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Sample records for detect potential adverse

  1. Potential adverse effects of phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Whitten, P L; Lewis, C; Russell, E; Naftolin, F

    1995-03-01

    Evaluation of the potential benefits and risks offered by naturally occurring plant estrogens requires investigation of their potency and sites of action when consumed at natural dietary concentrations. Our investigations have examined the effects of a range of natural dietary concentrations of the most potent plant isoflavonoid, coumestrol, using a rat model and a variety of estrogen-dependent tissues and endpoints. Treatments of immature females demonstrated agonistic action in the reproductive tract, brain, and pituitary at natural dietary concentrations. Experiments designed to test for estrogen antagonism demonstrated that coumestrol did not conform to the picture of a classic antiestrogen. However, coumestrol did suppress estrous cycles in adult females. Developmental actions were examined by neonatal exposure of pups through milk of rat dams fed a coumestrol, control, or commercial soy-based diet during the critical period of the first 10 postnatal days or throughout the 21 days of lactation. The 10-day treatment did not significantly alter adult estrous cyclicity, but the 21-day treatment produced in a persistent estrus state in coumestrol-treated females by 132 days of age. In contrast, the 10-day coumestrol treatments produced significant deficits in the sexual behavior of male offspring. These findings illustrate the broad range of actions of these natural estrogens and the variability in potency across endpoints. This variability argues for the importance of fully characterizing each phytoestrogen in terms of its sites of action, balance of agonistic and antagonistic properties, natural potency, and short-term and long-term effects.

  2. Potential utility of data-mining algorithms for early detection of potentially fatal/disabling adverse drug reactions: a retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hauben, Manfred; Reich, Lester

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply 2 data-mining algorithms to a drug safety database to determine if these methods would have flagged potentially fatal/disabling adverse drug reactions that triggered black box warnings/drug withdrawals in advance of initial identification via "traditional" methods. Relevant drug-event combinations were identified from a journal publication. Data-mining algorithms using commonly cited disproportionality thresholds were then applied to the US Food and Drug Administration database. Seventy drug-event combinations were considered sufficiently specific for retrospective data mining. In a minority of instances, potential signals of disproportionate reporting were provided clearly in advance of initial identification via traditional pharmacovigilance methods. Data-mining algorithms have the potential to improve pharmacovigilance screening; however, for the majority of drug-event combinations, there was no substantial benefit of either over traditional methods. They should be considered as potential supplements to, and not substitutes for, traditional pharmacovigilance strategies. More research and experience will be needed to optimize deployment of data-mining algorithms in pharmacovigilance.

  3. Environmental Perchlorate Exposure: Potential Adverse Thyroid Effects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure. Recent findings Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant IQ in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recent proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided. Summary The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants. PMID:25106002

  4. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was impaired. Second, the presence of source, stressor, and effect were established. Then linkages between source, stressor, and effect were developed. This allows identification of probable stressors adversely affecting the waterbody. Three pollutant categories were assessed: chemicals, nutrients, and suspended sediments. This weight of evidence approach indicated that Greenwich Bay was primarily impacted by eutrophication-related stressors. The sediments of Greenwich Bay were carbon enriched and low dissolved oxygen concentrations were commonly seen, especially in the western portions of Greenwich Bay. The benthic community was depauperate, as would be expected under oxygen stress. Although our analysis indicated that contaminant loads in Greenwich Bay were at concentrations where adverse effects might be expected, no toxicity was observed, as a result of high levels of organic carbon in these sediments reducing contaminant bioavailability. Our analysis also indicated that suspended sediment impacts were likely nonexistent for much of the Bay. This analysis demonstrates that the diagnostic procedure was useful to organize and assess the potential stressors impacting the ecological well-being

  5. Data mining for signal detection of adverse event safety data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Chia; Tsong, Yi; Chen, James J

    2013-01-01

    The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is the primary database designed to support the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) postmarketing safety surveillance program for all approved drugs and therapeutic biologic products. Most current disproportionality analysis focuses on the detection of potential adverse events (AE) involving a single drug and a single AE only. In this paper, we present a data mining biclustering technique based on the singular value decomposition to extract local regions of association for a safety study. The analysis consists of collection of biclusters, each representing an association between a set of drugs with the corresponding set of adverse events. Significance of each bicluster can be tested using disproportionality analysis. Individual drug-event combination can be further tested. A safety data set consisting of 193 drugs with 8453 adverse events is analyzed as an illustration.

  6. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  7. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    PubMed

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability.

  8. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  9. Adverse drug events and medication errors: detection and classification methods.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, T; Gandhi, T K; Seger, A C; Hsieh, T C; Bates, D W

    2004-08-01

    Investigating the incidence, type, and preventability of adverse drug events (ADEs) and medication errors is crucial to improving the quality of health care delivery. ADEs, potential ADEs, and medication errors can be collected by extraction from practice data, solicitation of incidents from health professionals, and patient surveys. Practice data include charts, laboratory, prescription data, and administrative databases, and can be reviewed manually or screened by computer systems to identify signals. Research nurses, pharmacists, or research assistants review these signals, and those that are likely to represent an ADE or medication error are presented to reviewers who independently categorize them into ADEs, potential ADEs, medication errors, or exclusions. These incidents are also classified according to preventability, ameliorability, disability, severity, stage, and responsible person. These classifications, as well as the initial selection of incidents, have been evaluated for agreement between reviewers and the level of agreement found ranged from satisfactory to excellent (kappa = 0.32-0.98). The method of ADE and medication error detection and classification described is feasible and has good reliability. It can be used in various clinical settings to measure and improve medication safety.

  10. Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abebe, W

    2002-12-01

    The use of herbal supplements in the US has increased dramatically in recent years. These products are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the same scrutiny as conventional drugs. Patients who use herbal supplements often do so in conjunction with conventional drugs. This article is a review of potential adverse interactions between some of the commonly used herbal supplements and analgesic drugs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, have the potential to interact with herbal supplements that are known to possess antiplatelet activity (ginkgo, garlic, ginger, bilberry, dong quai, feverfew, ginseng, turmeric, meadowsweet and willow), with those containing coumarin (chamomile, motherworth, horse chestnut, fenugreek and red clover) and with tamarind, enhancing the risk of bleeding. Acetaminophen may also interact with ginkgo and possibly with at least some of the above herbs to increase the risk of bleeding. Further, the incidences of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity may be augmented by acetaminophen when concomitantly used with the potentially hepatotoxic herbs Echinacea and kava, and with herbs containing salicylate (willow, meadowsweet), respectively. The concomitant use of opioid analgesics with the sedative herbal supplements, valerian, kava and chamomile, may lead to increased central nervous system (CNS) depression. The analgesic effect of opioids may also be inhibited by ginseng. It is suggested that health-care professionals should be more aware of the potential adverse interactions between herbal supplements and analgesic drugs, and take appropriate precautionary measures to avoid their possible occurrences. However, as most of the interaction information available is based on individual case reports, animal studies and in vitro data, further research is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions.

  11. Automatic adverse drug events detection using letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research.

  12. Data mining to generate adverse drug events detection rules.

    PubMed

    Chazard, Emmanuel; Ficheur, Grégoire; Bernonville, Stéphanie; Luyckx, Michel; Beuscart, Régis

    2011-11-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a public health issue. Their detection usually relies on voluntary reporting or medical chart reviews. The objective of this paper is to automatically detect cases of ADEs by data mining. 115,447 complete past hospital stays are extracted from six French, Danish, and Bulgarian hospitals using a common data model including diagnoses, drug administrations, laboratory results, and free-text records. Different kinds of outcomes are traced, and supervised rule induction methods (decision trees and association rules) are used to discover ADE detection rules, with respect to time constraints. The rules are then filtered, validated, and reorganized by a committee of experts. The rules are described in a rule repository, and several statistics are automatically computed in every medical department, such as the confidence, relative risk, and median delay of outcome appearance. 236 validated ADE-detection rules are discovered; they enable to detect 27 different kinds of outcomes. The rules use a various number of conditions related to laboratory results, diseases, drug administration, and demographics. Some rules involve innovative conditions, such as drug discontinuations.

  13. Detecting adverse drug events in discharge summaries using variations on the simple Bayes model.

    PubMed

    Visweswaran, Shyam; Hanbury, Paul; Saul, Melissa; Cooper, Gregory F

    2003-01-01

    Detection and prevention of adverse events and, in particular, adverse drug events (ADEs), is an important problem in health care today. We describe the implementation and evaluation of four variations on the simple Bayes model for identifying ADE-related discharge summaries. Our results show that these probabilistic techniques achieve an ROC curve area of up to 0.77 in correctly determining which patient cases should be assigned an ADE-related ICD-9-CM code. These results suggest a potential for these techniques to contribute to the development of an automated system that helps identify ADEs, as a step toward further understanding and preventing them.

  14. Mining unexpected temporal associations: applications in detecting adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huidong Warren; Chen, Jie; He, Hongxing; Williams, Graham J; Kelman, Chris; O'Keefe, Christine M

    2008-07-01

    In various real-world applications, it is very useful mining unanticipated episodes where certain event patterns unexpectedly lead to outcomes, e.g., taking two medicines together sometimes causing an adverse reaction. These unanticipated episodes are usually unexpected and infrequent, which makes existing data mining techniques, mainly designed to find frequent patterns, ineffective. In this paper, we propose unexpected temporal association rules (UTARs) to describe them. To handle the unexpectedness, we introduce a new interestingness measure, residual-leverage, and develop a novel case-based exclusion technique for its calculation. Combining it with an event-oriented data preparation technique to handle the infrequency, we develop a new algorithm MUTARC to find pairwise UTARs. The MUTARC is applied to generate adverse drug reaction (ADR) signals from real-world healthcare administrative databases. It reliably shortlists not only six known ADRs, but also another ADR, flucloxacillin possibly causing hepatitis, which our algorithm designers and experiment runners have not known before the experiments. The MUTARC performs much more effectively than existing techniques. This paper clearly illustrates the great potential along the new direction of ADR signal generation from healthcare administrative databases.

  15. Skin-lightening cosmetics: frequent, potentially severe adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Skin-lightening cosmetics are used by many women and men around the world. The products contain a variety of substances, which are often unknown to the users. Most of these products include topical corticosteroids, hydroquinone and mercury salts. Many other substances may be added. Several surveys and cohort studies, including several thousand individuals, have shown that regular application of skin-lightening cosmetics to large surface areas can have irreversible cutaneous adverse effects, such as patchy hyper- or hypopigmentation, skin atrophy, stretch marks and delayed wound healing, and can also mask or, on the contrary, promote or reactivate skin infections. Cases of skin cancer have been attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics. A Senegalese cohort study of 147 women showed a statistically significant increase in the risk of hypertension and diabetes linked to the use of skin-lightening agents. Other systemic adverse effects attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics include Cushing's syndrome, adrenal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome, neurological disorders, and ocular disorders. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have also been attributed to these products. Many skin-lightening cosmetics contain substances that can harm the unborn child. For example, tretinoin is teratogenic while salicylic acid is feto-toxic. In practice, users are often unaware of the risk of severe adverse effects associated with skin-lightening cosmetics. Users should be informed of these adverse effects and encouraged to stop using these products, especially when skin disorders appear.

  16. Adverse drug reactions in older people: detection and prevention.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Mirko; van der Cammen, Tischa; Onder, Graziano

    2012-06-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older adults are an important healthcare problem since they are frequently a cause of hospitalization, occur commonly during admission, and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Older adults are particularly susceptible to ADRs because they are usually on multiple drug regimens and because age is associated with changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The presentation of an ADR in older adults is often atypical, which further complicates its recognition. One potential strategy for improving recognition of ADRs is to identify those patients who are at risk of an ADR. The recently developed GerontoNet ADR Risk Score is a practical tool for identification of older patients who are at increased risk for an ADR and who may represent a target for interventions aimed at reducing ADRs. Provision of adequate education in the domain of clinical geriatric pharmacology can improve recognition of ADRs. Besides formal surveillance systems, built-in computer programs with electronic prescribing databases and clinical pharmacist involvement in patient care within multidisciplinary geriatric teams might help to minimize the occurrence of ADRs. In addition, a number of actions can be taken in hospitals to stimulate appropriate prescribing and to assure adequate communication between primary and hospital care. In older adults with complex medical problems and needs, a global evaluation obtained through a comprehensive geriatric assessment may be helpful in simplifying drug prescription and prioritizing pharmacological and healthcare needs, resulting in an improvement in quality of prescribing.

  17. Using trigger phrases to detect adverse drug reactions in ambulatory care notes

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Michael N; Feldman, Henry J; Triola, Marc M

    2007-01-01

    Background As medical care moves towards an outpatient focus, monitoring systems for ambulatory patients are increasingly important. Because adverse outcomes due to medications are an important problem in outpatients, the authors developed an automated monitoring system for detecting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in ambulatory patients. Methods The authors obtained a set of approximately 110 000 ambulatory care notes from the medicine clinic at Bellevue Hospital Centre for 2003–4, and manually analysed a representative sample of 1250 notes to obtain a gold standard. To detect ADRs in the text of electronic ambulatory notes, the authors used a “trigger phrases” methodology, based on a simple grammar populated with a limited set of keywords. Results Under current functionality, this system detected 38 of 54 cases in the authors' gold standard set, of which 17 were true positives, for a sensitivity of 31%, a specificity of 98%, and a positive predictive value of 45%. Their proxy measure correlated with 70% of the ADRs in the gold standard. These values are comparable or superior to other systems described in the literature. Conclusions These results show that an automated system can detect ADRs with moderate sensitivity and high specificity, and has the potential to serve as the basis for a larger scale reporting system. PMID:17403760

  18. Data-mining-based detection of adverse drug events.

    PubMed

    Chazard, Emmanuel; Preda, Cristian; Merlin, Béatrice; Ficheur, Grégoire; Beuscart, Régis

    2009-01-01

    Every year adverse drug events (ADEs) are known to be responsible for 98,000 deaths in the USA. Classical methods rely on report statements, expert knowledge, and staff operated record review. One of our objectives, in the PSIP project framework, is to use data mining (e.g., decision trees) to electronically identify situations leading to risk of ADEs. 10,500 hospitalization records from Denmark and France were used. 500 rules were automatically obtained, which are currently being validated by experts. A decision support system to prevent ADEs is then to be developed. The article examines a decision tree and the rules in the field of vitamin K antagonists.

  19. Lidar monitoring of infrared target detection ranges through adverse weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissonnette, Luc R.; Roy, Gilles; Theriault, Jean-Marc

    1998-11-01

    Despite recent technical advances, adverse weather still constitutes an important decision factor in the efficient use of IR sensors. The presence of fog, clouds or precipitation affects both the IR transmission and background properties of the atmosphere. Taking these effects into account requires the knowledge of the optical parameters of fog, clouds or precipitation which, in general, fluctuate too much on a scale of a few kilometers to be predictable with acceptable accuracy. Therefore, systems performance calculations based on modeling alone cannot provide all the necessary information for real time, on-site decision making. A promising alternative is continuous monitoring of atmospheric aerosol properties with a lidar. The method use in this study is the multiple-field- of-view technique which takes advantage of the information contained in the multiple scattering contributions to solve for both the droplet concentration and effective diameter. We can then use these solutions to derive the atmospheric radiance and transmittance, and calculate from there the contrast-to-noise ratio of IR images of small targets. Using actual lidar probings, examples of performance curves of a generic surveillance sensor are obtained for two types of targets. Results show that performance can drastically change over an interval as short as one minute, which emphasizes the need for real time, on site monitoring in adverse weather.

  20. 40 CFR 172.57 - Submission of information regarding potential unreasonable adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adverse effects. Any person using a microbial pesticide in small-scale testing covered by this subpart who... potential unreasonable adverse effects. 172.57 Section 172.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for...

  1. 40 CFR 172.57 - Submission of information regarding potential unreasonable adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adverse effects. Any person using a microbial pesticide in small-scale testing covered by this subpart who... potential unreasonable adverse effects. 172.57 Section 172.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for...

  2. 40 CFR 172.57 - Submission of information regarding potential unreasonable adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adverse effects. Any person using a microbial pesticide in small-scale testing covered by this subpart who... potential unreasonable adverse effects. 172.57 Section 172.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for...

  3. 40 CFR 172.57 - Submission of information regarding potential unreasonable adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adverse effects. Any person using a microbial pesticide in small-scale testing covered by this subpart who... potential unreasonable adverse effects. 172.57 Section 172.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for...

  4. 40 CFR 172.57 - Submission of information regarding potential unreasonable adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adverse effects. Any person using a microbial pesticide in small-scale testing covered by this subpart who... potential unreasonable adverse effects. 172.57 Section 172.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for...

  5. Potential adverse health effects of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Anita

    2003-01-01

    Genetically modified crops have the potential to eliminate hunger and starvation in millions of people, especially in developing countries because the genetic modification can produce large amounts of foods that are more nutritious. Large quantities are produced because genetically modified crops are more resistant to pests and drought. They also contain greater amounts of nutrients, such as proteins and vitamins. However, there are concerns about the safety of genetically modified crops. The concerns are that they may contain allergenic substances due to introduction of new genes into crops. Another concern is that genetic engineering often involves the use of antibiotic-resistance genes as "selectable markers" and this could lead to production of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains that are resistant to available antibiotics. This would create a serious public health problem. The genetically modified crops might contain other toxic substances (such as enhanced amounts of heavy metals) and the crops might not be "substantially equivalent" in genome, proteome, and metabolome compared with unmodified crops. Another concern is that genetically modified crops may be less nutritious; for example, they might contain lower amounts of phytoestrogens, which protect against heart disease and cancer. The review of available literature indicates that the genetically modified crops available in the market that are intended for human consumption are generally safe; their consumption is not associated with serious health problems. However, because of potential for exposure of a large segment of human population to genetically modified foods, more research is needed to ensure that the genetically modified foods are safe for human consumption.

  6. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release.

  7. Adverse event detection in drug development: recommendations and obligations beyond phase 3.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Jesse A; Glasser, Susan C; Ellenberg, Susan S

    2008-08-01

    Premarketing studies of drugs, although large enough to demonstrate efficacy and detect common adverse events, cannot reliably detect an increased incidence of rare adverse events or events with significant latency. For most drugs, only about 500 to 3000 participants are studied, for relatively short durations, before a drug is marketed. Systems for assessment of postmarketing adverse events include spontaneous reports, computerized claims or medical record databases, and formal postmarketing studies. We briefly review the strengths and limitations of each. Postmarketing surveillance is essential for developing a full understanding of the balance between benefits and adverse effects. More work is needed in analysis of data from spontaneous reports of adverse effects and automated databases, design of ad hoc studies, and design of economically feasible large randomized studies.

  8. Signal detection to identify serious adverse events (neuropsychiatric events) in travelers taking mefloquine for chemoprophylaxis of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Aung, Kyan; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Mak, Joon Wah

    2012-01-01

    Background For all medications, there is a trade-off between benefits and potential for harm. It is important for patient safety to detect drug-event combinations and analyze by appropriate statistical methods. Mefloquine is used as chemoprophylaxis for travelers going to regions with known chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. As such, there is a concern about serious adverse events associated with mefloquine chemoprophylaxis. The objective of the present study was to assess whether any signal would be detected for the serious adverse events of mefloquine, based on data in clinicoepidemiological studies. Materials and methods We extracted data on adverse events related to mefloquine chemoprophylaxis from the two published datasets. Disproportionality reporting of adverse events such as neuropsychiatric events and other adverse events was presented in the 2 × 2 contingency table. Reporting odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval [CI] data-mining algorithm was applied for the signal detection. The safety signals are considered significant when the ROR estimates and the lower limits of the corresponding 95% CI are ≥2. Results Two datasets addressing adverse events of mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (one from a published article and one from a Cochrane systematic review) were included for analyses. Reporting odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI: 1.49–1.68 based on published data in the selected article, and 1.195, 95% CI: 0.94–1.44 based on data in the selected Cochrane review. Overall, in both datasets, the reporting odds ratio values of lower 95% CI were less than 2. Conclusion Based on available data, findings suggested that signals for serious adverse events pertinent to neuropsychiatric event were not detected for mefloquine. Further studies are needed to substantiate this. PMID:22936859

  9. 40 CFR 161.34 - Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flagging of studies for potential... Provisions § 161.34 Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects. (a) Any person who submits a study of... registration, or to satisfy a requirement imposed under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(2)(B), must submit with the study...

  10. 40 CFR 161.34 - Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flagging of studies for potential... Provisions § 161.34 Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects. (a) Any person who submits a study of... registration, or to satisfy a requirement imposed under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(2)(B), must submit with the study...

  11. 40 CFR 161.34 - Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flagging of studies for potential... Provisions § 161.34 Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects. (a) Any person who submits a study of... registration, or to satisfy a requirement imposed under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(2)(B), must submit with the study...

  12. Luteinizing hormone--releasing hormone agonists: a quick reference for prevalence rates of potential adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lauren M; Tran, Susan; Robinson, John W

    2013-12-01

    Men with prostate cancer (PCa) frequently undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), typically in the form of a depot injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa). LHRHa are associated with many adverse effects (eg, hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, loss of muscle mass, osteopenia, metabolic syndrome), which drastically impact patient quality of life. This literature review, which includes a comprehensive table documenting prevalence rates, provides a quick reference for health care professionals involved in the care of men undergoing ADT with LHRHa. Primary sources were acquired from PubMed using the search terms "androgen deprivation therapy" and each potentially adverse effect (eg, "androgen deprivation therapy and hot flashes"). Commonly cited review articles were also examined for citations of original studies containing prevalence rates. More than 270 articles were reviewed. In contrast to many existing reviews, rates are cited exclusively from original sources. The prevalence rates, obtained from original sources, suggest that more than half of documented adverse effects are experienced by as many as 40% or more of patients. A critique of the literature is also provided. Although there is a vast literature of both original and review articles on specific adverse effects of LHRHa, the quality of research on prevalence rates for some adverse effects is subpar. Many review articles contain inaccuracies and do not cite original sources. The table of prevalence rates will serve as a quick reference for health care providers when counseling patients and will aid in the development of evidence-based patient education materials.

  13. Using the AHRQ PSIs to Detect Post-Discharge Adverse Events in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Mull, Hillary J.; Borzecki, Ann M.; Chen, Qi; Shin, Marlena H.; Rosen, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background PSIs use inpatient administrative data to flag cases with potentially preventable adverse events (AEs) attributable to hospital care. We explored how many AEs the PSIs identified in the 30 days post-discharge. Methods We ran the PSI software (version 3.1a) on VA 2003–2007 administrative data for ten recently validated PSIs. Among PSI-eligible index hospitalizations not flagged with an AE, we evaluated how many AEs occurred within 1–14 and 15–30 days post-discharge using inpatient and outpatient administrative data. Results Considering all PSI-eligible index hospitalizations, we identified 11,141 post-discharge AEs, compared to 40,578 inpatient-flagged AEs. More than 60% of post-discharge AEs were detected within 14 days of discharge. The majority of post-discharge AEs were decubitus ulcers and postoperative pulmonary embolisms or deep vein thromboses. Conclusions Extending PSI algorithms to the post-discharge period may provide a more complete picture of hospital quality. Future work should use chart review to validate post-discharge PSI events. PMID:23939485

  14. Adverse drug reactions – examples of detection of rare events using databases

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Esther W; Liu, Kirin Q L; Chui, Celine S L; Sing, Chor-Wing; Wong, Lisa Y L; Wong, Ian C K

    2015-01-01

    It is recognised that randomised controlled trials are not feasible for capturing rare adverse events. There is an increasing trend towards observational research methodologies using large population-based health databases. These databases offer more scope for adequate sample sizes, allowing for comprehensive patient characterisation and assessment of the associated factors. While direct causality cannot be established and confounders cannot be ignored, databases present an opportunity to explore and quantify rare events. The use of databases for the detection of rare adverse events in the following conditions, sudden death associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment, retinal detachment associated with the use of fluoroquinolones and toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with drug exposure, are discussed as examples. In general, rare adverse events tend to have immediate and important clinical implications and may be life-threatening. An understanding of the causative factors is therefore important, in addition to the research methodologies and database platforms that enable the undertaking of the research. PMID:25060360

  15. Statistical Mining of Potential Drug Interaction Adverse Effects in FDA's Spontaneous Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Harpaz, Rave; Haerian, Krystl; Chase, Herbert S; Friedman, Carol

    2010-11-13

    Many adverse drug effects (ADEs) can be attributed to drug interactions. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) provide a rich opportunity to detect novel post-marketed drug interaction adverse effects (DIAEs), as they include populations not well represented in clinical trials. However, their identification in SRS is nontrivial. Most existing research have addressed the statistical issues used to test or verify DIAEs, but not their identification as part of a systematic large scale database-wide mining process as discussed in this work. This paper examines the application of a highly optimized and tailored implementation of the Apriori algorithm, as well as methods addressing data quality issues, to the identification of DIAEs in FDAs SRS.

  16. Potential adverse effects of oseltamivir in rats: males are more vulnerable than females.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Wael M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed Ali

    2011-09-01

    Oseltamivir is the most widely used antiviral drug for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. However, not much is known about its adverse effects. The potential side effects were investigated in male and female rats (140-170 g). Oseltamivir was administered at 2.2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 5 days. For both genders, treatment with oseltamivir resulted in significant reductions in the hepatic activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Also for both genders, oseltamivir produced modest reductions in the hepatic activities of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, quinone oxidoreductase, thioredoxin reductase, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A, as well as hepatic glutathione content. For both genders, neither the kidney functions nor protein profile was affected by oseltamivir. Oseltamivir also caused significant elevation in serum levels of both triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol and in the activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, in both genders. For male animals only, oseltamivir treatment elevated the serum level of total cholesterol as well as the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase, and reduced the hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Oseltamivir caused oxidative stress and acute toxicity in the liver, and disrupted the cholesterol and lipid metabolism but was less likely to cause serious drug interactions. There was a sexual differentiation in these adverse effects, with adverse effects being more evident in male rats.

  17. Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: a review.

    PubMed

    Berman, S M; Kuczenski, R; McCracken, J T; London, E D

    2009-02-01

    Amphetamine stimulants have been used medically since early in the twentieth century, but they have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic. Although they have long been used effectively to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, amphetamines are now being prescribed increasingly as maintenance therapy for ADHD and narcolepsy in adults, considerably extending the period of potential exposure. Effects of prolonged stimulant treatment have not been fully explored, and understanding such effects is a research priority. Because the pharmacokinetics of amphetamines differ between children and adults, reevaluation of the potential for adverse effects of chronic treatment of adults is essential. Despite information on the effects of stimulants in laboratory animals, profound species differences in susceptibility to stimulant-induced neurotoxicity underscore the need for systematic studies of prolonged human exposure. Early amphetamine treatment has been linked to slowing in height and weight growth in some children. Because the number of prescriptions for amphetamines has increased several fold over the past decade, an amphetamine-containing formulation is the most commonly prescribed stimulant in North America, and it is noteworthy that amphetamines are also the most abused prescription medications. Although early treatment does not increase risk for substance abuse, few studies have tracked the compliance and usage profiles of individuals who began amphetamine treatment as adults. Overall, there is concern about risk for slowed growth in young patients who are dosed continuously, and for substance abuse in patients first medicated in late adolescence or adulthood. Although most adult patients also use amphetamines effectively and safely, occasional case reports indicate that prescription use can produce marked psychological adverse events, including stimulant-induced psychosis. Assessments of central toxicity and adverse

  18. Using Structured Telephone Follow-up Assessments to Improve Suicide-related Adverse Event Detection

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sarah A.; Zhang, Zi; Hillerns, Carla; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.; Miller, Ivan; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse event (AE) detection and reporting practices were compared during the first phase of the Emergency Department Safety Assessment and Follow-up Evaluation (ED-SAFE), a suicide intervention study. Data were collected using a combination of chart reviews and structured telephone follow-up assessments post-enrollment. Beyond chart reviews, structured telephone follow-up assessments identified 45% of the total AEs in our study. Notably, detection of suicide attempts significantly varied by approach with 53 (18%) detected by chart review, 173 (59%) by structured telephone follow-up assessments, and 69 (23%) marked as duplicates. Findings provide support for utilizing multiple methods for more robust AE detection in suicide research. PMID:24588679

  19. Portable Automatic Text Classification for Adverse Drug Reaction Detection via Multi-corpus Training

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Objective Automatic detection of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) mentions from text has recently received significant interest in pharmacovigilance research. Current research focuses on various sources of text-based information, including social media — where enormous amounts of user posted data is available, which have the potential for use in pharmacovigilance if collected and filtered accurately. The aims of this study are: (i) to explore natural language processing approaches for generating useful features from text, and utilizing them in optimized machine learning algorithms for automatic classification of ADR assertive text segments; (ii) to present two data sets that we prepared for the task of ADR detection from user posted internet data; and (iii) to investigate if combining training data from distinct corpora can improve automatic classification accuracies. Methods One of our three data sets contains annotated sentences from clinical reports, and the two other data sets, built in-house, consist of annotated posts from social media. Our text classification approach relies on generating a large set of features, representing semantic properties (e.g., sentiment, polarity, and topic), from short text nuggets. Importantly, using our expanded feature sets, we combine training data from different corpora in attempts to boost classification accuracies. Results Our feature-rich classification approach performs significantly better than previously published approaches with ADR class F-scores of 0.812 (previously reported best: 0.770), 0.538 and 0.678 for the three data sets. Combining training data from multiple compatible corpora further improves the ADR F-scores for the in-house data sets to 0.597 (improvement of 5.9 units) and 0.704 (improvement of 2.6 units) respectively. Conclusions Our research results indicate that using advanced NLP techniques for generating information rich features from text can significantly improve classification accuracies over existing

  20. High-Performance Signal Detection for Adverse Drug Events using MapReduce Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kai; Sun, Xingzhi; Tao, Ying; Xu, Linhao; Wang, Chen; Mao, Xianling; Peng, Bo; Pan, Yue

    2010-11-13

    Post-marketing pharmacovigilance is important for public health, as many Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) are unknown when those drugs were approved for marketing. However, due to the large number of reported drugs and drug combinations, detecting ADE signals by mining these reports is becoming a challenging task in terms of computational complexity. Recently, a parallel programming model, MapReduce has been introduced by Google to support large-scale data intensive applications. In this study, we proposed a MapReduce-based algorithm, for common ADE detection approach, Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR), and tested it in mining spontaneous ADE reports from FDA. The purpose is to investigate the possibility of using MapReduce principle to speed up biomedical data mining tasks using this pharmacovigilance case as one specific example. The results demonstrated that MapReduce programming model could improve the performance of common signal detection algorithm for pharmacovigilance in a distributed computation environment at approximately liner speedup rates.

  1. Potentially inappropriate prescribing andthe risk of adverse drug reactions in critically ill older adults

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Thamires B.; Reis, Wálleri C.; Andrzejevski, Vânia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use in the elderly is associated with increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), but there is limited information regarding PIM use in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Objective: The aim of the study is to describe the prevalence and factors associated with the use of PIM and the occurrence of PIM-related adverse reactions in the critically ill elderly. Methods: This study enrolled all critically ill older adults (60 years or more) admitted to medical or cardiovascular ICUs between January and December 2013, in a large tertiary teaching hospital. For all patients, clinical pharmacists listed the medications given during the ICU stay and data on drugs were analyzed using 2012 Beers Criteria, to identify the prevalence of PIM. For each identified PIM the medical records were analyzed to evaluate factors associated with its use. The frequency of ADRs and, the causal relationship between PIM and the ADRs identified were also evaluated through review of medical records. Results: According to 2012 Beers Criteria, 98.2% of elderly patients used at least one PIM (n=599), of which 24.8% were newly started in the ICUs. In 29.6% of PIMs, there was a clinical circumstance that justified their prescription. The number of PIMs was associated with ICU length of stay and total number of medications. There was at least one ADR identified in 17.8% of patients; more than 40% were attributed to PIM, but there was no statistical association. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of PIM used in acutely ill older people, but they do not seem to be the major cause of adverse drug reactions in this population. Although many PIMs had a clinical circumstance that led to their prescription during the course of ICU hospitalization, many were still present upon hospital discharge. Therefore, prescription of PIMs should be minimized to improve the safety of elderly patients. PMID:28042352

  2. Application of quantitative signal detection in the Dutch spontaneous reporting system for adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Diemont, Willem; van Grootheest, Kees

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) is the timely detection of unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs), or signal detection. Generally this is carried out by a systematic manual review of every report sent to an SRS. Statistical analysis of the data sets of an SRS, or quantitative signal detection, can provide additional information concerning a possible relationship between a drug and an ADR. We describe the role of quantitative signal detection and the way it is applied at the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. Results of the statistical analysis are implemented in the traditional case-by-case analysis. In addition, for data-mining purposes, a list of associations of ADRs and suspected drugs that are disproportionally present in the database is periodically generated. Finally, quantitative signal generation can be used to study more complex relationships, such as drug-drug interactions and syndromes. The results of quantitative signal detection should be considered as an additional source of information, complementary to the traditional analysis. Techniques for the detection of drug interactions and syndromes offer a new challenge for pharmacovigilance in the near future.

  3. Photoscreening to detect potential amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Maslin, K; Hope, C

    1990-08-01

    Photoscreening to detect amblyopiogenic conditions is particularly applicable for the child under three years of age because conventional testing is difficult. We have designed an eccentric photoscreener that is inexpensive, easily used and requires only one diagnostic photograph. Some 231 infants and children were refracted and photoscreened and results compared in a blind study. Compliance was good and all cases of strabismus, amblyopia, and amblyopiogenic conditions were diagnosed.

  4. Opportunities for Web-based Drug Repositioning: Searching for Potential Antihypertensive Agents with Hypotension Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kejian; Wan, Mei; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug repositioning refers to the process of developing new indications for existing drugs. As a phenotypic indicator of drug response in humans, clinical side effects may provide straightforward signals and unique opportunities for drug repositioning. Objective We aimed to identify drugs frequently associated with hypotension adverse reactions (ie, the opposite condition of hypertension), which could be potential candidates as antihypertensive agents. Methods We systematically searched the electronic records of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) through the openFDA platform to assess the association between hypotension incidence and antihypertensive therapeutic effect regarding a list of 683 drugs. Results Statistical analysis of FAERS data demonstrated that those drugs frequently co-occurring with hypotension events were more likely to have antihypertensive activity. Ranked by the statistical significance of frequent hypotension reporting, the well-known antihypertensive drugs were effectively distinguished from others (with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > 0.80 and a normalized discounted cumulative gain of 0.77). In addition, we found a series of antihypertensive agents (particularly drugs originally developed for treating nervous system diseases) among the drugs with top significant reporting, suggesting the good potential of Web-based and data-driven drug repositioning. Conclusions We found several candidate agents among the hypotension-related drugs on our list that may be redirected for lowering blood pressure. More important, we showed that a pharmacovigilance system could alternatively be used to identify antihypertensive agents and sustainably create opportunities for drug repositioning. PMID:27036325

  5. The Evaluation of a Pulmonary Display to Detect Adverse Respiratory Events Using High Resolution Human Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, S. Blake; Johnson, Ken; Albert, Robert; Syroid, Noah; Drews, Frank; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2006-01-01

    Objective Authors developed a picture-graphics display for pulmonary function to present typical respiratory data used in perioperative and intensive care environments. The display utilizes color, shape and emergent alerting to highlight abnormal pulmonary physiology. The display serves as an adjunct to traditional operating room displays and monitors. Design To evaluate the prototype, nineteen clinician volunteers each managed four adverse respiratory events and one normal event using a high-resolution patient simulator which included the new displays (intervention subjects) and traditional displays (control subjects). Between-group comparisons included (i) time to diagnosis and treatment for each adverse respiratory event; (ii) the number of unnecessary treatments during the normal scenario; and (iii) self-reported workload estimates while managing study events. Measurements Two expert anesthesiologists reviewed video-taped transcriptions of the volunteers to determine time to treat and time to diagnosis. Time values were then compared between groups using a Mann-Whitney-U Test. Estimated workload for both groups was assessed using the NASA-TLX and compared between groups using an ANOVA. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Clinician volunteers detected and treated obstructed endotracheal tubes and intrinsic PEEP problems faster with graphical rather than conventional displays (p < 0.05). During the normal scenario simulation, 3 clinicians using the graphical display, and 5 clinicians using the conventional display gave unnecessary treatments. Clinician-volunteers reported significantly lower subjective workloads using the graphical display for the obstructed endotracheal tube scenario (p < 0.001) and the intrinsic PEEP scenario (p < 0.03). Conclusion Authors conclude that the graphical pulmonary display may serve as a useful adjunct to traditional displays in identifying adverse respiratory events. PMID:16929038

  6. Is detection of adverse events affected by record review methodology? an evaluation of the “Harvard Medical Practice Study” method and the “Global Trigger Tool”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a theoretical debate as to which retrospective record review method is the most valid, reliable, cost efficient and feasible for detecting adverse events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and capability of two common retrospective record review methods, the “Harvard Medical Practice Study” method and the “Global Trigger Tool” in detecting adverse events in adult orthopaedic inpatients. Methods We performed a three-stage structured retrospective record review process in a random sample of 350 orthopaedic admissions during 2009 at a Swedish university hospital. Two teams comprised each of a registered nurse and two physicians were assigned, one to each method. All records were primarily reviewed by registered nurses. Records containing a potential adverse event were forwarded to physicians for review in stage 2. Physicians made an independent review regarding, for example, healthcare causation, preventability and severity. In the third review stage all adverse events that were found with the two methods together were compared and all discrepancies after review stage 2 were analysed. Events that had not been identified by one of the methods in the first two review stages were reviewed by the respective physicians. Results Altogether, 160 different adverse events were identified in 105 (30.0%) of the 350 records with both methods combined. The “Harvard Medical Practice Study” method identified 155 of the 160 (96.9%, 95% CI: 92.9-99.0) adverse events in 104 (29.7%) records compared with 137 (85.6%, 95% CI: 79.2-90.7) adverse events in 98 (28.0%) records using the “Global Trigger Tool”. Adverse events “causing harm without permanent disability” accounted for most of the observed difference. The overall positive predictive value for criteria and triggers using the “Harvard Medical Practice Study” method and the “Global Trigger Tool” was 40.3% and 30.4%, respectively. Conclusions More adverse

  7. Information Systems Developments to Detect and Analyze Chemotherapy-associated Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Mark G.; Livshits, Alice; Carozzoni, Carol; McMenamin, Erin; Gibson, Gene; Loren, Alison W.; Hennessy, Sean

    2002-01-01

    A difficult balance exists in the use of cancer chemotherapy in which the cytotoxic medicine must act on the cancer without causing neutropenic fever, a condition that is caused by over-suppression of the immune system. An improved understanding of dosing strategies as well as the use of medications to support the immune system has helped to reduce the likelihood of an admission for neutropenic fever following cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, as with any drug therapy, chemotherapy administration that is temporally associated with an unexpected hospitalization for neutropenia is an adverse drug event (ADE). Analogous to other informatics research to monitor and address the occurrence of ADEs, this work develops and validates the information systems infrastructure necessary to detect the occurrence of and analyze the factors contributing to chemotherapy associated ADEs.

  8. Adverse event detection (AED) system for continuously monitoring and evaluating structural health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jinsik; Ha, Dong Sam; Inman, Daniel J.; Owen, Robert B.

    2011-03-01

    Structural damage for spacecraft is mainly due to impacts such as collision of meteorites or space debris. We present a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for space applications, named Adverse Event Detection (AED), which integrates an acoustic sensor, an impedance-based SHM system, and a Lamb wave SHM system. With these three health-monitoring methods in place, we can determine the presence, location, and severity of damage. An acoustic sensor continuously monitors acoustic events, while the impedance-based and Lamb wave SHM systems are in sleep mode. If an acoustic sensor detects an impact, it activates the impedance-based SHM. The impedance-based system determines if the impact incurred damage. When damage is detected, it activates the Lamb wave SHM system to determine the severity and location of the damage. Further, since an acoustic sensor dissipates much less power than the two SHM systems and the two systems are activated only when there is an acoustic event, our system reduces overall power dissipation significantly. Our prototype system demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed concept.

  9. Measurement of patient safety: a systematic review of the reliability and validity of adverse event detection with record review

    PubMed Central

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; Zegers, Marieke; Vincent, Charles; van Gurp, Petra J; de Vet, Henrica C W; Wollersheim, Hub

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Record review is the most used method to quantify patient safety. We systematically reviewed the reliability and validity of adverse event detection with record review. Design A systematic review of the literature. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library and from their inception through February 2015. We included all studies that aimed to describe the reliability and/or validity of record review. Two reviewers conducted data extraction. We pooled κ values (κ) and analysed the differences in subgroups according to number of reviewers, reviewer experience and training level, adjusted for the prevalence of adverse events. Results In 25 studies, the psychometric data of the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) and the Harvard Medical Practice Study (HMPS) were reported and 24 studies were included for statistical pooling. The inter-rater reliability of the GTT and HMPS showed a pooled κ of 0.65 and 0.55, respectively. The inter-rater agreement was statistically significantly higher when the group of reviewers within a study consisted of a maximum five reviewers. We found no studies reporting on the validity of the GTT and HMPS. Conclusions The reliability of record review is moderate to substantial and improved when a small group of reviewers carried out record review. The validity of the record review method has never been evaluated, while clinical data registries, autopsy or direct observations of patient care are potential reference methods that can be used to test concurrent validity. PMID:27550650

  10. Childhood adversities and adult use of potentially injurious physical discipline in Japan.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito; Kessler, Ronald C; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Using data derived from the World Mental Health Japan Survey (n = 1,186), this study examined the intergenerational continuity of potentially injurious physical discipline of children in a community sample from Japan with a special focus on the confounding effects of 11 other types of childhood adversities (CAs) and the intervening effects of mental disorders and socioeconomic status. Bivariate analyses revealed that having experienced physical discipline as children and five other CAs was significantly associated with the use of physical discipline as parents in the Japanese community examined. However, childhood physical discipline was the only CA that remained significant after adjusting for the other CAs. The association of childhood physical discipline with adult perpetration was independent of the respondents' mental disorders and household income. No significant gender differences were found in the associations between childhood physical discipline and adult perpetration. The current study on Japan provided empirical support consistent with results found in other countries regarding the intergenerational transmission of child physical abuse.

