthase.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Leonard J; Dunn, Michael F

    2013-09-17

    NMR crystallography--the synergistic combination of X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry--offers unprecedented insight into three-dimensional, chemically detailed structure. Initially, researchers used NMR crystallography to refine diffraction data from organic and inorganic solids. Now we are applying this technique to explore active sites in biomolecules, where it reveals chemically rich detail concerning the interactions between enzyme site residues and the reacting substrate. Researchers cannot achieve this level of detail from X-ray, NMR,or computational methodologies in isolation. For example, typical X-ray crystal structures (1.5-2.5 Å resolution) of enzyme-bound intermediates identify possible hydrogen-bonding interactions between site residues and substrate but do not directly identify the protonation states. Solid-state NMR can provide chemical shifts for selected atoms of enzyme-substrate complexes, but without a larger structural framework in which to interpret them only empirical correlations with local chemical structure are possible. Ab initio calculations and molecular mechanics can build models for enzymatic processes, but they rely on researcher-specified chemical details. Together, however, X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry can provide consistent and testable models for structure and function of enzyme active sites: X-ray crystallography provides a coarse framework upon which scientists can develop models of the active site using computational chemistry; they can then distinguish these models by comparing calculated NMR chemical shifts with the results of solid-state NMR spectroscopy experiments. Conceptually, each technique is a puzzle piece offering a generous view of the big picture. Only when correctly pieced together, however, can they reveal the big picture at the highest possible resolution. In this Account, we detail our first steps in the development of

  14. Restoring Detailed Geomagnetic and Environmental Information from Continuous Sediment Paleomagnetic Measurement through Optimised Deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, C.; Oda, H.

    2013-12-01

    The development of pass-through cryogenic magnetometers has greatly improved our efficiency in collecting paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data from continuous samples such as sediment half-core sections and u-channels. During a pass-through measurement, the magnetometer sensor response inevitably convolves with remanence of the continuous sample. The convolution process results in smoothed measurement and can seriously distort the paleomagnetic signal due to differences in sensor response along different measurement axes. Previous studies have demonstrated that deconvolution can effectively overcome the convolution effect of sensor response and improve the resolution for continuous paleomagnetic data. However, the lack of an easy-to-use deconvolution tool and the difficulty in accurately measuring the magnetometer sensor response have greatly hindered the application of deconvolution. Here, we acquire reliable estimate of sensor response of a pass-through cryogenic magnetometer at the Oregon State University by integrating repeated measurements of a magnetic point source. The point source is fixed in the center of a well-shaped polycarbonate cube with 5 mm edge length, and measured at every 1 mm position along a 40-cm interval while placing the polycarbonate cube at each of the 5 × 5 grid positions over a 2 × 2 cm2 area on the cross section. The acquired sensor response reveals that cross terms (i.e. response of pick-up coil for one axis to magnetic signal along other axes) that were often omitted in previous deconvolution practices are clearly not negligible. Utilizing the detailed estimate of magnetometer sensor response, we present UDECON, a graphical tool for convenient application of optimised deconvolution based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) minimization (Oda and Shibuya, 1996). UDECON directly reads a paleomagnetic measurement file, and allows user to view, compare, and save data before and after deconvolution. Optimised deconvolution

  15. Measurement fidelity of heart rate variability signal processing: the devil is in the details.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Giovanniello, Sabrina; Poirier, Paul; Lambert, Marie

    2012-10-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a particularly valuable quantitative marker of the flexibility and balance of the autonomic nervous system. Significant advances in software programs to automatically derive HRV have led to its extensive use in psychophysiological research. However, there is a lack of systematic comparisons across software programs used to derive HRV indices. Further, researchers report meager details on important signal processing decisions making synthesis across studies challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the measurement fidelity of time- and frequency-domain HRV indices derived from three predominant signal processing software programs commonly used in clinical and research settings. Triplicate ECG recordings were derived from 20 participants using identical data acquisition hardware. Among the time-domain indices, there was strong to excellent correspondence (ICC(avg)=0.93) for SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD, and pNN50. The frequency-domain indices yielded excellent correspondence (ICC(avg)=0.91) for LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio, except for VLF which exhibited poor correspondence (ICC(avg)=0.19). Stringent user-decisions and technical specifications for nuanced HRV processing details are essential to ensure measurement fidelity across signal processing software programs.

  16. Structural details of light activation of the LOV2-based photoswitch PA-Rac1.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andreas; Barends, Thomas R M; Udvarhelyi, Anikó; Lenherr-Frey, Daniel; Lomb, Lukas; Menzel, Andreas; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-02-20

    Optical control of cellular processes is an emerging approach for studying biological systems, affording control with high spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically designed artificial photoswitches add an interesting extension to naturally occurring light-regulated functionalities. However, despite a great deal of structural information, the generation of new tools cannot be based fully on rational design yet; in many cases design is limited by our understanding of molecular details of light activation and signal transduction. Our biochemical and biophysical studies on the established optogenetic tool PA-Rac1, the photoactivatable small GTPase Rac1, reveal how unexpected details of the sensor-effector interface, such as metal coordination, significantly affect functionally important structural elements of this photoswitch. Together with solution scattering experiments, our results favor differences in the population of pre-existing conformations as the underlying allosteric activation mechanism of PA-Rac1, rather than the assumed release of the Rac1 domain from the caging photoreceptor domain. These results have implications for the design of new optogenetic tools and highlight the importance of including molecular details of the sensor-effector interface, which is however difficult to assess during the initial design of novel artificial photoswitches.

  17. Seismic retroftting of RC columns with RC jackets and wing walls with different structural details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shuenn-Yih; Chen, Ting-Wei; Tran, Ngoc-Cuong; Liao, Wen-I.

    2014-06-01

    An original reinforced concrete (RC) column and four strengthened specimens, two with RC jackets and two with wing walls, were tested in this study. The original column specimen was designed to comply with older (pre-1999) design standards so that the usual detailing deficiencies in existing school buildings in Taiwan could be simulated. Two different structural details were chosen to fabricate the full-scale specimens for each retrofitting technique. The study confirmed that either RC jacketing or the installation of wing walls with two different structural details can effectively improve the stiffness and strength of an existing column. RC jacketing shows a better improvement in energy dissipation and ductility when compared to the columns with wing walls installed. This is because the two RC jacketed columns experienced a flexural failure, while a shear failure was found in the two columns with the wing walls installed, and thus led to a drastic decrease of the maximum lateral strengths and ductility. Since many factors may affect the installation of a post-installed anchor, it is better to use standard hooks to replace post-installed anchors in some specific points when using RC jacketing or installing wing walls.

  18. Imaging the internal structure of fluid upflow zones with detailed digital Parasound echosounder surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Schwenk, T.

    2001-12-01

    Sites of venting fluids both with continuous and episodic supply often reveal complex surface and internal structures, which are difficult to image and cause problems to transfer results from local sampling towards a structural reconstruction and a quantification of (average) flux rates. Detailed acoustic and seismic surveys would be required to retrieve this information, but also an appropriate environment, where fluid migration can be properly imaged from contrasts to unaffected areas. Hemipelagic sediments are most suitable, since typically reflectors are coherent and of low lateral amplitude variation and structures are continuous over distances much longer than the scale of fluid migration features. During RV Meteor Cruise M473 and RV Sonne Cruise SO 149 detailed studies were carried out in the vicinity of potential fluid upflow zones in the Lower Congo Basin at 5oS in 3000 m water depth and at the Northern Cascadia Margin in 1000 m water depth. Unexpected sampling of massive gas hydrates from the sea floor as well as of carbonate concretions, shell fragments and different liveforms indicated active fluid venting in a typically hemipelagic realm. The acoustic signature of such zones includes columnar blanking, pockmark depressions at the sea floor, association with small offset faults (< 1m). A dedicated survey with closely spaced grid lines was carried out with the Parasound sediment echosounder (4 kHz), which data were digitally acquired with the ParaDigMA System for further processing and display, to image the spatial structure of the upflow zones. Due to the high data density amplitudes and other acoustic properties could be investigated in a 3D volume and time slices as well as reflector surfaces were analyzed. Pronounced lateral variations of reflection amplitudes within a complex pattern indicate potential pathways for fluid/gas migration and occurrences of near-surface gas hydrate deposits, which may be used to trace detailed surface evidence from side

  19. Formulation of probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail using the reference ratio method.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Jan B; Andreetta, Christian; Boomsma, Wouter; Bottaro, Sandro; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Frellsen, Jes; Mardia, Kanti V; Tian, Pengfei; Hamelryck, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    We propose a method to formulate probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail, for a given amino acid sequence, based on Bayesian principles, while retaining a close link to physics. We start from two previously developed probabilistic models of protein structure on a local length scale, which concern the dihedral angles in main chain and side chains, respectively. Conceptually, this constitutes a probabilistic and continuous alternative to the use of discrete fragment and rotamer libraries. The local model is combined with a nonlocal model that involves a small number of energy terms according to a physical force field, and some information on the overall secondary structure content. In this initial study we focus on the formulation of the joint model and the evaluation of the use of an energy vector as a descriptor of a protein's nonlocal structure; hence, we derive the parameters of the nonlocal model from the native structure without loss of generality. The local and nonlocal models are combined using the reference ratio method, which is a well-justified probabilistic construction. For evaluation, we use the resulting joint models to predict the structure of four proteins. The results indicate that the proposed method and the probabilistic models show considerable promise for probabilistic protein structure prediction and related applications.

  20. Development of a new tow-yo instrument to observe detailed river plume structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, E.; Yamazaki, H.; Nagai, T.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations in coastal and estuary area are important factors in revealing physical and biological structures. However, detailed fine scale structures are difficult to observe in situ due to lack of a suitable instrument. We have developed a new Tow-Yo instrument, Yoing Ocean Data Acquisition Profiler (YODA) to observe the small scale features of coastal waters directly. The high-resolution data obtained from YODA showed fine scale complicated internal wave structures and patchily distribution of phytoplankton along a river plume (Fig.1). We have also developed a scheme to estimate the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation ɛ from dC/dz signals obtained from YODA. We will present various observed fine scale events. Also we present that a critical angle theory for low frequency internal wave is consistent with our observation.; Fig.1 Salinity and fluorescence distribution around the river mouth obtained from YODA.

  1. Detailed design of an SMA-actuated self-locking device for rotary feed structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyu, Qin; Xiaojun, Yan; Xiaoyong, Zhang; Weibing, Wang; Lianghai, Li

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a detailed design of a locking device which is used to lock the rotary feed structure of a space-borne microwave radiometer during the launching stage. This locking device employs two redundant shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as the actuating elements, uses a self-locking structure to achieve the locking function and a step structure to ensure a safety clearance after release. Based on the design concept, preliminary design of the locking/release unit and the clamp unit are performed. Then, a more accurate simulation of the release process and the cyclic property of the device is carried out by using an improved Brinson’s SMA constitutive model and a heat transfer equation. After the design and simulation, four prototypes are fabricated and their performance tests are carried out to evaluate the self-locking property, lifetime and thermal tolerance.

  2. n-Butane: Ignition delay measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, D.; Curran, H.J.; Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L.; Zinner, C.M.; Bourque, G.

    2010-08-15

    Ignition delay time measurements were recorded at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 for n-butane at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, 30 and 45 atm at temperatures from 690 to 1430 K in both a rapid compression machine and in a shock tube. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1328 reactions involving 230 species was constructed and used to validate the delay times. Moreover, this mechanism has been used to simulate previously published ignition delay times at atmospheric and higher pressure. Arrhenius-type ignition delay correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K which relate ignition delay time to temperature and concentration of the mixture. Furthermore, a detailed sensitivity analysis and a reaction pathway analysis were performed to give further insight to the chemistry at various conditions. When compared to existing data from the literature, the model performs quite well, and in several instances the conditions of earlier experiments were duplicated in the laboratory with overall good agreement. To the authors' knowledge, the present paper presents the most comprehensive set of ignition delay time experiments and kinetic model validation for n-butane oxidation in air. (author)

  3. Comprehension and retention: The effect of concrete details and causal structure in scientific narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcken, Wendi M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine two of the salient elements of instructional narratives as a guide to instructional practice. The literature summarized in this report discusses the theoretical basis for narrative impact on comprehension and retention, enumerates and defines possible salient narrative elements from the literature, and examines the instructional impact of two of these elements: concrete details and causal structure. This is intended to help provide guidance to instructional designers and teachers who desire to use narrative in science instruction. Participants included 94 high school physics students. An experimental research design of 2 (Gender) x 2 (Concreteness) x 2 (Causal Structure) x 2 (Comprehension as within-subjects) ANCOVA was used to analyze the effects of the narrative elements. It was found that concrete details improved comprehension and retention but that causal structure had no statistically significant impact on comprehension or retention. There were no significant gender differences in comprehension or retention though there were two- and three-way interactions between the independent variables.

  4. A Detailed Study on the Low-Energy Structures of Charged Colloidal Clusters.

    PubMed

    Cruz, S M A; Marques, J M C

    2016-04-01

    The target of this investigation is the systematic characterization of the low-energy structures of charged colloidal clusters that may be important to understand the self-assembling process of biomolecules. The aggregation of charged colloidal particles is governed by the attractive short-ranged Morse potential and the Yukawa repulsive tail to describe the long-range charge effect. A global optimization strategy, based on our own evolutionary algorithm, was adopted to discover the low-energy structures of colloidal clusters composed of up to 20 particles. A detailed analysis of the low-energy structures involving charged particles shows that the appearance of the Bernal spiral as the most stable motif occurs, first, at N = 6, but it is favored for larger clusters (N ≥ 13); for 6 ≤ N ≤ 12, there is a competition between the spiral (which is favored for higher charges) and more spherical-like structures. Finally, we study binary clusters composed by two sets of differently charged colloidal particles. Although a great diversity of low-energy structures is observed (especially for aggregates with one of the components in excess), the global minimum is disputed by three structural motifs depending on the composition of the cluster and, in some cases, on the range of the Morse potential. PMID:26986933

  5. High-resolution crystal structure reveals molecular details of target recognition by bacitracin

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacitracin is a metalloantibiotic agent that is widely used as a medicine and feed additive. It interferes with bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate, a lipid carrier that serves as a critical intermediate in cell wall production. Despite bacitracin’s broad use, the molecular details of its target recognition have not been elucidated. Here we report a crystal structure for the ternary complex of bacitracin A, zinc, and a geranyl-pyrophosphate ligand at a resolution of 1.1 Å. The antibiotic forms a compact structure that completely envelopes the ligand’s pyrophosphate group, together with flanking zinc and sodium ions. The complex adopts a highly amphipathic conformation that offers clues to antibiotic function in the context of bacterial membranes. Bacitracin’s efficient sequestration of its target represents a previously unseen mode for the recognition of lipid pyrophosphates, and suggests new directions for the design of next-generation antimicrobial agents. PMID:23940351

  6. Detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Li, H.; Li, M. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in similar diffusion bonding as well as on the fabrication of high quality martensitic stainless steel hollow structural components. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to observe the extent of surface asperity deformation under different bonding pressures. Results showed that an undamaged hollow structural component has been obtained with full interfacial contact and the same shear strength to that of base material. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity deformation as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity deformation mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity deformation not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also released deformation heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity deformation readily introduced stored energy difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail.

  7. Probing the Detailed Seismic Velocity Structure of Subduction Zones Using Advanced Seismic Tomography Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Subduction zones are one of the most important components of the Earth's plate tectonic system. Knowing the detailed seismic velocity structure within and around subducting slabs is vital to understand the constitution of the slab, the cause of intermediate depth earthquakes inside the slab, the fluid distribution and recycling, and tremor occurrence [Hacker et al., 2001; Obara, 2002].Thanks to the ability of double-difference tomography [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] to resolve the fine-scale structure near the source region and the favorable seismicity distribution inside many subducting slabs, it is now possible to characterize the fine details of the velocity structure and earthquake locations inside the slab, as shown in the study of the Japan subduction zone [Zhang et al., 2004]. We further develop the double-difference tomography method in two aspects: the first improvement is to use an adaptive inversion mesh rather than a regular inversion grid and the second improvement is to determine a reliable Vp/Vs structure using various strategies rather than directly from Vp and Vs [see our abstract ``Strategies to solve for a better Vp/Vs model using P and S arrival time'' at Session T29]. The adaptive mesh seismic tomography method is based on tetrahedral diagrams and can automatically adjust the inversion mesh according to the ray distribution so that the inversion mesh nodes are denser where there are more rays and vice versa [Zhang and Thurber, 2005]. As a result, the number of inversion mesh nodes is greatly reduced compared to a regular inversion grid with comparable spatial resolution, and the tomographic system is more stable and better conditioned. This improvement is quite valuable for characterizing the fine structure of the subduction zone considering the highly uneven distribution of earthquakes within and around the subducting slab. The second improvement, to determine a reliable Vp/Vs model, lies in jointly inverting Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs using P, S, and S

  8. Measurement of angle and axis of rotation in a carousel interferometer: a detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Ghazanfar; Ikram, Masroor

    2010-02-20

    A detailed analysis of a carousel interferometer is presented for the measurement of an unknown angle and axis of rotation. The technique exploits a set of compensator glass plates and a right-angle prism that is placed in each of the two arms of the interferometer. The two sets are placed at the same rotational stage, while the end mirrors of the interferometer are static. When rotation takes place, individual and relative optical path differences are generated in the two beams of the interferometer. The generated phase differences contribute toward finding the angle and axis of rotation. The analysis is presented for any initial position of the interferometer, i.e., the radial vector from the axis of rotation to the apex of one of the prisms used. The results show the slight variations in the error and nonlinearity when different parameters are manipulated. Moreover, the trade-off between the maximum size of the prisms and the radial distances are also presented.

  9. Detailed crustal structure of the North China and its implication for seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenliang; Wang, Xin; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Donglei

    2014-02-01

    Since the Mesozoic-Cenozoic era the North China Craton has experienced an important tectonic transition and it has given rise to complicated crustal structure and strong earthquake activity. Based on the large-scale surface gravity data, we studied the detailed crustal structure and seismogenic mechanism of the North China. The results indicate that the North China presents typical characteristics of adjoining depression and uplift, alternating basins and hills, inhomogeneous density and also great differences in crustal structure and Moho topography. The upper and middle crustal structures are dominated by the NNE-striking tectonic units, with many faults cut down to the middle crust. The lower crust is characterized by the folding-structure, with high and low-density placed alternately from west to east, presenting lateral heterogeneous feature. Adjusted by the gravity isostasy, Moho topography of the North China fluctuates greatly. Compared with the North China Basin, crustal thickness in the Western Taihang, northern Yanshan and Luzhong areas are much thicker while those densities are lower than the North China Basin. The dominating tectonic direction of the Moho topography strikes NE to NNE and undulates alternately from west to east. The epicenters are mostly concentrated in the upper and middle crust, especially the transitional areas between the high and low-gravity anomalies. The Tancheng earthquake in 1668, Sanhe earthquake in 1673, Tangshan earthquake in 1976, and all other seismic tectonic zones of the North China are all distributed in area where magma moves strongly beneath the crust, which is considered to be related to the movement of the high density, unstable and heat flows along the deep passage from the uppermost and asthenosphere due to the subduction of the Pacific slab towards the Eurasian plate.

  10. Detailed structural analysis of the rim of a large, complex impact crater: Bosumtwi Crater, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimold, Wolf U.; Brandt, Dion; Koeberl, Christian

    1998-06-01

    The 1 Ma Bosumtwi Crater in Ghana is an 11-km-diameter, presumably complex, well-preserved impact structure that is associated with the Ivory Coast tektite strewnfield. Detailed structural geologic studies along a complete traverse through the northwestern rim section indicated four zones characterized by distinct deformation styles from just outside of the crater rim to near the crater floor. Zone 1 is dominated by thick deposits of lithic impact breccia, intercalated in places with products of local mass wasting. Zone 2 contains inward-dipping thrust planes, conjugate radial fractures, isoclinal folding, and overturned stratigraphic sequences. Zone 3 represents a megabreccia zone, in which block size decreases upward and outward toward the rim crest. The innermost zone 4 is dominated by intense thrust faulting of multiple orientations, resulting in complex duplex- and lens-shaped bodies. These deformation styles generally correspond to those previously reported from the rims of simple bowl-shaped meteorite-impact craters and appear to be characteristic of impact structures in general.

  11. Porous electrode apparatus for electrodeposition of detailed metal structures or microelectronic interconnections

    DOEpatents

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Nilson, Robert H.; Hruby, Jill M.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and procedure for performing microfabrication of detailed metal structures by electroforming metal deposits within small cavities. Two primary areas of application are: the LIGA process which manufactures complex three-dimensional metal parts and the damascene process used for electroplating line and via interconnections of microelectronic devices. A porous electrode held in contact or in close proximity with a plating substrate or mold top to ensure one-dimensional and uniform current flow into all mold cavities is used. Electrolyte is pumped over the exposed surface of the porous electrode to ensure uniform ion concentrations at this external surface. The porous electrode prevents electrolyte circulation within individual mold cavities, avoiding preferential enhancement of ion transport in cavities having favorable geometries. Both current flow and ion transport are one-dimensional and identical in all mold cavities, so all metal deposits grow at the same rate eliminating nonuniformities of the prior art.

  12. Crystal structure of listeriolysin O reveals molecular details of oligomerization and pore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Stefan; van Pee, Katharina; Hudel, Martina; Leustik, Martin; Rhinow, Daniel; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Chakraborty, Trinad; Yildiz, Özkan

    2014-04-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is an essential virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes that causes listeriosis. Listeria monocytogenes owes its ability to live within cells to the pH- and temperature-dependent pore-forming activity of LLO, which is unique among cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. LLO enables the bacteria to cross the phagosomal membrane and is also involved in activation of cellular processes, including the modulation of gene expression or intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Neither the pore-forming mechanism nor the mechanisms triggering the signalling processes in the host cell are known in detail. Here, we report the crystal structure of LLO, in which we identified regions important for oligomerization and pore formation. Mutants were characterized by determining their haemolytic and Ca2+ uptake activity. We analysed the pore formation of LLO and its variants on erythrocyte ghosts by electron microscopy and show that pore formation requires precise interface interactions during toxin oligomerization on the membrane.

  13. Possibility of supervision over detailed structure of ocean currents by MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklyarov, V. E.

    2008-02-01

    The report focuses on the analysis of the detail structure of ocean currents in areas of dust storms distribution or intensive phytoplankton's development. Dust storms represent the global phenomenon occurring regularly and, thus, atmospheric streams transfer a significant amount of the sand and dust (more than 2000 million tons) from deserts of Gobi, Sahara, Namibia, and Arabian Peninsula etc. The dust from Sahara achieves Caribbean Sea and southeast areas of USA for 5-7 days, and traces of the Asian dust storm, which have crossed Pacific Ocean, were found out in Great Lakes. For the purposes of our research the influence of sand and a dust dropping out from atmosphere on optical properties of the top layer of the ocean is represented especially significant. We shall note, that this question is poorly covered in the scientific literature. On our data, there are only separate certificates that return dispersion in green area of a spectrum for the top layer of the ocean is considerably increased after passage of a dust storm. It occurs due to saturation of the ocean top layer sand particles were sunlight diffusion is good. On the other hand, these particles, being a passive tracer, are easily involved by separate jets of currents in local circulation. These factors create a real basis for space observations on details mesoscale ocean circulation. As a trial experiment, author of the report have leaded the multispectral analysis data from MODIS (satellite AQUA), received on a northwest part Indian Ocean and Gulf of Aden. Results of the analysis confirm the made hypothesis.

  14. Detailed gravity mapping of the Panther Mountain circular structure, Catskill Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Isachsen, Y.W. ); Revetta, F.A. )

    1993-03-01

    The Panther Mountain circular structure is located in the Catskill Mountains near the eastern edge of the Allegheny Plateau where depth through the sedimentary section to basement is about 3200 m. The structure is distinguished from the rest of the Plateau only by its physiography. It is a circular mountain mass, 10 km in diameter, defined by an anomalous annular drainage pattern formed by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. Because of pervasive fluvial cross bedding in the sedimentary pile, the authors were unable to determine whether the structure is slightly domical, sightly basinal, or unwarped. North-south and east-west gravity profiles were next made and modeled to look for a subsurface explanation for the structure. The only computed profiles that matched the measured values were those for a shallowly-buried meteorite crater with its underlying breccia lens, lying beneath the Panther Mountain. Renewed interest in the structure led them to make 125 new gravity measurements, in a study that is continuing. Gravity values are corrected using the International Gravity Formula of 1967 and densities of 2.67 and 2.50 gms/cm[sup 3]. Terrain corrections were computed using an inner radius of .895 km and an outer radius of 166.70 km. The complete Bouguer gravity anomaly was separated into its regional and residual components to obtain a third order residual gravity map for computer modeling. The residual gravity map confirms the earlier detected gravity low and leaves the buried meteorite crater model as a viable model.

  15. Unveiling the Detailed Density and Velocity Structures of the Protostellar Core B335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurono, Yasutaka; Saito, Masao; Kamazaki, Takeshi; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2013-03-01

    We present an observational study of the protostellar core B335 harboring a low-mass Class 0 source. The observations of the H13CO+(J = 1-0) line emission were carried out using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Our combined image of the interferometer and single-dish data depicts detailed structures of the dense envelope within the core. We found that the core has a radial density profile of n(r)vpropr -p and a reliable difference in the power-law indices between the outer and inner regions of the core: p ≈ 2 for r >~ 4000 AU and p ≈ 1.5 for r <~ 4000 AU. The dense core shows a slight overall velocity gradient of ~1.0 km s-1 over the scale of 20, 000 AU across the outflow axis. We believe that this velocity gradient represents a solid-body-like rotation of the core. The dense envelope has a quite symmetrical velocity structure with a remarkable line broadening toward the core center, which is especially prominent in the position-velocity diagram across the outflow axis. The model calculations of position-velocity diagrams do a good job of reproducing observational results using the collapse model of an isothermal sphere in which the core has an inner free-fall region and an outer region conserving the conditions at the formation stage of a central stellar object. We derived a central stellar mass of ~0.1 M ⊙, and suggest a small inward velocity, v_{r ≥ r_inf}˜ 0 km s^{-1} in the outer core at >~ 4000 AU. We concluded that our data can be well explained by gravitational collapse with a quasi-static initial condition, such as Shu's model, or by the isothermal collapse of a marginally critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere.

  16. The detailed crystal and electronic structures of the cotunnite-type ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Duan, Li; Ji, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The detailed crystal and orbital-decomposed electronic structures of cotunnite-type ZrO2 have been investigated by using the first-principles projector augmented wave (PAW) potential within the generalized gradient approximation as well as taking into account on-site Coulomb repulsive interaction (GGA+U). The optimized structure shows that the OI and OII anions are surrounded by an arbitrary tetrahedron of four Zr cations and an arbitrary pentahedron of five Zr cations, respectively, in turn, the Zr cation is surrounded by an arbitrary tetrakaidecahedron formed by nine oxygen ligands. Although one more Zr cation is coordinated to OII, the larger bond lengths between OII and its adjacent five Zr cations (dOII-Zr) than those between OI and its adjacent four Zr cations (dOI-Zr) makes density of states (DOS) of s and three p (px , py and pz) states of the OII anion driving down in lower energy region and driving up in higher energy region. No crystal-field splitting is observed between three p (px , py and pz) states of anions OI and OII (between three p (px , py and pz) states and five d (dxy , dyz , dxz , dz2 and dx2-y2) states of cation Zr) is resulted from the arrangements of the surrounding cations (anions) do not have any symmetry. The additional covalent character upon Zr-O ionic bonds is attributed to the hybridization of itinerant Zr(5s) and less filled Zr(4d) states to the separated O(2s) and O(2p) states.

  17. A global/local analysis method for treating details in structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Ransom, Jonathan B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for analyzing global/local behavior of plate and shell structures is described. In this approach, a detailed finite element model of the local region is incorporated within a coarser global finite element model. The local model need not be nodally compatible (i.e., need not have a one-to-one nodal correspondence) with the global model at their common boundary; therefore, the two models may be constructed independently. The nodal incompatibility of the models is accounted for by introducing appropriate constraint conditions into the potential energy in a hybrid variational formulation. The primary advantage of this method is that the need for transition modeling between global and local models is eliminated. Eliminating transition modeling has two benefits. First, modeling efforts are reduced since tedious and complex transitioning need not be performed. Second, errors due to the mesh distortion, often unavoidable in mesh transitioning, are minimized by avoiding distorted elements beyond what is needed to represent the geometry of the component. The method is applied reduced to a plate loaded in tension and transverse bending. The plate has a central hole, and various hole sixes and shapes are studied. The method is also applied to a composite laminated fuselage panel with a crack emanating from a window in the panel. While this method is applied herein to global/local problems, it is also applicable to the coupled analysis of independently modeled components as well as adaptive refinement.

  18. Detailed fault structure of the 2000 Western Tottori, Japan, earthquake sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fukuyama, E.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Waldhauser, F.; Kubo, A.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the faulting process of the aftershock region of the 2000 western Tottori earthquake (Mw 6.6) by combining aftershock hypocenters and moment tensor solutions. Aftershock locations were precisely determined by the double difference method using P- and S-phase arrival data of the Japan Meteorological Agency unified catalog. By combining the relocated hypocenters and moment tensor solutions of aftershocks by broadband waveform inversion of FREESIA (F-net), we successfully resolved very detailed fault structures activated by the mainshock. The estimated fault model resolves 15 individual fault segments that are consistent with both aftershock distribution and focal mechanism solutions. Rupture in the mainshock was principally confined to the three fault elements in the southern half of the zone, which is also where the earliest aftershocks concentrate. With time, the northern part of the zone becomes activated, which is also reflected in the postseismic deformation field. From the stress tensor analysis of aftershock focal mechanisms, we found a rather uniform stress field in the aftershock region, although fault strikes were scattered. The maximum stress direction is N107??E, which is consistent with the tectonic stress field in this region. In the northern part of the fault, where no slip occurred during the mainshock but postseismic slip was observed, the maximum stress direction of N130??E was possible as an alternative solution of stress tensor inversion.

  19. Detailed imaging of flowing structures at depth using microseismicity: a tool for site investigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytharouli, S.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2011-12-01

    Field evidence shows that faults and fractures can act as focused pathways or barriers for fluid migration. This is an important property for modern engineering problems, e.g., CO2 sequestration, geological radioactive waste disposal, geothermal energy exploitation, land reclamation and remediation. For such applications the detailed characterization of the location, orientation and hydraulic properties of existing fractures is necessary. These investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment (excavator or drill rigs), which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they only provide information for discrete sample 'windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), have been used as tools for site investigations. Their imaging ability is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. Our research has shown that high quality seismic data can be successfully used in the detailed imaging of sub-surface structures at depth; using induced microseismicity data recorded beneath the Açu reservoir in Brazil we identified orientations and values of average permeability of open shear fractures at depths up to 2.5km. Could microseismicity also provide information on the fracture width in terms of stress drops? First results from numerical simulations showed that higher stress drop values correspond to narrower fractures. These results were consistent with geological field observations. This study highlights the great potential of using microseismicity data as a supplementary tool for site investigation. Individual large-scale shear fractures in large rock volumes cannot currently be identified by any other geophysical dataset. The resolution of the method is restricted by the detection threshold of the local

  20. Accuracy assessment of modeling architectural structures and details using terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzierski, M.; Walczykowski, P.; Orych, A.; Czarnecka, P.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important aspects when performing architectural documentation of cultural heritage structures is the accuracy of both the data and the products which are generated from these data: documentation in the form of 3D models or vector drawings. The paper describes an assessment of the accuracy of modelling data acquired using a terrestrial phase scanner in relation to the density of a point cloud representing the surface of different types of construction materials typical for cultural heritage structures. This analysis includes the impact of the scanning geometry: the incidence angle of the laser beam and the scanning distance. For the purposes of this research, a test field consisting of samples of different types of construction materials (brick, wood, plastic, plaster, a ceramic tile, sheet metal) was built. The study involved conducting measurements at different angles and from a range of distances for chosen scanning densities. Data, acquired in the form of point clouds, were then filtered and modelled. An accuracy assessment of the 3D model was conducted by fitting it with the point cloud. The reflection intensity of each type of material was also analyzed, trying to determine which construction materials have the highest reflectance coefficients, and which have the lowest reflection coefficients, and in turn how this variable changes for different scanning parameters. Additionally measurements were taken of a fragment of a building in order to compare the results obtained in laboratory conditions, with those taken in field conditions.

  1. Detailed flow measurements in casing boundary layer of 429-meter-per-second-tip-speed two-stage fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorrell, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed flow measurements between all blade rows were taken in the outer 30 percent of passage height of a two stage fan. Tabulations of the detailed flow measurements are included. Results of these measurements revealed the steep axial velocity profiles near the casing. The axial velocity profile near the casing at the rotor exists was much steeper than at the stator exits. The data also show overturning of the flow at the tip at the stator exits. The effect of mixing is shown by the redistribution of the first stage rotor exit total temperature profile as it passes through the following stator.

  2. A detailed study of nucleon structure function in nuclei in the valence quark region

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, N.

    1994-04-01

    The so called {open_quotes}EMC effect{close_quotes} discovered during the 1980`s, has caused a big controversy in the community of nuclear and high energy physicists; during the last ten years, five experiments have been performed in different laboratories and several hundreds of papers about the possible interpretation of the modification of the nucleon structure function inside nuclei have been published. However, from the experimental point of view, the main goal of four experiments (EMC, BCDMS, NMC, FNAL) has been to emphasize the region of low x{sub b}, where shadowing effects appear. In the region of valence quarks and nuclear effects (x{sub b} > 0.1 - 0.2) the most reliable data presently available are from the SLAC E139 experiment performed in 1983 with only 80 hours of beam time. New precise data in the valence quark region are necessary to measure separate structure functions F{sub 2}(x{sub b}, Q{sup 2}) and R{sup lt}(x{sub b},Q{sup 2}) = {sigma}{sub l}/{sigma}{sub t}, and to investigate the real A-dependence of the ratio between bound and free-nucleon structure functions which is not completely defined by the SLAC data. Moreover, from the nuclear physics point of view, a measurement on some unexplored nuclei, like {sup 3}He and {sup 48}Ca, would be of great interest. The intermediate scaling region (0.1 < x{sub b} < 0.7) would be accessible at CEBAF if the machine energy will reach 6-8 GeV, as suggested by all the tests performed on the RF cavities. This physics program has been already presented in two letter of intents.

  3. Techniques for obtaining detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements within gas turbine blade and vane cooling passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, R. J.; Jones, T. V.; Dunnne, S. T.

    1983-03-01

    Techniques developed jointly by Rolls-Royce Bristol and Oxford University for determining detailed heat transfer distributions inside turbine blade and vane cooling passages are reviewed. Use is made of a low temperature phase change paint to map the heat flux distributions within models of the cooling passages; the paints change from an opaque coating to a clear liquid at a well-defined melting point. In this way the surface temperature history of a model subjected to transient convective heating is recorded. The heat transfer coefficient distribution is deduced from this history using a transient conduction analysis within the model. Results are presented on detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions within a variety of cooling passages; and data obtained from a comprehensive study of a typical engine multipass cooling geometry are examined.

  4. UNVEILING THE DETAILED DENSITY AND VELOCITY STRUCTURES OF THE PROTOSTELLAR CORE B335

    SciTech Connect

    Kurono, Yasutaka; Saito, Masao; Kamazaki, Takeshi; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2013-03-10

    We present an observational study of the protostellar core B335 harboring a low-mass Class 0 source. The observations of the H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(J = 1-0) line emission were carried out using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Our combined image of the interferometer and single-dish data depicts detailed structures of the dense envelope within the core. We found that the core has a radial density profile of n(r){proportional_to}r {sup -p} and a reliable difference in the power-law indices between the outer and inner regions of the core: p Almost-Equal-To 2 for r {approx}> 4000 AU and p Almost-Equal-To 1.5 for r {approx}< 4000 AU. The dense core shows a slight overall velocity gradient of {approx}1.0 km s{sup -1} over the scale of 20, 000 AU across the outflow axis. We believe that this velocity gradient represents a solid-body-like rotation of the core. The dense envelope has a quite symmetrical velocity structure with a remarkable line broadening toward the core center, which is especially prominent in the position-velocity diagram across the outflow axis. The model calculations of position-velocity diagrams do a good job of reproducing observational results using the collapse model of an isothermal sphere in which the core has an inner free-fall region and an outer region conserving the conditions at the formation stage of a central stellar object. We derived a central stellar mass of {approx}0.1 M{sub Sun }, and suggest a small inward velocity, v{sub r{>=}r{sub i{sub n{sub f}}}}{approx}0 km s{sup -1} in the outer core at {approx}> 4000 AU. We concluded that our data can be well explained by gravitational collapse with a quasi-static initial condition, such as Shu's model, or by the isothermal collapse of a marginally critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere.

  5. A detailed study of the structure of the nested planetary nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A.; Edwards, M. L.; Winge, C. E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx E-mail: cwinge@gemini.edu

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H{sub 2} (2.1214 μm), and Br{sub γ} (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H{sub 2} emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Br{sub γ} recombination lines. The H{sub 2} emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ∼30 km s{sup –1}. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Br{sub γ} emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at ≤30 km s{sup –1}. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Br{sub γ} emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ∼ ± 40 km s{sup –1}.

  6. Toward a detailed understanding of search trajectories in fragment assembly approaches to protein structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Handl, Julia; Lovell, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Energy functions, fragment libraries, and search methods constitute three key components of fragment‐assembly methods for protein structure prediction, which are all crucial for their ability to generate high‐accuracy predictions. All of these components are tightly coupled; efficient searching becomes more important as the quality of fragment libraries decreases. Given these relationships, there is currently a poor understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the sampling approaches currently used in fragment‐assembly techniques. Here, we determine how the performance of search techniques can be assessed in a meaningful manner, given the above problems. We describe a set of techniques that aim to reduce the impact of the energy function, and assess exploration in view of the search space defined by a given fragment library. We illustrate our approach using Rosetta and EdaFold, and show how certain features of these methods encourage or limit conformational exploration. We demonstrate that individual trajectories of Rosetta are susceptible to local minima in the energy landscape, and that this can be linked to non‐uniform sampling across the protein chain. We show that EdaFold's novel approach can help balance broad exploration with locating good low‐energy conformations. This occurs through two mechanisms which cannot be readily differentiated using standard performance measures: exclusion of false minima, followed by an increasingly focused search in low‐energy regions of conformational space. Measures such as ours can be helpful in characterizing new fragment‐based methods in terms of the quality of conformational exploration realized. Proteins 2016; 84:411–426. © 2016 The Authors Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26799916

  7. Detailed flowfield measurements over a 75 deg swept delta wing for code validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjelgaard, Scott O.; Sellers, William L., III

    1988-01-01

    Selected results from an experimental investigation documenting the flowfield over 75 deg swept delta wing at an angle-of-attack of 20.5 deg are presented. Results obtained in the investigation include surface flow visualization, off-body flow visualization, and detailed flowfield surveys for various Reynolds numbers. Flowfield surveys at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 million were conducted with both a pitot pressure probe and a 5-hole pressure probe; and 3-component laser Doppler velocimeter surveys were conducted at a Reynolds number of 1.0 million. The pitot pressure surveys were obtained at 5 longitudinal stations, the 5-hole probe surveys were obtained at 3 longitudinal stations and the laser Doppler velocimeter surveys were obtained at one station. The accuracy of each instrumentation system is discussed, as well as, discrepancies in the calculation of vorticity using various algorithms.

  8. The detailed flame structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.C.; Peters, N.; Schneemann, G.A.; Wruck, N.; Renz, U.; Mansour, M.S.

    1996-11-01

    The premixed stoichiometric turbulent methane flames are investigated on a piloted Bunsen burner with mean nozzle exit velocities of 65, 50, and 30 m/s. Advanced laser diagnostics of the flow field using two-component and two-point laser Doppler anemometer, as well as of the scalar fields with 2-D Rayleigh thermometry and line Raman/Rayleigh laser-induced predissociation fluorescence techniques, are applied to obtain both the instantaneous and mean flame structure in terms of velocity, temperature, and major species concentrations, as well as turbulent kinetic energy and length scales. The three flames cover the entire range of the distributed-reaction-zones regime from the borderline to the well-stirred reactor regime to the flamelet regime. Measurements were from X/D = 2.5 above the nozzle exit plane to X/D = 12.5 downstream. Thus, a complete database is established for comparison with the numerical predictions. Within the mixing layer between the unburnt gas and the pilot flame, the instantaneous temperatures are much lower than the adiabatic flame temperature due to the short residence time and heat loss to the burner. With increasing residence time the mean flame temperature increases in the axial direction. The radial mixing of the turbulence generated with the shear layers between the nozzle jet stream and surrounding pilot stream is suppressed, such that the turbulence kinetic energy remains nearly constant on the centerline. From the two-dimensional temperature fields instantaneous iso-temperature contours are plotted showing broad regions where burnt and unburnt gas are partially mixed. These regions are interpreted in terms of the quench scale {ell}{sub q} = ({epsilon}{tau}{sub c}{sup 3}){sup 1/2}. The measured values of the flame brush thickness are proportional to the quench scale for the two high-velocity flames, whereas the low-velocity flame exhibits essential flamelet behavior.

  9. Technique for direct measurement of thermal conductivity of elastomers and a detailed uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralphs, Matthew I.; Smith, Barton L.; Roberts, Nicholas A.

    2016-11-01

    High thermal conductivity thermal interface materials (TIMs) are needed to extend the life and performance of electronic circuits. A stepped bar apparatus system has been shown to work well for thermal resistance measurements with rigid materials, but most TIMs are elastic. This work studies the uncertainty of using a stepped bar apparatus to measure the thermal resistance and a tensile/compression testing machine to estimate the compressed thickness of polydimethylsiloxane for a measurement on the thermal conductivity, k eff. An a priori, zeroth order analysis is used to estimate the random uncertainty from the instrumentation; a first order analysis is used to estimate the statistical variation in samples; and an a posteriori, Nth order analysis is used to provide an overall uncertainty on k eff for this measurement method. Bias uncertainty in the thermocouples is found to be the largest single source of uncertainty. The a posteriori uncertainty of the proposed method is 6.5% relative uncertainty (68% confidence), but could be reduced through calibration and correlated biases in the temperature measurements.

  10. Technical notes: A detailed study for the provision of measurement uncertainty and traceability for goniospectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, Jouni I.; Hakala, Teemu; Suomalainen, Juha; Honkavaara, Eija; Markelin, Lauri; Gritsevich, Maria; Eskelinen, Juho; Jaanson, Priit; Ikonen, Erkki

    2014-10-01

    The measurement uncertainty and traceability of the Finnish Geodetic Institutess field gonio-spectro-polarimeter FIGIFIGO have been assessed. First, the reference standard (Spectralon sample) was measured at the National Standard Laboratory of MIKES-Aalto. This standard was transferred to FGIs field reference standard (larger Spectralon sample), and from that to the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), reference standards (1 m2 plates). The reflectance measurement uncertainty of FIGIFIGO has been estimated to be 0.01 in ideal laboratory conditions, but about 0.02-0.05 in typical field conditions, larger at larger solar or observation zenith angles. Target specific uncertainties can increase total uncertainty even to 0.1-0.2. The angular reading uncertainty is between 1° and 3°, depending on user selection, and the polarisation uncertainty is around 0.01. For UAV, the transferred reflectance uncertainty is about 0.05-0.1, depending on, how ideal the measurement conditions are. The design concept of FIGIFIGO has been proved to have a number of advantages, such as a well-adopted user-friendly interface, a high level of automation and excellent suitability for the field measurements. It is a perfect instrument for collection of reference data on a given target in natural (and well-recorded) conditions. In addition to the strong points of FIGIFIGO, the current study reveals several issues that need further attention, such as the field of view, illumination quality, polarisation calibration, Spectralon reflectance and polarisation properties in the 1000-2400 nm range.

  11. Solution Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Reveals Structural Details of Lipid Domains in Ternary Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, J.; Kiss, A; Pramudya, Y; Nguyen, L; Hirst, L

    2009-01-01

    The influence of cholesterol on lipid bilayer structure is significant and the effect of cholesterol on lipid sorting and phase separation in lipid-raft-forming model membrane systems has been well investigated by microscopy methods on giant vesicles. An important consideration however is the influence of fluorescence illumination on the phase state of these lipids and this effect must be carefully minimized. In this paper, we show that synchrotron x-ray scattering on solution lipid mixtures is an effective alternative technique for the identification and characterization of the l o (liquid ordered) and l d (liquid disordered) phases. The high intensity of synchrotron x rays allows the observation of up to 5 orders of diffraction from the l o phase, whereas only two are clearly visible when the l d phase alone is present. This data can be collected in approximately 1 min/sample, allowing rapid generation of phase data. In this paper, we measure the lamellar spacing in both the liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases simultaneously, as a function of cholesterol concentration in two different ternary mixtures. We also observe evidence of a third gel-phaselike population at 10-12 mol % cholesterol and determine the thickness of the bilayer for this phase. Importantly we are able to look at phase coexistence in the membrane independent of photoeffects.

  12. Solution synchrotron x-ray diffraction reveals structural details of lipid domains in ternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jing; Kiss, Alexander; Pramudya, Yohanes H.; Nguyen, Lam T.; Hirst, Linda S.

    2009-03-01

    The influence of cholesterol on lipid bilayer structure is significant and the effect of cholesterol on lipid sorting and phase separation in lipid-raft-forming model membrane systems has been well investigated by microscopy methods on giant vesicles. An important consideration however is the influence of fluorescence illumination on the phase state of these lipids and this effect must be carefully minimized. In this paper, we show that synchrotron x-ray scattering on solution lipid mixtures is an effective alternative technique for the identification and characterization of the lo (liquid ordered) and ld (liquid disordered) phases. The high intensity of synchrotron x rays allows the observation of up to 5 orders of diffraction from the lo phase, whereas only two are clearly visible when the ld phase alone is present. This data can be collected in ˜1min/sample , allowing rapid generation of phase data. In this paper, we measure the lamellar spacing in both the liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases simultaneously, as a function of cholesterol concentration in two different ternary mixtures. We also observe evidence of a third gel-phaselike population at 10-12mol% cholesterol and determine the thickness of the bilayer for this phase. Importantly we are able to look at phase coexistence in the membrane independent of photoeffects.

  13. Isobutane ignition delay time measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, D.; Curran, H.J.; Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L.; Zinner, C.M.; Bourque, G.

    2010-08-15

    Rapid compression machine and shock-tube ignition experiments were performed for real fuel/air isobutane mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2. The wide range of experimental conditions included temperatures from 590 to 1567 K at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, and 30 atm. These data represent the most comprehensive set of experiments currently available for isobutane oxidation and further accentuate the complementary attributes of the two techniques toward high-pressure oxidation experiments over a wide range of temperatures. The experimental results were used to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model composed of 1328 reactions involving 230 species. This mechanism has been successfully used to simulate previously published ignition delay times as well. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to gain further insight to the chemical processes occurring at various conditions. Additionally, useful ignition delay time correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K. Comparisons are also made with available isobutane data from the literature, as well as with 100% n-butane and 50-50% n-butane-isobutane mixtures in air that were presented by the authors in recent studies. In general, the kinetic model shows excellent agreement with the data over the wide range of conditions of the present study. (author)

  14. A Detailed Derivation of Gaussian Orbital-Based Matrix Elements in Electron Structure Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, T.; Hellsing, B.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed derivation of analytic solutions is presented for overlap, kinetic, nuclear attraction and electron repulsion integrals involving Cartesian Gaussian-type orbitals. It is demonstrated how s-type orbitals can be used to evaluate integrals with higher angular momentum via the properties of Hermite polynomials and differentiation with…

  15. In situ spatiotemporal measurements of the detailed azimuthal substructure of the substorm current wedge

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, C; Fazakerley, A N; Rae, I J; J Watt, C E; Murphy, K; Wild, J A; Karlsson, T; Mutel, R; Owen, C J; Ergun, R; Masson, A; Berthomier, M; Donovan, E; Frey, H U; Matzka, J; Stolle, C; Zhang, Y

    2014-01-01

    The substorm current wedge (SCW) is a fundamental component of geomagnetic substorms. Models tend to describe the SCW as a simple line current flowing into the ionosphere toward dawn and out of the ionosphere toward dusk, linked by a westward electrojet. We use multispacecraft observations from perigee passes of the Cluster 1 and 4 spacecraft during a substorm on 15 January 2010, in conjunction with ground-based observations, to examine the spatial structuring and temporal variability of the SCW. At this time, the spacecraft traveled east-west azimuthally above the auroral region. We show that the SCW has significant azimuthal substructure on scales of 100 km at altitudes of 4000–7000 km. We identify 26 individual current sheets in the Cluster 4 data and 34 individual current sheets in the Cluster 1 data, with Cluster 1 passing through the SCW 120–240 s after Cluster 4 at 1300–2000 km higher altitude. Both spacecraft observed large-scale regions of net upward and downward field-aligned current, consistent with the large-scale characteristics of the SCW, although sheets of oppositely directed currents were observed within both regions. We show that the majority of these current sheets were closely aligned to a north-south direction, in contrast to the expected east-west orientation of the preonset aurora. Comparing our results with observations of the field-aligned current associated with bursty bulk flows (BBFs), we conclude that significant questions remain for the explanation of SCW structuring by BBF-driven “wedgelets.” Our results therefore represent constraints on future modeling and theoretical frameworks on the generation of the SCW. Key Points The substorm current wedge (SCW) has significant azimuthal structure Current sheets within the SCW are north-south aligned The substructure of the SCW raises questions for the proposed wedgelet scenario PMID:26167439

  16. Detailed measurements of the flowfield in the vicinity of an airfoil with glaze ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Coirier, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted in the OSU subsonic tunnel to measure the characteristics of the separation bubble on an airfoil with glaze ice. A measured glaze ice accretion on a NACA 0012 airfoil was simulated in wood for this dry tunnel test. The 21 inch chord model was pressure belted and the ice shape internally tapped to obtain surface pressures, lift and moment coefficients. A wake survey probe was used to obtain airfoil drag. The separation bubble was explored by measuring the time averaged velocities using a split film probe. The probe was positioned using a computer controlled two-dimensional traversing system. In this paper, airfoil lift, drag, and moment coefficient data are compared for the airfoil with and without glaze ice. Velocity profiles in the separation bubble are presented for several chordwise stations at three angles of attack. The ice shape caused a severe lift and drag penalty. The velocity profiles show clearly the large bubble geometry, regions of reversed flow, and bubble reattachment.

  17. Measurements of Alpha-dicarbonyl Compounds: A Detailed Instrument Intercomparison at the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza Romero, M.; Rickard, A.; Peppe, S.; Muñoz, A.; Ball, S.; Ródenas, M.; Sánchez, P.; Daniels, M.; Volkamer, R.; Thalman, R.; Keutsch, F.; Henry, S.; Monks, P.; Goodall, I.; Borrás, E.; Vázquez, M.

    2012-04-01

    The α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal (GLY, CH(O)CHO) and methylglyoxal (MGLY, CH3C(O)CHO)) are ubiquitous intermediates formed in the photooxidation of a wide range of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Recent measurements demonstrate that large uncertainties exist in the amount of glyoxal formed from isoprene photooxidation, the dominant VOC emitted into the atmosphere (1, 2). In addition, α-dicarbonyls are known to be precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and can potentially form a significant fraction of the missing global SOA in atmospheric models (3, 4). However, the exact role of such compounds is still not well established. One of the main reasons for such uncertainties is the difficulty in measuring them, as they are very reactive and difficult to handle experimentally. In order to elucidate both the chemical and instrumental issues related to the quantitative measurement of these compounds, a short experimental chamber campaign was carried out in the EUPHORE photo-reactor in Valencia, Spain to compare a number of currently available techniques (both optical and spectrometric). The campaign comprised a set of experiments simulating typical urban and semi-rural conditions. Measurements were performed over a range of concentrations in order to investigate the impacts of the presence of potential interferants in the gas mixtures sampled from the chamber (i.e. aerosol, NOx, short chain carbonyls and ozone). The gas and aerosol phase compositional evolution was monitored simultaneously. Different amounts of GLY and/or MGLY were added directly to the chamber or were generated in-situ from the oxidation of various VOC precursors. The following instrumental techniques were employed during the campaign: (Blue) LED-CE-DOAS (cavity enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy), long-path DOAS, SPME (solid phase micro extraction) -GC/MS, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, GC-ECD (electron capture detection

  18. Mechanistic Details of Glutathione Biosynthesis Revealed by Crystal Structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glutamate Cysteine Ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Biterova, Ekaterina I.; Barycki, Joseph J.

    2009-12-01

    Glutathione is a thiol-disulfide exchange peptide critical for buffering oxidative or chemical stress, and an essential cofactor in several biosynthesis and detoxification pathways. The rate-limiting step in its de novo biosynthesis is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase, a broadly expressed enzyme for which limited structural information is available in higher eukaryotic species. Structural data are critical to the understanding of clinical glutathione deficiency, as well as rational design of enzyme modulators that could impact human disease progression. Here, we have determined the structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutamate cysteine ligase (ScGCL) in the presence of glutamate and MgCl{sub 2} (2.1 {angstrom}; R = 18.2%, R{sub free} = 21.9%), and in complex with glutamate, MgCl{sub 2}, and ADP (2.7 {angstrom}; R = 19.0%, R{sub free} = 24.2%). Inspection of these structures reveals an unusual binding pocket for the {alpha}-carboxylate of the glutamate substrate and an ATP-independent Mg{sup 2+} coordination site, clarifying the Mg{sup 2+} dependence of the enzymatic reaction. The ScGCL structures were further used to generate a credible homology model of the catalytic subunit of human glutamate cysteine ligase (hGCLC). Examination of the hGCLC model suggests that post-translational modifications of cysteine residues may be involved in the regulation of enzymatic activity, and elucidates the molecular basis of glutathione deficiency associated with patient hGCLC mutations.

  19. Detailed analysis of shake structures in the KLL Auger spectrum of H2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püttner, R.; Céolin, D.; Guillemin, R.; Kushawaha, R. K.; Marchenko, T.; Journel, L.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Simon, M.

    2016-04-01

    Shake processes of different origin are identified in the KLL Auger spectrum of H2S with unprecedented detail. The KLL Auger spectrum is presented together with the S 1 s-1 photoelectron spectrum including the S 1 s-1V-1n λ and S 1 s-12 p-1n λ shake-up satellites with V-1 and n λ indicating a hole in the valence shell and an unoccupied molecular orbital, respectively. By using different photon energies between 2476 and 4150 eV to record the KLL Auger spectra two different shake-up processes responsible for the satellite lines are identified. The first process is a shake-up during the Auger decay of the S 1 s-1 core hole and can be described by S 1 s-1→2 p-2V-1n λ . The second process is the Auger decay of the shake-up satellite in the ionization process leading to S 1 s-1V-1n λ →2 p-2V-1n λ transitions. By combining the results of photoelectron and Auger spectra the involved V-1n λ levels are assigned.

  20. Detailed Study of Emission Structures in the Vicinity of LkHα 198

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgyan, M. H.; Movsessian, T. A.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Magakian, T. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Results from a study of collimated flows near the star LkHα 198 are reported. Observations were made using the VAGR multipupil spectrograph installed on the 2.6-m telescope at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory. The morphology and kinematics of emission structures in the vicinity of LkHα 198, including HH 161, were studied and electron density charts obtained. Besides the HH 161 object, our data revealed an arc-shaped emission structure with LkHα 198 at its apex. A shape of this kind is usually a direct indication of the presence of a cavity in a dark cloud blown out by a directed outflow. In addition, a faint "tail" extending in the direction of the central star is observed in HH 161. A comparison of these results with radio frequency observations shows that the probable source of HH 161 is the binary system LkHα 198.

  1. The effects of design details on cost and weight of fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. D.; Metschan, S. L.; Morris, M. R.; Kassapoglou, C.

    1993-01-01

    Crown panel design studies showing the relationship between panel size, cost, weight, and aircraft configuration are compared to aluminum design configurations. The effects of a stiffened sandwich design concept are also discussed. This paper summarizes the effect of a design cost model in assessing the cost and weight relationships for fuselage crown panel designs. Studies were performed using data from existing aircraft to assess the effects of different design variables on the cost and weight of transport fuselage crown panel design. Results show a strong influence of load levels, panel size, and material choices on the cost and weight of specific designs. A design tool being developed under the NASA ACT program is used in the study to assess these issues. The effects of panel configuration comparing postbuckled and buckle resistant stiffened laminated structure is compared to a stiffened sandwich concept. Results suggest some potential economy with stiffened sandwich designs for compression dominated structure with relatively high load levels.

  2. The structure of apo human glutamate dehydrogenase details subunit communication and allostery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas J; Schmidt, Timothy; Fang, Jie; Wu, Jane; Siuzdak, Gary; Stanley, Charles A

    2002-05-01

    The structure of human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been determined in the absence of active site and regulatory ligands. Compared to the structures of bovine GDH that were complexed with coenzyme and substrate, the NAD binding domain is rotated away from the glutamate-binding domain. The electron density of this domain is more disordered the further it is from the pivot helix. Mass spectrometry results suggest that this is likely due to the apo form being more dynamic than the closed form. The antenna undergoes significant conformational changes as the catalytic cleft opens. The ascending helix in the antenna moves in a clockwise manner and the helix in the descending strand contracts in a manner akin to the relaxation of an extended spring. A number of spontaneous mutations in this antenna region cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome by decreasing GDH sensitivity to the inhibitor, GTP. Since these residues do not directly contact the bound GTP, the conformational changes in the antenna are apparently crucial to GTP inhibition. In the open conformation, the GTP binding site is distorted such that it can no longer bind GTP. In contrast, ADP binding benefits by the opening of the catalytic cleft since R463 on the pivot helix is pushed into contact distance with the beta-phosphate of ADP. These results support the previous proposal that purines regulate GDH activity by altering the dynamics of the NAD binding domain. Finally, a possible structural mechanism for negative cooperativity is presented.

  3. Detailed Post-Soft Impact Progressive Damage Assessment for Hybrid Structure Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddens, Aaron; Bayandor, Javid; Celestina, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, certification of engine designs for resistance to bird strike is reliant on physical tests. Predictive modeling of engine structural damage has mostly been limited to evaluation of individual forward section components, such as fan blades within a fixed frame of reference, to direct impact with a bird. Such models must be extended to include interactions among engine components under operating conditions to evaluate the full extent of engine damage. This paper presents the results of a study aim to develop a methodology for evaluating bird strike damage in advanced propulsion systems incorporating hybrid composite/metal structures. The initial degradation and failure of individual fan blades struck by a bird were investigated. Subsequent damage to other fan blades and engine components due to resultant violent fan assembly vibrations and fragmentation was further evaluated. Various modeling parameters for the bird and engine components were investigated to determine guidelines for accurately capturing initial damage and progressive failure of engine components. Then, a novel hybrid structure modeling approach was investigated and incorporated into the crashworthiness methodology. Such a tool is invaluable to the process of design, development, and certification of future advanced propulsion systems.

  4. Detailed structural and biochemical characterization of the nexin-dynein regulatory complex

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Toshiyuki; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Kikkawa, Masahide

    2015-01-01

    The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) forms a cross-bridge between the outer doublet microtubules of the axoneme and regulates dynein motor activity in cilia/flagella. Although the molecular composition and the three-dimensional structure of N-DRC have been studied using mutant strains lacking N-DRC subunits, more accurate approaches are necessary to characterize the structure and function of N-DRC. In this study, we precisely localized DRC1, DRC2, and DRC4 using cryo–electron tomography and structural labeling. All three N-DRC subunits had elongated conformations and spanned the length of N-DRC. Furthermore, we purified N-DRC and characterized its microtubule-binding properties. Purified N-DRC bound to the microtubule and partially inhibited microtubule sliding driven by the outer dynein arms (ODAs). Of interest, microtubule sliding was observed even in the presence of fourfold molar excess of N-DRC relative to ODA. These results provide insights into the role of N-DRC in generating the beating motions of cilia/flagella. PMID:25411337

  5. Five checkpoints maintaining the fidelity of transcription by RNA polymerases in structural and energetic details.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Opron, Kristopher; Burton, Zachary F; Cukier, Robert I; Feig, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional fidelity, which prevents the misincorporation of incorrect nucleoside monophosphates in RNA, is essential for life. Results from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of eukaryotic RNA polymerase (RNAP) II and bacterial RNAP with experimental data suggest that fidelity may involve as many as five checkpoints. Using MD simulations, the effects of different active site NTPs in both open and closed trigger loop (TL) structures of RNAPs are compared. Unfavorable initial binding of mismatched substrates in the active site with an open TL is proposed to be the first fidelity checkpoint. The leaving of an incorrect substrate is much easier than a correct one energetically from the umbrella sampling simulations. Then, the closing motion of the TL, required for catalysis, is hindered by the presence of mismatched NTPs. Mismatched NTPs also lead to conformational changes in the active site, which perturb the coordination of magnesium ions and likely affect the ability to proceed with catalysis. This step appears to be the most important checkpoint for deoxy-NTP discrimination. Finally, structural perturbations in the template DNA and the nascent RNA in the presence of mismatches likely hinder nucleotide addition and provide the structural foundation for backtracking followed by removing erroneously incorporated nucleotides during proofreading.

  6. Unraveling of a detailed-balance-preserved quantum master equation and continuous feedback control of a measured qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, JunYan; Jin, Jinshuang; Wang, Shi-Kuan; Hu, Jing; Huang, Yixiao; He, Xiao-Ling

    2016-03-01

    We present a generic unraveling scheme for a detailed-balance-preserved quantum master equation applicable for stochastic point processes in mesoscopic transport. It enables us to investigate continuous measurement of a qubit on the level of single quantum trajectories, where essential correlations between the inherent dynamics of the qubit and detector current fluctuations are revealed. Based on this unraveling scheme, feedback control of the charge qubit is implemented to achieve a desired pure state in the presence of the detailed-balance condition. With sufficient feedback strength, coherent oscillations of the measured qubit can be maintained for arbitrary qubit-detector coupling. Competition between the loss and restoration of coherence entailed, respectively, by measurement back action and feedback control is reflected in the noise power spectrum of the detector's output. It is demonstrated unambiguously that the signal-to-noise ratio is significantly enhanced with increasing feedback strength and could even exceed the well-known Korotkov-Averin bound in quantum measurement. The proposed unraveling and feedback scheme offers a transparent and straightforward approach to effectively sustaining ideal coherent oscillations of a charge qubit in the field of quantum computation.

  7. Detailed structure and stratigraphy of the eastern Marble Mountain terrane, Klamath Mountains, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.E.; Hacker, B.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Amphibolite-grade rocks in the eastern Marble Mountains (MM), N. California, consist of several fault-bounded, SSE-dipping lithotectonic units. Each unit is ca. 2 km thick and is characterized by differences in rock type, metamorphism, and structural style. The lowermost unit composed of well-foliated and lineated epidote amphibolite grading upward into clinopyroxene-bearing amphibolite with a consistent NE-SW lineation. Structurally overlying these rocks are andalusite- and staurolite-bearing, epidote-amphibolite facies rocks (Wright Lake assemblage (WLa)) that have variable foliation and lineation orientations. The WLa consists of meta-supracrustal rocks with well-preserved relict textures, and massive, meta-ultramafic rock. Supracrustal rocks include polymict conglomerate and breccia, fine- to medium-grained clastic rocks, alkalic pillow basalt, chert, and carbonate. Conglomerate clasts include partially recrystallized granitoids and quartzite. Previous studies have interpreted the WLa to represent a fragment of oceanic crust, but coeval coarse-grained sedimentation and alkalic volcanism, small volume of mafic volcanics, conglomerate composition, and lack of oceanic plutonic and hypabyssal rocks suggest deposition in an arc-related rift or transtensional basin. Previous studies have also described the terrane as melange, but recognition of local pseudostratigraphy allows mapping of multiply folded, isoclinal, nappe-like structures. Small-scale nappes are generally 100+ m thick and are imbricated with massive meta-ultramafic rocks along gently to steeply east-dipping shear zones. Shear zones are characterized by metamorphosed ultramafic fault rocks that suggest a range of brittle to ductile behavior. Regionally distributed, Ar/Ar hornblende ages of 149.9[+-]0.4, 150.3[+-]0.6, 152.1[+-]4.7, 152.5[+-]2.5 Ma and Ar/Ar biotite ages of 148.8[+-]2.6 and 149.9[+-]0.4 Ma indicate the MM terrane cooled rapidly through ca. 500--300 C in the Late Jurassic.

  8. [Systematic value of the larval structure and details of postlarval morphogenesis in Bryozoa gymnolaemates].

    PubMed

    d'Hondt, J L

    1977-01-01

    Among the various species of Bryozoa Gymnolaemata, the larvae and their development were studied, comparing the larval structure and the evolution of their cellular categories during the post-larval morphogenesis the existence of nine well-defined larval types could be revealed. Cases of insufficiently described larvae are discussed. The present systematic of Bryozoa Gymnolaemata is compared with the classification of various larval types. For the major part of cases, each systematic family is marked by a precise type of larva; however there are some exceptions, especially in the ordre Ctenostomata. These discordances may suggest some rearrangements of the classification utilized at the present time.

  9. Stochastic Kinetics of Viral Capsid Assembly Based on Detailed Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Hemberg, Martin; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    We present a generic computational framework for the simulation of viral capsid assembly which is quantitative and specific. Starting from PDB files containing atomic coordinates, the algorithm builds a coarse-grained description of protein oligomers based on graph rigidity. These reduced protein descriptions are used in an extended Gillespie algorithm to investigate the stochastic kinetics of the assembly process. The association rates are obtained from a diffusive Smoluchowski equation for rapid coagulation, modified to account for water shielding and protein structure. The dissociation rates are derived by interpreting the splitting of oligomers as a process of graph partitioning akin to the escape from a multidimensional well. This modular framework is quantitative yet computationally tractable, with a small number of physically motivated parameters. The methodology is illustrated using two different viruses which are shown to follow quantitatively different assembly pathways. We also show how in this model the quasi-stationary kinetics of assembly can be described as a Markovian cascading process, in which only a few intermediates and a small proportion of pathways are present. The observed pathways and intermediates can be related a posteriori to structural and energetic properties of the capsid oligomers. PMID:16473916

  10. Detailed design of a lattice composite fuselage structure by a mixed optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Toropov, V.; Hühne, C.; Armani, U.

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a procedure for designing a lattice fuselage barrel is developed. It comprises three stages: first, topology optimization of an aircraft fuselage barrel is performed with respect to weight and structural performance to obtain the conceptual design. The interpretation of the optimal result is given to demonstrate the development of this new lattice airframe concept for the fuselage barrel. Subsequently, parametric optimization of the lattice aircraft fuselage barrel is carried out using genetic algorithms on metamodels generated with genetic programming from a 101-point optimal Latin hypercube design of experiments. The optimal design is achieved in terms of weight savings subject to stability, global stiffness and strain requirements, and then verified by the fine mesh finite element simulation of the lattice fuselage barrel. Finally, a practical design of the composite skin complying with the aircraft industry lay-up rules is presented. It is concluded that the mixed optimization method, combining topology optimization with the global metamodel-based approach, allows the problem to be solved with sufficient accuracy and provides the designers with a wealth of information on the structural behaviour of the novel anisogrid composite fuselage design.

  11. Preliminary System Development and Detailed Structural Design and Analysis for the CanX-7 Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singarayar, Fiona

    Satellites placed in LEO can remain there for an indefinite period of time. To reduce the density of this orbit so as to avoid potential collisions with other satellites, the IADC has published a report that suggests any satellite in LEO should de-orbit within 25 years. CanX-7 is a de-orbiting technology demonstration mission intended to help solve the global space debris problem. The work summarized in this thesis describes the author's contribution to the CanX-7 preliminary system development, as well as to the deployment detection and structural subsystems. Discussed herein are the challenges of carrying forward multiple designs in parallel and the factors and design trades that aid the decision-making process. This thesis not only presents the description of the final design of the nanosatellite, but also the evolution of the spacecraft from when it was initially envisioned in 2010 to its current state at the time of this writing.

  12. Detailed Analysis of the Structural Changes of Bone Matrix During the Demineralization Process Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Zherdeva, L. A.; Timchenko, P. E.; Volova, L. T.; Ponomareva, U. V.

    The results of experimental research of human cortical bone tissue depending on demineralization time were represented using Raman spectroscopy. Depending on demineralization time the ratio of the mineral (РO43- and CO32-) and organic components (amide I) of bone tissue, as well as changes in the spectral regions responsible for the structural integrity of the collagen fibers in bone tissue (1200-1460 cm-1 and 2880-3000 cm-1) were investigated. The observed changes show a decrease in mineral components: thus, the value of Raman band intensity at 956 and 1069 cm-1 for 5 minutes demineralization is 68.5 and 77.3%, for 20 minutes - 55.1 and 61.1%, for 120 minutes - 32.8 and 37% from Raman intensity values of not demineralized tissue objects respectively.

  13. Contextual Land Use Classification: how Detailed can the Class Structure Be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, L.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the maximum level of semantic resolution that can be achieved in an automated land use change detection process based on mono-temporal, multi-spectral, high-resolution aerial image data. For this purpose, we perform a step-wise refinement of the land use classes that follows the hierarchical structure of most object catalogues for land use databases. The investigation is based on our previous work for the simultaneous contextual classification of aerial imagery to determine land cover and land use. Land cover is determined at the level of small image segments. Land use classification is applied to objects from the geospatial database. Experiments are carried out on two test areas with different characteristics and are intended to evaluate the step-wise refinement of the land use classes empirically. The experiments show that a semantic resolution of ten classes still delivers acceptable results, where the accuracy of the results depends on the characteristics of the test areas used. Furthermore, we confirm that the incorporation of contextual knowledge, especially in the form of contextual features, is beneficial for land use classification.

  14. Detailed Structure of the Outer Disk Around HD 169142 with Polarized Light in H-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momose, Munetake; Morita, Ayaka; Fukagawa, Misato; Muto, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Hashimoto, Jun; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Grady, Carol A.; Sitko, Michael L.; Akiyama, Eiji; Currie, Thayne; Follette, Katherine B.; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; McElwain, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coronagraphic imagery of the circumstellar disk around HD 169142 in H-band polarized intensity (PI) with Subaru/HiCIAO is presented. The emission scattered by dust particles at the disk surface in 0.''2=r=1.''2, or 29=r=174 AU, is successfully detected. The azimuthally-averaged radial profile of the PI shows a double power-law distribution, in which the PIs in r = 29-52 AU and r = 81.2-145 AU respectively show r-3-dependence. These two power-law regions are connected smoothly with a transition zone (TZ), exhibiting an apparent gap in r = 40-70 AU. The PI in the inner power-law region shows a deep minimum whose location seems to coincide with the point source at lambda = 7 mm. This can be regarded as another sign of a protoplanet in TZ. The observed radial profile of the PI is reproduced by a minimally flaring disk with an irregular surface density distribution or with an irregular temperature distribution or with the combination of both. The depletion factor of surface density in the inner power-law region (r <50 AU) is derived to be =0.16 from a simple model calculation. The obtained PI image also shows small scale asymmetries in the outer power-law region. Possible origins for these asymmetries include corrugation of the scattering surface in the outer region, and shadowing effect by a puffed up structure in the inner power-law region.

  15. Energetic and structural details of the trigger-loop closing transition in RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Predeus, Alexander V; Burton, Zachary F; Feig, Michael

    2013-08-01

    An evolutionarily conserved element in RNA polymerase II, the trigger loop (TL), has been suggested to play an important role in the elongation rate, fidelity of selection of the matched nucleoside triphosphate (NTP), catalysis of transcription elongation, and translocation in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In response to NTP binding, the TL undergoes large conformational changes to switch between distinct open and closed states to tighten the active site and avail catalysis. A computational strategy for characterizing the conformational transition pathway is presented to bridge the open and closed states of the TL. Information from a large number of independent all-atom molecular dynamics trajectories from Hamiltonian replica exchange and targeted molecular dynamics simulations is gathered together to assemble a connectivity map of the conformational transition. The results show that with a cognate NTP, TL closing should be a spontaneous process. One major intermediate state is identified along the conformational transition pathway, and the key structural features are characterized. The complete pathway from the open TL to the closed TL provides a clear picture of the TL closing.

  16. Ad-hoc Solutions for Capturing Electronic Structure Details in Classical Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, John Wesley

    Traditional empirical potentials used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations replace an explicit treatment of the electronic structure with an appropriate interatomic potential energy expression. This enables MD simulations to model atomistic processes, such as dislocation dynamics and plastic deformation, which typically require size and time domains exceeding what is currently feasible with computationally-demanding first principles techniques. However, discarding the electronic degrees of freedom prevents MD simulations from properly resolving certain phenomena which are dominated by electronic interactions. One example is thermal transport in metals, which is often underestimated by orders of magnitude in MD simulations. A recently-developed multi-scale simulation approach, allowing ad-hoc feedback from continuum heat flow solutions to thermostat atoms in an MD simulation, is used to model Joule-heating in nano-scale metallic contacts under electromagnetic stress. The simulations are carried out under conditions representative of contact surfaces in Radio Frequency Electromechanical Switches (RF MEMS) and rail/armature components of Electromagnetic Launchers (EMLs) and are used to speculate on the mechanisms for experimentally-observed material transfer. Another phenomenon that is typically neglected in MD simulations is charge transfer between atoms of dissimilar electronegativity. A common approach to incorporating a dynamic treatment of charge in a classical potential simulation is to solve atomic charges using an equalization of electronegativity in the charge equilibration (QEq) method. The current work studies the effectiveness of the QEq to mimic the charge distribution properties of f-center defects in a sodium chloride crystal. The results indicate that the QEq is able to replicate some of the electrostatic energy features of an f-center, which include an extremely localized potential well in the vicinity of the defect.

  17. Detailed Structural and Mechanical Response of Wet Foam to the Settling Particle.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zefeng; Wang, Shuzhong; Wang, Zhiguo

    2016-03-15

    Liquid foam, as a complex fluid, provides an observable prototype for studying a discrete fluid system. In this work, a numerical study on the settling behavior of a round particle in wet polydisperse foam has been conducted on the bubble scale. The local and nonuniform distribution of bubble pressure, as well as the localized plastic events, is presented. It shows a foam region of higher pressure in front of the settling particle due to the extrusion deformation of the bubbles applied by the particle. Additionally, the forces exerted on the particle by the disordered wet foam are measured during the sedimentation. It exhibits in particular a power-law dependence of the drag force caused by the bubble as a function of the foam quality. Moreover, sedimentation experiments are demonstrated to verify this power-law relation. The evolution of the components of drag force is demonstrated when a plastic event occurs in front of the settling particle. The result shows that both the contributions of the pulling force of foam films and the bubble pressure to the drag force decrease in that case. Likewise, the variation of both these contributions to the drag force is illustrated as well when a bubble in the wake detaches from the particle. These results assist in understanding the mesoscopic response of wet foam to a settling particle.

  18. Detailed Structural and Mechanical Response of Wet Foam to the Settling Particle.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zefeng; Wang, Shuzhong; Wang, Zhiguo

    2016-03-15

    Liquid foam, as a complex fluid, provides an observable prototype for studying a discrete fluid system. In this work, a numerical study on the settling behavior of a round particle in wet polydisperse foam has been conducted on the bubble scale. The local and nonuniform distribution of bubble pressure, as well as the localized plastic events, is presented. It shows a foam region of higher pressure in front of the settling particle due to the extrusion deformation of the bubbles applied by the particle. Additionally, the forces exerted on the particle by the disordered wet foam are measured during the sedimentation. It exhibits in particular a power-law dependence of the drag force caused by the bubble as a function of the foam quality. Moreover, sedimentation experiments are demonstrated to verify this power-law relation. The evolution of the components of drag force is demonstrated when a plastic event occurs in front of the settling particle. The result shows that both the contributions of the pulling force of foam films and the bubble pressure to the drag force decrease in that case. Likewise, the variation of both these contributions to the drag force is illustrated as well when a bubble in the wake detaches from the particle. These results assist in understanding the mesoscopic response of wet foam to a settling particle. PMID:26898137

  19. Slot scanning versus antiscatter grid in digital mammography: comparison of low-contrast performance using contrast-detail measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Shaw, Chris C.; Geiser, William; Kappadath, Srinivas C.; Liu, Xinming; Wang, TianPeng; Tu, Shu-Ju; Altunbas, Mustafa C.

    2004-05-01

    Slot scanning imaging techniques allow for effective scatter rejection without attenuating primary x-rays. The use of these techniques should generate better image quality for the same mean glandular dose (MGD) or a similar image quality for a lower MGD as compared to imaging techniques using an anti-scatter grid. In this study, we compared a slot scanning digital mammography system (SenoScan, Fisher Imaging Systems, Denver, CO) to a full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system used in conjunction with a 5:1 anti-scatter grid (SenoGraphe 2000D, General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Images of a contrast-detail phantom (University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands) were reviewed to measure the contrast-detail curves for both systems. These curves were measured at 100%, 71%, 49% and 33% of the reference mean glandular dose (MGD), as determined by photo-timing, for the Fisher system and 100% for the GE system. Soft-copy reading was performed on review workstations provided by the manufacturers. The correct observation ratios (CORs) were also computed and used to compare the performance of the two systems. The results showed that, based on the contrast-detail curves, the performance of the Fisher images, acquired at 100% and 71% of the reference MGD, was comparable to the GE images at 100% of the reference MGD. The CORs for Fisher images were 0.463 and 0.444 at 100% and 71% of the reference MGD, respectively, compared to 0.453 for the GE images at 100% of the reference MGD.

  20. Detailed measurement of the magnitude and orientation of thermal gradients in lined boreholes for characterizing groundwater flow in fractured rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehme, Peeter; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.; Blohm, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments have led to revitalization of the use of temperature logging for characterizing flow through fractured rock. The sealing of boreholes using water-filled, flexible impermeable liners prevents vertical cross connection between fractures intersecting the hole and establishes a static water column with a temperature stratification that mimics that in the surrounding formation. Measurement of the temperature profile of the lined-hole, water column (using a high sensitivity single-point probe achieving resolution on the order of 0.001 °C) has identified fractures with active flow under ambient groundwater conditions (without cross connecting flow along the borehole). Detection of flow in fractures was further improved with the use of a heater to create thermal disequilibrium in the active line source (ALS) technique and eliminate normal depth limitations in the process. This paper presents another advancement; detailed measurement of the magnitude and direction of the thermal gradient to characterize flow through fractured rock. The temperature within the water column is measured along the length of the lined hole using a temperature vector probe (TVP): four high sensitivity sensors arranged in a tetrahedral pattern oriented using three directional magnetometers. Based on these data, the horizontal and vertical components of the thermal field, as well as the direction of temperature gradient are determined, typically at depth intervals of less than 0.01 m. This probe was assessed and refined by trials in over 30 lined boreholes; the results from two holes through a fractured dolostone aquifer in Guelph, Ontario are used as exampled. Since no other device exists for measuring flow magnitude and direction under the ambient flow condition created by lined holes, the performance of the TVP is assessed by examining the reproducibility of the temperature measurements through an ALS test, and by the consistency of the results relative to other types of

  1. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed. PMID:26274963

  2. Structural and technical details of the Kirkwood-Buff integrals from the optimization of ionic force fields: focus on fluorides.

    PubMed

    Fyta, M

    2012-03-01

    Results on the structural details of Kirkwood-Buff integrals obtained from the optimization of ionic force fields are presented. We have proposed and make use of an optimization scheme for ionic force fields, which is based on the modification of the cation-anion mixing rules, the calculation of the thermodynamics properties of various monovalent salt solutions according to the Kirkwood-Buff theory of solutions and the comparison to relevant experimental findings. Here, we complete and extend our calculations and analysis as we focus on the technical details of this optimization procedure and the case of fluorides, which have been proven difficult to handle. Important insight is given on the dependence of the radial distribution functions, the short-ranged potentials of mean force, and the Kirkwood-Buff integrals of the salt solutions on the different scaling factors in the mixing rules. Specifically, the way the structural details and inherent characteristics of the above properties are affected by the quantitative and qualitative differences in the mixing rules for a variety of common biologically relevant monovalent salts is mainly addressed. We conclude on the efficiency of this scheme, again with a focus on the fluorides. In the end, we provide a variation of the ion-pair mixing rules scaling factors with salt concentration to identify regimes for which different mixing rules prefactors lead to well-optimized force fields. All results are obtained through Molecular Dynamics simulations using previously optimized force fields for the monovalent ions.

  3. Measurements of glottal structure dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.; Burke, Gerry J.; Champagne, Nathan J.; Kallman, Jeffrey S.; Sharpe, Robert M.; Kobler, James B.; Hillman, Robert E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2005-03-01

    Low power, radarlike electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors, operating in a homodyne interferometric mode, are being used to measure tissue motions in the human vocal tract during speech. However, when these and similar sensors are used in front of the laryngeal region during voiced speech, there remains an uncertainty regarding the contributions to the sensor signal from vocal fold movements versus those from pressure induced trachea-wall movements. Several signal-source hypotheses are tested by performing experiments with a subject who had undergone tracheostomy, and who still was able to phonate when her stoma was covered (e.g., with a plastic plate). Laser-doppler motion-measurements of the subject's posterior trachea show small tissue movements, about 15 microns, that do not contribute significantly to signals from presently used EM sensors. However, signals from the anterior wall do contribute. EM sensor and air-pressure measurements, together with 3-D EM wave simulations, show that EM sensors measure movements of the vocal folds very well. The simulations show a surprisingly effective guiding of EM waves across the vocal fold membrane, which, upon glottal opening, are interrupted and reflected. These measurements are important for EM sensor applications to speech signal de-noising, vocoding, speech recognition, and diagnostics. .

  4. EM-fold: de novo atomic-detail protein structure determination from medium-resolution density maps.

    PubMed

    Lindert, Steffen; Alexander, Nathan; Wötzel, Nils; Karakaş, Mert; Stewart, Phoebe L; Meiler, Jens

    2012-03-01

    Electron density maps of membrane proteins or large macromolecular complexes are frequently only determined at medium resolution between 4 Å and 10 Å, either by cryo-electron microscopy or X-ray crystallography. In these density maps, the general arrangement of secondary structure elements (SSEs) is revealed, whereas their directionality and connectivity remain elusive. We demonstrate that the topology of proteins with up to 250 amino acids can be determined from such density maps when combined with a computational protein folding protocol. Furthermore, we accurately reconstruct atomic detail in loop regions and amino acid side chains not visible in the experimental data. The EM-Fold algorithm assembles the SSEs de novo before atomic detail is added using Rosetta. In a benchmark of 27 proteins, the protocol consistently and reproducibly achieves models with root mean square deviation values <3 Å.

  5. Economic gains from targeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Brian H; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-06-15

    From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the natural nitrate reduction in the groundwater more precisely than before using a plot size down to 1ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains for the farmer when using this information to reach a given N-loss level. Targeted measures are especially relevant where the subsurface N-reduction varies significantly within the same farm and national analyses have shown that a cost reduction of around 20-25% using targeted measures is likely. The analyses show an increasing potential with increasing variation in N-reduction in the catchment. In this analysis, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to place measures like catch crops or set-a-side at locations with the greatest effect on 10 case farms in the Norsminde Catchment, Denmark. The findings suggest that the gains are from 0 to 32€/ha and the average farm would gain approximately 14-21€/ha/year from the targeted measures approach. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is greater than the costs of providing the detailed maps of 5-10€/ha/year. When N-loss reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are greater. When combined with new measures like mini-wetlands and early sowing the economic advantage is increased further. The paper also shows that not all farms can use the detailed information on N-reduction and there is not a clear link between spatial variation in N-reduction at the farm level and possible economic gains for all these 10 farms. PMID:26974574

  6. A detailed comparison of antenna impedance measurements on ASDEX Upgrade with the ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna code TOPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, I.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Coster, D.; Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.; Siegl, G.; Bilato, R.; Brambilla, M.; Verdoolaege, G.; Braun, F.; Fünfgelder, H.; D'Inca, R.; Suttrop, W.; Kallenbach, A.; Schweinzer, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Fischer, R.; Mlynek, A.; Nikolaeva, V.; Guimarais, L.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-09-01

    New antenna diagnostics on the ASDEX Upgrade, in the form of voltage and current probe pairs on the feeding lines of each ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna, close to the input ports, have made it possible to study in detail the behavior of the ASDEX Upgrade two-strap antenna under changing loading conditions, and compare these measurements with the results of simulations using the TOPICA code. The present work extends previous studies by using the input impedance (more precisely, the complex voltage reflection coefficient Γ ) on each antenna port for comparison, instead of the more commonly used loading resistance or coupled power. The electron density profiles used for the simulation were reconstructed from the deuterium-carbon-nitrogen interferometer and lithium beam emission spectroscopy measurements, edge-localized mode-synchronized and averaged over time intervals from 10 to 200 ms depending on the case; 112 cases were compared from seven ASDEX Upgrade discharges with widely different plasma parameters and two operating frequencies (30 and 36.5 MHz). Very good agreement in \\vert Γ\\vert was found with the measurements on antenna 3 (<3% averaged over a shot), and good agreement was found with antennas 1 and 2 (<10%) the code reproduced the correct trend in loading resistance {{R}\\text{L}} in a significant majority of cases, although the discrepancies in the absolute values were rather high (up to  ˜50%) due to high reflection. Sources of discrepancy are discussed.

  7. Structural measures for multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2014-03-01

    Many real-world complex systems consist of a set of elementary units connected by relationships of different kinds. All such systems are better described in terms of multiplex networks, where the links at each layer represent a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes rather than in terms of (single-layer) networks. In this paper we present a general framework to describe and study multiplex networks, whose links are either unweighted or weighted. In particular, we propose a series of measures to characterize the multiplexicity of the systems in terms of (i) basic node and link properties such as the node degree, and the edge overlap and reinforcement, (ii) local properties such as the clustering coefficient and the transitivity, and (iii) global properties related to the navigability of the multiplex across the different layers. The measures we introduce are validated on a genuinely multiplex data set of Indonesian terrorists, where information among 78 individuals are recorded with respect to mutual trust, common operations, exchanged communications, and business relationships.

  8. Structural measures for multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2014-03-01

    Many real-world complex systems consist of a set of elementary units connected by relationships of different kinds. All such systems are better described in terms of multiplex networks, where the links at each layer represent a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes rather than in terms of (single-layer) networks. In this paper we present a general framework to describe and study multiplex networks, whose links are either unweighted or weighted. In particular, we propose a series of measures to characterize the multiplexicity of the systems in terms of (i) basic node and link properties such as the node degree, and the edge overlap and reinforcement, (ii) local properties such as the clustering coefficient and the transitivity, and (iii) global properties related to the navigability of the multiplex across the different layers. The measures we introduce are validated on a genuinely multiplex data set of Indonesian terrorists, where information among 78 individuals are recorded with respect to mutual trust, common operations, exchanged communications, and business relationships.

  9. Application of detailed temperature profile measurements for improving data quality check by Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Water plays a key role in the functionality and sustainability of the ecosystems. In the light of the predicted climate change research should be focused on the water cycle and its individual components. Apart from the runoff, the major component of the water balance which drives the water from the ecosystems is represented by the evapotranspiration (ET). One of the standard methods for measuring ET is Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method (BREB). It is based on the assumption that the water vapour and heat are transported by identical eddies with equal efficiency. In fact, this basic premise is based on a more complicated Monin-Obukhov similarity theory that explains the relationship between the profiles of wind, temperature and water vapour in the surface layer of the atmosphere. When BREB method is used we assume that the profiles of temperature and air humidity are ideally logarithmic or at least consistent. However, as this method is usually based on the measurements of temperature and humidity in only two heights, it is difficult to verify this assumption. We therefore conducted a field experiment using 4m high measurement-mast with 20 thermocouples connected to data-logger for detailed measurement of air temperature profile above different covers, e.g. grassland, spring barley, poplar plantation. The main goal of our effort was to capture so called "kink" in the profile of the temperature and verify if the assumptions made by BREB hold under various weather conditions and over different canopies testing the basic requirements of the BREB method use. Finally we devised a technique improving data selection for subsequent ET calculation. This study was funded by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248,PASED - project supported by Czech program KONTAKT II No. LH12037 "Development of models for assessment of abiotic stresses in selected bioenergy plants" and LD130030 project supporting COST action ES1106.

  10. Measurement of elastic 12C+alpha scattering: details of the experiment, analysis, and discussion of phase shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Aaron Joseph; Detwiler, Rebecca; Gorres, Joachim; Stech, Edward J; Ugalde, Claudio; Wiescher, Michael C F; Heil, Michael; Kappeler, Franz; Azuma, Richard E; Buchmann, Lothar

    2009-01-01

    Recent global analyses of {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O have incorporated both elastic-scallering and {beta}-decay data in addition to direct measurements. In that context, it has been shown that an improvement in the available elastic-scallering data could help determine the contribution of the two subthreshold states, 6.92(2{sup +}) and 7.12(1{sup -}) MeV, and with excellent statistics could restrict resonance parameters above the threshold. To this end angular distributions of {sup 12}C({alpha}, {alpha}){sup 12}C in the {alpha}-energy range of 2.6-8.2 MeV, at angles from 24 to 166 have been measured at the University of Notre Dame using an array of 32 silicon detectors. Details of the experiment are reported. In the present analysis, the phase shifts have been determined from our previously reported R-matrix fit to these data. The uncertainties in the R-matrix phase shifts ({ell} = 0...6) are derived by a new Monte Carlo analysis technique as described in the article. We provide these phase shifts here for general use, in particular for the improved analysis and extrapolation of the {alpha} radiative capture to low energies.

  11. Charge distribution as a tool to investigate structural details. III. Extension to description in terms of anion-centred polyhedra.

    PubMed

    Eon, Jean-Guillaume; Nespolo, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    The charge distribution (CHARDI) method is a self-consistent generalization of Pauling's concept of bond strength which does not make use of empirical parameters but exploits the experimental geometry of the coordination polyhedra building a crystal structure. In the two previous articles of this series [Nespolo et al. (1999). Acta Cryst. B55, 902-916; Nespolo et al. (2001). Acta Cryst. B57, 652-664], we have presented the features and advantages of this approach and its extension to distorted and heterovalent polyhedra and to hydrogen bonds. In this third article we generalize CHARDI to structures based on anion-centred polyhedra, which have drawn attention in recent years, and we show that computations based on both descriptions can be useful to obtain a deeper insight into the structural details, in particular for mixed-valence compounds where CHARDI is able to give precise indications on the statistical distribution of atoms with different oxidation number. A graph-theoretical description of the structures rationalizes and gives further support to the conclusions obtained via the CHARDI approach.