  11. Childhood adversities and adult use of potentially injurious physical discipline in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito; Kessler, Ronald C.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Using data derived from the World Mental Health Japan Survey (n = 1,186), this study examined the intergenerational continuity of potentially injurious physical discipline of children in a community sample from Japan with a special focus on the confounding effects of 11 other types of childhood adversities (CAs) and the intervening effects of mental disorders and socioeconomic status. Bivariate analyses revealed that having experienced physical discipline as children and five other CAs was significantly associated with the use of physical discipline as parents in the Japanese community examined. However, childhood physical discipline was the only CA that remained significant after adjusting for the other CAs. The association of childhood physical discipline with adult perpetration was independent of the respondents’ mental disorders and household income. No significant gender differences were found in the associations between childhood physical discipline and adult perpetration. The current study on Japan provided empirical support consistent with results found in other countries regarding the intergenerational transmission of child physical abuse. PMID:26478655

  12. How Usability of a Web-Based Clinical Decision Support System Has the Potential to Contribute to Adverse Medical Events

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Timothy A.D.; Kushniruk, Andre W.; Bullard, Michael J.; Holroyd, Brian R.; Meurer, David P.; Rowe, Brian H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have the potential to reduce adverse medical events, but improper design can introduce new forms of error. CDSS pertaining to community acquired pneumonia and neutropenic fever were studied to determine whether usability of the graphical user interface might contribute to potential adverse medical events. Methods Automated screen capture of 4 CDSS being used by volunteer emergency physicians was analyzed using structured methods. Results 422 events were recorded over 56 sessions. In total, 169 negative comments, 55 positive comments, 130 neutral comments, 21 application events, 34 problems, 6 slips, and 5 mistakes were identified. Three mistakes could have had life-threatening consequences. Conclusion Evaluation of CDSS will be of utmost importance in the future with increasing use of electronic health records. Usability engineering principles can identify interface problems that may lead to potential medical adverse events, and should be incorporated early in the software design phase. PMID:18998968

  13. Can social media data lead to earlier detection of drug‐related adverse events?

    PubMed Central

    Cremieux, Pierre; Audenrode, Marc Van; Vekeman, Francis; Karner, Paul; Zhang, Haimin; Greenberg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To compare the patient characteristics and the inter‐temporal reporting patterns of adverse events (AEs) for atorvastatin (Lipitor®) and sibutramine (Meridia®) in social media (AskaPatient.com) versus the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Methods We identified clinically important AEs associated with atorvastatin (muscle pain) and sibutramine (cardiovascular AEs), compared their patterns in social media postings versus FAERS and used Granger causality tests to assess whether social media postings were useful in forecasting FAERS reports. Results We analyzed 998 and 270 social media postings between 2001 and 2014, 69 003 and 7383 FAERS reports between 1997 and 2014 for atorvastatin and sibutramine, respectively. Social media reporters were younger (atorvastatin: 53.9 vs. 64.0 years, p < 0.001; sibutramine: 36.8 vs. 43.8 years, p < 0.001). Social media reviews contained fewer serious AEs (atorvastatin, pain: 2.5% vs. 38.2%; sibutramine, cardiovascular issues: 7.9% vs. 63.0%; p < 0.001 for both) and concentrated on fewer types of AEs (proportion comprising the top 20 AEs: atorvastatin, 88.7% vs. 55.4%; sibutramine, 86.3% vs. 65.4%) compared with FAERS. While social media sibutramine reviews mentioning cardiac issues helped predict those in FAERS 11 months later (p < 0.001), social media atorvastatin reviews did not help predict FAERS reports. Conclusions Social media AE reporters were younger and focused on less‐serious and fewer types of AEs than FAERS reporters. The potential for social media to provide earlier indications of AEs compared with FAERS is uncertain. Our findings highlight some of the promises and limitations of online social media versus conventional pharmacovigilance sources and the need for careful interpretation of the results. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27601271

  14. Pharmacovigilance in children: detecting adverse drug reactions in routine electronic healthcare records. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Black, Corri; Tagiyeva-Milne, Nara; Helms, Peter; Moir, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Aims A systematic review of the literature published in English over 10 years was undertaken in order to describe the use of electronic healthcare data in the identification of potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using MESH headings and text words. Titles, keywords and abstracts were checked for age <18 years, potential ADRs and electronic healthcare data. Information extracted included age, data source, pharmacovigilance method, medicines and ADRs. Studies were quality assessed. Results From 14 804 titles, 314 had a full text review and 71 were included in the final review. Fifty were published in North America, 10 in Scandinavia. Study size ranged from less than 1000 children to more than 10 million. Sixty per cent of studies used data from one source. Comparative observational studies were most commonly reported (66.2%) with 15% using passive surveillance. Electronic healthcare data set linkage and the quality of the data source were poorly reported. ADRs were classified using the International Classification of Disease (ICD10). Multi-system reactions were most commonly studied, followed by central nervous system and mental and behavioural disorders. Vaccines were most frequently prescribed followed by corticosteroids, general anaesthetics and antidepressants. Conclusions Routine electronic healthcare records were increasingly reported to be used for pharmacovigilance in children. This growing and important health protection activity could be enhanced by consistent reporting of studies to improve the identification, interpretation and generalizability of the evidence base. PMID:25819310

  15. Comparative analysis of pharmacovigilance methods in the detection of adverse drug reactions using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; McPeek Hinz, Eugenia Renne; Matheny, Michael Edwin; Denny, Joshua C; Schildcrout, Jonathan Scott; Miller, Randolph A; Xu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective Medication  safety requires that each drug be monitored throughout its market life as early detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can lead to alerts that prevent patient harm. Recently, electronic medical records (EMRs) have emerged as a valuable resource for pharmacovigilance. This study examines the use of retrospective medication orders and inpatient laboratory results documented in the EMR to identify ADRs. Methods Using 12 years of EMR data from Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), we designed a study to correlate abnormal laboratory results with specific drug administrations by comparing the outcomes of a drug-exposed group and a matched unexposed group. We assessed the relative merits of six pharmacovigilance measures used in spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs): proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting OR (ROR), Yule's Q (YULE), the χ2 test (CHI), Bayesian confidence propagation neural networks (BCPNN), and a gamma Poisson shrinker (GPS). Results We systematically evaluated the methods on two independently constructed reference standard datasets of drug–event pairs. The dataset of Yoon et al contained 470 drug–event pairs (10 drugs and 47 laboratory abnormalities). Using VUMC's EMR, we created another dataset of 378 drug–event pairs (nine drugs and 42 laboratory abnormalities). Evaluation on our reference standard showed that CHI, ROR, PRR, and YULE all had the same F score (62%). When the reference standard of Yoon et al was used, ROR had the best F score of 68%, with 77% precision and 61% recall. Conclusions Results suggest that EMR-derived laboratory measurements and medication orders can help to validate previously reported ADRs, and detect new ADRs. PMID:23161894

  16. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  17. The Noise from Wind Turbines: Potential Adverse Impacts on Children's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2011-01-01

    Research linking loud sounds to hearing loss in youngsters is now widespread, resulting in the issuance of warnings to protect children's hearing. However, studies attesting to the adverse effects of intrusive sounds and noise on children's overall mental and physical health and well-being have not received similar attention. This, despite the…

  18. Potential roles of omics data in the use of adverse outcome pathways for environmental risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current approach to assessing adverse effects of chemicals in the environment is largely based on a battery of in-vivo study methods and a limited number of accepted in-silico approaches. For most substances the pool of data from which to predict ecosystem effects is limited ...

  19. A secure distributed logistic regression protocol for the detection of rare adverse drug events

    PubMed Central

    El Emam, Khaled; Samet, Saeed; Arbuckle, Luk; Tamblyn, Robyn; Earle, Craig; Kantarcioglu, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited capacity to assess the comparative risks of medications after they enter the market. For rare adverse events, the pooling of data from multiple sources is necessary to have the power and sufficient population heterogeneity to detect differences in safety and effectiveness in genetic, ethnic and clinically defined subpopulations. However, combining datasets from different data custodians or jurisdictions to perform an analysis on the pooled data creates significant privacy concerns that would need to be addressed. Existing protocols for addressing these concerns can result in reduced analysis accuracy and can allow sensitive information to leak. Objective To develop a secure distributed multi-party computation protocol for logistic regression that provides strong privacy guarantees. Methods We developed a secure distributed logistic regression protocol using a single analysis center with multiple sites providing data. A theoretical security analysis demonstrates that the protocol is robust to plausible collusion attacks and does not allow the parties to gain new information from the data that are exchanged among them. The computational performance and accuracy of the protocol were evaluated on simulated datasets. Results The computational performance scales linearly as the dataset sizes increase. The addition of sites results in an exponential growth in computation time. However, for up to five sites, the time is still short and would not affect practical applications. The model parameters are the same as the results on pooled raw data analyzed in SAS, demonstrating high model accuracy. Conclusion The proposed protocol and prototype system would allow the development of logistic regression models in a secure manner without requiring the sharing of personal health information. This can alleviate one of the key barriers to the establishment of large-scale post-marketing surveillance programs. We extended the secure protocol to account for

  20. Chemical-Sensing Cables Detect Potential Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems Inc. (IOS) completed Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA's Langley Research Center to develop moisture- and pH-sensitive sensors to detect corrosion or pre-corrosive conditions, warning of potentially dangerous conditions before significant structural damage occurs. This new type of sensor uses a specially manufactured optical fiber whose entire length is chemically sensitive, changing color in response to contact with its target, and demonstrated to detect potentially corrosive moisture incursions to within 2 cm. After completing the work with NASA, the company received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Phase III SBIR to develop the sensors further for detecting chemical warfare agents, for which they proved just as successful. The company then worked with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to fine tune the sensors for detecting potential threats, such as toxic industrial compounds and nerve agents. In addition to the work with government agencies, Intelligent Optical Systems has sold the chemically sensitive fiber optic cables to major automotive and aerospace companies, who are finding a variety of uses for the devices. Marketed under the brand name Distributed Intrinsic Chemical Agent Sensing and Transmission (DICAST), these unique continuous-cable fiber optic chemical sensors can serve in a variety of applications: Corrosive-condition monitoring, aiding experimentation with nontraditional power sources, as an economical means of detecting chemical release in large facilities, as an inexpensive "alarm" systems to alert the user to a change in the chemical environment anywhere along the cable, or in distance-resolved optical time domain reflectometry systems to provide detailed profiles of chemical concentration versus length.

  1. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  2. Data mining in the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): early detection of intussusception and other events after rotavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Niu, M T; Erwin, D E; Braun, M M

    2001-09-14

    The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is the US passive surveillance system monitoring vaccine safety. A major limitation of VAERS is the lack of denominator data (number of doses of administered vaccine), an element necessary for calculating reporting rates. Empirical Bayesian data mining, a data analysis method, utilizes the number of events reported for each vaccine and statistically screens the database for higher than expected vaccine-event combinations signaling a potential vaccine-associated event. This is the first study of data mining in VAERS designed to test the utility of this method to detect retrospectively a known side effect of vaccination-intussusception following rotavirus (RV) vaccine. From October 1998 to December 1999, 112 cases of intussusception were reported. The data mining method was able to detect a signal for RV-intussusception in February 1999 when only four cases were reported. These results demonstrate the utility of data mining to detect significant vaccine-associated events at early date. Data mining appears to be an efficient and effective computer-based program that may enhance early detection of adverse events in passive surveillance systems.

  3. The potential benefits and adverse effects of phytic Acid supplement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Omoruyi, F O; Budiaman, A; Eng, Y; Olumese, F E; Hoesel, J L; Ejilemele, A; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1 β level was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the diabetic control and supplement treated groups. The liver lipogenic enzyme activities were not significantly altered among the groups. These results suggest that phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation.

  4. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic invertebrate communities in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was imp...

  5. The CTIS Womb to Classroom Screening Program for the detection of agents with adverse effects on neuropsychological development.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jane; Janulewicz, Patricia A; Kao, Kelly; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Chambers, Christina

    2012-06-01

    Over the last several decades, federal agencies engaged in the screening of environmental or pharmaceutical agents have recognized the need to conduct research in animal models to identify agents that have classic teratogenic effects as well as effects on neural and behavioral development. Many questions typically addressed in rodent models can be further addressed using real-world, everyday human exposures. Although some postmarketing surveillance programs have been put in place to examine the influences on birth characteristics, it is now urgent that programs be launched to examine the long-term risks associated with exposure to the many medications, drugs, and environmental chemicals for which data are currently unavailable and unexplored. The California Teratogen Information Service (CTIS), established in 1983, and its corresponding Clinical Research Program represent the oldest national program directed at identifying pregnancy risk factors and exposures associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, including behavioral dysfunction. In recognition of the rising rates of developmental disorders involving compromised mental ability, in 2007, CTIS committed to the development of a more comprehensive screening program designed to detect relationships between adverse prenatal exposures and compromised human neurobehavioral development. The "CTIS Womb to Classroom Screening Program for the Detection of Agents with Adverse Effects on Neuropsychological Development" is the first program designed to identify agents not yet known to be of concern.

  6. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies show that young children can be exposed to pesticides during normal oral exploration of their environment and their level of dermal contact with floors and other surfaces. Children living in agricultural areas may be exposed to higher pesticide levels than other children because of pesticides tracked into their homes by household members, by pesticide drift, by breast milk from their farmworker mother, or by playing in nearby fields. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the extent of children's pesticide exposure, and no studies have examined whether there are adverse health effects of chronic exposure. There is substantial toxicologic evidence that repeated low-level exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides may affect neurodevelopment and growth in developing animals. For example, animal studies have reported neurobehavorial effects such as impairment on maze performance, locomotion, and balance in neonates exposed (italic)in utero(/italic) and during early postnatal life. Possible mechanisms for these effects include inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, downregulation of muscarinic receptors, decreased brain DNA synthesis, and reduced brain weight in offspring. Research findings also suggest that it is biologically plausible that OP exposure may be related to respiratory disease in children through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The University of California Berkeley Center for Children's Environmental Health Research is working to build a community-university partnership to study the environmental health of rural children. This Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas, or CHAMACOS in Monterey County, California, will assess (italic)in utero(/italic) and postnatal OP pesticide exposure and the relationship of exposure to neurodevelopment, growth, and symptoms of respiratory illness in children. The ultimate goal of the center is to translate research findings into a reduction of children

  7. Epigenetics and transcriptomics to detect adverse drug effects in model systems of human development.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Nina V; Leist, Marcel

    2014-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals or drugs has been associated with functional or structural deficits and the development of diseases in later life. For example, developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is triggered by lead, and this compound may predispose to neurodegenerative diseases in later life. The molecular memory for such late consequences of early exposure is not known, but epigenetic mechanisms (modification of the chromatin structure) could take this role. Examples and underlying mechanisms have been compiled here for the field of DNT. Moreover, we addressed the question as to what readout is suitable for addressing drug memory effects. We summarize how complex developmental processes can be modelled in vitro by using the differentiation of human stem cells. Although cellular models can never replicate the final human DNT phenotype, they can model the adverse effect that a chemical has on key biological processes essential for organ formation and function. Highly information-rich transcriptomics data may inform on these changes and form the bridge from in vitro models to human prediction. We compiled data showing that transcriptome analysis can indicate toxicity patterns of drugs. A crucial question to be answered in our systems is when and how transcriptome changes indicate adversity (as opposed to transient adaptive responses), and how drug-induced changes are perpetuated over time even after washout of the drug. We present evidence for the hypothesis that changes in the histone methylation pattern could represent the persistence detector of an early insult that is transformed to an adverse effect at later time-points in life.

  8. An exploratory investigation of various modes of action and potential adverse outcomes of fluoxetine in marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Franzellitti, Silvia; Buratti, Sara; Capolupo, Marco; Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W; Fabbri, Elena

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated possible adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FX) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. An evaluation of molecular endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of FX and biomarkers for sub-lethal toxicity were explored in mussels after a 7-day administration of nominal FX concentrations encompassing a range of environmentally relevant values (0.03-300ng/L). FX bioaccumulated in mussel tissues after treatment with 30 and 300ng/L FX, resulting in bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 200 to 800, which were higher than expected based solely on hydrophobic partitioning models. Because FX acts as a selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor increasing serotonergic neurotransmission at mammalian synapses, cell signaling alterations triggered by 5-HT receptor occupations were assessed. cAMP levels and PKA activities were decreased in digestive gland and mantle/gonads of FX-treated mussels, consistent with an increased occupation of 5-HT1 receptors negatively coupled to the cAMP/PKA pathway. mRNA levels of a ABCB gene encoding the P-glycoprotein were also significantly down-regulated. This membrane transporter acts in detoxification towards xenobiotics and in altering pharmacokinetics of antidepressants; moreover, it is under a cAMP/PKA transcriptional regulation in mussels. Potential stress effects of FX were investigated using a battery of biomarkers for mussel health status that included lysosomal parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, and acetylcholinesterase activity. FX reduced the health status of mussels and induced lysosomal alterations, as suggested by reduction of lysosomal membrane stability in haemocytes and by lysosomal accumulation of neutral lipids in digestive gland. No clear antioxidant responses to FX were detected in digestive gland, while gills displayed significant increases of catalase and glutathione-s-transferase activities and a

  9. The potential of wetlands for mitigating adverse effects of agricultural drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    Agricultural runoff has been clearly identified as a major contributor to the failure of much of the surface water in the United States to meet designated use objectives. Control of agricultural drainage is very problematic. The agriculture industry strongly resists mandated controls, and warns of potential catastrophic consequences in food shortages should production methods be altered. Yet concern grows over the long and short term impact of a variety of contaminants - particularly sediments, nutrients, and pesticides - released to our waters as part of normal agricultural practices. For quite some time, wetlands have been explored for their potential in treating sewage (from both municipal and private systems) and acid mine drainage. Much less work has been done looking at the potential for wetlands to treat agricultural drainage. yet, wetlands may offer tremendous potential for mitigating problems of agricultural runoff while offering farmers desirable (or at least acceptable) uses of marginal land. This paper has two objectives. First, the opportunities for wetlands to be used as agricultural drainage treatment facilities are described. Processes are identified which trap or degrade pollutants, with particular attention given to long-term environmental fate. Second, an experimental wetlands system recently developed in Northwest Ohio is used as an example of system implementation. Emphasis will be given to how the system was developed to optimize pollutant removal within the physical constraints of the site. Preliminary performance data with respect to water quality changes will also be presented.

  10. Combined approaches using adverse outcome pathways and big data to find potential diseases associated with humidifier disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jong-Han; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    According to previous survey, about two million of people were expected to suffer from toxic effects due to humidifier disinfectant (HD), regardless of healing or not. Extremely small group are recognized as HDs' victims. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchiole because it is specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out overall effects from HDs, we recommend adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as new approach. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, decreased T-cell and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophage could be key events between the exposure to HDs and diseases. ROS generation, decreased cell and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophage could be cause of interstitial fibrosis, pneumonia and many other diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, fetal death, premature baby, autoimmune disease, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, cancer, and so on. We predict potential disease candidate by AOPs. We can validate the real risk of the adverse outcome by epidemiologic and toxicologic study using big data such as National Health Insurance data and AOPs knowledge base. Application of these kinds of new methods can find the potential disease list from the exposure to HD.

  11. Combined approaches using adverse outcome pathways and big data to find potential diseases associated with humidifier disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    According to previous survey, about two million of people were expected to suffer from toxic effects due to humidifier disinfectant (HD), regardless of healing or not. Extremely small group are recognized as HDs’ victims. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchiole because it is specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out overall effects from HDs, we recommend adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as new approach. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, decreased T-cell and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophage could be key events between the exposure to HDs and diseases. ROS generation, decreased cell and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophage could be cause of interstitial fibrosis, pneumonia and many other diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, fetal death, premature baby, autoimmune disease, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, cancer, and so on. We predict potential disease candidate by AOPs. We can validate the real risk of the adverse outcome by epidemiologic and toxicologic study using big data such as National Health Insurance data and AOPs knowledge base. Application of these kinds of new methods can find the potential disease list from the exposure to HD. PMID:28111421

  12. Cumulative adversity and depressive symptoms among older adults in Israel: the differential roles of self-oriented versus other-oriented events of potential trauma

    PubMed Central

    Shmotkin, Dov; Litwin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Background The study examined the association between cumulative adversity and current depressive symptoms in a national sample of Israelis aged 50+. Referring to cumulative adversity as exposure to potentially traumatic events along life, the study distinguished between events primarily inflicted upon the self (self-oriented adversity) versus upon another person (other-oriented adversity). Method Data were drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). During 2005–2006, 1710 Jews and Arabs completed an inventory of potentially traumatic events and two measures of depressive symptoms: the European Depression scale (Euro-D) and the Adapted Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression scale (ACES-D). The Euro-D is more detailed in querying cognitions and motivations while the ACES-D is more detailed in querying feelings and social alienation. Results In line with the hypothesis, self-oriented adversity had a positive association with depressive symptoms whereas other-oriented adversity had either no association or an inverse association with depressive symptoms. Sociodemographic characteristics and perceived health were controlled in the multivariate regressions. Conclusions The differential association of self- versus other-oriented adversity with depressive symptoms may be explained in terms of social commitments that are inherent in other-oriented adversity and incompatible with depressive symptoms. The study points to the variations in the symptom compositions represented by the Euro-D and ACES-D, with the latter better capturing the difference between self- and other-oriented adversities. PMID:19288036

  13. Using patient safety indicators to estimate the impact of potential adverse events on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Peter E; Luther, Stephen L; Christiansen, Cindy L; Shibei Zhao; Loveland, Susan; Elixhauser, Anne; Romano, Patrick S; Rosen, Amy K

    2008-02-01

    The authors estimated the impact of potentially preventable patient safety events, identified by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost. The PSIs were applied to all acute inpatient hospitalizations at Veterans Health Administration (VA) facilities in fiscal 2001. Two methods-regression analysis and multivariable case matching- were used independently to control for patient and facility characteristics while predicting the effect of the PSI on each outcome. The authors found statistically significant (p < .0001) excess mortality, LOS, and cost in all groups with PSIs. The magnitude of the excess varied considerably across the PSIs. These VA findings are similar to those from a previously published study of nonfederal hospitals, despite differences between VA and non-VA systems. This study contributes to the literature measuring outcomes of medical errors and provides evidence that AHRQ PSIs may be useful indicators for comparison across delivery systems.

  14. Monitoring for potential adverse effects of prenatal gene therapy: use of large animal models with relevance to human application.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vedanta; Abi-Nader, Khalil N; Carr, David; Wallace, Jacqueline; Coutelle, Charles; Waddington, Simon N; Peebles, Donald; David, Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Safety is an absolute prerequisite for introducing any new therapy, and the need to monitor the consequences of administration of both vector and transgene to the fetus is particularly important. The unique features of fetal development that make it an attractive target for gene therapy, such as its immature immune system and rapidly dividing populations of stem cells, also mean that small perturbations in pregnancy can have significant short- and long-term consequences. Certain features of the viral vectors used, the product of the delivered gene, and sometimes the invasive techniques necessary to deliver the construct to the fetus in utero have the potential to do harm. An important goal of prenatal gene therapy research is to develop clinically relevant techniques that could be applied to cure or ameliorate human disease in utero on large animal models such as sheep or nonhuman primates. Equally important is the use of these models to monitor for potential adverse effects of such interventions. These large animal models provide good representation of individual patient-based investigations. However, analyses that require defined genetic backgrounds, high throughput, defined variability and statistical analyses, e.g. for initial studies on teratogenic and oncogenic effects, are best performed on larger groups of small animals, in particular mice. This chapter gives an overview of the potential adverse effects in relation to prenatal gene therapy and describes the techniques that can be used experimentally in a large animal model to monitor the potential adverse consequences of prenatal gene therapy, with relevance to clinical application. The sheep model is particularly useful to allow serial monitoring of fetal growth and well-being after delivery of prenatal gene therapy. It is also amenable to serially sampling using minimally invasive and clinically relevant techniques such as ultrasound-guided blood sampling. For more invasive long-term monitoring, we

  15. Biopersistence and potential adverse health impacts of fibrous nanomaterials: what have we learned from asbestos?

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Vanesa C; Pietruska, Jodie R; Miselis, Nathan R; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B

    2009-01-01

    Human diseases associated with exposure to asbestos fibers include pleural fibrosis and plaques, pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis), lung cancer, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma. The critical determinants of fiber bioactivity and toxicity include not only fiber dimensions, but also shape, surface reactivity, crystallinity, chemical composition, and presence of transition metals. Depending on their size and dimensions, inhaled fibers can penetrate the respiratory tract to the distal airways and into the alveolar spaces. Fibers can be cleared by several mechanisms, including the mucociliary escalator, engulfment, and removal by macrophages, or through splitting and chemical modification. Biopersistence of long asbestos fibers can lead to inflammation, granuloma formation, fibrosis, and cancer. Exposure to synthetic carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is considered a potential health hazard because of their physical similarities with asbestos fibers. Respiratory exposure to CNTs can produce an inflammatory response, diffuse interstitial fibrosis, and formation of fibrotic granulomas similar to that observed in asbestos-exposed animals and humans. Given the known cytotoxic and carcinogenic properties of asbestos fibers, toxicity of fibrous nanomaterials is a topic of intense study. The mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity remain to be fully elucidated, but recent evidence suggests points of similarity with asbestos fibers, including a role for generation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Considering the rapid increase in production and use of fibrous nanomaterials, it is imperative to gain a thorough understanding of their biologic activity to avoid the human health catastrophe that has resulted from widespread use of asbestos fibers.

  16. An algorithm to detect adverse drug reactions in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Lehr, Victoria Tutag; Lieh-Lai, Mary; Koo, Winston; Ward, Robert M; Rieder, Michael J; Van Den Anker, John N; Reeves, Jaxk H; Mathew, Merene; Lulic-Botica, Mirjana; Aranda, Jacob V

    2013-01-01

    Critically ill newborns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are at greater risk of developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Differentiation of ADRs from reactions associated with organ dysfunction/immaturity is difficult. Current ADR algorithm scoring was established arbitrarily without validation in infants. The study objective was to develop a valid and reliable algorithm to identify ADRs in the NICU. Algorithm development began with a 24-item questionnaire for data collection on 100 previously suspected ADRs. Five pediatric pharmacologists independently rated cases as definite, probable, possible, and unlikely ADRs. Consensus "gold standard" was reached via teleconference. Logistic regression and iterative C programs were used to derive the scoring system. For validation, 50 prospectively collected ADR cases were assessed by 3 clinicians using the new algorithm and the Naranjo algorithm. Weighted kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to compare validity and reliability of algorithms. The new algorithm consists of 13 items. Kappa and ICC of the new algorithm were 0.76 and 0.62 versus 0.31 and 0.43 for the Naranjo algorithm. The new algorithm developed using actual patient data is more valid and reliable than the Naranjo algorithm for identifying ADRs in the NICU population. Because of the relatively small and nonrandom samples, further refinement and additional testing are needed.

  17. Assessment of the potential of polyphenols as a CYP17 inhibitor free of adverse corticosteroid elevation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Ju; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Lin, Tsu-Chun Emma; Wang, Chien-Jen; Li, Lih-Ann

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17), which dictates the proceeding of androgen biosynthesis, is recommended as an effective treatment for androgen-dependent diseases. However, androgen depletion by selective CYP17 inhibition is accompanied with corticosteroid elevation, which increases risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the likelihood of polyphenols as a CYP17 inhibitor without cardiovascular complications. All examined polyphenols significantly inhibited CYP17 in human adrenocortical H295R cells, but their effects on androgen and cortisol biosynthesis were diverse. Resveratrol was the most potent CYP17 inhibitor with an approximate IC50 of 4 μM, and the inhibition might weigh on the 17α-hydroxylase activity more than the 17,20-lyase activity. Resveratrol also inhibited 21α-hydroxylase (CYP21) essential for corticosteroid biosynthesis but to a lesser extent, thus preventing the occurrence of cortisol elevation following CYP17 blockade. Although transcriptional down-regulation was important for α-naphthoflavone-mediated CYP17 inhibition, resveratrol inhibited CYP17 and CYP21 mainly at the level of enzyme activity rather than enzyme abundance and cytochrome P450 electron transfer. Daidzein also inhibited CYP17 and CYP21 although less potent than resveratrol. Daidzein was the only polyphenol showing inhibition of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (3βHSD2). The exceptional 3βHSD2 inhibition led to dehydroepiandrosterone accumulation alongside daidzein-caused androgen biosynthetic impairment. In contrast, androgen and cortisol secretion was increased or remained normal under α-naphthoflavone and β-naphthoflavone treatments, suggesting that CYP17 inhibition was counteracted by increased substrate generation. α-naphthoflavone and β-naphthoflavone also enhanced the formation of cortisol from 17-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone from androstenedione. Our findings suggest a potential application of resveratrol in

  18. Potential adverse effects of inorganic pollutants on clinical parameters of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): results from a nesting colony from Cape Verde, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M; Orós, J; Boada, L D; Zaccaroni, A; Silvi, M; Formigaro, C; López, P; Zumbado, M; Luzardo, O P

    2013-12-01

    A large number of nesting loggerhead sea turtles (n = 201) were sampled to establish the blood levels of 11 elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Al, Hg, and Se). Almost all of the samples showed detectable levels of these 11 elements, and Zn and Se exhibited the highest concentrations (median values as high as 6.05 and 2.28 μg/g, respectively). The median concentrations of the most toxic compounds, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg, were relatively low (0.38, 0.24, 0.06, and 0.03 μg/g, respectively). We also determined the haematological and biochemical parameters in a subsample of 50 turtles to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on clinical parameters and found several associations. Our study reinforces the usefulness of blood for the monitoring of the levels of contaminating elements and their adverse effects on blood parameters in sea turtles.

  19. Investigation of landslide potential parameters on Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway and adverse effects of landslides in the region.

    PubMed

    Can, Eray

    2014-04-01

    Landslides are natural phenomena in the same class of natural disasters as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, erosion, and volcanic eruptions that adversely affect human lives and property. Owing to their widespread occurrence, landslides are easily visible and able to be partially understood by people witnessing them. Nevertheless, to comprehend the detail of their formation and determine their potential, it is necessary to undertake geodetic, geological, and geophysical measurements in regions prone to landslides. By analyzing these measurements, it is possible to better ascertain those regions predisposed to landslides and thus provide the means to prevent loss of life and property. The city of Zonguldak, situated in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey, has a high occurrence of landslides owing to its harsh topography with rugged and steep slopes and rainfall in almost every season. Furthermore, the diurnal temperature ranging up to 10 °C in all seasons, especially in winter, plays a crucial role in rock disintegration in this region. Other factors damage ground composition and trigger landslides, such as underground mining operations, road construction that collapses rocky hills using explosives, and excavation works in steep terrain for building construction. This study gives a detailed account of the causes and adverse effects of landslides and their parameters through examples of landslide occurrences in the region, together with the results and analyses of two periods of geodetic measurements conducted on the Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway in Ilıksu district.

  20. STROBE-based methodology for detection of adverse events across multiple communities.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Margarita; Colecchi, Judith; Dubey, Anil; Dubey, Anil Kumar; Gainer, Vivian; Murphy, Shawn N

    2008-11-06

    Partners Healthcare is one of five institutions in conjunction with eHealth Initiative (eHI) and the FDA that is collaborating in a nation-wide effort to develop novel health information technology tools to create an active drug safety surveillance system across the U.S. The STROBE statement serves as the standard for the definition of a structured, systematic, reproducible approach for detecting both the risks and benefits of drug treatments in multiple settings.

  1. Epoxy Thermosets: The Detection of Adverse Stoichiometry Using Ultrasonic, Dielectric and NMR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, M. E.; Challis, R. E.

    2004-02-01

    The relative proportions of hardener and resin (the stoichiometric ratio, SR) in a curing epoxy thermoset strongly influence the engineering properties of the material. We investigate how NMR, dielectric and ultrasonic techniques can be used to track cure and estimate SR in the material. We show that all three methods are sensitive to SR and can give clear and quantitative indications of excess resin. Detection of excess hardener in the finally cured material is more difficult but can be achieved by combined measures of elastic modulus, from the ultrasonic velocity, and loss angle, from ultrasonic attenuation.

  2. Decision support methods for the detection of adverse events in post-marketing data.

    PubMed

    Hauben, M; Bate, A

    2009-04-01

    Spontaneous reporting is a crucial component of post-marketing drug safety surveillance despite its significant limitations. The size and complexity of some spontaneous reporting system databases represent a challenge for drug safety professionals who traditionally have relied heavily on the scientific and clinical acumen of the prepared mind. Computer algorithms that calculate statistical measures of reporting frequency for huge numbers of drug-event combinations are increasingly used to support pharamcovigilance analysts screening large spontaneous reporting system databases. After an overview of pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting systems, we discuss the theory and application of contemporary computer algorithms in regular use, those under development, and the practical considerations involved in the implementation of computer algorithms within a comprehensive and holistic drug safety signal detection program.

  3. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a potential predictor of adverse renal outcomes in immunoglobulin A nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ga-Young; Yu, Chung-Hoon; Kim, Jun-Seop; Kang, Yun-Jeong; Kwon, Owen; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a well-known biomarker of acute kidney injury. We evaluated the value of plasma NGAL (pNGAL) as an independent predictor of prognosis in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Methods In total, 91 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN at a single center were evaluated. pNGAL was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (R&D Systems). Adverse renal outcome was defined as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 or above at the last follow-up. Pearson correlation coefficient and Cox regression were used for analyses. Results The mean age of all patients (male:female, 48:43) was 35 years (range, 18 to 77). pNGAL ranged between 21.68 and 446.40 ng/mL (median, 123.97) and showed a correlation with age (r = 0.332, p = 0.001), creatinine (r = 0.336, p = 0.001), estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.397, p < 0.001), uric acid (r = 0.289, p = 0.006), and the protein-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.288, p = 0.006). During a mean follow-up period of 37.6 months, 11 patients (12.1%) had CKD stage 3 or above. In a multivariate Cox regression model, hypertension (hazard ratio [HR], 8.779; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.526 to 50.496; p = 0.015), proteinuria > 1 g/day (HR, 5.184; 95% CI, 1.124 to 23.921; p = 0.035), and pNGAL (HR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.003 to 1.022; p = 0.013) were independent predictors associated with adverse renal outcome. Conclusions pNGAL showed strong correlations with other clinical prognostic factors and was also an independent predictor of adverse renal outcome. We suggest pNGAL as a potential predictor for prognosis in IgAN, while further studies are needed to confirm the clinical value. PMID:25995665

  4. ToxAlerts: A Web Server of Structural Alerts for Toxic Chemicals and Compounds with Potential Adverse Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a Web-based platform for collecting and storing toxicological structural alerts from literature and for virtual screening of chemical libraries to flag potentially toxic chemicals and compounds that can cause adverse side effects. An alert is uniquely identified by a SMARTS template, a toxicological endpoint, and a publication where the alert was described. Additionally, the system allows storing complementary information such as name, comments, and mechanism of action, as well as other data. Most importantly, the platform can be easily used for fast virtual screening of large chemical datasets, focused libraries, or newly designed compounds against the toxicological alerts, providing a detailed profile of the chemicals grouped by structural alerts and endpoints. Such a facility can be used for decision making regarding whether a compound should be tested experimentally, validated with available QSAR models, or eliminated from consideration altogether. The alert-based screening can also be helpful for an easier interpretation of more complex QSAR models. The system is publicly accessible and tightly integrated with the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu). The system is open and expandable: any registered OCHEM user can introduce new alerts, browse, edit alerts introduced by other users, and virtually screen his/her data sets against all or selected alerts. The user sets being passed through the structural alerts can be used at OCHEM for other typical tasks: exporting in a wide variety of formats, development of QSAR models, additional filtering by other criteria, etc. The database already contains almost 600 structural alerts for such endpoints as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitization, compounds that undergo metabolic activation, and compounds that form reactive metabolites and, thus, can cause adverse reactions. The ToxAlerts platform is accessible on the Web at http://ochem.eu/alerts, and it is constantly

  5. Benzodiazepine Use During Hospitalization: Automated Identification of Potential Medication Errors and Systematic Assessment of Preventable Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Niedrig, David Franklin; Hoppe, Liesa; Mächler, Sarah; Russmann, Heike; Russmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Benzodiazepines and “Z-drug” GABA-receptor modulators (BDZ) are among the most frequently used drugs in hospitals. Adverse drug events (ADE) associated with BDZ can be the result of preventable medication errors (ME) related to dosing, drug interactions and comorbidities. The present study evaluated inpatient use of BDZ and related ME and ADE. Methods We conducted an observational study within a pharmacoepidemiological database derived from the clinical information system of a tertiary care hospital. We developed algorithms that identified dosing errors and interacting comedication for all administered BDZ. Associated ADE and risk factors were validated in medical records. Results Among 53,081 patients contributing 495,813 patient-days BDZ were administered to 25,626 patients (48.3%) on 115,150 patient-days (23.2%). We identified 3,372 patient-days (2.9%) with comedication that inhibits BDZ metabolism, and 1,197 (1.0%) with lorazepam administration in severe renal impairment. After validation we classified 134, 56, 12, and 3 cases involving lorazepam, zolpidem, midazolam and triazolam, respectively, as clinically relevant ME. Among those there were 23 cases with associated adverse drug events, including severe CNS-depression, falls with subsequent injuries and severe dyspnea. Causality for BDZ was formally assessed as ‘possible’ or ‘probable’ in 20 of those cases. Four cases with ME and associated severe ADE required administration of the BDZ antagonist flumazenil. Conclusions BDZ use was remarkably high in the studied setting, frequently involved potential ME related to dosing, co-medication and comorbidities, and rarely cases with associated ADE. We propose the implementation of automated ME screening and validation for the prevention of BDZ-related ADE. PMID:27711224

  6. Acute drug prescribing to children on chronic antiepilepsy therapy and the potential for adverse drug interactions in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Philipp H; Ekins-Daukes, Suzie; Simpson, Colin R; Milne, Robert M; Helms, Peter; McLay, James S

    2005-01-01

    Aims To investigate the extent of acute coprescribing in primary care to children on chronic antiepileptic therapy, which could give rise to potentially harmful drug–drug interactions. Design Acute coprescribing to children on chronic antiepileptic drug therapy in primary care was assessed in 178 324 children aged 0–17 years for the year 1 November 1999 to 31 October 2000. Computerized prescribing data were retrieved from 161 representative general practices in Scotland. Setting One hundred and sixty-one general practices throughout Scotland. Results During the study year 723 (0.41%) children chronically prescribed antiepileptic therapy were identified. Fourteen antiepileptic agents were prescribed, with carbamazepine, sodium valproate and lamotrigine accounting for 80% of the total. During the year children on chronic antiepileptic therapy were prescribed 4895 acute coprescriptions for 269 different medicines. The average number of acute coprescriptions for non-epileptic drug therapy were eight, 11, six, and six for the 0–1, 2–4, 5–11, and 12–17-year-olds, respectively. Of these acute coprescriptions 72 (1.5%) prescribed to 22 (3.0%) children were identified as a potential source of clinically serious interactions. The age-adjusted prevalence rates for potentially serious coprescribing were 86, 26, 22, and 33/1000 children chronically prescribed antiepileptic therapy in the 0–1, 2–4, 5–11, and 12–17-year-old age groups, respectively. The drugs most commonly coprescribed which could give rise to such interactions were antacids, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, theophylline and the low-dose oral contraceptive. For 10 (45.5%0 of the 20 children identified at risk of a potentially clinically serious adverse drug interaction, the acute coprescription was prescribed off label because of age or specific contraindication/warning. Conclusions In primary care, 3.0% of children on chronic antiepileptic therapy are coprescribed therapeutic agents, which could

  7. Extramural venous invasion detected by MDCT as an adverse imaging feature for predicting synchronous metastases in T4 gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin; Wu, Jing; Ye, Yingjiang; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Yinli; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Background Extramural venous invasion (EMVI) is defined histologically as the active invasion of tumor cells to the lumens of mesenteric vessels beyond the muscularis propria in advanced gastrointestinal cancer, resulting in distant metastases. Purpose To determine the association between synchronous metastatic disease in patients with T4 gastric cancer and EMVI detected on contrast-enhanced multiple-row detector computed tomography (MDCT). Material and Methods A total of 152 patients with T4 gastric carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed and divided into EMVI-positive and EMVI-negative groups where EMVI, as detected on MDCT, was defined as a tubular or nodular soft tissue thickening extending from the tumor along the vessels of the mesentery. Synchronous metastases were detected by MDCT and/or confirmed by postoperative diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the predictive factors of synchronous metastases in gastric cancer. Results Synchronous metastases were found in 47 of 152 (30.9%) patients with T4 gastric cancer. Thirty-one of 77 (40.3%) patients in the EMVI-positive group had evidence of metastases compared to 16 (21.3%) of 75 patients in the EMVI-negative group ( P = 0.019). Synchronous metastases were significantly associated with EMVI with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.250 (95% CI, 1.072-4.724). Conclusion EMVI-positive tumors, as an adverse imaging feature, were significantly associated with synchronous metastases in patients with T4 gastric cancer.

  8. Neuropsychological assessment for detecting adverse effects of volatile organic compounds on the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Bolla, K.I. )

    1991-11-01

    Because there are no direct biological markers for the substances implicated in indoor air exposure, it is impossible to directly measure if an individual or group of individuals has been exposed to a potentially neurotoxic substance in the workplace. Behavioral changes may be the earliest and only manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) effects and are often too subtle to be revealed by routine physical or neurological examination. Neuropsychological techniques are sensitive to subtle behavioral/cognitive changes that can results from exposure to neurotoxins. These techniques consist of oral and written tests that are administered by a trained examiner on a on-to-one basis. In general, a wide variety of cognitive domains are evaluated. The typical battery generally includes assessing orientation, attention, intelligence, language, visual memory, verbal memory, perception, visuoconstruction, simple motor speed, psychomotor speed, and mood. As with most assessment techniques, the neuropsychological methods have limitations. One major drawback is the availability of appropriate norms that are used to compare the results of a specific individual. Although neuropsychological tests are sensitive to the presence of CNS involvement, they are not specific. Patterns of performance seen with specific instances of neurotoxic exposure may also be seen with a number of other diseases of the CNS such as dementia, cerebrovascular disease, hydrocephalus, or normal aging. Some of the more sensitive neuropsychological tests are presented. Interpretations of test performance as they relate to toxic effects on the CNS are discussed.

  9. Adverse Events in Healthy Individuals and MDR-TB Contacts Treated with Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs Potentially Effective for Preventing Development of MDR-TB: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Langendam, Miranda W.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Sandgren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A recent systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness to support or reject preventive therapy for treatment of contacts of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whether preventive therapy is favorable depends both on the effectiveness and the adverse events of the drugs used. We performed a systematic review to assess adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases (August 2011). Record selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were done in duplicate. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Of 6,901 identified references, 20 studies were eligible. Among the 16 studies in healthy volunteers (a total of 87 persons on either levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or rifabutin, mostly for 1 week), serious adverse events and treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were rare (<1 and <5%, respectively), but mild adverse events frequently occurred. Due to small sample sizes of the levofloxacin and ofloxacin studies an increased frequency of mild adverse events compared to placebo could not be demonstrated or excluded. For moxifloxacin the comparative results were inconsistent. In four studies describing preventive therapy of MDR-TB contacts, therapy was stopped for 58–100% of the included persons because of the occurrence of adverse events ranging from mild adverse events such as nausea and dizziness to serious events requiring treatment. The quality of the evidence was very low. Although the number of publications and quality of evidence are low, the available evidence suggests that shortly after starting treatment the occurrence of serious adverse events is rare. Mild adverse events occur more frequently and may be of importance because these may provoke treatment interruption. PMID:23326464

  10. Adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Langendam, Miranda W; Tiemersma, Edine W; van der Werf, Marieke J; Sandgren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A recent systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness to support or reject preventive therapy for treatment of contacts of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whether preventive therapy is favorable depends both on the effectiveness and the adverse events of the drugs used. We performed a systematic review to assess adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases (August 2011). Record selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were done in duplicate. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Of 6,901 identified references, 20 studies were eligible. Among the 16 studies in healthy volunteers (a total of 87 persons on either levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or rifabutin, mostly for 1 week), serious adverse events and treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were rare (<1 and <5%, respectively), but mild adverse events frequently occurred. Due to small sample sizes of the levofloxacin and ofloxacin studies an increased frequency of mild adverse events compared to placebo could not be demonstrated or excluded. For moxifloxacin the comparative results were inconsistent. In four studies describing preventive therapy of MDR-TB contacts, therapy was stopped for 58-100% of the included persons because of the occurrence of adverse events ranging from mild adverse events such as nausea and dizziness to serious events requiring treatment. The quality of the evidence was very low. Although the number of publications and quality of evidence are low, the available evidence suggests that shortly after starting treatment the occurrence of serious adverse events is rare. Mild adverse events occur more frequently and may be of importance because these may provoke treatment interruption.

  11. The effect of childhood adversity on 4-year outcome in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis in the Dutch Early Detection Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) Trial.

    PubMed

    Kraan, Tamar C; Ising, Helga K; Fokkema, Marjolein; Velthorst, Eva; van den Berg, David P G; Kerkhoven, Margot; Veling, Wim; Smit, Filip; Linszen, Don H; Nieman, Dorien H; Wunderink, Lex; Boonstra, Nynke; Klaassen, Rianne M C; Dragt, Sara; Rietdijk, Judith; de Haan, Lieuwe; van der Gaag, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with a range of mental disorders, functional impairment and higher health care costs in adulthood. In this study we evaluated if childhood adversity was predictive of adverse clinical and functional outcomes and health care costs in a sample of patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing a psychosis. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the effect of childhood adversity on depression, anxiety, transition to psychosis and overall functioning at 4-year follow-up. In addition, we evaluated economic costs of childhood adversity in terms of health care use and productivity loss. Data pertain to 105 UHR participants of the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL). Physical abuse was associated with higher depression rates (b=0.381, p=0.012) and lower social functional outcome (b=-0.219, p=0.017) at 4-year follow-up. In addition, emotional neglect was negatively associated with social functioning (b=-0.313, p=0.018). We did not find evidence that childhood adversity was associated with transition to psychosis, but the experience of childhood adversity was associated with excess health care costs at follow-up. The data indicate long-term negative effects of childhood adversity on depression, social functioning and health care costs at follow-up in a sample of UHR patients.