  12. Detailed characterization of a Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) instrument for ambient OH reactivity measurements: experiments vs. modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, Vincent; Locoge, Nadine; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    The Hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main daytime oxidant in the troposphere, leading to the oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the formation of harmful pollutants such as ozone (O3) and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). While OH plays a key role in tropospheric chemistry, recent studies have highlighted that there are still uncertainties associated with the OH budget, i.e the identification of sources and sinks and the quantification of production and loss rates of this radical. It has been demonstrated that ambient measurements of the total OH loss rate (also called total OH reactivity) can be used to identify and reduce these uncertainties. In this context, the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM), developed by Sinha et al. (ACP, 2008), is a promising technique to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air and has already been used during several field campaigns. This technique relies on monitoring competitive reactions of OH with ambient trace gases and a reference compound (pyrrole) in a sampling reactor to derive ambient OH reactivity. However, this technique requires a complex data processing chain that has yet to be carefully investigated in the laboratory. In this study, we present a detailed characterization of a CRM instrument developed at Mines Douai, France. Experiments have been performed to investigate the dependence of the CRM response on humidity, ambient NOx levels, and the pyrrole-to-OH ratio inside the sampling reactor. Box modelling of the chemistry occurring in the reactor has also been performed to assess our theoretical understanding of the CRM measurement. This work shows that the CRM response is sensitive to both humidity and NOx, which can be accounted for during data processing using parameterizations depending on the pyrrole-to-OH ratio. The agreement observed between laboratory studies and model results suggests a good understanding of the chemistry occurring in the sampling reactor and gives confidence in the CRM

  13. Heterologous Stacking of Prion Protein Peptides Reveals Structural Details of Fibrils and Facilitates Complete Inhibition of Fibril GrowthS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Boshuizen, Ronald S.; Schulz, Veronica; Morbin, Michela; Mazzoleni, Giulia; Meloen, Rob H.; Langedijk, Johannes P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrils play an important role in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis; however, the underlying mechanisms of the growth process and the structural details of fibrils are poorly understood. Crucial in the fibril formation of prion proteins is the stacking of PrP monomers. We previously proposed that the structure of the prion protein fibril may be similar as a parallel left-handed β-helix. The β-helix is composed of spiraling rungs of parallel β-strands, and in the PrP model residues 105–143 of each PrP monomer can contribute two β-helical rungs to the growing fibril. Here we report data to support this model. We show that two cyclized human PrP peptides corresponding to residues 105–124 and 125–143, based on two single rungs of the left-handed β-helical core of the human PrPSc fibril, show spontaneous cooperative fibril growth in vitro by heterologous stacking. Because the structural model must have predictive value, peptides were designed based on the structure rules of the left-handed β-helical fold that could stack with prion protein peptides to stimulate or to block fibril growth. The stimulator peptide was designed as an optimal left-handed β-helical fold that can serve as a template for fibril growth initiation. The inhibiting peptide was designed to bind to the exposed rung but frustrate the propagation of the fibril growth. The single inhibitory peptide hardly shows inhibition, but the combination of the inhibitory with the stimulatory peptide showed complete inhibition of the fibril growth of peptide huPrP-(106–126). Moreover, the unique strategy based on stimulatory and inhibitory peptides seems a powerful new approach to study amyloidogenic fibril structures in general and could prove useful for the development of therapeutics. PMID:19304665

  14. Detailed structure of heat island phenomena from moving observations from electric tram-cars in Metropolitan Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Shuji

    In this study, the detailed horizontal structure, i.e. cliffs and plateaux of the heat island of the Metropolitan Tokyo area is investigated. According to Oke (1977), cliff is steep temperature gradient at the rural/urban boundary and plateau is a steady but weaker horizontal gradient of increasing temperature towards the city center. However, these features are not always evident, e.g. large city like Tokyo. To elucidate such aspects, moving observations of the horizontal distribution of air temperature from electric trains of the transportation network of Metropolitan Tokyo during late evening or early morning were thus conducted. In total, 16 railroad lines were used for the moving observations. The observations were done in two phases for sectional and horizontal distributions. Results show that three cliffs exist in the heat island of Metropolitan Tokyo, although the location of these cliffs should be taken into consideration for urban planning or urban redevelopment.

  15. Understanding the structure of skill through a detailed analysis of Individuals' performance on the Space Fortress game.

    PubMed

    Towne, Tyler J; Boot, Walter R; Ericsson, K Anders

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach to the study of individual differences in acquired skilled performance in complex laboratory tasks based on an extension of the methodology of the expert-performance approach (Ericsson & Smith, 1991) to shorter periods of training and practice. In contrast to more traditional approaches that study the average performance of groups of participants, we explored detailed behavioral changes for individual participants across their development on the Space Fortress game. We focused on dramatic individual differences in learning and skill acquisition at the individual level by analyzing the archival game data of several interesting players to uncover the specific structure of their acquired skill. Our analysis revealed that even after maximal values for game-generated subscores were reached, the most skilled participant's behaviors such as his flight path, missile firing, and mine handling continued to be refined and improved (Participant 17 from Boot et al., 2010). We contrasted this participant's behavior with the behavior of several other participants and found striking differences in the structure of their performance, which calls into question the appropriateness of averaging their data. For example, some participants engaged in different control strategies such as "world wrapping" or maintaining a finely-tuned circular flight path around the fortress (in contrast to Participant 17's angular flight path). In light of these differences, we raise fundamental questions about how skill acquisition for individual participants should be studied and described. Our data suggest that a detailed analysis of individuals' data is an essential step for generating a general theory of skill acquisition that explains improvement at the group and individual levels. PMID:27214790

  16. Understanding the structure of skill through a detailed analysis of Individuals' performance on the Space Fortress game.

    PubMed

    Towne, Tyler J; Boot, Walter R; Ericsson, K Anders

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach to the study of individual differences in acquired skilled performance in complex laboratory tasks based on an extension of the methodology of the expert-performance approach (Ericsson & Smith, 1991) to shorter periods of training and practice. In contrast to more traditional approaches that study the average performance of groups of participants, we explored detailed behavioral changes for individual participants across their development on the Space Fortress game. We focused on dramatic individual differences in learning and skill acquisition at the individual level by analyzing the archival game data of several interesting players to uncover the specific structure of their acquired skill. Our analysis revealed that even after maximal values for game-generated subscores were reached, the most skilled participant's behaviors such as his flight path, missile firing, and mine handling continued to be refined and improved (Participant 17 from Boot et al., 2010). We contrasted this participant's behavior with the behavior of several other participants and found striking differences in the structure of their performance, which calls into question the appropriateness of averaging their data. For example, some participants engaged in different control strategies such as "world wrapping" or maintaining a finely-tuned circular flight path around the fortress (in contrast to Participant 17's angular flight path). In light of these differences, we raise fundamental questions about how skill acquisition for individual participants should be studied and described. Our data suggest that a detailed analysis of individuals' data is an essential step for generating a general theory of skill acquisition that explains improvement at the group and individual levels.

  17. Detailed off-gas measurements for improved modelling of the aeration performance at the WWTP of Eindhoven.

    PubMed

    Amerlinck, Y; Bellandi, G; Amaral, A; Weijers, S; Nopens, I

    2016-01-01

    At wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the aerobic conversion processes in the bioreactor are driven by the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO). Within these conversion processes, the oxygen transfer is a rate limiting step as well as being the largest energy consumer. Despite this high importance, WWTP models often lack detail on the aeration part. An extensive measurement campaign with off-gas tests was performed at the WWTP of Eindhoven to provide more information on the performance and behaviour of the aeration system. A high spatial and temporal variability in the oxygen transfer efficiency was observed. Applying this gathered system knowledge in the aeration model resulted in an improved prediction of the DO concentrations. Moreover, an important consequence of this was that ammonium predictions could be improved by resetting the ammonium half-saturation index for autotrophs to its default value. This again proves the importance of balancing sub-models with respect to the need for model calibration as well as model predictive power.

  18. The Details of Glycolipid Glycan Hydrolysis by the Structural Analysis of a Family 123 Glycoside Hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Noach, Ilit; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Laurie, Cassandra; Abe, Kento T; Alteen, Matthew G; Vocadlo, David J; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2016-08-14

    Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals whose genome encodes a wide variety of putative carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes that are increasingly being shown to be directed toward the cleavage of host glycans. Among these putative enzymes is a member of glycoside hydrolase family 123. Here we show that the recombinant enzyme (referred to as CpNga123) encoded by the gene cloned from C. perfringens strain ATCC 13124 (locus tag CPF_1473) is a β-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, similar to NgaP from Paenibacillus sp. TS12. Like NgaP, CpNga123 was able to cleave the terminal β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-D-Gal and β-D-GalNAc-(1→3)-D-Gal motifs that would be found in glycosphigolipids. The X-ray crystal structure of CpNga123 revealed it to have an N-terminal β-sandwich domain and a (β/α)8-barrel catalytic domain with a C-terminal α-helical elaboration. The structures determined in complex with reaction products provide details of the -1 subsite architecture, catalytic residues, and a structural change in the active site that is likely required to enable hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond by promoting engagement of the substrate by the catalytic residues. The features of the active site support the likelihood of a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism for this enzyme. The structures of an inactive mutant of CpNga123 in complex with intact GA2 and Gb4 glycosphingolipid motifs reveal insight into aglycon recognition and suggest that the kinked or pleated conformation of GA2 caused by the β-1,4-linkage between N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose, and the accommodation of this conformation by the enzyme active site, may be responsible for greater activity on GA2. PMID:27038508

  19. Antifreeze (glyco)protein mimetic behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol): detailed structure ice recrystallization inhibition activity study.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Thomas; Notman, Rebecca; Gibson, Matthew I

    2013-05-13

    This manuscript reports a detailed study on the ability of poly(vinyl alcohol) to act as a biomimetic surrogate for antifreeze(glyco)proteins, with a focus on the specific property of ice-recrystallization inhibition (IRI). Despite over 40 years of study, the underlying mechanisms that govern the action of biological antifreezes are still poorly understood, which is in part due to their limited availability and challenging synthesis. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been shown to display remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity despite its major structural differences to native antifreeze proteins. Here, controlled radical polymerization is used to synthesize well-defined PVA, which has enabled us to obtain the first quantitative structure-activity relationships, to probe the role of molecular weight and comonomers on IRI activity. Crucially, it was found that IRI activity is "switched on" when the polymer chain length increases from 10 and 20 repeat units. Substitution of the polymer side chains with hydrophilic or hydrophobic units was found to diminish activity. Hydrophobic modifications to the backbone were slightly more tolerated than side chain modifications, which implies an unbroken sequence of hydroxyl units is necessary for activity. These results highlight that, although hydrophobic domains are key components of IRI activity, the random inclusion of addition hydrophobic units does not guarantee an increase in activity and that the actual polymer conformation is important.

  20. Structural features of sequential weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the abstract structure of sequential weak measurement (WM) of general observables. In all orders, the sequential WM correlations without postselection yield the corresponding correlations of the Wigner function, offering direct quantum tomography through the moments of the canonical variables. Correlations in spin-1/2 sequential weak measurements coincide with those in strong measurements, they are constrained kinematically, and they are equivalent with single measurements. In sequential WMs with postselection, an anomaly occurs, different from the weak value anomaly of single WMs. In particular, the spread of polarization σ ̂ as measured in double WMs of σ ̂ will diverge for certain orthogonal pre- and postselected states.

  1. Centrality measures for networks with community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Anurag; Cherifi, Hocine

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the network structure, and finding out the influential nodes is a challenging issue in large networks. Identifying the most influential nodes in a network can be useful in many applications like immunization of nodes in case of epidemic spreading, during intentional attacks on complex networks. A lot of research is being done to devise centrality measures which could efficiently identify the most influential nodes in a network. There are two major approaches to this problem: On one hand, deterministic strategies that exploit knowledge about the overall network topology, while on the other end, random strategies are completely agnostic about the network structure. Centrality measures that can deal with a limited knowledge of the network structure are of prime importance. Indeed, in practice, information about the global structure of the overall network is rarely available or hard to acquire. Even if available, the structure of the network might be too large that it is too much computationally expensive to calculate global centrality measures. To that end, a centrality measure is proposed here that requires information only at the community level. Indeed, most of the real-world networks exhibit a community structure that can be exploited efficiently to discover the influential nodes. We performed a comparative evaluation of prominent global deterministic strategies together with stochastic strategies, an available and the proposed deterministic community-based strategy. Effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by performing experiments on synthetic and real-world networks with community structure in the case of immunization of nodes for epidemic control.

  2. Some experiments in swirling flows: Detailed velocity measurements of a vortex breakdown using a laser Doppler anemometer. Ph.D. Thesis - Cornell Univ. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faler, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of spiraling flows in a slightly diverging, circular duct are reported. Seven types of flow disturbances were observed. In addition to the spiral and axisymmetric vortex breakdowns and the double helix mode, four other forms were identified and are reported. The type and axial location of the disturbance depended on the Reynolds and circulation numbers of the flow. Detailed velocity measurements were made by using a laser Doppler anemometer. Measurements made far upstream of any disturbance showed that the introduction of swirl resulted in the formation of a high axial velocity jet centered around the vortex center. A mapping of the velocity field of a so-called axisymmetric breakdown, formed at a Reynolds number of 2560, revealed that the recirculation zone is a two-celled structure, with four stagnation points on the vortex axis marking the axial extremes of the concentric cells. The dominant feature of the flow inside the bubble was the strong, periodic velocity fluctuations. Existing theoretical models do not predict the two-celled structure and the temporal velocity fluctuations that were observed.

  3. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    PubMed

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm. PMID:25773383

  4. Input estimation from measured structural response

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Dustin; Cross, Elizabeth; Silva, Ramon A; Farrar, Charles R; Bement, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This report will focus on the estimation of unmeasured dynamic inputs to a structure given a numerical model of the structure and measured response acquired at discrete locations. While the estimation of inputs has not received as much attention historically as state estimation, there are many applications where an improved understanding of the immeasurable input to a structure is vital (e.g. validating temporally varying and spatially-varying load models for large structures such as buildings and ships). In this paper, the introduction contains a brief summary of previous input estimation studies. Next, an adjoint-based optimization method is used to estimate dynamic inputs to two experimental structures. The technique is evaluated in simulation and with experimental data both on a cantilever beam and on a three-story frame structure. The performance and limitations of the adjoint-based input estimation technique are discussed.

  5. A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Jörg H; Saade, Anastasia; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Ackermann, Katrin; Jilg, Antje; Sebestény, Tamás; Maronde, Erik

    2011-08-01

    The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain. Through the nocturnally elevated synthesis and release of the neurohormone melatonin, the pineal gland encodes and disseminates information on circadian time, thus coupling the outside world to the biochemical and physiological internal demands of the body. Approaches to better understand molecular details behind the rhythmic signalling in the human pineal gland are limited but implicitly warranted, as human chronobiological dysfunctions are often associated with alterations in melatonin synthesis. Current knowledge on melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland is based on minimally invasive analyses, and by the comparison of signalling events between different vertebrate species, with emphasis put on data acquired in sheep and other primates. Together with investigations using autoptic pineal tissue, a remnant silhouette of premortem dynamics within the hormone's biosynthesis pathway can be constructed. The detected biochemical scenario behind the generation of dynamics in melatonin synthesis positions the human pineal gland surprisingly isolated. In this neuroendocrine brain structure, protein-protein interactions and nucleo-cytoplasmic protein shuttling indicate furthermore a novel twist in the molecular dynamics in the cells of this neuroendocrine brain structure. These findings have to be seen in the light that an impaired melatonin synthesis is observed in elderly and/or demented patients, in individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease, Smith-Magenis syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and sleep phase disorders. Already, recent advances in understanding signalling dynamics in the human pineal gland have significantly helped to counteract chronobiological dysfunctions through a proper restoration of the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  6. Attenuation tomography in the western central Andes: A detailed insight into the structure of a magmatic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, Christian; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2001-06-01

    High-quality data from 1498 local earthquakes recorded by the PISCO '94 (Proyecto de Investigatión Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental, 1994) and ANCORP '96 (Andean Continental Research Project, 1996) temporary seismological networks allowed the detailed determination of the three-dimensional (3-D) attenuation structure (Qp-1) beneath the recent magmatic arc in the western central Andes (20° to 24°S). Assuming a frequency-independent Qp-1 in a frequency band between 1 and 30 Hz, whole path attenuation (t*) was estimated from the amplitude spectra of the P waves using spectral ratios and a spectral inversion technique. The damped least squares inversion (tomography) of the data reveals a complex attenuation structure. Crust and mantle of the forearc and subducting slab are generally characterized by low attenuation (Qp > 1000). Crust and mantle beneath the magmatic arc show elevated attenuation. The strongest anomaly of extremely low Qp is found in the crust between 22° and 23°S beneath the recent volcanic arc (Qp < 100). N-S variations can be observed: The western flank of the crustal attenuation anomaly follows the curved course of the volcanic front. North of 21°S the attenuation is less developed. In the northern part of the study area the low-Qp zone penetrates in the forearc mantle down to the subducting slab. In the south a deeper zone of high attenuation is resolved between 23° and 24°S directly above the subducting slab. Low Qp in the mantle correlates with earthquake clusters. The strong crustal attenuation is confined to the distribution of young ignimbrites and silicic volcanism and is interpreted as a thermally weakened zone with partial melts. The attenuation pattern in the upper mantle might reflect the variable extent of the asthenosphere and maps variations of subduction-related hydration processes in the mantle wedge from slab-derived fluids.

  7. Charles Edward Isaacs (1811-1860): exploring the details of nephron structure and function in the post-Bowman period.

    PubMed

    Fine, Leon G

    2003-01-01

    Charles Edward Isaacs (1811-1860), an anatomist working in New York, undertook a series of studies which attempted to define the microscopic structure of the nephrons in a variety of species. Given that he published his findings 15 years after William Bowman's seminal paper on the subject, he was able to add only a few of the finer details to the picture. He observed the continuity of the epithelium of the glomerular capsule with that of the proximal tubule and he demonstrated that the glomerular tuft is covered by a layer of epithelial cells. In a series of studies on human renal function he erroneously concluded that the glomerulus must have an excretory function in addition to its filtration function and that diuretics act primarily on the glomerlus. The latter conclusion was based upon observations of substances not currently categorized as being diuretic agents. The absence of a major conceptual advance in the writings of Isaacs probably accounts for that fact that his contribution has been largely forgotten.

  8. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  9. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Visualisation of details of a complicated inner structure of model objects by the method of diffusion optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tret'yakov, Evgeniy V.; Shuvalov, Vladimir V.; Shutov, I. V.

    2002-11-01

    An approximate algorithm is tested for solving the problem of diffusion optical tomography in experiments on the visualisation of details of the inner structure of strongly scattering model objects containing scattering and semitransparent inclusions, as well as absorbing inclusions located inside other optical inhomogeneities. The stability of the algorithm to errors is demonstrated, which allows its use for a rapid (2 — 3 min) image reconstruction of the details of objects with a complicated inner structure.

  10. Differential Measurement Periodontal Structures Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to a periodontal structure mapping system employing a dental handpiece containing first and second acoustic sensors for locating the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) and measuring the differential depth between the CEJ and the bottom of the periodontal pocket. Measurements are taken at multiple locations on each tooth of a patient, observed, analyzed by an optical analysis subsystem, and archived by a data storage system for subsequent study and comparison with previous and subsequent measurements. Ultrasonic transducers for the first and second acoustic sensors are contained within the handpiece and in connection with a control computer. Pressurized water is provided for the depth measurement sensor and a linearly movable probe sensor serves as the sensor for the CEJ finder. The linear movement of the CEJ sensor is obtained by a control computer actuated by the prober. In an alternate embodiment, the CEJ probe is an optical fiber sensor with appropriate analysis structure provided therefor.

  11. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank, Brian D.; Smith, Nicole

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag

  12. On the structure and dynamics of Ellerman bombs. Detailed study of three events and modelling of Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello González, N.; Danilovic, S.; Kneer, F.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We study the structure and dynamics of three Ellerman bombs (EBs) observed in an evolving active region. Methods: The active region NOAA 11271 was observed with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife on August 18, 2011. We used the two-dimensional Triple Etalon SOlar Spectrometer (TESOS) to obtain time sequences of the active region and of EBs in Hα at a cadence of 15 s. Simultaneously, we obtained full Stokes profiles with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) in the two magnetically sensitive Fe i infrared lines (IR) at 1.56 μ, scanning spatial sections of the area with cadences of 28-46 s. The Hα data were reconstructed with speckle methods to study the evolution of the atmospheric stratification. Two methods were used to extract magnetic field information from the IR Stokes profiles: 1) fitting of the (Q,U,V) profiles by Gaussians; and 2) applying the Milne-Eddington approximation, assuming two separate magnetic structures in the resolution element and fitting by trial and error some profiles from the EB areas. Data from SDO-HMI and -AIA were also used. We performed two-dimensional (2D) non-LTE radiative transfer calculations of Hα in parameterised models of EBs. Results: The three EBs studied in detail occurred in a complex active region near sunspots. They were very bright with a factor of 1.5-2.8 brighter than the nearby area. They lived for 1/2 h and longer. They were related to broadband faculae, but the latter were not the brightest features in the field of view. The EBs occurred in magnetic field configurations with opposite polarity close together. One EB was located at the outskirts of a penumbra of a complex sunspot and showed repeated "flaring" in SDO-AIA data. Another was close to a strong field patch and moved into this during the end of its lifetime. The third EB showed clear changes of field structure during the time it was observed. We obtained from the 2D modelling that heating and increase in Hα opacity

  13. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex. III. Detailed cloud structure and feedback effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccatagliata, V.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Gaczkowski, B.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The star formation process in large clusters/associations can be strongly influenced by the feedback from high-mass stars. Whether the resulting net effect of the feedback is predominantly negative (cloud dispersal) or positive (triggering of star formation due to cloud compression) is still an open question. Aims: The Carina Nebula complex (CNC) represents one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We use our Herschel far-infrared observations to study the properties of the clouds over the entire area of the CNC (with a diameter of ≈3.2°, which corresponds to ≈125 pc at a distance of 2.3 kpc). The good angular resolution (10''-36'') of the Herschel maps corresponds to physical scales of 0.1-0.4 pc, and allows us to analyze the small-scale (i.e., clump-size) structures of the clouds. Methods: The full extent of the CNC was mapped with PACS and SPIRE in the 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm bands. We determined temperatures and column densities at each point in these maps by modeling the observed far-infrared spectral energy distributions. We also derived a map showing the strength of the UV radiation field. We investigated the relation between the cloud properties and the spatial distribution of the high-mass stars and computed total cloud masses for different density thresholds. Results: Our Herschel maps resolve for the first time the small-scale structure of the dense clouds over the entire spatial extent of the CNC. Several particularly interesting regions, including the prominent pillars south of η Car, are analyzed in detail. We compare the cloud masses derived from the Herschel data with previous mass estimates based on sub-mm and molecular line data. Our maps also reveal a peculiar wave-like pattern in the northern part of the Carina Nebula. Finally, we characterize two prominent cloud complexes at the periphery of our Herschel maps, which are probably molecular clouds in the Galactic background. Conclusions: We find that the

  14. Investigation of detailed spatial structure of the Moscow urban heat island with application of the newest meteorological observations and regional climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Pavel, Konstantinov; Timofey, Samsonov

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, the network of metrological observation in Moscow megacity and its neighborhoods, forming the biggest urban agglomeration in Europe, was significantly extended. Several new weather stations and completely new dense network of air-quality monitoring appears during the last decade. In addition, several microwave meteorological profilers MTP 5, which are available to measure temperature at the heights from 0 to 1000 meters with 50-m resolution, were installed in the city and its surrounding. All these measurements allow revealing undiscovered features of Moscow urban climate and urban heat island (UHI). In our research, bases on this data, we covered several topics related to urban climatology: - Investigation of detailed spatial structure of Moscow UHI and its relationships with building features, such as land use and morphology of the street canyons, obtained by GIS-algorithms according (Samsonov et. al, 2015); - Investigation of three-dimensional structure of the UHI, including its vertical extend and influence on the stratification of the atmosphere, and three-dimensional structure of the urban heat island advection and urban heat plumes; - Application of the newest data for validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM, coupled with TEB urban scheme (Masson, 2000; Trusilova et. al., 2013), launched for Moscow region with 1-km spatial resolution. References: 1. Masson V. A. Physically-Based Scheme for the Urban Energy Budget in Atmospheric models. Bound. Layer Meteor. 2000. V. 94 (3). P. 357-397. 2. Trusilova K., Früh B., Brienen S., Walter A., Masson V., Pigeon G., Becker P. Implementation of an Urban Parameterization Scheme into the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. V. 52. P. 2296-2311. 3. Samsonov T.E., Konstantinov P.I., Varentsov M.I. Object-oriented approach to urban canyon analysis and its applications in meteorological modeling. Urban Climate. 2015. Vol. 13. P. 122-139.

  15. Direct Measurement of Large, Diffuse, Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saif, Babak N.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee; Wyant, J. C.; Atkinson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is a well-established method for the measurement of diffuse objects in experimental mechanics. DSPIs are phase shifting interferometers. Three or four bucket temporal phase shifting algorithms are commonly used to provide phase shifting. These algorithms are sensitive to vibrations and can not be used to measure large optical structures far away from the interferometer. In this research a simultaneous phase shifted interferometer, PhaseCam product of 4D Technology Corporation in Tucson Arizona, is modified to be a Simultaneous phase shifted Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometer (SDSPI). Repeatability, dynamic range, and accuracy of the SDSPI are characterized by measuring a 5 cm x 5 cm carbon fiber coupon.

  16. A dual resolution measurement based Monte Carlo simulation technique for detailed dose analysis of small volume organs in the skull base region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chi-Yuan; Tung, Chuan-Jung; Chao, Tsi-Chain; Lin, Mu-Han; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dose distribution of a skull base tumor and surrounding critical structures in response to high dose intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a dual resolution sandwich phantom. The measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) method (Lin et al., 2009) was adopted for the study. The major components of the MBMC technique involve (1) the BEAMnrc code for beam transport through the treatment head of a Varian 21EX linear accelerator, (2) the DOSXYZnrc code for patient dose simulation and (3) an EPID-measured efficiency map which describes non-uniform fluence distribution of the IMRS treatment beam. For the simulated case, five isocentric 6 MV photon beams were designed to deliver a total dose of 1200 cGy in two fractions to the skull base tumor. A sandwich phantom for the MBMC simulation was created based on the patient's CT scan of a skull base tumor [gross tumor volume (GTV)=8.4 cm3] near the right 8th cranial nerve. The phantom, consisted of a 1.2-cm thick skull base region, had a voxel resolution of 0.05×0.05×0.1 cm3 and was sandwiched in between 0.05×0.05×0.3 cm3 slices of a head phantom. A coarser 0.2×0.2×0.3 cm3 single resolution (SR) phantom was also created for comparison with the sandwich phantom. A particle history of 3×108 for each beam was used for simulations of both the SR and the sandwich phantoms to achieve a statistical uncertainty of <2%. Our study showed that the planning target volume (PTV) receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (VPTV95) was 96.9%, 96.7% and 99.9% for the TPS, SR, and sandwich phantom, respectively. The maximum and mean doses to large organs such as the PTV, brain stem, and parotid gland for the TPS, SR and sandwich MC simulations did not show any significant difference; however, significant dose differences were observed for very small structures like the right 8th cranial nerve, right cochlea, right malleus and right semicircular canal. Dose

  17. Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

  18. Nearly complete rRNA genes from 371 Animalia: updated structure-based alignment and detailed phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, Jon; Craig, Catherine Waggoner; Yoder, Matthew J

    2012-09-01

    This study presents a manually constructed alignment of nearly complete rRNA genes from most animal clades (371 taxa from ~33 of the ~36 metazoan phyla), expanded from the 197 sequences in a previous study. This thorough, taxon-rich alignment, available at http://www.wsu.edu/~jmallatt/research/rRNAalignment.html and in the Dryad Repository (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1v62kr3q), is based rigidly on the secondary structure of the SSU and LSU rRNA molecules, and is annotated in detail, including labeling of the erroneous sequences (contaminants). The alignment can be used for future studies of the molecular evolution of rRNA. Here, we use it to explore if the larger number of sequences produces an improved phylogenetic tree of animal relationships. Disappointingly, the resolution did not improve, neither when the standard maximum-likelihood method was used, nor with more sophisticated methods that partitioned the rRNA into paired and unpaired sites (stem, loop, bulge, junction), or accounted for the evolution of the paired sites. For example, no doublet model of paired-site substitutions (16-state, 16A and 16B, 7A-F, or 6A-C models) corrected the placement of any rogue taxa or increased resolution. The following findings are from the simplest, standard, ML analysis. The 371-taxon tree only imperfectly supported the bilaterian clades of Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa, and this problem remained after 17 taxa with unstably positioned sequences were omitted from the analysis. The problem seems to stem from base-compositional heterogeneity across taxa and from an overrepresentation of highly divergent sequences among the newly added taxa (e.g., sequences from Cephalopoda, Rotifera, Acoela, and Myxozoa). The rogue taxa continue to concentrate in two locations in the rRNA tree: near the base of Arthropoda and of Bilateria. The approximately uncertain (AU) test refuted the monophyly of Mollusca and of Chordata, probably due to long-branch attraction of the highly

  19. Continuous strife for better coverage and more details in ocean surface winds measurements - from Midori and ADEOS-2 to GCOM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W.; Hu, H.; Tang, W.

    2001-01-01

    The series of joint U.S.-Japan spaceborne scatterometers missions to provide continuous measurements of ocean wind vectors is reviewed. Examples of the scientific impact of the continuous effort in improving spatial resolution and coverage are provided. The plan for the future is reviewed.

  20. Analysis of Gravity and Topographic/Bathymetric Data Over the Chicxulub Impact Structure: A Look at Details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsland, G. L.; Hurtado, M.; Ceron, A.; Pope, K.; Ocampo, A.; Smythe, W.; Bedard, P.

    1996-03-01

    The Chicxulub impact feature, has been characterized as being relatively circular with a diameter of 180 Km, 240 Km, or 300 Km. To arrive at these characterizations the authors have relied for the most part upon gravity data, sparse well control, a few seismic lines and a ring of cenotes (sinkholes). We are better defining the feature by analysis of the details of the gravity and topographic/bathymetric data.

  1. Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P. T.; Jones, T. V.

    1995-04-01

    The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

  2. Detailed measurements of local heat transfer coefficient in the entrance to normal and inclined film cooling holes

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.R.H.; Byerley, A.R.; Ireland, P.T.; Wang, Z.; Jones, T.V.; Kohler, S.T.

    1996-04-01

    The local heat transfer inside the entrance to large-scale models of film cooling holes has been measured using the transient heat transfer technique. The method employs temperature-sensitive liquid crystals to measure the surface temperature of large-scale perspex models. Full distributions of local Nusselt number were calculated based on the cooling passage centerline gas temperature ahead of the cooling hole. The circumferentially averaged Nusselt number was also calculated based on the local mixed bulk driving gas temperature to aid interpretation of the results, and to broaden the potential application of the data. Data are presented for a single film cooling hole inclined at 90 and 150 deg to the coolant duct wall. Both holes exhibited entry length heat transfer levels that were significantly lower than those predicted by entry length data in the presence of crossflow. The reasons for the comparative reduction are discussed in terms of the interpreted flow field.

  3. In-situ spatio-temporal measurements of the detailed substructure of the substorm current wedge and its evolution (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, C.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Rae, I. J.; Watt, C. E.; Murphy, K. R.; Wild, J. A.; Karlsson, T.; Mutel, R. L.; Owen, C. J.; Ergun, R.; Masson, A.; Donovan, E.; Frey, H. U.; Matzka, J.; Stolle, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The substorm current wedge (SCW) is a fundamental component of geomagnetic substorms. Models tend to describe the SCW as a simple line current flowing into the ionosphere towards dawn and out of the ionosphere towards dusk, linked by a westward electrojet. We use multi-spacecraft observations from perigee passes of the Cluster 1 and 4 spacecraft during a substorm on 15 Jan 2010, in conjunction with ground-based observations, to examine the spatial structuring and temporal variability of the SCW. At this time, the spacecraft travelled east-west azimuthally above the auroral region. We show that the SCW has significant azimuthal sub-structure on scales of 100s km at altitudes of 4,000-7,000 km. We identify 26 individual current sheets in the Cluster 4 data and 34 individual current sheets in the Cluster 1 data, with Cluster 1 passing through the SCW 120-240 s after Cluster 4 at 1,300-2,000 km higher altitude. Both spacecraft observed large-scale regions of net upward and downward field-aligned current, consistent with the large-scale characteristics of the SCW, although sheets of oppositely directed currents were observed within both regions. We show that the majority of these current sheets were closely aligned to a north-south direction, in contrast to the expected east-west orientation of the pre-onset aurora. Comparing our results with observations of the field-aligned current associated with bursty bulk flows (BBFs) we conclude that the structuring of the SCW cannot solely be due to BBF driven "wedgelets". Our results therefore represent constraints on future modeling and theoretical frameworks on the generation of the SCW.

  4. Detailed structure of the H2PO4(-)-guanosine diphosphate intermediate in Ras-GAP decoded from FTIR experiments by biomolecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Rudack, Till; Cui, Qiang; Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus

    2012-12-12

    Essential biochemical processes such as signal transduction, energy conversion, or substrate conversion depend on transient ligand binding. Thus, identifying the detailed structure and transient positioning of small ligands, and their stabilization by the surrounding protein, is of great importance. In this study, by decoding information from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra with biomolecular simulation methods, we identify the precise position and hydrogen network of a small compound, the guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-H(2)PO(4)(-) intermediate, in the surrounding protein-protein complex of Ras and its GTPase-activating protein, a central molecular switch in cellular signal transduction. We validate the simulated structure by comparing the calculated fingerprint vibrational modes of H(2)PO(4)(-) with those obtained from FTIR experiments. The new structural information, below the resolution of X-ray structural analysis, gives detailed insight into the catalytic mechanism.

  5. Measuring structural similarity in large online networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongren; Macy, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Structural similarity based on bipartite graphs can be used to detect meaningful communities, but the networks have been tiny compared to massive online networks. Scalability is important in applications involving tens of millions of individuals with highly skewed degree distributions. Simulation analysis holding underlying similarity constant shows that two widely used measures - Jaccard index and cosine similarity - are biased by the distribution of out-degree in web-scale networks. However, an alternative measure, the Standardized Co-incident Ratio (SCR), is unbiased. We apply SCR to members of Congress, musical artists, and professional sports teams to show how massive co-following on Twitter can be used to map meaningful affiliations among cultural entities, even in the absence of direct connections to one another. Our results show how structural similarity can be used to map cultural alignments and demonstrate the potential usefulness of social media data in the study of culture, politics, and organizations across the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27480374

  6. Towards detailed knowledge of atomic nuclei—the past, present and future of nuclear structure investigations at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerl, J.; Gόrska, M.; Wollersheim, H. J.

    2016-10-01

    Selected experimental nuclear structure physics results are presented which have been obtained at GSI since the mid 70ties employing the UNILAC and the SIS/FRS accelerator facility. It is shown how stable heavy-ion beams as well as radioactive isotope beams of this facility together with state-of-the-art instrumentation produced many discoveries and led to a multitude of important results covering many aspects of nuclear structure. Finally, we discuss the future directions of nuclear structure research at GSI with the FAIR/NUSTAR project.

  7. Detailed beam and plasma measurements on the vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) Penning H⁻ ion source.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, S R; Faircloth, D C; Letchford, A P; Whitehead, M O; Wood, T

    2016-02-01

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) is operational at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). This project supports and guides the overall ion source R&D effort for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at RAL. The VESPA produces 100 mA of pulsed H(-) beam, but perveance scans indicate that the source is production-limited at extraction voltages above 12 kV unless the arc current is increased. A high resolution optical monochromator is used to measure plasma properties using argon as a diagnostic gas. The atomic hydrogen temperature increases linearly with arc current, up to 2.8 eV for 50 A; whereas the electron temperature has a slight linear decrease toward 2.2 eV. The gas density is 10(21) m(-3), whilst the electron density is two orders of magnitude lower. Densities follow square root relationships with arc current, with gas density decreasing whilst electron (and hence ion) density increases. Stopping and range of ions in matter calculations prove that operating a high current arc with an argon admixture is extremely difficult because cathode-coated cesium is heavily sputtered by argon.

  8. Detailed beam and plasma measurements on the vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) Penning H⁻ ion source.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, S R; Faircloth, D C; Letchford, A P; Whitehead, M O; Wood, T

    2016-02-01

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) is operational at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). This project supports and guides the overall ion source R&D effort for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at RAL. The VESPA produces 100 mA of pulsed H(-) beam, but perveance scans indicate that the source is production-limited at extraction voltages above 12 kV unless the arc current is increased. A high resolution optical monochromator is used to measure plasma properties using argon as a diagnostic gas. The atomic hydrogen temperature increases linearly with arc current, up to 2.8 eV for 50 A; whereas the electron temperature has a slight linear decrease toward 2.2 eV. The gas density is 10(21) m(-3), whilst the electron density is two orders of magnitude lower. Densities follow square root relationships with arc current, with gas density decreasing whilst electron (and hence ion) density increases. Stopping and range of ions in matter calculations prove that operating a high current arc with an argon admixture is extremely difficult because cathode-coated cesium is heavily sputtered by argon. PMID:26932004

  9. Detailed angular correlation analysis with 4{pi} spectrometers: Spin determinations and multipolarity mixing measurements in {sup 128}Ba

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenhoever, I.; Vogel, O.; Klein, H.; Dewald, A.; von Brentano, P.; Gableske, J.; Nicolay, N.; Gelberg, A.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Janssens, R.V.; Carpenter, M.P.; Kruecken, R.; Petkov, P.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Bazzacco, D.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Pavan, P.; de Angelis, G.; Lunardi, S.; Napoli, D.R.; Frauendorf, S.; Doenau, F.

    1998-08-01

    We analyze for the first time the full {gamma}{gamma} directional correlations from oriented states (DCO) in an experiment performed with the GASP detector array. Our analysis is based on a transformation of the directional information into expansion coefficients of an orthogonal basis. With this method, which we call SpeeDCO (spectral expansion of DCO), the complete DCO information is concentrated in 12 {gamma}{gamma} coincidence spectra. The analysis is applicable to all detector arrays which uniformly cover the solid angle. We show that the complete DCO information can be used for a reliable and unique determination of spins and multipolarity mixing ratios in weakly populated bands. We were able to establish the spins and the positive parity of the {Delta}I=1 {open_quotes}M1 band{close_quotes} in {sup 128}Ba and multipolarity mixing ratios of nine M1/E2 in-band transitions were derived as well. The measured values are in good agreement with those expected for a high-K rotational band. thinsp thinsp thinsp {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Detailed beam and plasma measurements on the vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) Penning H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.

    2016-02-01

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) is operational at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). This project supports and guides the overall ion source R&D effort for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at RAL. The VESPA produces 100 mA of pulsed H- beam, but perveance scans indicate that the source is production-limited at extraction voltages above 12 kV unless the arc current is increased. A high resolution optical monochromator is used to measure plasma properties using argon as a diagnostic gas. The atomic hydrogen temperature increases linearly with arc current, up to 2.8 eV for 50 A; whereas the electron temperature has a slight linear decrease toward 2.2 eV. The gas density is 1021 m-3, whilst the electron density is two orders of magnitude lower. Densities follow square root relationships with arc current, with gas density decreasing whilst electron (and hence ion) density increases. Stopping and range of ions in matter calculations prove that operating a high current arc with an argon admixture is extremely difficult because cathode-coated cesium is heavily sputtered by argon.

  11. Precision Penning Trap Mass Measurements for Nuclear Structure at Triumf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Dilling, J.; Andreoiu, C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Delheij, P.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Gwinner, G.; Lennarz, A.; Mané, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.

    2013-03-01

    Precision determinations of ground state or even isomeric state masses reveal fingerprints of nuclear structure. In particular at the limits at existence for very neutron-rich or deficient isotopes, this allows one to find detailed information about nuclear structure from separation energies or binding energies. This is important to test theoretical predictions or to refine model approaches, for example for new "magic numbers," as predicted around N = 34, where strong indications exist that the inclusion of NNN forces in theoretical calculations for Ca isotopes leads to significantly better predictions for ground state binding energies. Similarly, halo nuclei present an excellent application for ab-initio theory, where ground state properties, like masses and radii, present prime parameters for testing our understanding of nuclear structure. Precision mass determinations at TRIUMF are carried out with the TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science) system. It is an ion trap setup coupled to the on-line facility ISAC. TITAN has measured masses of isotopes as short-lived as 9 ms (almost an order of magnitude shorter-lived than any other Penning trap system) and the only one with charge breeding capabilities, a feature that allows us to boost the precision by almost 2 orders of magnitude. We recently were able to make use of this feature by measuring short-lived Rb-isotopes, up to 74Rb, and reaching the 12+ charge state, which together with other improvements lead to an increase in precision by a factor 36.

  12. The use of ultraviolet Thomson scattering as a versatile diagnostic for detailed measurements of a collisional laser produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, M.D.

    1993-01-08

    Collective Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic waves at 266nm is used to obtain spatially resolved, two-dimensional electron density, sound speed, and radial drift profiles of a collisional laser plasma. An ultraviolet diagnostic wavelength minimizes the complicating effects of inverse bremsstrahlung and refractive turning in the coronal region of interest, where the electron densities approach n{sub c}/10. Laser plasmas of this type are important because they model some of the aspects of the plasmas found in high-gain laser-fusion pellets irradiated by long pulse widths where the laser light is absorbed mostly in the corona. The experimental results and LASNEX simulations agree within a percent standard deviation of 40% for the electron density and 50% for the sound speed and radial drift velocity. Thus it is shown that the hydrodynamics equations with classical coefficients and the numerical approximations in LASNEX are valid models of laser-heated, highly collisional plasmas. The versatility of Thomson scattering is expanded upon by extending existing theory with a Fokker-Planck based model to include plasmas that are characterized by (0 {le} k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ii} {le} {infinity}) and ZT{sub e}/T{sub i}, where k{sub ia} is the ion- acoustic wave number, {lambda}{sub ii} is the ion-ion mean free path, Z is the ionization state of the plasma, and T{sub e}, T{sub i} are the electron and ion temperatures in electron volts respectively. The model is valid for plasmas in which the electrons are approximately collisionless, (k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ei}, k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ee} {ge} 1), and quasineutrality holds, ({alpha} {much_gt}1), where {alpha} = 1/k{lambda}{sub DE} and {lambda}{sub DE} is the electron Debye length. This newly developed model predicts the lineshape of the ion-acoustic Thomson spectra and when fit to experimental data provides a direct measurement of the relative thermal flow velocity between the electrons and ions.

  13. Thermodynamics and Interior Structure Measurements of Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, S.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Bills, B. G.; Castillo, J. C.; Choukroun, M.; Jackson, J. M.; Kedar, S.; Tsai, V. C.

    2015-12-01

    Extending thermodynamics of aqueous solutions to elevated salinity and pressure is key to understanding icy moon oceans. Such a project is intrinsically linked to future seismic investigations, which would offer the most comprehensive views into the deep interiors of planetary bodies. The InSight Mars mission and Europa Lander mission concept both identify seismology as a critical measurement to constrain interior structure and thermal state of astrobiological targets. By pinpointing the radial depths of compositional interfaces, seismology in a broad frequency range can address uncertainty in interior structures inferred from gravity and magnetometry studies, such as those planned for the NASA's Europa and ESA's JUICE missions. Seismology also offers information about fluid motions within or beneath ice, which complement magnetic studies; and can record the dynamics of ice layers, which would reveal mechanisms and spatiotemporal occurrence of crack formation and propagation. Investigating these in the future calls for detailed modeling of seismic sources and signatures. Thermodynamic measurements of sound velocities and elastic moduli can provide needed seismic model inputs, as well as associated densities, thermal expansion, heat capacities, and chemical potentials for modeling interior structure. Sound speed profiles built from our internal structure models for Ganymede (Vance et al. 2014), using thermodynamically consistent data (Shaw 1986, Vance and Brown 2013) point to needed research, both in developing thermodynamic data from new laboratory measurements and applying them to problems in planetary geophysics. Comparing these profiles with simulated electrical conductivities of MgSO4 along the geotherms illustrates how dual seismology-magnetometry investigations can infer ocean density structure and salinity. Electrical conductivities are based on measurements by Larionov (1984) and Huang and Papangelakis (2006), and extrapolation to 273 K by Hand and Chyba

  14. The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor acetylenes - A detailed investigation of structure-property relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, A. E.; Graham, Eva; Khundkar, Lutfur R.; Perry, Joseph W.; Cheng, L.-T.; Perry, Kelly J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of donor-acceptor acetylene compounds was synthesized in which systematic changes in both the conjugation length and the donor-acceptor strength were made. The effect of these structural changes on the spectroscopic and electronic properties of the molecules and, ultimately, on the measured second-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities (beta) was investigated. It was found that increases in the donor-acceptor strength resulted in increases in the magnitude of beta. For this class of molecules, the increase is dominated by the energy of the intramolecular charge-transfer transition, while factors such as the ground to excited-state dipole moment change and the transition-moment integral are much less important. Increasing the conjugation length from one to two acetylene linkers did not result in an increase in the value of beta; however, beta increased sharply in going from two acetylenes to three. This increase is attributed to the superposition of several nearly isoenergetic excited states.

  15. A detailed examination of the growth of CdSe thin films through structural and optical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Yükselici, M.H.; Aşıkoğlu Bozkurt, A.; Ömür, B. Can

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Urbach tail width decreases by about 200 meV with the film thickness. ► A coefficient of strain of around 3 × 10{sup −3} along [0 0 2] axis was predicted. ► Compressive strain gives rise to about 11 meV red shift in the band gap energy. ► A relative shift of about 2 cm{sup −1} of LO{sub 1} phonon mode in Raman spectra was observed between different thickness films. - Abstract: Different thickness CdSe thin films were grown on glass substrates by physical vapor deposition and characterized by optical and structural investigations. Urbach energy related to the width of the optical absorption tail decreases from 430 meV for a film thickness of 50 nm to 200 meV for 450 nm. The film thickness dependent grain sizes were estimated by using effective mass model under quantum size effect from the shift of around 500 meV in the asymptotic absorption edge. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern is consistent with CdSe hexagonal crystal structure which indicates crystal growth mode along c axis. XRD peaks broaden and shift depending on film thicknesses which are presumably due to strain and size effect. We observe both blue and red shift depending on thickness in Longitudinal Optical phonon frequency in Raman spectra with respect to that of the source CdSe powder which could also be due to strain on thin films and/or finite crystallite size. In this work we combine the results of optical absorption, Raman and XRD spectroscopies to study the evolution of grain size, strain and structural disorder depending on film thickness.

  16. Micro- and nano-structural details of a spider's filter for substrate vibrations: relevance for low-frequency signal transmission.

    PubMed

    Erko, Maxim; Younes-Metzler, Osnat; Rack, Alexander; Zaslansky, Paul; Young, Seth L; Milliron, Garrett; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Barth, Friedrich G; Fratzl, Peter; Tsukruk, Vladimir; Zlotnikov, Igor; Politi, Yael

    2015-03-01

    The metatarsal lyriform organ of the Central American wandering spider Cupiennius salei is its most sensitive vibration detector. It is able to sense a wide range of vibration stimuli over four orders of magnitude in frequency between at least as low as 0.1 Hz and several kilohertz. Transmission of the vibrations to the slit organ is controlled by a cuticular pad in front of it. While the mechanism of high-frequency stimulus transfer (above ca 40 Hz) is well understood and related to the viscoelastic properties of the pad's epicuticle, it is not yet clear how low-frequency stimuli (less than 40 Hz) are transmitted. Here, we study how the pad material affects the pad's mechanical properties and thus its role in the transfer of the stimulus, using a variety of experimental techniques, such as X-ray micro-computed tomography for three-dimensional imaging, X-ray scattering for structural analysis, and atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for surface imaging. The mechanical properties were investigated using scanning acoustic microscopy and nanoindentation. We show that large tarsal deflections cause large deformation in the distal highly hydrated part of the pad. Beyond this region, a sclerotized region serves as a supporting frame which resists the deformation and is displaced to push against the slits, with displacement values considerably scaled down to only a few micrometres. Unravelling the structural arrangement in such specialized structures may provide conceptual ideas for the design of new materials capable of controlling a technical sensor's specificity and selectivity, which is so typical of biological sensors.

  17. Micro- and nano-structural details of a spider's filter for substrate vibrations: relevance for low-frequency signal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Erko, Maxim; Younes-Metzler, Osnat; Rack, Alexander; Zaslansky, Paul; Young, Seth L.; Milliron, Garrett; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Barth, Friedrich G.; Fratzl, Peter; Tsukruk, Vladimir; Zlotnikov, Igor; Politi, Yael

    2015-01-01

    The metatarsal lyriform organ of the Central American wandering spider Cupiennius salei is its most sensitive vibration detector. It is able to sense a wide range of vibration stimuli over four orders of magnitude in frequency between at least as low as 0.1 Hz and several kilohertz. Transmission of the vibrations to the slit organ is controlled by a cuticular pad in front of it. While the mechanism of high-frequency stimulus transfer (above ca 40 Hz) is well understood and related to the viscoelastic properties of the pad's epicuticle, it is not yet clear how low-frequency stimuli (less than 40 Hz) are transmitted. Here, we study how the pad material affects the pad's mechanical properties and thus its role in the transfer of the stimulus, using a variety of experimental techniques, such as X-ray micro-computed tomography for three-dimensional imaging, X-ray scattering for structural analysis, and atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for surface imaging. The mechanical properties were investigated using scanning acoustic microscopy and nanoindentation. We show that large tarsal deflections cause large deformation in the distal highly hydrated part of the pad. Beyond this region, a sclerotized region serves as a supporting frame which resists the deformation and is displaced to push against the slits, with displacement values considerably scaled down to only a few micrometres. Unravelling the structural arrangement in such specialized structures may provide conceptual ideas for the design of new materials capable of controlling a technical sensor's specificity and selectivity, which is so typical of biological sensors. PMID:25631567

  18. Structural Details of Ufd1 Binding to p97 and Their Functional Implications in ER-Associated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Le, Oanh Thi Tu; Lee, Sang Yoon; Yang, Jin Kuk

    2016-01-01

    The hexameric ATPase p97 has been implicated in diverse cellular processes through interactions with many different adaptor proteins at its N-terminal domain. Among these, the Ufd1-Npl4 heterodimer is a major adaptor, and the p97-Ufd1-Npl4 complex plays an essential role in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), acting as a segregase that translocates the ubiquitinated client protein from the ER membrane into the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. We determined the crystal structure of the complex of the N-terminal domain of p97 and the SHP box of Ufd1 at a resolution of 1.55 Å. The 11-residue-long SHP box of Ufd1 binds at the far-most side of the Nc lobe of the p97 N domain primarily through hydrophobic interactions, such that F225, F228, N233 and L235 of the SHP box contact hydrophobic residues on the surface of the p97 Nc lobe. Mutating these key interface residues abolished the interactions in two different binding experiments, isothermal titration calorimetry and co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, cycloheximide chase assays showed that these same mutations caused accumulation of tyrosinase-C89R, a well-known ERAD substrate, thus implying decreased rate of protein degradation due to their defects in ERAD function. Together, these results provide structural and biochemical insights into the interaction between p97 N domain and Ufd1 SHP box. PMID:27684549

  19. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  20. Global Bifurcation Structure and Variability of Pacemaker Rhythm in a Detailed Model of Cardiac Sinoatrial Node Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhenxing; Doi, Shinji

    As a cardiac pacemaker, sinoatrial node spontaneously generates periodic electrical signals (action potentials) in its cells. The action potential generation is deeply related to various ion channels in cell membranes, and the abnormalities of ion channels cause sinus arrhythmia. We use the Zhang model of sinoatrial node cells to investigate the relation between pacemaker rhythm (frequency of action potential generation) and ion channels. The Zhang model is described by the Hodgkin-Huxley-type nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and its parameter values vary between periphery and center cells of sinoatrial node. We analyze the bifurcation structure of the Zhang model, and investigate the variability of pacemaker rhythm and its sensitivity on ion channel conductance changes for both periphery and center cells. Moreover, these results are compared with the previous results of another sinoatrial node cell model: Yanagihara-Noma-Irisawa model.

  1. Detailed crustal structure in the area of the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Koulakov, I.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new seismic velocity model for the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border region with the aim to better define the crustal structures at the northern edge of the Ionian subduction zone. This sector also includes the Pollino Mts. area, where a seismic sequence of thousands of small to moderate earthquakes has been recorded between spring 2010 and 2013. In this sector a seismic gap was previously hypothesized by paleoseismological evidences associated with the lack of major earthquakes in historical catalogs. To perform the tomographic inversion we selected ca. 3600 earthquakes that have occurred in the last thirty years and recorded by permanent and temporary networks managed by INGV and Calabria University. Using for the first time the Local Tomography Software for passive tomography inversion (LOTOS hereinafter) to crustal analysis in southern Italy, we have computed the distribution of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio. The obtained velocity model, jointly evaluated with results of synthetic modeling, as well as with the hypocenter distribution and geological information, gives us new constraints on the geodynamical and structural knowledge of the study area. The comparison between the shallow tomography sections and surface geology shows good correlation between velocity patterns and the main geological features of the study area. In the upper crust a low-velocity anomaly of P- and S-waves is detectable beneath the Pollino Mts. area and seems to separate the Calabrian and southern Apennines domains, characterized by higher velocities. The distributions of high Vp/Vs ratio, representing strongly fractured rocks with likely high fluid content, clearly correlate with areas of significant seismicity. In the lower crust we detect a clear transition from high to low seismic velocities in correspondence with the Tyrrhenian coast of the study area, which may represent the transition from the thinner Tyrrhenian crust to the thicker one beneath Calabria. In this

  2. Detailed mtDNA genotypes permit a reassessment of the settlement and population structure of the Andaman Islands.

    PubMed

    Barik, S S; Sahani, R; Prasad, B V R; Endicott, P; Metspalu, M; Sarkar, B N; Bhattacharya, S; Annapoorna, P C H; Sreenath, J; Sun, D; Sanchez, J J; Ho, S Y W; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, V R

    2008-05-01

    The population genetics of the Indian subcontinent is central to understanding early human prehistory due to its strategic location on the proposed corridor of human movement from Africa to Australia during the late Pleistocene. Previous genetic research using mtDNA has emphasized the relative isolation of the late Pleistocene colonizers, and the physically isolated Andaman Island populations of Island South-East Asia remain the source of claims supporting an early split between the populations that formed the patchy settlement pattern along the coast of the Indian Ocean. Using whole-genome sequencing, combined with multiplexed SNP typing, this study investigates the deep structure of mtDNA haplogroups M31 and M32 in India and the Andaman Islands. The identification of a so far unnoticed rare polymorphism shared between these two lineages suggests that they are actually sister groups within a single haplogroup, M31'32. The enhanced resolution of M31 allows for the inference of a more recent colonization of the Andaman Islands than previously suggested, but cannot reject the very early peopling scenario. We further demonstrate a widespread overlap of mtDNA and cultural markers between the two major language groups of the Andaman archipelago. Given the "completeness" of the genealogy based on whole genome sequences, and the multiple scenarios for the peopling of the Andaman Islands sustained by this inferred genealogy, our study hints that further mtDNA based phylogeographic studies are unlikely to unequivocally support any one of these possibilities.

  3. Conserved motifs reveal details of ancestry and structure in the small TIM chaperones of the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    PubMed

    Gentle, Ian E; Perry, Andrew J; Alcock, Felicity H; Likić, Vladimir A; Dolezal, Pavel; Ng, Ee Ting; Purcell, Anthony W; McConnville, Malcolm; Naderer, Thomas; Chanez, Anne-Laure; Charrière, Fabien; Aschinger, Caroline; Schneider, André; Tokatlidis, Kostas; Lithgow, Trevor

    2007-05-01

    The mitochondrial inner and outer membranes are composed of a variety of integral membrane proteins, assembled into the membranes posttranslationally. The small translocase of the inner mitochondrial membranes (TIMs) are a group of approximately 10 kDa proteins that function as chaperones to ferry the imported proteins across the mitochondrial intermembrane space to the outer and inner membranes. In yeast, there are 5 small TIM proteins: Tim8, Tim9, Tim10, Tim12, and Tim13, with equivalent proteins reported in humans. Using hidden Markov models, we find that many eukaryotes have proteins equivalent to the Tim8 and Tim13 and the Tim9 and Tim10 subunits. Some eukaryotes provide "snapshots" of evolution, with a single protein showing the features of both Tim8 and Tim13, suggesting that a single progenitor gene has given rise to each of the small TIMs through duplication and modification. We show that no "Tim12" family of proteins exist, but rather that variant forms of the cognate small TIMs have been recently duplicated and modified to provide new functions: the yeast Tim12 is a modified form of Tim10, whereas in humans and some protists variant forms of Tim9, Tim8, and Tim13 are found instead. Sequence motif analysis reveals acidic residues conserved in the Tim10 substrate-binding tentacles, whereas more hydrophobic residues are found in the equivalent substrate-binding region of Tim13. The substrate-binding region of Tim10 and Tim13 represent structurally independent domains: when the acidic domain from Tim10 is attached to Tim13, the Tim8-Tim13(10) complex becomes essential and the Tim9-Tim10 complex becomes dispensable. The conserved features in the Tim10 and Tim13 subunits provide distinct binding surfaces to accommodate the broad range of substrate proteins delivered to the mitochondrial inner and outer membranes.

  4. Detailed simulation of the role of functionalized polymer chains on the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Shen, Jianxiang; Gao, Yangyang; Zhou, Huanhuan; Wu, Youping; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-11-28

    To systematically study the effect of functionalized chain groups on polymer nanocomposites, we perform our simulation work in the following two ways. In the case of dilute loading of nanoparticles (NPs) with different geometries (spherical, sheet-like, rod-like NPs), we adopt coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation to study the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites influenced by the terminal groups of linear polymer chains. We observe that the terminal groups have more probability to be adsorbed onto the surface of NPs with decreasing temperature, chain molecular weight and increasing chain stiffness. For all NPs with different geometries, more terminal groups segregate into the surface of NPs with increase in the interaction energy εf-n between the terminal groups and the NPs. We also notice that the attractive interaction between the terminal groups and the sheet-like NPs induces the appearance of a gradient of translational dynamics of polymer chains, and the relaxation at the chain length scale is evidently different for various adsorbed layers, whereas the segmental relaxation only becomes slightly slower nearby the sheet-like NPs. For both pure and filled systems with spherical NPs, it is found that the stress-strain curves and bond orientations are significantly enhanced with increase in the interaction strength between the terminal groups as well as terminal groups and NPs. In the case of concentrated loading of NPs, we construct the atomistic models of C60, CNT and graphene to accurately account for the "many body effect." We explore the influence of the functionalization position along the chain backbone on the dispersion kinetics, realizing that the end-functionalization is more effective. The end-groups effect on the chain configuration, chain packing and graphene equilibrium dispersibility is examined. The translational and rotational (segmental and terminal relaxation) dynamics influenced by the interactions

  5. Detailed quantification of delta subsidence, compaction and interaction with man-made structures: the case of the NCA airport, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, O.; Sladen, A.; Kelner, M.

    2015-09-01

    River deltas are dynamic coastal systems and their evolutions are closely monitored as it often concentrates vital natural resources for the surrounding areas. Many deltas worldwide experience subsidence due to geological processes (sediment loading and compaction) or human activities (groundwater or hydrocarbon extraction, land reclamation). This causes shoreline erosion or wetland loss which represent serious issues for the population. In this study we investigate the dynamic of the Var delta (France) where reclaimed lands over sea have been built to host the Nice côte d'Azur airport (NCA). Actually, the stability of this infrastructure is a permanent concern since, in 1979, a newly built extension of the runway platform collapsed in the sea, causing important damages. The project of land extension stopped, but the present airport platform is still located on reclaimed land. Factors that can trigger such catastrophic landslide are thought to be linked to the delta activity and the artificial airport platform load. We used, therefore, Envisat InSAR data to measure accurately the ground deformation of the area that includes the Var delta and NCA airport. Combining data from ascending and descending orbits, we estimated the east-west and vertical components of the deformation and obtained very accurate displacement rate (with a 1σ error of 0.25 mm yr-1). We found that nearly all the deformation is vertical and impacts the whole Var delta. The Var valley subsides at a very low rate (0.5-1 mm yr-1) but downstream the subsidence rate increases and a clear jump is observed at the transition with the reclaimed lands (1-2 mm yr-1). On average, the reclaimed lands subside at 3 mm yr-1. Since the subsidence rate increases in correlation with the sediment thickness, we interpret it as the compaction of the delta quaternary sedimentary wedge. In addition, three areas subside faster (between 5 and 10 mm yr-1), with one calling for more attention as it is the largest and

  6. Detailed quantification of delta subsidence, compaction and interaction with man-made structures: the case of the NCA airport, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, O.; Sladen, A.; Kelner, M.

    2015-06-01

    River deltas are dynamic costal systems and their evolutions are closely monitored as it often concentrates vital natural resources for the surrounding areas. Many deltas, worldwide, experience subsidence due to geological processes (sediment loading and compaction) or human activities (groundwater or hydrocarbon extraction, land reclamation). This causes shoreline erosion or wetland loss which represent serious issues for the population. In this study, we investigate the dynamic of the Var delta (France) where reclaimed lands over sea have been built to host the Nice côte d'Azur airport (NCA). Actually, the stability of this infrastructure is a permanent concern since, in 1979, a newly built extension of the runway platform collapsed in the sea, causing important damages. The project of land extension stopped, but the present airport platform is still located on reclaimed land. Factors that can trigger such catastrophic landslide are thought to be linked to the delta activity and the artificial airport platform load. We used, therefore, Envisat InSAR data to measure accurately the ground deformation of the area that includes the Var delta and NCA airport. Combining data from ascending and descending orbits, we estimated the east-west and vertical components of the deformation and obtained very accurate displacement rate (with a 1σ error of 0.25 mm yr-1). We found that nearly all the deformation is vertical and impacts the whole Var delta. The Var valley subsides at a very low rate (0.5-1 mm yr-1) but downstream the subsidence rate increases and a clear jump is observed at the transition with the reclaimed lands (1-2 mm yr-1). On average, the reclaimed lands subside at 3 mm yr-1. Since the subsidence rate increases in correlation with the sediment thickness, we interpret it as the compaction of the delta quaternary sedimentary wedge. In addition, three areas subsides faster (between 5 and 10 mm yr-1), with one calling for more attention as it is the largest and

  7. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  8. Detailed film cooling effectiveness and three component velocity field measurements on a first stage turbine vane subject to high freestream turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanka, Marcus Damian

    1999-11-01

    This experimental program studied the effects of high freestream turbulence on film cooling for a turbine vane. This investigation focussed on the showerhead and pressure surface of an airfoil. An emphasis of this study was to acquire highly detailed film cooling effectiveness and velocity measurements in the showerhead region. Acquisition of both pieces of information resulted in detailed knowledge of the physics involved in the interaction of the coolant jets and the freestream flow in this region of an airfoil. By generating a 18% turbulence level at the leading edge of the airfoil, the impact of elevated freestream turbulence was also studied. Of further interest was the affect of a highly turbulent flow resulting from both the freestream flow as well as that generated from the showerhead jets themselves, further downstream. The impact of this turbulent approach flow will have significant consequence on downstream film cooling designs. In order to achieve the desired goals, modification to the existing closed loop wind tunnel facility was required. The new tunnel consisted of a test section containing a center, instrumented airfoil with inner and outer walls positioned to match the flow parameters around the center airfoil. The center airfoil was built at a nine times scale ratio. In utilizing this large scale vane and still matching the engine conditions, a better understanding of leading edge film cooling was gained. This was a result of the high spatial resolution of the flow field gained from the large scale of the airfoil. This benefited both the Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system for velocity measurements and the infrared camera used for thermal field measurements. High effectiveness levels were measured throughout the showerhead region. This was attributed to a build up of coolant along the span of the airfoil. The introduction of a high freestream turbulence level increased the uniformity at the expense of lower overall effectiveness levels

  9. Precision Measurement of Large Scale Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to develop and to start to apply new precision methods for measuring the power spectrum and redshift distortions from the anticipated new generation of large redshift surveys. A highlight of work completed during the award period was the application of the new methods developed by the PI to measure the real space power spectrum and redshift distortions of the IRAS PSCz survey, published in January 2000. New features of the measurement include: (1) measurement of power over an unprecedentedly broad range of scales, 4.5 decades in wavenumber, from 0.01 to 300 h/Mpc; (2) at linear scales, not one but three power spectra are measured, the galaxy-galaxy, galaxy-velocity, and velocity-velocity power spectra; (3) at linear scales each of the three power spectra is decorrelated within itself, and disentangled from the other two power spectra (the situation is analogous to disentangling scalar and tensor modes in the Cosmic Microwave Background); and (4) at nonlinear scales the measurement extracts not only the real space power spectrum, but also the full line-of-sight pairwise velocity distribution in redshift space.

  10. Structuring Variability by Negotiating Its Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Richard; Kim, Min-Joung

    2009-01-01

    Although variability and structure are often considered as antonyms in many everyday settings, a mathematically disciplined view contradicts this opposition. To initiate fifth- (10 years old) and sixth-grade (11 years old) students in this disciplinary view, we engaged students in practices of modeling data. These practices included inventing and…

  11. MEASURING DETAILED CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES FROM CO-ADDED MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. I. TESTS USING MILKY WAY DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Lei; Peng, Eric W.; Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2013-05-01

    The ability to measure metallicities and {alpha}-element abundances in individual red giant branch (RGB) stars using medium-resolution spectra (R Almost-Equal-To 6000) is a valuable tool for deciphering the nature of Milky Way dwarf satellites and the history of the Galactic halo. Extending such studies to more distant systems like Andromeda is beyond the ability of the current generation of telescopes, but by co-adding the spectra of similar stars, we can attain the necessary signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to make detailed abundance measurements. In this paper, we present a method to determine metallicities and {alpha}-element abundances using the co-addition of medium-resolution spectra. We test the method of spectral co-addition using high-S/N spectra of more than 1300 RGB stars from Milky Way globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies obtained with the Keck II telescope/DEIMOS spectrograph. We group similar stars using photometric criteria and compare the weighted ensemble average abundances ([Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]) of individual stars in each group with the measurements made on the corresponding co-added spectrum. We find a high level of agreement between the two methods, which permits us to apply this co-added spectra technique to more distant RGB stars, like stars in the M31 satellite galaxies. This paper outlines our spectral co-addition and abundance measurement methodology and describes the potential biases in making these measurements.

  12. Crystal structures of flax rust avirulence proteins AvrL567-A and -D reveal details of the structural basis for flax disease resistance specificity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-I A; Guncar, Gregor; Forwood, Jade K; Teh, Trazel; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Lawrence, Gregory J; Loughlin, Fionna E; Mackay, Joel P; Schirra, Horst Joachim; Anderson, Peter A; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N; Kobe, Bostjan

    2007-09-01

    The gene-for-gene mechanism of plant disease resistance involves direct or indirect recognition of pathogen avirulence (Avr) proteins by plant resistance (R) proteins. Flax rust (Melampsora lini) AvrL567 avirulence proteins and the corresponding flax (Linum usitatissimum) L5, L6, and L7 resistance proteins interact directly. We determined the three-dimensional structures of two members of the AvrL567 family, AvrL567-A and AvrL567-D, at 1.4- and 2.3-A resolution, respectively. The structures of both proteins are very similar and reveal a beta-sandwich fold with no close known structural homologs. The polymorphic residues in the AvrL567 family map to the surface of the protein, and polymorphisms in residues associated with recognition differences for the R proteins lead to significant changes in surface chemical properties. Analysis of single amino acid substitutions in AvrL567 proteins confirm the role of individual residues in conferring differences in recognition and suggest that the specificity results from the cumulative effects of multiple amino acid contacts. The structures also provide insights into possible pathogen-associated functions of AvrL567 proteins, with nucleic acid binding activity demonstrated in vitro. Our studies provide some of the first structural information on avirulence proteins that bind directly to the corresponding resistance proteins, allowing an examination of the molecular basis of the interaction with the resistance proteins as a step toward designing new resistance specificities.

  13. Experimental measurement of structural power flow on an aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental technique is used to measure structural intensity through an aircraft fuselage with an excitation load applied near one of the wing attachment locations. The fuselage is a relatively large structure, requiring a large number of measurement locations to analyze the whole of the structure. For the measurement of structural intensity, multiple point measurements are necessary at every location of interest. A tradeoff is therefore required between the number of measurement transducers, the mounting of these transducers, and the accuracy of the measurements. Using four transducers mounted on a bakelite platform, structural intensity vectors are measured at locations distributed throughout the fuselage. To minimize the errors associated with using the four transducer technique, the measurement locations are selected to be away from bulkheads and stiffeners. Furthermore, to eliminate phase errors between the four transducer measurements, two sets of data are collected for each position, with the orientation of the platform with the four transducers rotated by 180 degrees and an average taken between the two sets of data. The results of these measurements together with a discussion of the suitability of the approach for measuring structural intensity on a real structure are presented.

  14. Comparison between enhanced MALDI in-source decay by ammonium persulfate and N- or C-terminal derivatization methods for detailed peptide structure determination.

    PubMed

    Horvatić, Anita; Dodig, Ivana; Vuletić, Tomislav; Pavoković, Dubravko; Hameršak, Zdenko; Butorac, Ana; Cindrić, Mario

    2013-04-16

    Amino acid sequencing and more detailed structure elucidation analysis of peptides and small proteins is a very difficult task even if state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS) is employed. To make this task easier, chemical derivatization methods of the N terminus with 4-sulfophenyl-isothiocyanate (SPITC) or the C terminus with 2-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole (Lys-tag) can enhance peptide fragmentation or fragment ionizability, via proton mobility/localization mechanisms making tandem MS (MS(2)) spectra more informative and less demanding for structural interpretation. Observed disadvantages related to both derivatization methods are sample- and time-consuming procedures and the increased number of reaction byproducts. A novel, sulfate radical in-source formation method of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) MS based on chemically enhanced in-source decay (ISD) can be accomplished by simple addition of ammonium persulfate (APS) in the matrix solution. This method enables effective decomposition of peptide ions already in the first stage of MS analysis where a large number of fragment ions are produced. The resultant MALDI-ISD mass spectra (MS after APS → MALDI-ISD MS) are almost equivalent to conventional, collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS(2) spectra. These fragment ions are further subjected to the second stage of the MS, and consequently, MS(3) spectra are produced, which makes the sequence analysis more informative and complete (CID MS(2) is thus equivalent to CID MS(3)). Multiply stage MS after APS addition showed enhanced sensitivity, resolution, and mass accuracy compared to peptide derivatization (SPITC and Lys-tag) or conventional MS and MS(2) analyses and offered more detailed insight into peptide structure.

  15. Measuring and modelling the structure of chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.; Fryer, Peter J.; Smart, Ian; Bakalis, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    The cocoa butter present in chocolate exists as six different polymorphs. To achieve the desired crystal form (βV), traditional chocolate manufacturers use relatively slow cooling (<2°C/min). A newer generation of rapid cooling systems has been suggested requiring further understanding of fat crystallisation. To allow better control and understanding of these processes and newer rapid cooling processes, it is necessary to understand both heat transfer and crystallization kinetics. The proposed model aims to predict the temperature in the chocolate products during processing as well as the crystal structure of cocoa butter throughout the process. A set of ordinary differential equations describes the kinetics of fat crystallisation. The parameters were obtained by fitting the model to a set of DSC curves. The heat transfer equations were coupled to the kinetic model and solved using commercially available CFD software. A method using single crystal XRD was developed using a novel subtraction method to quantify the cocoa butter structure in chocolate directly and results were compared to the ones predicted from the model. The model was proven to predict phase change temperature during processing accurately (±1°C). Furthermore, it was possible to correctly predict phase changes and polymorphous transitions. The good agreement between the model and experimental data on the model geometry allows a better design and control of industrial processes.

  16. Details of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 18, discusses the details of meiosis, beginning with the structure and number of chiasmata, i.e., the cytological term for two homologous chromosomes forming a bivalent which begin to repel each other until they are held together only at the point of crossing-over. The synaptonemal complex which consists of two lateral elements which contain protein and RNA is also discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of meiosis in polyploids, human meiosis, and the behavior of X and Y chromosomes. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Mars interior structure models from tidal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoldini, A.; Verhoeven, O.; van Hoolst, T.; Mocquet, A.; Dehant, V.

    2005-12-01

    Besides the mean planetary density, obtained from the planet's mass and size, the polar moment of inertia (MOI) gives important constraints on the interior structure of a planet. Nevertheless, these constraints are not sufficient for precisely determining the state and size of the planet's core, nor do they provide strong constraints on mantle composition and temperature. On the other hand, the additional use of the latest estimates of mean crustal density and thickness and an assumed bulk Fe/Si ratio for Mars (e.g. chondritic with Fe/Si=1.7) can strongly reduce the set of interior models, which are parameterized in terms of core composition and size, and of mantle composition and temperature. Unfortunately, the origin of Mars and the value of the Martian Fe/Si bulk ratio are not well known. We therefore propose to complement the MOI and the mean density with the latest estimate of the tidal Love number k2 in order to better constrain the interior structure and composition. We consider spherically symmetric models of Mars, consisting of a crust parameterized by mean density and thickness, a mantle with different mineralogical compositions and temperature profiles, and a core parameterized by size, composition (Fe, Ni and FeS), and state (liquid, solid or both). For the presently known values, with their associated uncertainties, of the mean density, the MOI and the Love umber k2, we calculate sets of possible interior models in terms of the above arameterization and compute the bulk Fe/Si ratios.

  18. Taking the measure of phonetic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Louis

    2005-09-01

    From his earliest work, Peter Ladefoged has insisted that phonetic dimensions and categories (e.g., vowel charts, IPA symbols, features) must be measurable if they are to provide an adequate basis for a universal phonetic representation. This view has led him to two questions, the pursuit of which has been enormously informative and has set the agenda for much contemporary phonetic research. (1) What are the appropriate reference frames in which to make these measurements? The debate triggered by Ladefoged as to the correct choice of reference frame is a key component of current theoretical discussion in phonetics. While the empirical data yield tantalizing hints, their interpretation is far from unambiguous, as can be seen even in some of Ladefoged's earliest work. (2) Are there universal fixed phonetic categories within these reference frames from which individual languages choose (and if so, what are they)? Here, Ladefoged's research has been at the leading edge of a growing consensus that there are, in fact, no fixed categories and that the division of continua into categories in particular languages is largely a random process, constrained by the nature of speech production and perception. [Work supported by NIH.

  19. Beam maser measurements of HDO hyperfine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, H. A.; Kukolich, S. G.

    1982-05-01

    The 431←432, 532←533, and 321←414 transition in HDO were measured in a beam maser spectrometer. Accurate values for rotational transiton frequencies, the deuterium quadrupole coupling tensor, and hydrogen spin-rotation tensor were obtained from the present data combined with previous results on other transitions. Resonance line widths of 2 kHz were obtained for most of the data. Measured quadrupole coupling tensor elements eqQ(D)gg and spin-rotation tensor elements C(X)gg in kHz are as follows: eqQ(D)aa = 276.45±0.88, eqQ(D)bb = -110.97±1.46, eqQ(D)cc = -165.77±1.10, C(D)aa = -1.33±0.20, C(D)bb = -4.38±0.36, C(D)cc = -2.99±0.24, C(H)aa = -58.42±0.47, C(H)bb = -5.46±0.83, C(H)cc = -24.11±0.55.

  20. Emissivity measurements and modeling of silicon related materials and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedrabbo, Sufian M.

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the major issues concerning applications of pyrometry for applications in rapid thermal processing (RTP) of silicon related materials. The research highlights of this work are: (I) Establishment of spectral emissometry as a novel, reliable and reproducible technique for: (1) Determination of wavelength and temperature dependent reflectivity, transmissivity, emissivity and temperature, simultaneously, of silicon related materials and structures. The emissometer operates in the wavelength range of 1-20μm and temperature range of 300-1200K. (2) The analysis of the influence of morphological effects on the radiative properties by measurement of (a) front-smooth incidence versus backside-rough incidence of single-side polished silicon wafers and (b) single versus double-side polished wafers. This is the first time in the literature that such a study is devoted to detect differences in the optical properties of the same sample. Attempts have been made to verify the Vandenabeele-Maex one-parameter model against the experimentally obtained optical properties for rough surfaces. The model has been proven to be inaccurate and inadequate for simulating the measured properties. (II) Establishment of methodologies and schemes for deconvolution of the measured optical properties to yield the fundamental constants such as absorption coefficient /alpha. Effects of wavelength, temperature, the total available free carriers both by doping and thermal generation and doping types have been considered in the deconvolution process. Comparisons have been sought with the available knowledge of α in the literature by the extensive use of the Multi-Rad model. This is a state of the art model that has been developed by MIT/SEMATECH. (III) The first detailed investigation of the radiative properties of SIMOX has been performed. (IV) The first detailed experimental measurements of the radiative properties of Si3N4 have been performed. The

  1. Structural Studies of Medicago truncatula Histidinol Phosphate Phosphatase from Inositol Monophosphatase Superfamily Reveal Details of Penultimate Step of Histidine Biosynthesis in Plants.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-05-01

    The penultimate enzyme in the histidine biosynthetic pathway catalyzes dephosphorylation of l-histidinol 1-phosphate (HOLP) into l-histidinol. The recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana plant-type histidinol phosphate phosphatase (HPP) shares no homology with the two other HPP superfamilies known previously in prokaryotes and resembles myo-inositol monophosphatases (IMPases). In this work, identification of an HPP enzyme from a model legume, Medicago truncatula (MtHPP) was based on the highest sequence identity to A. thaliana enzyme. Biochemical assays confirmed that MtHPP was able to cleave inorganic phosphate from HOLP but not from d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate, the main substrate of IMPases. Dimers of MtHPP, determined by size exclusion chromatography, in the presence of CO2 or formaldehyde form mutual, methylene-bridged cross-links between Lys(158) and Cys(245) residues. Four high resolution crystal structures, namely complexes with HOLP (substrate), l-histidinol (product), and PO4 (3-) (by-product) as well as the structure showing the cross-linking between two MtHPP molecules, provide detailed structural information on the enzyme. Based on the crystal structures, the enzymatic reaction mechanism of IMPases is accustomed to fit the data for MtHPP. The enzymatic reaction, which requires Mg(2+) cations, is catalyzed mainly by amino acid residues from the N-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain, sharing little identity with IMPases, is responsible for the substrate specificity (i.e. allows the enzyme to distinguish between HOLP and d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate). Structural features, mainly the presence of a conserved Asp(246), allow MtHPP to bind HOLP specifically. PMID:26994138

  2. Details of the structure determination of the sulfated steroids PSDS and PADS: new components of the sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus) migratory pheromone.

    PubMed

    Hoye, Thomas R; Dvornikovs, Vadims; Fine, Jared M; Anderson, Kari R; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Muddiman, David C; Shao, Feng; Sorensen, Peter W; Wang, Jizhou

    2007-09-28

    The discovery of two new components of the migratory pheromone used by sea lamprey to guide adults to spawning grounds was recently reported. These hold promise for use in a pheromone-based control program for this species, an invasive pest in the Great Lakes. Details of the structure determination of these steroidal bis-sulfates [petromyzosterol disulfate (PSDS, 2) and petromyzonamine disulfate (PADS, 3)] are described here. Pattern matching of 1H NMR data was particularly valuable. This involved comparison of spectra of the natural samples of 2 and 3 with those of appropriate steroidal analogues [e.g., petromyzonol sulfate (PS, 1, a previously known sea lamprey bile acid derivative that is a third component of the migratory pheromone), cholesterol sulfate (6), and squalamine (8)] and model compounds containing the unprecedented aminolactam substructure present in 3. The logic underlying the iterative analyses used is presented.

  3. Details of the structure determination of the sulfated steroids PSDS and PADS: new components of the sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus) migratory pheromone.

    PubMed

    Hoye, Thomas R; Dvornikovs, Vadims; Fine, Jared M; Anderson, Kari R; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Muddiman, David C; Shao, Feng; Sorensen, Peter W; Wang, Jizhou

    2007-09-28

    The discovery of two new components of the migratory pheromone used by sea lamprey to guide adults to spawning grounds was recently reported. These hold promise for use in a pheromone-based control program for this species, an invasive pest in the Great Lakes. Details of the structure determination of these steroidal bis-sulfates [petromyzosterol disulfate (PSDS, 2) and petromyzonamine disulfate (PADS, 3)] are described here. Pattern matching of 1H NMR data was particularly valuable. This involved comparison of spectra of the natural samples of 2 and 3 with those of appropriate steroidal analogues [e.g., petromyzonol sulfate (PS, 1, a previously known sea lamprey bile acid derivative that is a third component of the migratory pheromone), cholesterol sulfate (6), and squalamine (8)] and model compounds containing the unprecedented aminolactam substructure present in 3. The logic underlying the iterative analyses used is presented. PMID:17718505

  4. Structural Implications of new Geologic Mapping and a Detailed Gravity Traverse in the Brooks Range Foothills, Chandler Lake Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peapples, P. R.; Saltus, R. W.; Swenson, R.; Brown, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    A fold and thrust belt in northern Alaska occupies the structural transition from the imbricate thrust sheets (or allochthons) of the Brooks Range to the North Slope coastal plain. Understanding this complexly deformed zone is critical to hydrocarbon assessment in the state-owned lands south of Prudhoe Bay. New geologic mapping and geophysical studies are focused on this important region. Detailed (1:63,360 scale) geologic mapping along the drainages of Tiglukpuk Creek and the Siksikpuk River documents exposures of deep structural levels and provides important constraints for a structural model of this region. A south-to-north structural transect encompasses the transition from the highly deformed thrust sheets of the Endicott Mountains Allochthon (EMA) at the mountain front to the inferred triangle zone at the Tuktu Escarpment 45 miles to the north. Mississippian Carbonates to Triassic siliciclastics make up the EMA north of the mountain front where there is an abrupt transition in structural style from north-vergent asymmetric overturned folding to gentle warping above shallowly dipping fault ramps. Tiglukpuk Anticline represents a fenster where the EMA is overlain in thrust contact by a melange of more distal Ipnavik River Allochthon (IRA) rocks. Parallel synclinoria contain the Okpikruak siliciclastics of the IRA assemblage and the Brookian syntectonic siliciclastics of the Fortress Mountain formation, carried atop the EMA thrust sheets during the latest phase of deformation. This complex structural style abruptly ends at the Tuktu Escarpment which likely represents a backthrust/triangle zone that places shallow north dipping coarse clastics of the Nanushuk Formation over the less competent and highly deformed Torok shale. The structural complexity and associated steeply dipping strata in the foothills belt were not well imaged by existing conventional seismic data in this region. To provide additional subsurface control, we collected ground station gravity

  5. Measuring kinetic drivers of pneumolysin pore structure.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert J C; Sonnen, Andreas F-P

    2016-05-01

    Most membrane attack complex-perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins are thought to form pores in target membranes by assembling into pre-pore oligomers before undergoing a pre-pore to pore transition. Assembly during pore formation is into both full rings of subunits and incomplete rings (arcs). The balance between arcs and full rings is determined by a mechanism dependent on protein concentration in which arc pores arise due to kinetic trapping of the pre-pore forms by the depletion of free protein subunits during oligomerization. Here we describe the use of a kinetic assay to study pore formation in red blood cells by the MACPF/CDC pneumolysin from Streptococcus pneumoniae. We show that cell lysis displays two kinds of dependence on protein concentration. At lower concentrations, it is dependent on the pre-pore to pore transition of arc oligomers, which we show to be a cooperative process. At higher concentrations, it is dependent on the amount of pneumolysin bound to the membrane and reflects the affinity of the protein for its receptor, cholesterol. A lag occurs before cell lysis begins; this is dependent on oligomerization of pneumolysin. Kinetic dissection of cell lysis by pneumolysin demonstrates the capacity of MACPF/CDCs to generate pore-forming oligomeric structures of variable size with, most likely, different functional roles in biology. PMID:26906727

  6. Detailed structure of the Philippine Sea plate subducting along the Nankai Trough, western Japan, inferred from high-frequency seismic wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumura, T.; Padhy, S.; Maeda, T.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed structure of the subducting Philippine Sea plate (PHP) along the Nankai trough in western Japan was studied by analyzing waveforms recorded at dense Hi-net stations in Japan. It is well recognized that the waveforms from intraplate earthquakes dominate in high-frequency (f >1 Hz) signals due to the waveguide effect of the subducting slab (Furumura and Kennett, 2005; 2008). This results in distorted pattern of intensity and peak ground acceleration (PGA) above the hypocenter with a substantial elongation of isoseismic contours correlated with the configuration of the isodepth contours of the subducting PHP beneath western Japan. A detailed analysis of the dense Hi-net waveform data from the intermediate-depth PHP event shows that the high-frequency S-wave signals suddenly disappear as the waves propagate the zone away from the Kii Channel to the boundary of Hyogo and Okayama prefectures and large S-to-P conversion occurs before the arrival of S-wave. Such anomalies do not occur for shallow and deep earthquakes occurring outside the PHP. These observations support the recent debate on the complexities of the configuration of the PHP subducting beneath western Japan such as that shown by Shiomi et al. (2008) based on receiver function images and the PHP-split model beneath the Kii channel shown by Ide et al.(2010) based on the analysis of comprehensive geophysical data. In order to explain the observations associated with sudden lateral change in the PHP structure, we conducted finite difference method (FDM) simulations of seismic wave propagation taking the detailed PHP model into account. It is confirmed that high-frequency guided wave energy decouple from waveguide where the shape of the PHP is suddenly deformed, which results in dramatic attenuation of high-frequency signals associating with large S-to-P conversions developed at sharp plate boundary. The present results also support the recently proposed complicated PHP-split model, however, further

  7. Structural Controls of the MacFarlane Geothermal System, Humboldt County, Nevada: New Insights Based on Detailed Geologic Mapping, Shallow Temperature Surveys, and Magnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabina M.

    Detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, magnetic and two-meter temperature data, integrated with previous datasets, constrain the structural controls of the MacFarlane geothermal system. MacFarlane hot springs and the travertine fissure ridges lie within a relay ramp. The relay ramp is formed between two overlapping, north-northeast-striking, west-dipping Holocene normal faults exposed in Lake Lahontan sediments. Other mapped faults near the hot spring include a north-striking, west-dipping Tertiary fault east of MacFarlane hot springs. The highest temperature gradient is found at the projected intersection between the Tertiary and north-northeast-striking Quaternary fault, ˜2.5 km northeast of the hot spring (Sibbett et al., 1982; Swanberg and Bowers, 1982). Our new data suggest other controls involving the relay ramp geometry of the Holocene faults. The anomalous orientation of the travertine fissure ridge motivated this study of the structural controls of the geothermal system. MacFarlane hot spring is located on the eastern margin of the Black Rock Desert, ˜85 km west of Winnemucca, in Humboldt County, Nevada. The active hot spring emerges from the west end of an east-trending travertine fissure ridge, which is ˜180 m long. The travertine fissure ridge is up to ˜2 m tall and ˜5 m wide, and has a central fissure along its long axis. The orientation of the travertine fissure ridge indicates local north-south extension, which is inconsistent with the regional west-northwest extension of the northwestern Basin and Range province. The anomalous travertine orientation is due to fractures that occurred during formation of a relay ramp between two overlapping fault segments.

  8. Improved structural detail in freeze-fracture replicas: high-angle shadowing of gap junctions cooled below -170 degrees C and protected by liquid nitrogen-cooled shrouds.

    PubMed

    Rash, J E; Yasumura, T

    1992-01-15

    before they were replicated, the E-face pits faithfully maintained the shape that the IMPs had before fracturing. These more detailed images revealed a new structure in the center of each E-face pit: a 2-3 nm "peg" that may represent the frozen aqueous matrix of the connexon ion channel that remained after elastic extraction of the surrounding six connexin molecules. Thus, high-angle shadowing at very low specimen temperature under virtually non-contaminating conditions has revealed a new level of detail for membrane structure in freeze-fracture replicas. PMID:1547359

  9. Overview of Unpolarized Structure Function Measurements at High x

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Roy J.

    2011-09-21

    A motivation and overview for recent measurements of unpolarized structure functions for the nucleon will be presented. Particular attention will be given to new experiments aimed at providing new high-x data.

  10. Detailed Study of the Influence of InGaAs Matrix on the Strain Reduction in the InAs Dot-In-Well Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Qimiao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Chunfang; Wang, Shumin; Gong, Qian

    2016-12-01

    InAs/InGaAs dot-in-well (DWELL) structures have been investigated with the systematically varied InGaAs thickness. Both the strained buffer layer (SBL) below the dot layer and the strain-reducing layer (SRL) above the dot layer were found to be responsible for the redshift in photoluminescence (PL) emission of the InAs/InGaAs DWELL structure. A linear followed by a saturation behavior of the emission redshift was observed as a function of the SBL and SRL thickness, respectively. The PL intensity is greatly enhanced by applying both of the SRL and SBL. Finite element analysis simulation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement were carried out to analyze the strain distribution in the InAs QD and the InGaAs SBL. The results clearly indicate the strain reduction in the QD induced by the SBL, which are likely the main cause for the emission redshift. PMID:26932758

  11. Detailed Study of the Influence of InGaAs Matrix on the Strain Reduction in the InAs Dot-In-Well Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Qimiao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Chunfang; Wang, Shumin; Gong, Qian

    2016-12-01

    InAs/InGaAs dot-in-well (DWELL) structures have been investigated with the systematically varied InGaAs thickness. Both the strained buffer layer (SBL) below the dot layer and the strain-reducing layer (SRL) above the dot layer were found to be responsible for the redshift in photoluminescence (PL) emission of the InAs/InGaAs DWELL structure. A linear followed by a saturation behavior of the emission redshift was observed as a function of the SBL and SRL thickness, respectively. The PL intensity is greatly enhanced by applying both of the SRL and SBL. Finite element analysis simulation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement were carried out to analyze the strain distribution in the InAs QD and the InGaAs SBL. The results clearly indicate the strain reduction in the QD induced by the SBL, which are likely the main cause for the emission redshift.

  12. Displacement and deformation measurement for large structures by camera network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    A displacement and deformation measurement method for large structures by a series-parallel connection camera network is presented. By taking the dynamic monitoring of a large-scale crane in lifting operation as an example, a series-parallel connection camera network is designed, and the displacement and deformation measurement method by using this series-parallel connection camera network is studied. The movement range of the crane body is small, and that of the crane arm is large. The displacement of the crane body, the displacement of the crane arm relative to the body and the deformation of the arm are measured. Compared with a pure series or parallel connection camera network, the designed series-parallel connection camera network can be used to measure not only the movement and displacement of a large structure but also the relative movement and deformation of some interesting parts of the large structure by a relatively simple optical measurement system.

  13. Detailed magnetic and structural analysis mapping a robust magnetic C4 dome in Sr1 -xNaxFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, K. M.; Allred, J. M.; Bugaris, D. E.; Lapidus, S.; Krogstad, M. J.; Stadel, R.; Claus, H.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Rosenkranz, S.; Osborn, R.; Chmaissem, O.

    2016-04-01

    The recently discovered C4 tetragonal magnetic phase in hole-doped members of the iron-based superconductors provides insights into the origin of unconventional superconductivity. Previously observed in Ba1-xNaxFe2As2 (with A = K, Na), the C4 magnetic phase exists within the well-studied C2 spin-density-wave dome, arising just before the complete suppression of antiferromagnetic order but after the onset of superconductivity. Here, we present detailed x-ray and neutron diffraction studies of Sr1-xNaxFe2As2 (0.10 ≤x ≤0.60 ) to determine their structural evolution and the extent of the C4 phase. Spanning Δ x ˜0.14 in composition, the C4 phase is found to extend over a larger range of compositions, and to exhibit a significantly higher transition temperature, Tr˜65 K, than in either of the other systems in which it has been observed. The onset of this phase is seen near a composition (x ˜0.30 ) where the bonding angles of the Fe2As2 layers approach the perfect 109 .46∘ tetrahedral angle. We discuss the possible role of this return to a higher symmetry environment for the magnetic iron site in triggering the magnetic reorientation and the coupled reentrance to the tetragonal structure. Finally, we present a phase diagram, complete with the C4 phase, and use its observation in a third hole-doped 122 system to suggest the universality of this phase.

  14. Structural details of HIV-1 recognition by the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2F5: epitope conformation, antigen-recognition loop mobility, and anion-binding site.