  12. Computational identification of potential multitarget treatments for ameliorating the adverse effects of amyloid-β on synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The leading hypothesis on Alzheimer Disease (AD) is that it is caused by buildup of the peptide amyloid-β (Aβ), which initially causes dysregulation of synaptic plasticity and eventually causes destruction of synapses and neurons. Pharmacological efforts to limit Aβ buildup have proven ineffective, and this raises the twin challenges of understanding the adverse effects of Aβ on synapses and of suggesting pharmacological means to prevent them. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a computational approach to understanding the dysregulation by Aβ of synaptic plasticity and to offer suggestions whereby combinations of various chemical compounds could be arrayed against it. This data-driven approach confronts the complexity of synaptic plasticity by representing findings from the literature in a course-grained manner, and focuses on understanding the aggregate behavior of many molecular interactions. The same set of interactions is modeled by two different computer programs, each written using a different programming modality: one imperative, the other declarative. Both programs compute the same results over an extensive test battery, providing an essential crosscheck. Then the imperative program is used for the computationally intensive purpose of determining the effects on the model of every combination of ten different compounds, while the declarative program is used to analyze model behavior using temporal logic. Together these two model implementations offer new insights into the mechanisms by which Aβ dysregulates synaptic plasticity and suggest many drug combinations that potentially may reduce or prevent it. PMID:24847263

  13. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W.; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L.; Patterson, Tucker A.; Paule, Merle G.; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage. PMID:26206149

  14. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage.

  15. Properties and Therapeutic Potential of Transient Receptor Potential Channels with Putative Roles in Adversity: Focus on TRPC5, TRPM2 and TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, L.H; Gamper, N; Beech, D.J

    2011-01-01

    Mammals contain 28 genes encoding Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) proteins. The proteins assemble into cationic channels, often with calcium permeability. Important roles in physiology and disease have emerged and so there is interest in whether the channels might be suitable therapeutic drug targets. Here we review selected members of three subfamilies of mammalian TRP channel (TRPC5, TRPM2 and TRPA1) that show relevance to sensing of adversity by cells and biological systems. Summarized are the cellular and tissue distributions, general properties, endogenous modulators, protein partners, cellular and tissue functions, therapeutic potential, and pharmacology. TRPC5 is stimulated by receptor agonists and other factors that include lipids and metal ions; it heteromultimerises with other TRPC proteins and is involved in cell movement and anxiety control. TRPM2 is activated by hydrogen peroxide; it is implicated in stress-related inflammatory, vascular and neurodegenerative conditions. TRPA1 is stimulated by a wide range of irritants including mustard oil and nicotine but also, controversially, noxious cold and mechanical pressure; it is implicated in pain and inflammatory responses, including in the airways. The channels have in common that they show polymodal stimulation, have activities that are enhanced by redox factors, are permeable to calcium, and are facilitated by elevations of intracellular calcium. Developing inhibitors of the channels could lead to new agents for a variety of conditions: for example, suppressing unwanted tissue remodeling, inflammation, pain and anxiety, and addressing problems relating to asthma and stroke. PMID:21291387

  16. Antidepressant/anxiolytic potential and adverse effect liabilities of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonists in animal models.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Shigeyuki; Shimazaki, Toshiharu; Nishiguchi, Mariko; Funakoshi, Takeo; Iijima, Michihiko; Ito, Akie; Kanuma, Kosuke; Sekiguchi, Yoshinori

    2015-08-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH1 receptor) is known to be involved in the control of mood and stress, in addition to the regulation of feeding. Here, we report further evidence that the blockade of the MCH1 receptor exhibits antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in a variety of animal models using TASP0382650 and TASP0489838, newly synthesized MCH1 receptor antagonists, with different scaffolds. Both TASP0382650 and TASP0489838 exhibited high affinities for human MCH1 receptor with IC50 values of 7.13 and 3.80nM, respectively. Both compounds showed potent antagonist activities at the MCH1 receptor, as assessed using MCH-increased [(35)S]GTPγS binding to human MCH1 receptor and an MCH-induced [Ca(2+)]i assay in rat MCH1 receptor expressing cells. In contrast, neither TASP0382650 nor TASP0489838 showed an affinity for the MCH2 receptor, another MCH receptor subtype. The oral administration of TASP0382650 or TASP0489838 significantly reduced the immobility time during the forced swimming test in rats, and reduced hyperemotionality induced by an olfactory bulbectomy, both of which are indicative of an antidepressant-like potential. In the olfactory bulbectomy model, the antidepressant effect of TASP0382650 appeared following a single administration, suggesting a faster onset of action, compared with current medications. Moreover, both TASP0382650 and TASP0489838 exhibited anxiolytic effects in several animal models of anxiety. In contrast, both TASP0382650 and TASP0489838 did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, motor function, spatial memory during the Morris water maze task, or the convulsion threshold to pentylenetetrazole. These findings provide additional evidence that the blockade of the MCH1 receptor exhibits antidepressant- and anxiolytic activities with no adverse effects in experimental animal models.

  17. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research.

  18. Pro-Arrhythmic Potential of Oral Antihistamines (H1): Combining Adverse Event Reports with Drug Utilization Data across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Raschi, Emanuel; Godman, Brian; Koci, Ariola; Moretti, Ugo; Kalaba, Marija; Wettermark, Bjorn; Sturkenboom, Miriam; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background There is appreciable utilisation of antihistamines (H1) in European countries, either prescribed by physician and purchased by patients for self-medication. Terfenadine and astemizole underwent regulatory restrictions in ’90 because of their cardiac toxicity, but only scarce clinical data are available on other antihistamines. Aim To investigate the pro-arrhythmic potential of antihistamines by combining safety reports of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) with drug utilization data from 13 European Countries. Methods We identified signals of antihistamine arrhythmogenic potential by analyzing FAERS database for all cases of Torsades de Pointes (TdP), QT abnormalities (QTabn), ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and sudden cardiac death/cardiac arrest (SCD/CA). Number of cases ≥3 and disproportionality were used to define alert signals: TdP and QTabn identified stronger signals, whereas SCD/CA identified weaker signals. Drug utilization data from 2005 to 2010 were collected from administrative databases through health authorities and insurance. Results Antihistamines were reported in 109 cases of TdP/QT prolongation, 278 VA and 610 SCD/CA. Five agents resulted in stronger signals (cetirizine, desloratadine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, loratadine) and 6 in weaker signals (alimemazine, carbinoxamine, cyclizine, cyproeptadine, dexchlorpheniramine and doxylamine). Exposure to antihistamines with stronger signal was markedly different across European countries and was at least 40% in each Country. Cetirizine was >29 Defined Daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) in Norway, desloratadine >11 DID in France and loratadine >9 DID in Sweden and Croatia. Drugs with weaker signals accounted for no more than 10% (in Sweden) and in most European countries their use was negligible. Conclusions Some second-generation antihistamines are associated with signal of torsadogenicity and largely used in most European countries. Although confirmation by

  19. Extended likelihood ratio test-based methods for signal detection in a drug class with application to FDA's adverse event reporting system database.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueqin; Yi, Min; Tiwari, Ram C

    2016-05-02

    A likelihood ratio test, recently developed for the detection of signals of adverse events for a drug of interest in the FDA Adverse Events Reporting System database, is extended to detect signals of adverse events simultaneously for all the drugs in a drug class. The extended likelihood ratio test methods, based on Poisson model (Ext-LRT) and zero-inflated Poisson model (Ext-ZIP-LRT), are discussed and are analytically shown, like the likelihood ratio test method, to control the type-I error and false discovery rate. Simulation studies are performed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Ext-LRT and Ext-ZIP-LRT. The proposed methods are applied to the Gadolinium drug class in FAERS database. An in-house likelihood ratio test tool, incorporating the Ext-LRT methodology, is being developed in the Food and Drug Administration.

  20. Nutrient- and non-nutrient-based natural health product (NHP) use in adults with mood disorders: prevalence, characteristics and potential for exposure to adverse events

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To address knowledge gaps regarding natural health product (NHP) usage in mental health populations, we examined their use in adults with mood disorders, and explored the potential for adverse events. Methods Food and NHP intake was obtained from 97 adults with mood disorders. NHP data was used to compare prevalence with population norms (British Columbia Nutrition Survey; BCNS). Bivariate and regression analyses examined factors associated with NHP use. Assessment of potential adverse effects of NHP use was based on comparing nutrient intakes from food plus supplements with the Dietary Reference Intakes and by reviewing databases for reported adverse health effects. Results Two-thirds (66%; 95% CI 56 to 75) were taking at least one NHP; 58% (95% CI 47 to 68) were taking NHPs in combination with psychiatric medications. The proportion of each type of NHP used was generally higher than the BCNS (range of p’s < 0.05 to 0.0001). When intakes from food and NHP sources were combined, a small proportion exceeded any Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Levels: only for niacin (n = 17) and magnesium (n = 6), two nutrients for which the potential for adverse effects is minimal. Conversely, about 38% (95% CI 28 to 49) of the sample were taking a non-nutrient based NHP for which previous adverse events had been documented. Conclusions The prevalent use of NHPs in this population suggests that health care providers need to be knowledgeable about their characteristics. The efficacy and safety of NHPs in relation to mental health warrants further investigation. PMID:23570306

  1. Subclinical and Overt Adverse Cardiac Effects with Ozone Inhalation in Rats: Potentially Dire Implications of Low Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone is a ubiquitous smog-associated photochemical oxidant with deleterious health effects. While most of the adverse effects described to date involve the respiratory system (i.e, decrements in lung function, airway injury and inflammation, exacerbation of asthma, and compromis...

  2. Potential Mechanisms of Hematological Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients Receiving Clozapine in Combination With Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wiciński, Michał; Węclewicz, Mateusz M; Miętkiewicz, Mateusz; Malinowski, Bartosz; Grześk, Elżbieta; Klonowska, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic which has proven efficacy in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. Although clozapine therapy is associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, it is frequently used. One of the most common adverse drug reactions is gastroesophageal reflux disease which is an indication for treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Coadministration of clozapine and PPIs increases the risk of hematological adverse drug reactions, including neutropenia and agranulocytosis. The mechanism in idiosyncratic agranulocytosis is not dose related and involves either a direct toxic or an immune-allergic effect. It is suspected that the clozapine metabolites nitrenium ion and N-desmethylclozapine may cause apoptosis or impair growth of granulocytes. Formation of N-desmethylclozapine is correlated with activity of the cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A2 and 3A4 (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4). Nitrenium ion is produced by the flavin-containing monooxygenase system of leukocytes. A drug interaction between clozapine and a PPI is a consequence of the induction of common metabolic pathways either by the PPI or clozapine. Findings to date suggest that indirect induction of flavin-containing monooxygenase by omeprazole through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor increases the expression of the enzyme mRNA and in the long term may cause the increase in activity. Moreover, induction of CYP1A2, especially by omeprazole and lansoprazole, may increase the serum concentration of N-desmethylclozapine, which can accumulate in lymphocytes and may achieve toxic levels. Another hypothesis that may explain hematological adverse drug reactions is competitive inhibition of CYP2C19, which may contribute to increased serum concentrations of toxic metabolites.

  3. Potential Climate Change Health Risks from Increases in Heat Waves: Abnormal Birth Outcomes and Adverse Maternal Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cil, Gulcan; Cameron, Trudy Ann

    2017-02-23

    We investigate the risks presented by heat waves for adverse health conditions for babies and expectant mothers when these mothers have been exposed to heat waves during gestation or during the period just prior to conception. Rather than just birth weight and gestational age, we focus on less common metrics such as abnormal conditions in the newborn (fetal distress, reliance on a ventilator, and meconium aspiration) and adverse health conditions in the mother (pregnancy-related hypertension, uterine bleeding during pregnancy, eclampsia, and incompetent cervix). We use monthly panel data for over 3,000 U.S. counties, constructed from the confidential version of the U.S. Natality Files for 1989-2008. Our models control for sociodemographic factors and include county, month, and state-by-year fixed effects to control for unobserved spatial and timewise heterogeneity in the data. Even within the United States, where there is widespread access to air conditioning, heat waves increase the fraction of babies with abnormal conditions related to maternal stress, as well as the fraction of mothers who experience pregnancy-related adverse health conditions. The scope for these risks in developing countries is likely to be even greater.

  4. Multidimensional Approach to Detecting Creative Potential in Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caroff, Xavier; Lubart, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Creativity is increasingly recognized as a key component to success in the workplace. This article explores the detection of creative potential in managers. In a first part, creative potential is defined and a multivariate approach concerning the psychological resources for creativity is presented. Then, in a second part, an application of this…

  5. Assessing the Potential Adoption and Usefulness of Concurrent, Action-Oriented, Electronic Adverse Drug Event Triggers Designed for the Outpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mull, Hillary J.; Rosen, Amy K.; Shimada, Stephanie L.; Rivard, Peter E.; Nordberg, Brian; Long, Brenna; Hoffman, Jennifer M.; Leecaster, Molly; Savitz, Lucy A.; Shanahan, Christopher W.; Helwig, Amy; Nebeker, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adverse drug event (ADE) detection is an important priority for patient safety research. Trigger tools have been developed to help identify ADEs. In previous work we developed seven concurrent, action-oriented, electronic trigger algorithms designed to prompt clinicians to address ADEs in outpatient care. Objectives: We assessed the potential adoption and usefulness of the seven triggers by testing the positive predictive validity and obtaining stakeholder input. Methods: We adapted ADE triggers, “bone marrow toxin—white blood cell count (BMT-WBC),” “bone marrow toxin - platelet (BMT-platelet),” “potassium raisers,” “potassium reducers,” “creatinine,” “warfarin,” and “sedative hypnotics,” with logic to suppress flagging events with evidence of clinical intervention and applied the triggers to 50,145 patients from three large health care systems. Four pharmacists assessed trigger positive predictive value (PPV) with respect to ADE detection (conservatively excluding ADEs occurring during clinically appropriate care) and clinical usefulness (i.e., whether the trigger alert could change care to prevent harm). We measured agreement between raters using the free kappa and assessed positive PPV for the trigger’s detection of harm, clinical usefulness, and both. Stakeholders from the participating health care systems rated the likelihood of trigger adoption and the perceived ease of implementation. Findings: Agreement between pharmacist raters was moderately high for each ADE trigger (kappa free > 0.60). Trigger PPVs for harm ranged from 0 (Creatinine, BMT-WBC) to 17 percent (potassium raisers), while PPV for care change ranged from 0 (WBC) to 60 percent (Creatinine). Fifteen stakeholders rated the triggers. Our assessment identified five of the seven triggers as good candidates for implementation: Creatinine, BMT-Platelet, Potassium Raisers, Potassium Reducers, and Warfarin. Conclusions: At least five outpatient ADE triggers

  6. Anxiolytic activity and evaluation of potentially adverse effects of a bradykinin-related peptide isolated from a social wasp venom.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos, Lilian Carneiro; Gomes, Flávia Maria Medeiros; do Couto, Lucianna Lopes; Mourão, Cecília Alves; Moreira, Karla Graziela; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Mortari, Márcia Renata

    2016-03-15

    Anxiety disorders are major health problems in terms of costs stemming from sick leave, disabilities, healthcare and premature mortality. Despite the availability of classic anxiolytics, some anxiety disorders are still resistant to treatment, with higher rates of adverse effects. In this respect, several toxins isolated from arthropod venoms are useful in identifying new compounds to treat neurological disorders, particularly pathological anxiety. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify and characterize an anxiolytic peptide isolated from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista. The peptide was identified as Polisteskinin R, with nominal molecular mass [M+H](+)=1301Da and primary structure consisting of Ala-Arg-Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Thr-Pro-Phe-Arg-OH. The anxiolytic effect was tested using the elevated plus maze test. Moreover, adverse effects on the spontaneous behavior and motor coordination of animals were assessed using the open field and rotarod tests. Polisteskinin R induced a dose-dependent anxiolytic effect. Animals treated with the peptide and diazepam spent significantly more time into the open arms when compared to the groups treated with the vehicle and pentylenetetrazole. No significant differences in spontaneous behavior or motor coordination were observed between the groups, showing that the peptide was well tolerated. The interaction by agonists in both known BK receptors induces a variability of physiological effects; Polisteskinin R can act on these receptors, inducing modulatory activity and thus, attenuating anxiety behaviors. The results of this study demonstrated that the compound Polisteskinin R exerted potent anxiolytic effects and its analogues are promising candidates for experimental pharmacology.

  7. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants.

  8. Alleviation of adverse effects of drought stress on growth and some potential physiological attributes in maize (Zea mays L.) by seed electromagnetic treatment.

    PubMed

    Javed, Namra; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Al-Qurainy, Fahad

    2011-01-01

    Effects of varying preseed magnetic treatments on growth, chlorophyll pigments, photosynthesis, water relation attributes, fluorescence and levels of osmoprotectants in maize plants were tested under normal and drought stress conditions. Seeds of two maize cultivars were treated with different (T0 [0 mT], T1 [100 mT for 5 min], T2 [100 mT for 10 min], T3 [150 mT for 5 min] and T4 [150 mT for 10 min]) electromagnetic treatments. Drought stress considerably suppressed growth, chlorophyll a and b pigments, leaf water potential, photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and substomatal CO(2) concentration (C(i)), while it increased leaf glycinebetaine and proline accumulation in both maize cultivars. However, pretreated seeds with different magnetic treatments significantly alleviated the drought-induced adverse effects on growth by improving chlorophyll a, A, E, g(s), C(i) and photochemical quenching and nonphotochemical quenching, while it had no significant effect on other attributes. However, different magnetic treatments negatively affected the g(s) and C(i) particularly in cv. Agaiti-2002 under drought stress conditions. Of all magnetic treatments, 100 and 150 mT for 10 min were most effective in alleviating the drought-induced adverse effects. Overall, preseed electromagnetic treatments could be used to minimize the drought-induced adverse effects on different crop plants.

  9. Adverse influence on reproduction and potential fitness cost in survivors of orthene-treated tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By using dose response to Orthene at 80 mg/L (LC50 of the laboratory susceptible colony), a relative resistant population (71% survival rate) of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, was located near Tillar, Arkansas. This population was used in this study to evaluate potential fitness cost in ...

  10. Spatial Repolarization Heterogeneity Detected by Magnetocardiography Correlates with Cardiac Iron Overload and Adverse Cardiac Events in Beta-Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-An; Lu, Meng-Yao; Peng, Shinn-Forng; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Chang, Hsiu-Hao; Yang, Yung-Li; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Liu, Yen-Bin; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Hong-Chang; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Wu, Chau-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major (TM) are at risk for myocardial iron overload and cardiac complications. Spatial repolarization heterogeneity is known to be elevated in patients with certain cardiac diseases, but little is known in TM patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spatial repolarization heterogeneity in patients with TM, and to investigate the relationships between spatial repolarization heterogeneity, cardiac iron load, and adverse cardiac events. Methods and Results Fifty patients with TM and 55 control subjects received 64-channel magnetocardiography (MCG) to determine spatial repolarization heterogeneity, which was evaluated by a smoothness index of QTc (SI-QTc), a standard deviation of QTc (SD-QTc), and a QTc dispersion. Left ventricular function and myocardial T2* values were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Patients with TM had significantly greater SI-QTc, SD-QTc, and QTc dispersion compared to the control subjects (all p values<0.001). Spatial repolarization heterogeneity was even more pronounced in patients with significant iron overload (T2*<20 ms, n = 20) compared to those with normal T2* (all p values<0.001). Loge cardiac T2* correlated with SI-QTc (r = −0.609, p<0.001), SD-QTc (r = −0.572, p<0.001), and QTc dispersion (r = −0.622, p<0.001), while all these indices had no relationship with measurements of the left ventricular geometry or function. At the time of study, 10 patients had either heart failure or arrhythmia. All 3 indices of repolarization heterogeneity were related to the presence of adverse cardiac events, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ranged between 0.79 and 0.86), similar to that of cardiac T2*. Conclusions Multichannel MCG demonstrated that patients with TM had increased spatial repolarization heterogeneity, which is related to myocardial iron load and adverse cardiac events. PMID:24475137

  11. Adverse events caused by potential drug-drug interactions in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Alvim, Mariana Macedo; da Silva, Lidiane Ayres; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Silvério, Marcelo Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of potential drug-drug interactions in an intensive care unit of a hospital, focusing on antimicrobial drugs. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed electronic prescriptions of patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a teaching hospital between January 1 and March 31, 2014 and assessed potential drug-drug interactions associated with antimicrobial drugs. Antimicrobial drug consumption levels were expressed in daily doses per 100 patient-days. The search and classification of the interactions were based on the Micromedex® system. Results The daily prescriptions of 82 patients were analyzed, totaling 656 prescriptions. Antimicrobial drugs represented 25% of all prescription drugs, with meropenem, vancomycin and ceftriaxone being the most prescribed medications. According to the approach of daily dose per 100 patient-days, the most commonly used antimicrobial drugs were cefepime, meropenem, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. The mean number of interactions per patient was 2.6. Among the interactions, 51% were classified as contraindicated or significantly severe. Highly significant interactions (clinical value 1 and 2) were observed with a prevalence of 98%. Conclusion The current study demonstrated that antimicrobial drugs are frequently prescribed in intensive care units and present a very high number of potential drug-drug interactions, with most of them being considered highly significant. PMID:26761473

  12. Distinguishing hazards and harms, adverse drug effects and adverse drug reactions : implications for drug development, clinical trials, pharmacovigilance, biomarkers, and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2013-03-01

    The terms 'adverse drug effects' and 'adverse drug reactions' are commonly used interchangeably, but they have different implications. Adverse drug reactions arise when a compound (e.g. a drug or metabolite, a contaminant or adulterant) is distributed in the same place as a body tissue (e.g. a receptor, enzyme, or ion channel), and the encounter results in an adverse effect (a physiological or pathological change), which results in a clinically appreciable adverse reaction. Both the adverse effect and the adverse reaction have manifestations by which they can be recognized: adverse effects are usually detected by laboratory tests (e.g. biochemical, haematological, immunological, radiological, pathological) or by clinical investigations (e.g. endoscopy, cardiac catheterization), and adverse reactions by their clinical manifestations (symptoms and/or signs). This distinction suggests five scenarios: (i) adverse reactions can result directly from adverse effects; (ii) adverse effects may not lead to appreciable adverse reactions; (iii) adverse reactions can occur without preceding adverse effects; (iv) adverse effects and reactions may be dissociated; and (v) adverse effects and reactions can together constitute syndromes. Defining an adverse drug reaction as "an appreciably harmful or unpleasant reaction, resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product" suggests a definition of an adverse drug effect: "a potentially harmful effect resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product, which constitutes a hazard and may or may not be associated with a clinically appreciable adverse reaction and/or an abnormal laboratory test or clinical investigation, as a marker of an adverse reaction."

  13. Deformation Detection of Potential Landslide with InSAR Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuzhou; Liao, Mingsheng; Shi, Xuguo; Zhang, Lu

    2016-08-01

    Influenced by geological and climate conditions, Guide County has been identified as a landslide prone area. Multi-temporal InSAR technique can implement continuous earth surface deformation detection with long time scale and wide geography coverage. In this research, we employ the SBAS method to survey potential landslide in Guide County. Two anomalous deformation regions have been detected by L-band PALSAR stacks. Preliminary correlation between the time series deformation and triggering factors is analyzed to explore the driving mechanism for landslide movement. As a consequence, L-band SAR has a good application potential in landslide monitoring and the results can be the basis for landslide recognizing and early warning.

  14. Monitoring for potential adverse effects of prenatal gene therapy: mouse models for developmental aberrations and inadvertent germ line transmission.

    PubMed

    Coutelle, Charles; Waddington, Simon N; Themis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    So far no systematic studies have been conducted to investigate developmental aberrations after prenatal gene transfer in mice. Here, we suggest procedures for such observations to be applied, tested and improved in further in utero gene therapy experiments. They are based on our own experience in husbandry for transgenic human diseases mouse models and breading, rearing, and observing mice after fetal gene transfer as well as on the systematic screens for monitoring of knock-out mutant mouse phenotypes established in international mutagenesis projects (EUMORPHIA and EUMODIC and subsequently the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium). We also describe here the analysis procedures for detection of germ line mutations based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) by sperm-DNA analysis and breeding studies.

  15. Potential detection systems for monitoring UF{sub 6} releases

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.E.; Bostick, W.D.; Armstrong, D.P.; McNeely, J.R.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1994-09-01

    In the near future, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will begin to regulate the gaseous diffusion plants. Them is a concern that the smoke detectors currently used for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) release detection will not meet NRC safety system requirements such as high reliability and rapid response. The NRC`s position is that licensees should utilize state-of-the-art equipment such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) detectors that would provide more dependable detection of a UF{sub 6} release. A survey of the literature and current vendor information was undertaken to define the state-of-the-art and commercial availability of HF (or other appropriate) detection systems. For the purpose of this report, classification of the available HF detection systems is made on the basis of detection principle (e.g., calorimetric, electrochemical, separational, or optical). Emphasis is also placed on whether the device is primarily sensitive to response from a point source (e.g., outleakage in the immediate vicinity of a specific set of components), or whether the device is potentially applicable to remote sensing over a larger area. Traditional HF point source monitoring typically uses gas sampling tubes or coated paper tapes with color developing indicator, portable and small area HF monitors are often based upon electrochemical or extractive/separational systems; and remote sensing by optical systems holds promise for indoor and outdoor large area monitoring (including plant boundary/ambient air monitoring).

  16. Detecting Drug Interactions From Adverse-Event Reports: Interaction Between Paroxetine and Pravastatin Increases Blood Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Tatonetti, NP; Denny, JC; Murphy, SN; Fernald, GH; Krishnan, G; Castro, V; Yue, P; Tsau, PS; Kohane, I; Roden, DM; Altman, RB

    2011-01-01

    The lipid-lowering agent pravastatin and the antidepressant paroxetine are among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. Unexpected interactions between them could have important public health implications. We mined the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) for side-effect profiles involving glucose homeostasis and found a surprisingly strong signal for comedication with pravastatin and paroxetine. We retrospectively evaluated changes in blood glucose in 104 patients with diabetes and 135 without diabetes who had received comedication with these two drugs, using data in electronic medical record (EMR) systems of three geographically distinct sites. We assessed the mean random blood glucose levels before and after treatment with the drugs. We found that pravastatin and paroxetine, when administered together, had a synergistic effect on blood glucose. The average increase was 19 mg/dl (1.0 mmol/l) overall, and in those with diabetes it was 48 mg/dl (2.7 mmol/l). In contrast, neither drug administered singly was associated with such changes in glucose levels. An increase in glucose levels is not a general effect of combined therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and statins. PMID:21613990

  17. Molecular detection of a potentially toxic diatom species.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bidhan Chandra; Cimarelli, Lucia; Singh, Kumar Saurabh; Brandi, Letizia; Brandi, Anna; Puccinelli, Camilla; Marcheggiani, Stefania; Spurio, Roberto

    2015-05-06

    A few diatom species produce toxins that affect human and animal health. Among these, members of the Pseudo-nitzschia genus were the first diatoms unambiguously identified as producer of domoic acid, a neurotoxin affecting molluscan shell-fish, birds, marine mammals, and humans. Evidence exists indicating the involvement of another diatom genus, Amphora, as a potential producer of domoic acid. We present a strategy for the detection of the diatom species Amphora coffeaeformis based on the development of species-specific oligonucleotide probes and their application in microarray hybridization experiments. This approach is based on the use of two marker genes highly conserved in all diatoms, but endowed with sufficient genetic divergence to discriminate diatoms at the species level. A region of approximately 450 bp of these previously unexplored marker genes, coding for elongation factor 1-a (eEF1-a) and silicic acid transporter (SIT), was used to design oligonucleotide probes that were tested for specificity in combination with the corresponding fluorescently labeled DNA targets. The results presented in this work suggest a possible use of this DNA chip technology for the selective detection of A. coffeaeformis in environmental settings where the presence of this potential toxin producer may represent a threat to human and animal health. In addition, the same basic approach can be adapted to a wider range of diatoms for the simultaneous detection of microorganisms used as biomarkers of different water quality levels.

  18. Laser photoacoustic trace detection of C2H4 revealing adverse environmental effects of atmospheric pollution on plant material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harren, Frans J. M.; Petruzzelli, Luciana

    1993-03-01

    The photoacoustic detection method for trace gases in the atmosphere is well developed towards very low limits of detection, in the last years. Due to the combination of a sensitive photoacoustic cell placed intracavity in an infrared CO2 laser we were able to detect C2H4 at ultralow (< 1:1011) concentrations within 10 seconds, C2H4 in a plant hormone which seems to play an important role throughout all the life stages of a plant, including seed germination. In addition, various types of stress have been reported to promote ethylene production from different plant tissues. As part of our ongoing research on the role of ethylene in seed germination, we have compared our laser photoacoustic set-up to a gaschromatograph for measuring C2H4 produced by germinating Pisum sativum L. seeds within the first days of imbibition. C2H4 evolution by intact seeds shows a maximum at about 25 hours of germination. Thereafter, the rate of ethylene measured by gaschromatograph continues to decrease while that measured by the laser-driven photoacoustic system shows further increases. Most of the ethylene produced by seeds is found in isolated embryonic axes. The fumigation with ozone affects the growth of seedlings and their ethylene evolution.

  19. "Prepandemic" immunization for novel influenza viruses, "swine flu" vaccine, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and the detection of rare severe adverse events.

    PubMed

    Evans, David; Cauchemez, Simon; Hayden, Frederick G

    2009-08-01

    The availability of immunogenic, licensed H5N1 vaccines and the anticipated development of vaccines against "swine" influenza A(H1N1) have stimulated debate about the possible use of these vaccines for protection of those exposed to potential pandemic influenza viruses and for immunization or "priming" of populations in the so-called "prepandemic" (interpandemic) era. However, the safety of such vaccines is a critical issue in policy development for wide-scale application of vaccines in the interpandemic period. For example, wide-scale interpandemic use of H5N1 vaccines could lead to millions of persons receiving vaccines of uncertain efficacy potentially associated with rare severe adverse events and against a virus that may not cause a pandemic. Here, we first review aspects of the 1976 National Influenza Immunization Programme against "swine flu" and its well-documented association with Guillain-Barré syndrome as a case study illustration of a suspected vaccine-associated severe adverse event in a mass interpandemic immunization setting. This case study is especially timely, given the recent spread of a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus in humans in Mexico and beyond. Following this, we examine available safety data from clinical trials of H5N1 vaccines and briefly discuss how vaccine safety could be monitored in a postmarketing surveillance setting.

  20. A highly stable minimally processed plant-derived recombinant acetylcholinesterase for nerve agent detection in adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J; Walker, Jeremy; Jiang, Xiaoming; Donahue, Scott; Robosky, Jason; Sack, Markus; Lees, Jonathan; Urban, Lori

    2015-08-13

    Although recent innovations in transient plant systems have enabled gram quantities of proteins in 1-2 weeks, very few have been translated into applications due to technical challenges and high downstream processing costs. Here we report high-level production, using a Nicotiana benthamiana/p19 system, of an engineered recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rAChE) that is highly stable in a minimally processed leaf extract. Lyophylized clarified extracts withstand prolonged storage at 70 °C and, upon reconstitution, can be used in several devices to detect organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides on surfaces ranging from 0 °C to 50 °C. The recent use of sarin in Syria highlights the urgent need for nerve agent detection and countermeasures necessary for preparedness and emergency responses. Bypassing cumbersome and expensive downstream processes has enabled us to fully exploit the speed, low cost and scalability of transient production systems resulting in the first successful implementation of plant-produced rAChE into a commercial biotechnology product.

  1. A highly stable minimally processed plant-derived recombinant acetylcholinesterase for nerve agent detection in adverse conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J.; Walker, Jeremy; Jiang, Xiaoming; Donahue, Scott; Robosky, Jason; Sack, Markus; Lees, Jonathan; Urban, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Although recent innovations in transient plant systems have enabled gram quantities of proteins in 1–2 weeks, very few have been translated into applications due to technical challenges and high downstream processing costs. Here we report high-level production, using a Nicotiana benthamiana/p19 system, of an engineered recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rAChE) that is highly stable in a minimally processed leaf extract. Lyophylized clarified extracts withstand prolonged storage at 70 °C and, upon reconstitution, can be used in several devices to detect organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides on surfaces ranging from 0 °C to 50 °C. The recent use of sarin in Syria highlights the urgent need for nerve agent detection and countermeasures necessary for preparedness and emergency responses. Bypassing cumbersome and expensive downstream processes has enabled us to fully exploit the speed, low cost and scalability of transient production systems resulting in the first successful implementation of plant-produced rAChE into a commercial biotechnology product. PMID:26268538

  2. Communication of ALS Patients by Detecting Event-Related Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanou, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Kenji; Nakashima, Kenji

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) patients are unable to successfully communicate their desires, although their mental capacity is the same as non-affected persons. Therefore, the authors put emphasis on Event-Related Potential(ERP) which elicits the highest outcome for the target visual and hearing stimuli. P300 is one component of ERP. It is positive potential that is elicited when the subject focuses attention on stimuli that appears infrequently. In this paper, the authors focused on P200 and N200 components, in addition to P300, for their great improvement in the rate of correct judgment in the target word-specific experiment. Hence the authors propose the algorithm that specifies target words by detecting these three components. Ten healthy subjects and ALS patient underwent the experiment in which a target word out of five words, was specified by this algorithm. The rates of correct judgment in nine of ten healthy subjects were more than 90.0%. The highest rate was 99.7%. The highest rate of ALS patient was 100.0%. Through these results, the authors found the possibility that ALS patients could communicate with surrounding persons by detecting ERP(P200, N200 and P300) as their desire.

  3. Imaging atlas for eligibility and on-study safety of potential shoulder adverse events in anti-NGF studies (Part 3).

    PubMed

    Roemer, F W; Hayes, C W; Miller, C G; Hoover, K; Guermazi, A

    2015-01-01

    Despite promising results, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) put on hold trials assessing anti-nerve growth factor (a-NGF) compounds due to concerns over accelerated rates of OA progression. The mechanism of these events is unclear but joint adverse events were observed particularly in patients using a-NGFs in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), suggesting that the significantly greater analgesic effect of these separate classes of drugs prompted patients to permit increased joint load without experiencing the usual pain that would limit joint stress. Development of a-NGF drugs is continuing with stringent safety criteria included in future trials as a-NGF therapies offer potential as the first new class of analgesics in many years. Potential imaging joint safety findings and exclusionary criteria for eligibility for the large weight bearing joints were presented in parts I and II of this atlas. The shoulder as a non-weight bearing joint is likely to be less affected by increased loading due to efficacious pain reduction. However, it remains prone to degeneration especially due to concomitant rotator cuff pathology and previous trauma and inflammatory disorders. This third part of the atlas illustrates imaging findings relevant for eligibility and potential joint safety findings such as osteonecrosis, incidental findings such as large cystic lesions, inflammatory disorders, bone marrow disorders and metastases.

  4. Identification and prevalence of adverse drug events caused by potentially inappropriate medication in homebound elderly patients: a retrospective study using a nationwide survey in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Mitsuko; Imai, Hirohisa; Takada, Yurina; Fujii, Shingo; Shono, Takako; Nanaumi, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A nationwide large-scale survey was conducted to identify the prevalence and causal medications of adverse drug events (ADEs) that are caused by potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) given to homebound elderly patients, factors associated with ADEs, and measures taken by pharmacists to manage ADEs and their effects on ADEs. Settings A questionnaire was mailed to 3321 pharmacies nationwide. It asked about the details of PIMs and ADEs of up to 5 patients for whom home visits were provided by a pharmacist. Questionnaire forms were filled in by pharmacists who visited the patients. Design and participants Between 23 January and 13 February 2013, comprehensive assessment forms were sent to 3321 pharmacies. Data collected from 1890 pharmacies including data of 4815 patients were analysed and 28 patients of unknown sex were excluded. Their average age was 82.7 years. PIMs were identified based on the 2003 Beers Criteria Japan. Results There were 600 patients who did not provide valid answers regarding the medications. In the remaining 4243 patients, one or more medications that were considered to be PIMs had been prescribed to 48.4% of patients. PIM-induced ADEs were found in 8% of these patients by pharmacists during home visits. The top ADE-inducing medications were strong anticholinergic antihistamines, benzodiazepines, sulpiride and digoxin. The most common ADEs associated with benzodiazepines were frequent lightheadedness, somnolence and sleepiness, which increase the risk of falls and subsequent fractures in elderly patients. The following factors associated with ADEs were identified: sex, pharmacist awareness of prescription issues, frequency of visits and time spent at patients’ homes, and the frequency of detailed checks for patient adverse reactions by pharmacists. Conclusions The PIM prevalence associated with home healthcare in Japan was relatively high, as reported in previous studies. The present study suggests that pharmacists could

  5. Non-toxic fluorescent phosphonium probes to detect mitochondrial potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šarić, Ana; Crnolatac, Ivo; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Sobočanec, Sandra; Mikecin, Ana-Matea; Mačak Šafranko, Željka; Delgeorgiev, Todor; Piantanida, Ivo; Balog, Tihomir; Petit, Patrice X.

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated our phosphonium-based fluorescent probes for selective staining of mitochondria. Currently used probes for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential show varying degrees of interference with cell metabolism, photo-induced damage and probe binding. Here presented probes are characterised by highly efficient cellular uptake and specific accumulation in mitochondria. Fluorescent detection of the probes was accomplished using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy imaging of yeast and mammalian cells. Toxicity analysis (impedimetry—xCELLigence for the cellular proliferation and Seahorse technology for respiratory properties) confirms that these dyes exhibit no-toxicity on mitochondrial or cellular functioning even for long time incubation. The excellent chemical and photophysical stability of the dyes makes them promising leads toward improved fluorescent probes. Therefore, the probes described here offer to circumvent the problems associated with existing-probe’s limitations.

  6. Potential adverse health effects of persistent organic pollutants on sea turtles: evidences from a cross-sectional study on Cape Verde loggerhead sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Camacho, María; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; López Jurado, Luis F; Medina, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    The Cape Verde nesting population of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) is the third largest population of this species in the world. For conservation purposes, it is essential to determine how these reptiles respond to different types of anthropogenic contaminants. We evaluated the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the plasma of adult nesting loggerheads from Boa Vista Island, Cape Verde, and studied the effects of the contaminants on the health status of the turtles using hematological and biochemical parameters. All turtles had detectable levels of non-dioxin like PCBs, whereas dioxin-like congeners (DL-PCBs) were detected in only 30% of the turtles. Packed cell volume decreased with higher concentrations of PCBs, which suggests that PCB exposure could result in anemia in sea turtles. In addition, a negative association between some OCPs and white blood cells (WBC) and thrombocyte estimate was noted. The DDT-metabolite, p,p'-DDE was negatively correlated with the Na/K ratio and, additionally, a number of correlations between certain PAHs and electrolyte balances were found, which suggest that exposure to these environmental contaminants could affect the kidneys and salt glands in sea turtles. Additionally, several correlations were observed between these environmental pollutants (OCPs and PAHs) and enzyme activity (GGT, ALT, ALP and amylase) and serum protein levels, pointing to the possibility that these contaminants could induce adverse metabolic effects in sea turtles. Our results indicate that anthropogenic pollutants are present in the Cape Verde loggerhead turtle nesting population and could exert negative effects on several health parameters. Because of the importance of this loggerhead nesting population, protective regulations at national and international levels as well as international action are necessary for assuring the conservation of this population.

  7. Using Rich Data on Comorbidities in Case-Control Study Design with Electronic Health Record Data Improves Control of Confounding in the Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, performs poorly in controlling confounding in the detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from administrative claims and electronic health record (EHR) data, resulting in biased estimates of the causal effects of drugs on health outcomes of interest (HOI) and inaccurate confidence intervals. Here we show that using rich data on comorbidities and automatic variable selection strategies for selecting confounders can better control confounding within a case-control study design and provide a more solid basis for inference regarding the causal effects of drugs on HOIs. Four HOIs are examined: acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, acute myocardial infarction and gastrointestinal ulcer hospitalization. For each of these HOIs we use a previously published reference set of positive and negative control drugs to evaluate the performance of our methods. Our methods have AUCs that are often substantially higher than the AUCs of a baseline method that only uses demographic characteristics for confounding control. Our methods also give confidence intervals for causal effect parameters that cover the expected no effect value substantially more often than this baseline method. The case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, can be used in the fairly typical setting of EHR databases without longitudinal information on patients. With our variable selection method, these databases can be more effectively used for the detection of ADRs. PMID:27716785

  8. Geographical distribution and potential for adverse biological effects of selected trace elements and organic compounds in streambed sediment in the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River basins, 1992-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Harris, Sandra L.

    1997-01-01

    Streambed-sediment samples were collected in 1992-94 at selected sites in the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins to determine the geographical distribution of trace elements and organic compounds and their potential for adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms. Chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc, chlordane, DDT, PAHs, and PCBs were detected in samples from throughout the basins, but concentrations of these constituents generally were lowest in the northern forested drainage basins and highest in the southern urbanized drainage basins of Springfield, Massachusetts, and Hartford, New Haven and Bridgeport, Connecticut. Possible anthropogenic sources of these contaminants include industrial effluent; municipal wastewater; runoff from agricultural, urban and forested areas; and atmospheric deposition. Some organic compounds pose the greatest threat to biological organisms in terms of exceedances of sediment-quality guidelines; those compounds are present at sufficiently high concentrations to potentially cause severe effects at several locations in the basins.Some trace elements represent the most geographically widespread threat to living organisms. These exceed sediment-quality guidelines over a wider geographical area, although usually by lower ratios of contaminant concentration to sediment-quality guideline than the organic compounds.

  9. Potential Deaths Averted and Serious Adverse Events Incurred from Adoption of the SPRINT Intensive Blood Pressure Regimen in the U.S.: Projections from NHANES.

    PubMed

    Bress, Adam P; Kramer, Holly; Khatib, Rasha; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Cheung, Alfred K; Hess, Rachel; Bansal, Vinod K; Cao, Guichan; Yee, Jerry; Moran, Andrew E; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Muntner, Paul; Cooper, Richard S

    2017-02-13

    Background -The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) demonstrated a 27% reduction in all-cause mortality with a systolic blood-pressure (SBP) goal of <120 mmHg versus <140 mmHg among U.S. adults at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but without diabetes, stroke, or heart failure. To quantify the potential benefits and risks of SPRINT intensive goal implementation, we estimated the deaths prevented and excess serious adverse events (SAEs) incurred if the SPRINT intensive SBP treatment goal was implemented in all eligible U.S. adults. Methods -SPRINT eligibility criteria were applied to the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and linked with the National Death Index through December 2011. SPRINT eligibility included age ≥ 50 years, SBP of 130-180 mmHg (depending on the number of antihypertensive medications being taken), and high CVD risk. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, history of stroke, >1 gram of proteinuria, heart failure, estimated glomerular filtration rate < 20 ml/min/1.73m(2), or dialysis. Annual mortality rates were calculated by dividing the Kaplan-Meier 5-year mortality by 5. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality and heart failure and absolute risks for SAEs in SPRINT were used to estimate the number of potential deaths and heart failure cases prevented and SAEs incurred with intensive SBP treatment. Results -The mean age was 68.6 years and 83.2% and 7.4% were non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black, respectively. The annual mortality rate was 2.20% (95%CI 1.91%-2.48%) and intensive SBP treatment was projected to prevent about 107,500 deaths per year (95%CI 93,300-121,200) and give rise to 56,100 (95%CI 50,800-61,400) episodes of hypotension, 34,400 (95%CI 31,200-37,600) episodes of syncope, 43,400 (95%CI 39,400-47,500) serious electrolyte disorders, and 88,700 (95%CI 80,400-97,000) cases of acute kidney injury per year. The analysis of extremes approach indicated that the range of estimated lower and upper

  10. Mycobacterium bovis DNA Detection in Colostrum as a Potential Indicator of Vaccination Effectiveness against Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E.; Gordiano-Hidalgo, María Alejandra; López-Rincón, Gonzálo; Bojorquez-Narváez, Luis; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST−), while TST reactor animals (TST+) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms. PMID:23425597

  11. Mycobacterium bovis DNA detection in colostrum as a potential indicator of vaccination effectiveness against bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E; Gordiano-Hidalgo, María Alejandra; López-Rincón, Gonzálo; Bojorquez-Narváez, Luis; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST(-)), while TST reactor animals (TST(+)) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms.