    PubMed

    Julien, Jean-Philippe; Bryson, Steve; Nieva, Jose L; Pai, Emil F

    2008-12-12

    2F5 is a monoclonal antibody with potent and broadly neutralizing activity against HIV-1. It targets the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein and interferes with the process of fusion between viral and host cell membranes. This study presents eight 2F5 F(ab)' crystal structures in complex with various gp41 peptide epitopes. These structures reveal several key features of this antibody-antigen interaction. (1) Whenever free of contacts caused by crystal artifacts, the extended complementarity-determining region H3 loop is mobile; this is true for ligand-free and epitope-bound forms. (2) The interaction between the antibody and the gp41 ELDKWA epitope core is absolutely critical, and there are also close and specific contacts with residues located N-terminal to the epitope core. (3) Residues located at the C-terminus of the gp41 ELDKWA core do not interact as tightly with the antibody. However, in the presence of a larger peptide containing the gp41 fusion peptide segment, these residues adopt a conformation consistent with the start of an alpha-helix. (4) At high sulfate concentrations, the electron density maps of 2F5 F(ab)'-peptide complexes contain a peak that may mark a binding site for phosphate groups of negatively charged lipid headgroups. The refined atomic-level details of 2F5 paratope-epitope interactions revealed here should contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of 2F5-based virus neutralization, in general, and prove important for the design of potential vaccine candidates intended to elicit 2F5-like antibody production.

  15. A detailed staging scheme for late larval development in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus focused on readily-visible juvenile structures within the rudiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has long been the focus of developmental and ecological studies, and its recently-sequenced genome has spawned a diversity of functional genomics approaches. S. purpuratus has an indirect developmental mode with a pluteus larva that transforms after 1–3 months in the plankton into a juvenile urchin. Compared to insects and frogs, mechanisms underlying the correspondingly dramatic metamorphosis in sea urchins remain poorly understood. In order to take advantage of modern techniques to further our understanding of juvenile morphogenesis, organ formation, metamorphosis and the evolution of the pentameral sea urchin body plan, it is critical to assess developmental progression and rate during the late larval phase. This requires a staging scheme that describes developmental landmarks that can quickly and consistently be used to identify the stage of individual living larvae, and can be tracked during the final two weeks of larval development, as the juvenile is forming. Results Notable structures that are easily observable in developing urchin larvae are the developing spines, test and tube feet within the juvenile rudiment that constitute much of the oral portion of the adult body plan. Here we present a detailed staging scheme of rudiment development in the purple urchin using soft structures of the rudiment and the primordia of these juvenile skeletal elements. We provide evidence that this scheme is robust and applicable across a range of temperature and feeding regimes. Conclusions Our proposed staging scheme provides both a useful method to study late larval development in the purple urchin, and a framework for developing similar staging schemes across echinoderms. Such efforts will have a high impact on evolutionary developmental studies and larval ecology, and facilitate research on this important deuterostome group. PMID:24886415

  16. Detailed low-energy electron diffraction analysis of the (4×4) surface structure of C60 on Cu(111): Seven-atom-vacancy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Geng; Shi, Xing-Qiang; Zhang, R. Q.; Pai, Woei Wu; Jeng, H. T.; Van Hove, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    A detailed and exhaustive structural analysis by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is reported for the C60-induced reconstruction of Cu(111), in the system Cu(111) + (4 × 4)-C60. A wide LEED energy range allows enhanced sensitivity to the crucial C60-metal interface that is buried below the 7-Å-thick molecular layer. The analysis clearly favors a seven-Cu-atom vacancy model (with Pendry R-factor Rp = 0.376) over a one-Cu-atom vacancy model (Rp = 0.608) and over nonreconstructed models (Rp = 0.671 for atop site and Rp = 0.536 for hcp site). The seven-Cu-atom vacancy forms a (4 × 4) lattice of bowl-like holes. In each hole, a C60 molecule can nestle by forming strong bonds (shorter than 2.30 Å) between 15 C atoms of the molecule and 12 Cu atoms of the outermost and second Cu layers.

  17. Simultaneous dynamic electrical and structural measurements of functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchini, C.; Thompson, P.; Stewart, M.; Muñiz-Piniella, A.; McMitchell, S. R. C.; Wooldridge, J.; Lepadatu, S.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.; Wermeille, D.; Bikondoa, O.; Lucas, C. A.; Hase, T. P. A.; Lesourd, M.; Dontsov, D.; Cain, M. G.

    2015-10-01

    A new materials characterization system developed at the XMaS beamline, located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, is presented. We show that this new capability allows to measure the atomic structural evolution (crystallography) of piezoelectric materials whilst simultaneously measuring the overall strain characteristics and electrical response to dynamically (ac) applied external stimuli.

  18. Simultaneous dynamic electrical and structural measurements of functional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchini, C.; Stewart, M.; Muñiz-Piniella, A.; Wooldridge, J.; Thompson, P.; McMitchell, S. R. C.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.; Wermeille, D.; Lucas, C. A.; Lepadatu, S.; Bikondoa, O.; Hase, T. P. A.; Lesourd, M.; Dontsov, D.; Cain, M. G.

    2015-10-15

    A new materials characterization system developed at the XMaS beamline, located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, is presented. We show that this new capability allows to measure the atomic structural evolution (crystallography) of piezoelectric materials whilst simultaneously measuring the overall strain characteristics and electrical response to dynamically (ac) applied external stimuli.

  19. Computer model for selecting flow measuring structures in open channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Quantifying various pollutants in natural waterways has received increased emphasis with more stringent regulations issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.). Measuring natural stream fows presents a magnitude of problems, the most significant is the type of structure needed to measure the flows at the desired level of accuracy. A computer model designed to select a structure to best fit the engineer's needs is under development. This model, given the pertinent boundary conditions, will pinpoint the structure most suitable, if one exists. This selection process greatly facilitates the old selection process of trial and error.

  20. Geological Features and Crustal Structure of the Cretaceous Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria: Insights from Detailed Analysis and Modelling of Magnetic and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anudu, G. K.; Stephenson, R.; Macdonald, D.

    2015-12-01

    The middle Benue Trough is the middle (central) segment of the Nigerian Benue Trough, an intra-continental rift that developed during the second phase of rifting of the Gondwana supercontinent that resulted in the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea and separation of South America from Africa in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Airborne magnetic and terrestrial gravity data from the area have been analysed and modelled in detail. Results obtained using a variety of edge enhancement (derivative) methods applied to high-resolution, airborne magnetic data reveal widespread magmatic intrusions (mainly volcanic/sub-volcanic rocks, with an areal extent greater than 12000 km2) and numerous geological structures. Rose (azimuth frequency) plots show that the geological structural trends are predominantly NE - SW, NW - SE and ESE - WNW with minor ENE -WSW/N - S trends and thus suggest that the area has undergone several phases of tectonic deformation at different geological times. Integrated two-dimensional (2-D) gravity and magnetic modelling along five profiles constrained by 2-D magnetic depth-to-source estimates and available seismological velocity models indicates the presence of a number of distinct crustal bodies and thin crust. Moho depth varies from ca. 21 - 29 km, while the crustal thickness ranges between ca. 19 and 29 km. Shallower Moho and thinner crust are observed along the trough axis. Results from the study also reveal that the amount of crustal thinning and crustal stretching factor (β) across the area varies from 3.3 - 14.5 km and 1.11 - 1.78, respectively. Broad positive to near positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region of the trough axis are due to the combined effects of dense (intermediate to basic) magmatic intrusions (both intra-sedimentary and intra-basement/crustal ones), shallow basement horsts (basement uplift zones) and thin crust replaced by dense abnormal upper mantle bodies. Reactivated intra-basement structures

  1. Wheel pose measurement based on cross structure light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Ding, Xun; Wang, Xian; Zhao, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    It's necessary for automobile to detect and adjust four-wheel alignment parameters regularly, due to the significant effect on improving stability, enhancing security and reducing tire wear of automobiles. In order to measure the parameters that determined by relative position and posture of four wheels to the automobile cab, this paper proposes a method which applies monocular vision of linear structure light to wheel pose measurement. Firstly, space coordinates of feature point cloud are calculated out from the principle of structured light. Then, an algorithm is designed to determine the normal vector of wheel tangent plane and measure the wheel pose. Finally, actual experiments that by evaluation of adjusted wheel angle measurement are carried out to verify the system accuracy. The corresponding studies can be applied in designing and developing 3D four-wheel alignment system that based on structured light.

  2. Improved measurements of RNA structure conservation with generalized centroid estimators.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yohei; Saito, Yutaka; Sato, Kengo; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2011-01-01

    Identification of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in genomes is a crucial task for not only molecular cell biology but also bioinformatics. Secondary structures of ncRNAs are employed as a key feature of ncRNA analysis since biological functions of ncRNAs are deeply related to their secondary structures. Although the minimum free energy (MFE) structure of an RNA sequence is regarded as the most stable structure, MFE alone could not be an appropriate measure for identifying ncRNAs since the free energy is heavily biased by the nucleotide composition. Therefore, instead of MFE itself, several alternative measures for identifying ncRNAs have been proposed such as the structure conservation index (SCI) and the base pair distance (BPD), both of which employ MFE structures. However, these measurements are unfortunately not suitable for identifying ncRNAs in some cases including the genome-wide search and incur high false discovery rate. In this study, we propose improved measurements based on SCI and BPD, applying generalized centroid estimators to incorporate the robustness against low quality multiple alignments. Our experiments show that our proposed methods achieve higher accuracy than the original SCI and BPD for not only human-curated structural alignments but also low quality alignments produced by CLUSTAL W. Furthermore, the centroid-based SCI on CLUSTAL W alignments is more accurate than or comparable with that of the original SCI on structural alignments generated with RAF, a high quality structural aligner, for which twofold expensive computational time is required on average. We conclude that our methods are more suitable for genome-wide alignments which are of low quality from the point of view on secondary structures than the original SCI and BPD.

  3. Aperture Synthesis C18O J = 1-0 Observations of L1551 IRS 5: Detailed Structure of the Infalling Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momose, Munetake; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Nakano, Takenori; Hayashi, Masahiko

    1998-09-01

    We report aperture synthesis C18O J = 1-0 observations of L1551 IRS 5 with a spatial resolution of 2.8" × 2.5" using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. We have detected an emission component centrally condensed around IRS 5, as well as a diffuse component extending in the north-south direction from the centrally condensed component. The centrally condensed component, 2380 × 1050 AU in size, is elongated in the direction perpendicular to the outflow axis, indicating the existence of a flattened circumstellar envelope around L1551 IRS 5. The mass of the centrally condensed component is estimated to be 0.062 M⊙. The position-velocity (P-V) diagrams reveal that the velocity field in the centrally condensed component is composed of infall and slight rotation. The infall velocity in the outer part is equal to the free-fall velocity around a central mass of ~0.1 M⊙, e.g., 0.5 km s-1 at r = 700 AU, whereas the rotation velocity, 0.24 km s-1 at the same radius, gets prominent at inner radii with a radial dependence of r-1. We make up P-V diagrams for the model envelopes with vertical structure, in which the matter falls under the gravity and eventually settles down in Keplerian rotation inside the centrifugal radius, and compare them with the observed P-V diagrams of the centrally condensed component. The main characteristics of the observed P-V diagrams are reproduced by either (1) an envelope with a moderately flattened density distribution, or (2) a spherical envelope with a bipolar cavity whose half-opening angle is about 50°. Detailed comparison of the observed and model P-V diagrams suggests that the C18O J = 1-0 emission from the outer part of the centrally condensed component is well reproduced with the models with the central mass ~0.15 M⊙ and the mass infall rate ~6 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1. However, the higher velocity features of the emission near the star cannot be reproduced unless the central mass is taken to be ~0.5 M⊙. These facts suggest either that the

  4. Experimental measurement of structural power flow on an aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental technique is used to measure the structural power flow through an aircraft fuselage with the excitation near the wing attachment location. Because of the large number of measurements required to analyze the whole of an aircraft fuselage, it is necessary that a balance be achieved between the number of measurement transducers, the mounting of these transducers, and the accuracy of the measurements. Using four transducers mounted on a bakelite platform, the structural intensity vectors at locations distributed throughout the fuselage are measured. To minimize the errors associated with using a four transducers technique the measurement positions are selected away from bulkheads and stiffeners. Because four separate transducers are used, with each transducer having its own drive and conditioning amplifiers, phase errors are introduced in the measurements that can be much greater than the phase differences associated with the measurements. To minimize these phase errors two sets of measurements are taken for each position with the orientation of the transducers rotated by 180 deg and an average taken between the two sets of measurements. Results are presented and discussed.

  5. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement. PMID:26184197

  6. A Detailed 3D Seismic Velocity Structure of the Subducting Pacific Slab Beneath Hokkaido, Tohoku and Kanto, Japan, by Double-Difference Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Y.; Nakajima, J.; Kita, S.; Okada, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional heterogeneous structure beneath northeastern (NE) Japan has been investigated by previous studies and an inclined seismic low-velocity zone is imaged in the mantle wedge sub-parallel to the down-dip direction of the subducting slab (Zhao et al., 1992, Nakajima et al., 2001). However, the heterogeneous structure within the slab has not been well studied even though it is very important to understand the whole process of water transportation from the slab to the surface. Here we show a detailed 3D seismic velocity structure within the subducted Pacific slab around Japan and propose a water-transportation path from the slab to the mantle wedge. In this study, we estimated 3D velocity structure within the Pacific slab by the double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We divided the study area, from Hokkaido to Kanto, into 6 areas due to the limitation of memory and computation time. In each area, arrival-time data of 7,500-17,000 events recorded at 70-170 stations were used in the analysis. The total number of absolute travel-time data was about 140,000-312,000 for P wave and 123,000-268,000 for S wave, and differential data were about 736,000-1,920,000 for P wave and 644,000-1,488,000 for S wave. Horizontal and vertical grid separations are 10-25 km and 6.5 km, respectively. RMS residuals of travel times for P wave decreased from 0.23s to 0.09s and for S wave from 0.35s to 0.13s. The obtained results are as follows: (1) a remarkable low-Vs zone exists in the uppermost part of the subducting slab, (2) it extends down to a depth of about 80 km, (3) the termination of this low-Vs zone almost corresponds to the "seismic belt" recently detected in the upper plane of the double seismic zone (Kita et al.,2006; Hasegawa et al., 2007), (4) at depths deeper than 80 km, a low-Vs and high-Vp/Vs zone is apparently distributed in the mantle wedge, immediately above the slab crust. We consider that these features reflect water-transportation processes

  7. Polarized Structure Functions: Proton/Deuteron Measurements in Hall C

    SciTech Connect

    Oscar A. Rondon

    2005-02-01

    The study of the nucleon polarized structure functions has matured beyond the inclusive measurements of the past to the investigation of all eight quark distribution functions in the nucleon. Jefferson Lab's Hall C program of polarized structure functions studies started with a measurement of the proton and deuteron spin structure in the resonances at Q2 {approx} 1.3 [GeV/c]2. This work will be extended for the proton to more than 5 [GeV/c]2 for both DIS and the resonances in the upcoming SANE experiment. SANE will use a novel non-magnetic very large solid angle detector, BETA. Semi-inclusive asymmetries will be measured to determine the flavor composition of the nucleon spin in the recently approved Semi-SANE experiment. The 11 GeV energy upgrade will open new opportunities to study other functions, such as the transversity, Collins and Sievers functions, using vertical polarized targets.

  8. A fingerprint based metric for measuring similarities of crystalline structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Amsler, Maximilian; Fuhrer, Tobias; Schaefer, Bastian; Faraji, Somayeh; Rostami, Samare; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Sadeghi, Ali; Grauzinyte, Migle; Wolverton, Chris; Goedecker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Measuring similarities/dissimilarities between atomic structures is important for the exploration of potential energy landscapes. However, the cell vectors together with the coordinates of the atoms, which are generally used to describe periodic systems, are quantities not directly suitable as fingerprints to distinguish structures. Based on a characterization of the local environment of all atoms in a cell, we introduce crystal fingerprints that can be calculated easily and define configurational distances between crystalline structures that satisfy the mathematical properties of a metric. This distance between two configurations is a measure of their similarity/dissimilarity and it allows in particular to distinguish structures. The new method can be a useful tool within various energy landscape exploration schemes, such as minima hopping, random search, swarm intelligence algorithms, and high-throughput screenings.

  9. A fingerprint based metric for measuring similarities of crystalline structures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Amsler, Maximilian; Fuhrer, Tobias; Schaefer, Bastian; Faraji, Somayeh; Rostami, Samare; Ghasemi, S Alireza; Sadeghi, Ali; Grauzinyte, Migle; Wolverton, Chris; Goedecker, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    Measuring similarities/dissimilarities between atomic structures is important for the exploration of potential energy landscapes. However, the cell vectors together with the coordinates of the atoms, which are generally used to describe periodic systems, are quantities not directly suitable as fingerprints to distinguish structures. Based on a characterization of the local environment of all atoms in a cell, we introduce crystal fingerprints that can be calculated easily and define configurational distances between crystalline structures that satisfy the mathematical properties of a metric. This distance between two configurations is a measure of their similarity/dissimilarity and it allows in particular to distinguish structures. The new method can be a useful tool within various energy landscape exploration schemes, such as minima hopping, random search, swarm intelligence algorithms, and high-throughput screenings. PMID:26801027

  10. Effect of repeated contact on adhesion measurements involving polydimethylsiloxane structural material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, E.; Maboudian, R.; Arzt, E.

    2009-09-01

    During the last few years several research groups have focused on the fabrication of artificial gecko inspired adhesives. For mimicking these structures, different polymers are used as structure material, such as polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), polyurethanes (PU), and polypropylene (PP). While these polymers can be structured easily and used for artificial adhesion systems, the effects of repeated adhesion testing have never been investigated closely. In this paper we report on the effect of repeated adhesion measurements on the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer kit Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning). We show that the adhesion force decreases as a function of contact cycles. The rate of change and the final value of adhesion are found to depend on the details of the PDMS synthesis and structuring.

  11. Measurement of isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in Zr II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, S. D.; Holt, R. A.

    2016-06-01

    We have applied fast-ion-beam laser-fluorescence spectroscopy to measure the isotope shifts (IS) of 51 optical transitions in the wavelength range 420.6-461.4 nm and the hyperfine structures (hfs) of 11 even parity and 30 odd parity levels in Zr II. The IS and many of the hfs measurements are the first for these transitions and levels. These atomic data are very important for astrophysical studies of chemical abundances, allowing correction for saturation and the effects of blended lines. They also provide important constraints on stellar diffusion modeling and provide a benchmark for theoretical atomic structure calculations.

  12. The Devil is in the Details: Using X-Ray Computed Tomography to Develop Accurate 3D Grain Characteristics and Bed Structure Metrics for Gravel Bed Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voepel, H.; Hodge, R. A.; Leyland, J.; Sear, D. A.; Ahmed, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty for bedload estimates in gravel bed rivers is largely driven by our inability to characterize the arrangement and orientation of the sediment grains within the bed. The characteristics of the surface structure are produced by the water working of grains, which leads to structural differences in bedforms through differential patterns of grain sorting, packing, imbrication, mortaring and degree of bed armoring. Until recently the technical and logistical difficulties of characterizing the arrangement of sediment in 3D have prohibited a full understanding of how grains interact with stream flow and the feedback mechanisms that exist. Micro-focus X-ray CT has been used for non-destructive 3D imaging of grains within a series of intact sections of river bed taken from key morphological units (see Figure 1). Volume, center of mass, points of contact, protrusion and spatial orientation of individual surface grains are derived from these 3D images, which in turn, facilitates estimates of 3D static force properties at the grain-scale such as pivoting angles, buoyancy and gravity forces, and grain exposure. By aggregating representative samples of grain-scale properties of localized interacting sediment into overall metrics, we can compare and contrast bed stability at a macro-scale with respect to stream bed morphology. Understanding differences in bed stability through representative metrics derived at the grain-scale will ultimately lead to improved bedload estimates with reduced uncertainty and increased understanding of interactions between grain-scale properties on channel morphology. Figure 1. CT-Scans of a water worked gravel-filled pot. a. 3D rendered scan showing the outer mesh, and b. the same pot with the mesh removed. c. vertical change in porosity of the gravels sampled in 5mm volumes. Values are typical of those measured in the field and lab. d. 2-D slices through the gravels at 20% depth from surface (porosity = 0.35), and e. 75% depth from

  13. Pipelines subject to slow landslide movements: Structural modeling vs field measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Glavina, S.; Spinazze, M.; Tomassini, D.; Bonanni, S.; Cuscuna, S.

    1996-12-01

    In recent years finite element techniques have been increasingly used to investigate the behavior of buried pipelines subject to soil movements. The use of these tools provides a rational basis for the definition of minimum wall thickness requirements in landslide crossings. Furthermore the design of mitigation measures or monitoring systems which control the development of undesirable strains in the pipe wall over time, requires a detailed structural modeling. The scope of this paper is to discuss the use of dedicated structural modeling with relevant calibration to field measurements. The strain measurements used were regularly gathered from pipe sections, in two different sites over a period of time long enough to record changes of axial strain due to soil movement. Detailed structural modeling of pipeline layout in both sites and for operating conditions, is applied. Numerical simulations show the influence of the distribution of soil movement acting on the pipeline with regards to the state of strain which can be developed in certain locations. The role of soil nature and direction of relative movements in the definition of loads transferred to the pipeline, is also discussed.

  14. One Single Static Measurement Predicts Wave Localization in Complex Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Gondel, Alexane; Dubois, Marc; Atlan, Michael; Feppon, Florian; Labbé, Aimé; Gillot, Camille; Garelli, Alix; Ernoult, Maxence; Mayboroda, Svitlana; Filoche, Marcel; Sebbah, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    A recent theoretical breakthrough has brought a new tool, called the localization landscape, for predicting the localization regions of vibration modes in complex or disordered systems. Here, we report on the first experiment which measures the localization landscape and demonstrates its predictive power. Holographic measurement of the static deformation under uniform load of a thin plate with complex geometry provides direct access to the landscape function. When put in vibration, this system shows modes precisely confined within the subregions delineated by the landscape function. Also the maxima of this function match the measured eigenfrequencies, while the minima of the valley network gives the frequencies at which modes become extended. This approach fully characterizes the low frequency spectrum of a complex structure from a single static measurement. It paves the way for controlling and engineering eigenmodes in any vibratory system, especially where a structural or microscopic description is not accessible.

  15. One Single Static Measurement Predicts Wave Localization in Complex Structures.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Gondel, Alexane; Dubois, Marc; Atlan, Michael; Feppon, Florian; Labbé, Aimé; Gillot, Camille; Garelli, Alix; Ernoult, Maxence; Mayboroda, Svitlana; Filoche, Marcel; Sebbah, Patrick

    2016-08-12

    A recent theoretical breakthrough has brought a new tool, called the localization landscape, for predicting the localization regions of vibration modes in complex or disordered systems. Here, we report on the first experiment which measures the localization landscape and demonstrates its predictive power. Holographic measurement of the static deformation under uniform load of a thin plate with complex geometry provides direct access to the landscape function. When put in vibration, this system shows modes precisely confined within the subregions delineated by the landscape function. Also the maxima of this function match the measured eigenfrequencies, while the minima of the valley network gives the frequencies at which modes become extended. This approach fully characterizes the low frequency spectrum of a complex structure from a single static measurement. It paves the way for controlling and engineering eigenmodes in any vibratory system, especially where a structural or microscopic description is not accessible. PMID:27563967

  16. Fluid and structural measurements to advance gas turbine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    In the present paper, the current status of fluid and structural measurements is reviewed, and some potential improvements in gas turbine machinery, directly associated with the new measuring capability are discussed. Some considerations concerning the impact of the new capability on the methods and approaches that will be used in the further development of advanced technology, in general, and to aeropropulsion gas turbine machinery, in particular, are presented.

  17. TAS measurements for reactor physics and nuclear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algora, A.; Jordan, D.; Taín, J. L.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Caballero, L.; Nácher, E.; Perez-Cerdan, A. B.; Molina, F.; Estevez, E.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Hunyadi, M. D.; Gulyás, J.; Vitéz, A.; Csatlós, M.; Csige, L.; ńysto, J.; Penttilä, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Moore, I.; Eronen, T.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Hakala, J.; Karvonen, P.; Kankainen, A.; Hager, U.; Sonoda, T.; Saastamoinen, A.; Rissanen, J.; Kessler, T.; Weber, C.; Ronkainen, J.; Rahaman, S.; Elomaa, V.; Burkard, K.; Hüller, W.; Batist, L.; Gelletly, W.; Nichols, A. L.; Yoshida, T.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Peräjärvi, K.

    2011-10-01

    In this contribution we will present recent total absorption measurements of the beta decay of neutron-rich nuclei performed at the IGISOL facility of the Univ. of Jyväskyla. In the measurements the JYFL Penning Trap was used as a high resolution isobaric separator. The total absorption technique will be described and the impact of recent results in the fields of reactor physics (decay heat calculations) and nuclear structure will be discussed.

  18. From photogrammetry, computer vision to structural response measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.

    2007-04-01

    Measuring displacement response of large-scale structures is necessary to assess their performance and health condition. Current global position systems (GPS), with a significant cost, can provide point coordinate measurement with an accuracy of +/-1cm horizontally and +/-2cm vertically at a sampling frequency up to 20 Hz. Photogrammetry is a measurement technology in which the three-dimensional coordinates of points on an object are determined by measurements made with two or more photographic images taken from different positions. This technology is regaining its popularity in various engineering disciplines due to a recent remarkable evolution in the consumer digital cameras. The image resolution of these cameras has increased rapidly from below 1 million pixels a few years ago to over 10 million pixels today, with little increase or even decrease in cost. Image sequences recorded by these cameras contain both spatial and temporal information of the target object; hence can be used to extract the object's dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies and mode shapes. Research indicates that accuracy in the order of as high as 1 part in 30,000 can be achieved when cameras are properly calibrated in the field and multiple high-resolution images are used. At this level of accuracy, point positions of a 30m object would be accurate to 1mm at 68% probability and responses of large-scale structures can be measured for further meaningful processing and interpretation. In this paper, several image-based sensing techniques that can be used for measuring response of large-scale structures are presented. These techniques are developed based on some methods from photogrammetry and computer vision such as the optical flow method and the egomotion estimation. Examples used to illustrate these techniques include response measurement of buildings and cable-stayed bridges. Results show that the image-based sensing techniques have a great potential for accurately measuring

  19. The study of precision measurement of pelvis spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang; Ouyang, Jianfei; Qu, Xinghua

    2010-03-01

    Osteometry is fundamental for anthropometry. It provides the key technology and value to the study of palaeoanthropology, medicine, and criminal investigation. The traditional osteometry that has been widely accepted and used since 18th century has no longer met the information demand for modern research and application. It is significant and necessary to create an advanced 3-dimensional osteometry technique for anthropometry. This paper presents a new quick and accurate method to measure human pelvis through mathematical modeling. The pelvis is a complex combination of bones, which consists of three connected parts: hipbones, sacrum, and coccyx. There are over 40 items to be measured for the 1-dimension characteristics. In this paper, a combined measuring technology is developed for pelvis measurement. It uses machine vision systems and a portable measuring arm to obtain key geometry parameters of the pelvis. The mathematics models of the pelvis spatial structure and its parts are created through the process of data collecting, digging, assembling, and modeling. The experiment shows that the proposed technology can meet traditional osteometry and obtain entire 1D geometric parameters of the pelvis, such as maximum breadth and height, diameter of obstetric conjugata, inclination angle, and sakralneigungswinkel, etc. at the same time after modeling. Besides making the measurements above, the proposed technology can measure the geometry characteristics of pelvis and its parts, such as volume, surface area, curvature, and spatial structure, which are almost impossible for traditional technology. The overall measuring error is less than 0.1mm.

  20. The study of precision measurement of pelvis spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang; Ouyang, Jianfei; Qu, Xinghua

    2009-12-01

    Osteometry is fundamental for anthropometry. It provides the key technology and value to the study of palaeoanthropology, medicine, and criminal investigation. The traditional osteometry that has been widely accepted and used since 18th century has no longer met the information demand for modern research and application. It is significant and necessary to create an advanced 3-dimensional osteometry technique for anthropometry. This paper presents a new quick and accurate method to measure human pelvis through mathematical modeling. The pelvis is a complex combination of bones, which consists of three connected parts: hipbones, sacrum, and coccyx. There are over 40 items to be measured for the 1-dimension characteristics. In this paper, a combined measuring technology is developed for pelvis measurement. It uses machine vision systems and a portable measuring arm to obtain key geometry parameters of the pelvis. The mathematics models of the pelvis spatial structure and its parts are created through the process of data collecting, digging, assembling, and modeling. The experiment shows that the proposed technology can meet traditional osteometry and obtain entire 1D geometric parameters of the pelvis, such as maximum breadth and height, diameter of obstetric conjugata, inclination angle, and sakralneigungswinkel, etc. at the same time after modeling. Besides making the measurements above, the proposed technology can measure the geometry characteristics of pelvis and its parts, such as volume, surface area, curvature, and spatial structure, which are almost impossible for traditional technology. The overall measuring error is less than 0.1mm.

  1. Structural Modeling of Measurement Error in Generalized Linear Models with Rasch Measures as Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a structural analysis for generalized linear models when some explanatory variables are measured with error and the measurement error variance is a function of the true variables. The focus is on latent variables investigated on the basis of questionnaires and estimated using item response theory models. Latent variable…

  2. The refined 1.9-A X-ray crystal structure of D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone-inhibited human alpha-thrombin: structure analysis, overall structure, electrostatic properties, detailed active-site geometry, and structure-function relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bode, W.; Turk, D.; Karshikov, A.

    1992-01-01

    Thrombin is a multifunctional serine proteinase that plays a key role in coagulation while exhibiting several other key cellular bioregulatory functions. The X-ray crystal structure of human alpha-thrombin was determined in its complex with the specific thrombin inhibitor D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone (PPACK) using Patterson search methods and a search model derived from trypsinlike proteinases of known spatial structure (Bode, W., Mayr, I., Baumann, U., Huber, R., Stone, S.R., & Hofsteenge, J., 1989, EMBO J. 8, 3467-3475). The crystallographic refinement of the PPACK-thrombin model has now been completed at an R value of 0.156 (8 to 1.92 A); in particular, the amino- and the carboxy-termini of the thrombin A-chain are now defined and all side-chain atoms localized; only proline 37 was found to be in a cis-peptidyl conformation. The thrombin B-chain exhibits the characteristic polypeptide fold of trypsinlike serine proteinases; 195 residues occupy topologically equivalent positions with residues in bovine trypsin and 190 with those in bovine chymotrypsin with a root-mean-square (r.m.s.) deviation of 0.8 A for their alpha-carbon atoms. Most of the inserted residues constitute novel surface loops. A chymotrypsinogen numbering is suggested for thrombin based on the topological equivalences. The thrombin A-chain is arranged in a boomeranglike shape against the B-chain globule opposite to the active site; it resembles somewhat the propeptide of chymotrypsin(ogen) and is similarly not involved in substrate and inhibitor binding. Thrombin possesses an exceptionally large proportion of charged residues. The negatively and positively charged residues are not distributed uniformly over the whole molecule, but are clustered to form a sandwichlike electrostatic potential; in particular, two extended patches of mainly positively charged residues occur close to the carboxy-terminal B-chain helix (forming the presumed heparin-binding site) and on the surface of loop segment 70

  3. A Structured-Grid Quality Measure for Simulated Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    A structured-grid quality measure is proposed, combining three traditional measurements: intersection angles, stretching, and curvature. Quality assesses whether the grid generated provides the best possible tradeoffs in grid stretching and skewness that enable accurate flow predictions, whereas the grid density is assumed to be a constraint imposed by the available computational resources and the desired resolution of the flow field. The usefulness of this quality measure is assessed by comparing heat transfer predictions from grid convergence studies for grids of varying quality in the range of [0.6-0.8] on an 8'half-angle sphere-cone, at laminar, perfect gas, Mach 10 wind tunnel conditions.

  4. Structural transitions and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Zev; Stone, Michael D; Gore, Jeff; Smith, Steven B; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R; Bustamante, Carlos

    2003-07-17

    Knowledge of the elastic properties of DNA is required to understand the structural dynamics of cellular processes such as replication and transcription. Measurements of force and extension on single molecules of DNA have allowed direct determination of the molecule's mechanical properties, provided rigorous tests of theories of polymer elasticity, revealed unforeseen structural transitions induced by mechanical stresses, and established an experimental and conceptual framework for mechanical assays of enzymes that act on DNA. However, a complete description of DNA mechanics must also consider the effects of torque, a quantity that has hitherto not been directly measured in micromanipulation experiments. We have measured torque as a function of twist for stretched DNA--torsional strain in over- or underwound molecules was used to power the rotation of submicrometre beads serving as calibrated loads. Here we report tests of the linearity of DNA's twist elasticity, direct measurements of the torsional modulus (finding a value approximately 40% higher than generally accepted), characterization of torque-induced structural transitions, and the establishment of a framework for future assays of torque and twist generation by DNA-dependent enzymes. We also show that cooperative structural transitions in DNA can be exploited to construct constant-torque wind-up motors and force-torque converters.

  5. Uncertainty Quantification for Monitoring of Civil Structures from Vibration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhler, Michael; Mevel, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Health Monitoring of civil structures can be performed by detecting changes in the modal parameters of a structure, or more directly in the measured vibration signals. For a continuous monitoring the excitation of a structure is usually ambient, thus unknown and assumed to be noise. Hence, all estimates from the vibration measurements are realizations of random variables with inherent uncertainty due to (unknown) process and measurement noise and finite data length. In this talk, a strategy for quantifying the uncertainties of modal parameter estimates from a subspace-based system identification approach is presented and the importance of uncertainty quantification in monitoring approaches is shown. Furthermore, a damage detection method is presented, which is based on the direct comparison of the measured vibration signals without estimating modal parameters, while taking the statistical uncertainty in the signals correctly into account. The usefulness of both strategies is illustrated on data from a progressive damage action on a prestressed concrete bridge. References E. Carden and P. Fanning. Vibration based condition monitoring: a review. Structural Health Monitoring, 3(4):355-377, 2004. M. Döhler and L. Mevel. Efficient multi-order uncertainty computation for stochastic subspace identification. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 38(2):346-366, 2013. M. Döhler, L. Mevel, and F. Hille. Subspace-based damage detection under changes in the ambient excitation statistics. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 45(1):207-224, 2014.

  6. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  7. Fiber grating systems used to measure strain in cylindrical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric; Corona-Bittick, Kelli; Slattery, Kerry T.; Dorr, Donald J.; Crowe, C. Robert; Vandiver, Terry L.; Evans, Robert N.

    1997-07-01

    Fiber optic grating systems are described that have been used to measure strain in cylindrical structures. The applications of these systems to a composite utility pole and to a composite missile body are described. Composite utility poles have significant advantages with respect to wooden utility poles that include superior strength and uniformity; light weight for ease of deployment; the ability to be recycled, reducing hazardous waste associated with chemically treated wooden poles; and compatibility with embedded fiber optic sensors, allowing structural loads to be monitored. Tests conducted of fiber optic grating sensors in combination with an overcoupled coupler demodulation system to support structural testing of a 22-ft composite pole are reported. Monitoring strain in composite missile bodies has the potential to improve the quality of manufactured parts, support performance testing, and enhance safety during long periods of storage. Strain measurements made with fiber optic grating and electrical strain gauges are described.

  8. Efficient measurement-device-independent detection of multipartite entanglement structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Witnessing entanglement is crucial in quantum information processing. With properly preparing ancillary states, it has been shown previously that genuine entanglement can be witnessed without trusting measurement devices. In this work we generalize the scenario and show that generic multipartite entanglement structures, including entanglement of subsystems and entanglement depth, can be witnessed via measurement-device-independent means. As the original measurement-device-independent entanglement witness scheme exploits only one out of four Bell measurement outcomes for each party, a direct generalization to multipartite quantum states will inevitably cause inefficiency in entanglement detection after taking account of statistical fluctuations. To resolve this problem, we also present a way to utilize all the measurement outcomes. The scheme is efficient for multipartite entanglement detection and can be realized with state-of-the-art technologies.

  9. Structural Measurements from Images of Noble Gas Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadman, Robert V.; Kadlecek, Stephen J.; Emami, Kiarash; MacDuffie Woodburn, John; Vahdat, Vahid; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of externally polarized noble gases such as ^3He has been used for pulmonary imaging for more than a decade. Because gas diffusion is impeded by the alveoli, the diffusion coefficient of gas in the lung, measured on a time scale of milliseconds, is reduced compared to that of the same gas mixture in the absence of restrictions. When the alveolar walls decay, as in emphysema, diffusivity in the lung increases. In this paper, the relationship between diffusion measurements and the size of the restricting structures will be discussed. The simple case of diffusion in an impermeable cylinder, a structure similar to the upper respiratory airways in mammals, has been studied. A procedure will be presented by which airways of order 2 mm in diameter may be accurately measured; demonstration experiments with plastic tubes will also be presented. The additional developments needed before this technique becomes practical will be briefly discussed.

  10. The Effect of Quantum-Mechanical Interference on Precise Measurements of the n = 2 Triplet P Fine Structure of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Marsman, A.; Horbatsch, M.; Hessels, E. A.

    2015-09-15

    For many decades, improvements in both theory and experiment of the fine structure of the n = 2 triplet P levels of helium have allowed for an increasingly precise determination of the fine-structure constant. Recently, it has been observed that quantum-mechanical interference between neighboring resonances can cause significant shifts, even if such neighboring resonances are separated by thousands of natural widths. The shifts depend in detail on the experimental method used for the measurement, as well as the specific experimental parameters employed. Here, we review how these shifts apply for the most precise measurements of the helium 2{sup 3}P fine-structure intervals.

  11. Advanced optical measuring systems for measuring the properties of fluids and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Four advanced optical models are reviewed for the measurement of visualization of flow and structural properties. Double-exposure, diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry can be used for three-dimensional flow visualization. When this method is combined with optical heterodyning, precise measurements of structural displacements or fluid density are possible. Time-average holography is well known as a method for displaying vibrational mode shapes, but it also can be used for flow visualization and flow measurements. Deflectometry is used to measure or visualize the deflection of light rays from collimation. Said deflection occurs because of refraction in a fluid or because of reflection from a tilted surface. The moire technique for deflectometry, when combined with optical heterodyning, permits very precise measurements of these quantities. The rainbow schlieren method of deflectometry allows varying deflection angles to be encoded with colors for visualization.

  12. Health monitoring of aeronautical structures based on vibrations measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovio, Igor; Lecce, Leonardo

    2006-03-01

    Purpose of the paper is to present an innovative application inside the Non Destructive Testing field based on vibrations measurements, developed by the authors during the last three years, and already tested for analysing damage of many structural elements. The proposed new method is based on the acquisition and comparison of Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) of the monitored structure before and after an occurred damage. Structural damage modify the dynamical behaviour of the structure such as mass, stiffened and damping, and consequently the FRFs of the damaged structure in comparison with the FRFs of the sound structure, making possible to identify, to localize and quantify a structural damage. The activities, presented in the paper, mostly focused on a new FRFs processing technique based on the determining of a representative "Damage Index" for identifying and analysing damage both on real scale aeronautical structural components, like large-scale fuselage reinforced panels, and on aeronautical composite panels. Besides it has been carried out a dedicated neural network algorithm aiming at obtaining a "recognition-based learning"; this kind of learning methodology permits to train the neural network in order to let it recognises only "positive" examples discarding as a consequence the "negative" ones. Within the structural NDT a "positive" example means "healthy" state of the analysed structural component and, obviously, a "negative" one means a "damaged" or perturbed state. From an architectural point of view piezoceramic patches have been tested as actuators and sensors. Besides it has been used a laser-scanning vibrometer system to validate the behaviour of the piezoceramic patches.

  13. Optical coherent sensor for monitoring and measurement of engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukaszewski, Dariusz; Sałbut, Leszek; Dziuban, Jan A.

    2010-05-01

    Among many coherent optical methods one should distinguished Grating Interferometry (GI) which allows accurate in-plane displacement measurements and Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) used for in-plane and out-of-plane measurements. Development of sensors based on both methods mentioned above as complementary ones will provide user universal group of sensors from which depending on measurement requirements such as measuring range, object surface profile and measurement conditions the most appropriate can be chosen. In-plane displacement measurements are of interested of different branches of industry - from micro (i.e.: characterization of MEMS or MOEMS) to civil engineering (i.e.: Structural Health Monitoring systems). In the paper the new optical coherent sensor for in-plane displacement and strain measurements is presented. The sensor combines GI and DSPI methods in one device which can be used for testing of objects with different types of surfaces. GI requires the specimen grating attached at the surface but provides very good measurement accuracy however DSPI can be applied for testing of objects with rough surfaces but due to higher noise gives lower accuracy. The sensor can work in three modes: as GI only, DSPI only and both GI and DSPI simultaneously. The third mode can by useful when the specimen grating is attached on the part of object under test only. In the paper the theoretical background of the sensor is presented. For confirmation of GI/DSPI sensor possibilities the specially designed demonstrator is described and the exemplary results obtained during its laboratory tests are shown. Successful application of proposed sensor is possible due to its miniaturization, simplicity of operation by user (compact structure and automation of measurement procedure) and low cost. The last mentioned condition will be possible due to low cost replication techniques with usage of silicon technology.

  14. Measuring the robustness of network community structure using assortativity

    PubMed Central

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; Farine, Damien R.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of discrete social clusters, or ‘communities’, is a common feature of social networks in human and nonhuman animals. The level of such community structure in networks is typically measured using an index of modularity, Q. While modularity quantifies the degree to which individuals associate within versus between social communities and provides a useful measure of structure in the social network, it assumes that the network has been well sampled. However, animal social network data is typically subject to sampling errors. In particular, the associations among individuals are often not sampled equally, and animal social network studies are often based on a relatively small set of observations. Here, we extend an existing framework for bootstrapping network metrics to provide a method for assessing the robustness of community assignment in social networks using a metric we call community assortativity (rcom). We use simulations to demonstrate that modularity can reliably detect the transition from random to structured associations in networks that differ in size and number of communities, while community assortativity accurately measures the level of confidence based on the detectability of associations. We then demonstrate the use of these metrics using three publicly available data sets of avian social networks. We suggest that by explicitly addressing the known limitations in sampling animal social network, this approach will facilitate more rigorous analyses of population-level structural patterns across social systems. PMID:26949266

  15. Detailed Geological Modelling in Urban Areas focused on Structures relevant to the Near Surface Groundwater Flow in the context of Climatic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, T.; Pallesen, T. M.; Jensen, N. P.; Mielby, S.; Sandersen, P.; Kristensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a practical example from the city of Odense (DK) where new geological modeling techniques has been developed and used in the software GeoScene3D, to create a detailed voxel model of the anthropogenic layer. The voxel model has been combined with a regional hydrostratigraphic layer model. The case is part of a pilot project partly financed by VTU (Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector) and involves many different datatypes such as borehole information, geophysical data, human related elements (landfill, pipelines, basements, roadbeds etc). In the last few years, there has been increased focus on detailed geological modeling in urban areas. The models serve as important input to hydrological models. This focus is partly due to climate changes as high intensity rainfalls are seen more often than in the past, and water recharge is a topic too. In urban areas, this arises new challenges. There is a need of a high level of detailed geological knowledge for the uppermost zone of the soil, which typically are problematic due to practically limitations, especially when using geological layer models. Furthermore, to accommodate the need of a high detail, all relevant available data has to be used in the modeling process. Human activity has deeply changed the soil layers, e.g. by constructions as roadbeds, buildings with basements, pipelines, landfill etc. These elements can act as barriers or pathways regarding surface near groundwater flow and can attribute to local flooding or mobilization and transport of contaminants etc. A geological voxel model is built by small boxes (a voxel). Each box can contain several parameters, ex. lithology, transmissivity or contaminant concentration. Human related elements can be implemented using tools, which gives the modeler advanced options for making detailed small-scale models. This case demonstrates the workflow and the resulting geological model for the pilot area.

  16. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  17. Optical 3D-coordinate measuring system using structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Wolfgang; Notni, Gunther; Kuehmstedt, Peter; Gerber, Joerg; Kowarschik, Richard M.

    1996-09-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of an optical shape measuring technique based on a consistent principle using fringe projection technique. We demonstrate a real 3D- coordinate measuring system where the sale of coordinates is given only by the illumination-structures. This method has the advantages that the aberration of the observing system and the depth-dependent imaging scale have no influence on the measuring accuracy and, moreover, the measurements are independent of the position of the camera with respect to the object under test. Furthermore, it is shown that the influence of specular effects of the surface on the measuring result can be eliminated. Moreover, we developed a very simple algorithm to calibrate the measuring system. The measuring examples show that a measuring accuracy of 10-4 (i.e. 10 micrometers ) within an object volume of 100 X 100 X 70 mm3 is achievable. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the set of coordinate values can be processed in CNC- and CAD-systems.

  18. Measurements of microwave spectra and structural parameters for methylferrocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, David S.; Tanjaroon, Chakree; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2002-08-01

    Rotational transitions for methylferrocene were measured, in the 4-12 GHz range, using a Flygare-Balle type, pulsed-beam Fourier transform spectrometer. Mono-substituted ferrocenes are nearprolate asymmetric tops with a and b dipole moment components, providing numerous possible transitions in this frequency range. Eighteen rotational constants were calculated from the data for six isotopomers. 59 transitions were measured for the normal isotopomer, and much smaller data sets were obtained for the 54Fe, and four 13C isotopomers. Despite the small data sets for 13C and 54Fe transitions, good fits were obtained with small standard deviations ranging from 2 to 5 kHz. The eighteen A, B, and C rotational constants were used to determine the structural parameters for methylferrocene. Measured rotational constants for the normal isotopomer are: A=1592.6050(6), B=957.2565(4), and C=825.9892(4) MHz. The values for the averaged structural parameters are: r1)(Fe-C)=2.050(7 A, r2)(C-C(cyclopentadienyl ligands)=1.433(7) A and r3(C-CH3))=1.52(2 A (for the methyl cyclopentadienyl ligand). Small splittings (20-30 kHz) were observed for some transitions, and these could be due to proton hyperfine structure or small internal rotation splittings. The structural parameters for this complex were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) methods, and the results are in very good agreement with the measured values. Results are compared with earlier measurements on substituted ferrocenes. Distortions of the substituted cyclopentadienyl ligand are significantly smaller than those observed for chloroferrocene.