  12. Detectability of Potentially Entrained Microorganisms at the Surface of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    New spectral measurements of bacteria taken at cryogenic temperatures provide insights on the surface composition of Europa as well as the detectability of microbes on the surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues.

  14. Potential for portal detection of human chemical and biological contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary S.; McGann, William J.

    2001-08-01

    The walk-through metal-detection portal is a paradigm of non-intrusive passenger screening in aviation security. Modern explosive detection portals based on this paradigm will soon appear in airports. This paper suggests that the airborne trace detection technology developed for that purpose can also be adapted to human chemical and biological contamination. The waste heat of the human body produces a rising warm-air sheath of 50-80 liters/sec known as the human thermal plume. Contained within this plume are hundreds of bioeffluents from perspiration and breath, and millions of skin flakes. Since early medicine, the airborne human scent was used in the diagnosis of disease. Recent examples also include toxicity and substance abuse, but this approach has never been quantified. The appearance of new bioeffluents or subtle changes in the steady-state may signal the onset of a chemical/biological attack. Portal sampling of the human thermal plume is suggested, followed by a pre-concentration step and the detection of the attacking agent or the early human response. The ability to detect nanogram levels of explosive trace contamination this way was already demonstrated. Key advantages of the portal approach are its rapidity and non-intrusiveness, and the advantage that it does not require the traditional bodily fluid or tissue sampling.

  15. Adverse reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Michael R; Hershey, Joyce N; Engler, Renata J M

    2003-06-01

    (The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.) Immunization healthcare is becoming increasingly complex as the number and types of vaccines have continued to expand. Like all prescription drugs, vaccines may be associated with adverse events. The majority of these reactions are self-limited and not associated with prolonged disability. The media, Internet and public advocacy groups have focused on potentially serious vaccine-associated adverse events with questions raised about causal linkages to increasing frequencies of diseases such as autism and asthma. Despite a lack of evidence of a causal relationship to a variety of vaccine safety concerns, including extensive reviews by the Institute of Medicine, questions regarding vaccine safety continue to threaten the success of immunization programs. Risk communication arid individual risk assessment is further challenged by the public health success of vaccine programs creating the perception that certain vaccines are no longer necessary or justified because of the rare reaction risk. There is a need for improved understanding of true vaccine contraindications and precautions as well as host factors and disease threat in order to develop a patient specific balanced risk communication intervention. When they occur, vaccine related adverse events must be treated, documented and reported through the VAERS system. The increasing complexity of vaccination health care has led the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to identify Vaccine Safety Assessment and Evaluation as a potential new specialty.

  16. Transiting planets with LSST. I. Potential for LSST exoplanet detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Michael B.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is designed to meet several scientific objectives over a 10 year synoptic sky survey. Beyond its primary goals, the large amount of LSST data can be exploited for additional scientific purposes. We show that LSST data are sufficient to detect the transits of exoplanets, including planets orbiting stars that are members of stellar populations that have so far been largely unexplored. Using simulated LSST light curves, we find that existing transit detection algorithms can identify the signatures of Hot Jupiters around solar-type stars, Hot Neptunes around K-dwarfs, and (in favorable cases) Super-Earths in habitable-zone orbits of M-dwarfs. We also find that LSST may identify Hot Jupiters orbiting stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud—a remarkable possibility that would advance exoplanet science into the extragalactic regime.

  17. Detection, Estimation, and Multidimensional Processing of Single Evoked Potentials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    ind,,". 1i Is alo (lsia)c !o odmd nk, the dat a containing thle signal ill the traniisf(:ried (iat ai so that the transform wil - r~iet (livthaIt...vement. ’The b. a vera ged accu racv result.s for detection of the non-target L’s are I) f)7.8(., 18’ X =15 Ilz, Nkit hout frequency transforniat ion, 2

  18. Design and validation of an automated method to detect known adverse drug reactions in MEDLINE: a contribution from the EU–ADR project

    PubMed Central

    Avillach, Paul; Dufour, Jean-Charles; Diallo, Gayo; Salvo, Francesco; Joubert, Michel; Thiessard, Frantz; Mougin, Fleur; Trifirò, Gianluca; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Pariente, Antoine; Fieschi, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this research was to automate the search of publications concerning adverse drug reactions (ADR) by defining the queries used to search MEDLINE and by determining the required threshold for the number of extracted publications to confirm the drug/event association in the literature. Methods We defined an approach based on the medical subject headings (MeSH) ‘descriptor records’ and ‘supplementary concept records’ thesaurus, using the subheadings ‘chemically induced’ and ‘adverse effects’ with the ‘pharmacological action’ knowledge. An expert-built validation set of true positive and true negative drug/adverse event associations (n=61) was used to validate our method. Results Using a threshold of three of more extracted publications, the automated search method presented a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. For nine different drug/event pairs selected, the recall of the automated search ranged from 24% to 64% and the precision from 93% to 48%. Conclusions This work presents a method to find previously established relationships between drugs and adverse events in the literature. Using MEDLINE, following a MeSH approach to filter the signals, is a valid option. Our contribution is available as a web service that will be integrated in the final European EU–ADR project (Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by integrative mining of clinical records and biomedical knowledge) automated system. PMID:23195749

  19. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  20. S100B as a potential biomarker for the detection of cytotoxicity of melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kyung Ah; Noh, Minsoo; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2014-03-01

    Skin irritation is one of the most common adverse reactions in hydroquinone (HQ) and retinoic acid (RA). Although melanocytes have rarely been considered to be involved in skin irritation, RA and particularly HQ could induce melanocyte toxicity, resulting in depigmentation. We chose S100B as a candidate gene for melanocytotoxicity from a genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis after applying irritant doses of HQ, RA and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) to cultures of keratinocytes and/or melanocytes. In this study, the role of S100B on melanocyte viability and cytotoxicity was examined. S100B was detected in melanocytes, but not in keratinocytes or fibroblasts. Melanocytes after treatment with increasing concentrations of HQ, RA, SLS and urushiol showed significant increases in intracellular and extracellular S100B expression with reduced viable cell number and increased release of lactate dehydrogenase. No RAGE expression and no significant function of CD166/ALCAM in melanocyte survival and cytotoxicity favoured the role of intracellular S100B in chemically irritated melanocytes. S100B knock-down increased apoptosis through inhibition of PI3K/AKT, NF-κB and ERK activation, suggesting the increased intracellular S100B expression by chemical irritation as a compensatory reaction to reduce cytotoxicity. The numerical decrease in S100B/c-kit-double-positive melanocytes was also examined in human skin epidermis irritated by HQ or RA with stronger staining intensities of S100B. Collectively, the decrease in viable cell number by reduced intracellular S100B levels in vitro and by chemical irritation in vivo suggests that S100B could be a potential biomarker for melanocytes cytotoxicity.

  1. Mechanisms, detection, and potential management of microcirculatory disturbances in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Imran; Nonas, Stephanie A

    2010-04-01

    Despite improvements in resuscitation and treatment of sepsis, the morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. Microvascular dysfunction has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and is a potential new target in the management of sepsis. Clinical studies, aided by new techniques that allow for real-time assessment of the microcirculation, have shown that disturbances in microcirculatory flow are common in sepsis and correlate with worse outcomes. Bedside measurement of microcirculatory perfusion has become simpler and more accessible, and may provide key insights into prognosis in sepsis and guide future therapeutics, much like mean arterial pressure (MAP), lactate, and mixed central oxygen saturation (SvO(2)) do now. The authors review here the role of microcirculatory dysfunction in sepsis and its potential role as a therapeutic target in sepsis.

  2. The potential for very high-frequency gravitational wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruise, A. M.

    2012-05-01

    The science case for observing gravitational waves at frequencies in the millihertz-kilohertz range using LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600 or LISA is very strong and the first results are expected at these frequencies. However, as gravitational wave astronomy progresses beyond the first detections, other frequency bands may be worth exploring. Early predictions of gravitational wave emission from discrete sources at very much higher frequencies (megahertz and above) have been published and more recent studies of cosmological signals from inflation, Kaluza-Klein modes from gravitational interactions in brane worlds and plasma instabilities surrounding violent astrophysical events, are all possible sources. This communication examines current observational possibilities and the detector technology required to make meaningful observations at these frequencies.

  3. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  4. Estimation of southern resident killer whale exposure to exhaust emissions from whale-watching vessels and potential adverse health effects and toxicity thresholds.

    PubMed

    Lachmuth, Cara L; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G; Steyn, D Q; Milsom, William K

    2011-04-01

    Southern resident killer whales in British Columbia and Washington are exposed to heavy vessel traffic. This study investigates their exposure to exhaust gases from whale-watching vessels by using a simple dispersion model incorporating data on whale and vessel behavior, atmospheric conditions, and output of airborne pollutants from the whale-watching fleet based on emissions data from regulatory agencies. Our findings suggest that current whale-watching guidelines are usually effective in limiting pollutant exposure to levels at or just below those at which measurable adverse health effects would be expected in killer whales. However, safe pollutant levels are exceeded under worst-case conditions and certain average-case conditions. To reduce killer whale exposure to exhaust we recommend: vessels position on the downwind side of whales, a maximum of 20 whale-watching vessels should be within 800 m at any given time, viewing periods should be limited, and current whale-watch guidelines and laws should be enforced.

  5. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered ...

  6. The potential protective effect of green, black, red and white tea infusions against adverse effect of cadmium and lead during chronic exposure - A rat model study.

    PubMed

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The protective effect of green (GT), black (BT), red (RT) and white (WT) tea infusions on the lungs, brains, hearts, livers and kidneys of adult Wistar rats exposed to Cd (7 mg/kg) and Pb (50 m/kg) was studied. The degree of reduction in the absorption of Cd and Pb in the organs compared to control group and the activity of SOD, CAT and GPx as well as GSH level was evaluated. It was determined that tea significant reduced the accumulation of Cd in the tissues. A significant reduction in the accumulation of Pb was recorded in the brain (WT), liver (GT, WT) and kidneys (BT, GT, RT, WT). A significant increase was observed in the activity of SOD, CAT and GPx in the organs of all rats from tea groups. It was found that the results obtained in rats receiving black, red and white tea were overall not worse than those recorded for rats receiving green tea. The obtained results suggest that drinking tea could be an effective method of reducing the adverse effect of environmental Cd and Pb pollution on the human body.

  7. A Community Detection Algorithm Based on Topology Potential and Spectral Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhixiao; Chen, Zhaotong; Zhao, Ya; Chen, Shaoda

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is of great value for complex networks in understanding their inherent law and predicting their behavior. Spectral clustering algorithms have been successfully applied in community detection. This kind of methods has two inadequacies: one is that the input matrixes they used cannot provide sufficient structural information for community detection and the other is that they cannot necessarily derive the proper community number from the ladder distribution of eigenvector elements. In order to solve these problems, this paper puts forward a novel community detection algorithm based on topology potential and spectral clustering. The new algorithm constructs the normalized Laplacian matrix with nodes' topology potential, which contains rich structural information of the network. In addition, the new algorithm can automatically get the optimal community number from the local maximum potential nodes. Experiments results showed that the new algorithm gave excellent performance on artificial networks and real world networks and outperforms other community detection methods. PMID:25147846

  8. Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using NV-diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Matthew; Barry, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Glenn, David; Walsworth, Ron

    2016-05-01

    A key challenge for neuroscience is noninvasive, label-free sensing of action potential dynamics in whole organisms with single-neuron resolution. Here, we report a new approach to this problem: using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond to measure the time-dependent magnetic fields produced by single-neuron action potentials. We demonstrate our method using excised single neurons from two invertebrate species, marine worm and squid; and then by single-neuron action potential magnetic sensing exterior to whole, live, opaque marine worms for extended periods with no adverse effect. The results lay the groundwork for real-time, noninvasive 3D magnetic mapping of functional mammalian neuronal networks.

  9. Potential of the Melanophore Pigment Response for Detection of Bacterial Toxicity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dukovcic, Stephanie R.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Trempy, Janine E.

    2010-01-01

    Chromatophore cells have been investigated as potential biodetectors for function-based detection of chemically and biologically toxic substances. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon) melanophores, a chromatophore cell type containing brown pigment, rapidly detect the salmonid pathogens Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, and Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the human pathogen Bacillus cereus. PMID:20952639

  10. Reverse engineering adverse outcome pathways.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Edward J; Chipman, J Kevin; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or incompletely characterized, mechanisms of action. The application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) can be used to overcome these limitations. This approach was used to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas). Gene expression changes in FHM ovaries in response to seven different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions, were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. Potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide were examined using two mutual information-based methods to infer gene regulatory networks and potential AOPs. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict network paths from stressor to adverse outcome as candidate AOPs. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment, thus leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biological processes, biomarkers, or alternative endpoints that can be used to monitor an AOP. Finally, the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology were identified and a road map for the utilization of these tools presented.

  11. Proactive management strategies for potential gastrointestinal adverse reactions with ceritinib in patients with advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Eric S; Baik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusions occur in 3%–7% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Ceritinib, a once-daily, oral ALK inhibitor, has activity against crizotinib-resistant and crizotinib-naïve NSCLC, including brain metastases. Ceritinib (Zykadia™) was granted accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for treating crizotinib-resistant ALK-positive NSCLC. Adverse events (AEs), particularly gastrointestinal (GI) AEs, are commonly experienced at the recommended dose of 750 mg/d and ∼38% of patients require dose interruption or reduction for GI AEs. This case study details our experience with the use of proactive GI AE management regimens in patients treated with ceritinib (750 mg/d) across two study sites. Proactive Regimens A and B were implemented in patients with metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC treated with ceritinib to manage drug-related GI AEs. Regimen A comprised ondansetron and diphenoxylate/atropine or loperamide, taken 30 minutes prior to ceritinib dose. Regimen B included dicyclomine (taken with the first ceritinib dose), ondansetron (taken 30 minutes prior to ceritinib dose for the first seven doses), and loperamide (taken as needed with the onset of diarrhea). The proactive medications were tapered off depending on patient tolerability to ceritinib. Nine patient cases are presented. Starting Regimens A or B before the first dose of ceritinib, or as soon as GI symptoms were encountered, prevented the need for dose reduction due to GI toxicity in eight of the nine patients. Using these regimens, 78% of patients were able to remain on 750 mg/d fasting. Two patients received 23 months and 16 months of therapy and remain on ceritinib 750 mg/d and 600 mg/d, respectively. Although not currently recommended or implemented in clinical studies, based on the patients evaluated here, upfront or proactive treatment plans that address AEs early on can allow the majority of patients to remain on the approved 750 mg

  12. Detection of hepatotoxicity potential with metabolite profiling (metabolomics) of rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Mattes, W; Davis, K; Fabian, E; Greenhaw, J; Herold, M; Looser, R; Mellert, W; Groeters, S; Marxfeld, H; Moeller, N; Montoya-Parra, G; Prokoudine, A; van Ravenzwaay, B; Strauss, V; Walk, T; Kamp, H

    2014-11-04

    While conventional parameters used to detect hepatotoxicity in drug safety assessment studies are generally informative, the need remains for parameters that can detect the potential for hepatotoxicity at lower doses and/or at earlier time points. Previous work has shown that metabolite profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics) can detect signals of potential hepatotoxicity in rats treated with doxorubicin at doses that do not elicit hepatotoxicity as monitored with conventional parameters. The current study extended this observation to the question of whether such signals could be detected in rats treated with compounds that can elicit hepatotoxicity in humans (i.e., drug-induced liver injury, DILI) but have not been reported to do so in rats. Nine compounds were selected on the basis of their known DILI potential, with six other compounds chosen as negative for DILI potential. A database of rat plasma metabolite profiles, MetaMap(®)Tox (developed by metanomics GmbH and BASF SE) was used for both metabolite profiles and mode of action (MoA) metabolite signatures for a number of known toxicities. Eight of the nine compounds with DILI potential elicited metabolite profiles that matched with MoA patterns of various rat liver toxicities, including cholestasis, oxidative stress, acetaminophen-type toxicity and peroxisome proliferation. By contrast, only one of the six non-DILI compounds showed a weak match with rat liver toxicity. These results suggest that metabolite profiling may indeed have promise to detect signals of hepatotoxicity in rats treated with compounds having DILI potential.

  13. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies.

  14. [Pain as adverse drug reaction].

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Birgit; Schaffarzick, Daniel; Nagano, Marietta; Janowitz, Susanne Melitta; Schweitzer, Ekkehard

    2012-09-01

    We present a multidisciplinary (anaesthesiology--clinical pharmacy--bioinformatics) analysis of pain as possible adverse drug reaction taking different manifestations of pain, indication groups, relevance to the Austrian drug market and possible mechanistic influence of drugs on development and apprehension of pain into consideration.We designed an overview that shows how transmitters that play a part in nociception and antinociception can be influenced by drugs. This allows conclusions to the dolorigene potential of therapeutics.

  15. Adverse drug reactions and their measurement in the rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Day, R O; Quinn, D I; Conaghan, P G; Tett, S E

    1995-05-01

    Drugs administered as therapy for rheumatological disorders are a relatively common cause of adverse events. Important data regarding the effects of drugs on patients with rheumatological conditions is being lost or rendered inaccessible because of deficiencies in classification, measurement, and collection methods for adverse drug reactions. A significant number of adverse reactions to drugs will not be known before marketing, and hence vigilance on the part of clinicians and patients in observing and documenting these reactions is paramount in building our knowledge and modifying our practice accordingly. A variety of systems and methods for detecting adverse drug reactions are described, critically evaluated, and compared for cost, potential bias, ethical concerns, and subject recruitment required for necessary statistical power. Systems need to be developed to give access to the wealth of clinical experimental data available in the individual practices of a broad spectrum of clinicians. To facilitate this, representative organizations need to make adverse drug reactions a high priority as well as contributing expertise and finance to database formulation and accessibility.

  16. Adverse food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Alie; van Hunsel, Florence; Bast, Aalt

    2015-12-01

    Food supplements and herbal products are increasingly popular amongst consumers. This leads to increased risks of interactions between prescribed drugs and these products containing bioactive ingredients. From 1991 up to 2014, 55 cases of suspected adverse drug reactions due to concomitant intake of health-enhancing products and drugs were reported to Lareb, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre. An overview of these suspected interactions is presented and their potential mechanisms of action are described. Mainly during the metabolism of xenobiotics and due to the pharmacodynamics effects interactions seem to occur, which may result in adverse drug reactions. Where legislation is seen to distinct food and medicine, legislation concerning these different bioactive products is less clear-cut. This can only be resolved by increasing the molecular knowledge on bioactive substances and their potential interactions. Thereby potential interactions can be better understood and prevented on an individual level. By considering the dietary pattern and use of bioactive substances with prescribed medication, both health professionals and consumers will be increasingly aware of interactions and these interactive adverse effects can be prevented.

  17. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reddy-Kantharaj, Yashoda-Bhoomi; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Janardhan-Reddy, Sujatha; Sahu, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Background Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. Material and Methods The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Results Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Conclusions Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct

  18. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  19. Statins as Targeted "Magical Pills" for the Conservative Treatment of Endometriosis: May Potential Adverse Effects on Female Fertility Represent the "Dark Side of the Same Coin"? A Systematic Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Vitagliano, Amerigo; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Gizzo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze all the available evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the efficacy of statin therapy in the treatment of endometriosis, evaluating the potential efficacy, side effects, and contraindications of their administration in humans. We focused on defining the potential benefits that the administration of statins may have on patients affected by endometriosis and the possible adverse effects of such a therapy on ovarian function and fertility profile. According to our article selection criteria, we included in the review in vitro and in vivo studies performed on human or animal models. The systematic review of literature identified 24 eligible articles, 12 of which reported evidence regarding the effects of statins on endometrial/endometriotic cells and 12 regarding their effects on ovarian function and fertility. All articles seem to emphasize the utility of statin administration in the treatment of endometriosis due to their anti-proliferative/proapoptotic effects, their ability to reduce cell viability and migration, and the inhibition of angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. Regarding the potential adverse effects on gonadal activities, steroidogenesis and fertility function, no conclusive data were collected in human models (excluding women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome in which significant decline of androgen levels was reported after statin treatment), while contrasting results were reported by studies conducted in in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Despite evidence supporting statins as the potential therapeutic agent for a targeted conservative treatment of endometriosis, the uncertainties regarding their impact on gonadal function may not define them as an appropriate therapy for all young fertile women.

  20. Optical coherence tomography for detection of compound action potential in Xenopus Laevis sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesca; Nikolic, Konstantin; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2016-03-01

    Due to optical coherence tomography (OCT) high spatial and temporal resolution, this technique could be used to observe the quick changes in the refractive index that accompany action potential. In this study we explore the use of time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD-OCT) for real time action potential detection in ex vivo Xenopus Laevis sciatic nerve. TD-OCT is the easiest and less expensive OCT technique and, if successful in detecting real time action potential, it could be used for low cost monitoring devices. A theoretical investigation into the order of magnitude of the signals detected by a TD-OCT setup is provided by this work. A linear dependence between the refractive index and the intensity changes is observed and the minimum SNR for which the setup could work is found to be SNR = 2 x 104.

  1. DETECTION OF POTENTIAL TRANSIT SIGNALS IN THE FIRST THREE QUARTERS OF Kepler MISSION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Rowe, Jason F.; Seader, Shawn; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Stumpe, Martin C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Girouard, Forrest R.; Klaus, Todd C. [Orbital Sciences Corporation and others

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a search for potential transit signals in the first three quarters of photometry data acquired by the Kepler mission. The targets of the search include 151,722 stars which were observed over the full interval and an additional 19,132 stars which were observed for only one or two quarters. From this set of targets we find a total of 5392 detections which meet the Kepler detection criteria: those criteria are periodicity of signal, an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, and a composition test which rejects spurious detections which contain non-physical combinations of events. The detected signals are dominated by events with relatively low signal-to-noise ratio and by events with relatively short periods. The distribution of estimated transit depths appears to peak in the range between 40 and 100 parts per million, with a few detections down to fewer than 10 parts per million. The detections exhibit signal-to-noise ratios from 7.1{sigma}, which is the lower cutoff for detections, to over 10,000{sigma}, and periods ranging from 0.5 days, which is the lower cutoff used in the procedure, to 109 days, which is the upper limit of achievable periods given the length of the data set and the criteria used for detections. The detected signals are compared to a set of known transit events in the Kepler field of view which were derived by a different method using a longer data interval; the comparison shows that the current search correctly identified 88.1% of the known events. A tabulation of the detected transit signals, examples which illustrate the analysis and detection process, a discussion of future plans and open, potentially fruitful, areas of further research are included.

  2. Monitoring for potential adverse effects of prenatal gene therapy: genotoxicity analysis in vitro and on small animal models ex vivo and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Themis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Gene delivery by integrating vectors has the potential to cause genotoxicity in the host by insertional mutagenesis (IM). Previously, the risk of IM by replication incompetent retroviral vectors was believed to be small. However, the recent observation of leukaemic events due to gamma retroviral vector insertion and activation of the LMO-2 proto-oncogene in patients enrolled in the French and British gene therapy trials for X-SCID demonstrates the need to understand vector associated genotoxicity in greater detail. These findings have led to the development of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays designed to predict genotoxic risk and to further our mechanistic understanding of this process at the molecular level. In vitro assays include transformation of murine haematopoietic stem cells by integrating retroviral (RV) or lentiviral (LV) vectors and measurement of cell survival resulting from transformation due to integration mainly into the Evi1 oncogene. Ex vivo assays involve harvesting haematopoietic stem cells from mice followed by gene transfer and re-infusion of RV or LV infected cells to reconstitute the immune system. Insertional mutagenesis is then determined by analysis of clonally dominant populations of cells. The latter model has also been made highly sensitive using cells from mice predisposed to oncogenesis by lack of the P53 and Rb pathways. Our investigations on fetal gene therapy discovered a high incidence of liver tumour development that appears to be associated with vector insertions into cancer-related genes. Many genes involved in growth and differentiation are actively transcribed in early developmental and are therefore in an open chromatin configuration, which favours provirus insertion. Some of these genes are known oncogenes or anti-oncogenes and are not usually active during adulthood. We found that in utero injection of primate HIV-1, HR'SIN-cPPT-S-FIX-W does not result in oncogenesis as opposed to administration of non-primate equine

  3. Application of conjugated heparin-albumin microparticles with laser-balloon angioplasty: a potential method for reducing adverse biologic reactivity after angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sourav K.; McMath, Linda P.; Zaidan, Jonathan T.; Spears, J. Richard

    1991-05-01

    Laser-balloon angioplasty (LBA) may potentially be used for local application of pharmacologically active agents which will reduce thrombogenic and proliferative responses after the angioplasty. In this study, the feasibility of applying covalently conjugated heparin- albumin microparticles onto arterial luminal surface was demonstrated. The covalent linkages were formed by reaction with 1-ethyl-3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC), and the resultant conjugates were used for preparation of microparticles by employing standard emulsification and heat-crosslinking techniques. The heparin release rate from the microparticles was found to be dependent upon the degree of crosslinking. When a thin coagulum of a suspension of microparticles was formed with heat on a glass surface, the treated surface demonstrated resistance to clot formation in contact with non-anticoagulated blood. A suspension of the microparticles applied during laser-balloon angioplasty onto the luminal surface of dog carotid and femoral arteries showed persistence for up to one week without thrombus formation or occlusion of the vessel. Since the rate of biodegradation is primarily dictated by the extent of crosslinking, an optimal degree of thermal denaturation will permit longer persistence of the carrier while allowing adequate release of the entrapped pharmacologic agent. A variety of antithrombotic and antiinflammatory agents are being considered as candidate bioprotective materials for local application after angioplasty.

  4. Potential fault region detection in TFDS images based on convolutional neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junhua; Xiao, Zhongwen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, more than 300 sets of Trouble of Running Freight Train Detection System (TFDS) have been installed on railway to monitor the safety of running freight trains in China. However, TFDS is simply responsible for capturing, transmitting, and storing images, and fails to recognize faults automatically due to some difficulties such as such as the diversity and complexity of faults and some low quality images. To improve the performance of automatic fault recognition, it is of great importance to locate the potential fault areas. In this paper, we first introduce a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to TFDS and propose a potential fault region detection system (PFRDS) for simultaneously detecting four typical types of potential fault regions (PFRs). The experimental results show that this system has a higher performance of image detection to PFRs in TFDS. An average detection recall of 98.95% and precision of 100% are obtained, demonstrating the high detection ability and robustness against various poor imaging situations.

  5. Combustion-Generated Nanoparticulates in the El Paso, TX, USA / Juarez, Mexico Metroplex: Their Comparative Characterization and Potential for Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Murr, L. E.; Soto, K. F.; Garza, K. M.; Guerrero, P. A.; Martinez, F.; Esquivel, E. V.; Ramirez, D. A.; Shi, Y.; Bang, J. J.; Venzor, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on the collection of fine (PM1) and ultrafine (PM0.1), or nanoparticulate, carbonaceous materials using thermophoretic precipitation onto silicon monoxide/formvar-coated 3 mm grids which were examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). We characterize and compare diesel particulate matter (DPM), tire particulate matter (TPM), wood burning particulate matter, and other soot (or black carbons (BC)) along with carbon nanotube and related fullerene nanoparticle aggregates in the outdoor air, as well as carbon nanotube aggregates in the indoor air; and with reference to specific gas combustion sources. These TEM investigations include detailed microstructural and microdiffraction observations and comparisons as they relate to the aggregate morphologies as well as their component (primary) nanoparticles. We have also conducted both clinical surveys regarding asthma incidence and the use of gas cooking stoves as well as random surveys by zip code throughout the city of El Paso. In addition, we report on short term (2 day) and longer term (2 week) in vitro assays for black carbon and a commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate sample using a murine macrophage cell line, which demonstrate significant cytotoxicity; comparable to a chrysotile asbestos nanoparticulate reference. The multi-wall carbon nanotube aggregate material is identical to those collected in the indoor and outdoor air, and may serve as a surrogate. Taken together with the plethora of toxic responses reported for DPM, these findings prompt concerns for airborne carbonaceous nanoparticulates in general. The implications of these preliminary findings and their potential health effects, as well as directions for related studies addressing these complex issues, will also be examined. PMID:16823077

  6. Combustion-generated nanoparticulates in the El Paso, TX, USA / Juarez, Mexico Metroplex: their comparative characterization and potential for adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Murr, L E; Soto, K F; Garza, K M; Guerrero, P A; Martinez, F; Esquivel, E V; Ramirez, D A; Shi, Y; Bang, J J; Venzor, J

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we report on the collection of fine (PM1) and ultrafine (PM0.1), or nanoparticulate, carbonaceous materials using thermophoretic precipitation onto silicon monoxide/formvar-coated 3 mm grids which were examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). We characterize and compare diesel particulate matter (DPM), tire particulate matter (TPM), wood burning particulate matter, and other soot (or black carbons (BC)) along with carbon nanotube and related fullerene nanoparticle aggregates in the outdoor air, as well as carbon nanotube aggregates in the indoor air; and with reference to specific gas combustion sources. These TEM investigations include detailed microstructural and microdiffraction observations and comparisons as they relate to the aggregate morphologies as well as their component (primary) nanoparticles. We have also conducted both clinical surveys regarding asthma incidence and the use of gas cooking stoves as well as random surveys by zip code throughout the city of El Paso. In addition, we report on short term (2 day) and longer term (2 week) in vitro assays for black carbon and a commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate sample using a murine macrophage cell line, which demonstrate significant cytotoxicity; comparable to a chrysotile asbestos nanoparticulate reference. The multi-wall carbon nanotube aggregate material is identical to those collected in the indoor and outdoor air, and may serve as a surrogate. Taken together with the plethora of toxic responses reported for DPM, these findings prompt concerns for airborne carbonaceous nanoparticulates in general. The implications of these preliminary findings and their potential health effects, as well as directions for related studies addressing these complex issues, will also be examined.

  7. Pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates at gold electrodes with a two-step potential waveform

    SciTech Connect

    Neuburger, G.G.; Johnson, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A two-step potential waveform is demonstrated for the detection of carbohydrates at a Au electrode in alkaline solutions for application in flow injection and liquid chromatography systems. Pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates previously based on a three-step waveform is now extended to potentiostats capable of programming an asymmetric square waveform (e.g., normal-pulse voltammetric waveforms). Detection limits for glucose, sorbitol, and sucrose are approximately 1 nmol in a 50-..mu..L sample (i.e., ca. 200 ng of glucose and 360 ng of sucrose) in a flow injection system.

  8. DETECTION OF POTENTIAL TRANSIT SIGNALS IN 16 QUARTERS OF KEPLER MISSION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Seader, Shawn; Burke, Christopher J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Campbell, Jennifer R.; Girouard, Forrest R. [Orbital Sciences Corporation and others

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of a search for potential transit signals in 4 yr of photometry data acquired by the Kepler mission. The targets of the search include 111,800 stars which were observed for the entire interval and 85,522 stars which were observed for a subset of the interval. We found that 9743 targets contained at least one signal consistent with the signature of a transiting or eclipsing object where the criteria for detection are periodicity of the detected transits, adequate signal-to-noise ratio, and acceptance by a number of tests which reject false positive detections. When targets that had produced a signal were searched repeatedly, an additional 6542 signals were detected on 3223 target stars, for a total of 16,285 potential detections. Comparison of the set of detected signals with a set of known and vetted transit events in the Kepler field of view shows that the recovery rate for these signals is 96.9%. The ensemble properties of the detected signals are reviewed.

  9. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization

    PubMed Central

    Clothier, Hazel J; Selvaraj, Gowri; Easton, Mee Lee; Lewis, Georgina; Crawford, Nigel W; Buttery, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is an essential component of vaccine safety monitoring. The most commonly utilized passive surveillance systems rely predominantly on reporting by health care providers (HCP). We reviewed adverse event reports received in Victoria, Australia since surveillance commencement in July 2007, to June 2013 (6 years) to ascertain the contribution of consumer (vaccinee or their parent/guardian) reporting to vaccine safety monitoring and to inform future surveillance system development directions. Categorical data included were: reporter type; serious and non-serious AEFI category; and, vaccinee age group. Chi-square test and 2-sample test of proportions were used to compare categories; trend changes were assessed using linear regression. Consumer reporting increased over the 6 years, reaching 21% of reports received in 2013 (P <0.001), most commonly for children aged less than 7 years. Consumer reports were 5% more likely to describe serious AEFI than HCP (P = 0.018) and 10% more likely to result in specialist clinic attendance (P <0.001). Although online reporting increased to 32% of all report since its introduction in 2010, 85% of consumers continued to report by phone. Consumer reporting of AEFI is a valuable component of vaccine safety surveillance in addition to HCP reporting. Changes are required to AEFI reporting systems to implement efficient consumer AEFI reporting, but may be justified for their potential impact on signal detection sensitivity. PMID:25483686

  10. Combining in vitro protein detection and in vivo antibody detection identifies potential vaccine targets against Staphylococcus aureus during osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    den Reijer, P Martijn; Sandker, Marjan; Snijders, Susan V; Tavakol, Mehri; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; van Wamel, Willem J B

    2017-02-01

    Currently, little is known about the in vivo human immune response against Staphylococcus aureus during a biofilm-associated infection, such as osteomyelitis, and how this relates to protein production in biofilms in vitro. Therefore, we characterized IgG responses in 10 patients with chronic osteomyelitis against 50 proteins of S. aureus, analyzed the presence of these proteins in biofilms of the infecting isolates on polystyrene (PS) and human bone in vitro, and explored the relation between in vivo and in vitro data. IgG levels against 15 different proteins were significantly increased in patients compared to healthy controls. Using a novel competitive Luminex-based assay, eight of these proteins [alpha toxin, Staphylococcus aureus formyl peptide receptor-like 1 inhibitor (FlipR), glucosaminidase, iron-responsive surface determinants A and H, the putative ABC transporter SACOL0688, staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN), and serine-aspartate repeat-containing protein E (SdrE)] were also detected in a majority of the infecting isolates during biofilm formation in vitro. However, 4 other proteins were detected in only a minority of isolates in vitro while, vice versa, 7 proteins were detected in multiple isolates in vitro but not associated with significantly increased IgG levels in patients. Detection of proteins was largely confirmed using a transcriptomic approach. Our data provide further insights into potential therapeutic targets, such as for vaccination, to reduce S. aureus virulence and biofilm formation. At the same time, our data suggest that either in vitro or immunological in vivo data alone should be interpreted cautiously and that combined studies are necessary to identify potential targets.

  11. Wavelet transform for real-time detection of action potentials in neural signals.

    PubMed

    Quotb, Adam; Bornat, Yannick; Renaud, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    We present a study on wavelet detection methods of neuronal action potentials (APs). Our final goal is to implement the selected algorithms on custom integrated electronics for on-line processing of neural signals; therefore we take real-time computing as a hard specification and silicon area as a price to pay. Using simulated neural signals including APs, we characterize an efficient wavelet method for AP extraction by evaluating its detection rate and its implementation cost. We compare software implementation for three methods: adaptive threshold, discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and stationary wavelet transform (SWT). We evaluate detection rate and implementation cost for detection functions dynamically comparing a signal with an adaptive threshold proportional to its SD, where the signal is the raw neural signal, respectively: (i) non-processed; (ii) processed by a DWT; (iii) processed by a SWT. We also use different mother wavelets and test different data formats to set an optimal compromise between accuracy and silicon cost. Detection accuracy is evaluated together with false negative and false positive detections. Simulation results show that for on-line AP detection implemented on a configurable digital integrated circuit, APs underneath the noise level can be detected using SWT with a well-selected mother wavelet, combined to an adaptive threshold.

  12. DETECTION OF POTENTIAL TRANSIT SIGNALS IN THE FIRST 12 QUARTERS OF KEPLER MISSION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Seader, Shawn; Burke, Christopher J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Girouard, Forrest R. [Orbital Sciences Corporation and others

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a search for potential transit signals in the first three years of photometry data acquired by the Kepler mission. The targets of the search include 112,321 targets that were observed over the full interval and an additional 79,992 targets that were observed for a subset of the full interval. From this set of targets we find a total of 11,087 targets that contain at least one signal that meets the Kepler detection criteria: periodicity of the signal, an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, and three tests that reject false positives. Each target containing at least one detected signal is then searched repeatedly for additional signals, which represent multi-planet systems of transiting planets. When targets with multiple detections are considered, a total of 18,406 potential transiting planet signals are found in the Kepler mission data set. The detected signals are dominated by events with relatively low signal-to-noise ratios and by events with relatively short periods. The distribution of estimated transit depths appears to peak in the range between 20 and 30 parts per million, with a few detections down to fewer than 10 parts per million. The detections exhibit signal-to-noise ratios from 7.1{sigma}, which is the lower cutoff for detections, to over 10,000{sigma}, and periods ranging from 0.5 days, which is the shortest period searched, to 525 days, which is the upper limit of achievable periods given the length of the data set and the requirement that all detections include at least three transits. The detected signals are compared to a set of known transit events in the Kepler field of view, many of which were identified by alternative methods; the comparison shows that the current search recovery rate for targets with known transit events is 98.3%.

  13. MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL
    ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES.
    Authors: L E Gray 1 , J Furr 1 , M G Price 2 , C J Wolf 3 and J S Ostby 1
    Institutions: 1. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NH...

  14. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: detection of clinically silent lesions by multimodal evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Daniela; Rostasy, Kevin; Treiber-Held, Stephanie; Brockmann, Knut; Gärtner, Jutta; Hanefeld, Folker

    2006-07-01

    Pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently do not meet MRI criteria for diagnosis because of lack of evidence of dissemination in space. We assessed the diagnostic utility of multimodal evoked potentials (EP). In 46% of 85 childhood patients with MS, spatial dissemination was detected by EP before the second clinical attack. EP may constitute an important tool for earlier diagnosis of pediatric MS.

  15. Remote identification of potential boll weevil host plants: Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regrowth cotton plants can serve as potential hosts for boll weevils during and beyond the production season. Effective methods for timely areawide detection of these host plants are critically needed to expedite eradication in south Texas. We acquired airborne multispectral images of experimental...

  16. Causal Models and Exploratory Analysis in Heterogeneous Information Fusion for Detecting Potential Terrorists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    analysis because results depend on human imagination and judgment; (5) Design for routine exploratory analysis under deep uncertainty; and (6...Working Paper Causal Models and Exploratory Analysis in Heterogeneous Information Fusion for Detecting Potential Terrorists Paul K. Davis...Security Research Division (NSRD). NSRD conducts research and analysis on defense and national security topics for the U.S. and allied defense

  17. Adverse responses to local anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M M; Graham, R

    1984-11-01

    Progressive challenge was used to investigate twenty-seven patients with a history of an adverse response to local anaesthesia. True allergy was detected in only one patient. The method does not exclude reactions to additives and preservatives in local anaesthetics. If preservative-free local anaesthetics are used for subsequent exposure in patients with no response to progressive challenge, subsequent exposure is safe. The possibility that some of these patients may be reacting to preservatives in the solutions cannot be excluded by such testing. Where possible preservative-free local anaesthetic preparations should be used for subsequent anaesthesia.

  18. Advances in Optical Adjunctive Aids for Visualisation and Detection of Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Nirav; Lalla, Yastira; Vu, An N.; Farah, Camile S.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies involve a conventional oral examination with digital palpation. Evidence indicates that conventional examination is a poor discriminator of oral mucosal lesions. A number of optical aids have been developed to assist the clinician to detect oral mucosal abnormalities and to differentiate benign lesions from sinister pathology. This paper discusses advances in optical technologies designed for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. The literature regarding such devices, VELscope and Identafi, is critically analysed, and the novel use of Narrow Band Imaging within the oral cavity is also discussed. Optical aids are effective in assisting with the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further research is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant and malignant lesions. PMID:24078812

  19. Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion.

    PubMed

    Nordheim, T A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Leisner, J S; Coates, A J; Kurth, W S; Khurana, K K; Krupp, N; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-10-28

    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (∼ -200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator.

  20. Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordheim, T. A.; Jones, G. H.; Roussos, E.; Leisner, J. S.; Coates, A. J.; Kurth, W. S.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Dougherty, M. K.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-10-01

    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (~ -200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator.

  1. Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion

    PubMed Central

    Nordheim, T A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Leisner, J S; Coates, A J; Kurth, W S; Khurana, K K; Krupp, N; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-01-01

    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (∼ −200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator. PMID:26074639

  2. Design of Adverse Drug Events-Scorecards.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Chazard, Emmanuel; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Hackl, Werner; Băceanu, Adrian; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Adverse Drug Event-Scorecards. The scorecards described are innovative and novel, not having previously been reported in the literature. The Scorecards provide organizations (e.g. hospitals) with summary information about Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) using a Web-based platform. The data used in the Scorecards are routinely updated and report on ADEs detected through data mining processes. The development of the ADE Scorecards is ongoing and they are currently undergoing clinical testing.

  3. [Allergies and adverse events associated with fluoroquinolones].

    PubMed

    Muller, Y; Andrey, D; Emonet, S; Harr, T; Spoerl, D

    2015-04-08

    The prescription ot fluoroquinolones has been constantly increasing over the past decade. consequently, an increasing number of hyper-sensitivity reactions and adverse events have been reported. The aim of the review is to discuss the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions either IgE (immediate) or T cells mediated (delayed). We will make an overview ofthe diagnostic tools available to detect such hypersensitivity reactions. Finally, the specific adverse events associated with fluoroquinolones, including tendinopathy, chondrotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy or retinal detachment will be discussed.

  4. A novel electrical potential sensing method for in vitro stent fracture monitoring and detection.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Hee; Tijing, Leonard D; Yun, Yeoheung; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary investigation and prototype fabrication of a novel potential sensing method to continuously monitor vascular stent fractures. A potential measurement system consisting of Wheatstone bridge circuit and signal conditioning circuit was designed for the cardiovascular stent durability and fatigue test. Each end of a bare and polyurethane-covered Nitinol vascular stent was electrically connected to the potential measurement system and then immersed either in simulated body fluid (SBF) media or distilled water at 36.4 ± 1 °C. When the stent experienced fracture (i.e., a cut), its electrical potential decreased with an increase in electrical resistance. This method successfully measured fractures in the stent regardless of location. Furthermore, the number of cycles at the onset of stent fracture was accurately detected and continuously monitored using this technique. Thus, the present fracture detection method, which to our knowledge is the first ever report to use electrical potential measurement for stent durability test, gives a fast, real-time, accurate and efficient detection of fractures in stent during in vitro fatigue and durability test.

  5. Potential Landslide Detection with Fractal and Roughness by LiDAR Data in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Youg-Sin; Yu, Teng-To

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to detect the potential landslides since they would be triggered by heavy rain, earthquake and/or larger degree of geomorphology alteration under different terrain characteristics. Not only the newly area but also the past landslide area would generate landslide after serious events. To gather the newly landslides and past landslides overwhelmed by thick vegetation, LiDAR could produce the high resolution DEM, denote actual surface terrain information and identify landform with a spatial resolution of 1m in different time interval. The 1-m interval DEM of Laonong watershed of southern Taiwan is utilized by fractal and roughness calculating with MATLAB code. DEM, aspect, and slope images are adopted to improve the accuracy of potential landslide detection with the random forest (RF) classifier. In present study, we provide the analysis results of the potential landslide area including these features calculation.

  6. Vertex evoked potentials in a rating-scale detection task: Relation to signal probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Squires, N. K.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Vertex evoked potentials were recorded from human subjects performing in an auditory detection task with rating scale responses. Three values of a priori probability of signal presentation were tested. The amplitudes of the N1 and P3 components of the vertex potential associated with correct detections of the signal were found to be systematically related to the strictness of the response criterion and independent of variations in a priori signal probability. No similar evoked potential components were found associated with signal absent judgements (misses and correct rejections) regardless of the confidence level of the judgement or signal probability. These results strongly support the contention that the form of the vertex evoked response is closely correlated with the subject's psychophysical decision regarding the presence or absence of a threshold level signal.

  7. Electroanalytical biosensors and their potential for food pathogen and toxin detection.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, Ilaria; Mascini, Marco

    2008-05-01

    The detection and identification of foodborne pathogens continue to rely on conventional culturing techniques. These are very elaborate, time-consuming, and have to be completed in a microbiology laboratory and are therefore not suitable for on-site monitoring. The need for a more rapid, reliable, specific, and sensitive method of detecting a target analyte, at low cost, is the focus of a great deal of research. Biosensor technology has the potential to speed up the detection, increase specificity and sensitivity, enable high-throughput analysis, and to be used for monitoring of critical control points in food production. This article reviews food pathogen detection methods based on electrochemical biosensors, specifically amperometric, potentiometric, and impedimetric biosensors. The underlying principles and application of these biosensors are discussed with special emphasis on new biorecognition elements, nanomaterials, and lab on a chip technology.

  8. Potential Adverse Effects of Competitive Prototype Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    dearth of literature on this subject, the best source of information was the persons charged with materiel acquisition responsibilities in the U.S. Army...that the best method of collecting information on this subject was by personal interview with knowledgeable persons . The persons selecte for interview...program experience prior to being asked. Names of persone interviewed are in the bibliography. The objective of interviewing General Miley was twofold

  9. Detection of movement intention from single-trial movement-related cortical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Imran Khan; Jiang, Ning; Tiberghien, Olivier; Feldbæk Nielsen, Jørgen; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2011-10-01

    Detection of movement intention from neural signals combined with assistive technologies may be used for effective neurofeedback in rehabilitation. In order to promote plasticity, a causal relation between intended actions (detected for example from the EEG) and the corresponding feedback should be established. This requires reliable detection of motor intentions. In this study, we propose a method to detect movements from EEG with limited latency. In a self-paced asynchronous BCI paradigm, the initial negative phase of the movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), extracted from multi-channel scalp EEG was used to detect motor execution/imagination in healthy subjects and stroke patients. For MRCP detection, it was demonstrated that a new optimized spatial filtering technique led to better accuracy than a large Laplacian spatial filter and common spatial pattern. With the optimized spatial filter, the true positive rate (TPR) for detection of movement execution in healthy subjects (n = 15) was 82.5 ± 7.8%, with latency of -66.6 ± 121 ms. Although TPR decreased with motor imagination in healthy subject (n = 10, 64.5 ± 5.33%) and with attempted movements in stroke patients (n = 5, 55.01 ± 12.01%), the results are promising for the application of this approach to provide patient-driven real-time neurofeedback.

  10. Detection of movement intention from single-trial movement-related cortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Imran Khan; Jiang, Ning; Tiberghien, Olivier; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2011-12-01

    Detection of movement intention from neural signals combined with assistive technologies may be used for effective neurofeedback in rehabilitation. In order to promote plasticity, a causal relation between intended actions (detected for example from the EEG) and the corresponding feedback should be established. This requires reliable detection of motor intentions. In this study, we propose a method to detect movements from EEG with limited latency. In a self-paced asynchronous BCI paradigm, the initial negative phase of the movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), extracted from multi-channel scalp EEG was used to detect motor execution/imagination in healthy subjects and stroke patients. For MRCP detection, it was demonstrated that a new optimized spatial filtering technique led to better accuracy than a large Laplacian spatial filter and common spatial pattern. With the optimized spatial filter, the true positive rate (TPR) for detection of movement execution in healthy subjects (n = 15) was 82.5 ± 7.8%, with latency of -66.6 ± 121 ms. Although TPR decreased with motor imagination in healthy subject (n = 10, 64.5 ± 5.33%) and with attempted movements in stroke patients (n = 5, 55.01 ± 12.01%), the results are promising for the application of this approach to provide patient-driven real-time neurofeedback.

  11. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  12. Potential problems of detecting and treating psychosis in the White House. Potential psychosis in the White House.

    PubMed

    Gambill, J

    1980-01-01

    Numerous books and articles have described the emotional difficulties suffered by President Nixon and how they influenced functioning in the White House and other branches of government during his presidency. I am not able to ascertain whether Nixon was temporarily psychotic; but the reported emotional turmoil suggests he may have been at high risk for committing suicide or developing a psychosis. This article analyzes the reactions of numerous people to the questionably irrational behaviour of Richard Nixon. Examples of psychiatric risks in other Presidents, presidential candidates, and public figures are also discussed. The potential difficulties in detecting and treating severe psychiatric illness in Presidents and other public figures should not prevent us from taking action now to minimize future risks. It is recommended that future Presidents appoint a psychiatrist, at least on a part-time basis, as one of their personal physicians in order to increase Presidential access to psychiatric evaluation and treatment.

  13. Signal detection on spontaneous reports of adverse events following immunisation: a comparison of the performance of a disproportionality-based algorithm and a time-to-onset-based algorithm

    PubMed Central

    van Holle, Lionel; Bauchau, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Disproportionality methods measure how unexpected the observed number of adverse events is. Time-to-onset (TTO) methods measure how unexpected the TTO distribution of a vaccine-event pair is compared with what is expected from other vaccines and events. Our purpose is to compare the performance associated with each method. Methods For the disproportionality algorithms, we defined 336 combinations of stratification factors (sex, age, region and year) and threshold values of the multi-item gamma Poisson shrinker (MGPS). For the TTO algorithms, we defined 18 combinations of significance level and time windows. We used spontaneous reports of adverse events recorded for eight vaccines. The vaccine product labels were used as proxies for true safety signals. Algorithms were ranked according to their positive predictive value (PPV) for each vaccine separately; amedian rank was attributed to each algorithm across vaccines. Results The algorithm with the highest median rank was based on TTO with a significance level of 0.01 and a time window of 60 days after immunisation. It had an overall PPV 2.5 times higher than for the highest-ranked MGPS algorithm, 16th rank overall, which was fully stratified and had a threshold value of 0.8. A TTO algorithm with roughly the same sensitivity as the highest-ranked MGPS had better specificity but longer time-to-detection. Conclusions Within the scope of this study, the majority of the TTO algorithms presented a higher PPV than for any MGPS algorithm. Considering the complementarity of TTO and disproportionality methods, a signal detection strategy combining them merits further investigation. PMID:24038719

  14. Non-invasive electrocardiogram detection of in vivo zebrafish embryos using electric potential sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon-Morales, E.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Aviles-Espinosa, R.

    2015-11-01

    In this letter, we report the continuous detection of the cardiac electrical activity in embryonic zebrafish using a non-invasive approach. We present a portable and cost-effective platform based on the electric potential sensing technology, to monitor in vivo electrocardiogram activity from the zebrafish heart. This proof of principle demonstration shows how electrocardiogram measurements from the embryonic zebrafish may become accessible by using electric field detection. We present preliminary results using the prototype, which enables the acquisition of electrophysiological signals from in vivo 3 and 5 days-post-fertilization zebrafish embryos. The recorded waveforms show electrocardiogram traces including detailed features such as QRS complex, P and T waves.

  15. A clinically feasible method for the detection of potential collision in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Wei; Lin Haibo; Plastaras, John P.; Wang Huanshu; Bui, Viet; Vapiwala, Neha; McDonough, James; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Potential collision between the patient/couch and the gantry could delay the start of the treatment and reduce clinical efficiency. The ability to accurately detect possible collisions during the treatment planning phase is desired. Such collision detection should account for the specific proton gantry design, the treatment beam configuration, couch orientation, and the patient specific geometry. In this paper the authors developed an approach to detect possible patient-machine collisions using patient treatment plan data. Methods: The geometry of the machine and the patient was reconstructed relative to the isocenter of the proton treatment room. The surface contour of the gantry was first captured from the proton computer aided design and reconstructed to account for specific gantry rotation, snout position, collimator rotation, and range compensator dimensions based on the patient treatment plan data. The patient body and couch contours were captured from the patient's CT DICOM structure file. They were reconstructed relative to the isocenter taking into account treatment couch rotation. For potential collision that occurs at body portions where no CT images exist, scout images are used to construct the body contour. A software program was developed using a ray casting algorithm that was applied to detect collisions by determining if any of the patient and couch contour points fall into the spatial polygons formed by the proton gantry surfaces. Results: Twenty-four patient plans with or without potential collisions were retrospectively identified and analyzed using the collision detection software. In addition, five collision cases were artificially generated using an anthropomorphic phantom. The program successfully detected the collisions in all cases. The calculation time for each case was within 20 s. The software program was implemented in the authors' clinic to detect patient-gantry or gantry-couch collisions in the treatment planning phase

  16. Gridless retarding potential analyzer for use in very-low-energy charged particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyn, T. W.; Sharp, W. E.; Hays, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of the hyperbolic retarding potential analyzer in the electrostatic mode is developed in detail and verified in the laboratory. A monoenergetic electron beam is used for the laboratory investigation. The analyzer (acronym HARP) has advantages over other conventional electrostatic analyzers; among them are less contact potential influence and high throughput because of the symmetry shape of the analyzer. The most useful application of the HARP is in detecting low-energy charged particles. A sample of low-energy particle data obtained in the earth's ionosphere is given.

  17. Adversity and Resilience: A Synthesis of International Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Bush, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents worldwide experience a variety of adversities that have the potential to disrupt typical development. However, some of these individuals exhibit resilience, evidencing normal development in the face of adversity. Here we review research on these constructs of risk, adversity, and resilience; synthesize international…

  18. System for Detecting Potential Lost Person based on Conditional Random Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, R. S.; Saptawati, G. A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology has been used widely in transsportation industry to help company in managing taxis. The most popular GPS utilization for taxi company is to identify the position of taxis and monitor theirs the mobility. Nowdays, data collected from GPS tracker is combined with data from taxi meter are analyzed to provide region information regarding potential passengers. Zicheng Liao’s proposed a system based on GPS taxi data to detect anomalous area/region which was then interpreted as region with to predict rare passengers. The system was developed based on conditional random field (CRF) method and features position, velocity, passenger loading information. Our research was aimed to develop tool based on GPS data to detect potential lost person. We motivated by Liao research and modified the algorithms and features of CRF. Our experiments showed that the system has precision of 98.86% and recall of 87.478%.

  19. Evaluation of potential cationic probes for the detection of proline and betaine.

    PubMed

    Kalsoom, Umme; Breadmore, Michael C; Guijt, Rosanne M; Boyce, Mary C

    2014-12-01

    Osmoregulants are the substances that help plants to tolerate environmental extremes such as salinity and drought. Proline and betaine are two of the most commonly studied osmoregulants. An indirect UV CE method has been developed for simultaneous determination of these osmoregulants. A variety of reported probes and compounds were examined as potential probes for the indirect detection of proline and betaine. Mobility and UV-absorption properties highlighted sulfanilamide as a potential probe for indirect analysis of proline and betaine. Using 5 mM sulfanilamide at pH 2.2 with UV detection at 254 nm, proline and betaine were separated in less than 15 min. The LODs for proline and betaine were 11.6 and 28.3 μM, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to quantification of these two osmoregulants in spinach and beetroot samples.

  20. The temporal reliability of sound modulates visual detection: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Wu, Yan; Yang, Jingjing; Wu, Jinglong; Touge, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined the effects of temporal reliability of sounds on visual detection. Significantly faster reaction times to visual target stimuli were observed when reliable temporal information was provided by a task-irrelevant auditory stimulus. Three main ERP components related to the effects of auditory temporal reliability were found: the first at 180-240 ms over a wide central area, the second at 300-400 ms over an anterior area, and the third at 300-380 ms over bilateral temporal areas. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal reliability affects visual detection and indicate that auditory facilitation of visual detection is partly due to spread of attention and thus results from implicit temporal linking of auditory and visual information at a relatively late processing stage.

  1. The potential of CO2 laser photoacoustic spectrometry for detection of methanol in alcoholic beverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-W.; Shaw, S.-Y.

    2009-03-01

    The first use of CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements for detecting the methanol contents in alcohol-like solutions is presented. With an intracavity cell configuration, the minimum detectable concentration was ˜200 ppm for methanol and the linear range of the calibration curve for methanol was from 200 to 70000 ppm. For demonstrating the reliability of analysis in alcoholic beverages, a series of different concentrations of two-component samples was prepared and measured by the same procedures. The results showed the feasibility on determining methanol and ethanol contents accurately within a specific tolerance, limited mainly by background signal and laser stability. This potential method with no pre-treatment of samples takes only ˜10 min to finish one single measurement. It suggests that the PA detection is suitable for routine diagnosis of adulterated wines in commercial products.

  2. Antibody-Based Sensors: Principles, Problems and Potential for Detection of Pathogens and Associated Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Barry; Stack, Edwina; Gilmartin, Niamh; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Antibody-based sensors permit the rapid and sensitive analysis of a range of pathogens and associated toxins. A critical assessment of the implementation of such formats is provided, with reference to their principles, problems and potential for ‘on-site’ analysis. Particular emphasis is placed on the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and additional examples relating to the monitoring of fungal pathogens, viruses, mycotoxins, marine toxins and parasites are also provided. PMID:22408533

  3. Adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Foley, Georgina

    2017-04-05

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article defined the different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and explored when they can occur. It emphasised the importance of being knowledgeable about medications, considering patient safety when patients are taking medications, being alert to the possibility of ADRs, and recognising and responding to suspected ADRs.

  4. Potential role of infrared imaging for detecting facial seal leaks in filtering facepiece respirator users.

    PubMed

    Harber, Philip; Su, Jing; Badilla, Alejandro D; Rahimian, Rombod; Lansey, Kirsten R

    2015-01-01

    Infrared imaging (IRI) can detect airflow through and near respirator masks based upon temperature differences between ambient and exhaled air. This study investigated the potential usefulness of IRI for detecting leaks and providing insight into the sites and significance of leaks. Subjects (n = 165) used filtering facepiece N95 respirators (N95 FFR) in the course of a research study concerning training modalities. Short sequence video infrared images were obtained during use and with intentionally introduced facial seal leaks. Fit factor (FF) was measured with condensation nuclei count methods. IRI detected leaks were scored on a four-point scale and summarized as the Total Leak Score (TLS) over six coding regions and the presence or absence of a "Big Leak" (BL) in any location. A semi-automated interpretation algorithm was also developed. IRI detected leaks are particularly common in the nasal region, but these are of limited significance. IR imaging could effectively identify many large leaks. The TLS was related to FF. Although IRI scores were related to FF, the relationship is insufficiently close for IRI to substitute for quantitative fit-testing. Using FFRs infrared techniques have potential for identifying situations with very inadequate respiratory protection.

  5. Limits of the potential flow model for obstacle detection using a lateral line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maertens, Audrey; Weymouth, Gabriel; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Fish have a particular sensory system called lateral line through which they measure flow velocity and pressure gradient. Behavioral studies have shown that fish can detect and identify obstacles while gliding using this sensory system alone. Despite a widespread interest of the community in understanding and reproducing this capability, a realistic approach is still missing. Indeed, due to computational constraints, most attempts to date have used potential flow models. The present work aims at revealing the limits of the potential flow model in the case of a vehicle gliding by a cylinder. The understanding thus gained can be used to account for viscous effects in a computationally-efficient fashion. An improvement of the boundary data immersion method provides accurate pressure predictions at the Reynolds numbers considered (500 < Re < 10000). It is shown how a potential flow-based obstacle detection algorithm fails at locating the cylinder at these Reynolds numbers. It is also shown that a panel method accounting for dynamically changing displacement thickness leads to accurate pressure prediction. This is a first step toward real-time pressure predictions for viscous flows which is needed for efficient obstacle detection and identification algorithms.

  6. Detecting single-trial EEG evoked potential using a wavelet domain linear mixed model: application to error potentials classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinnato, J.; Roubaud, M.-C.; Burle, B.; Torrésani, B.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The main goal of this work is to develop a model for multisensor signals, such as magnetoencephalography or electroencephalography (EEG) signals that account for inter-trial variability, suitable for corresponding binary classification problems. An important constraint is that the model be simple enough to handle small size and unbalanced datasets, as often encountered in BCI-type experiments. Approach. The method involves the linear mixed effects statistical model, wavelet transform, and spatial filtering, and aims at the characterization of localized discriminant features in multisensor signals. After discrete wavelet transform and spatial filtering, a projection onto the relevant wavelet and spatial channels subspaces is used for dimension reduction. The projected signals are then decomposed as the sum of a signal of interest (i.e., discriminant) and background noise, using a very simple Gaussian linear mixed model. Main results. Thanks to the simplicity of the model, the corresponding parameter estimation problem is simplified. Robust estimates of class-covariance matrices are obtained from small sample sizes and an effective Bayes plug-in classifier is derived. The approach is applied to the detection of error potentials in multichannel EEG data in a very unbalanced situation (detection of rare events). Classification results prove the relevance of the proposed approach in such a context. Significance. The combination of the linear mixed model, wavelet transform and spatial filtering for EEG classification is, to the best of our knowledge, an original approach, which is proven to be effective. This paper improves upon earlier results on similar problems, and the three main ingredients all play an important role.

  7. Enhancing detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials using individual training data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Nakanishi, Masaki; Wang, Yu-Te; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although the performance of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) has improved gradually in the past decades, it still does not meet the requirement of a high communication speed in many applications. A major challenge is the interference of spontaneous background EEG activities in discriminating SSVEPs. An SSVEP BCI using frequency coding typically does not have a calibration procedure since the frequency of SSVEPs can be recognized by power spectrum density analysis (PSDA). However, the detection rate can be deteriorated by the spontaneous EEG activities within the same frequency range because phase information of SSVEPs is ignored in frequency detection. To address this problem, this study proposed to incorporate individual SSVEP training data into canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to improve the frequency detection of SSVEPs. An eight-class SSVEP dataset recorded from 10 subjects in a simulated online BCI experiment was used for performance evaluation. Compared to the standard CCA method, the proposed method obtained significantly improved detection accuracy (95.2% vs. 88.4%, p<0.05) and information transfer rates (ITR) (104.6 bits/min vs. 89.1 bits/min, p<0.05). The results suggest that the employment of individual SSVEP training data can significantly improve the detection rate and thereby facilitate the implementation of a high-speed BCI.

  8. Discriminative Manifold Learning Based Detection of Movement-Related Cortical Potentials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuang; Wang, Bing-Hui; Jiang, Ning; Xu, Ren; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Farina, Dario

    2016-09-01

    The detection of voluntary motor intention from EEG has been applied to closed-loop brain-computer interfacing (BCI). The movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) is a low frequency component of the EEG signal, which represents movement intention, preparation, and execution. In this study, we aim at detecting MRCPs from single-trial EEG traces. For this purpose, we propose a detector based on a discriminant manifold learning method, called locality sensitive discriminant analysis (LSDA), and we test it in both online and offline experiments with executed and imagined movements. The online and offline experimental results demonstrated that the proposed LSDA approach for MRCP detection outperformed the Locality Preserving Projection (LPP) approach, which was previously shown to be the most accurate algorithm so far tested for MRCP detection. For example, in the online tests, the performance of LSDA was superior than LPP in terms of a significant reduction in false positives (FP) (passive FP: 1.6 ±0.9/min versus 2.9 ±1.0/min, p = 0.002, active FP: 2.2 ±0.8/min versus 2.7 ±0.6/min , p = 0.03 ), for a similar rate of true positives. In conclusion, the proposed LSDA based MRCP detection method is superior to previous approaches and is promising for developing patient-driven BCI systems for motor function rehabilitation as well as for neuroscience research.

  9. Decision-related cortical potentials during an auditory signal detection task with cued observation intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Squires, N. K.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Cortical-evoked potentials were recorded from human subjects performing an auditory detection task with confidence rating responses. Unlike earlier studies that used similar procedures, the observation interval during which the auditory signal could occur was clearly marked by a visual cue light. By precisely defining the observation interval and, hence, synchronizing all perceptual decisions to the evoked potential averaging epoch, it was possible to demonstrate that high-confidence false alarms are accompanied by late-positive P3 components equivalent to those for equally confident hits. Moreover the hit and false alarm evoked potentials were found to covary similarly with variations in confidence rating and to have similar amplitude distributions over the scalp. In a second experiment, it was demonstrated that correct rejections can be associated with a P3 component larger than that for hits. Thus it was possible to show, within the signal detection paradigm, how the two major factors of decision confidence and expectancy are reflected in the P3 component of the cortical-evoked potential.

  10. Validation of a Rapid, Robust, Inexpensive Screening Method for Detecting the HLA-B*58:01 Allele in the Prevention of Allopurinol-Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Van; Vida, Christopher; Chu, Hieu Chi; Fulton, Richard; Li, Jamma; Fernando, Suran L

    2017-01-01

    The HLA B*58:01 allele has been worldwide reported as a pharmacogenetic susceptibility to allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). To prevent these life-threatening conditions, the American College of Rheumatology hingly recommended that the HLA-B*58:01 be screened prior to the initiation of allopurinol therapy. Therefore, we developed a rapid, robust, inexpensive screening method using SYBR® Green real time PCR to detect the HLA-B*58:01 allele. A total of 119 samples were tested. The assay has a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 69.15%-100%), a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 96.67%-100%), a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 69.15%-100%) and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 96.67%-100%). HLA-B*58:01 genotyping results showed 100% agreement with those obtained from Luminex SSO/SBT/SSP. The lowest limit of detection of this method is 0.8 ng/μL of DNA. The unit cost of the test is only $3.8 USD. This novel screening test using SYBR® real time PCR would be appropriate to identify individuals with the HLA-B*58:01 allele for the prevention of allopurinol-induced SCARs.

  11. Advancing the detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials in brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alqumsan, Mohammad; Peer, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Spatial filtering has proved to be a powerful pre-processing step in detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials and boosted typical detection rates both in offline analysis and online SSVEP-based brain-computer interface applications. State-of-the-art detection methods and the spatial filters used thereby share many common foundations as they all build upon the second order statistics of the acquired Electroencephalographic (EEG) data, that is, its spatial autocovariance and cross-covariance with what is assumed to be a pure SSVEP response. The present study aims at highlighting the similarities and differences between these methods. Approach. We consider the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method as a basis for the theoretical and empirical (with real EEG data) analysis of the state-of-the-art detection methods and the spatial filters used thereby. We build upon the findings of this analysis and prior research and propose a new detection method (CVARS) that combines the power of the canonical variates and that of the autoregressive spectral analysis in estimating the signal and noise power levels. Main results. We found that the multivariate synchronization index method and the maximum contrast combination method are variations of the CCA method. All three methods were found to provide relatively unreliable detections in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. CVARS and the minimum energy combination methods were found to provide better estimates for different SNR levels. Significance. Our theoretical and empirical results demonstrate that the proposed CVARS method outperforms other state-of-the-art detection methods when used in an unsupervised fashion. Furthermore, when used in a supervised fashion, a linear classifier learned from a short training session is able to estimate the hidden user intention, including the idle state (when the user is not attending to any stimulus), rapidly, accurately and reliably.

  12. Determination of set potential voltages for cucumber mosaic virus detection using screen printed carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Samsuzana, A. A.; Faridah, S.; Rafidah A., R.; Hashim, U.; Ariffin, Shahrul A. B.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a most dangerous pathogen among the cucurbit plant which it striking cucumbers, zucchinis, squashes, watermelons but it also striking to non-cucurbit such as peppers, tobaccos, celeries, beans and tomatoes. Symptoms shown by this virus when they starting to strike are very significant and at the end can kill the hosts they infected. In order to detect these viruses, biosensor such as screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) is developed and fixes a set potential voltage is defined using Chronoamperometry (CM) immunosensor technique. For short introduction, CM is a process which is a constant applied potential voltage between the working and reference electrode is maintained in order to create an electrons transfer for the oxidation or reduction species taking place at the surface of working electrode is measured and in this manuscript, complete details about measurement were used to finding the stable set potential voltages will be pointed out.

  13. Topological quantum phase transition in synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential: gauge invariance and experimental detections.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops.

  14. Topological Quantum Phase Transition in Synthetic Non-Abelian Gauge Potential: Gauge Invariance and Experimental Detections

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops. PMID:23846153

  15. Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using quantum defects in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Barry, John F.; Turner, Matthew J.; Schloss, Jennifer M.; Glenn, David R.; Song, Yuyu; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields from neuronal action potentials (APs) pass largely unperturbed through biological tissue, allowing magnetic measurements of AP dynamics to be performed extracellularly or even outside intact organisms. To date, however, magnetic techniques for sensing neuronal activity have either operated at the macroscale with coarse spatial and/or temporal resolution—e.g., magnetic resonance imaging methods and magnetoencephalography—or been restricted to biophysics studies of excised neurons probed with cryogenic or bulky detectors that do not provide single-neuron spatial resolution and are not scalable to functional networks or intact organisms. Here, we show that AP magnetic sensing can be realized with both single-neuron sensitivity and intact organism applicability using optically probed nitrogen-vacancy (NV) quantum defects in diamond, operated under ambient conditions and with the NV diamond sensor in close proximity (∼10 µm) to the biological sample. We demonstrate this method for excised single neurons from marine worm and squid, and then exterior to intact, optically opaque marine worms for extended periods and with no observed adverse effect on the animal. NV diamond magnetometry is noninvasive and label-free and does not cause photodamage. The method provides precise measurement of AP waveforms from individual neurons, as well as magnetic field correlates of the AP conduction velocity, and directly determines the AP propagation direction through the inherent sensitivity of NVs to the associated AP magnetic field vector. PMID:27911765

  16. All optical experimental design for neuron excitation, inhibition, and action potential detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Alex J.; Tolstykh, Gleb; Martens, Stacey; Sedelnikova, Anna; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, infrared light has been shown to both stimulate and inhibit excitatory cells. However, studies of infrared light for excitatory cell inhibition have been constrained by the use of invasive and cumbersome electrodes for cell excitation and action potential recording. Here, we present an all optical experimental design for neuronal excitation, inhibition, and action potential detection. Primary rat neurons were transfected with plasmids containing the light sensitive ion channel CheRiff. CheRiff has a peak excitation around 450 nm, allowing excitation of transfected neurons with pulsed blue light. Additionally, primary neurons were transfected with QuasAr2, a fast and sensitive fluorescent voltage indicator. QuasAr2 is excited with yellow or red light and therefore does not spectrally overlap CheRiff, enabling imaging and action potential activation, simultaneously. Using an optic fiber, neurons were exposed to blue light sequentially to generate controlled action potentials. A second optic fiber delivered a single pulse of 1869nm light to the neuron causing inhibition of the evoked action potentials (by the blue light). When used in concert, these optical techniques enable electrode free neuron excitation, inhibition, and action potential recording, allowing research into neuronal behaviors with high spatial fidelity.

  17. Real-Time Detection and Monitoring of Acute Brain Injury Utilizing Evoked Electroencephalographic Potentials.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jonathan A N; Huang, Stanley; Ye, Meijun; Nabili, Marjan; Wilent, W Bryan; Krauthamer, Victor; Myers, Matthew R; Welle, Cristin G

    2016-09-01

    Rapid detection and diagnosis of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) can significantly improve the prognosis for recovery. Helmet-mounted sensors that detect impact severity based on measurements of acceleration or pressure show promise for aiding triage and transport decisions in active, field environments such as professional sports or military combat. The detected signals, however, report on the mechanics of an impact rather than directly indicating the presence and severity of an injury. We explored the use of cortical somatosensory evoked electroencephalographic potentials (SSEPs) to detect and track, in real-time, neural electrophysiological abnormalities within the first hour following head injury in an animal model. To study the immediate electrophysiological effects of injury in vivo, we developed an experimental paradigm involving focused ultrasound that permits continuous, real-time measurements and minimizes mechanical artifact. Injury was associated with a dramatic reduction of amplitude over the damaged hemisphere directly after the injury. The amplitude systematically improved over time but remained significantly decreased at one hour, compared with baseline. In contrast, at one hour there was a concomitant enhancement of the cortical SSEP amplitude evoked from the uninjured hemisphere. Analysis of the inter-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) also revealed significant changes in low-frequency components and an increase in EEG entropy up to 30 minutes after injury, likely reflecting altered EEG reactivity to somatosensory stimuli. Injury-induced alterations in SSEPs were also observed using noninvasive epidermal electrodes, demonstrating viability of practical implementation. These results suggest cortical SSEPs recorded at just a few locations by head-mounted sensors and associated multiparametric analyses could potentially be used to rapidly detect and monitor brain injury in settings that normally present significant levels of mechanical and electrical

  18. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979

  19. Standardizing drug adverse event reporting data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Normalizing data in the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), an FDA database, would improve the mining capacity of AERS for drug safety signal detection. In this study, we aim to normalize AERS and build a publicly available normalized Adverse drug events (ADE) data source.he drug information in AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Adverse drug events (ADE) are aggregated through mapping with the PT (Preferred Term) and SOC (System Organ Class) codes of MedDRA. Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). The AERS-DM could provide more perspectives to mine AERS database for drug safety signal detection and could be used by research community in the data mining field.

  20. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  1. Expression of the potential therapeutic target CXXC5 in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells - high expression is associated with adverse prognosis as well as altered intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bruserud, Øystein; Reikvam, Håkon; Fredly, Hanne; Skavland, Jørn; Hagen, Karen-Marie; van Hoang, Tuyen Thy; Brenner, Annette K.; Kadi, Amir; Astori, Audrey; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Pendino, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The CXXC5 gene encodes a transcriptional activator with a zinc-finger domain, and high expression in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells is associated with adverse prognosis. We now characterized the biological context of CXXC5 expression in primary human AML cells. The global gene expression profile of AML cells derived from 48 consecutive patients was analyzed; cells with high and low CXXC5 expression then showed major differences with regard to extracellular communication and intracellular signaling. We observed significant differences in the phosphorylation status of several intracellular signaling mediators (CREB, PDK1, SRC, STAT1, p38, STAT3, rpS6) that are important for PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling and/or transcriptional regulation. High CXXC5 expression was also associated with high mRNA expression of several stem cell-associated transcriptional regulators, the strongest associations being with WT1, GATA2, RUNX1, LYL1, DNMT3, SPI1, and MYB. Finally, CXXC5 knockdown in human AML cell lines caused significantly increased expression of the potential tumor suppressor gene TSC22 and genes encoding the growth factor receptor KIT, the cytokine Angiopoietin 1 and the selenium-containing glycoprotein Selenoprotein P. Thus, high CXXC5 expression seems to affect several steps in human leukemogenesis, including intracellular events as well as extracellular communication. PMID:25605239

  2. EEG error potentials detection and classification using time-frequency features for robot reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Boubchir, Larbi; Touati, Youcef; Daachi, Boubaker; Chérif, Arab Ali

    2015-08-01

    In thought-based steering of robots, error potentials (ErrP) can appear when the action resulting from the brain-machine interface (BMI) classifier/controller does not correspond to the user's thought. Using the Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) techniques, ErrP, which appear when a classification error occurs, are not easily recognizable by only examining the temporal or frequency characteristics of EEG signals. A supplementary classification process is therefore needed to identify them in order to stop the course of the action and back up to a recovery state. This paper presents a set of time-frequency (t-f) features for the detection and classification of EEG ErrP in extra-brain activities due to misclassification observed by a user exploiting non-invasive BMI and robot control in the task space. The proposed features are able to characterize and detect ErrP activities in the t-f domain. These features are derived from the information embedded in the t-f representation of EEG signals, and include the Instantaneous Frequency (IF), t-f information complexity, SVD information, energy concentration and sub-bands' energies. The experiment results on real EEG data show that the use of the proposed t-f features for detecting and classifying EEG ErrP achieved an overall classification accuracy up to 97% for 50 EEG segments using 2-class SVM classifier.

  3. Stochastic Resonance in an Underdamped System with Pinning Potential for Weak Signal Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haibin; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) has been proved to be an effective approach for weak sensor signal detection. This study presents a new weak signal detection method based on a SR in an underdamped system, which consists of a pinning potential model. The model was firstly discovered from magnetic domain wall (DW) in ferromagnetic strips. We analyze the principle of the proposed underdamped pinning SR (UPSR) system, the detailed numerical simulation and system performance. We also propose the strategy of selecting the proper damping factor and other system parameters to match a weak signal, input noise and to generate the highest output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, we have verified its effectiveness with both simulated and experimental input signals. Results indicate that the UPSR performs better in weak signal detection than the conventional SR (CSR) with merits of higher output SNR, better anti-noise and frequency response capability. Besides, the system can be designed accurately and efficiently owing to the sensibility of parameters and potential diversity. The features also weaken the limitation of small parameters on SR system. PMID:26343662

  4. Microchip electrophoresis with wall-jet electrochemical detector: influence of detection potential upon resolution of solutes.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin; Merkoçi, Arben; Alegret, Salvador

    2006-12-01

    This report studies the electrochemical response of wall-jet detector for microchip electrophoresis (microCE). It shows that in wall-jet configuration, the electrochemical detector operates in coulometric mode and that there is an influence of detection potential upon peak width and therefore upon the resolution of solutes. Upon raising the detection potential from +0.3 to +0.9 V, the resolution between model analytes, dopamine and catechol, increases from 0.63 to 2.90. The reasons for this behavior originate in wall-jet detector design and in its typically significant higher detector volume than the volume of injected sample. The conversion efficiency of the wall-jet electrochemical detection cell was found to be 97.4% for dopamine and 98.0% for catechol. The paper brings deeper understanding of operations of wall-jet electrochemical detectors for microchip devices, and it explains previously reported significantly sharper peaks when electrocatalytic electrodes (i.e., palladium and carbon nanotube) were used in microCE-electrochemistry wall-jet detector.

  5. Potential Use of HF Radar for Tsunami Detection in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokacar, Tulay; Necmioglu, Ocal; Ozer, Ceren

    2016-04-01

    Today, HF radar is recognized as internationally cost-effective and efficient solution to provide near-real time measurements that cover a large area continuously over time for ocean hazards warning and long term ocean monitoring studies such as, seasonal forecasts of climate, hurricanes, s torm surges and large-scale ocean circulation changes. These radar systems recently became an operational tool in coastal monitoring worldwide. They are used for many operational applications that include ship detection, tracking, guidance, distribution of pollutants, fishery and oceanography. HF radar data used for the tsunami warnings, can also be used for the other purposes and be of potential interest to wide application area users and stakeholders. Moreover multi user applications will ensure the system is maintained operationally over the long term. Hence the system is cost effective also with regards to maintenance. New algorithms allow useful detection and verification for tsunami detection. While technical monitoring capacity and the algorithms for tsunami detection is improved significantly, further studies are required to obtain complete wave height determination. We analysed the available technology and algorithms for the purpose of tsunami detection in the central-eastern Mediterranean and its connected Seas (Aegean and Black Sea). Since the study area is characterized by narrow continental shelf area, the HF radar observation for the purpose of tsunami detection is possible in restricted areas. While extensive continental shelves in the northeastern Black Sea and along the coast of Tunisia in the central Mediterranean let tsunami detection 2.5 hours before tsunami waves hit the coast, the detection is possible around 1 hr or less in advance for the remaining basins with wide continental shelf areas. The bathymetric structure is important for deciding the applicability of HF radar systems for the tsunami detection in continental shelf areas, which can be covered by

  6. Automatic roof plane detection and analysis in airborne lidar point clouds for solar potential assessment.

    PubMed

    Jochem, Andreas; Höfle, Bernhard; Rutzinger, Martin; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    A relative height threshold is defined to separate potential roof points from the point cloud, followed by a segmentation of these points into homogeneous areas fulfilling the defined constraints of roof planes. The normal vector of each laser point is an excellent feature to decompose the point cloud into segments describing planar patches. An object-based error assessment is performed to determine the accuracy of the presented classification. It results in 94.4% completeness and 88.4% correctness. Once all roof planes are detected in the 3D point cloud, solar potential analysis is performed for each point. Shadowing effects of nearby objects are taken into account by calculating the horizon of each point within the point cloud. Effects of cloud cover are also considered by using data from a nearby meteorological station. As a result the annual sum of the direct and diffuse radiation for each roof plane is derived. The presented method uses the full 3D information for both feature extraction and solar potential analysis, which offers a number of new applications in fields where natural processes are influenced by the incoming solar radiation (e.g., evapotranspiration, distribution of permafrost). The presented method detected fully automatically a subset of 809 out of 1,071 roof planes where the arithmetic mean of the annual incoming solar radiation is more than 700 kWh/m(2).

  7. Automatic Roof Plane Detection and Analysis in Airborne Lidar Point Clouds for Solar Potential Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jochem, Andreas; Höfle, Bernhard; Rutzinger, Martin; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    A relative height threshold is defined to separate potential roof points from the point cloud, followed by a segmentation of these points into homogeneous areas fulfilling the defined constraints of roof planes. The normal vector of each laser point is an excellent feature to decompose the point cloud into segments describing planar patches. An object-based error assessment is performed to determine the accuracy of the presented classification. It results in 94.4% completeness and 88.4% correctness. Once all roof planes are detected in the 3D point cloud, solar potential analysis is performed for each point. Shadowing effects of nearby objects are taken into account by calculating the horizon of each point within the point cloud. Effects of cloud cover are also considered by using data from a nearby meteorological station. As a result the annual sum of the direct and diffuse radiation for each roof plane is derived. The presented method uses the full 3D information for both feature extraction and solar potential analysis, which offers a number of new applications in fields where natural processes are influenced by the incoming solar radiation (e.g., evapotranspiration, distribution of permafrost). The presented method detected fully automatically a subset of 809 out of 1,071 roof planes where the arithmetic mean of the annual incoming solar radiation is more than 700 kWh/m2. PMID:22346695

  8. Common DNA sequences with potential for detection of genetically manipulated organisms in food.

    PubMed

    MacCormick, C A; Griffin, H G; Underwood, H M; Gasson, M J

    1998-06-01

    Foods produced by genetic engineering technology are now appearing on the market and many more are likely to emerge in the future. The safety aspects, regulation, and labelling of these foods are still contentious issues in most countries and recent surveys highlight consumer concerns about the safety and labelling of genetically modified food. In most countries it is necessary to have approval for the use of genetically manipulated organisms (GMOs) in the production of food. In order to police regulations, a technology to detect such foods is desirable. In addition, a requirement to label approved genetically modified food would necessitate a monitoring system. One solution is to 'tag' approved GMOs with some form of biological or genetic marker, permitting the surveillance of foods for the presence of approved products of genetic engineering. While non-approved GMOs would not be detected by such a surveillance, they might be detected by a screen for DNA sequences common to all or most GMOs. This review focuses on the potential of using common DNA sequences as detection probes for GMOs. The identification of vector sequences, plant transcription terminators, and marker genes by PCR and hybridization techniques is discussed.

  9. ITIH3 Is a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Poh Kuan; Lee, Huiyin; Zhou, Jianbiao; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Shia Loh, Marie Chiew; Wang, Ting Ting; Chan, Siew Pang; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Yan So, Jimmy Bok; Lim, Khong Hee; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer has one of the highest morbidities and mortalities worldwide. Early detection is key measure to improve the outcome of gastric cancer patients. In our efforts to identify potential markers for gastric cancer detection, we coupled xenotransplantation mouse model with a plasma proteomic approach. MKN45 gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice and plasma samples from mice bearing different sizes of tumors were collected and subjected to iTRAQ and mass spectrometry analysis. ITIH3 protein was found to be more highly expressed in plasma of tumor bearing mice compared to control. Subsequent screening of ITIH3 expression in 167 clinical plasma samples, including 83 cancer-free subjects and 84 gastric cancer patients, revealed higher ITIH3 level in the plasma of gastric cancer patients. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve estimated a maximal sensitivity of 96% at 66% specificity for ITIH3 in gastric cancer detection. In addition, plasma from early stage gastric cancer patient has significantly (p < 0.001) higher level of ITIH3 compared to that from noncancer subject. Our data suggest that ITIH3 may be a useful biomarker for early detection of gastric cancer. PMID:20515073

  10. Potential Biomarkers and Their Applications for Rapid and Reliable Detection of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Priyamvada; Chakma, Babina; Patra, Sanjukta; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-01-01

    Malaria has been responsible for the highest mortality in most malaria endemic countries. Even after decades of malaria control campaigns, it still persists as a disease of high mortality due to improper diagnosis and rapidly evolving drug resistant malarial parasites. For efficient and economical malaria management, WHO recommends that all malaria suspected patients should receive proper diagnosis before administering drugs. It is thus imperative to develop fast, economical, and accurate techniques for diagnosis of malaria. In this regard an in-depth knowledge on malaria biomarkers is important to identify an appropriate biorecognition element and utilize it prudently to develop a reliable detection technique for diagnosis of the disease. Among the various biomarkers, plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase and histidine-rich protein II (HRP II) have received increasing attention for developing rapid and reliable detection techniques for malaria. The widely used rapid detection tests (RDTs) for malaria succumb to many drawbacks which promotes exploration of more efficient economical detection techniques. This paper provides an overview on the current status of malaria biomarkers, along with their potential utilization for developing different malaria diagnostic techniques and advanced biosensors. PMID:24804253

  11. MicroRNAs potential utility in colon cancer: Early detection, prognosis, and chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Michael; Nair, Kavitha; Vyas, Arpita; Chaturvedi, Lakshmi Shankar; Gambhir, Sahil; Vyas, Dinesh

    2015-07-21

    Over the past decade, research has shown that aberrant expression of microRNA (miRNA) is involved in colorectal cancer development and progression. MicroRNAs are small sequences of non-coding RNA that regulate expression of genes involved in important cellular functions, such as cell differentiation, multiplication, and apoptosis. A specific miRNA may display the effects of a tumor suppressor or oncogene. Altered miRNA expression is found in colorectal cancer (CRC) and patterns of miRNA expression correlate with CRC detection and outcome. Studies also have examined the use of circulating serum miRNA and fecal miRNA expression as non-invasive markers for early detection. Here, we review recent evidence demonstrating the potential role of miRNA in CRC and the implications of its use in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of CRC.

  12. Detection of Potential Transit Signals in 17 Quarters of Kepler Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seader, Shawn; Jenkins, Jon M.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Morris, Rob; Catanzarite, Joseph; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Cote, Miles T.; Burke, Christopher J.; McCauliff, Sean; Girouard, Forrest R.; Campbell, Jennifer R.; Kamal Uddin, Akm; Zamudio, Khadeejah A.; Sabale, Anima; Henze, Christopher E.; Thompson, Susan E.; Klaus, Todd C.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of a search for potential transit signals in the full 17-quarter data set collected during Kepler's primary mission that ended on 2013 May 11, due to the on board failure of a second reaction wheel needed to maintain high precision, fixed, pointing. The search includes a total of 198,646 targets, of which 112,001 were observed in every quarter and 86,645 were observed in a subset of the 17 quarters. For the first time, this multi-quarter search is performed on data that have been fully and uniformly reprocessed through the newly released version of the Data Processing Pipeline. We find a total of 12,669 targets that contain at least one signal that meets our detection criteria: periodicity of the signal, a minimum of three transit events, an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, and four consistency tests that suppress many false positives. Each target containing at least one transit-like pulse sequence is searched repeatedly for other signals that meet the detection criteria, indicating a multiple planet system. This multiple planet search adds an additional 7698 transit-like signatures for a total of 20,367. Comparison of this set of detected signals with a set of known and vetted transiting planet signatures in the Kepler field of view shows that the recovery rate of the search is 90.3%. We review ensemble properties of the detected signals and present various metrics useful in validating these potential planetary signals. We highlight previously undetected transit-like signatures, including several that may represent small objects in the habitable zone of their host stars.

  13. Remote detection of human electroencephalograms using ultrahigh input impedance electric potential sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland, C. J.; Clark, T. D.; Prance, R. J.