  19. Dynamic modeling of structures from measured complex modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, s. R.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is presented to use a set of identified complex modes together with an analytical mathematical model of a structure under test to compute improved mass, stiffness and damping matrices. A set of identified normal modes, computed from the measured complex modes, is used in the mass orthogonality equation to compute an improved mass matrix. This eliminates possible errors that may result from using approximated complex modes as normal modes. The improved mass matrix, the measured complex modes and the higher analytical modes are then used to compute the improved stiffness and damping matrices. The number of degrees-of-freedom of the improved model is limited to equal the number of elements in the measured modal vectors. A simulated experiment shows considerable improvements, in the system's analytical dynamic model, over the frequency range of the given measured modal information.

  20. Microwave Sensor for Blade Tip Clearance and Structural Health Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Mark R.; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of microwave based sensors for the health monitoring of rotating machinery is being explored at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The microwave sensor works on the principle of sending a continuous signal towards a rotating component and measuring the reflected signal. The phase shift of the reflected signal is proportional to the distance between the sensor and the component that is being measured. This type of sensor is beneficial in that it has the ability to operate at extremely high temperatures and is unaffected by contaminants that may be present in the rotating machinery. It is intended to use these probes in the hot sections of turbine engines for closed loop turbine clearance control and structural health measurements. Background on the sensors, an overview of their calibration and preliminary results from using them to make blade tip clearance and health measurements on a large axial vane fan will be presented.

  1. Structural difficulty index: a reliable measure for modelability of protein tertiary structures.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Rahul; Jayaram, B

    2016-09-01

    The success in protein tertiary-structure prediction is considered to be a function of coverage and similarity/identity of their sequences with suitable templates in the structural databases. However, this measure of modelability of a protein sequence into its structure may be misleading. Addressing this limitation, we propose here a 'structural difficulty (SD)' index, which is derived from secondary structures, homology and physicochemical features of protein sequences. The SD index reflects the capability of predicting accurate structures and helps to assess the potential for developing proteome level structural databases for various organisms with some of the best methodologies available currently. For instance, the plausibility of populating the structural database of human proteome with reliable quality structures under 3 Å root mean square deviation from the corresponding natives is found to be ∼37% of a total of 11 084 manually curated soluble proteins and ∼64% for all annotated and reviewed unique soluble protein (344 661 sequences) of UniProtKB. Also for 77 human pathogenic viruses comprising 2365 globular viral proteins out of which only 162 structures are solved experimentally, SD index scores 1336 proteins in the modelable zone. Availability of reliable protein structures may prove a crucial aid in developing species-wise structural proteomic databases for accelerating function annotation and for drug development endeavors.

  2. Severe thunderstorm internal structure from dual-Doppler radar measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleman, J. R.; Lin, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Dual-Doppler radar data were analyzed for three different times during the life cycle of a severe thunderstorm. The thunderstorm developed a double vortex inside as a tornado was generated beneath the cloud. The organized kinematic and precipitation internal structure of the thunderstorm support a theoretical double-vortex thunderstorm model that was developed earlier. The horizontal perturbation and relative winds, vertical winds, horizontal divergence and vorticity are compared for the three different times of measurement. The measurements and theoretical model provide new explanations of the severe thunderstorm and the relationship of associated tornadoes.

  3. Evaluation of multilayered pavement structures from measurements of surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryden, N.; Lowe, M.J.S.; Cawley, P.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  4. A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

    2013-01-01

    This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

  5. Membrane-Docking Loops of the cPLA2 C2 Domain: Detailed Structural Analysis of the Protein-Membrane Interface via Site-Directed Spin-Labeling†

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Nathan J.; Van Buskirk, David R.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    C2 domains are protein modules found in numerous eukaryotic signaling proteins, where their function is to target the protein to cell membranes in response to a Ca2+ signal. Currently, the structure of the interface formed between the protein and the phospholipid bilayer is inaccessible to high-resolution structure determination, but EPR site-directed spin-labeling can provide a detailed medium-resolution view of this interface. To apply this approach to the C2 domain of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), single cysteines were introduced at all 27 positions in the three Ca2+-binding loops and labeled with a methanethiosulfonate spin-label. Altogether, 24 of the 27 spin-labeled domains retained Ca2+-activated phospholipid binding. EPR spectra of these 24 labeled domains obtained in the presence and absence of Ca2+ indicate that Ca2+ binding triggers subtle changes in the dynamics of two localized regions within the Ca2+-binding loops: one face of the loop 1 helix and the junction between loops 1 and 2. However, no significant changes in loop structure were detected upon Ca2+ binding, nor upon Ca2+-triggered docking to membranes. EPR depth parameters measured in the membrane-docked state allow determination of the penetration depth of each residue with respect to the membrane surface. Analysis of these depth parameters, using an improved, generalizable geometric approach, provides the most accurate picture of penetration depth and angular orientation currently available for a membrane-docked peripheral protein. Finally, the observation that Ca2+ binding does not trigger large rearrangements of the membrane-docking loops favors the electrostatic switch model for Ca2+ activation and disfavors, or places strong constraints on, the conformational switch model. PMID:14609334

  6. Final Results from Mexnext-I: Analysis of detailed aerodynamic measurements on a 4.5 m diameter rotor placed in the large German Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, J. G.; Boorsma, K.; Munduate, X.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the final results from the first phase of IEA Task 29 'Mexnext'. Mexnext was a joint project in which 20 parties from 11 different countries cooperated. The main aim of Mexnext was to analyse the wind tunnel measurements which have been taken in the EU project 'MEXICO'. In the MEXICO project 10 institutes from 6 countries cooperated in doing experiments on an instrumented, 3 bladed wind turbine of 4.5 m diameter placed in the 9.5 by 9.5 m2 open section of the Large Low-speed Facility (LLF) of DNW in the Netherlands. Pressure distributions on the blades were obtained from 148 Kulite pressure sensors, distributed over 5 sections at 25, 35, 60, 82 and 92 % radial position respectively. Blade loads were monitored through two strain-gauge bridges at each blade root. Most interesting however are the extensive PIV flow field measurements, which have been taken simultaneously with the pressure and load measurements. As a result of the international collaboration within this task a very thorough analysis of the data could be carried out and a large number of codes were validated not only in terms of loads but also in terms of underlying flow field. The paper will present several results from Mexnext-I, i.e. validation results and conclusion on modelling deficiencies and directions for model improvement. The future plans of the Mexnext consortium are also briefly discussed. Amongst these are Mexnext-II, a project in which also aerodynamic measurements other than MEXICO are included, and 'New MEXICO' in which additional measurement on the MEXICO model are performed.

  7. Light scattering measurements supporting helical structures for chromatin in solution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A M; Cotter, R I; Pardon, J F

    1978-05-01

    Laser light scattering measurements have been made on a series of polynucleosomes containing from 50 to 150 nucleosomes. Radii of gyration have been determined as a function of polynucleosome length for different ionic strength solutions. The results suggest that at low ionic strength the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure rather than a random coil. The helix becomes more regular on increasing the ionic strength, the dimension resembling those proposed by Finch and Klug for their solenoid model.

  8. Measurement and exploitation of mesh structure on the Connection Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaskacz, Edward J.; Belytschko, Ted

    1990-01-01

    A four-node shell element has been implemented on the Connection Machine using the direct vector method and an exchange algorithm previously used with a simpler element. It is shown that the method retains a large measure of its speed in the more complicated setting of a shell element. A hybrid interprocessor communication scheme for the exchange algorithm which uses NEWS within structured subdomains is described.

  9. Monitoring and evaluating civil structures using measured vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straser, Erik G.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.

    1996-04-01

    The need for a rapid assessment of the state of critical and conventional civil structures, such as bridges, control centers, airports, and hospitals, among many, has been amply demonstrated during recent natural disasters. Research is underway at Stanford University to develop a state-of-the-art automated damage monitoring system for long term and extreme event monitoring based on both ambient and forced response measurements. Such research requires a multi-disciplinary approach harnessing the talents and expertise of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering to arrive at a novel hardware and software solution. Recent advances in silicon micro-machining and microprocessor design allow for the economical integration of sensing, processing, and communication components. Coupling these technological advances with parameter identification algorithms allows for the realization of extreme event damage monitoring systems for civil structures. This paper addresses the first steps toward the development of a near real-time damage diagnostic and monitoring system based on structural response to extreme events. Specifically, micro-electro-mechanical- structures (MEMS) and microcontroller embedded systems (MES) are demonstrated to be an effective platform for the measurement and analysis of civil structures. Experimental laboratory tests with small scale model specimens and a preliminary sensor module are used to evaluate hardware and obtain structural response data from input accelerograms. A multi-step analysis procedure employing ordinary least squares (OLS), extended Kalman filtering (EKF), and a substructuring approach is conducted to extract system characteristics of the model. Results from experimental tests and system identification (SI) procedures as well as fundamental system design issues are presented.

  10. NOSS Altimeter Detailed Algorithm specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Mcmillan, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The details of the algorithms and data sets required for satellite radar altimeter data processing are documented in a form suitable for (1) development of the benchmark software and (2) coding the operational software. The algorithms reported in detail are those established for altimeter processing. The algorithms which required some additional development before documenting for production were only scoped. The algorithms are divided into two levels of processing. The first level converts the data to engineering units and applies corrections for instrument variations. The second level provides geophysical measurements derived from altimeter parameters for oceanographic users.

  11. The combustion chemistry of a fuel tracer: Measured flame speeds and ignition delays and a detailed chemical kinetic model for the oxidation of acetone

    SciTech Connect

    Pichon, S.; Black, G.; Simmie, J.M.; Curran, H.J.; Chaumeix, N.; Yahyaoui, M.; Donohue, R.

    2009-02-15

    Acetone ignition delay and stretch-free laminar flame speed measurements have been carried out and a kinetic model has been developed to simulate these and literature data for acetone and for ketene, which was found to be an important intermediate in its oxidation. The mechanism has been based on one originally devised for dimethyl ether and modified through validation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane sub-mechanisms. Acetone oxidation in argon was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1340-1930 K, at 1 atm and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1 and 2; it is also shown that the addition of up to 15% acetone to a stoichiometric n-heptane mixture has no effect on the measured ignition delay times. Flame speeds at 298 K and 1 atm of pure acetone in air were measured in a spherical bomb; a maximum flame speed of {proportional_to}35 cm s{sup -1} at {phi}=1.15 is indicated. (author)

  12. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.

  13. Global structure of the multiverse and the measure problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    An unresolved question in inflationary cosmology is the assignment of probabilities to different types of events that can occur in the eternally inflating multiverse. We explore the possibility that the resolution of this "measure problem" may rely on non-standard dynamics in regions of high curvature. In particular, "big crunch" singularities that develop in bubbles with negative vacuum energy density may lead to bounces, where contraction is replaced by inflationary expansion. Similarly, singularities inside of black holes might be gateways to other inflating vacua. This would drastically affect the global structure of the multiverse. We consider a measure based on a probe geodesic which undergoes an infinite number of passages through crunches. This can be thought of as the world-line of an eternal "watcher", collecting data in an orderly fashion. This watcher's measure is independent of initial conditions and does not suffer from ambiguities associated with the choice of a cut-off surface.

  14. Temperature effects in concrete structures measured with fibre Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Jean C.; Martelli, Cicero; Penner, Elisabeth; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.

    2004-06-01

    We analyze the action of fire, causing degradation in a concrete cantilever beam using dynamic testing. The structure is instrumented with two fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) sensors. One of them is used to measure vibration and another one is used to measure temperature inside of the cantilever beam, while the beam is exposed to fire. The temperature in the cantilever beam increased until 150°C and a reduction in the strength of concrete can be observed through the modal analysis. A fiber Bragg grating interrogation system, based on tunable filter method, is used for the static and dynamic measurements during the experiments. That system has low cost and it is easy to assemble and maintain when compared to other available instruments.

  15. Toward Design Guidelines for Stream Restoration Structures: Measuring and Modeling Unsteady Turbulent Flows in Natural Streams with Complex Hydraulic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightbody, A.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Kang, S.; Diplas, P.

    2009-12-01

    Despite their widespread application to prevent lateral river migration, stabilize banks, and promote aquatic habitat, shallow transverse flow training structures such as rock vanes and stream barbs lack quantitative design guidelines. Due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about the interaction of the flow field with the sediment bed, existing engineering standards are typically based on various subjective criteria or on cross-sectionally-averaged shear stresses rather than local values. Here, we examine the performance and stability of in-stream structures within a field-scale single-threaded sand-bed meandering stream channel in the newly developed Outdoor StreamLab (OSL) at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). Before and after the installation of a rock vane along the outer bank of the middle meander bend, high-resolution topography data were obtained for the entire 50-m-long reach at 1-cm spatial scale in the horizontal and sub-millimeter spatial scale in the vertical. In addition, detailed measurements of flow and turbulence were obtained using acoustic Doppler velocimetry at twelve cross-sections focused on the vicinity of the structure. Measurements were repeated at a range of extreme events, including in-bank flows with an approximate flow rate of 44 L/s (1.4 cfs) and bankfull floods with an approximate flow rate of 280 L/s (10 cfs). Under both flow rates, the structure reduced near-bank shear stresses and resulted in both a deeper thalweg and near-bank aggradation. The resulting comprehensive dataset has been used to validate a large eddy simulation carried out by SAFL’s computational fluid dynamics model, the Virtual StreamLab (VSL). This versatile computational framework is able to efficiently simulate 3D unsteady turbulent flows in natural streams with complex in-stream structures and as a result holds promise for the development of much-needed quantitative design guidelines.

  16. Characterization of the structural details of residual austenite in the weld metal of a 9Cr1MoNbV welded rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia; Ji, Hui-jun; Liu, Peng; Wang, Peng; Lu, Feng-gui; Gao, Yu-lai

    2014-06-01

    The existence of residual austenite in weld metal plays an important role in determining the properties and dimensional accuracy of welded rotors. An effective corrosive agent and the metallographic etching process were developed to clearly reveal the characteristics of residual austenite in the weld metal of a 9Cr1MoNbV welded rotor. Moreover, the details of the distribution, shape, length, length-to-width ratio, and the content of residual austenite were systematically characterized using the Image-Pro Plus image analysis software. The results revealed that the area fraction of residual austenite was approximately 6.3% in the observed weld seam; the average area, length, and length-to-width ratio of dispersed residual austenite were quantitatively evaluated to be (5.5 ± 0.1) μm2, (5.0 ± 0.1) μm, and (2.2 ± 0.1), respectively. The newly developed corrosive agent and etching method offer an appropriate approach to characterize residual austenite in the weld metal of welded rotors in detail.

  17. Molecular Structure of o-Benzyne from Microwave Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukolich, Stephen G.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Thaddeus, Patrick

    The o-benzyne mol. has been known for many years to be an important, but short-lived, reaction intermediate in substitution reactions and more recently in cyclization reactions of enediynes. Although there has been widespread interest in this transient mol., previous exptl. structural data were very limited. In the present work, rotational transitions for o-benzyne were measured with a pulsed-beam, Fourier transform microwave spectrometer for all unique, singly substituted 13C and single-D isotopomers. The o-benzyne was efficiently produced by flowing a dil. mixt. of isotopically enriched benzene in neon through a pulsed-DC discharge beam source. The new data, combined with previous data for the normal isotopomer, provide a complete set of structural parameters for this mol. The rs substitution coordinates and the coordinates from a least-squares fit are reported and are in good agreement. When using the least-squares fit to obtain structural parameters, correction terms arising from harmonic terms in the vibrational averaging were subtracted from the measured rotational consts. to obtain a better representation of the planar equil. structure. Further improvements in the fits were obtained by applying small, mass-dependent adjustments to the atom coordinates. Structural parameters obtained from the fit to these modified rotational consts. are an acetylenic C1.tplbond.C2 bond length of 1.264(3) .ANG., and the other bond lengths C2-C3 = 1.390(3) .ANG., C3-C4 = 1.403(3) .ANG., C4-C5 = 1.404(3) .ANG., C3-H1 = 1.095(9) .ANG., and C4-H2 = 1.099(4) .ANG.. The C1.tplbond.C2 bond is only 0.057 .ANG. longer than the free acetylene bond. The other C-C bond lengths are within 0.01 .ANG. of those of benzene C-C bonds. New spectral data for the single-D isotopomers were used to obtain better values for the deuterium quadrupole coupling. Bond-axis deuterium quadrupole coupling consts. are eQqzz(D1) = 188(2) kHz, and eQqzz(D2) = 185(10) kHz, which agree well with the value for

  18. Z{prime} phenomenology: Constraints from low-energy measurements, and detailed study at TeV-scale lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Austern, M.H.

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, I discuss the phenomenology of new massive neutral gauge bosons, or Z{prime} bosons, concentrating on experimental tests by which the properties of a Z{prime} boson could be determined. In Chapter I, I briefly review the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and discuss the motivation for extending it. I review some of the extensions to the Standard Model that predict the existence of Z{prime} bosons, and present a general, model-independent parameterization of the Z{prime}s properties, as well as a simpler parameterization that applies to the most important class of models. In Chapter II, I discuss present-day limits on the existence of Z{prime} bosons, both from direct searches, and from indirect higher-order tests. In Chapter III, I discuss the production and discovery of a Z{prime} at a future hadron collider, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Discovery of a Z{prime} at the LHC may be possible if its mass is less than 5 TeV. I also discuss the experimental tests of its properties that could be performed at such a collider, emphasizing the measurement of leptonic asymmetries. Finally, the Chapter IV, I discuss the experimental tests that could be performed at an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider with {radical}s = M{sub Z{prime}}. I include several higher-order effects, such as initial-state radiation and beamstrahlung, whose inclusion is necesary for a realistic description of the experimental environment at a very high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider. The combination of leptonic and hadronic experiments permits the measurement of all of the parameters.

  19. Relationships between musical structure and psychophysiological measures of emotion.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Patrick; Danuser, Brigitta

    2007-05-01

    Psychophysiological studies with music have not examined what exactly in the music might be responsible for the observed physiological phenomena. The authors explored the relationships between 11 structural features of 16 musical excerpts and both self-reports of felt pleasantness and arousal and different physiological measures (respiration, skin conductance, heart rate). Overall, the relationships between musical features and experienced emotions corresponded well with those known between musical structure and perceived emotions. This suggests that the internal structure of the music played a primary role in the induction of the emotions in comparison to extramusical factors. Mode, harmonic complexity, and rhythmic articulation best differentiated between negative and positive valence, whereas tempo, accentuation, and rhythmic articulation best discriminated high arousal from low arousal. Tempo, accentuation, and rhythmic articulation were the features that most strongly correlated with physiological measures. Music that induced faster breathing and higher minute ventilation, skin conductance, and heart rate was fast, accentuated, and staccato. This finding corroborates the contention that rhythmic aspects are the major determinants of physiological responses to music.

  20. Sexual networks: measuring sexual selection in structured, polyandrous populations.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Grant C; James, Richard; Krause, Jens; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2013-03-01

    Sexual selection is traditionally measured at the population level, assuming that populations lack structure. However, increasing evidence undermines this approach, indicating that intrasexual competition in natural populations often displays complex patterns of spatial and temporal structure. This complexity is due in part to the degree and mechanisms of polyandry within a population, which can influence the intensity and scale of both pre- and post-copulatory sexual competition. Attempts to measure selection at the local and global scale have been made through multi-level selection approaches. However, definitions of local scale are often based on physical proximity, providing a rather coarse measure of local competition, particularly in polyandrous populations where the local scale of pre- and post-copulatory competition may differ drastically from each other. These limitations can be solved by social network analysis, which allows us to define a unique sexual environment for each member of a population: 'local scale' competition, therefore, becomes an emergent property of a sexual network. Here, we first propose a novel quantitative approach to measure pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection, which integrates multi-level selection with information on local scale competition derived as an emergent property of networks of sexual interactions. We then use simple simulations to illustrate the ways in which polyandry can impact estimates of sexual selection. We show that for intermediate levels of polyandry, the proposed network-based approach provides substantially more accurate measures of sexual selection than the more traditional population-level approach. We argue that the increasing availability of fine-grained behavioural datasets provides exciting new opportunities to develop network approaches to study sexual selection in complex societies.

  1. Sexual networks: measuring sexual selection in structured, polyandrous populations

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Grant C.; James, Richard; Krause, Jens; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection is traditionally measured at the population level, assuming that populations lack structure. However, increasing evidence undermines this approach, indicating that intrasexual competition in natural populations often displays complex patterns of spatial and temporal structure. This complexity is due in part to the degree and mechanisms of polyandry within a population, which can influence the intensity and scale of both pre- and post-copulatory sexual competition. Attempts to measure selection at the local and global scale have been made through multi-level selection approaches. However, definitions of local scale are often based on physical proximity, providing a rather coarse measure of local competition, particularly in polyandrous populations where the local scale of pre- and post-copulatory competition may differ drastically from each other. These limitations can be solved by social network analysis, which allows us to define a unique sexual environment for each member of a population: ‘local scale’ competition, therefore, becomes an emergent property of a sexual network. Here, we first propose a novel quantitative approach to measure pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection, which integrates multi-level selection with information on local scale competition derived as an emergent property of networks of sexual interactions. We then use simple simulations to illustrate the ways in which polyandry can impact estimates of sexual selection. We show that for intermediate levels of polyandry, the proposed network-based approach provides substantially more accurate measures of sexual selection than the more traditional population-level approach. We argue that the increasing availability of fine-grained behavioural datasets provides exciting new opportunities to develop network approaches to study sexual selection in complex societies. PMID:23339246

  2. Measuring the Internal Structure and Physical Conditions in Star and Planet Forming Clouds Cores: Towards a Quantitative Description of Cloud Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    This grant funds a research program to use infrared extinction measurements to probe the detailed structure of dark molecular cloud cores and investigate the physical conditions which give rise to star and planet formation. The goals of this program are to acquire, reduce and analyze deep infrared and molecular-line observations of a carefully selected sample of nearby dark clouds in order to determine the detailed initial conditions for star formation from quantitative measurements of the internal structure of starless cloud cores and to quantitatively investigate the evolution of such structure through the star and planet formation process.

  3. Optical measurement of atmospheric refractive index structure constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Xiwen; Liu, Jingru; Song, Jianping; Zong, Fei; Zhao, Junwei; Li, Yan

    2009-11-01

    Atmospheric turbulence increases bit error rate and degrades beams quality for wireless laser communication links as laser light propagation in the turbulent atmosphere, and atmospheric refractive index structure constant is an important parameter for statistics of atmospheric turbulence. Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence in the atmosphere varies randomly and the experiments in the real atmosphere are expensive, so it is an important way to simulate atmospheric turbulence in laboratory for investigation on laser beams propagation in through the atmosphere. The structure parameter of the atmospheric turbulence in laboratory was measured based on measurement of angle-of-arrival (AOA) fluctuations of centroids as laser beam through the simulated-turbulence. The results shows a good agreement with the previous result measured by thermal method, the strength of simulated-turbulence was 1000 times stronger than that in the real atmosphere. The characteristics of turbulence varies temporally with air temperature and wind velocity, and statistics of atmospheric turbulence was presented for various air temperature and wind velocity along the propagation path.

  4. Structural measures as predictors of injury basketball players.

    PubMed

    Shambaugh, J P; Klein, A; Herbert, J H

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between structure and injury in basketball players, with the goal of developing equations to predict injury. We examined 45 subjects who were participating in a community center basketball league. Each subject was measured prior to the season for bilateral weight, quadricep girth, calf girth, Q-angle of the knee, dorsiflexion of the ankle, forefoot varus, rearfoot valgus, and true and apparent leg length. All lower extremity injuries causing a game to be missed were recorded during the 16-game season. Average values for bilateral weight, quadricep girth, Q-angle, rearfoot valgus, and leg length measures for the injured players were all larger than the average for the non-injured players by at least one standard deviation. A logistic regression equation using three of the variables correctly predicted the injury status of 91% of the players. The three-variable equation was then used prospectively to predict injury status for members of a small college basketball team. Only one player missed a game due to injury, and the equation identified that player as the most likely to be injured. This study demonstrates a strong relationship between structural measures and lower extremity injury in basketball players.

  5. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  6. Measurement of valence band structure in boron-zinc-oxide films by making use of ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Kwon, Gi C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2011-12-26

    Measurement of valence band structure in the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films was developed using the secondary electron emission due to the Auger neutralization of ions. The energy distribution profile of the electrons emitted from boron-zinc-oxide films was measured and rescaled so that Auger self-convolution arose; thus, revealing the detailed structure of the valence band and suggesting that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film.

  7. Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm/sup 2/ of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4..sqrt..nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 < Q/sup 2/ < 200 GeV/sup 2//c/sup 2/. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda../sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references.

  8. Optimal ground motion intensity measure for long-period structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to select the most appropriate ground motion intensity measure (IM) that is used in selecting earthquake records for the dynamic time history analysis of long-period structures. For this purpose, six reinforced concrete frame-core wall structures, designed according to modern seismic codes, are studied through dynamic time history analyses with a set of twelve selected earthquake records. Twelve IMs and two types of seismic damage indices, namely, the maximum seismic response-based and energy-based parameters, are chosen as the examined indices. Selection criteria such as correlation, efficiency, and proficiency are considered in the selection process. The optimal IM is identified by means of a comprehensive evaluation using a large number of data of correlation, efficiency, and proficiency coefficients. Numerical results illustrate that peak ground velocity is the optimal one for long-period structures and peak ground displacement is also a close contender. As compared to previous reports, the spectral-correlated parameters can only be taken as moderate IMs. Moreover, the widely used peak ground acceleration in the current seismic codes is considered inappropriate for long-period structures.

  9. Exploring the factor structure of neurocognitive measures in older individuals.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patrício Soares; Amorim, Liliana; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Cunha, Pedro; Cotter, Jorge; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Here we focus on factor analysis from a best practices point of view, by investigating the factor structure of neuropsychological tests and using the results obtained to illustrate on choosing a reasonable solution. The sample (n=1051 individuals) was randomly divided into two groups: one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the number of factors underlying the neurocognitive variables; the second to test the "best fit" model via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For the exploratory step, three extraction (maximum likelihood, principal axis factoring and principal components) and two rotation (orthogonal and oblique) methods were used. The analysis methodology allowed exploring how different cognitive/psychological tests correlated/discriminated between dimensions, indicating that to capture latent structures in similar sample sizes and measures, with approximately normal data distribution, reflective models with oblimin rotation might prove the most adequate.

  10. Improving Canopy Vertical Structure Measurements with Dual-Wavelength Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Jupp, D. L. B.; Howe, G.; Hewawasam, K.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E. J.; Yang, X.; Yao, T.

    2015-12-01

    Forest canopy structure regulates radiation interception through the canopy, affects the canopy microclimate, and consequently influences the energy, water, and carbon fluxes between soil, vegetation and atmosphere through its interaction with leaf physiological functioning. To observe vertical canopy forest structure in finer and more accurate detail, we retrieved vertical profiles of leaf and woody components separately with a terrestrial laser scanner, the Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar (DWEL). DWEL scans of a hardwood site at the Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts, USA, in early May and in late September in 2014, revealed the spatial heterogeneity of the canopy vertical structure of the two vegetation components: leaves and woody materials. The DWEL collects simultaneous scans of forests with two lasers at different wavelengths, 1064 nm (NIR) and 1548 nm (SWIR). Power returned from leaves is much lower than from woody materials such as trunks and branches at the SWIR wavelength due to the liquid water absorption by leaves, whereas returned power at the NIR wavelength is similar from both leaves and woody materials. This spectral contrast between leaves and woody materials, along with spatial context information. discriminates leaves and woody materials accurately in 3-D space, thus allowing the measurement of separate leaf and woody area profiles. We also captured the change in the canopy vertical structure over the seven years by a comparison between the current measurements by the DWEL in 2014 and past measurements in 2007 at the same site by the DWEL's predecessor, a single-wavelength terrestrial lidar, the Echidna Validation Instrument. The comparison also demonstrates the advantage of dual-wavelength laser scanning by the DWEL for canopy structure measurements.

  11. Shape Measurement of Large Aerospace Structures Using Sensitivity Electrical TDR Distributed Strain Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Mark W.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Electrical time domain reflectometry (ETDR) sensing technique can be best described as "closed-loop radar," where the information is derived from the reflections of a voltage pulse sent through a transmission medium. The ETDR sensing technique is a well-developed method and has been widely used to locate and evaluate discontinuities in long coaxial power transmission cables. The ETDR technique provides a true distributed sensing capability which can not only sense the distributed loading condition of the structure but also can pin-point the location of disturbance, such as the locations of stress concentration and structural damages. Proof-of-concept experiments have been conducted using photoelastic specimens with embedded commercial coaxial cables, i.e., RG85/U and RG174, to demonstrate the stress/strain sensing capability of ETDR sensors for structural health monitoring application. Although the test results showed that the ETDR sensor signals capture specimen deformation pattern both in bending and tension and indicate the location and type of crack damages of the photoelastic specimen; yet, the low signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor signal smears the details of the strain measurement that the ETDR signals can convey. A high-sensitivity ETDR coaxial strain sensor prototype newly developed at Clark Atlanta University will be presented. The construction of the prototype sensing cable as well as its electrical properties relevant to distributed strain sensing application will be shown in details. Test results of the sensitivity and tension responses of the ETDR signal of the prototype sensor will be presented and compared with those of commercial coaxial cables. Promising potentials of the ETDR distributed strain sensing method for shape measurement application of large aerospace structures will also be demonstrated using long slender beam with surface-bonded ETDR distributed strain sensor.

  12. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven

    2006-04-01

    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  13. Precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure functions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomensky, Y.G.

    1997-02-01

    In experiment E154 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n} (x, Q{sup 2}) of the neutron was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 48.3 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized {sup 3}He target. The high beam energy allowed the author to extend the kinematic coverage compared to the previous SLAC experiments to 0.014 {le} x {le} 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 GeV{sup 2}. The author reports the integral of the spin dependent structure function in the measured range to be {integral}{sub 0.014}{sup 0.7} dx g{sub 1}{sup n}(x, 5 GeV{sup 2}) = {minus}0.036 {+-} 0.004(stat.) {+-} 0.005(syst.). The author observes relatively large values of g{sub 1}{sup n} at low x that call into question the reliability of data extrapolation to x {r_arrow} 0. Such divergent behavior disagrees with predictions of the conventional Regge theory, but is qualitatively explained by perturbative QCD. The author performs a Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on the nucleon spin dependent structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n} paying careful attention to the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Using the parameterizations of the helicity-dependent parton distributions obtained in the analysis, the author evolves the data to Q{sup 2} = 5 GeV{sup 2}, determines the first moments of the polarized structure functions of the proton and neutron, and finds agreement with the Bjorken sum rule.

  14. Measurements of the Time Structure of Hadronic Showers in a Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Frank; The Calice Collaboration

    For calorimeter applications requiring precise time stamping, the time structure of hadronic showers in the detector is a crucial issue. This applies in particular to detector concepts for CLIC, where a hadronic calorimeter with tungsten absorbers is being considered to achieve a high level of shower containment while satisfying strict space constraints. The high hadronic background from γγ→ hadrons processes at 3 TeV in combination with the 2 GHz bunch crossing frequency at CLIC requires good time stamping in the detectors. To provide first measurements of the time structure in a highly granular scintillator-tungsten calorimeter, T3B, a dedicated timing experiment, was installed behind the last layer of the CALICE WHCAL prototype, a 30 layer tungsten scintillator calorimeter. T3B consists of 15 small scintillator cells with embedded silicon photomultipliers, read out with fast digitizers over a time window of 2.4 μs, and provides detailed measurements of the time structure of the signal. The offine data reconstruction performs an automatic gain calibration using noise events recorded between physics triggers and allows the determination of the arrival time of each photon at the photon sensor. The T3B setup, its calibration and data reconstruction, as well as first results of the time structure of the calorimeter response for 10 GeV pions recorded at the CERN PS confronted with Geant4 simulations using different physics lists are discussed.

  15. UNCOVERING THE ORIGINS OF SPIRAL STRUCTURE BY MEASURING RADIAL VARIATION IN PATTERN SPEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Rand, Richard J.; Merrifield, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    Current theories of spiral and bar structure predict a variety of pattern speed behaviors, calling for detailed, direct measurement of the radial variation of pattern speeds. Our recently developed Radial Tremaine-Weinberg (TWR) method allows this goal to be achieved for the first time. Here, we present TWR spiral pattern speed estimates for M101, IC 342, NGC 3938, and NGC 3344 in order to investigate whether spiral structure is steady or winding, whether spirals are described by multiple pattern speeds, and the relation between bar and spiral speeds. Where possible, we interpret our pattern speeds estimates according to the resonance radii associated with each (established with the disk angular rotation), and compare these to previous determinations. By analyzing the high-quality H I and CO data cubes available for these galaxies, we show that it is possible to determine directly multiple pattern speeds within these systems, and hence identify the characteristic signatures of the processes that drive the spiral structure. Even this small sample of galaxies reveals a surprisingly complex taxonomy, with the first direct evidence for the presence of resonant coupling of multiple patterns found in some systems, and the measurement of a simple single-pattern speed in others. Overall, this study demonstrates that we are now in a position to uncover more of the apparently complex physics that lies behind spiral structure.

  16. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  17. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  18. Crystal structure of the HIV-1 integrase core domain in complex with sucrose reveals details of an allosteric inhibitory binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Wielens, Jerome; Headey, Stephen J.; Jeevarajah, Dharshini; Rhodes, David I.; Deadman, John; Chalmers, David K.; Scanlon, Martin J.; Parker, Michael W.

    2010-04-19

    HIV integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme in HIV replication and an important target for drug design. IN has been shown to interact with a number of cellular and viral proteins during the integration process. Disruption of these important interactions could provide a mechanism for allosteric inhibition of IN. We present the highest resolution crystal structure of the IN core domain to date. We also present a crystal structure of the IN core domain in complex with sucrose which is bound at the dimer interface in a region that has previously been reported to bind integrase inhibitors.

  19. Measurement of the spin structure of the deuteron at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Hannappel, Juergen

    2005-10-06

    A new measurement of the longitudinal spin asymmetry A{sub 1}{sup d} and the spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup d} of the deuteron is presented in the Q2 range from 1GeV2 to 100GeV2 and the x range from 0.004 to 0.7. The data were taken in 2002 and 2003 with the COMPASS experiment at CERN, scattering 160 GeV2 polarised muons off a large polarised 6LiD target. While significantly improving statistical accuracy in the low x region the data agree nicely with previous experiments.

  20. SLAC measurements of the neutron spin-structure function

    SciTech Connect

    Petratos, G.G.; E142 Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    Results from a measurement of the neutron spin-dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) over a range in x from 0.03 to 0.6 and with Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} are presented. The experiment consisted of scattering a longitudinally polarized electron beam from the Stanford Linear Accelerator off a polarized {sup 3}He target and detecting scattered electrons in two magnetic spectrometers. The results are interpreted in the quark-parton model and used to test the Bjorken sum rule.

  1. Displacement measurements in structural elements by optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Peña, Rolando; Cibrián-Ortiz de Anda, Rosa María.; Pino-Velazquez, Angel J.; Soler-de la Cruz, José; González-Jorge, Yhoama

    2000-08-01

    Speckle metrology and holographic interferometry (HI) have been used in several civil engineering applications. We present the results obtained by applying speckle photography (SP) to the study of two quadratic shearwalls with different boundary conditions, and the potential of the technique in the study of this kind of structures is described. The analysis of Young's fringes obtained with this technique at certain points on each shearwall provides the whole field of displacement measurements. HI has been used to measure the three components of absolute displacement, verifying that the bulging phenomenon does not affect the in-plane components when the applied load remains on the same plane as the shearwall. A qualitative analysis is carried out following an electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) technique. The results obtained by optical techniques are compared to the numerical results obtained by the finite element method (FEM), finding good correlation between them in all the cases.

  2. Knowledge Structure Measures of Reader's Situation Models across Languages: Translation Engenders Richer Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung; Clariana, Roy B.

    2015-01-01

    In order to further validate and extend the application of recent knowledge structure (KS) measures to second language settings, this investigation explores how second language (L2, English) situation models are influenced by first language (L1, Korean) translation tasks. Fifty Korean low proficient English language learners were asked to read an…

  3. Measurement of valence band structure in arbitrary dielectric films

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.

    2012-10-15

    A new way of measuring the band structure of various dielectric materials using the secondary electron emission from Auger neutralization of ions is introduced. The first example of this measurement scheme is the magnesium oxide (MgO) films with respect to the application of the films in the display industries. The density of state in the valence bands of MgO film and MgO film with a functional layer (FL) deposited over a dielectric surface reveals that the density peak of film with a FL is considerably less than that of film, thereby indicating a better performance of MgO film with functional layer in display devices. The second example of the measurement is the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films with respect to the application of the films to the development of solar cells. The measurement of density of state in BZO film suggests that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film. Secondary electron emission by the Auger neutralization of ions is highly instrumental for the determination of the density of states in the valence band of dielectric materials.

  4. Details of regional particle deposition and airflow structures in a realistic model of human tracheobronchial airways: two-phase flow simulation.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Gorji, Mohammad; Gorji, Tahereh B; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2016-07-01

    In the present investigation, detailed two-phase flow modeling of airflow, transport and deposition of micro-particles (1-10µm) in a realistic tracheobronchial airway geometry based on CT scan images under various breathing conditions (i.e. 10-60l/min) was considered. Lagrangian particle tracking has been used to investigate the particle deposition patterns in a model comprising mouth up to generation G6 of tracheobronchial airways. The results demonstrated that during all breathing patterns, the maximum velocity change occurred in the narrow throat region (Larynx). Due to implementing a realistic geometry for simulations, many irregularities and bending deflections exist in the airways model. Thereby, at higher inhalation rates, these areas are prone to vortical effects which tend to entrap the inhaled particles. According to the results, deposition fraction has a direct relationship with particle aerodynamic diameter (for dp=1-10µm). Enhancing inhalation flow rate and particle size will largely increase the inertial force and consequently, more particle deposition is evident suggesting that inertial impaction is the dominant deposition mechanism in tracheobronchial airways. PMID:27160637

  5. Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bubacz, Jacob A; Chmielewski, Hana T; Pape, Alexander E; Depersio, Andrew J; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K; Boone, Shane

    2011-11-01

    A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.

  6. The Selective Mutism Questionnaire: Measurement Structure and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire. Method Diagnostic interviews were administered via telephone to 102 parents of children identified with selective mutism (SM) and 43 parents of children without SM from varying U.S. geographic regions. Children were between the ages of 3 and 11 inclusive and comprised 58% girls and 42% boys. SM diagnoses were determined using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children - Parent Version (ADIS-C/P); SM severity was assessed using the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ); and behavioral and affective symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to investigate the dimensionality of the SMQ and a modified parallel analysis procedure was used to confirm EFA results. Internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental validity were also examined. Results The EFA yielded a 13-item solution consisting of three factors: a) Social Situations Outside of School, b) School Situations, and c) Home and Family Situations. Internal consistency of SMQ factors and total scale ranged from moderate to high. Convergent and incremental validity were also well supported. Conclusions Measure structure findings are consistent with the 3-factor solution found in a previous psychometric evaluation of the SMQ. Results also suggest that the SMQ provides useful and unique information in the prediction of SM phenomenon beyond other child anxiety measures. PMID:18698268

  7. A novel mask structure for measuring the defocus of scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lisong; Song, Zhiyang; Su, Xiaojing; Wei, Yayi

    2016-03-01

    A new focus monitor mask having novel grating structure is proposed to measure the focus variation of the scanner. The grating pattern composes of transparent line, opaque line, π-phase shift groove and π/2 -phase shift groove with their width ratio equivalent to 1:4:1:2. By using this structure, one of the first order and one of the second order of the diffraction spectrum are eliminated. Therefore, the lithography image is formed by the interference of the zeroth order and the left positive (or negative) 1st and 2nd orders, which is more sensitive to the subtle change of focus. The basic principle and characteristic of the proposed mask is described in this paper. Simulations with the lithography simulator PROLITH shows that the monitoring accuracy is improved more than 25%, compared with the conventional phase grating focus monitor (PGFM). The novel mask proposed in our job has potential to be an efficient candidate for measuring the defocus of scanner in the immersion lithography with hyper NA.

  8. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: I. The Macromolecular Components of the Walls of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells with a Detailed Analysis of the Pectic Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Talmadge, K W; Keegstra, K; Bauer, W D; Albersheim, P

    1973-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers dealing with the structure of cell walls isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus). These studies have been made possible by the availability of purified hydrolytic enzymes and by recent improvements in the techniques of methylation analysis. These techniques have permitted us to identify and quantitate the macromolecular components of sycamore cell walls. These walls are composed of 10% arabinan, 2% 3,6-linked arabinogalactan, 23% cellulose, 9% oligo-arabinosides (attached to hydroxyproline), 8% 4-linked galactan, 10% hydroxyproline-rich protein, 16% rhamnogalacturonan, and 21% xyloglucan.The structures of the pectic polymers (the neutral arabinan, the neutral galactan, and the acidic rhamnogalacturonan) were obtained, in part, by methylation analysis of fragments of these polymers which were released from the sycamore walls by the action of a highly purified endopolygalacturonase. The data suggest a branched arabinan and a linear 4-linked galactan occurring as side chains on the rhamnogalacturonan. Small amounts or pieces of a xyloglucan, the wall hemicellulose, appear to be covalently linked to some of the galactan chains. Thus, the galactan appears to serve as a bridge between the xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan components of the wall.The rhamnogalacturonan consists of an alpha-(1 --> 4)-linked galacturonan chain which is interspersed with 2-linked rhamnosyl residues. The rhamnosyl residues are not randomly distributed in the chain but probably occur in units of rhamnosyl- (1 --> 4)-galacturonosyl- (1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl. This sequence appears to alternate with a homogalacturonan sequence containing approximately 8 residues of 4-linked galacturonic acid. About half of the rhamnosyl residues are branched, having a substituent attached to carbon 4. This is likely to be the site of attachment of the 4-linked galactan.The hydroxyprolyl oligo-arabinosides of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein

  9. Crystal structures of two bacterial HECT-like E3 ligases in complex with a human E2 reveal atomic details of pathogen-host interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, David Yin-wei; Diao, Jianbo; Chen, Jue

    2012-12-10

    In eukaryotes, ubiquitination is an important posttranslational process achieved through a cascade of ubiquitin-activating (E1), conjugating (E2), and ligase (E3) enzymes. Many pathogenic bacteria deliver virulence factors into the host cell that function as E3 ligases. How these bacterial 'Trojan horses' integrate into the eukaryotic ubiquitin system has remained a mystery. Here we report crystal structures of two bacterial E3s, Salmonella SopA and Escherichia coli NleL, both in complex with human E2 UbcH7. These structures represent two distinct conformational states of the bacterial E3s, supporting the necessary structural rearrangements associated with ubiquitin transfer. The E2-interacting surface of SopA and NleL has little similarity to those of eukaryotic E3s. However, both bacterial E3s bind to the canonical surface of E2 that normally interacts with eukaryotic E3s. Furthermore, we show that a glutamate residue on E3 is involved in catalyzing ubiquitin transfer from E3 to the substrate, but not from E2 to E3. Together, these results provide mechanistic insights into the ubiquitin pathway and a framework for understanding molecular mimicry in bacterial pathogenesis.

  10. Detailed Shallow Structure and Seismic Catalog Based on Data of a Spatially-Dense Array on the San Jacinto Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    I review results on imaging the shallow structure of San Jacinto fault zone and detection/location of seismic energy sources using data of a spatially-dense Nodal array centered on the Clark branch of the fault. The array operated at the Sage Brush site south of Anza for about 4 weeks in 2014 with 1108 vertical (10 Hz) geophones in about 650 m x 700 m box configuration. Continuous waveforms with signals generated by the ambient seismic noise, earthquakes, and Betsy gunshots were recorded with useable frequencies up to 200 Hz. Imaging the shallow structure is done with surface and body waves extracted from the ambient noise, arrivals from local and teleseismic earthquakes, and waves generated by the gunshots. The results reveal shallow material with very low seismic velocities and attenuation coefficients, strong lateral and vertical variations, seismic trapping structure, local sedimentary basin, and overall lithology contrast across the fault. The detection/location techniques include stacking, beamforming, matched field processing, and templates generated by these methods. The analysis uncovers many hundred of daily earthquakes not detected by the regional networks and several different types of surface noise sources.

  11. Imaging Dot Patterns for Measuring Gossamer Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrington, A. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Jones, T. W.; Pappa, R. S.; Connell, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    A paper describes a photogrammetric method for measuring the changing shape of a gossamer (membrane) structure deployed in outer space. Such a structure is typified by a solar sail comprising a transparent polymeric membrane aluminized on its Sun-facing side and coated black on the opposite side. Unlike some prior photogrammetric methods, this method does not require an artificial light source or the attachment of retroreflectors to the gossamer structure. In a basic version of the method, the membrane contains a fluorescent dye, and the front and back coats are removed in matching patterns of dots. The dye in the dots absorbs some sunlight and fluoresces at a longer wavelength in all directions, thereby enabling acquisition of high-contrast images from almost any viewing angle. The fluorescent dots are observed by one or more electronic camera(s) on the Sun side, the shade side, or both sides. Filters that pass the fluorescent light and suppress most of the solar spectrum are placed in front of the camera(s) to increase the contrast of the dots against the background. The dot image(s) in the camera(s) are digitized, then processed by use of commercially available photogrammetric software.

  12. An Overview of Longitudinal Spin Structure Measurements from JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Sulkosky, Vincent A.