    2002-10-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate the use of very high performance, ultrahigh impedance, electric potential probes in the detection of electrical activity in the brain. We show that these sensors, requiring no electrical or physical contact with the body, can be used to monitor the human electroencephalogram (EEG) revealing, as examples, the α and β rhythms and the α blocking phenomenon. We suggest that the advantages offered by these sensors compared with the currently used contact (Ag/AgCl) electrodes may act to stimulate new developments in multichannel EEG monitoring and in real-time electrical imaging of the brain.

  14. Development of Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) procedures for crack detection in aluminum aircraft panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, D. A.

    1993-12-01

    The Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) method is investigated as a means of making measurements in laboratory experiments on the initiation and growth of multiple site damage (MSD) cracks in a common aluminum alloy used for aircraft construction. Procedures for instrumenting MSD test specimens are recommended. The ACPD method is found to be capable of the following: (1) detecting crack initiation at a crack length of the order of 1 mm; (2) monitoring crack propagation at a resolution of the order of 5 micrometers; and (3) providing an indirect measurement of crack extension in R-curve type tests of fastener hole details.

  15. Adverse drug reactions in hospitalized Colombian children

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Agudelo, Daniela; Burgos-Flórez, Francisco Javier; Vaca, Claudia; Serrano-Meriño, Dolores Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of adverse drug reactions is an important issue due to the lack of drug safety data in children. Objective: To describe the Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatient children under 6 years of age in two general pediatrics wards located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Methods: A prospective cohort study based on intensive pharmacovigilance was conducted during six months in order to monitor the emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatients children under 6 years of age with at least one medication prescribed. The study was conducted in two pediatric wards of two hospitals located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Naranjo´s Algorithm was used to evaluate imputability, the modified Hartwig and Siegel assessment scale to establish severity and the Schumock and Thornton criteria to determine preventability. Results: Of a total of 772 monitored patients, 156 Adverse Drug Reactions were detected on 147 children. The cumulative incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions was 19.0% (147/772); the incidence density was 37.6 Adverse Drug Reactions per 1,000 patients-days (147/3,913). The frequency was higher in children under 2 years of age (12.7%). Emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions was higher in male patients (RR= 1.66; 95% CI= 1.22-2.22, p= 0.001) and in those who used systemic antibiotics (RR= 1.82; 95% CI= 1.17-2.82, p= 0.005). Conclusions: Adverse Drug Reactions are common among hospitalized children and represent an additional burden of morbidity and risk, particularly in those who used several medicines, including antibiotics. PMID:27821893

  16. In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Caspers, P. J.; van der Pol, A.; Richter, H.; Patzelt, A.; Zastrow, L.; Darvin, M.; Sterry, W.; Fluhr, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of the carotenoids as a marker for the complete antioxidative potential in human skin was investigated before and after the topical application of carotenoids by in vivo Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The carotenoid profile was assessed after a short term topical application in 4 healthy volunteers. In the untreated skin, the highest concentration of natural carotenoids was detected in different layers of the stratum corneum (SC) close to the skin surface. After topical application of carotenoids, an increase in the antioxidative potential in the skin could be observed. Topically applied carotenoids penetrate deep into the epidermis down to approximately 24 μm. This study supports the hypothesis that antioxidative substances are secreted via eccrine sweat glands and/or sebaceous glands to the skin surface. Subsequently they penetrate into the different layers of the SC.

  17. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    EWM invasions have negative impacts on native biodiversity, recreational boating, fishing, and other types of aquatic tourism (e.g., Eiswerth et al. 2000). On a broader scale, EWM can also be harmful to man-made aquatic infrastructure, such as hydroelectric dams. If an EWM invasion can be detected in an early stage where eradication is still a possibility, many of these negative consequences can be limited or prevented altogether (e.g., Madsen et al. 2002). The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of pure and hybridized EWM DNA using both laboratory and field experiments. We performed a pilot experiment in outdoor tanks to determine the basic functionality and sensitivity of the assay. Following this initial test, we collected field samples from Michigan and Montana lakes with and without known EWM populations. Taken together, our findings suggest that eDNA techniques have potential to be a useful strategy for the early detection of EWM.

  18. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions.

  19. Saliva proteome profiling reveals potential salivary biomarkers for detection of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Ching; Chu, Hao-Wei; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Kai-Ping; Liu, Hao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is frequently associated with poor prognosis and mortality, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Discovery of body fluid accessible biomarkers is needed to improve OSCC screening. To this end, we profiled proteomes of saliva from the healthy volunteers, the individuals with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), and the OSCC patients by means of SDS-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS. In the control, the OPMD, and the OSCC groups, 958, 845, and 1030 salivary proteins were detected, respectively. With spectral counting-based label-free quantification, 22 overexpressed salivary proteins were identified in the OSCC group compared with the healthy controls and the OPMD individuals. Among them, resistin (RETN) was subjected to further validation with an independent cohort using ELISA. The data confirmed that the salivary RETN levels in the OSCC patients were significantly higher than that in the healthy or in the OPMD group. Moreover, the elevated levels of salivary RETN were highly correlated with late-stage primary tumors, advanced overall stage, and lymph-node metastasis. Our results not only reveal that profiling of saliva proteome is feasible for discovery of OSCC biomarkers, but also identify RETN as a potential salivary biomarker for OSCC detection.

  20. Predictive monitoring for early detection of subacute potentially catastrophic illnesses in critical care

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, J. Randall; Rusin, Craig E.; Lee, Hoshik; Guin, Lauren E.; Clark, Matthew T.; Delos, John B.; Kattwinkel, John; Lake, Douglas E.

    2017-01-01

    We wish to save lives of patients admitted to ICUs. Their mortality is high enough based simply on the severity of the original injury or illness, but is further raised by events during their stay. We target those events that are subacute but potentially catastrophic, such as infection. Sepsis, for example, is a bacterial infection of the bloodstream, that is common in ICU patients and has a >25% risk of death. Logically, early detection and treatment with antibiotics should improve outcomes. Our fundamental precepts are (1) some potentially catastrophic medical and surgical illnesses have subclinical phases during which early diagnosis and treatment might have life-saving effects, (2) these phases are characterized by changes in the normal highly complex but highly adaptive regulation and interaction of the nervous system and other organs such as the heart and lungs, (3) teams of clinicians and quantitative scientists can work together to identify clinically important abnormalities of monitoring data, to develop algorithms that match the clinicians' eye in detecting abnormalities, and to undertake the clinical trials to test their impact on outcomes. PMID:22255587

  1. Potential role of coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection and characterization.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Andres; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Sanders, Mary M; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-02-01

    Currently, there is no adequate technology to detect early stage ovarian cancers. Most of the cancers in the ovary are detected when the cancer has already metastasized to other parts of the body. As a result, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers with a 5-year survival rate of 30% or less. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the current diagnostic techniques. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging modality with a great potential to assist ultrasound for detecting ovarian cancer noninvasively. In this article, we report the first study of coregistered ultrasound and PAI of 33 ex vivo human ovaries. An assessment of the photoacoustic images has revealed light absorption distribution in the ovary, which is directly related to the vasculature distribution and amount. Quantification of the light absorption levels in the ovary has indicated that, in the postmenopausal group, malignant ovaries showed significantly higher light absorption than normal ones (P = .0237). For these two groups, we have obtained a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 83%. This result suggests that PAI is a promising modality for improving ultrasound diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  2. Potential applications of magnetic particles to detect and treat Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and promising scientific discipline. At the nanoscale, a material displays novel physical properties that offer many new and beneficial products and applications. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles - a core/shell nanoparticle - present considerable diagnostic and therapeutic potentials, and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are considered promising theranostic tools. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects people over 65 years of age. The disease is characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques in the brain which are formed by interwoven fibrils composed of variants of the β-amyloid peptide. Medication can temporarily retard worsening of symptoms, but only in the first stages of the disease; early detection is thus of crucial importance. This minireview covers the progress made in research on the use of magnetic nanoparticles for ex vivo and/or in vivo detection and diagnosis of AD by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or to label peptides and fibrils. Of particular importance is the use of these nanoparticles to detect AD biomarkers in biological fluids. A description is given of the bio-barcode amplification assay using functionalized magnetic particles, as well as the use of such nanoparticles as a system for inhibiting or delaying the assembly of peptide monomers into oligomers and fibrils. Lastly, a brief overview is given of possible future lines of research in this. PMID:25288921

  3. Leptospira wolffii, a potential new pathogenic Leptospira species detected in human, sheep and dog.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Sedigheh; Khorami, Nargess; Ganji, Zahra F; Sepahian, Neda; Malmasi, Abdol-Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Djadid, Navid D

    2010-03-01

    Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease, which is transmitted to humans through contaminated water or direct exposure to the urine of infected animals. In this study, the presence and prevalence of Leptospira species in the infected samples of human (n=369) and sheep (n=75) sera and also dogs' urine (n=150), collected from four provinces of Iran, were investigated by using nested-PCR/RFLP assay followed by sequencing analysis. Nested-PCR assay detected that 98/369 (26.5%) human, 13/75 (17.33%) of sheep's sera and 33/150 (22%) dogs' urine samples were positive for Leptospira DNA. RFLP assay detected that all positive cases had either pathogenic or intermediate Leptospira species. By sequence analysis, Leptospira interrogans was the most prevalent species among the examined samples of human (53/82, 64.6%) and sheep (11/13, 84.6%). However, in dog samples, Leptospira wolffii (27/29, 93.1%) was detected for the first time and was the dominant species. The presence of L. wolffii with 100% identity in clinical human samples and animals suspected with Leptospira may provide evidence for circulation of L. wolffii and its role in transmission cycle within human and animal hosts. In addition, this species can be potentially pathogenic to human and probably animal hosts. A large epidemiology survey would be needed to define the presence and the prevalence of this species in global endemic regions.

  4. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H.; Hol, W. H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  5. On the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection

    PubMed Central

    Deprez, Jean-François; Brusseau, Elisabeth; Fromageau, Jérémie; Cloutier, Guy; Basset, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pressure ulcers are areas of soft tissue breakdown induced by a sustained mechanical stress that damages the skin and underlying tissues. They represent a considerable burden to the society in terms of health care and cost. Yet, techniques for prevention and detection of pressure ulcers still remain very limited. In this article, the authors investigated the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection. Elastography is an imaging technique providing local information on biological tissue mechanical properties. It is relevant for pressure ulcer detection as this pathology is associated with a gradual stiffening of damaged tissues, beginning in the deeper tissues and progressing toward the skin surface. Methods A 2D ultrasound elastography method was proposed and its ability in terms of pressure ulcer detection was validated through numerical simulations and physical acquisitions on pressure ulcer mimicking phantoms. In vivo experiments on a rat model are also reported. A maintained pressure was applied on the animal thigh, with a view to generate a pressure ulcer, and ultrasound data were acquired and processed before and after application of this pressure. Results Numerical simulations demonstrated that a pressure ulcer can theoretically be detected at a very early stage with ultrasound elastography. Even when the ulcer region was characterized by a low stiffening (ratio of 1.8 relative to normal tissues), the corresponding elastogram clearly underlined the pathological area. This observation was confirmed by the results obtained on a physical phantom mimicking a pressure ulcer at an early stage. Computed elastograms showed strain differences between areas mimicking healthy and pathological tissues. Results corresponding to in vivo experiments revealed a difference in the way tissues behaved before and after the pressure was applied on the animal thigh, which strongly suggests the presence of a pathological area. Conclusions

  6. Adverse cutaneous drug reaction.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

  7. Potential Applications of Microtesla Magnetic Resonance ImagingDetected Using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Whittier Ryan

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of protons performed in a precession field of 132 μT. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a pulsed 40-300 mT magnetic field prepolarizes the sample spins and an untuned second-order superconducting gradiometer coupled to a low transition temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detects the subsequent 5.6-kHz spin precession. Imaging sequences including multiple echoes and partial Fourier reconstruction are developed. Calculating the SNR of prepolarized SQUID-detected MRI shows that three-dimensional Fourier imaging yields higher SNR than slice-selection imaging. An experimentally demonstrated field-cycling pulse sequence and post-processing algorithm mitigate image artifacts caused by concomitant gradients in low-field MRI. The magnetic field noise of SQUID untuned detection is compared to the noise of SQUID tuned detection, conventional Faraday detection, and the Nyquist noise generated by conducting biological samples. A second-generation microtesla MRI system employing a low-noise SQUID is constructed to increase SNR. A 2.4-m cubic, eddy-current shield with 6-mm thick aluminum walls encloses the experiment to attenuate external noise. The measured noise is 0.75 fT Hz-1/2 referred to the bottom gradiometer loop. Solenoids wound from 30-strand braided wire to decrease Nyquist noise and cooled by either liquid nitrogen or water polarize the spins. Copper wire coils wound on wooden supports produce the imaging magnetic fields and field gradients. Water phantom images with 0.8 x 0.8 x 10 mm3 resolution have a SNR of 6. Three-dimensional 1.6 x 1.9 x 14 mm3 images of bell peppers and 3 x 3 x 26 mm3 in vivo images of the human arm are presented. Since contrast based on the transverse spin relaxation rate (T1) is enhanced at low magnetic fields, microtesla MRI could potentially be used for tumor imaging. The

  8. Polymerase chain reaction detection of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in dental units.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Annie; Gravel, Sabrina; Abikhzer, Jérémie; Roy, Stéphane; Barbeau, Jean

    2012-07-01

    Several genera of amoebae can be found in water from dental units and on the inner surface of waterlines. The presence of bacterial biofilms on these surfaces is thought to favor the proliferation of amoebae. Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. may be an infection risk for patients through contact with open surgical sites or aerosolization. A polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from pelleted samples showed that Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria spp. were present in water from dental units, suction lines, and suction filters at the dental clinic of the Université de Montréal. Acanthamoeba spp. were detected in 24.2% of 66 samples and Naegleria spp. in 3.0%. We discuss the infection risk associated with these results.

  9. A periodogram-based method for the detection of steady-state visually evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Liavas, A P; Moustakides, G V; Henning, G; Psarakis, E Z; Husar, P

    1998-02-01

    The task of objective perimetry is to scan the visual field and find an answer about the function of the visual system. Flicker-burst stimulation--a physiological sensible combination of transient and steady-state stimulation--is used to generate deterministic sinusoidal responses or visually evoked potentials (VEP's) at the visual cortex, which are derived from the electroencephalogram by a suitable electrode array. In this paper we develop a new method for the detection of VEP's. Based on the periodogram of a time-series, we test the data for the presence of hidden periodic components, which correspond to steady-state VEP's. The method is applied successfully to real data.

  10. Analysis of potential markers for detection of submicroscopic lymph node metastases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merrie, A E H; Yun, K; Gunn, J; Phillips, L V; McCall, J L

    1999-01-01

    We have developed sensitive assays for cytokeratin (K) 8, 16, 19, stromelysin 3 (ST3), MUC1 and maspin mRNAs using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and used these to assess lymph node status in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer. In addition the RT-PCR assays were tested against lymph nodes from non-cancer patients to determine their specificity. Despite high sensitivity RT-PCR assays for K8, K16, K19, ST3 and maspin were not found to be useful as markers of submicroscopic disease as transcripts of these genes were detected in the great majority of control lymph nodes tested. Expression of MUC1 was also not found to be useful as it was both insensitive and non-specific. The importance of assessing potential markers against an adequately sized control population is demonstrated, as failure to do so can lead to erroneous conclusions. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471055

  11. Straightforward production of encoded microbeads by Flow Focusing: potential applications for biomolecule detection.

    PubMed

    Gañán-Calvo, A M; Martín-Banderas, L; González-Prieto, R; Rodríguez-Gil, A; Berdún-Alvarez, T; Cebolla, A; Chávez, S; Flores-Mosquera, M

    2006-10-31

    Fluorescently encoded polymeric microparticles are acquiring great importance in the development of simultaneous multianalyte screening assays. We have developed a very versatile and straightforward method for the production of dye-labeled microparticles with a very reproducible size distribution and freely-chosen and discernible fluorescent properties. Our method combines Flow Focusing technology with a solvent evaporation/extraction procedure in a single step, yielding spherical, non-aggregate and non-porous particles. We have designed a multi-coloured bead array which includes the possibility of modifying the surface properties of the microparticles, which offer excellent properties for covalent attachment of biomolecules such as peptides, oligonucleotides, proteins, etc. We also show the potential of the fluorescently labeled microspheres for the detection of biomolecule (peptides and oligonucelotides) interactions using flow cytometry.

  12. Novel biological sources of electrochemiluminescence and potential applications to metals detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, John G.; Collard, Sneed B.; Kuch, David J.; Cornette, Jimmy C.

    1996-11-01

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is an electrochemical means of generating light from certain organic-metal complexes (e.g., Cr, Os, or Ru with bipyridine) and other types of molecules. Thus, it may be possible to develop an ECL-based metals sensor or biosensor consisting of organic molecules coated onto electrodes which emit light only upon complexation of particular metal ions and application of a small voltage. Toxic metals in water sources are of environmental concern. Some marine invertebrates, such as tunicates (i.e., `sea squirts') and molluscs, are noted for their ability to concentrate toxic metals as much as 100 million-fold over ambient seawater concentrations. In the present work, extracts from a tunicate species, as well as synthetic tunicate blood pigments or `tunichromes', oysters, and other organisms are examined for intrinsic ECL in the presence and absence of various metal ions. Results suggest a promising novel, potentially sensitive, and specific means for metal ion detection based on ECL.

  13. Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: the potential role of auditory Gestalt perception.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian-German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome.

  14. [Detection of potentially carcinogenic compounds persisting in atmospheric air and having high priority for hygienic regulation].

    PubMed

    Ingel', F I; Legostaeva, T B; Antipanova, N A; Krivtsova, E K; Iurtseva, N A

    2012-01-01

    The algorithm for the choice of potentially carcinogenic compounds (PCS) among emitted into air and results of the study, undertaken for realization of this algorithm are presented. The investigation was carried out in Magnitogorsk - Russian town of black metallurgy - in frames of the other study, aimed to evaluation of the influence of atmospheric pollution on children's health and genomic instability. The 11 PCS for further profound study of biological activity were selected out of more than 300 PCS, persisting in the air. The carcinogenic activity for 6 compounds out of these 11 ones was already have been found out before, that testifies correctness of the created approach and its adequacy for detection PCS in atmospheric air.

  15. A comparison of airborne wake vortex detection measurements with values predicted from potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of flight measurements made near a wake vortex was conducted to explore the feasibility of providing a pilot with useful wake avoidance information. The measurements were made with relatively low cost flow and motion sensors on a light airplane flying near the wake vortex of a turboprop airplane weighing approximately 90000 lbs. Algorithms were developed which removed the response of the airplane to control inputs from the total airplane response and produced parameters which were due solely to the flow field of the vortex. These parameters were compared with values predicted by potential theory. The results indicated that the presence of the vortex could be detected by a combination of parameters derived from the simple sensors. However, the location and strength of the vortex cannot be determined without additional and more accurate sensors.

  16. Detection Of Ventricular Late Potentials Using Wavelet Transform And ANT Colony Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, A. Sankara; Gurusamy, G.; Selvakumar, G.

    2010-10-01

    Ventricular late Potentials (VLPs) are low-level high frequency signals that are usually found with in the terminal part of the QRS complex from patients after Myocardial Infraction. Patients with VLPs are at risk of developing Ventricular Tachycardia, which is the major cause of death if patients suffering from heart disease. In this paper the Discrete Wavelet Transform was used to detect VLPs and then ANT colony optimization (ACO) was applied to classify subjects with and without VLPs. A set of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) coefficients is selected from the wavelet decomposition. Three standard parameters of VLPs such as QRST, D40 and V40 are also established. After that a novel clustering algorithm based on Ant Colony Optimization is developed for classifying arrhythmia types. The wavelet decomposition enabled us to perform the task efficiently and produced reliable results.

  17. Retroactive memory interference: a potential countermeasure technique against psychophysiological knowledge detection methods.

    PubMed

    Gronau, Nurit; Elber, Lotem; Satran, Shai; Breska, Assaf; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2015-03-01

    The concealed information test is designed to detect concealed knowledge through differential physiological responses elicited by the concealed items. This study was designed to examine the role of retroactive interference (RI) as a potential countermeasure that may weaken memory traces of the concealed items and attenuate the physiological responses elicited by them. A total of 120 participants committed a mock crime and were randomly assigned to either an interference condition, where they learned and retrieved an alternative mock crime, or a control condition. Further, each group was randomly assigned to one of three "time-delay" conditions. The results revealed that both memory for the mock crime details and the skin conductance responses (SCRs) to these details were attenuated under the memory-interference condition. Time of testing affected recall, but had no effect on the SCRs. In addition, the memory-interference manipulation had no effect on the respiration measure. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: The potential role of auditory Gestalt perception

    PubMed Central

    Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian–German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome. PMID:22119693

  19. Detecting moisture status of pecan orchards and the potential of remotely-sensed surface reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Yahia Abdelrahman

    Demand for New Mexico's limited water resources coupled with periodic drought has increased the need to schedule irrigation of pecan orchards based on tree water status. The overall goal of this research was to develop advanced tree water status sensing techniques to optimize irrigation scheduling of pecan orchards. To achieve this goal, I conducted three studies in the La Mancha and Leyendecker orchards, both mature pecan orchards located in the Mesilla Valley, New Mexico. In the first study, I screened leaf-level physiological changes that occurred during cyclic irrigation to determine parameters that best represented changes in plant moisture status. Then, I linked plant physiological changes to remotely-sensed surface reflectance data derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). In the second study, I assessed the impact of water deficits that developed during the flood irrigation dry-down cycles on photosynthesis (A) and gas exchange and established preliminary water deficit thresholds of midday stem water potential (Psi smd) critical to A and gas exchange of pecans. In a third study, I investigated whether hyperspectral data obtained from a handheld spectroradiometer and multispectral remotely-sensed data derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) could detect moisture status in pecans during cyclic flood irrigations. I conducted the first study simultaneously in both orchards. Leaf-level physiological responses and remotely-sensed surface reflectance data were collected from trees that were either well watered or in water deficit. Midday stem water potential was the best leaf-level physiological response to detect moisture status in pecans. Multiple linear regression between Psismd and vegetation indices revealed a significant relationship (R 2 = 0.54) in both orchards. Accordingly, I concluded that remotely-sensed multispectral data form Landsat TMETM+ holds promise for detecting the moisture

  20. [Contribution of cognitive evoked potentials for detecting early cognitive disorders in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Magnié, M N; Bensa, C; Laloux, L; Bertogliati, C; Faure, S; Lebrun, C

    2007-11-01

    In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), one of the most frequent neurological diseases in young adults, cognitive dysfunctions have been under considered whereas their evolution may produce a fronto-sous-cortical deterioration and more than half of the MS patients present such dysfunctions. Nevertheless sensory evoked-potentials are classically used in this disease, event-related potentials (ERP) are not included in the clinical exploration of MS. Two studies are presented aimed at further tracking the usefulness of ERP for detecting early cognitive dysfunctions in MS. All of the patients presented a relapsing remitting MS for less than 5 years with a moderate physical handicap and complained from their memory. They performed a neuropsychological set and ERP were elicited using the oddball paradigm in both modalities, visual and auditory. In the first study, 10 patients without cognitive dysfunction at the neuropsychological evaluation and 10 patients with an attention deficit participated with 10 age-matched controls. In the second study, 10 patients with memory impairment at the neuropsychological evaluation and 10 age-matched controls were included. Our data argue for an earlier modification of ERP parameters in the visual modality than in the auditory one, even before the modification of cognitive scores. In both studies, P300 parameters were correlated to neuropsychological performances (and especially to the attention examination in the first study and to memory tests in the second study) in both modalities. Taking into account the clinical usefulness of ERPs, it is nowadays important to include this electrophysiological method in evaluation and follow-up of MS, and not only using the auditory modality but also the visual presentation in order to detect earlier cognitive dysfunctions even before modification of neuropsychological performances.

  1. The first detection of potentially toxic Microcystis strains in two Middle Atlas Mountains natural lakes (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Douma, Mountasser; Ouahid, Youness; Loudiki, Mohammed; Del Campo, Francisca F; Oudra, Brahim

    2017-01-01

    Aguelmam Azizgza (LAZ) and Dayet Afourgah (DAF) are two Moroccan natural lakes located in a humid hydrographic basin of the Middle Atlas Mountains. Both are considered important reservoirs of plant and animal biodiversity. In addition, they are extensively used for recreational and fishing activities and as a water source for irrigation of agricultural crops. Recurrent cyanobacteria scum episodes in the two water bodies have been reported, Microcystis being the main genus in the scums. Here, we report on the toxic potential of three Microcystis aeruginosa strains isolated from those lakes: Mic LAZ and Mic B7 from LAZ and Mic DAF isolated from DAF. The toxic potential was checked by their microcystin (MC) content and the presence of mcy genes involved in MC synthesis. The identification and quantification of MC variants were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photo-diode array. The detection of mcy genes was achieved by whole-cell multiplex PCR that allowed the simultaneous amplification of DNA sequences corresponding to specific mcy regions. MC content of cultured cells, as MC-LR equivalents per gram cell biomass, was slightly higher in Mic LAZ (ca. 860) than in Mic B7 (ca. 700) and Mic DAF (ca. 690). Four MC variants were identified in the three isolates: MC-WR, MC-RR, MC-DM-WR, and MC-YR. The presence of toxic Microcystis strains in the two studied lakes may be regarded as an environmental and health hazard, especially during periods of bloom proliferation. It would be recommended the use of two complementary techniques, as those utilized herein (HPLC and mcy detection) to alert on highly probable toxicity of such lakes.

  2. Detecting non-relativistic cosmic neutrinos by capture on tritium: phenomenology and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Andrew J.; Lunardini, Cecilia; Sabancilar, Eray E-mail: Cecilia.Lunardini@asu.edu

    2014-08-01

    We study the physics potential of the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background via neutrino capture on tritium, taking the proposed PTOLEMY experiment as a case study. With the projected energy resolution of Δ ∼ 0.15 eV, the experiment will be sensitive to neutrino masses with degenerate spectrum, m{sub 1} ≅ m{sub 2} ≅ m{sub 3} = m{sub ν} ∼> 0.1 eV. These neutrinos are non-relativistic today; detecting them would be a unique opportunity to probe this unexplored kinematical regime. The signature of neutrino capture is a peak in the electron spectrum that is displaced by 2 m{sub ν} above the beta decay endpoint. The signal would exceed the background from beta decay if the energy resolution is Δ ∼< 0.7 m{sub ν} . Interestingly, the total capture rate depends on the origin of the neutrino mass, being Γ{sup D} ≅ 4 and Γ{sup M} ≅ 8 events per year (for a 100 g tritium target) for unclustered Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, respectively. An enhancement of the rate of up to O(1) is expected due to gravitational clustering, with the unique potential to probe the local overdensity of neutrinos. Turning to more exotic neutrino physics, PTOLEMY could be sensitive to a lepton asymmetry, and reveal the eV-scale sterile neutrino that is favored by short baseline oscillation searches. The experiment would also be sensitive to a neutrino lifetime on the order of the age of the universe and break the degeneracy between neutrino mass and lifetime which affects existing bounds.

  3. Detecting non-relativistic cosmic neutrinos by capture on tritium: phenomenology and physics potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Andrew J.; Lunardini, Cecilia; Sabancilar, Eray

    2014-08-01

    We study the physics potential of the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background via neutrino capture on tritium, taking the proposed PTOLEMY experiment as a case study. With the projected energy resolution of Δ ~ 0.15 eV, the experiment will be sensitive to neutrino masses with degenerate spectrum, m1 simeq m2 simeq m3 = mν gtrsim 0.1 eV. These neutrinos are non-relativistic today; detecting them would be a unique opportunity to probe this unexplored kinematical regime. The signature of neutrino capture is a peak in the electron spectrum that is displaced by 2 mν above the beta decay endpoint. The signal would exceed the background from beta decay if the energy resolution is Δ lesssim 0.7 mν . Interestingly, the total capture rate depends on the origin of the neutrino mass, being ΓD simeq 4 and ΓM simeq 8 events per year (for a 100 g tritium target) for unclustered Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, respectively. An enhancement of the rate of up to Script O(1) is expected due to gravitational clustering, with the unique potential to probe the local overdensity of neutrinos. Turning to more exotic neutrino physics, PTOLEMY could be sensitive to a lepton asymmetry, and reveal the eV-scale sterile neutrino that is favored by short baseline oscillation searches. The experiment would also be sensitive to a neutrino lifetime on the order of the age of the universe and break the degeneracy between neutrino mass and lifetime which affects existing bounds.

  4. Cardiovascular disease in the developing world: prevalences, patterns, and the potential of early disease detection.

    PubMed

    Celermajer, David S; Chow, Clara K; Marijon, Eloi; Anstey, Nicholas M; Woo, Kam S

    2012-10-02

    Over the past decade or more, the prevalence of traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been increasing in the major populous countries of the developing world, including China and India, with consequent increases in the rates of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Indeed, by 2020, cardiovascular diseases are predicted to be the major causes of morbidity and mortality in most developing nations around the world. Techniques for the early detection of arterial damage have provided important insights into disease patterns and pathogenesis and especially the effects of progressive urbanization on cardiovascular risk in these populations. Furthermore, certain other diseases affecting the cardiovascular system remain prevalent and important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including the cardiac effects of rheumatic heart disease and the vascular effects of malaria. Imaging and functional studies of early cardiovascular changes in those disease processes have also recently been published by various groups, allowing consideration of screening and early treatment opportunities. In this report, the authors review the prevalences and patterns of major cardiovascular diseases in the developing world, as well as potential opportunities provided by early disease detection.

  5. Potential of Cathodoluminescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy for the Detection of Prokaryotic Cells on Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2010-11-01

    Detecting mineral-hosted ecosystems to assess the extent and functioning of the biosphere from the surface to deep Earth requires appropriate techniques that provide, beyond the morphological criteria, indubitable clues of the presence of prokaryotic cells. Here, we evaluate the capability of cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy, implemented on a scanning electron microscope, to identify prokaryotes on mineral surfaces. For this purpose, we used, as a first step, a simple model of either unstained or stained cultivable cells (Escherichia coli, Deinococcus radiodurans) deposited on minerals that are common in the oceanic crust (basaltic glass, amphibole, pyroxene, and magnetite). Our results demonstrate that the detection of cells is possible at the micrometric level on the investigated minerals through the intrinsic fluorescence of their constituting macromolecules (aromatic amino and nucleic acids, coenzymes). This allows us to distinguish biomorph inorganic phases from cells. This easily implemented technique permits an exploration of colonized rock samples. In addition, the range of spectrometric techniques available on a scanning electron microscope can provide additional information on the nature and chemistry of the associated mineral phases, which would lead to a simultaneous characterization of cells, their microhabitats, and a better understanding of their potential relationships.

  6. Development of a novel method to detect a potential inhalation of nanoaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie-Desvergne, C.; Tardif, F.; Motellier, S.; Mossuz, V.

    2011-07-01

    In the context of the precautionary principle for engineered nanoparticles, a test able to verify the non exposure of individuals to nanoaerosols seems to be of great interest, especially for workers involved with nanomaterials. A novel method is proposed to detect the presence of nanoparticles in the nose. Different materials, including paper and polycarbonate, have been tested for their sampling efficiency towards ZnO nanoparticles. The detection of nanoparticles is performed by elemental analysis using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF). For an optimal sensitivity of the TXRF signal, samples have to be deposited on a smooth surface. Therefore, different materials have been compared as sample carrier. The results indicate that pure paper is the most efficient material for sampling nanoparticles (ZnO), while the use of polycarbonate, and even more flexible polyester, as sample carrier allows a better sensitivity for TXRF analysis. Therefore, the sampling device made of paper is digested under slightly acidic conditions in a microwave oven after collection, and the resulting solution is deposited on polyester for TXRF analysis. Internal calibration is performed thanks to an addition of Rb to the samples. The proposed method allows the chemical identification of nanoparticles deposited in the nose: a qualitative signature of a potential nanoaerosol inhalation.

  7. Potential of cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy for the detection of prokaryotic cells on minerals.

    PubMed

    Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2010-11-01

    Detecting mineral-hosted ecosystems to assess the extent and functioning of the biosphere from the surface to deep Earth requires appropriate techniques that provide, beyond the morphological criteria, indubitable clues of the presence of prokaryotic cells. Here, we evaluate the capability of cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy, implemented on a scanning electron microscope, to identify prokaryotes on mineral surfaces. For this purpose, we used, as a first step, a simple model of either unstained or stained cultivable cells (Escherichia coli, Deinococcus radiodurans) deposited on minerals that are common in the oceanic crust (basaltic glass, amphibole, pyroxene, and magnetite). Our results demonstrate that the detection of cells is possible at the micrometric level on the investigated minerals through the intrinsic fluorescence of their constituting macromolecules (aromatic amino and nucleic acids, coenzymes). This allows us to distinguish biomorph inorganic phases from cells. This easily implemented technique permits an exploration of colonized rock samples. In addition, the range of spectrometric techniques available on a scanning electron microscope can provide additional information on the nature and chemistry of the associated mineral phases, which would lead to a simultaneous characterization of cells, their microhabitats, and a better understanding of their potential relationships.

  8. Noise Reduction for Detecting Event-Related Potential by Processing in Dipole Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Fumito; Ishikawa, Bunnoshin; Saito, Yoichi

    2007-06-01

    Averaged responses are generally used to detect event-related potentials (ERPs) by supressing the background electroencephalography (EEG) wave, the ERP component of a single-trial response, or the average of a small number of responses is used to assess time variation in a subjects’ state in detail. We therefore proposed a new method of reducing the noise component including the background wave in a single-trial response. In this study, our target is a component such as N100 approximated by one dipole. The method was performed by modifying the dipole position in the brain and detecting the projected components with reference to the dipole estimated from an averaged response. Results of simulation indicate that the proposed method could improve signal-to-noise ratio by 7.6 dB and decrease the error in N100 peak latency 6.7 ms by suppressing the influence of the background wave. In the EEG experiment, eight healthy subjects paticipated and their results show that the sway of waveforms by the background wave is suppressed and that the peak of the N100 component becomes prominent compared with that of the original single-trial response.

  9. Calponin-h2: a potential serum marker for the early detection of human breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Debald, Manuel; Jin, Jian-Ping; Linke, Andrea; Walgenbach, Klaus-Jürgen; Rauch, Peter; Zellmer, Angela; Fimmers, Rolf; Kuhn, Walther; Hartmann, Gunther; Walgenbach-Brünagel, Gisela

    2014-11-01

    Early diagnosis is the key for the successful treatment of breast cancer. A serum marker for the early detection of breast cancer could significantly reduce breast cancer morbidity and mortality by bringing the time of diagnosis at an earlier and therefore still curable stage. So far, no biomarker for the early detection is available for the clinical routine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of calponin-h2 as a blood-based biomarker for the early diagnosis of this disease. Using two monoclonal antibodies against calponin-h2, we developed a sandwich ELISA to analyze the serum levels of calponin-h2. In order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of this biomarker, patients with breast cancer (n = 76), benign diseases of the breast (n = 51) and healthy females (n = 24) were analyzed. Serum levels above 10 ng/ml were only observed in patients with breast cancer (n = 8; 10.5%). Further large-scale studies and preanalytic evaluations are necessary to clarify the definite role of calponin-h2 as a biomarker in breast cancer management.

  10. A new feature extraction method for signal classification applied to cord dorsum potential detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidaurre, D.; Rodríguez, E. E.; Bielza, C.; Larrañaga, P.; Rudomin, P.

    2012-10-01

    In the spinal cord of the anesthetized cat, spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) appear synchronously along the lumbo-sacral segments. These CDPs have different shapes and magnitudes. Previous work has indicated that some CDPs appear to be specially associated with the activation of spinal pathways that lead to primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. Visual detection and classification of these CDPs provides relevant information on the functional organization of the neural networks involved in the control of sensory information and allows the characterization of the changes produced by acute nerve and spinal lesions. We now present a novel feature extraction approach for signal classification, applied to CDP detection. The method is based on an intuitive procedure. We first remove by convolution the noise from the CDPs recorded in each given spinal segment. Then, we assign a coefficient for each main local maximum of the signal using its amplitude and distance to the most important maximum of the signal. These coefficients will be the input for the subsequent classification algorithm. In particular, we employ gradient boosting classification trees. This combination of approaches allows a faster and more accurate discrimination of CDPs than is obtained by other methods.

  11. Potentialities of steady-state and transient thermography in breast tumour depth detection: A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Amri, Amina; Pulko, Susan Helen; Wilkinson, Anthony James

    2016-01-01

    Breast thermography still has inherent limitations that prevent it from being fully accepted as a breast screening modality in medicine. The main challenges of breast thermography are to reduce false positive results and to increase the sensitivity of a thermogram. Further, it is still difficult to obtain information about tumour parameters such as metabolic heat, tumour depth and diameter from a thermogram. However, infrared technology and image processing have advanced significantly and recent clinical studies have shown increased sensitivity of thermography in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to study numerically the possibilities of extracting information about the tumour depth from steady state thermography and transient thermography after cold stress with no need to use any specific inversion technique. Both methods are based on the numerical solution of Pennes bioheat equation for a simple three-dimensional breast model. The effectiveness of two approaches used for depth detection from steady state thermography is assessed. The effect of breast density on the steady state thermal contrast has also been studied. The use of a cold stress test and the recording of transient contrasts during rewarming were found to be potentially suitable for tumour depth detection during the rewarming process. Sensitivity to parameters such as cold stress temperature and cooling time is investigated using the numerical model and simulation results reveal two prominent depth-related characteristic times which do not strongly depend on the temperature of the cold stress or on the cooling period.

  12. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended.

  13. A new feature extraction method for signal classification applied to cord dorsum potentials detection

    PubMed Central

    Vidaurre, D.; Rodríguez, E. E.; Bielza, C.; Larrañaga, P.; Rudomin, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the spinal cord of the anesthetized cat, spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) appear synchronously along the lumbo-sacral segments. These CDPs have different shapes and magnitudes. Previous work has indicated that some CDPs appear to be specially associated with the activation of spinal pathways that lead to primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. Visual detection and classification of these CDPs provides relevant information on the functional organization of the neural networks involved in the control of sensory information and allows the characterization of the changes produced by acute nerve and spinal lesions. We now present a novel feature extraction approach for signal classification, applied to CDP detection. The method is based on an intuitive procedure. We first remove by convolution the noise from the CDPs recorded in each given spinal segment. Then, we assign a coefficient for each main local maximum of the signal using its amplitude and distance to the most important maximum of the signal. These coefficients will be the input for the subsequent classification algorithm. In particular, we employ gradient boosting classification trees. This combination of approaches allows a faster and more accurate discrimination of CDPs than is obtained by other methods. PMID:22929924

  14. A new feature extraction method for signal classification applied to cord dorsum potential detection.

    PubMed

    Vidaurre, D; Rodríguez, E E; Bielza, C; Larrañaga, P; Rudomin, P

    2012-10-01

    In the spinal cord of the anesthetized cat, spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) appear synchronously along the lumbo-sacral segments. These CDPs have different shapes and magnitudes. Previous work has indicated that some CDPs appear to be specially associated with the activation of spinal pathways that lead to primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. Visual detection and classification of these CDPs provides relevant information on the functional organization of the neural networks involved in the control of sensory information and allows the characterization of the changes produced by acute nerve and spinal lesions. We now present a novel feature extraction approach for signal classification, applied to CDP detection. The method is based on an intuitive procedure. We first remove by convolution the noise from the CDPs recorded in each given spinal segment. Then, we assign a coefficient for each main local maximum of the signal using its amplitude and distance to the most important maximum of the signal. These coefficients will be the input for the subsequent classification algorithm. In particular, we employ gradient boosting classification trees. This combination of approaches allows a faster and more accurate discrimination of CDPs than is obtained by other methods.

  15. A new total antioxidant potential measurements using RP-HPLC assay with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Głód, Bronisław K; Piszcz, Paweł; Czajka, Katarzyna; Zarzycki, Paweł K

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, an improved total antioxidant potential (TAP) estimation using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay with fluorometric detection has been described. The principle of this method is based on the hydroxyl radicals generated in the Fenton-like reaction and subsequently detected using hydroxyterephthalic acid (HTPA), which is a reaction product of hydroxyl radicals and terephthalic acid (TPA), working as a sensing compound. HTPA quantity in the samples was measured by fluorescence detector working at excitation and emission wavelengths equal to 312 and 428 nm, respectively. A number of key experimental conditions including the influence of the reaction (incubation) time on the surface areas of HTPA peaks, concentration of Fe(II) ions as well as the influence of concentration of TPA on the surface area of the chromatographic peak of HTPA were optimized to the characteristic feature of TAP measurements. The elaborated assay has been used to evaluate TAP values of selected low-molecular mass compounds like pyrogallol, tryptamine, and n-alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol) as well as chlorogenic and ascorbic acids and benzoic acid derivatives, which are commonly present in the food samples.

  16. Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Stephan; David, Makindi; Moore, Lee; Grimberg, Brian T; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo; Zborowski, Maciej; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55) provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS) and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM) diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS) for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13), trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01), schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08) and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002) parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates. PMID:18439240

  17. Predictive potential of photoacoustic spectroscopy in breast tumor detection based on xenograft serum profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Mallika; Chandra, Subhas; Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish; Ray, Satadru; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer all over the world. Heterogeneity in breast cancer makes it a difficult task to detect with the existing serum markers at an early stage. With an aim to detect the disease early at the pre-malignant level, MCF-7 cells xenografts were developed using female nude mice and blood serum were extracted on days 0th, 10th, 15th & 20th post tumor cells injection (N=12 for each time point). Photoacoustic spectra were recorded on the serum samples at 281nm pulsed laser excitations. A total of 144 time domain spectra were recorded from 48 serum samples belonging to 4 different time points. These spectra were then converted into frequency domain (0-1250kHz) using MATLAB algorithms. Subsequently, seven features (mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation, area under the curve & spectral residuals after 10th degree polynomial fit) were extracted from them and used for PCA. Further, using the first three Principal components (PCs) of the data, Linear Discriminate Analysis has been carried out. The performance of the analysis showed 82.64% accuracy in predicting various time points under study. Further, frequency-region wise analysis was also performed on the data and found 95 - 203.13 kHz region most suitable for the discrimination among the 4 time points. The analysis provided a clear discrimination in most of the spectral features under study suggesting that the photoacoustic technique has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for early detection of breast tumor development

  18. Early detection of potentially invasive invertebrate species in Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 dominated communities in harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preda, Cristina; Memedemin, Daniyar; Skolka, Marius; Cogălniceanu, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Constanţa harbour is a major port on the western coast of the semi-enclosed Black Sea. Its brackish waters and low species richness make it vulnerable to invasions. The intensive maritime traffic through Constanţa harbour facilitates the arrival of alien species. We investigated the species composition of the mussel beds on vertical artificial concrete substrate inside the harbour. We selected this habitat for study because it is frequently affected by fluctuating levels of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, and by accidental pollution episodes. The shallow communities inhabiting it are thus unstable and often restructured, prone to accept alien species. Monthly samples were collected from three locations from the upper layer of hard artificial substrata (maximum depth 2 m) during two consecutive years. Ten alien macro-invertebrate species were inventoried, representing 13.5% of the total number of species. Two of these alien species were sampled starting the end of summer 2010, following a period of high temperatures that triggered hypoxia, causing mass mortalities of benthic organisms. Based on the species accumulation curve, we estimated that we have detected all benthic alien species on artificial substrate from Constanţa harbour, but additional effort is required to detect all the native species. Our results suggest that monitoring of benthic communities at small depths in harbours is a simple and useful tool in early detection of potentially invasive alien species. The selected habitat is easily accessible, the method is low-cost, and the samples represent reliable indicators of alien species establishment.

  19. Luminescence Decay Dynamics and Trace Biomaterials Detection Potential of Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kwan H.; Aijmo, Jacob; Ma, Lun; Yao, Mingzhen; Zhang, Xing; Como, John; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Huang, Juyang; Chen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the luminescence decay and trace biomaterials detection potential of two surface-functionalized nanoparticles, poly(ethylene glycol) bis(carboxymethyl) ether-coated LaF3:Ce,Tb (~20 nm) and thioglycolic acid-coated ZnS/Mn (~5 nm). Upon UV excitation, these nanoparticles emitted fluorescence peaking at 540 and 597 nm, respectively, in solution. Fluorescence imaging revealed that these nanoparticles targeted the trace biomaterials from fingerprints that were deposited on various nonporous solid substrates. Highly ordered, microscopic sweat pores within the friction ridges of the fingerprints were labeled with good spatial resolutions by the nanoparticles on aluminum and polymethylpentene substrates, but not on glass or quartz. In solution, these nanoparticles exhibited multicomponent fluorescence decays of resolved lifetimes ranging from nano-to microseconds and of average lifetimes of ~24 and 130 µs for the coated LaF3:Ce,Tb and ZnS:Mn, respectively. The long microsecond-decay components are associated with the emitters at or near the nanocrystal core surface that are sensitive to the size, surface-functionalization, and solvent exposure of the nanoparticles. When the nanoparticles were bound to the surface of a solid substrate and in the dried state, a decrease in the microsecond decay lifetimes was observed, indicative of a change in the coating environment of the nanocrystal surface upon binding and solvent removal. The average decay lifetimes for the surface-bound ZnS:Mn in the dried state were ~60, 30, and 11 µs on quartz, aluminum, and polymethylpentene, respectively. These values were still 2 orders of magnitude longer than the typical fluorescence decay background of most substrates (e.g., ~0.36 µs for polymethylpentene) in trace forensic evidence detections. We conclude that coated ZnS: Mn nanoparticles hold great promise as a nontoxic labeling agent for ultrasensitive, time-gated, trace evidence detections in nanoforensic applications

  20. Telithromycin: review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Telithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has been marketed since the early 2000s. It has not been shown to be more effective against any bacteria than other macrolide antibiotics. Its antibacterial activity is in no way remarkable. In early 2014, we reviewed its adverse effect profile using data from periodic safety update reports, drug regulatory agencies, and detailed published case reports. In addition to the adverse effect profile telithromycin shares with the other macrolides, it provokes several specific adverse effects: visual disturbances due to impaired accommodation; taste and smell disorders; severe liver damage; worsening of myasthenia gravis; rhabdomyolysis; and loss of consciousness. Prolongation of the QT interval with standard oral doses is a worrisome adverse effect. In practice, it is better not to use telithromycin as it exposes patients to disproportionate, serious adverse effects. When treatment with a macrolide antibiotic appears necessary, it is prudent to choose a different macrolide, such as spiramycin or azithromycin, which have fewer adverse effects.

  1. Adverse events related to blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-09-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided.

  2. Adverse perinatal events associated with ART.

    PubMed

    Skora, Daniel; Frankfurter, David

    2012-04-01

    Since the advent of ART, much research has focused on the potential adverse for resultant harm. Prematurity, low birth-weight, PIH, congenital malformations, and CP are closely tied to multiple gestation. With the increase in elective single embryo transfer, there will be a reduction in adversity related to multiple birth. It is understood that underlying causes of infertility, including advanced maternal age, PCOS, thyroid disease, and uterine fibroids, predispose to adverse outcomes. However, imprinting abnormalities do not appear to stem from multiple births, and thus the need to consider the association between fertility treatment and methylation disorders remains essential. These, as well as risks of multi-fetal gestation, must be discussed with patients when considering using assisted reproduction.

  3. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  4. [Detection of intraoperative awareness via auditory evoked potentials in an infant].

    PubMed

    Feuerecker, M S; Daunderer, M; Pape, N-B; Kuhnle, G E H

    2006-10-01

    Intraoperative wakefulness is not only limited to adults and can also be found at a similar percentage (0.8%) in paediatric anaesthesia. For prevention of awareness neurophysiologic methods like auditory evoked potentials might be helpful. We report a case of a 2-year-old boy receiving balanced anaesthesia with sevoflurane and alfentanil. Midlatency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEPs) were recorded continuously before, during and after the surgical procedure. During the surgical procedure sevoflurane was withdrawn unintentionally. After a short period of time the boy started coughing and moved his legs, which was interpreted as insufficient analgesia. Several boli of alfentanil did not lead to the expected clinical effect on the depth of anaesthesia. After a recheck of the anaesthetic ventilator the error was determined and delivery of the volatile anaesthetic restored. The postoperative evaluation of the MLAEPs revealed the inadequate suppression of auditory processing during this incident with latencies comparable to the awake state. After reapplication of sevoflurane the MLAEPs were almost completely suppressed demonstrating adequate anesthetic depth. Exemplarily this case suggests that MLAEPs could be used to detect intraoperative awareness also in paediatric anaesthesia. Investigations to prove the validity and reproducibility of MLAEPs in children will be necessary.

  5. Detecting the potential cancer association or metastasis by multi-omics data analysis.

    PubMed

    Hua, L; Zheng, W Y; Xia, H; Zhou, P

    2016-08-19

    Comprehensive multi-omics data analyses have become an important means for understanding cancer incidence and progression largely driven by the availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies for genomes, proteomes, and transcriptomes. However, how tumor cells from the site of origin of the cancer begin to grow in other sites of the body is very poorly understood. In order to examine potential connections between different cancers and to gain an insight into the metastatic process, we conducted a multi-omics data analysis using data deposited in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. By combining somatic mutation data along with DNA methylation level and gene expression level data, we applied a Bayesian network analysis to detect the potential association among four distinct cancer types namely, Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (Hnsc), Lung adenocarcinoma (Luad), Lung squamous cell carcinoma (Lusc), and Skin cutaneous melanoma (Skcm). Further validation based on the 'identification of somatic signatures' and the 'association rules analysis' confirmed these associations. Previous investigations have suggested that common risk factors and molecular abnormalities in cell-cycle regulation and signal transduction predominate among these cancers. This evidence indicates that our study provides a rational analysis and hopefully will help shed light on the links between different cancers and metastasis as a whole.

  6. Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Sachana, Magdalini; Shafer, Timothy J.; Behl, Mamta; Forsby, Anna; Hargreaves, Alan; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lein, Pamela J.; Louisse, Jochem; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Paini, Alicia; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schrattenholz, André; Suñol, Cristina; van Thriel, Christoph; Whelan, Maurice; Fritsche, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a template that facilitates understanding of complex biological systems and the pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs). The AOP starts with an molecular initiating event (MIE) in which a chemical interacts with a biological target(s), followed by a sequential series of KEs, which are cellular, anatomical, and/or functional changes in biological processes, that ultimately result in an AO manifest in individual organisms and populations. It has been developed as a tool for a knowledge-based safety assessment that relies on understanding mechanisms of toxicity, rather than simply observing its adverse outcome. A large number of cellular and molecular processes are known to be crucial to proper development and function of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). However, there are relatively few examples of well-documented pathways that include causally linked MIEs and KEs that result in adverse outcomes in the CNS or PNS. As a first step in applying the AOP framework to adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to exogenous neurotoxic substances, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) organized a workshop (March 2013, Ispra, Italy) to identify potential AOPs relevant to neurotoxic and developmental neurotoxic outcomes. Although the AOPs outlined during the workshop are not fully described, they could serve as a basis for further, more detailed AOP development and evaluation that could be useful to support human health risk assessment in a variety of ways. PMID:25605028

  7. The potential effects of antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of corn naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on antioxidant systems in the intestinal mucosa, plasma, and liver in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Van Le Thanh, Bich; Lemay, Michel; Bastien, Alexandre; Lapointe, Jérôme; Lessard, Martin; Chorfi, Younès; Guay, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments). Although DON was the main mycotoxin in the contaminated diet, this diet also contained 1.8 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEN). The "mycotoxin" effects therefore included the combined effect of these two mycotoxins, DON, and ZEN. The DON-ZEN ingestion did not affect growth performances, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F ratio), but partially induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs as shown by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver (P < 0.05). However, no change in the activity of other antioxidant enzymes or GSH concentrations was observed in plasma and liver of piglets fed the DON-contaminated diet (P > 0.05). Supplementation with individual antioxidant feed additive had a limited effect in weaned pigs fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Combination of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, quercetin, and organic Se/GSH) reduced plasma and liver MDA content and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05) of piglets fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Furthermore, this combination also reduced MDA content in the ileum (P < 0.05), although activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx), SOD or catalase (CAT) in the ileum was not affected by DON-ZEN contamination or antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, DON-ZEN contamination induced

  8. Towards the regulation of aerosol emissions by their potential health impact: Assessing adverse effects of aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine emissions by combining comprehensive data on the chemical composition and their toxicological effects on human lung cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Streibel, T.; Dittmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Paur, H. R.; Dilger, M.; Weiss, C.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Hirvonen, M. R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Sippula, O.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Rheda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Czech, H.; Tiita, P.; Jalava, P.; Kasurinen, S.; Schwemer, T.; Yli-Prilä, P.; Tissari, J.; Lamberg, H.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ship engine emissions are important regarding lung and cardiovascular diseases in coastal regions worldwide. Bio mass burning is made responsible for adverse health effects in many cities and rural regions. The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. Typical lung cell responses to combustion aerosols include inflammation and apoptosis, but a molecular link with the specific chemical composition in particular of ship emissions has not been established. Through an air-liquid interface exposure system (ALI), we exposed human lung cells at-site to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on common heavy fuel oil (HFO) and cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF) as well as to emissions of wood combustion compliances. A special field deployable ALI-exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for this study. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling to characterise the cellular responses. The HFO ship emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds (transition metals, organic toxicants) and particle masses. The cellular responses included inflammation and oxidative stress. Surprisingly, the DF ship emissions, which predominantly contain rather "pure" carbonaceous soot and much less known toxicants, induced significantly broader biological effects, affecting essential cellular pathways (e.g., mitochondrial function and intracellular transport). Therefore the use of distillate fuels for shipping (this is the current emission reduction strategy of the IMO) appears insufficient for diminishing health effects. The study suggests rather reducing the particle emissions

  9. Detecting fluid leakage of a reservoir dam based on streaming self-potential measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seo Young; Kim, Bitnarae; Nam, Myung Jin; Lim, Sung Keun

    2015-04-01

    Between many reservoir dams for agriculture in suburban area of South Korea, water leakage has been reported several times. The dam under consideration in this study, which is located in Gyeong-buk, in the south-east of the Korean Peninsula, was reported to have a large leakage at the right foot of downstream side of the reservoir dam. For the detection of the leakage, not only geological survey but also geophysical explorations have been made for precision safety diagnosis, since the leakage can lead to dam failure. Geophysical exploration includes both electrical-resistivity and self-potential surveys, while geological surveys water permeability test, standard penetration test, and sampling for undisturbed sample during the course of the drilling investigation. The geophysical explorations were made not only along the top of dam but also transverse the heel of dam. The leakage of water installations can change the known-heterogeneous structure of the dam body but also cause streaming spontaneous (self) potential (SP) anomaly, which can be detected by electrical resistivity and SP measurements, respectively. For the interpretation of streaming SP, we used trial-and-error method by comparing synthetic SP data with field SP data for model update. For the computation, we first invert the resistivity data to obtain the distorted resistivity structure of the dam levee then make three-dimensional electrical-resistivity modeling for the streaming potential distribution of the dam levee. Our simulation algorithm of streaming SP distribution based on the integrated finite difference scheme computes two-dimensional (2D) SP distribution based on the distribution of calculated flow velocities of fluid for a given permeability structure together with physical properties. This permeability is repeatedly updated based on error between synthetic and field SP data, until the synthetic data match the field data. Through this trial-and-error-based SP interpretation, we locate the

  10. Clinicians' recognition of the metabolic adverse effects of antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Peter F; Miller, Del D; Singer, Beth; Arena, John; Stirewalt, Edna M

    2005-11-15

    There is a growing concern regarding the propensity of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) to induce weight gain and metabolic adverse effects. Recent consensus guidelines have recommended assessment and monitoring procedures to appropriately detect and manage these adverse effects. This study addresses the appreciation and readiness of clinicians to implement management guidelines for these adverse effects. Respondents indicated awareness of the risks of treatment with SGAs. The extent of monitoring for metabolic adverse effects was low and inconsistent across measures and in frequency of evaluation. Ongoing efforts are needed to support and encourage change in clinician practice.

  11. Rapid, Potentially Automatable, Method Extract Biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to Detect and Identify BW Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    status can sometimes be reflected in the infectious potential or drug resistance of those pathogens. For example, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis , its antibiotic resistance and prediction of pathogenicity amongst Mycobacterium spp. based on signature lipid biomarkers ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rapid, Potentially Automatable, Method Extract Biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to Detect and Identify BW Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  12. An Energy efficient application specific integrated circuit for electrocardiogram feature detection and its potential for ambulatory cardiovascular disease detection

    PubMed Central

    Bhaumik, Basabi

    2016-01-01

    A novel algorithm based on forward search is developed for real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signal processing and implemented in application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for QRS complex related cardiovascular disease diagnosis. The authors have evaluated their algorithm using MIT-BIH database and achieve sensitivity of 99.86% and specificity of 99.93% for QRS complex peak detection. In this Letter, Physionet PTB diagnostic ECG database is used for QRS complex related disease detection. An ASIC for cardiovascular disease detection is fabricated using 130-nm CMOS high-speed process technology. The area of the ASIC is 0.5 mm2. The power dissipation is 1.73 μW at the operating frequency of 1 kHz with a supply voltage of 0.6 V. The output from the ASIC is fed to their Android application that generates diagnostic report and can be sent to a cardiologist through email. Their ASIC result shows average failed detection rate of 0.16% for six leads data of 290 patients in PTB diagnostic ECG database. They also have implemented a low-leakage version of their ASIC. The ASIC dissipates only 45 pJ with a supply voltage of 0.9 V. Their proposed ASIC is most suitable for energy efficient telemetry cardiovascular disease detection system. PMID:27284458

  13. An Energy efficient application specific integrated circuit for electrocardiogram feature detection and its potential for ambulatory cardiovascular disease detection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhaumik, Basabi

    2016-03-01

    A novel algorithm based on forward search is developed for real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signal processing and implemented in application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for QRS complex related cardiovascular disease diagnosis. The authors have evaluated their algorithm using MIT-BIH database and achieve sensitivity of 99.86% and specificity of 99.93% for QRS complex peak detection. In this Letter, Physionet PTB diagnostic ECG database is used for QRS complex related disease detection. An ASIC for cardiovascular disease detection is fabricated using 130-nm CMOS high-speed process technology. The area of the ASIC is 0.5 mm(2). The power dissipation is 1.73 μW at the operating frequency of 1 kHz with a supply voltage of 0.6 V. The output from the ASIC is fed to their Android application that generates diagnostic report and can be sent to a cardiologist through email. Their ASIC result shows average failed detection rate of 0.16% for six leads data of 290 patients in PTB diagnostic ECG database. They also have implemented a low-leakage version of their ASIC. The ASIC dissipates only 45 pJ with a supply voltage of 0.9 V. Their proposed ASIC is most suitable for energy efficient telemetry cardiovascular disease detection system.

  14. Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Hughes, Robert Clark; Wang, Yifeng; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Gao, Huizhen

    2004-09-01

    Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Application of Microsensor Technology in Radioactive Waste Management with Emphasis on Headspace Gas Detection'. The objective of this project is to bridge the technical gap between the current status of microsensor development and the intended applications of these sensors in nuclear waste management. The major results are summarized below: {sm_bullet} A literature review was conducted on the regulatory requirements for headspace gas sampling/analysis in waste characterization and monitoring. The most relevant gaseous species and the related physiochemical environments were identified. It was found that preconcentrators might be needed in order for chemiresistor sensors to meet desired detection {sm_bullet} A long-term stability test was conducted for a polymer-based chemresistor sensor array. Significant drifts were observed over the time duration of one month. Such drifts should be taken into account for long-term in-situ monitoring. {sm_bullet} Several techniques were explored to improve the performance of sensor polymers. It has been demonstrated that freeze deposition of black carbon (CB)-polymer composite can effectively eliminate the so-called 'coffee ring

  15. The Neurobiology of Intervention and Prevention in Early Adversity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Philip A; Beauchamp, Kate G; Roos, Leslie E; Noll, Laura K; Flannery, Jessica; Delker, Brianna C

    2016-01-01

    Early adverse experiences are well understood to affect development and well-being, placing individuals at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. A growing literature documents the effects of adversity on developing neurobiological systems. Fewer studies have examined stress neurobiology to understand how to mitigate the effects of early adversity. This review summarizes the research on three neurobiological systems relevant to interventions for populations experiencing high levels of early adversity: the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis, the prefrontal cortex regions involved in executive functioning, and the system involved in threat detection and response, particularly the amygdala. Also discussed is the emerging field of epigenetics and related interventions to mitigate early adversity. Further emphasized is the need for intervention research to integrate knowledge about the neurobiological effects of prenatal stressors (e.g., drug use, alcohol exposure) and early adversity. The review concludes with a discussion of the implications of this research topic for clinical psychology practice and public policy.

  16. Glyphosate Detection by Means of a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue and Discrimination of Potential Interferents

    PubMed Central

    Bataller, Román; Campos, Inmaculada; Laguarda-Miro, Nicolas; Alcañiz, Miguel; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Gil, Luís; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Ibáñez-Civera, Javier

    2012-01-01

    A new electronic tongue to monitor the presence of glyphosate (a non-selective systemic herbicide) has been developed. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists in an array of three working electrodes (Pt, Co and Cu) encapsulated on a methacrylate cylinder. The electrochemical response of the sensing array was characteristic of the presence of glyphosate in buffered water (phosphate buffer 0.1 mol·dm−3, pH 6.7). Rotating disc electrode (RDE) studies were carried out with Pt, Co and Cu electrodes in water at room temperature and at pH 6.7 using 0.1 mol·dm−3 of phosphate as a buffer. In the presence of glyphosate, the corrosion current of the Cu and Co electrodes increased significantly, probably due to the formation of Cu2+ or Co2+ complexes. The pulse array waveform for the voltammetric tongue was designed by taking into account some of the redox processes observed in the electrochemical studies. The PCA statistical analysis required four dimensions to explain 95% of variance. Moreover, a two-dimensional representation of the two principal components differentiated the water mixtures containing glyphosate. Furthermore, the PLS statistical analyses allowed the creation of a model to correlate the electrochemical response of the electrodes with glyphosate concentrations, even in the presence of potential interferents such as humic acids and Ca2+. The system offers a PLS prediction model for glyphosate detection with values of 098, −2.3 × 10−5 and 0.94 for the slope, the intercept and the regression coefficient, respectively, which is in agreement with the good fit between the predicted and measured concentrations. The results suggest the feasibility of this system to help develop electronic tongues for glyphosate detection. PMID:23250277

  17. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  18. Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry as a potential tool to detect lithium-induced nephropathy: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Raedler, Thomas J; Wittke, Stefan; Jahn, Holger; Koessler, Andreas; Mischak, Harald; Wiedemann, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Lithium remains the treatment of choice for many patients suffering from bipolar disorder. However, long-term treatment with lithium carries the potential to cause renal and thyroid dysfunction. Lithium-induced nephropathies are characterised by deterioration of urinary concentrating ability as well as, less frequently, a progressive and potentially irreversible decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Pathological changes after treatment with lithium include both tubulointerstitial and glomerular changes. Besides monitoring of the kidney-function, no screening-instruments exist for early identification of patients at risk of lithium-induced nephropathy. CE-MS (capillary electrophoresis coupled to a mass spectrometer) is a new technique that has been applied to the differential diagnosis of nephropathies. We sought to determine if CE-MS can be used to identify lithium-induced renal changes. A urine-sample was obtained from 14 subjects (7 males, 7 females, mean age 51.1 years) under long-term treatment with lithium (mean duration 17.4 years, range 8-35 years) without known nephropathy (mean creatinine 0.96 mg/dl; range 0.7-1.6). Urine samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analysis. CE-MS was performed according to standard procedures and a screen for nephropathies was used. Among the 14 urine samples, two subjects tested positive for a nephropathy. One further subject had a borderline result. Since 3/14 subjects with no known nephropathy showed some degree of pathological findings, CE-MS from a urine-sample may be helpful for the early detection of renal damage under treatment with lithium. However, a specific screen for lithium-induced nephropathies still needs to be developed.

  19. Detection of potentially hazardous convective clouds with a dual-polarized C-band radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Onogi, S.

    2013-04-01

    A method for forecasting very short-term rainfall to detect potentially hazardous convective cloud that produces heavy local rainfall was developed using actual volumetric C-band polarimetric radar data. Because the rainfall estimation algorithm used in this method removed the effect of ice particles based on polarimetric measurements, it was immune to the high reflectivity associated with hail. The reliability of the algorithm was confirmed by comparing the rainfall rate estimated from the polarimetric radar measurements at the lowest elevation angle with that obtained from an optical disdrometer on the ground. The rainfall rate estimated from polarimetric data agreed well with the results obtained from the disdrometer, and was much more reliable than results derived from reflectivity alone. Two small cumulus cells were analyzed, one of which developed and later produced heavy rainfall, whereas the other did not. Observations made by polarimetric radar with a volumetric scan revealed that a high vertical maximum intensity of rainfall rate and a vertical area of enhanced differential reflectivity extending above the freezing level, often termed a high ZDR column, were clearly formed about 10 min prior to the onset of heavy rainfall on the ground. The onset time of the heavy rainfall could be estimated in advance from the polarimetric data, which agreed fairly well with observations. These polarimetric characteristics were not observed for the cumulus cell that did not produce heavy rainfall. The results suggest that both the vertical maximum intensity of the rainfall rate and a high ZDR column, estimated from polarimetric measurements, can be used to identify potentially hazardous clouds. Furthermore, this study shows that polarimetric radar measurements with high spatial and temporal resolutions are invaluable for disaster reduction.

  20. Detection of potentially hazardous convective clouds with a dual-polarized C-band radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Onogi, S.

    2013-10-01

    A method for forecasting very short-term rainfall to detect potentially hazardous convective cloud that produces heavy local rainfall was developed using actual volumetric C-band polarimetric radar data. Because the rainfall estimation algorithm used in this method removed the effect of ice particles based on polarimetric measurements, it was immune to the high reflectivity associated with hail. The reliability of the algorithm was confirmed by comparing the rainfall rate estimated from the polarimetric radar measurements at the lowest elevation angle with that obtained from optical disdrometers on the ground. The rainfall rate estimated from polarimetric data agreed well with the results obtained from the disdrometers, and was much more reliable than results derived from reflectivity alone. Two small cumulus cells were analyzed, one of which developed and later produced heavy rainfall, whereas the other did not. Observations made by polarimetric radar with a volumetric scan revealed that a high vertical maximum intensity of rainfall rate and a vertical area of enhanced differential reflectivity extending above the freezing level, often termed a high ZDR column, were clearly formed about 10 min prior to the onset of heavy rainfall on the ground. The onset time of the heavy rainfall could be estimated in advance from the polarimetric data, which agreed fairly well with observations. These polarimetric characteristics were not observed for the cumulus cell that did not produce heavy rainfall. The results suggest that both the vertical maximum intensity of the rainfall rate and a high ZDR column, estimated from polarimetric measurements, can be used to identify potentially hazardous clouds. Furthermore, this study shows that polarimetric radar measurements with high spatial and temporal resolutions are invaluable for disaster reduction.

  1. Rethinking the Measurement of Adversity.

    PubMed

    Mersky, Joshua P; Janczewski, Colleen E; Topitzes, James

    2017-02-01

    Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has unified the study of interrelated risks and generated insights into the origins of disorder and disease. Ten indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction are widely accepted as ACEs, but further progress requires a more systematic approach to conceptualizing and measuring ACEs. Using data from a diverse, low-income sample of women who received home visiting services in Wisconsin ( N = 1,241), this study assessed the prevalence of and interrelations among 10 conventional ACEs and 7 potential ACEs: family financial problems, food insecurity, homelessness, parental absence, parent/sibling death, bullying, and violent crime. Associations between ACEs and two outcomes, perceived stress and smoking, were examined. The factor structure and test-retest reliability of ACEs was also explored. As expected, prevalence rates were high compared to studies of more representative samples. Except for parent/sibling death, all ACEs were intercorrelated and associated at the bivariate level with perceived stress and smoking. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed that conventional ACEs loaded on two factors, child maltreatment and household dysfunction, though a more complex four-factor solution emerged once new ACEs were introduced. All ACEs demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability. Implications and future directions toward a second generation of ACE research are discussed.

  2. Implementation of a microfluidic conductivity sensor -- a potential sweat electrolyte sensing system for dehydration detection.

    PubMed

    Gengchen Liu; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    As dehydration continues to plague performance athletes and soldiers, the need for improved dehydration detection is clear. We propose the use of a conductometric sensor as the foundation of a sweat-sensing patch to address this need. The conductometric sensor evaluates the conductivity of solutions with varying sodium concentrations. A lithographic process was used to fabricate a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel through which solution was flowed. The ionization of the solution that occurs when a voltage is applied results in an effective resistance across the channel. The measured resistance therefore, reflects the ionization of the solution and the corresponding sodium concentration. The potential application of the conductometric sensor in a sweat-sensing patch requires compatibility with a microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Thus, a circuit interface was created. A voltage divider was utilized to convert the output resistance of the sensor to a voltage that could be input into a microcontroller. An AC voltage signal with a frequency of 10 kHz was used as the source voltage of the voltage divider to minimize the faradaic impedance and the double layer effect of the ionized solution. Tests have revealed that the conductometric is capable of precisely measuring the conductivity of a sodium solution. The conductometric sensor will be applied to a sweat sensing patch through future work involving studying the link between sodium concentration in sweat and an individual's dehydration level, developing a sweat-collection method, and developing a method of consideration for the other ions contained in sweat.

  3. Detection of Matrix Crack Density of CFRP using an Electrical Potential Change Method with Multiple Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoroki, Akira; Omagari, Kazuomi

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminates are adopted for fuel tank structures of next generation space rockets or automobiles. Matrix cracks may cause fuel leak or trigger fatigue damage. A monitoring system of the matrix crack density is required. The authors have developed an electrical resistance change method for the monitoring of delamination cracks in CFRP laminates. Reinforcement fibers are used as a self-sensing system. In the present study, the electric potential method is adopted for matrix crack density monitoring. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to investigate the possibility of monitoring matrix crack density using multiple electrodes mounted on a single surface of a specimen. The FEA reveals the matrix crack density increases electrical resistance for a target segment between electrodes. Experimental confirmation was also performed using cross-ply laminates. Eight electrodes were mounted on a single surface of a specimen using silver paste after polishing of the specimen surface with sandpaper. The two outermost electrodes applied electrical current, and the inner electrodes measured electric voltage changes. The slope of electrical resistance during reloading is revealed to be an appropriate index for the detection of matrix crack density.

  4. The potential of the dwarf galaxy Triangulum II for dark matter indirect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Anna; Fairbairn, Malcolm

    2016-12-01

    The recently discovered object Triangulum II appears to be an ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy which may be one of the most dark-matter-dominated objects yet known. In this work we try to estimate the potential of this object for studies of the indirect detection of self-annihilating dark matter by obtaining its astrophysical J-factor. We perform a basic estimate of the velocity gradient to look for signs of the halo being tidally disrupted but show that the observed value is statistically compatible with zero velocity gradient. We solve the spherical Jeans equation using Markov chain Monte Carlo engine GreAT and the Jeans analysis part of the CLUMPY package. We find the results point towards a very large J-factor, appearing to make Triangulum II one of the best targets in the search for dark matter. However we stress that the very small number of line of sight velocities currently available for this object make follow-up studies essential.

  5. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    PubMed Central

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Isbell, Lynne A.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225–300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature. PMID:28387376

  6. Potential use of ground-based sensor technologies for weed detection.

    PubMed

    Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Weis, Martin; Andújar, Dionisio; Rueda Ayala, Victor; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Site-specific weed management is the part of precision agriculture (PA) that tries to effectively control weed infestations with the least economical and environmental burdens. This can be achieved with the aid of ground-based or near-range sensors in combination with decision rules and precise application technologies. Near-range sensor technologies, developed for mounting on a vehicle, have been emerging for PA applications during the last three decades. These technologies focus on identifying plants and measuring their physiological status with the aid of their spectral and morphological characteristics. Cameras, spectrometers, fluorometers and distance sensors are the most prominent sensors for PA applications. The objective of this article is to describe-ground based sensors that have the potential to be used for weed detection and measurement of weed infestation level. An overview of current sensor systems is presented, describing their concepts, results that have been achieved, already utilized commercial systems and problems that persist. A perspective for the development of these sensors is given.

  7. Near-infrared detection of potential evidence for microscopic organisms on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, J. Brad; Mogul, Rakesh; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Chan, Suzanne L.; Jamieson, Corey S.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of an ocean within the icy shell of Jupiter's moon Europa has established that world as a primary candidate in the search for extraterrestrial life within our Solar System. This paper evaluates the potential to detect evidence for microbial life by comparing laboratory studies of terrestrial microorganisms with measurements from the Galileo Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (NIMS). If the interior of Europa at one time harbored life, some evidence may remain in the surface materials. Examination of laboratory spectra of terrestrial extremophiles measured at cryogenic temperatures reveals distorted, asymmetric nearinfrared absorption features due to water of hydration. The band centers, widths, and shapes of these features closely match those observed in the Europa spectra. These features are strongest in reddish-brown, disrupted terrains such as linea and chaos regions. Narrow spectral features due to amide bonds in the microbe proteins provide a means of constraining the abundances of such materials using the NIMS data. The NIMS data of disrupted terrains exhibit distorted, asymmetric near-infrared absorption features consistent with the presence of water ice, sulfuric acid octahydrate, hydrated salts, and possibly as much as 0.2 mg cm(-3) of carbonaceous material that could be of biological origin. However, inherent noise in the observations and limitations of spectral sampling must be taken into account when discussing these findings.

  8. Multiplexed profiling of secreted proteins for the detection of potential space biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Dieriks, Birger; De Vos, Winnok H; Moreels, Marjan; Ghardi, Myriam; Hennekam, Raoul; Broers, Jos L V; Baatout, Sarah; van Oostveldt, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Space travel exposes astronauts to a plethora of potentially detrimental conditions, such as cosmic radiation and microgravity. As both factors are hard to simulate on Earth, present knowledge remains limited. However, this knowledge is of vital importance, making space flight experiments a necessity for determining the biological effects and the underlying biochemical processes, especially when keeping future long-term interplanetary missions in mind. Instead of estimating the long-term effects, which usually implicate severe endpoints (e.g., cancer) and which are often difficult to attribute, research has shifted to finding representative biomarkers for rapid and sensitive detection of individual radiosensitivity. In this context, an appealing set of candidate markers is the group of secreted proteins, as they exert an intercellular signaling function and are easy to assess. We screened a subset of secreted proteins in cells exposed to space travel by means of multiplex bead array analysis. To determine the cell-specific signatures of the secreted molecules, we compared the conditioned medium of normal fibroblast cells to fibroblasts isolated from a patient with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome, which are known to have a perturbed nuclear architecture and DNA damage response. Out of the 88 molecules screened, 20 showed a significant level increase or decrease, with a differential response to space conditions between the two cell types. Among the molecules that were retained, which may prove to be valuable biomarkers, are apolipoprotein C-III, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, β-2-microglobulin, ferritin, MMP-3, TIMP-1 and VEGF.

  9. Near-infrared detection of potential evidence for microscopic organisms on Europa.

    PubMed

    Dalton, J Brad; Mogul, Rakesh; Kagawa, Hiromi K; Chan, Suzanne L; Jamieson, Corey S

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of an ocean within the icy shell of Jupiter's moon Europa has established that world as a primary candidate in the search for extraterrestrial life within our Solar System. This paper evaluates the potential to detect evidence for microbial life by comparing laboratory studies of terrestrial microorganisms with measurements from the Galileo Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (NIMS). If the interior of Europa at one time harbored life, some evidence may remain in the surface materials. Examination of laboratory spectra of terrestrial extremophiles measured at cryogenic temperatures reveals distorted, asymmetric nearinfrared absorption features due to water of hydration. The band centers, widths, and shapes of these features closely match those observed in the Europa spectra. These features are strongest in reddish-brown, disrupted terrains such as linea and chaos regions. Narrow spectral features due to amide bonds in the microbe proteins provide a means of constraining the abundances of such materials using the NIMS data. The NIMS data of disrupted terrains exhibit distorted, asymmetric near-infrared absorption features consistent with the presence of water ice, sulfuric acid octahydrate, hydrated salts, and possibly as much as 0.2 mg cm(-3) of carbonaceous material that could be of biological origin. However, inherent noise in the observations and limitations of spectral sampling must be taken into account when discussing these findings.

  10. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  11. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment.

  12. Potentiality of SENTINEL-1 for landslide detection: first results in the Molise Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Anna; Monserrat, Oriol; Mazzanti, Paolo; Esposito, Carlo; Crosetto, Michele; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    A detailed inventory map, including information on landslide activity, is one of the most important input to landslide susceptibility and hazard analyses. The contribution of satellite SAR Interferometry in landslide risk mitigation is well-known within the scientific community. In fact, many encouraging results have been obtained, principally, in areas characterized by high coherence of the images (e.g. due to rock lithology or urban environment setting). In terms of coherence, the expected increased capabilities of Sentinel-1 for landslide mapping and monitoring are connected to both wavelength (55.5 mm) and short temporal baseline (12 days). The latter one is expected to be a key feature for increasing coherence and for defining monitoring and updating plans. With the aim of assessing these potentialities, we processed a set of 14 Sentinel-1 SLC images, acquired during a temporal span of 7 months, over the Molise region (Southern Italy), a critical area geologically susceptible to landslides. Even though Molise is mostly covered by crops and forested areas (63% and 35% respectively), that means a non-optimal coherence condition for SAR interferometry, promising results have been obtained. This has been achieved by integrating differential interferometric SAR techniques (12-days interferograms and time series) with GIS multilayer analysis (optical, geological, geomorphological, etc.). Specifically, analyzing a single burst of a Sentinel-1 frame (approximately 1875 km2), 62 landslides have been detected, thus allowing to improve the pre-existing inventory maps both in terms of landslide boundaries and state of activity. The results of our ongoing research show that Sentinel-1 can give a significant improvement in terms of exploitation of SAR data for landslide mapping and monitoring. As a matter of fact, by analyzing longer periods, it is expected to achieve a better understanding of landslide behavior and its relationship with triggering factors. This will be key

  13. Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

    2008-04-15

    Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment.

  14. Adverse consequences of immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The therapeutic uses of immunostimulatory agents are generally in the treatments of infections or cancer. The traditional example of vaccination is one form of immunostimulation used in the prevention of pathogenic infections or cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus vaccine). Recombinant cytokines are increasingly used to stimulate immune system function. For example, interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) and interleukin (IL)-2 have been used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection and metastatic melanoma, respectively. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies are used to target malignant cells for elimination via antibody-dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms or apoptosis, including the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the anti-CD56 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab used in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, and the anti-erb2 receptor antibody trastuzumab used in the treatment of breast cancer. Finally, immunostimulation may develop via modulation of pathways involved in immune system regulation. For example, the anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody TGN1412 was developed as an agonist of regulatory T-cells for treatment of T-cell-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases or leukemias. A panel was convened to discuss potential toxicities associated with immunostimulation. At the Immunotoxicology IV meeting in 2006, a panel, moderated by Dr. Robert House (Dynport Vaccine Co., Frederick, MD), included Drs. Gary Burleson (Burleson Research Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, NC), Kenneth Hastings (US FDA, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research [CDER], Rockville, MD), Barbara Mounho (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA), Rafael Ponce (ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA), Mark Wing (Huntington Life Sciences, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom), Lauren Black (Navigators Consulting, Sparks, NV) and Anne Pilaro (US FDA, CDER, Rockville, MD). This paper reviews the major identified toxicities associated with immunostimulation, including the acute phase response, cell and tissue abnormalities/injury, cytokine

  15. Improving the reporting of adverse drug reactions in the hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, Richard; Frassetto, Lynda; Tsourounis, Candy; Segal, Eleanor S; Kim, Stephanie

    2010-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is perceived by the public as having a substantial responsibility to ensure drug safety; however, the FDA has limited resources for active surveillance and relies on voluntary reporting of adverse events and potential adverse drug reactions. Studies have shown that underreporting of adverse events and adverse drug reactions is widespread. Furthermore, a review of several studies demonstrates that most adverse drug reactions are reported by pharmacists and nurses, with physicians reporting the fewest. The hospital setting, with its clearly defined patient population observed around the clock, is an ideal setting in which to identify potential adverse drug reaction signals and to report them to either the drug manufacturer or the FDA. In this article we describe the present system for addressing adverse events, obstacles to reporting them, and the important role any hospital physician could play in reporting adverse events and potential adverse drug reactions.

  16. Using Literature-Based Discovery to Explain Adverse Drug Effects.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Dimitar; Kastrin, Andrej; Dinevski, Dejan; Burgun, Anita; Žiberna, Lovro; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    We report on our research in using literature-based discovery (LBD) to provide pharmacological and/or pharmacogenomic explanations for reported adverse drug effects. The goal of LBD is to generate novel and potentially useful hypotheses by analyzing the scientific literature and optionally some additional resources. Our assumption is that drugs have effects on some genes or proteins and that these genes or proteins are associated with the observed adverse effects. Therefore, by using LBD we try to find genes or proteins that link the drugs with the reported adverse effects. These genes or proteins can be used to provide insight into the processes causing the adverse effects. Initial results show that our method has the potential to assist in explaining reported adverse drug effects.

  17. The potential of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for the detection of various doping agents used by athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, C.; Bartlome, R.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2006-11-01

    The feasibility of laser-photoacoustic measurements for the detection and the analysis of different isolated doping agents in the vapour phase is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that photoacoustic vapour-phase measurements of doping substances have been presented. Spectra of different doping classes (stimulants, anabolica, diuretica, and beta blockers) are shown and discussed in terms of their detection sensitivity and selectivity. The potential of laser spectroscopy for detecting the intake of prohibited substances by athletes is explored.

  18. Cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, S; Allegra, A; Calapai, G; Musolino, C; Gangemi, S

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) used principally in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), myelodysplastic syndromes (MS) and amyloidosis. Adverse reactions related to lenalidomide include myelosuppression (mainly neutropenia but also thrombocytopenia), gastrointestinal problems, skin eruption, atrial fibrillation and asthenia, decreased peripheral blood stem cell yield during stem cell collection, venous thromboembolism, and secondary malignances. In this review we focused our attention on the cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide.

  19. The potential value of three-dimensional accelerometry for detection of motor seizures in severe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nijsen, Tamara M E; Arends, Johan B A M; Griep, Paul A M; Cluitmans, Pierre J M

    2005-08-01

    Seizure detection results based on the visual analysis of three-dimensional (3D) accelerometry (ACM) and video/EEG recordings are reported for 18 patients with severe epilepsy. They were monitored for 36 hours during which 897 seizures were detected. This was seven times higher than the number of seizures reported by nurses during the registration period. The results in this article demonstrate that 3D ACM is a valuable sensing method for seizure detection in this population. Four hundred twenty-eight (48%) seizures were detected by ACM. With 3D ACM alone it was possible to detect all the seizures in 10 of the 18 patients. Three-dimensional ACM also was complementary to EEG in our population. ACM patterns during seizures were stereotypical in 95% of the motor seizures. These characteristic patterns are a starting point for automated seizure detection.

  20. Toxin detection based on action potential shape analysis using a realistic mathematical model of differentiated NG108-15 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Dinesh K; Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The NG108-15 neuroblastoma / glioma hybrid cell line has been frequently used for toxin detection, pharmaceutical screening and as a whole-cell biosensor. However, detailed analysis of its action potentials during toxin or drug administration has not been accomplished previously using patch clamp electrophysiology. In order to explore the possibility of identifying toxins based on their effect on the shape of intracellularly or extracellularly detected action potentials, we created a computer model of the action potential generation of this cell type. To generate the experimental data to validate the model, voltage dependent sodium, potassium and high-threshold calcium currents, as well as action potentials, were recorded from NG108-15 cells with conventional whole-cell patch-clamp methods. Based on the classic Hodgkin-Huxley formalism and the linear thermodynamic description of the rate constants, ion-channel parameters were estimated using an automatic fitting method. Utilizing the established parameters, action potentials were generated in the model and were optimized to represent the actual recorded action potentials to establish baseline conditions. To demonstrate the applicability of the method for toxin detection and discrimination, the effect of tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker) and tefluthrin (a pyrethroid that is a sodium channel opener) were studied. The two toxins affected the shape of the action potentials differently and their respective effects were identified based on the changes in the fitted parameters. Our results represent one of the first steps to establish a complex model of NG108-15 cells for quantitative toxin detection based on action potential shape analysis of the experimental results. PMID:16460924

  1. Data and Safety Monitoring Board evaluation and management of a renal adverse event signal in TOPCAT.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Michael R; Sharma, Kavita; Assmann, Susan F; Linas, Stuart; Gersh, Bernard J; Grady, Christine; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Singh, Steven; Boineau, Robin; McKinlay, Sonja M; Greenberg, Barry H

    2017-04-01

    Clinical trial Data and Safety Monitoring Boards (DSMBs) have a primary obligation of ensuring study participant safety, while maintaining trial integrity. The role of DSMBs is expanding, and ideally should include post-hoc reporting of deliberative processes related to clinically important safety issues or factors that could impact on future trial designs. We describe how the TOPCAT DSMB detected, investigated, and adjudicated an unexpectedly large renal adverse event signal midway through the trial, and offer general guidelines for dealing with similar unanticipated occurrences in future trials. The detection of a greater than expected incidence of deterioration in renal function, occurring in 6.1% of patients in the spironolactone arm compared with 3.9% in the placebo arm (P = 0.009), led to an in-depth DSMB review of associated study medication withdrawals and adverse events. The trial continued uninterrupted throughout the review, which reached the conclusions that spironolactone-associated renal dysfunction did not compromise overall patient safety or interfere with a perceived efficacy signal. Although no discrete mechanism for the spironolactone-associated renal adverse event signal was identified, likely possibilities are discussed. In clinical trials, DSMBs and co-ordinating centres should have the resources to detect, investigate, and adjudicate unexpected safety issues, with goals of ensuring patient safety and preserving the potential for detection of therapeutic effectiveness. In TOPCAT, spironolactone-associated renal dysfunction emerged as a potentially trial-threatening adverse event and, although clinically important, did not lead to compromise of patient safety, trial interruption, termination, or apparent loss of treatment effectiveness.

  2. Adverse effects of public health interventions: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Theo; Oliver, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Public health interventions may have a range of adverse effects. However, there is limited guidance as to how evaluations should address the possibility of adverse effects. This discussion paper briefly presents a framework for thinking about the potential harms of public health interventions, focusing on the following categories: direct harms; psychological harms; equity harms; group and social harms; and opportunity harms. We conclude that the possibility of adverse effects needs to be taken into account by those implementing and evaluating interventions, and requires a broad perspective on the potential impacts of public health strategies.

  3. MedWatch, the FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Program MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... information that can help patients avoid serious adverse events. Potential Signals of Serious Risks/New Safety Information ...

  4. Objective detection and localization of multiple sclerosis lesions on magnetic resonance brainstem images: validation with auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Stufflebeam, S M; Levine, R A; Gardner, J C; Fullerton, B C; Furst, M; Rosen, B R

    2000-01-01

    To develop an objective method for detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) brainstem lesions, magnetic resonance (MR) images (multiple planar, spin-echo, acquired in three planes of section) of sixteen MS patients and fourteen normal subjects were analyzed with an algorithm that detected regions with a relatively increased intensity on both a spin-echo image and a T2 image. To be considered a lesion, such regions had to overlap in at least two orthogonal planes. Using a digitized atlas of the human brainstem, the lesion locations were mapped with respect to the brainstem anatomy. This method was evaluated by comparing the location of MS lesions with the brainstem auditory evoked potentials obtained from these subjects. Brainstem lesions were detected in five MS patients; four had lesions impinging upon the auditory system and one did not. All four had abnormal evoked potentials. The fourteen normal subjects, the one MS patient with brainstem lesions outside the auditory pathway, and the eleven other MS patients with no brainstem lesions all had normal evoked potentials. The requirement that lesions be detected in at least two planes of section greatly improved the specificity of the algorithm. The consistency between the MR and brainstem auditory evoked potentials results supports the validity of this imaging analysis algorithm for objectively localizing brainstem lesions.