    2013-08-01

    Jefferson Lab is currently one of the facilities leading the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past 15 years, several high precision measurements have been completed, extending our knowledge of the polarized structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} down to Q{sup 2} = 0.02 GeV{sup 2}. In particular, the low-Q{sup 2} range ({<=} 0.1 GeV{sup 2}) from these data allows us to make a benchmark-check of Chiral Perturbation theory ({chi}PT). Previous results for the moments of the spin structure functions in this region have shown mixed agreement. For {Gamma}{sub 1}, the first moment of g{sub 1}, we find good consistency between data and theory. However, we have seen a surprisingly large discrepancy with {chi}PT calculations for the {delta}{sub LT} spin polarizability on the neutron, which is significantly less sensitive to the {Delta}-resonance contribution. These proceedings will discuss the recent experimental effort at low Q{sup 2} from Jefferson Lab, including a discussion of preliminary results on the neutron. The new results on the neutron still show a sizeable discrepancy between data and theory. However, new calculations show improved agreement with data for some observables. In addition, new proton data for g{sub 2} is also expected to help resolve the disagreement for {delta}{sub LT}.

  13. Observations and Measurements on Unsteady Cloud Cavitation Flow Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, L. X.; Yan, G. J.; Huang, B.

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this paper are to investigate the unsteady structures and hydrodynamics of cavitating flows. Experimental results are presented for a Clark-Y hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=0°, 5° and 8°. The high-speed video camera and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applied to investigate the transient flow structures. The dynamic measurement system is used to record the dynamic characteristics. The cloud cavitation exhibits noticeable unsteady characteristics. For the case of α=0°, there exit strong interactions between the attached cavity and the re-entrant flow. While for the case of α=8°, the re-entrant flow is relatively thin and the interaction between the cavity and re-entrant flow is limited. The results also present that the periodic collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavitation, which leads to substantial increase of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the cavity region. Experimental evidence indicates that the hydrodynamics are clearly affected by the cavitating flow structures, the amplitude of load fluctuation are much higher for the cloud cavitating cases.

  14. Expansion and orthogonalization of measured modes for structure identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Suzanne Weaver

    1989-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate a new simultaneous expansion/orthogonalization method in comparison with two previously published expansion methods and a widely used orthogonalization technique. Each expansion method uses data from an analytical model of the structure to complete the estimate of the mode shape vectors. Berman and Nagy used Guyan expansion in their work with improving analytical models. In this method, modes are expanded one at a time, producing a set not orthogonal with respect to the mass matrix. Baruch and Bar Itzhack's optimal orthogonalization procedure was used to subsequently adjust the expanded modes. A second expansion technique was presented by O'Callahan, Avitabile, and Reimer and separately by Kammer. Again, modes are expanded individually and orthogonalized after expansion with the same optimal technique as above. Finally, a simultaneous expansion/orthogonalization method was developed from the orthogonal Procrustes problem of computational mathematics. In this method modes are optimally expanded as a set and orthogonal with respect to the mass matrix as a result. Two demonstation problems were selected for the comparison of the methods described. The first problem is an 8 degree of freedom spring-mass problem first presented by Kabe. Several conditions were examined for expansion method including the presence of errors in the measured data and in the analysis models. As a second demonstration problem, data from tests of laboratory scale model truss structures was expanded for system identification. Tests with a complete structure produced a correlated analysis model and the stiffness and mass matrices. Tests of various damaged configurations produced measured data for 6 modes at 14 dof locations.

  15. LF460 detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final technical report documenting the detail design of the LF460, and advanced turbotip lift fan intended for application with the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet jet generator to a V/STOL transport research aircraft. Primary objective of the design was to achieve a low noise level while maintaining the high thrust/weight ratio capability of a high pressure ratio lift fan. Report covers design requirements and summarizes activities and final results in the areas of aerodynamic and mechanical design, component and system performance, acoustic features and final noise predictions.

  16. Detailed structural analysis of glycosidase/inhibitor interactions: complexes of Cex from Cellulomonas fimi with xylobiose-derived aza-sugars.

    PubMed

    Notenboom, V; Williams, S J; Hoos, R; Withers, S G; Rose, D R

    2000-09-26

    Detailed insights into the mode of binding of a series of tight-binding aza-sugar glycosidase inhibitors of two fundamentally different classes are described through X-ray crystallographic studies of complexes with the retaining family 10 xylanase Cex from Cellulomonas fimi. Complexes with xylobiose-derived aza-sugar inhibitors of the substituted "amidine" class (xylobio-imidazole, K(i) = 150 nM; xylobio-lactam oxime, K(i) = 370 nM) reveal lateral interaction of the "glycosidic" nitrogen with the acid/base catalyst (Glu127) and hydrogen bonding of the sugar 2-hydroxyl with the catalytic nucleophile (Glu233), as expected. Tight binding of xylobio-isofagomine (K(i) = 130 nM) appears to be a consequence of strong interactions of the ring nitrogen with the catalytic nucleophile while, surprisingly, no direct protein contacts are made with the ring nitrogen of the xylobio-deoxynojirimycin analogue (K(i) = 5800 nM). Instead the nitrogen interacts with two ordered water molecules, thereby accounting for its relatively weaker binding, though it still binds some 1200-fold more tightly than does xylobiose, presumably as a consequence of electrostatic interactions at the active site. Dramatically weaker binding of these same inhibitors to the family 11 xylanase Bcx from Bacillus circulans (K(i) from 0.5 to 1.5 mM) is rationalized for the substituted amidines on the basis that this enzyme utilizes a syn protonation trajectory and likely hydrolyzes via a (2,5)B boat transition state. Weaker binding of the deoxynojirimycin and isofagomine analogues likely reflects the energetic penalty for distortion of these analogues to a (2,5)B conformation, possibly coupled with destabilizing interactions with Tyr69, a conserved, catalytically essential active site residue.

  17. Bio-mimetic optical sensor for structural deflection measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Streeter, Robert W.; Khan, Md. A.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2014-03-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a primary goal of NASA aeronautics research. One approach to achieve this goal is to build lighter weight aircraft, which presents complex challenges due to a corresponding increase in structural flexibility. Wing flexibility can adversely affect aircraft performance from the perspective of aerodynamic efficiency and safety. Knowledge of the wing position during flight can aid active control methods designed to mitigate problems due to increased wing flexibility. Current approaches to measuring wing deflection, including strain measurement devices, accelerometers, or GPS solutions, and new technologies such as fiber optic strain sensors, have limitations for their practical application to flexible aircraft control. Hence, it was proposed to use a bio-mimetic optical sensor based on the fly-eye to track wing deflection in real-time. The fly-eye sensor has several advantages over conventional sensors used for this application, including light weight, low power requirements, fast computation, and a small form factor. This paper reports on the fly-eye sensor development and its application to real-time wing deflection measurement.

  18. Die Parting welt marks' measurement using structured laser analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Mullen, Joey H.

    1997-01-01

    Heating and cooling air for an aircraft interior is transported using metal ducts. These ducts vary in size from a few centimeters to twelve centimeters in diameter. In the assembly of aircraft air ducts, coupling is swaged onto the ducts. In assuring the mechanical dies are operating properly the die parting welt mark is inspected. The current method of visual inspection and checking with calipers does not allow implementation of statistical process control methods. In an effort to improve this process check, a new measurement method is being developed. A feasibility study indicated that a structured light laser system would be a good approach. A few requirements are: it must be portable to be used at different locations within the fabrication area, it must be fast, it should be easy to use by the mechanic, the reading must be accurate, a hard copy print out is required, and it must be non-destructive. Due to the mechanical configuration of the duct and coupling, a camera with magnification optics is used. The measurement of the bump has a maximum height of 50.8 microns. The prototype systems uses computer vision and custom software written in the C language. This paper discusses different measurement methods tested and the benefits of each technology. The development of a specialized system is justified for production use. This paper describes the prototype system and some of its configuration for factory testing.

  19. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  20. High resolution clear native electrophoresis (hrCNE) allows a detailed analysis of the heterotrimeric structure of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis porins inserted into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Freixeiro, Paula; Diéguez-Casal, Ernesto; Costoya, Liliana; Marzoa, Juan; Ferreirós, Carlos M; Criado, María Teresa; Sánchez, Sandra

    2013-02-01

    Three recombinant proteins of Neisseria meningitidis, rPorB, rPorA, and rRmpM, were purified and incorporated into liposomes prepared by dialysis-extrusion. The protein complexes formed using different combinations of recombinant proteins were studied by high resolution clear native electrophoresis (hrCNE) and 2-D hrCNE/SDS-PAGE, analyzing the influence of the stoichiometry of the two porins in the formation of complexes and comparing them with native porin complexes present in OMVs from five different N. meningitidis strains. Insertion of the recombinant proteins into liposomes allowed a complete refolding of porin complexes, and the electrophoretic analyses showed that, when the three recombinant proteins are present, the pattern of porin complexes obtained is similar to that observed in native OMVs. We could show homocomplexes of each individual porin and PorA/PorB, RmpM/PorB, and PorA/PorB/RmpM heterocomplexes. Our results suggest that RmpM binds only to PorB, confirm the trimeric structure of N. meningitidis pores, and demonstrate that insertion into liposomes restores the native structure of porin complexes.

  1. Exploring details about structure requirements based on novel CGRP receptor antagonists urethanamide, aspartate, succinate and pyridine derivatives by in silico methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; He, Haoran; Wang, Jinghui; Han, Chunxiao; Feng, Jiaqi; Zhang, Shuwei; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    The migraine never fails to afflict individuals in the world that knows no lack of such cases. CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) is found closely related to migraine and olcegepant (BIBN4096) is effective in alleviating the pain. In our work, the combination of ligand- and receptor-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies along with molecular docking was applied to provide us insights about how urethanamide, pyridine and aspartate and succinate derivatives (novel CGRP receptor antagonists) play a part in inhibiting the activity of CGRP receptor. The optimal CoMSIA model shows the Q2 of 0.505, R2ncv of 0.992 and its accurate predictive ability was confirmed by checking out an independent test set which gave R2pred value of 0.885. Besides, the 3D contour maps help us identify how different groups affect the antagonist activity while connecting to some key positions. In addition, the docking analysis shows the binding site emerging as the distorted “V” shape and including two binding pockets: one of them is hydrophobic, fixing the structural part 3 of compound 80, the other anchors the part 1 of compound 80. The docking analysis also shows the interaction mechanism between compound 80 and CGRP receptor, similar to the interaction between olcegepant and CGRP receptor. The findings derived from this work reveal the mechanism of related antagonists and facilitate the future rational design of novel antagonists with higher potency.

  2. Human Naa50 Protein Displays Broad Substrate Specificity for Amino-terminal Acetylation: DETAILED STRUCTURAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS USING TETRAPEPTIDE LIBRARY.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Saddanapu, Venkateshwarlu; Chinthapalli, Dinesh Kumar; Sankoju, Priyanka; Sripadi, Prabhakar; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2016-09-23

    Amino-terminal acetylation is a critical co-translational modification of the newly synthesized proteins in a eukaryotic cell carried out by six amino-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). All NATs contain at least one catalytic subunit, and some contain one or two additional auxiliary subunits. For example, NatE is a complex of Naa10, Naa50, and Naa15 (auxiliary). In the present study, the crystal structure of human Naa50 suggested the presence of CoA and acetylated tetrapeptide (AcMMXX) that have co-purified with the protein. Biochemical and thermal stability studies on the tetrapeptide library with variations in the first and second positions confirm our results from the crystal structure that a peptide with Met-Met in the first two positions is the best substrate for this enzyme. In addition, Naa50 acetylated all MXAA peptides except for MPAA. Transcriptome analysis of 10 genes that make up six NATs in humans from eight different cell lines suggests that components of NatE are transcribed in all cell lines, whereas others are variable. Because Naa10 is reported to acetylate all amino termini that are devoid of methionine and Naa50 acetylates all other peptides that are followed by methionine, we believe that NatE complex can be a major contributor for amino-terminal acetylation at the ribosome exit tunnel.

  3. Human Naa50 Protein Displays Broad Substrate Specificity for Amino-terminal Acetylation: DETAILED STRUCTURAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS USING TETRAPEPTIDE LIBRARY.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Saddanapu, Venkateshwarlu; Chinthapalli, Dinesh Kumar; Sankoju, Priyanka; Sripadi, Prabhakar; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2016-09-23

    Amino-terminal acetylation is a critical co-translational modification of the newly synthesized proteins in a eukaryotic cell carried out by six amino-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). All NATs contain at least one catalytic subunit, and some contain one or two additional auxiliary subunits. For example, NatE is a complex of Naa10, Naa50, and Naa15 (auxiliary). In the present study, the crystal structure of human Naa50 suggested the presence of CoA and acetylated tetrapeptide (AcMMXX) that have co-purified with the protein. Biochemical and thermal stability studies on the tetrapeptide library with variations in the first and second positions confirm our results from the crystal structure that a peptide with Met-Met in the first two positions is the best substrate for this enzyme. In addition, Naa50 acetylated all MXAA peptides except for MPAA. Transcriptome analysis of 10 genes that make up six NATs in humans from eight different cell lines suggests that components of NatE are transcribed in all cell lines, whereas others are variable. Because Naa10 is reported to acetylate all amino termini that are devoid of methionine and Naa50 acetylates all other peptides that are followed by methionine, we believe that NatE complex can be a major contributor for amino-terminal acetylation at the ribosome exit tunnel. PMID:27484799

  4. Insights into Mercury's interior structure from geodesy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoldini, A.; Van Hoolst, T.; Trinh, A.

    2013-09-01

    The measurements of the gravitational field of Mercury by MESSENGER [1] and improved measurements of the spin state of Mercury [2] provide important constraints on the interior structure of Mercury. In particular, these data give strong constraints on the radius and density of Mercury's core and on the core's concentration of sulfur if sulfur is the only light element in the core [3]. Although sulfur is ubiquitously invoked as being the principal candidate light element in terrestrial planet's cores its abundance in the core depends on the redox conditions during planetary formation. MESSENGER data from remote sensing of Mercury's surface [4] indicate a high abundance of sulfur and confirm the low abundance in FeO supporting the hypotheses that Mercury formed under reducing conditions [5]. Therefore, substantial amounts of other light elements like for instance silicon could be present together with sulfur inside Mercury's core. Unlike sulfur, which does almost not partition into solid iron under Mercury's core pressure and temperature conditions, silicon partitions virtually equally between solid and liquid iron. Thus, if silicon is the only light element inside the core, the density jump at the inner-core outer-core boundary is significantly smaller if compared to an Fe - FeS core. If both silicon and sulfur are present inside Mercury's core then as a consequence of a large immiscibility region in liquid Fe - Si - S at Mercury's core conditions and for specific concentrations of light elements [6] a thin layer much enriched in sulfur and depleted in silicon could form at the top of the core. In this study we analyze interior structure models with silicon as the only light element in the core and with both silicon and sulfur in the core. Compared to models with Fe - FeS both settings have different mass distributions within their cores and will likely deform differently due to different elastic properties. Consequently their libration and tides will be different

  5. Self-Reported, Structured Measures of Recovery to Detect Postoperative Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Anetsberger, Aida; Blobner, Manfred; Krautheim, Veronika; Umgelter, Katrin; Schmid, Sebastian; Jungwirth, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on postoperative anaesthetic visit as a tool for measuring postoperative recovery or patient’s satisfaction. Whether it could also improve timely recognition of complications has not been studied yet. Aim of our study was to assess pathological findings in physical examination requiring further intervention during postoperative visit and to explore whether a self-administered version of the Quality of Recovery (QoR)-9 score, compared to a detailed medical history, can act as a screening tool for identification of patients who show a low risk to develop postoperative complications. This observational study included 918 patients recovering from various types of non-cardiac surgery and anaesthesia. The postoperative visit implied three steps: measuring the QoR-9 score, a structured medical history and a physical examination. QoR-9-score showed a comparable negative predictive value (0.93 vs. 0.92) and a higher sensitivity of finding at least one pathological examination than a detailed medical history (0.92 vs. 0.81 respectively). At least one postoperative pathological examination finding was observed in 23.7% of the patients. Our approach presents a strategy on screening postoperative patients in order to identify patients whose examination and consequent treatment should be intensified. In further studies the question could be addressed whether the postoperative visit may help to reduce complications and mortality after surgery. PMID:26207620

  6. Self-Reported, Structured Measures of Recovery to Detect Postoperative Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Anetsberger, Aida; Blobner, Manfred; Krautheim, Veronika; Umgelter, Katrin; Schmid, Sebastian; Jungwirth, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on postoperative anaesthetic visit as a tool for measuring postoperative recovery or patient's satisfaction. Whether it could also improve timely recognition of complications has not been studied yet. Aim of our study was to assess pathological findings in physical examination requiring further intervention during postoperative visit and to explore whether a self-administered version of the Quality of Recovery (QoR)-9 score, compared to a detailed medical history, can act as a screening tool for identification of patients who show a low risk to develop postoperative complications. This observational study included 918 patients recovering from various types of non-cardiac surgery and anaesthesia. The postoperative visit implied three steps: measuring the QoR-9 score, a structured medical history and a physical examination. QoR-9-score showed a comparable negative predictive value (0.93 vs. 0.92) and a higher sensitivity of finding at least one pathological examination than a detailed medical history (0.92 vs. 0.81 respectively). At least one postoperative pathological examination finding was observed in 23.7% of the patients. Our approach presents a strategy on screening postoperative patients in order to identify patients whose examination and consequent treatment should be intensified. In further studies the question could be addressed whether the postoperative visit may help to reduce complications and mortality after surgery.

  7. Next-Generation Terrestrial Laser Scanning to Measure Forest Canopy Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) are now capable of semi-automatic reconstruction of the structure of complete trees or forest stands and have the potential to provide detailed information on tree architecture and foliage biophysical properties. The trends for the next generation of TLS are towards higher resolution, faster scanning and full-waveform data recording, with mobile, multispectral laser devices. The convergence of these technological advances in the next generation of TLS will allow the production of information for forest and woodland mapping and monitoring that is far more detailed, more accurate, and more comprehensive than any available today. This paper describes recent scientific advances in the application of TLS for characterising forest and woodland areas, drawing on the authors' development of the Salford Advanced Laser Canopy Analyser (SALCA), the activities of the Terrestrial Laser Scanner International Interest Group (TLSIIG), and recent advances in laser scanner technology around the world. The key findings illustrated in the paper are that (i) a complete understanding of system measurement characteristics is required for quantitative analysis of TLS data, (ii) full-waveform data recording is required for extraction of forest biophysical variables and, (iii) multi-wavelength systems provide additional spectral information that is essential for classifying different vegetation components. The paper uses a range of recent experimental TLS measurements to support these findings, and sets out a vision for new research to develop an information-rich future-forest information system, populated by mobile autonomous multispectral TLS devices.

  8. Energetic loads and informational entropy during insect metamorphosis: measuring structural variability and self-organization.

    PubMed

    Damos, Petros T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Rigas, Alexandros; Savopoulou-Soultani, Matilda

    2011-10-01

    In this work an information theory approach is presented for measuring structural variability during insect metamorphosis. Following a self-organizational perspective, the underlying assumption is that an insect pupa is a cybernetic bio-system, which displays a homeostatic control during its metamorphosis. The description of structural variability was based on biochemical data (lipids, glycogen, carbohydrates and proteins) analysed at different time intervals during the metamorphosis of Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Probabilities of biochemical variables were further treated by considering a finite countable set of progressive metamorphosis states having Markov properties at isothermal conditions (25 °C, 16:8h L:D, 65 ± 5%RH). The probabilities of the biochemical variables, as well as the related informational entropies, are affected when the system moves one step forward for each successive state. In most cases, but protein, there is some observable evidence that histolysis could be related to a decrease in informational entropy H ('disorganization of the system'), followed by a 'stable balance period' during the middle stages of metamorphosis. An initial increase in H is measured at the last stages of metamorphosis, which theoretically correspond to histogenesis ('reorganization of the system'). In this context, the temporal evolution of pupal structural variability was probabilistically quantified according to the classical information theory. The principles of the proposed holistic system are independent of its detailed dynamics and the proposed model can potentially describe part of the observable experimental data during metamorphosis of a holometabolous insect.

  9. Brain Genomics Superstruct Project initial data release with structural, functional, and behavioral measures

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Avram J.; Hollinshead, Marisa O.; O’Keefe, Timothy M.; Petrov, Victor I.; Fariello, Gabriele R.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Fischl, Bruce; Rosen, Bruce R.; Mair, Ross W.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Brain Genomics Superstruct Project (GSP) is to enable large-scale exploration of the links between brain function, behavior, and ultimately genetic variation. To provide the broader scientific community data to probe these associations, a repository of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans linked to genetic information was constructed from a sample of healthy individuals. The initial release, detailed in the present manuscript, encompasses quality screened cross-sectional data from 1,570 participants ages 18 to 35 years who were scanned with MRI and completed demographic and health questionnaires. Personality and cognitive measures were obtained on a subset of participants. Each dataset contains a T1-weighted structural MRI scan and either one (n=1,570) or two (n=1,139) resting state functional MRI scans. Test-retest reliability datasets are included from 69 participants scanned within six months of their initial visit. For the majority of participants self-report behavioral and cognitive measures are included (n=926 and n=892 respectively). Analyses of data quality, structure, function, personality, and cognition are presented to demonstrate the dataset’s utility. PMID:26175908

  10. Time-Resolved PIV Measurements of Vortical Structures in the Upper Human Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    e, Sebastian Groß; Schröder, Wolfgang; Klaas, Michael

    A detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional flow structures in the human lung is an inevitable prerequisite to optimize respiratory-assist devices. To achieve this goal the indepth analysis of the flow field that evolves during normal breathing conditions is indispensable. This study focuses on the experimental investigation of the steady and oscillatory flow in the first lung bifurcation of a three-dimensional realistic transparent silicone lung model. The particle image velocimetry technique was used for the measurements. To match the refractive index of the model, the fluid was a mixture of water and glycerine. The flow structures occurring in the first bifurcation during steady inflow have been studied in detail at different flow rates and Reynolds numbers ranging from ReD = 1250 to ReD = 1700 based on the hydraulic diameter D of the trachea. The results evidence a highly three-dimensional and asymmetric character of the velocity field in the upper human airways, in which the influence of the asymmetric geometry of the realistic lung model plays a significant role for the development of the flow field in the respiratory system. The inspiration flow shows large zones with secondary vortical flow structures with reduced streamwise velocity near the outer walls of the bifurcation and regions of high-speed fluid in the vicinity of the inner side walls of the bifurcation. Depending on the local geometry of the lung these zones extend to the next generation of the airway system, resulting in a strong impact on the flow-rate distribution in the different branches of the lung. During expiration small zones of reduced streamwise velocity can be observed mainly in the trachea and the flow profile is characterized by typical jet-like structures and an M-shaped velocity profile. To investigate the temporal evolution of the flow phenomena in the first lung bifurcation time-resolved recordings were performed for Womersley numbers α ranging from 3.3 to 5.8 and Reynolds

  11. Summer Support of the Advanced Structures and Measurements Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuber, Alexander Lee

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is my exit presentation summarizing the work that I did this summer during my 10 week summer internship. It is primarily focused on tensile testing of composite coupons including the use of the ARAMIS optical strain measurement system, but it also includes some discussion of other support that I provided for the Dryden composites working group effort. My main efforts in that area were focused on T-joint design for an upcoming hands-on-workshop as well as design of a fixture to test joint coupons. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the other small projects that I worked on, including support of structurally integrated thermal protection system (STIPS) research and the Global Observer wing loads test.

  12. Detail of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers (330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color. JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  13. Detailed structure and geological background of Foldback Reflectors near Methane-hydrate BSRs inferred from 3D seismic in the eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, H.; Morita, S.; Kioka, A.; Ashi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding subsurface gas/fluid behavior is significant for revealing hydrocarbon pathways or for discussions on global carbon cycle. Conventional hydrocarbon indicators in seismic profiles are in practice useful for detection of gas hydrates or gas in shallow sedimentary sequences. We herein study uniquely distinct seismic reflectors imaged in 3D seismic data acquired in the eastern Nankai Trough. The reflectors termed here as Foldback reflectors (FBRs), which occur along the edge of BSR and have accordion shaped characteristics. The FBRs resemble but differ from vertically stacked stratigraphic traps, in terms of that all the reflectors cut the formational sequences. FBRs are distributed in thick, well-stratified and less deformed sediments of the north-western slope of the uplifted outer ridge. Two-dimensional thermal structure taking into account topographic effects on the seafloor in our model undoubtedly shows that FBRs are developed well below depths of the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS), even with changing hydrocarbon proportion including methane and ethane. P-wave velocity strongly suggests that the FBRs serve as a boundary of gas distribution below the BGHS. The polarity reversed at the edge of each FBR is consistent with a velocity model. Relatively fast regional uplift possibly produces the trapped free gas in pore spaces that is related to dissociation of gas hydrates. Morphology of FBRs is controlled by lithology and structure of their surrounding formation. The edge of FBRs might be corresponded to the boundary of the sandy/muddy seismic unit that is inferred from an instantaneous amplitude attribute analysis. Previously reported distribution of gas hydrates in this region can be well-constrained by lithology which is consistent with the seismic unit defined in this study. FBRs strike almost in the same direction with hosting formation, and they are always developed in downdip of the formation below BSRs. It is thus inferred that the

  14. Can atom-surface potential measurements test atomic structure models?

    PubMed

    Lonij, Vincent P A; Klauss, Catherine E; Holmgren, William F; Cronin, Alexander D

    2011-06-30

    van der Waals (vdW) atom-surface potentials can be excellent benchmarks for atomic structure calculations. This is especially true if measurements are made with two different types of atoms interacting with the same surface sample. Here we show theoretically how ratios of vdW potential strengths (e.g., C₃(K)/C₃(Na)) depend sensitively on the properties of each atom, yet these ratios are relatively insensitive to properties of the surface. We discuss how C₃ ratios depend on atomic core electrons by using a two-oscillator model to represent the contribution from atomic valence electrons and core electrons separately. We explain why certain pairs of atoms are preferable to study for future experimental tests of atomic structure calculations. A well chosen pair of atoms (e.g., K and Na) will have a C₃ ratio that is insensitive to the permittivity of the surface, whereas a poorly chosen pair (e.g., K and He) will have a ratio of C₃ values that depends more strongly on the permittivity of the surface.

  15. Volume measurements of normal orbital structures by computed tomographic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.; Gehring, D.G.; Gorman, C.A.; Brennan, M.D.; Jackson, I.T.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomographic digital data and special off-line computer graphic analysis were used to measure volumes of normal orbital soft tissue, extraocular muscle, orbital fat, and total bony orbit in vivo in 29 patients (58 orbits). The upper limits of normal for adult bony orbit, soft tissue exclusive of the globe, orbital fat, and muscle are 30.1 cm/sup 3/, 20.0 cm/sup 3/, 14.4 cm/sup 3/, and 6.5 cm/sup 3/, respectively. There are small differences in men as a group compared with women but minimal difference between right and left orbits in the same person. The accuracy of the techniques was established at 7%-8% for these orbit structural volumes in physical phantoms and in simulated silicone orbit phantoms in dry skulls. Mean values and upper limits of normal for volumes were determined in adult orbital structures for future comparison with changes due to endocrine ophthalmopathy, trauma, and congenital deformity.

  16. Effect of Eu ion incorporation on the emission behavior of Y2O3 nanophosphors: A detailed study of structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Y.; Pal, Mou; Herrera, M.; Mathew, X.

    2016-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of doping concentration on the luminescence behavior of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) europium (Eu) doped nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method. Incorporation of Eu ion in Y2O3 matrix is clearly reflected in structural and optical properties of the doped Y2O3 phosphor. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy proves the presence of strong Eu3+ emissions along with the presence of an additional weak band corresponding to electronic transitions 4f65d1 (7FJ) - 4f7 (8S7/2) of the Eu2+. The presence of Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions in Y2O3 nanoparticles have been additionally confirmed by XPS analysis. Luminescence band corresponding to Eu3+ ions appears in both CL and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, covering the orange-red emissions from 580 to 710 nm. Vibrational properties analyzed through Raman spectroscopy have revealed the evolution of different peaks associated with Eu emission in the doped Y2O3 nanocrystals.

  17. Polarimetric imaging of the Galactic center at 12.4 microns - The detailed magnetic field structure in the northern arm and the east-west bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitken, David K.; Smith, Craig H.; Gezari, Daniel; Mccaughrean, Mark; Roche, Patrick F.

    1991-01-01

    Recent closely sampled imaging polarimetry of the central 0.5 pc of the Galaxy at 12.4 microns with a 58 x 62 array camera system is presented. The results clearly show that the magnetic field is a property of the diffuse material of the large-scale structures in Sgr A (the northern arm and east-west bar) rather than the embedded sources. The magnetic field is independent of the changes of density and temperature in the compact source environments. The magnetic field direction in much of the east-west bar is complex, and its polarization is probably the result of the superposition of differently oriented filaments. The abrupt decrease of polarization southwest of IRS 1 observed previously is confirmed and shown to reverse sign. This is due either to a rapid change of magnetic field direction close to the dynamical center, or to the superposition of nearly orthogonal fields. The field direction changes smoothly across IRS 1, and no discontinuity of motion here is found.

  18. Simulation of optical breast density measurements using structured light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2014-02-01

    Breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer and we propose using diffuse optical tomography with structured light illuminations (SLI) to quantify the percentage of the fibroglandular (dense) tissue within the breast. Segmentations of dense tissue from breast MRI cases were used to create a geometric model of the breast. COMSOL-generated Finite Element Method (FEM) meshes were used for simulating photon migration through the breast tissue and reconstructing the absorption maps. In these preliminary simulations, the absorption coefficients of the non-dense and dense tissue were assigned using literature values based on their concentrations of water, lipid, oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin as they are the main chromophores, or absorbers of light, within the breast. Synthetic SLI measurements were obtained using a FEMbased forward solver. During the simulation, 12 distinct patterns consisting of vertical stripes, horizontal stripes, and checkerboard patterns were used for illumination and detection. Using these simulated measurements, FEM-based inverse solvers were used to reconstruct the 3D absorption maps. In this study, the methods are applied to reconstruct the absorption maps for multiple wavelengths (780nm, 830nm, 900nm, 1000nm) using one case as an example. We are currently continuing these simulations with additional cases and reconstructing 3D concentration maps of the chromophores within the dense and non-dense breast tissue.

  19. Crimped tool marks measurement using structured laser analysis: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Mullen, Joey H.

    1997-12-01

    Heating and cooling air for an aircraft interior is transported using metal ducts. These ducts vary in size from a few centimeters to 20 centimeters in diameter. In the assembly of aircraft components, a coupling is swaged onto the ducts. In assuring the mechanical dies are operating properly, the crimp mark is checked. The current method of visual inspection and checking with calipers does not allow implementation of statistical process control methods. In an effort to improve this process check, a new measurement method is being developed. A feasibility study indicated that a structured light laser system would be a good approach. A few requirements were: it must be portable to be used at different locations within the fabrication area, it must be fast, it should be easy to use by the mechanic/inspector, the readings must be accurate, and the system is non destructive. Due to the mechanical configuration of the tube and coupling, a camera with magnification optics is used. The measurement of the bump has a maximum of 50.8 microns (0.0020 inch). The system uses computer vision, and custom software written in C++. A low cost frame grabber is used. This paper shows the final production prototype system and its configuration for factory testing. This paper discusses the design and testing of the system.

  20. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  1. The fine structure of colleterial glands in two cockroaches and three termites, including a detailed study of Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattaria, Cryptocercidae) and Mastotermes darwiniensis (Isoptera, Mastotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Courrent, Annie; Quennedey, André; Nalepa, Christine A; Robert, Alain; Lenz, Michael; Bordereau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The colleterial glands of insects are organs associated with the female genital apparatus. In cockroaches, these glands produce secretions that cover two parallel rows of eggs during oviposition, and in oviparous species, these secretions become the tanned, sculpted, rigid outer casing of the ootheca. The goal of this study was to compare the gross anatomy of the colleterial glands and the ultrastructure of their component tubules in the phylogenetically significant genera Cryptocercus (Blattaria) and Mastotermes (Isoptera). Recent studies indicate that cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus are the sister group of termites, and Mastotermes is the only termite known to produce a cockroach-like ootheca. One additional oviparous cockroach, Therea, and two additional termites, Zootermopsis and Pseudacanthotermes, were also examined. As in other cockroaches, the colleterial glands of Cryptocercus and Therea are asymmetrical, with a well developed bipartite left gland and a smaller right gland. In the termites Mastotermes, Zootermopsis, and Pseudacanthotermes, the colleterial glands are composed of a well-developed, paired, anterior gland and a small posterior gland; histological staining and cytological evidence suggest that these are homologues of the left and the right colleterial glands of cockroaches, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, colleterial gland tubules are made of cells belonging to a modified class 1 type cell in the cockroaches, in Mastotermes, and in Zootermopsis; the latter lays its eggs singly, without a surrounding ootheca-like structure. In the advanced termite Pseudacanthotermes, the tubules are made of secretory units belonging to the class 3 cell type. This study demonstrates that the cytological characteristics of colleterial glands in basal termites are similar to those of cockroaches, whether the termite secretes an oothecal casing that covers two parallel rows of eggs, as in Mastotermes, or lays its eggs singly, as in Zootermopsis

  2. Structure Measurements of Leaf and Woody Components of Forests with Dual-Wavelength Lidar Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Howe, G.; Martel, J.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E. J.; Wang, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L. B.; Schaefer, M.; Newnham, G.

    2014-12-01

    Forest structure plays a critical role in the exchange of energy, carbon and water between land and atmosphere and nutrient cycle. We can provide detailed forest structure measurements of leaf and woody components with the Dual Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), which acquires full-waveform scans at both near-infrared (NIR, 1064 nm) and shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1548 nm) wavelengths from simultaneous laser pulses. We collected DWEL scans at a broadleaf forest stand and a conifer forest stand at Harvard Forest in June 2014. Power returned from leaves is much lower than from woody materials such as trunks and branches at the SWIR wavelength due to the liquid water absorption by leaves, whereas returned power at the NIR wavelength is similar from both leaves and woody materials. We threshold a normalized difference index (NDI), defined as the difference between returned power at the two wavelengths divided by their sum, to classify each return pulse as a leaf or trunk/branch hit. We obtain leaf area index (LAI), woody area index (WAI) and vertical profiles of leaf and woody components directly from classified lidar hits without empirical wood-to-total ratios as are commonly used in optical methods of LAI estimation. Tree heights, diameter at breast height (DBH), and stem count density are the other forest structure parameters estimated from our DWEL scans. The separation of leaf and woody components in tandem with fine-scale forest structure measurements will benefit studies on carbon allocation of forest ecosystems and improve our understanding of the effects of forest structure on ecosystem functions. This research is supported by NSF grant, MRI-0923389

  3. Spin Structure Function Measurements in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Stephen A.

    2008-11-01

    This presentation introduces the spin structure functions and resonant spin structure, and it discusses the experimental approaches for studying spin structure via polarized electron beam interactions with frozen polarized proton and deuteron targets.

  4. roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail Chopawamsic Recreational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  5. Imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH): Details of passive-source seismic deployment and preliminary 3-D velocity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K. C.; Moran, S. C.; Abers, G. A.; Denlinger, R. P.; Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Vidale, J. E.; Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Schultz, A.

    2014-12-01

    The imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment aims to delineate the extent of the magmatic system beneath Mount St. Helens (MSH) in Washington State. The experiment involves active- and passive-source seismology, magnetotellurics, and geochemistry/petrology. Seventy passive-source broadband seismometers were deployed in a 100-km-diameter array centered on MSH, with an average spacing of 10 km, and a planned duration of two years. The deployment over two weeks in June 2014 involved a group of 18 people split into 6 teams. Approximately half of the seismic stations have aircell batteries and/or pole-mounted solar panels in order to maintain power through deep snow at higher elevations during the winter months. Data will be retrieved 2-4 times a year throughout the duration of the experiment. The first service run performed in mid-July 2014 had a 98.4% data recovery. This is one of the largest wide-aperture two-dimensional arrays covering a volcano anywhere. The active-source portion of the experiment successfully set off 23 shots in late-July 2014. These were recorded clearly at permanent stations run by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network up to 200 km away, and are expected to be well-recorded on many of the 70 broadband seismometers in addition to the 2500 Reftek "Texans" deployed temporarily for this purpose. For the 2-4 weeks of broadband data collected in July, local earthquakes down to magnitude 0 are recorded across the array, with clear P- and S- arrivals. Earthquakes of this size occur daily within 50 km of MSH. We are keeping a careful catalog of all activity in the region for the duration of the iMUSH experiment. We will pick P- and S-wave travel times at the 70 broadband stations from local earthquakes and active shots, for available data from between June and October 2014. We will also use a tomographic code (Preston et al, 2003, Science) to invert the travel times to obtain preliminary earthquake location and 3-D velocity structure.

  6. Requirements for a mobile communications satellite system. Part 3: Large space structures measurements study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, W.

    1983-03-01

    This study report defines a set of tests and measurements required to characterize the performance of a Large Space System (LSS), and to scale this data to other LSS satellites. Requirements from the Mobile Communication Satellite (MSAT) configurations derived in the parent study were used. MSAT utilizes a large, mesh deployable antenna, and encompasses a significant range of LSS technology issues in the areas of structural/dynamics, control, and performance predictability. In this study, performance requirements were developed for the antenna. Special emphasis was placed on antenna surface accuracy, and pointing stability. Instrumentation and measurement systems, applicable to LSS, were selected from existing or on-going technology developments. Laser ranging and angulation systems, presently in breadboard status, form the backbone of the measurements. Following this, a set of ground, STS, and GEO-operational were investigated. A third scale (15 meter) antenna system as selected for ground characterization followed by STS flight technology development. This selection ensures analytical scaling from ground-to-orbit, and size scaling. Other benefits are cost and ability to perform reasonable ground tests. Detail costing of the various tests and measurement systems were derived and are included in the report.

  7. Requirements for a mobile communications satellite system. Volume 3: Large space structures measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akle, W.

    1983-01-01

    This study report defines a set of tests and measurements required to characterize the performance of a Large Space System (LSS), and to scale this data to other LSS satellites. Requirements from the Mobile Communication Satellite (MSAT) configurations derived in the parent study were used. MSAT utilizes a large, mesh deployable antenna, and encompasses a significant range of LSS technology issues in the areas of structural/dynamics, control, and performance predictability. In this study, performance requirements were developed for the antenna. Special emphasis was placed on antenna surface accuracy, and pointing stability. Instrumentation and measurement systems, applicable to LSS, were selected from existing or on-going technology developments. Laser ranging and angulation systems, presently in breadboard status, form the backbone of the measurements. Following this, a set of ground, STS, and GEO-operational were investigated. A third scale (15 meter) antenna system as selected for ground characterization followed by STS flight technology development. This selection ensures analytical scaling from ground-to-orbit, and size scaling. Other benefits are cost and ability to perform reasonable ground tests. Detail costing of the various tests and measurement systems were derived and are included in the report.

  8. Spin structure measurements from E143 at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the proton and deuteron spin structure functions, g{sub 1}{sup p} at beam energies of 29.1, 16.2, and 9.7 GeV, and g{sub 2}{sup p} and g{sub 2}{sup d} at a beam energy of 29.1 GeV. The integrals {Gamma}{sub p} = {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1} g{sub 1}{sup p} (x, Q{sup 2})dx and {Gamma}{sub d} = {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1} g{sub 1}{sup d}(x, Q{sup 2})dx have been evaluated at fixed Q{sup 2} = 3 (GeV/c){sup 2} using the 29.1 GeV data to yield {Gamma}{sub p} = 0.127 {+-} 0.004(stat.) {+-} 0.010(syst.) and {Gamma}{sub d} = 0.041 {+-} 0.003 {+-} 0.004. The Q{sup 2} dependence of the ratio g{sub 1}/F{sub 1} has been studied and is found to be small for Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Within experimental precision, the g{sub 2} data are well-described by the twist-2 contribution, g{sub 2}{sup ww}. Twist-3 matrix elements have been extracted and are compared to theoretical predictions. The asymmetry A{sub 2} has also been measured and is found to be significantly smaller than the positivity limit {radical}R for both targets A{sub 2}{sup p} is found to be positive and inconsistent with zero.

  9. Comparison of measured and calculated temperatures for a Mach 8 hypersonic wing test structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, R. D.; Fields, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Structural temperatures were measured on a hypersonic wing test structure during a heating test that simulated a Mach 8 thermal environment. Measured data are compared to design calculations and temperature predictions obtained from a finite-difference thermal analysis.

  10. Introduction of a test measurement for a monitoring technology inside a large-scale civil engineering structure using muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannomiya, A.; Tanaka, H.

    2012-04-01

    Akira Sannomiya1*, Koichiro Tada1*, Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka2* Chigasaki Research Institute, Technology Development Center, Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.1, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Japan2 Introduction The technology that enables us to observe the internal structure of a volcano and the city foundation is being developed by utilizing the muon's significant penetration power. From the possibility to use this technology for the surveillance inside a large-scale civil engineering structure, we are planning an experimental measurement. General Instruction A final target is safety judgment of the condition of a large-scale civil engineering structure. It is important for safety judgment to grasp the internal density contract, such as the crack and slack levels of a base rock or the structure, and degradation and groundwater levels. However, feasibility of application of muon radiography to monitoring inside the large-scale civil engineering structure has not confirmed yet. Therefore, as a test experiment, we attempt to measure the fluctuation of the groundwater level in order to evaluate and examine the method. Measurement will be carried out from the inside of a scupper tunnel in the base rock. The result will be compared with the independent groundwater level measurement in order to perform quantitative evaluation of muon radiography. In addition, this test measurement will start the near future. About a detailed plan, it is under examination now.

  11. Acoustic levitator for structure measurements on low temperature liquid droplets.

    PubMed

    Weber, J K R; Rey, C A; Neuefeind, J; Benmore, C J

    2009-08-01

    A single-axis acoustic levitator was constructed and used to levitate liquid and solid drops of 1-3 mm in diameter at temperatures in the range -40 to +40 degrees C. The levitator comprised (i) two acoustic transducers mounted on a rigid vertical support that was bolted to an optical breadboard, (ii) an acoustic power supply that controlled acoustic intensity, relative phase of the drive to the transducers, and could modulate the acoustic forces at frequencies up to 1 kHz, (iii) a video camera, and (iv) a system for providing a stream of controlled temperature gas flow over the sample. The acoustic transducers were operated at their resonant frequency of approximately 22 kHz and could produce sound pressure levels of up to 160 dB. The force applied by the acoustic field could be modulated to excite oscillations in the sample. Sample temperature was controlled using a modified Cryostream Plus and measured using thermocouples and an infrared thermal imager. The levitator was installed at x-ray beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source and used to investigate the structure of supercooled liquids.

  12. Acoustic levitator for structure measurements on low temperature liquid droplets.

    PubMed

    Weber, J K R; Rey, C A; Neuefeind, J; Benmore, C J

    2009-08-01

    A single-axis acoustic levitator was constructed and used to levitate liquid and solid drops of 1-3 mm in diameter at temperatures in the range -40 to +40 degrees C. The levitator comprised (i) two acoustic transducers mounted on a rigid vertical support that was bolted to an optical breadboard, (ii) an acoustic power supply that controlled acoustic intensity, relative phase of the drive to the transducers, and could modulate the acoustic forces at frequencies up to 1 kHz, (iii) a video camera, and (iv) a system for providing a stream of controlled temperature gas flow over the sample. The acoustic transducers were operated at their resonant frequency of approximately 22 kHz and could produce sound pressure levels of up to 160 dB. The force applied by the acoustic field could be modulated to excite oscillations in the sample. Sample temperature was controlled using a modified Cryostream Plus and measured using thermocouples and an infrared thermal imager. The levitator was installed at x-ray beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source and used to investigate the structure of supercooled liquids. PMID:19725664

  13. The interior structure of Enceladus from Cassini gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iess, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    The Cassini spacecraft flew by the small Saturnian moon Enceladus in three close flybys (April 28, 2010, November 30, 2010 and May 2, 2012, to carry out measurements of the satellite's gravity field [1]. One of the main motivations was the search for a hemispherical asymmetry in the gravity field, the gravitational counterpart of the striking North-South asymmetry shown by optical imaging and other Cassini instruments in the geological features of the moon. The estimation of Enceladus' gravity field by Cassini was especially complex because of the small surface gravity (0.11 m/s2), the short duration of the gravitational interaction (only a few minutes) and the small, nearly impulsive, neutral particles drag occurring when the spacecraft crossed the south polar plume during the first and the third flyby. Including the non-gravitational acceleration due to the plume in the dynamical model was crucial to obtain a reliable solution for the gravity field. In order to maximize the sensitivity to the hemispherical asymmetry, controlled by the spherical harmonic coefficient J3, the closest approaches occurred at the low altitudes (respectively 100, 48 and 70 km), and at high latitudes in both hemispheres (89°S, 62°N, and 72°S). Enceladus' gravity field is dominated by large quadrupole terms not far from those expected for a body in a relaxed shape. Although the deviations from the hydrostaticity are weak (J2/C22=3.55±0.05), the straightforward application of the Radau-Darwin approximation yields a value of the moment of inertia factor (MOIF=C/MR2) that is incompatible (0.34) with the differentiated interior structure suggested by cryovolcanism and the large heat flow. The other remarkable feature of the gravity field is the small but still statistically significant value of J3 (106 x J3 = -115.3±22.9). A differentiated interior structure (corresponding to a smaller MOIF) may be reconciled with the gravity measurement by assuming that the rocky core has retained some

  14. Is it biologically relevant to measure the structures of small peptides in the gas-phase?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barran, Perdita E.; Polfer, Nick C.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Clarke, David J.; Langridge-Smith, Patrick R. R.; Langley, Ross J.; Govan, John R. W.; Maxwell, Alison; Dorin, Julia R.; Millar, Robert P.; Bowers, Michael T.

    2005-02-01

    Recent developments in sample introduction of biologically relevant molecules have heralded a new era for gas-phase methods of structural determination. One of the biggest challenges is to relate gas-phase structures, often measured in the absence of water and counter ions, with in vivo biologically active structures. An advantage of gas-phase based techniques is that a given peptide can be analysed in a variety of different forms, for example, as a function of charge state, or with additional water molecules. Molecular modelling can provide insight into experimental findings and help elucidate the differences between structural forms. Combining experiment and theory provides a thorough interrogation of candidate conformations. Here two important naturally occurring peptide systems have been examined in detail and results are assessed in terms of their biological significance. The first of these is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a decapeptide which is the central regulator of the reproductive system in vertebrates. We have examined several naturally occurring variants of this peptide using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry and Electron Capture Dissociation (ECD) in conjunction with Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Candidate conformations are modelled using the AMBER force field. Single amino acid changes, for example Gly6 --> Ala6, or Ala6 --> D-Ala6, have observable effects on the gas phase structure of GnRH. It has been shown that evolutionary primary sequence variations are key to the biological activity of GnRH, and it is thought that this is due to different binding affinities at target receptors. This work provides strong evidence that this activity is structurally based. The second system examined is the relationship between the quaternary structure and activity of two novel [beta]-defensins. FT-ICR mass spectrometry has been employed to characterize di-sulphide bridging and dissociation based experiments utilised to

  15. High Resolution Measurements and Electronic Structure Calculations of a Diazanaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruet, Sébastien; Goubet, Manuel; Pirali, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have long been suspected to be the carriers of so called Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs). Most of the results published in the literature report rotationally unresolved spectra of pure carbon as well as heteroatom-containing PAHs species. To date for this class of molecules, the principal source of rotational informations is ruled by microwave (MW) spectroscopy while high resolution measurements reporting rotational structure of the infrared (IR) vibrational bands are very scarce. Recently, some high resolution techniques provided interesting new results to rotationally resolve the IR and far-IR bands of these large carbonated molecules of astrophysical interest. One of them is to use the bright synchrotron radiation as IR continuum source of a high resolution Fourier transform (FTIR) spectrometer. We report the very complementary analysis of the [1,6] naphthyridine (a N-bearing PAH) for which we recorded the microwave spectrum at the PhLAM laboratory (Lille) and the high resolution far-infrared spectrum on the AILES beamline at synchrotron facility SOLEIL. MW spectroscopy provided highly accurate rotational constants in the ground state to perform Ground State Combinations Differences (GSCD) allowing the analysis of the two most intense FT-FIR bands in the 50-900 wn range. Moreover, during this presentation the negative value of the inertial defect in the GS of the molecule will be discussed. A. Leger, J. L. Puget, Astron. Astrophys. 137, L5-L8 (1984) L. J. Allamandola et al. Astrophys. J. 290, L25-L28 (1985). Z. Kisiel et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 217, 115 (2003) S. Thorwirth et al. Astrophys. J. 662, 1309 (2007) D. McNaughton et al. J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154305 (2011). S. Albert et al. Faraday Discuss. 150, 71-99 (2011) B. E. Brumfield et al. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1985-1988 (2012) O. Pirali et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10141 (2013).

  16. Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon framing, including full two-story studs notched to carry girts supporting second story floor joists (210mm lens) - Scandia Hotel, 225 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  17. Detail East Pier Elevation, Transverse Section, Detail Roof Plan As ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail East Pier Elevation, Transverse Section, Detail Roof Plan As Found - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

  18. Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of Sixth Street Bridge. Looking northeast - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards northeast of the pinion and bull gears of the winding machinery. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of round, terra cotta medallions on E elevation indicating date of building. - Central of Georgia Railway, Red (Administration) Building, 233 West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  1. Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss attachment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss - attachment to the wall - as well as the troughs themselves. Interior of the main hatchery building, view to the east. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  2. The fine details of evolution.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A; Thornton, Janet M; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2009-08-01

    Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was based on studies of biology at the species level. In the time since his death, studies at the molecular level have confirmed his ideas about the kinship of all life on Earth and have provided a wealth of detail about the evolutionary relationships between different species and a deeper understanding of the finer workings of natural selection. We now have a wealth of data, including the genome sequences of a wide range of organisms, an even larger number of protein sequences, a significant knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of proteins, DNA and other biological molecules, and a huge body of information about the operation of these molecules as systems in the molecular machinery of all living things. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers from oral presentations given at a Biochemical Society Focused Meeting to commemorate the 200th Anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, held on 26-27 January 2009 at the Wellcome Trust Conference Centre, Cambridge. The talks reported on some of the insights into evolution which have been obtained from the study of protein sequences, structures and systems. PMID:19614583

  3. A tree-structured crash surrogate measure for freeways.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Wang, Shuaian

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel methodology to define and estimate a surrogate measure. By imposing a hypothetical disturbance to the leading vehicle, the following vehicle's action is represented as a probabilistic causal model. After that, a tree is built to describe the eight possible conflict types under the model. The surrogate measure, named Aggregated Crash Index (ACI), is thus proposed to measure the crash risk. This index reflects the accommodability of freeway traffic state to a traffic disturbance. We further apply this measure to evaluate the crash risks in a freeway section of Pacific Motorway, Australia. The results show that the proposed indicator outperforms the three traditional crash surrogate measures (i.e., Time to Collision, Proportion of Stopping Distance, and Crash Potential Index) in representing rear-end crash risks. The applications of this measure are also discussed.

  4. The measurement of the ground wind structure at Wallops Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielman, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mean and turbulence characteristics of the surface wind measured near the Atlantic coast were measured. The experimental data were acquired from a 76 meter tall instrumented micrometeorological tower. Mean wind and turbulence measurements were made with two types of instrumentation consisting of cup vane and temperature probes, primarily used for mean profile measurements of velocity and temperature respectively. The second system, a hot film and thermocouple system, was used for measurement of turbulence variances and covariances and spectra. The cup vane system was used to acquire data from all wind directions, while the hot film system was primarily used for turbulence measurements from the two prevailing wind directions, south and northwest. The micrometeorological tower is a self standing nonguyed tower with five working platforms at 15.2m (50 ft.) intervals, with cup vane and aspirated temperature probes mounted at each platform.

  5. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing. PMID:19306198

  6. Seismic Simulations of the August 24, 2014 South Napa and Nearby Earthquakes to Investigate the Effects of Rupture Details and Three-Dimensional Structure on Ground Motions and Static Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Dreger, D. S.; Pitarka, A.; Petersson, A.; Johanson, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    We performed three-dimensional (3D) anelastic finite difference simulations to investigate the effects of rupture details and sub-surface structure (including surface topography) on motions for the August 24, 2014 South Napa M6.0 earthquake, its aftershocks and nearby earthquakes. We compared observed seismic ground motions and static displacements (from GPS and InSAR) with motions computed with 3D simulations. Calculations were performed with the SW4 finite difference code, which computes the transient motions and permanent displacements including the effects of 3D structure based on the USGS San Francisco Bay Area 3D model (version USGSBayAreaVM-08.3.0.etree) and surface topography. We investigated the response using both an average plane-layered (one-dimensional, 1D) and the USGS 3D structure. We computed motions for available models of the mainshock rupture (including the model reported by Dreger, 2014 from broadband seismic waveforms). To unravel the effects of earthquake rupture and propagation through complex 3D structure, we modeled both the M6 mainshock and smaller (M3-4) nearby events, which can be represented as simple point moment tensor sources. The computed ground motions were compared to observations. For the seismic ground motions, the simulated motions with the 3D model (up to 1 Hz) produce remarkably better fits to the data than the average 1D model, suggesting there are significant path effects due to sedimentary basins and other sub-surface features. Aftershocks are well modeled for most paths, including paths crossing sedimentary basin structures in the Napa Valley and San Pablo Bay, indicating that the USGS 3D model can reasonably predict complex path effects. The M6.0 South Napa mainshock ruptured toward the north and resulted in complex high-frequency response in the backward directivity direction to the south, which we have not yet been able to reproduce with simulations and may require addition of finer details in the rupture model

  7. An Attempt to Validate a Measure of Structure in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassol, David J.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty male adolescents were given a structure inventory (CASI) devised by the author, and also the Locus Of Control (I-E) instrument, and the Adjective Check List (ACL), in an attempt to validate the first-named inventory. (Editor)

  8. [Measurement of bone structure on the radiograph. Utopia or reality?].

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, E

    1996-11-01

    A method of computerised analysis of bone structure assessment using a professional image analyser is described. Analyses of experimental radiographs of human radius taken over a period of time in a standard laboratory were performed. The radiographic technique was ascertained as the main source of a precision error. The reproducibility of the analysis using the method described was found to hold a limited range of error. The program Quantitrab makes possible a quantitative description of the bone structure parameters on the radiograph.

  9. Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of measuring science based on a bibliometric methodology. The 2 main lines of this methodology are discussed. First, the measurement of research performance is addressed, including aspects such as interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and knowledge users. It is demonstrated that advanced bibliometric methods are an…

  10. RapiData: a practical course in macromolecular X-ray diffraction data measurement and structure solving at the NSLS.

    PubMed

    Sweet, R M; Soares, A

    2010-10-01

    RapiData provides two days of high-level lectures, then two more of experimental work on several beamlines of the National Synchrotron Light Source, for about 50 students. Students are invited to bring their own research projects for measurement, and about half of them do. The students frequently solve half a dozen structures during the course. Tutorials by the lecturers run throughout the data-collection period. The crystal-preparation laboratory is popular for tutorials and practice, and often there is a beamline available for practice. This article provides details about the organization of the course and tells some of the reasons for its success. PMID:21695040

  11. RapiData: a Practical Course in Macromolecular X-ray Diffraction Data Measurement and Structure Solving at the NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, R.; Soares, A

    2010-01-01

    RapiData provides two days of high-level lectures, then two more of experimental work on several beamlines of the National Synchrotron Light Source, for about 50 students. Students are invited to bring their own research projects for measurement, and about half of them do. The students frequently solve half a dozen structures during the course. Tutorials by the lecturers run throughout the data-collection period. The crystal-preparation laboratory is popular for tutorials and practice, and often there is a beamline available for practice. This article provides details about the organization of the course and tells some of the reasons for its success.

  12. RF measurements of a traveling-wave muffin-tin accelerating structure at 90 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P.J.; Bowden, G.B.; Copeland, M.R.; Menegat, A.; Pritzkau, D.P.; Siemann, R.H.; Henke, H.

    1997-05-01

    A measuring system at the table-top scale was developed for RF measurements of a muffin-tin accelerating structure operating at 32 times the SLAC frequency (2.856 GHz). Both perturbation and non-perturbation methods are employed to characterize the RF properties of a muffin-tin structure. Conventional bead pull measurements are extended to millimeter wavelengths. Design of the measuring system and preliminary results of RF measurements are presented.

  13. Structural Analysis of NASA's ULDB using Photogrammetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Leyland; Garde, Gabriel; Cathey, Henry

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program Office (BPO) has been developing a super-pressure Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) for constant altitude and longer flight times. The development of the ULDB has progressed in many areas that are significant to NASA's desired goals. However, there has been a re-occurring anomaly of the ULDB called a cleft, which prevents the balloon from properly deploying at float altitudes. Over the years, there has been an influx of hypotheses and speculations to the cause of the cleft formation. Significant changes were made to the design paradigm of the ULDB to address the clefting issue. It was hypothesized that the design philosophy of fore-shortening the tendons relative to the polyethylene film was causing the cleft formation, thus the fore-shortened scheme was removed in the design process. The latest design concept removed the fore-shortening and produced a one to one matching of the tendons and film. Consequently, in 2006, a six million cubic foot (MCF) balloon was designed with the new concept of zero fore-shortening and clefted as it reached its float altitude. This 6 MCF cleft proved that the clefting phenomenon was not properly understood and there was more to the problem than just fore-shortening. Most analytical analyses conducted on the ULDB towards the clefting issue focused on pressure stabilities. It was shown through several finite element analyses that the new design concept produces a stable balloon when pressurized; thus, pressurized stability was believed to be a sufficient measure to indicate if a balloon would cleft or not cleft. Eventually, the 6 MCF balloon that clefted in 2006 showed that the pressurized stability analysis is subjective and is not applicable in predicting a cleft formation. Moreover, the analytical pressurized stability is conducted on a fully deployed balloon, whereas, the clefting phenomena occurs as part of the deployment process, and is clearly seen during

  14. ER-2 lidar measurements of stratocumulus cloud top structure on July 14, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, Reinout; Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    On July 14, 1987 NASA's ER-2 high altitude aircraft flew a mission to measure the structure of stratocumulus clouds off the coast of California. A flight pattern was executed so that the two-dimensional variability of the clouds could be detected. The technique of analysis of the lidar data to measure cloud tops follows. First each signal is searched for its maximum in return strength. This maximum is caused by scattering of the laser light off cloud particles or from the ocean surface. Next the variance of the signal return above the level of maximum backscatter is determined. Cloud top is assigned to a level (above the level of maximum backscatter) where the backscatter exceeds the average variance. This two-step process is necessary because the level of maximum backscatter does not correspond to the cloud top. Ocean surface returns are easily separated from cloud returns in this process, described in detail by Boers, Spinhirne, and Hart (1988). Analysis of the data so far has shown that there were very few breaks in the clouds. Furthermore the layer top was very flat with local oscillations not exceeding 30 m. Such small cloud top variations are still well within the range of detectability, because the precision of this technique of cloud top detection has previously been established to be 13 to 15 m. Data are presently being analyzed to compute cloud top distributions and fractional cloudiness. The aim of this research is to relate the fractional cloudiness to the mean thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer. Researchers plan to compute spectral scales of the cloud top variability in two dimensions to determine the orientation of the clouds with respect to the mean wind. Furthermore the lidar derived cloud top distribution will be used in the computation of the thermodynamic and radiation budget of the boundary layer.

  15. 3rd year final contractor report for: U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program Project Title: Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm J. Andrews

    2006-04-14

    This project had two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. This report describes work done in the last twelve (12) months of the project, and also contains a summary of the complete work done over the three (3) life of the project. As of April 1, 2006, the air/helium facility (Task 1) is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Initial condition studies (Task 2) is also comp lete. Detailed experiments with air/helium with Atwood numbers up to 0.1 have been completed, and Atwood numbers of 0.25. Within the last three (3) months we have been able to successfully run the facility at Atwood numbers of 0.5. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget. We have finished the initial condition studies using the water channel, and this work has been accepted for publication on the Journal of Fluid Mechanics (the top fluid mechanics journal). Mr. Nick Mueschke and Mr. Wayne Kraft are continuing with their studies to obtain PhDs in the same field, and will also continue their collaboration visits to LANL and LLNL. Over its three (3) year life the project has supported two(2) Ph.D.’s and three (3) MSc’s, and produced nine (9) international journal publications, twenty four (24) conference publications, and numerous other reports. The highlight of the project has been our close collaboration with LLNL (Dr. Oleg Schilling) and LANL (Drs. Dimonte, Ristorcelli, Gore, and Harlow).

  16. Reconciling CMB and structure growth measurements with dark energy interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Tram, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study a coupled quintessence model with pure momentum exchange and present the effects of such an interaction on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and matter power spectrum. For a wide range of negative values of the coupling parameter β structure growth is suppressed and the model can reconcile the tension between cosmic microwave background observations and structure growth inferred from cluster counts. We find that this model is as good as Λ CDM for CMB and baryon acoustic oscillation data, while the addition of cluster data makes the model strongly preferred, improving the best-fit χ2 value by more than 16.

  17. The fine-scale structure of the global tropopause derived from COSMIC GPS radio occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S.-W.; Tandon, N. F.; Polvani, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    The spatiotemporal structure of the lapse-rate tropopause is examined by using state-of-the-art Global Positioning System radio occultation measurements from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) Formosa Satellite Mission 3 mission. The high temporal and spatial resolutions of the data reveal the detailed structure of tropopause properties such as pressure (P-LRT), temperature (T-LRT), and sharpness (S-LRT) and their relationships to upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric processes. The overall results are generally in good agreement with previous studies. The climatology of all three tropopause properties shows largely homogeneous structure in the zonal direction: noticeable asymmetries are found only in the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere extratropics during boreal winter owing to localized tropospheric processes. This contrasts with the seasonal cycles of tropopause properties which are significantly influenced by stratospheric processes such as the Brewer-Dobson circulation, the polar vortex, and the radiative processes near the tropopause. On intraseasonal time scales, P-LRT and T-LRT exhibit significant variability over the Asian summer monsoon and the subtropics where double tropopauses frequently occur. In contrast, S-LRT shows maximum variability in the tropics where P-LRT and T-LRT have minimum variability, possibly a consequence of vertically propagating waves. The tropopause properties derived from COSMIC observations are further applied to evaluate tropopause data directly available from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis (NNR). Although the NNR tropopause data have been widely used in climate studies, they are found to have significant and systematic biases, especially in the subtropics. This suggests that the NNR tropopause data should be treated with great caution in any quantitative studies.

  18. Autostereoscopy-based three-dimensional on-machine measuring system for micro-structured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Da; Cheung, Chi Fai; Ren, Mingjun; Zhou, Liqiu; Zhao, Xing

    2014-10-20

    Traditional off-line measuring systems find it difficult to measure micro-structured workpieces which have a large volume and heavy weight, such as micro-structured patterned precision roller drums. This paper proposes an autostereoscopy-based three-dimensional (3D) measuring method and develops an innovative measuring system for the 3D on-machine measurement of the micro-structured surfaces, an Autostereoscopy-based Three-Dimensional On-machine Measuring (ATDOM) system. The ATDOM system is compact and capable of fast data acquisition and high accuracy in 3D computational reconstruction of complex surfaces under different measuring environments. A prototype ATDOM system is experimentally verified through a series of measurement experiments conducted on a precision machine tool. The results indicate that the ATDOM system provides an important means for efficient and reliable on-machine measurement of micro-structured surfaces. PMID:25401597

  19. Transient thermal analysis as measurement method for IC package structural integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanß, Alexander; Schmid, Maximilian; Liu, E.; Elger, Gordon

    2015-06-01

    Practices of IC package reliability testing are reviewed briefly, and the application of transient thermal analysis is examined in great depth. For the design of light sources based on light emitting diode (LED) efficient and accurate reliability testing is required to realize the potential lifetimes of 105 h. Transient thermal analysis is a standard method to determine the transient thermal impedance of semiconductor devices, e.g. power electronics and LEDs. The temperature of the semiconductor junctions is assessed by time-resolved measurement of their forward voltage (Vf). The thermal path in the IC package is resolved by the transient technique in the time domain. This enables analyzing the structural integrity of the semiconductor package. However, to evaluate thermal resistance, one must also measure the dissipated energy of the device (i.e., the thermal load) and the k-factor. This is time consuming, and measurement errors reduce the accuracy. To overcome these limitations, an innovative approach, the relative thermal resistance method, was developed to reduce the measurement effort, increase accuracy and enable automatic data evaluation. This new way of evaluating data simplifies the thermal transient analysis by eliminating measurement of the k-factor and thermal load, i.e. measurement of the lumen flux for LEDs, by normalizing the transient Vf data. This is especially advantageous for reliability testing where changes in the thermal path, like cracks and delaminations, can be determined without measuring the k-factor and thermal load. Different failure modes can be separated in the time domain. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by its application to high-power white InGaN LEDs. For detailed analysis and identification of the failure mode of the LED packages, the transient signals are simulated by time-resolved finite element (FE) simulations. Using the new approach, the transient thermal analysis is enhanced to a powerful tool for reliability

  20. Measuring Social Capital and Its Differentials by Family Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Social capital has often been invoked to explain differences in children's well-being by family structure. That is, developmental outcome for children in lone or step parent family is not at par with that of children from intact family because parental investments on children may be lower not only in financial and human capital but also in social…

  1. The Structural Validity of Daidalos: A Measure of Career Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybwad, Tom-Erik

    2008-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the structural validity of Daidalos, a 20-item inventory designed to assess the factors that might inhibit or promote successful career decision making, or career maturity. The sample consisted of 776 high school students; 367 were male and 409 were female. Participants ranged in age from 16…

  2. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawken, A. J.; Michelett, D.; Granett, B.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.

    2016-10-01

    Using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres we identified 245 voids in the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We show how by modelling the anisotropic void-galaxy cross correlation function we can probe the growth rate of structure.

  3. Evaluation of structure from motion for soil microtopography measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments in low cost structure from motion (SFM) technologies offer new opportunities for geoscientists to acquire high resolution soil microtopography data at a fraction of the cost of conventional techniques. However, these new methodologies often lack easily accessible error metrics an...

  4. Measuring Extended Structure in Stars Using the Keck Interferometer Nuller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koresko, Chris; Colavita, M. Mark; Serabyn, Eugene; Booth, Andrew; Garcia, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The Keck Interferometer Nuller is designed to detect faint off-axis mid-infrared light a few tens to a few hundreds of milliarcseconds from a bright central star. The starlight is suppressed by destructive combination along the long (85 m) baseline, which produces a fringe spacing of 25 mas at a wavelength of 10 m, with the central null crossing the position of the star. The strong, variable mid-infrared background is subtracted using interferometric phase chopping along the short (5 m) baseline. This paper presents an overview of the observing and data reduction strategies used to produce a calibrated measurement of the off-axis light. During the observations, the instrument cycles rapidly through several calibration and measurement steps, in order to monitor and stabilize the phases of the fringes produced by the various baselines, and to derive the fringe intensity at the constructive peak and destructive null along the long baseline. The data analysis involves removing biases and coherently demodulating the short-baseline fringe with the long-baseline fringe tuned to alternate between constructive and destructive phases, combining the results of many measurements to improve the sensitivity, and estimating the part of the null leakage signal which is associated with the finite angular size of the central star. Comparison of the results of null measurements on science target and calibrator stars permits the instrumental leakage - the "system null leakage" - to be removed and the off-axis light to be measured.

  5. Measuring Core/Facesheet Bond Toughness in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines two test methods to evaluate the peel toughness of the skin to core debond of sandwich panels. The methods tested were the climbing drum (CD) peel test and the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. While the CD peel test is only intended for qualitative measurements, it is shown in this study that qualitative measurements can be performed and compare well with DCB test data. It is also shown that artificially stiffening the facesheets of a DCB specimen can cause the test to behave more like a flatwise tensile test than a peel test.

  6. Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Richard; Benmore, Chris J; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Wilding, Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

  7. Dynamical measurements of the interior structure of exoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Juliette C.; Batygin, Konstantin

    2013-12-01

    Giant gaseous planets often reside on orbits in sufficient proximity to their host stars for the planetary quadrupole gravitational field to become non-negligible. In presence of an additional planetary companion, a precise characterization of the system's orbital state can yield meaningful constraints on the transiting planet's interior structure. However, such methods can require a very specific type of system. This paper explores the dynamic range of applicability of these methods and shows that interior structure calculations are possible for a wide array of orbital architectures. The HAT-P-13 system is used as a case study, and the implications of perturbations arising from a third distant companion on the feasibility of an interior calculation are discussed. We find that the method discussed here is likely to be useful in studying other planetary systems, allowing the possibility of an expanded survey of the interiors of exoplanets.

  8. 15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 (PIER 5) AND NO. 66 (PIER 6), DWG. 83, CH BY AF, ECL, APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY, MAY 18, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. 10. CYLINDER DETAILS: DETAIL OF STEEL FOR CYLINDER NO. 59, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CYLINDER DETAILS: DETAIL OF STEEL FOR CYLINDER NO. 59, PIER NO. 6, DWG. 86, 3/4" = 1', MADE BY A.F., CHECKED BY E.C.L., APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY, JUNE 2, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 6, South of Pratt Street between Concord Street & Jones Falls outlet, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. First Optical Hyperfine Structure Measurement in an Atomic Anion

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Canali, C.; Warring, U.; Kellerbauer, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2010-02-19

    We have investigated the hyperfine structure of the transition between the 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 2} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{sup e} ground state and the 5d{sup 6}6s{sup 2}6p {sup 6}D{sub J}{sup o} excited state in the negative osmium ion by high-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy. This transition is unique because it is the only known electric-dipole transition in atomic anions and might be amenable to laser cooling. From the observed hyperfine structure in {sup 187}Os{sup -} and {sup 189}Os{sup -} the yet unknown total angular momentum of the bound excited state was found to be J=9/2. The hyperfine structure constants of the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{sup e} ground state and the {sup 6}D{sub 9/2}{sup o} excited state were determined experimentally and compared to multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Using the knowledge of the ground and excited state angular momenta, the full energy level diagram of {sup 192}Os{sup -} in an external magnetic field was calculated, revealing possible laser cooling transitions.

  11. Measuring the bending of asymmetric planar EAP structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Florian M.; Zhao, Xue; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Urwyler, Prabitha; Kovacs, Gabor; Müller, Bert

    2013-04-01

    The geometric characterization of low-voltage dielectric electro-active polymer (EAP) structures, comprised of nanometer thickness but areas of square centimeters, for applications such as artificial sphincters requires methods with nanometer precision. Direct optical detection is usually restricted to sub-micrometer resolution because of the wavelength of the light applied. Therefore, we propose to take advantage of the cantilever bending system with optical readout revealing a sub-micrometer resolution at the deflection of the free end. It is demonstrated that this approach allows us to detect bending of rather conventional planar asymmetric, dielectric EAP-structures applying voltages well below 10 V. For this purpose, we built 100 μm-thin silicone films between 50 nm-thin silver layers on a 25 μm-thin polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate. The increase of the applied voltage in steps of 50 V until 1 kV resulted in a cantilever bending that exhibits only in restricted ranges the expected square dependence. The mean laser beam displacement on the detector corresponded to 6 nm per volt. The apparatus will therefore become a powerful mean to analyze and thereby improve low-voltage dielectric EAP-structures to realize nanometer-thin layers for stack actuators to be incorporated into artificial sphincter systems for treating severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  12. AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE OF STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY IN CHILDREN'S WRITING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'DONNELL, ROY C.

    AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING LANGUAGE MATURITY SHOULD BE EASILY ADMINISTRABLE AND SCOREABLE AND SHOULD BE BASED ON VALID INDICES OF LANGUAGE MATURITY. A RECENT STUDY BY KELLOG W. HUNT SUGGESTED THAT THESE INDICES BE BASED ON A NEW SYNTACTIC UNIT, THE T-UNIT, CONSISTING OF 1 MAIN CLAUSE TOGETHER WITH ANY CLAUSES SUBORDINATED TO IT. COORDINATED MAIN…

  13. On the mathematical structure of quantum measurement theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Geoffrey

    2005-10-01

    We show that the key problems of quantum measurement theory, namely the reduction of the wave-packet of a microsystem and the specification of its quantum state by a macroscopic measuring instrument, may be rigorously resolved within the traditional framework of the quantum mechanics of finite conservative systems. The argument is centred on the generic model of a microsystem, S, coupled to a finite macroscopic measuring instrument ℐ, which itself is an N-particle quantum system. The pointer positions of ℐ correspond to the macrostates of this instrument, as represented by orthogonal subspaces of the Hilbert space of its pure states. These subspaces, or 'phase cells', are the simultaneous eigenspaces of a set of coarse grained intercommuting macro-observables, M, and, crucially, are of astronomically large dimensionalities, which increase exponentially with N. We formulate conditions on the conservative dynamics of the composite (S+ℐ) under which it yields both a reduction of the wave packet describing the state of S and a one-to-one correspondence, following a measurement, between the observed pointer position of ℐ and the resultant eigenstate of S; and we show that these conditions are fulfilled by the finite version of the Coleman-Hepp model.

  14. Measuring the Acculturation of Mexican Americans: A Covariance Structure Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Sergio; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA) to 349 Mexican-American college students. Findings suggest that acculturation, as measured by ARSMA, involves elements of oral language usage, historical familial identification, contacts with Mexico and ease with reading and writing Spanish, and generalized perceptions of…

  15. Mental Imagery Scale: a new measurement tool to assess structural features of mental representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ercole, Martina; Castelli, Paolo; Giannini, Anna Maria; Sbrilli, Antonella

    2010-05-01

    Mental imagery is a quasi-perceptual experience which resembles perceptual experience, but occurring without (appropriate) external stimuli. It is a form of mental representation and is often considered centrally involved in visuo-spatial reasoning and inventive and creative thought. Although imagery ability is assumed to be functionally independent of verbal systems, it is still considered to interact with verbal representations, enabling objects to be named and names to evoke images. In literature, most measurement tools for evaluating imagery capacity are self-report instruments focusing on differences in individuals. In the present work, we applied a Mental Imagery Scale (MIS) to mental images derived from verbal descriptions in order to assess the structural features of such mental representations. This is a key theme for those disciplines which need to turn objects and representations into words and vice versa, such as art or architectural didactics. To this aim, an MIS questionnaire was administered to 262 participants. The questionnaire, originally consisting of a 33-item 5-step Likert scale, was reduced to 28 items covering six areas: (1) Image Formation Speed, (2) Permanence/Stability, (3) Dimensions, (4) Level of Detail/Grain, (5) Distance and (6) Depth of Field or Perspective. Factor analysis confirmed our six-factor hypothesis underlying the 28 items.

  16. The structure of evaporating and combusting sprays: Measurements and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Solomon, A. S. P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to provide measurements in open sprays with no zones of recirculation, in order to provide well-defined conditions for use in evaluating spray models. Measurements were completed in a gas jet, in order to test experimental methods, and are currently in progress for nonevaporating sprays. A locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model where interphase transport rates are assumed to be infinitely fast; a separated flow (SF) model which allows for finite interphase transport rates but neglects effects of turbulent fluctuations on drop motion; and a stochastic SF model which considers effects of turbulent fluctuations on drop motion were evaluated using existing data on particle-laden jets. The LHF model generally overestimates rates of particle dispersion while the SF model underestimates dispersion rates. The stochastic SF flow yield satisfactory predictions except at high particle mass loadings where effects of turbulence modulation may have caused the model to overestimate turbulence levels.

  17. Combined analysis of passive and active seismic measurements using additional geologic data for the determination of shallow subsurface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, Tobias; Brüstle, Andrea; Spies, Thomas; Schlittenhardt, Jörg; Schmidt, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    A detailed knowledge of subsurface structure is essential for geotechnical projects and local seismic hazard analyses. Passive seismic methods like microtremor measurements are widely used in geotechnical practice, but limitations and developments are still in focus of scientific discussion. The presentation outlines microtremor measurements in the context of microzonation in the scale of districts or small communities. H/V measurements are used to identify zones with similar underground properties. Subsequently a shear wave velocity (Vs) depth profile for each zone is determined by array measurements at selected sites. To reduce possible uncertainties in dispersion curve analyses of passive array measurements and ambiguities within the inversion process, we conducted an additional active seismic experiment and included available geological information. The presented work is realized in the framework of the research project MAGS2 ("Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems") and deals with the determination of seismic hazard analysis at sites near deep geothermal power plants in Germany. The measurements were conducted in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Bavarian molasses, where geothermal power plants are in operation. The results of the H/V- and array-measurements in the region of Landau (URG) are presented and compared to known geological-tectonic structures. The H/V measurements show several zones with similar H/V-curves which indicate homogenous underground properties. Additionally to the passive seismic measurements an active refraction experiment was performed and evaluated using the MASW method („Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves") to strengthen the determination of shear-wave-velocity depth profile. The dispersion curves for Rayleigh-waves of the active experiment support the Rayleigh-dispersion curves from passive measurements and therefore provide a valuable supplement. Furthermore, the Rayleigh-wave ellipticity was calculated to reduce

  18. Evaluation of an optical coordinate measuring machine for measuring grated structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, Ancuta I.; Bergmans, Rob H.

    2012-09-01

    The use of optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) in industrial metrology shows great potential due to a high measurement speed and non-contact working principle. However, at present measurements performed by different users present too large variations. The uncertainty contributions are difficult to quantify and standard uncertainty evaluation procedures are needed. In order to address this issue, we have investigated the uncertainty sources of commercial optical CMMs. We present a comparison on chessboard standards between three different vision systems. The influence of critical measurement parameters on image formation and analysis is discussed.

  19. Computed tomography:the details.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  20. Contactless measurement of alternating current conductance in quantum Hall structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drichko, I. L.; Diakonov, A. M.; Malysh, V. A.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Galperin, Y. M.; Ilyinskaya, N. D.; Usikova, A. A.; Kummer, M.; von Känel, H.

    2014-10-01

    We report a procedure to determine the frequency-dependent conductance of quantum Hall structures in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is based on the combination of two known probeless methods—acoustic spectroscopy and microwave spectroscopy. By using the acoustic spectroscopy, we study the low-frequency attenuation and phase shift of a surface acoustic wave in a piezoelectric crystal in the vicinity of the electron (hole) layer. The electronic contribution is resolved using its dependence on a transverse magnetic field. At high frequencies, we study the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave in a coplanar waveguide. To quantitatively calibrate these data, we use the fact that in the quantum-Hall-effect regime the conductance at the maxima of its magnetic field dependence is determined by extended states. Therefore, it should be frequency independent in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is verified by studies of a well-characterized p-SiGe/Ge/SiGe heterostructure.

  1. Measuring spin-dependent structure functions at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, A.

    1994-04-01

    The author analyses whether CEBAF with a 10 GeV beam could contribute significantly to the understanding of spin-dependent deep-inelastic scattering as well as semi-inclusive reactions. The main advantage of CEBAF is the much better attainable statistics, its great disadvantage its comparably low energy, which limits the accessible x-range to about 0.15 to 0.7. Within these constraints CEBAF could provide (1) high precision data which would be very valuable to understand the Q{sup 2} dependence of the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1}(x) and G{sub 2}(x) and (2) the by far most precise determination of the third moments of g{sub 1}(x) and g{sub 2}(x) the latter of which the author argues to be related to a fundamental property of the nucleon.

  2. Contactless measurement of alternating current conductance in quantum Hall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Drichko, I. L.; Diakonov, A. M.; Malysh, V. A.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Ilyinskaya, N. D.; Usikova, A. A.; Galperin, Y. M.; Kummer, M.; Känel, H. von

    2014-10-21

    We report a procedure to determine the frequency-dependent conductance of quantum Hall structures in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is based on the combination of two known probeless methods—acoustic spectroscopy and microwave spectroscopy. By using the acoustic spectroscopy, we study the low-frequency attenuation and phase shift of a surface acoustic wave in a piezoelectric crystal in the vicinity of the electron (hole) layer. The electronic contribution is resolved using its dependence on a transverse magnetic field. At high frequencies, we study the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave in a coplanar waveguide. To quantitatively calibrate these data, we use the fact that in the quantum-Hall-effect regime the conductance at the maxima of its magnetic field dependence is determined by extended states. Therefore, it should be frequency independent in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is verified by studies of a well-characterized p-SiGe/Ge/SiGe heterostructure.

  3. Measuring Cosmic Expansion and Large Scale Structure with Destiny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2007-01-01

    Destiny is a simple, direct, low cost mission to determine the properties of dark energy by obtaining a cosmologically deep supernova (SN) type Ia Hubble diagram and by measuring the large-scale mass power spectrum over time. Its science instrument is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared survey camera/spectrometer with a large field of view. During its first two years, Destiny will detect, observe, and characterize 23000 SN Ia events over the redshift interval 0.4lo00 square degrees to measure the large-scale mass power spectrum. The combination of surveys is much more powerful than either technique on its own, and will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than will be provided by ongoing ground-based projects.

  4. Occupation Competency Profile: Steel Detailer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the steel detailer program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  5. Superwoman Schema: Using Structural Equation Modeling to Investigate Measurement Invariance in a Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Teneka C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument is critical to understanding how well an instrument measures what it intends to measure, and ensuring proposed use and interpretation of questionnaire scores are valid. The current study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to examine the factorial structure and…

  6. Measuring Learning in Serious Games: A Case Study with Structural Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Pieter; van der Spek, Erik D.; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of serious games is often measured with verbal assessment. As an alternative we propose Pathfinder structural assessment (defined as measuring the learners' knowledge organization and compare this with a referent structure) which comprises three steps: knowledge elicitation, knowledge representation and knowledge evaluation. We…

  7. Structure of trailing vortices: Comparison between particle image velocimetry measurements and theoretical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pino, C.; Parras, L.; Felli, M.; Fernandez-Feria, R.

    2011-01-01

    The velocity field of the trailing vortex behind a wing at different angles of attack has been measured through the stereo particle image velocimetry technique in a water tunnel for Reynolds numbers between 20 000 and 40 000, and for several distances to the wing tip. After filtering out the vortex meandering, the radial profiles of the axial and the azimuthal velocity components and of the radial profiles of the vorticity were compared to the theoretical models for trailing vortices by [G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 20, 645 (1964)] and by [D. W. Moore and P. G. Saffman, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 333, 491 (1973)], whose main features are conveniently summarized. We take into account the downstream evolution of these profiles from just a fraction of the wing chord to more than ten chords. The radial profiles of the vorticity and the azimuthal velocity are shown to fit quite well to Moore and Saffman's trailing vortex model, while Batchelor's model does not fit so well, especially in the tails of the profiles. At the downstream distances considered, the radial profiles of the axial velocity do not adjust so well to Moore and Saffman's model as the azimuthal velocity profiles do, but the disagreement with Batchelor's model is quite manifested, especially at the axis. Thus, the details of the flow structure are in better agreement with the predictions of Moore and Saffman's model. The downstream evolution of several key features of the measured velocity profiles is also in agreement with the predictions of Moore and Saffman's model, within the dispersion of the experimental data, but up to the largest axial distance considered in this work we cannot decide if they follow the asymptotic behavior predicted by this model.

  8. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. An instrument for precision magnetic measurements of large magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, D.; Bordas, J.; Campmany, J.; Molins, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Traveria, M.

    2001-02-01

    A high precision-system for measuring the three-dimensional distribution of magnetic fields over large volumes, such as those produced by accelerator magnets, has been designed and commissioned. This instrument can be calibrated to a precision of ±1 G for magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T by means of an NMR system. A moving arm containing a 3D Hall probe scans the volume (up to 500×250×3000 mm 3) with a precision of ±50 μm in any direction. After appropriate identification of the various sources of error, and the optimisation of the various parts of the instrument where they are generated, an overall precision of ±2 G has been achieved, i.e. a relative precision of ±2×10 -4 for a nominal field of 1 T.

  10. The structure of evaporating and combusting sprays: Measurements and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Solomon, A. S. P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus developed, to allow observations of monodisperse sprays, consists of a methane-fueled turbulent jet diffusion flame with monodisperse methanol drops injected at the burner exit. Mean and fluctuating-phase velocities, drop sizes, drop-mass fluxes and mean-gas temperatures were measured. Initial drop diameters of 100 and 180 microns are being considered in order to vary drop penetration in the flow and effects of turbulent dispersion. Baseline tests of the burner flame with no drops present were also conducted. Calibration tests, needed to establish methods for predicting drop transport, involve drops supported in the post-flame region of a flat-flame burner operated at various mixture ratios. Spray models which are being evaluated include: (1) locally homogeneous flow (LFH) analysis, (2) deterministic separated flow (DSF) analysis and (3) stochastic separated flow (SSF) analysis.

  11. Flow structure measurement by beam scan type LDV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, M.; Nadaoka, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Hironaga, K.; Muramoto, T.

    1987-05-01

    A new type of laser Doppler velocimeter called SLV (Scan-Type Laser-Doppier Velocimeter) which can measure the velocity field almost continuously and simultaneously has been developed and tested. The principle of the apparatus is to traverse the focal point of split laser beams by reflecting them with a rotating polygon mirror or an oscillating mirror which is driven (and controlled) by a stepping motor and to receive the scattered Doppler signals by a photomultiplier by focusing them through a cylindrical lens. The signals from the photomultiplier and the driving pulse of the stepping motor were transmitted to a persona] computer and processed on-line. Experiments on the oscillatory boundary layer, Kármán vortices, and vortex rings were carried out to check the performance.

  12. In-situ measurements of velocity structure within turbidity currents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.A.; Rosenfeld, L.K.

    2004-01-01

    Turbidity currents are thought to be the main mechanism to move ???500,000 m3 of sediments annually from the head of the Monterey Submarine Canyon to the deep-sea fan. Indirect evidence has shown frequent occurrences of such turbidity currents in the canyon, but the dynamic properties of the turbidity currents such as maximum speed, duration, and dimensions are still unknown. Here we present the first-ever in-situ measurements of velocity profiles of four turbidity currents whose maximum along-canyon velocity reached 190 cm/s. Two turbidity currents coincided with storms that produced the highest swells and the biggest stream flows during the year-long deployment. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Real-time structured light intraoral 3D measurement pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Radu; Tchouprakov, Andrei; Sokolov, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is increasingly becoming a standard feature and service provided to patients in dentist offices and denture manufacturing laboratories. Although the quality of the tools and data has slowly improved in the last years, due to various surface measurement challenges, practical, accurate, invivo, real-time 3D high quality data acquisition and processing still needs improving. Advances in GPU computational power have allowed for achieving near real-time 3D intraoral in-vivo scanning of patient's teeth. We explore in this paper, from a real-time perspective, a hardware-software-GPU solution that addresses all the requirements mentioned before. Moreover we exemplify and quantify the hard and soft deadlines required by such a system and illustrate how they are supported in our implementation.

  14. Measuring the significance of community structure in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanqing; Nie, Yuchao; Yang, Hua; Cheng, Jie; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2010-12-01

    Many complex systems can be represented as networks, and separating a network into communities could simplify functional analysis considerably. Many approaches have recently been proposed to detect communities, but a method to determine whether the detected communities are significant is still lacking. In this paper, an index to evaluate the significance of communities in networks is proposed based on perturbation of the network. In contrast to previous approaches, the network is disturbed gradually, and the index is defined by integrating all of the similarities between the community structures before and after perturbation. Moreover, by taking the null model into account, the index eliminates scale effects. Thus, it can evaluate and compare the significance of communities in different networks. The method has been tested in many artificial and real-world networks. The results show that the index is in fact independent of the size of the network and the number of communities. With this approach, clear communities are found to always exist in social networks, but significant communities cannot be found in protein interactions and metabolic networks.

  15. Extrinsic spin Hall effects measured with lateral spin valve structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Kawanishi, Y.; Omori, Y.; Valet, T.; Fert, A.; Otani, Y.

    2014-02-01

    The spin Hall effect (SHE), induced by spin-orbit interaction in nonmagnetic materials, is one of the promising phenomena for conversion between charge and spin currents in spintronic devices. The spin Hall (SH) angle is the characteristic parameter of this conversion. We have performed experiments of the conversion from spin into charge currents by the SHE in lateral spin valve structures. We present experimental results on the extrinsic SHEs induced by doping nonmagnetic metals, Cu or Ag, with impurities having a large spin-orbit coupling, Bi or Pb, as well as results on the intrinsic SHE of Au. The SH angle induced by Bi in Cu or Ag is negative and particularly large for Bi in Cu, 10 times larger than the intrinsic SH angle in Au. We also observed a large SH angle for CuPb, but the SHE signal disappeared in a few days. Such an aging effect could be related to a fast mobility of Pb in Cu and has not been observed in CuBi alloys.

  16. Can Concept Sorting Provide a Reliable, Valid and Sensitive Measure of Medical Knowledge Structure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Mortis, Garth; Fick, Gordon; Mandin, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Context: Evolution from novice to expert is associated with the development of expert-type knowledge structure. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability and validity of concept sorting (ConSort[C]) as a measure of static knowledge structure and to determine the relationship between concepts in static knowledge structure and…

  17. French Canadian Children's Production of Certain Structures and the Bilingual Syntax Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer-Toker, Mia; Hamayan, Else

    1981-01-01

    Presents study designed to investigate production of certain structures in French by native-speaking French Canadian children using the Bilingual Syntax Measure. Data show no difference in production for structures studied across ages; however, significant difference was found in extent to which structures were produced correctly. (Author/BK)

  18. Measuring the Internal Structure and Physical Conditions in Star and Planet Forming Clouds Core: Toward a Quantitative Description of Cloud Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    This grant funds a research program to use infrared extinction measurements to probe the detailed structure of dark molecular cloud cores and investigate the physical conditions which give rise to star and planet formation. The goals of this program are to acquire, reduce and analyze deep infrared and molecular-line observations of a carefully selected sample of nearby dark clouds in order to internal structure of starless cloud cores and to quantitatively investigate the evolution of such structure through the star and planet formation process. During the second year of this grant, progress toward these goals is discussed.

  19. The Finer Details: Climate Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    If you want to know whether you will need sunscreen or an umbrella for tomorrow's picnic, you can simply read the local weather report. However, if you are calculating the impact of gas combustion on global temperatures, or anticipating next year's rainfall levels to set water conservation policy, you must conduct a more comprehensive investigation. Such complex matters require long-range modeling techniques that predict broad trends in climate development rather than day-to-day details. Climate models are built from equations that calculate the progression of weather-related conditions over time. Based on the laws of physics, climate model equations have been developed to predict a number of environmental factors, for example: 1. Amount of solar radiation that hits the Earth. 2. Varying proportions of gases that make up the air. 3. Temperature at the Earth's surface. 4. Circulation of ocean and wind currents. 5. Development of cloud cover. Numerical modeling of the climate can improve our understanding of both the past and, the future. A model can confirm the accuracy of environmental measurements taken. in, the past and can even fill in gaps in those records. In addition, by quantifying the relationship between different aspects of climate, scientists can estimate how a future change in one aspect may alter the rest of the world. For example, could an increase in the temperature of the Pacific Ocean somehow set off a drought on the other side of the world? A computer simulation could lead to an answer for this and other questions. Quantifying the chaotic, nonlinear activities that shape our climate is no easy matter. You cannot run these simulations on your desktop computer and expect results by the time you have finished checking your morning e-mail. Efficient and accurate climate modeling requires powerful computers that can process billions of mathematical calculations in a single second. The NCCS exists to provide this degree of vast computing capability.

  20. Predicting aphasia type from brain damage measured with structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients' aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine - SVM) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238