  5. Rock face stability analysis and potential rockfall source detection in Yosemite Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matasci, B.; Stock, G. M.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Oppikofer, T.; Pedrazzini, A.; Carrea, D.

    2012-04-01

    Rockfall hazard in Yosemite Valley is especially high owing to the great cliff heights (~1 km), the fracturing of the steep granitic cliffs, and the widespread occurrence of surface parallel sheeting or exfoliation joints. Between 1857 and 2011, 890 documented rockfalls and other slope movements caused 15 fatalities and at least 82 injuries. The first part of this study focused on realizing a structural study for Yosemite Valley at both regional (valley-wide) and local (rockfall source area) scales. The dominant joint sets were completely characterized by their orientation, persistence, spacing, roughness and opening. Spacing and trace length for each joint set were accurately measured on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds with the software PolyWorks (InnovMetric). Based on this fundamental information the second part of the study aimed to detect the most important failure mechanisms leading to rockfalls. With the software Matterocking and the 1m cell size DEM, we calculated the number of possible failure mechanisms (wedge sliding, planar sliding, toppling) per cell, for several cliffs of the valley. Orientation, spacing and persistence measurements directly issued from field and TLS data were inserted in the Matterocking calculations. TLS point clouds are much more accurate than the 1m DEM and show the overhangs of the cliffs. Accordingly, with the software Coltop 3D we developed a methodology similar to the one used with Matterocking to identify on the TLS point clouds the areas of a cliff with the highest number of failure mechanisms. Exfoliation joints are included in this stability analysis in the same way as the other joint sets, with the only difference that their orientation is parallel to the local cliff orientation and thus variable. This means that, in two separate areas of a cliff, the exfoliation joint set is taken into account with different dip direction and dip, but its effect on the stability assessment is the same. Areas with a high

  6. The truth will out: interrogative polygraphy ("lie detection") with event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Farwell, L A; Donchin, E

    1991-09-01

    The feasibility of using Event Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) in Interrogative Polygraphy ("Lie Detection") was tested by examining the effectiveness of the Guilty Knowledge Test designed by Farwell and Donchin (1986, 1988). The subject is assigned an arbitrary task requiring discrimination between experimenter-designated targets and other, irrelevant stimuli. A group of diagnostic items ("probes"), which to the unwitting are indistinguishable from the irrelevant items, are embedded among the irrelevant. For subjects who possess "guilty knowledge" these probes are distinct from the irrelevants and are likely to elicit a P300, thus revealing their possessing the special knowledge that allows them to differentiate the probes from the irrelevants. We report two experiments in which this paradigm was tested. In Experiment 1, 20 subjects participated in one of two mock espionage scenarios and were tested for their knowledge of both scenarios. All stimuli consisted of short phrases presented for 300 ms each at an interstimulus interval of 1550 ms. A set of items were designated as "targets" and appeared on 17% of the trials. Probes related to the scenarios also appeared on 17% of the trials. The rest of the items were irrelevants. Subjects responded by pressing one switch following targets, and the other following irrelevants (and, of course, probes). ERPs were recorded from FZ, CZ, and PZ. As predicted, targets elicited large P300s in all subjects. Probes associated with a given scenario elicited a P300 in subjects who participated in that scenario. A bootstrapping method was used to assess the quality of the decision for each subject. The algorithm declared the decision indeterminate in 12.5% of the cases. In all other cases a decision was made. There were no false positives and no false negatives: whenever a determination was made it was accurate. The second experiment was virtually identical to the first, with identical results, except that this time 4 subjects were

  7. Potential Application of Nanomaterials to treat and detect the contaminated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    An ecosystem is very immense to maintain global environmental balance but an imbalance of water alters the function of ecosystems that affects all life on our planet Earth. The destruction of agricultural land, lakes, ponds, rivers, and oceans locally and globally creates environmental imbalances so that catastrophically damage to be appeared widely. The water cycle continually circulates evaporated water into the atmosphere and returns it as precipitation in balance form. If variety of toxins, heavy metals, oils and agricultural chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, all get absorbed into soil and groundwater. Then an imbalance appeared for example runoff carries these pollutants into lakes, rivers and oceanic water, as a result, all forms of water evaporated as part of the water cycle and return to the earth as acid rain, which causes worldwide environmental imbalances by killing our ecosystems. Deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization create environmental imbalances in many ways. Soil erosion in the form of dust from wind causes human infectious diseases, including anthrax and tuberculosis. An environmental imbalance occurs due to greenhouse gases, which accumulate in the atmosphere and trap excessive amounts of heat causes global warming, that is purportedly responsible for environmental disasters such as, rising sea levels, floods and the melting of polar ice caps. Our problem is "all talk, no action" and "jack of all trades, master of none". Our efforts in this hot topic are to make balance of water rather than imbalance of water by using positive potential of naomaterials utility and applications to eliminate toxicants/pollutants/adulterants/carcinogens from all forms of imbalance water to save our local and global ecosystems as a balance and healthy wealthy. Several natural, engineered, and non-engineered nanomaterials have strong antimicrobial properties (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, AgNPs, CNTs, fullerene, graphene), used as antimicrobial agents as

  8. The potential role of dynamic thermal analysis in breast cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Salhab, M; Keith, LG; Laguens, M; Reeves, W; Mokbel, K

    2006-01-01

    Background It is presently well accepted that the breast exhibits a circadian rhythm reflective of its physiology. There is increasing evidence that rhythms associated with malignant cells proliferation are largely non-circadian. Cancer development appears to generate its own thermal signatures and the complexity of these signatures may be a reflection of its degree of development. The limitations of mammography as a screening modality especially in young women with dense breasts necessitated the development of novel and more effective screening strategies with a high sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility of dynamic thermal analysis (DTA) as a potential breast cancer screening tool. Methods 173 women undergoing mammography as part of clinical assessment of their breast symptoms were recruited prior to having a biopsy. Thermal data from the breast surface were collected every five minutes for a period of 48 hours using eight thermal sensors placed on each breast surface [First Warning System (FWS), Lifeline Biotechnologies, Florida, USA]. Thermal data were recorded by microprocessors during the test period and analysed using specially developed statistical software. Temperature points from each contra-lateral sensor are plotted against each other to form a thermal motion picture of a lesion's physiological activity. DTA interpretations [positive (abnormal thermal signature) and negative (normal thermal signature)] were compared with mammography and final histology findings. Results 118 (68%) of participating patients, were found to have breast cancer on final histology. Mammography was diagnostic of malignancy (M5) in 55 (47%), indeterminate (M3, M4) in 54 (46%) and normal/benign (M1, M2) in 9 (8%) patients. DTA data was available on 160 (92.5%) participants. Using our initial algorithm, DTA was interpreted as positive in 113 patients and negative in 47 patients. Abnormal thermal signatures were found in 76

  9. Single-trial detection of visual evoked potentials by common spatial patterns and wavelet filtering for brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiheng; Huang, Gan; Hung, Yeung Sam; Hu, Li; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems as input signals conveying a subject's intention. A fast and reliable single-trial ERP detection method can be used to develop a BCI system with both high speed and high accuracy. However, most of single-trial ERP detection methods are developed for offline EEG analysis and thus have a high computational complexity and need manual operations. Therefore, they are not applicable to practical BCI systems, which require a low-complexity and automatic ERP detection method. This work presents a joint spatial-time-frequency filter that combines common spatial patterns (CSP) and wavelet filtering (WF) for improving the signal-to-noise (SNR) of visual evoked potentials (VEP), which can lead to a single-trial ERP-based BCI.

  10. Comparison between nasopharyngeal swab and nasal wash, using culture and PCR, in the detection of potential respiratory pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens is important as it is both the major source of transmission and the prerequisite of invasive disease. New methods for detecting carriage could improve comfort, accuracy and laboratory utility. The aims of this study were to compare the sensitivities of a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and a nasal wash (NW) in detecting potential respiratory pathogens in healthy adults using microbiological culture and PCR. Results Healthy volunteers attended for nasal washing and brushing of the posterior nasopharynx. Conventional and real-time PCR were used to detect pneumococcus and meningococcus. Statistical differences between the two nasal sampling methods were determined using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test; differences between culture and PCR methods were determined using the McNemar test. Nasal washing was more comfortable for volunteers than swabbing (n = 24). In detection by culture, the NW was significantly more likely to detect pathogens than the NPS (p < 0.00001). Overall, there was a low carriage rate of pathogens in this sample; no significant difference was seen in the detection of bacteria between culture and PCR methods. Conclusions Nasal washing and PCR may provide effective alternatives to nasopharyngeal swabbing and classical microbiology, respectively. PMID:21489228

  11. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy.

  12. Direct cortical stimulation but not transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials detect brain ischemia during brain tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenghua; Deshaies, Eric M; Allott, Geoffrey; Canute, Gregory; Gorji, Reza

    2011-09-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by both direct cortical stimulation (DCS) and transcranial electrical stimulation are used during brain tumor resection. Parallel use of direct cortical stimulation motor evoked potentials (DCS-MEPs) and transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials (TCeMEPs) has been practiced during brain tumor resection. We report that DCS-MEPs elicited by direct subdural grid stimulation, but not TCeMEPs, detected brain ischemia during brain tumor resection. Following resection of a brainstem high-grade glioma in a 21-year-old, the threshold of cortical motor-evoked-potentials (cMEPs) increased from 13 mA to 20 mA while amplitudes decreased. No changes were noted in transcranial motor evoked potentials (TCMEPs), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), anesthetics, or hemodynamic parameters. Our case showed the loss of cMEPs and SSEPs, but not TCeMEPs. Permanent loss of DCS-MEPs and SSEPs was correlated with permanent left hemiplegia in our patient even when appropriate action was taken. Parallel use of DCS- and TCeMEPs with SSEPs improves sensitivity of intraoperative detection of motor impairment. DCS may be superior to TCeMEPs during brain tumor resection.

  13. The potential of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors to detect generic deviations from general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narikawa, Tatsuya; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the potential of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA to detect generic deviations of gravitational waveforms from the predictions of general relativity. We use the parameterized post-Einsteinian formalism to characterize the deviations, and assess what magnitude of deviations are detectable by using an approximate decision scheme based on Bayesian statistics. We find that there exist detectable regions of the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters for different binary masses from the observation of a single gravitational wave event. The regions are not excluded by currently existing binary pulsar observations for the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters at higher post-Newtonian order. We also find that neglect of orbital eccentricity or tidal deformation effects do not cause a significant bias on the detectable region of generic deviations from general relativity.

  14. (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET may have the potential to detect cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Shozo, Okamoto; Shiga, Tohru; Uchiyama, Yuko; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Watanabe, Shiro; Toyonaga, Takuya; Kikuchi, Hisaya; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-02-01

    (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer that accumulates in hypoxic tissues. We here present a case of suspected cardiac sarcoidosis which was detected with increased FMISO uptake.

  15. Measuring errors and adverse events in health care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eric J; Petersen, Laura A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we identify 8 methods used to measure errors and adverse events in health care and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. We focus on the reliability and validity of each, as well as the ability to detect latent errors (or system errors) versus active errors and adverse events. We propose a general framework to help health care providers, researchers, and administrators choose the most appropriate methods to meet their patient safety measurement goals.

  16. [Statin-induced adverse effects -- facts and genes].

    PubMed

    Harangi, Mariann; Zsíros, Noémi; Juhász, Lilla; Paragh, György

    2013-01-20

    Statin therapy is considered to be safe and rarely associated with serious adverse events. However, a significant proportion of patients on statin therapy show some degree of intolerance which can lead to decreased adherence to statin therapy. The authors summarize the symptoms, signs and frequencies of the most common statin-induced adverse effects and their most important risk factors including some single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene mutations. Also, they review the available approaches to detect and manage the statin-intolerant patients.

  17. Theoretical foundations of the sound analog membrane potential that underlies coincidence detection in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Go; Funabiki, Kazuo; Carr, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of neurons encode temporal information via phase-locked spikes. In the avian auditory brainstem, neurons in the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) send phase-locked synaptic inputs to coincidence detector neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) that mediate sound localization. Previous modeling studies suggested that converging phase-locked synaptic inputs may give rise to a periodic oscillation in the membrane potential of their target neuron. Recent physiological recordings in vivo revealed that owl NL neurons changed their spike rates almost linearly with the amplitude of this oscillatory potential. The oscillatory potential was termed the sound analog potential, because of its resemblance to the waveform of the stimulus tone. The amplitude of the sound analog potential recorded in NL varied systematically with the interaural time difference (ITD), which is one of the most important cues for sound localization. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying ITD computation in the NM-NL circuit, we provide detailed theoretical descriptions of how phase-locked inputs form oscillating membrane potentials. We derive analytical expressions that relate presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic factors to the signal and noise components of the oscillation in both the synaptic conductance and the membrane potential. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity of the theoretical formulations for the entire frequency ranges tested (1-8 kHz) and potential effects of higher harmonics on NL neurons with low best frequencies (<2 kHz).

  18. Theoretical foundations of the sound analog membrane potential that underlies coincidence detection in the barn owl

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Go; Funabiki, Kazuo; Carr, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of neurons encode temporal information via phase-locked spikes. In the avian auditory brainstem, neurons in the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) send phase-locked synaptic inputs to coincidence detector neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) that mediate sound localization. Previous modeling studies suggested that converging phase-locked synaptic inputs may give rise to a periodic oscillation in the membrane potential of their target neuron. Recent physiological recordings in vivo revealed that owl NL neurons changed their spike rates almost linearly with the amplitude of this oscillatory potential. The oscillatory potential was termed the sound analog potential, because of its resemblance to the waveform of the stimulus tone. The amplitude of the sound analog potential recorded in NL varied systematically with the interaural time difference (ITD), which is one of the most important cues for sound localization. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying ITD computation in the NM-NL circuit, we provide detailed theoretical descriptions of how phase-locked inputs form oscillating membrane potentials. We derive analytical expressions that relate presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic factors to the signal and noise components of the oscillation in both the synaptic conductance and the membrane potential. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity of the theoretical formulations for the entire frequency ranges tested (1–8 kHz) and potential effects of higher harmonics on NL neurons with low best frequencies (<2 kHz). PMID:24265616

  19. Nonhemostatic adverse effects of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Walenga, Jeanine M; Thethi, Indermohan; Lewis, Bruce E

    2012-11-01

    The topic of adverse effects of drugs is now receiving due attention in both the lay and medical communities. For drugs of the coagulation disorder class, such as anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, the obvious adverse effects are bleeding from a dose too high and thrombosis from a dose too low. However, these drugs have other potential adverse effects that are not directly related to blood coagulation, yet cannot be dismissed due to their medical importance. There has been a recent advancement of several new drugs in this category and this number will soon grow as more drugs are reaching the end of their clinical trials. This article will discuss the nonhemostatic adverse effects of anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. As the adverse effects of bleeding and thrombosis will be excluded, this article will be in contrast to the typical discussions on the anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug classes.

  20. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  1. Potential of Pest and Host Phenological Data in the Attribution of Regional Forest Disturbance Detection Maps According to Causal Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman Steve; Christie, William

    2014-01-01

    Near real time forest disturbance detection maps from MODIS NDVI phenology data have been produced since 2010 for the conterminous U.S., as part of the on-line ForWarn national forest threat early warning system. The latter has been used by the forest health community to identify and track many regional forest disturbances caused by multiple biotic and abiotic damage agents. Attribution of causal agents for detected disturbances has been a goal since project initiation in 2006. Combined with detailed cover type maps, geospatial pest phenology data offer a potential means for narrowing the candidate causal agents responsible for a given biotic disturbance. U.S. Aerial Detection Surveys (ADS) employ such phenology data. Historic ADS products provide general locational data on recent insect-induced forest type specific disturbances that may help in determining candidate causal agents for MODIS-based disturbance maps, especially when combined with other historic geospatial disturbance data (e.g., wildfire burn scars and drought maps). Historic ADS disturbance detection polygons can show severe and extensive regional forest disturbances, though they also can show polygons with sparsely scattered or infrequent disturbances. Examples will be discussed that use various historic disturbance data to help determine potential causes of MODIS-detected regional forest disturbance anomalies.

  2. Surveillance Potential of Non-Native Hawaiian Birds for Detection of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Brand, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999. Alaska and Hawaii (HI) remain the only U.S. states in which transmission of WNV has not been detected. Dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. In North America, corvids have played a major role in WNV surveillance; however, the only corvid in HI is the endangered Hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for WNV surveillance in HI. To evaluate the suitability of alternate avian species for WNV surveillance, we experimentally challenged seven abundant non-native bird species present in HI with WNV and compared mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and seroconversion. For detection of WNV in oral swabs, we compared viral culture, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RAMP® test. For detection of antibodies to WNV, we compared an indirect and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. We found four species (house sparrow, house finch, Japanese white-eye, and Java sparrow) that may be useful in dead bird surveillance for WNV; while common myna, zebra dove, and spotted dove survived infection and may be useful in serosurveillance. PMID:26304918

  3. Surveillance potential of non-native Hawaiian birds for detection of West Nile Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Brand, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999. Alaska and Hawaii (HI) remain the only U.S. states in which transmission of WNV has not been detected. Dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. In North America, corvids have played a major role in WNV surveillance; however, the only corvid in HI is the endangered Hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for WNV surveillance in HI. To evaluate the suitability of alternate avian species for WNV surveillance, we experimentally challenged seven abundant non-native bird species present in HI with WNV and compared mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and seroconversion. For detection of WNV in oral swabs, we compared viral culture, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RAMP® test. For detection of antibodies to WNV, we compared an indirect and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. We found four species (house sparrow, house finch, Japanese white-eye, and Java sparrow) that may be useful in dead bird surveillance for WNV; while common myna, zebra dove, and spotted dove survived infection and may be useful in serosurveillance.

  4. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials.

    PubMed

    Potas, Jason Robert; de Castro, Newton Gonçalves; Maddess, Ted; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for studying evoked compound

  5. A self-referential outlier detection method for quantitative motor unit action potential analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheean, Geoffrey L

    2012-04-01

    Quantitative MUAP analysis is often based on outlier detection, in the case of neurogenic conditions, the finding of MUAPs that are larger than the limit determined from a reference normal population. Such reference data is available from only a few sources and for only a few muscles. It would be desirable if muscles could serve as their own controls. The Henneman size principle determines the order of recruitment, following an exponential distribution of twitch force, motor neurone, motor unit, and MUAP size. Therefore, an outlier could be detected by being too large for the level of recruitment, as judged by its size relative to the other MUAPs. This would improve the sensitivity of detecting neurogenic muscles and obviate the need for external reference data.

  6. DNA Probes As Potential Tools for the Detection of Marteilia refringens.

    PubMed

    Le Roux F; Audemard; Barnaud; Berthe

    1999-11-01

    Since its first description, the paramyxean parasite Marteilia refringens has been recognized as a significant pathogen of bivalve mollusks. The existence of a complex life cycle was postulated by many authors. Here we report the development of DNA-based detection assays as powerful tools to elucidate the Marteilia refringens life cycle. After alignment of the Marteilia refringens ribosomal DNA small subunit sequence with those of various eukaryotic organisms, polymerase chain reaction primers were designed. Specific primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from purified Marteilia refringens and infected hosts. The specificity of amplified fragments was confirmed by Southern blotting with an oligoprobe. For in situ hybridization, four probes were tested for specific detection of 18S rRNA isolated from Marteilia refringens and other eukaryotic cells by Northern blotting. The most specific probe, Smart 2, was successfully used to detect Marteilia refringens by in situ hybridization in infected oysters and mussels.

  7. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I; Lee, Tim K

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  8. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  9. Label-free visualization of collagen in submucosa as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jingting; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Guan, Guoxian; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    The collagen signature in colorectal submucosa is changed due to remodeling of the extracellular matrix during the malignant process and plays an important role in noninvasive early detection of human colorectal cancer. In this work, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the changes of collagen in normal colorectal submucosa (NCS) and cancerous colorectal submucosa (CCS). What's more, the collagen content was quantitatively measured. It was found that in CCS the morphology of collagen becomes much looser and the collagen content is significantly reduced compared to NCS. These results suggest that MPM has the ability to provide collagen signature as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of colorectal cancer.

  10. Specific detection of potentially allergenic kiwifruit in foods using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hirao, Takashi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shinobu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuda, Rieko; Urisu, Atsuo; Maitani, Tamio

    2007-03-07

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis) is allergenic to sensitive patients, and, under Japanese regulations, it is one of the food items that are recommended to be declared on food labeling as much as possible. To develop PCR-based methods for the detection of trace amounts of kiwifruit in foods, two primer pairs targeting the ITS-1 region of the Actinidia spp. were designed using PCR simulation software. On the basis of the known distribution of a major kiwifruit allergen (actinidin) within the Actinidia spp., as well as of reports on clinical and immunological cross-reactivities, one of the primer pairs was designed to detect all Actinidia spp. and the other to detect commercially grown Actinidia spp. (i.e., kiwifruit, Actinidia arguta, and their interspecific hybrids) except for Actinidia polygama. The specificity of the developed methods using the designed primer pairs was verified by performing PCR experiments on 8 Actinidia spp. and 26 other plants including fruits. The methods were considered to be specific enough to yield target-size products only from the target Actinidia spp. and to detect no target-size products from nontarget species. The methods were sensitive enough to detect 5-50 fg of Actinidia spp. DNA spiked in 50 ng of salmon testis DNA used as a carrier (1-10 ppm of kiwifruit DNA) and 1700 ppm (w/w) of fresh kiwifruit puree spiked in a commercial plain yogurt (corresponding to ca. 10 ppm of kiwifruit protein). These methods would be expected to be useful in the detection of hidden kiwifruit and its related species in processed foods.

  11. Best practice for single-trial detection of event-related potentials: Application to brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cecotti, Hubert; Ries, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    The detection of event-related potentials (ERPs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is a fundamental component in non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research, and in modern cognitive neuroscience studies. Whereas the grand average response across trials provides an estimation of essential characteristics of a brain-evoked response, an estimation of the differences between trials for a particular type of stimulus can provide key insight about the brain dynamics and possible origins of the brain response. The research in ERP single-trial detection has been mainly driven by applications in biomedical engineering, with an interest from machine learning and signal processing groups that test novel methods on noisy signals. Efficient single-trial detection techniques require processing steps that include temporal filtering, spatial filtering, and classification. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art methods for single-trial detection of event-related potentials with applications in BCI. Efficient single-trial detection techniques should embed simple yet efficient functions requiring as few hyper-parameters as possible. The focus of this paper is on methods that do not include a large number of hyper-parameters and can be easily implemented with datasets containing a limited number of trials. A benchmark of different classification methods is proposed on a database recorded from sixteen healthy subjects during a rapid serial visual presentation task. The results support the conclusion that single-trial detection can be achieved with an area under the ROC curve superior to 0.9 with less than ten sensors and 20 trials corresponding to the presentation of a target. Whereas the number of sensors is not a key element for efficient single-trial detection, the number of trials must be carefully chosen for creating a robust classifier.

  12. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk research. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines, AOPs are pathways with one MIE anchored to an adverse outcome (AO) by key events (KEs) and key event relationships (KERs). However, this approach does not always capture the cumulative impacts of multiple MIEs on the AO. For example, hepatic lipid flux due to chemical-induced toxicity initiates from multiple ligand-activated receptors and signaling pathways that cascade across biology to converge upon a common fatty liver (FL, also known as steatosis) outcome. To capture this complexity, a top-down strategy was used to develop a FL AOP network (AOPnet). Literature was queried based on the terms steatosis, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Search results were analyzed for physiological and pathophysiological organ level, cellular and molecular processes, as well as pathway intermediates, to identify potential KEs and MIEs that are key for hepatic lipid metabolism, maintenance, and dysregulation. The analysis identified four apical KE nodes (hepatic fatty acid uptake, de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis, fatty acid oxidation, and lipid efflux) juxtaposed to the FL AO. The apic

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  14. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  15. Early Warning and Outbreak Detection Using Social Networking Websites: The Potential of Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Quincey, Ed; Kostkova, Patty

    Epidemic Intelligence is being used to gather information about potential diseases outbreaks from both formal and increasingly informal sources. A potential addition to these informal sources are social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter. In this paper we describe a method for extracting messages, called "tweets" from the Twitter website and the results of a pilot study which collected over 135,000 tweets in a week during the current Swine Flu pandemic.

  16. Anti-cysticercus antibody detection in saliva as a potential diagnostic tool for neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Rumpa; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Shah, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Sunil; Kaur, Iqbal Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was planned to determine the usefulness of anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection in saliva for neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosis, along with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level to serve as a surrogate marker. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study of 14 months duration, blood and saliva samples were collected from 40 patients suspected to be suffering from NCC and were subjected to anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection by ELISA. Serum CRP levels were estimated as acute-phase reactant by high sensitivity CRP ELISA. Results: Anti-cysticercus IgG was detected in serum and saliva of 34 and 30 patients, respectively. Cases positive for salivary antibody were positive for serum antibody and their serum CRP level was higher than normal. Cases negative for salivary antibody had low serum CRP levels. Anti-cysticercus IgG detection in saliva was 88.24% sensitive, 100% specific, and had a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 60%. Positive salivary anti-cysticercus IgG and high serum CRP level showed a significant association. Difference between CRP levels of patients positive for anti-cysticercus antibody in both serum and saliva, and patients positive for antibody in serum but not saliva was highly significant. Conclusions: Saliva, being painless and noninvasive, can be used as alternative to serum for NCC diagnosis. PMID:27570404

  17. Description and seasonal detection of two potential whale calls recorded in the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Andreia G; Harris, Danielle

    2015-09-01

    Unidentified acoustic signals are recorded by hydrophones placed in the world's oceans. Some of these sounds are suspected to originate from marine mammals. In this study, two acoustic signals recorded by two arrays at Diego Garcia in the northern Indian Ocean are described. Data were available between January 2002 and December 2003. Signals were detected manually using long-term spectral average plots. Time and frequency measurements were taken from a sample of both signals. The first unidentified signal [Diego Garcia Downsweep (DGD)] consisted of two main components. The mean frequency range of the entire signal was 19.3-45.0 Hz, with a mean duration of 36.5 s (n = 22). Detections of DGD at the northern array peaked in the austral summer, though detections at the southern array peaked during winter and spring. The second unidentified signal [Diego Garcia Croak (DGC)] consisted of one component with a mean frequency range of 16.9-49.6 Hz. The mean duration of the signal was 13.1 s (n = 10). Detections of DGC did not follow a clear seasonal pattern. These signals followed characteristics of biological sources, suggesting that they could be whale calls. Fin whale calls and possible blue whales D-calls were also identified in the data.

  18. Detecting Power Outages with the VIIRS DNB Images - potentials and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, C.; Uprety, S.; Shao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Power outages after a major storm or hurricane affect millions of people. The launch of the Suomi NPP with the VIIRS significantly enhances our capability to monitor and detect power outages on a daily basis with the Day Night Band (DNB) which outperforms the traditional OSL on DMSP satellites in both spatial and radiometric resolutions. This study explores the use of the DNB for detecting power outages in the Washington DC metropolitan area in June 2012, which was the largest non-hurricane power outage in history for the region with millions of people lost power, and state of emergency declared in some states such as Virginia. The DNB data were analyzed for the period one week before and after the storm. The light loss is estimated through image differencing techniques for spatial patterns, as well as total radiance and irradiance changes as a time series. The effects of cloud absorption and scattering are evaluated using the cloud masks from VIIRS products, and the long wave thermal infrared images are also used to assist the assessment. The results show that the DNB data are very useful for both spatial and radiometric detection of light loss, but also with some challenges due to clouds and the known terminator straylight effect of the instrument for the region during summer solstice. It is expected that further refinements in the methodology will significantly reduce the uncertainties. A VIIRS Data Robotics system is also being developed which will allow the routine detection of power outages for any given location worldwide.

  19. Raman spectroscopy as a potential tool for detection of Brucella spp. in milk.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Susann; Stöckel, Stephan; Elschner, Mandy; Melzer, Falk; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Detection of Brucella, causing brucellosis, is very challenging, since the applied techniques are mostly time-demanding and not standardized. While the common detection system relies on the cultivation of the bacteria, further classical typing up to the biotype level is mostly based on phenotypic or genotypic characteristics. The results of genotyping do not always fit the existing taxonomy, and misidentifications between genetically closely related genera cannot be avoided. This situation gets even worse, when detection from complex matrices, such as milk, is necessary. For these reasons, the availability of a method that allows early and reliable identification of possible Brucella isolates for both clinical and epidemiological reasons would be extremely useful. We evaluated micro-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis to identify Brucella from agar plates and directly from milk: prior to these studies, the samples were inactivated via formaldehyde treatment to ensure a higher working safety. The single-cell Raman spectra of different Brucella, Escherichia, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, and Yersinia spp. were measured to create two independent databases for detection in media and milk. Identification accuracies of 92% for Brucella from medium and 94% for Brucella from milk were obtained while analyzing the single-cell Raman spectra via support vector machine. Even the identification of the other genera yielded sufficient results, with accuracies of >90%. In summary, micro-Raman spectroscopy is a promising alternative for detecting Brucella. The measurements we performed at the single-cell level thus allow fast identification within a few hours without a demanding process for sample preparation.

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Ana Lucia Noronha; Correr, Wagner Rafael; Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu; Kern, Vivian Galletta; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Oral cancer is a public health problem with relevant incidence in the world population. The affected patient usually presents advanced stage disease and the consequence of this delay is a reduction in survival rates. Given this, it is essential to detect oral cancer at early stages. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that can improve cancer detection in real time. It is a fast and accurate technique, relatively simple, which evaluates the biochemical composition and structure using the tissue fluorescence spectrum as interrogation data. Several studies have positive data regarding the tools for differentiating between normal mucosa and cancer, but the difference between cancer and potentially malignant disorders is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy in the discrimination of normal oral mucosa, oral cancer, and potentially malignant disorders. The fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated in 115 individuals, of whom 55 patients presented oral squamous cell carcinoma, 30 volunteers showing normal oral mucosa, and 30 patients having potentially malignant disorders. The spectra were classified and compared to histopathology to evaluate the efficiency in diagnostic discrimination employing fluorescence. In order to classify the spectra, a decision tree algorithm (C4.5) was applied. Despite of the high variance observed in spectral data, the specificity and sensitivity obtained were 93.8% and 88.5%, respectively at 406 nm excitation. These results point to the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy as an important tool for oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders.

  1. Joint Commission suspends 'auto' adverse decision.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    The Joint Commission's revision of its policy on root cause analysis puts greater attention of something that, quite frankly, some ED managers might not have been aware of. The ED manager plays an important role when events occur in the department, such as: knowing who the main Joint Commission contact is in the hospital, and making them aware of a potential adverse or sentinel event that has occurred; participating in the root cause analysis to identify what ED processes might need improvement; making sure the remedial activities recommended can be measured, so The Joint Commission can see an active attempt is being made to improve.

  2. [Adverse drug effects in the community pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Arnet, Isabelle; Seidling, Hanna M; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2015-12-01

    Community pharmacists represent an important pillar for the identification and the reporting of adverse drug effects (ADE}. Thanks to their broad view on the pharmacotherapy, over-the-counter medication included, they contribute greatly to the improvement of drug safety. In principle, the community pharmacy will face three groups of ADE which require specific attention. This article deals with these specific ADE groups and presents some illustrative examples from daily practice. Furthermore, we suggest some solutions to identify potential relevant interactions - including herbal-drug interactions - and give tips for daily practice, along with some often overseen cutaneous ADE.

  3. Mitigation of adverse environmental and unavoidable impacts

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a broad scope discussion of the mitigation of adverse environmental and unavoidable impacts. TVA will mitigate site specific environmental impacts from the construction and operation of new power facilities through a combination of planning, pollution prevention, and environmental controls. However, one of the most important mitigative measures associated with Energy Vision 2020 is the multi-attribute tradeoff method used for the evaluation. This method allowed proposed strategies to be reformated in order to reduce potential impacts.

  4. FDI report on adverse reactions to resin-based materials.

    PubMed

    Fan, P L; Meyer, D M

    2007-02-01

    Resin-based restorative materials are considered safe for the vast majority of dental patients. Although constituent chemicals such as monomers, accelerators and initiators can potentially leach out of cured resin-based materials after placement, adverse reactions to these chemicals are rare and reaction symptoms commonly subside after removal of the materials. Dentists should be aware of the rare possibility that patients could have adverse reactions to constituents of resin-based materials and be vigilant in observing any adverse reactions after restoration placement. Dentists should also be cognisant of patient complaints about adverse reactions that may result from components of resin-based materials. To minimise monomer leaching and any potential risk of dermatological reactions, resin-based materials should be adequately cured. Dental health care workers should avoid direct skin contact with uncured resin-based materials. Latex and vinyl gloves do not provide adequate barrier protection to the monomers in resin-based materials.

  5. Positive potential operation of a cathodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence immunosensor based on luminol and graphene for cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shoujiang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Taihong; Li, Jinghong

    2011-05-15

    In this work, we report a cathodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol at a positive potential (ca. 0.05 V vs Ag/AgCl) with a strong light emission on the graphene-modified glass carbon electrode. The resulted graphene-modified electrode offers an excellent platform for high-performance biosensing applications. On the basis of the cathodic ECL signal of luminol on the graphene-modified electrode, an ECL sandwich immunosensor for sensitive detection of cancer biomarkers at low potential was developed with a multiple signal amplification strategy from functionalized graphene and gold nanorods multilabeled with glucose oxidase (GOx) and secondary antibody (Ab(2)). The functionalized graphene improved the electron transfer on the electrode interface and was employed to attach the primary antibody (Ab(1)) due to it large surface area. The gold nanorods were not only used as carriers of secondary antibody (Ab(2)) and GOx but also catalyzed the ECL reaction of luminol, which further amplified the ECL signal of luminol in the presence of glucose and oxygen. The as-proposed low-potential ECL immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and specificity on the detection of prostate protein antigen (PSA), a biomarker of prostate cancer that was used as a model. A linear relationship between ECL signals and the concentrations of PSA was obtained in the range from 10 pg mL(-1) to 8 ng mL(-1). The detection limit of PSA was 8 pg mL(-1) (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Moreover, the as-proposed low-potential ECL immunosensor exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility. The graphene-based ECL immunosensor accurately detected PSA concentration in 10 human serum samples from patients demonstrated by excellent correlations with standard chemiluminescence immunoassay. The results suggest that the as-proposed graphene ECL immunosensor will be promising in the point-of-care diagnostics application of clinical screening of cancer biomarkers.

  6. Modeling and Investigation of Heavy Oxide and Alkali-Halide Scintillators for Potential Use in Neutron and Gamma Detection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Gamma rays are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation created in a nuclear process or transition. Gamma radiation from the decay of...fast neutron detection efficiencies well over 40%, were investigated for potential use as highly efficient gamma-neutron radiation detectors. The...Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code (MCNP) was used to characterize the radiation interactions in a candidate set of crystals, including

  7. Detection and occurrence of microconstituents in reclaimed water used for irrigation--a potentially overlooked source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengtao; Gardinali, Piero R

    2013-07-01

    An online SPE-HPLC-HESI-MS/MS method and an online SPE-HPLC-APPI-MS/MS method were developed to analyze 72 microconstituents in reclaimed water. In this study, 55 reclaimed water samples were collected from the sprinkler system for a year-long period at Florida International University Biscayne Bay Campus, where reclaimed water was reused for daily irrigation. Analysis results showed that several analytes were continuously detected in all reclaimed water samples and others will show rather transient signal increases. Coprostanol, bisphenol A, and DEET's maximum concentration exceeded 10,000 ng/L. The four most frequently detected compounds were diphenhydramine (100%), DEET (98%), atenolol (98%) and carbamazepine (96%).

  8. a New Online Distributed Process Fault Detection and Isolation Approach Using Potential Clustering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrampour, Soheil; Moshiri, Behzad; Salahshoor, Karim

    2009-08-01

    Most of process fault monitoring systems suffer from offline computations and confronting with novel faults that limit their applicabilities. This paper presents a new online fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm based on distributed online clustering approach. In the proposed approach, clustering algorithm is used for online detection of a new trend of time series data which indicates faulty condition. On the other hand, distributed technique is used to decompose the overall monitoring task into a series of local monitoring sub-tasks so as to locally track and capture the process faults. This algorithm not only solves the problem of online FDI, but also can handle novel faults. The diagnostic performances of the proposed FDI approach is evaluated on the Tennessee Eastman process plant as a large-scale benchmark problem.

  9. Comparison of breast cancer to healthy control tissue discovers novel markers with potential for prognosis and early detection.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Michèl; Green, Ann; Beatty, J David; Karlan, Beth Y; Karlan, Scott; Gross, Jenny; Thornton, Sean; McIntosh, Martin; Urban, Nicole

    2010-02-09

    This study was initiated to identify biomarkers with potential value for the early detection of poor-outcome breast cancer. Two sets of well-characterized tissues were utilized: one from breast cancer patients with favorable vs. poor outcome and the other from healthy women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Over 46 differentially expressed genes were identified from a large list of potential targets by a) mining publicly available expression data (identifying 134 genes for quantitative PCR) and b) utilizing a commercial PCR array. Three genes show elevated expression in cancers with poor outcome and low expression in all other tissues, warranting further investigation as potential blood markers for early detection of cancers with poor outcome. Twelve genes showed lower expression in cancers with poor outcome than in cancers with favorable outcome but no differential expression between aggressive cancers and most healthy controls. These genes are more likely to be useful as prognostic tissue markers than as serum markers for early detection of aggressive disease. As a secondary finding was that, when histologically normal breast tissue was removed from a distant site in a breast with cancer, 7 of 38 specimens displayed a cancer-like expression profile, while the remaining 31 were genetically similar to the reduction mammaplasty control group. This finding suggests that some regions of ipsilateral histologically 'normal' breast tissue are predisposed to becoming malignant and that normal-appearing tissue with malignant signature might warrant treatment to prevent new primary tumors.

  10. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    2001-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner or between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid through the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  11. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Laine, D.L.; Laine, E.F.

    1997-08-26

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution. 6 figs.

  12. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  13. The Potential of a Spaceborne Cloud Radar for the Detection of Stratocumulus Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Neil I.; Illingworth, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    The radar reflectivity and liquid water content of stratocumulus clouds have been computed from cloud droplet spectra recorded during more than 4000 km of cloud penetrations by an aircraft, and the probability of detecting various values of liquid water content as a function of the radar sensitivity threshold has been derived. The goal of the study is to specify the sensitivity required for any future spaceborne cloud radar. In extensive marine stratocumulus deeper than about 200 m, occasional but ubiquitous drizzle-sized droplets of up to 200 m dominate the radar return and increase it by between 10 and 20 dB above the cloud droplet contribution to the return, making radar detection easier, although the concentration of the drizzle drops is so low that they have no effect on the liquid water content or effective radius. These occasional drizzle-sized droplets are present throughout the vertical and horizontal extent of such clouds but should evaporate within 200 m of cloud base. On occasion, the drizzle can fall farther and may yield a false measurement of cloud-base altitude, but such cases can be recognized by examining the vertical profile of reflectivity. A radar sensitivity threshold of 30 dBZ would detect 80%, 85%, and 90% of the marine stratocumulus, with a liquid water content above 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075 g m3, respectively. Because nonprecipitating drizzle droplets are rare in continental stratocumulus, the equivalent figures are reduced to 38%, 33%, and 25%. Improving the sensitivity to 40 dBZ increases detection probability to nearly 100% for both types of cloud. These figures are based on the assumption that the cloud is deep enough to fill the radar pulse volume.

  14. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  15. Detection and zoonotic potential of Trichinella spp. from free-range pig farming in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papatsiros, V G; Boutsini, S; Ntousi, D; Stougiou, D; Mintza, D; Bisias, A

    2012-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious parasitic zoonosis, which is widely distributed around the world. Pork meat is still the predominant source of outbreaks of human trichinellosis in many countries. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of Trichinella spp. as an important risk factor on the free-range pig farming sector in Greece. In 2009, during routine testing for the detection of Trichinella larvae at slaughterhouses and the National Reference Laboratory for Parasites (NRL), a total of 826,426 pigs were tested with the magnetic stirrer method for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses, including 2,892 samples from free-range pigs. Two positive samples were detected: one positive for Trichinella britovi and one positive for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) in the samples from wild farmed free-range pigs. It is alarming that one of these cases was connected with clinical signs of trichinellosis in five persons of the same family in northeastern Greece, who consumed undercooked pork meat from a free-range pig farm. During 2010, a total number of 1,295,034 pigs were tested with same method, including 4,159 samples from free-range pig farms. Five positive samples for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) were detected from 4,159 free-range pigs tested by the Greek NRL. Moreover, 363 serum samples from free-range pigs were serologically tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, 363 serum samples from farmed free-range pigs were serologically tested with ELISA, and 15 samples were found positive. Finally, the present study is the first report of detection of T. britovi in Greece. In conclusion, based on the results of the present study, Trichinella spp. is a high-risk factor for the free-range pig farming in Greece.

  16. Detection of Olfactory Dysfunction Using Olfactory Event Related Potentials in Young Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Caminiti, Fabrizia; De Salvo, Simona; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Russo, Margherita; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia; Ciurleo, Rosella

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies reported olfactory dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. The estimate of the incidence of olfactory deficits in multiple sclerosis is uncertain; this may arise from different testing methods that may be influenced by patients' response bias and clinical, demographic and cognitive features. Aims To evaluate objectively the olfactory function using Olfactory Event Related Potentials. Materials and Methods We tested the olfactory function of 30 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (mean age of 36.03±6.96 years) and of 30 age, sex and smoking–habit matched healthy controls by using olfactory potentials. A selective and controlled stimulation of the olfactory system to elicit the olfactory event related potentials was achieved by a computer-controlled olfactometer linked directly with electroencephalograph. Relationships between olfactory potential results and patients' clinical characteristics, such as gender, disability status score, disease-modifying therapy, and disease duration, were evaluated. Results Seven of 30 patients did not show olfactory event related potentials. Sixteen of remaining 23 patients had a mean value of amplitude significantly lower than control group (p<0.01). The presence/absence of olfactory event related potentials was associated with dichotomous expanded disability status scale (p = 0.0433), as well as inversely correlated with the disease duration (r = −0.3641, p = 0.0479). Conclusion Unbiased olfactory dysfunction of different severity found in multiple sclerosis patients suggests an organic impairment which could be related to neuroinflammatory and/or neurodegenerative processes of olfactory networks, supporting the recent findings on neurophysiopathology of disease. PMID:25047369

  17. Absence of the Epithelial Glycocalyx As Potential Tumor Marker for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramaker, Katrin; Bade, Steffen; Röckendorf, Niels; Meckelein, Barbara; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Schultz, Holger; Fröschle, Günter-Willi; Frey, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Detection of cancer at an early stage is pivotal for successful treatment and long term survival, yet early diagnosis requires sensitive and specific markers that can be easily detected by screening procedures. Differences in the surface structure of tumor and healthy cells, if sufficiently pronounced and discernible, may serve that purpose. We analyzed the luminal surface of healthy and neoplastic human colorectal tissues for the presence and architecture of the glycocalyx—a dense network of highly glycosylated proteins—using transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural analyses showed that 93% of healthy mucosae were covered by an intact glycocalyx. Contrarily, on over 90% of the surface of neoplastic cells the glycocalyx was absent. The sensitivity and specificity of our marker “absence of a glycocalyx” are excellent, being 91% (83–96%) and 96% (89–99%) for adenocarcinomas and 94% (73–100%) and 92% (85–97%) for precancerous polyps (means and 95% confidence intervals). Using a cell culture model we could demonstrate that a particulate probe targeting a cell surface receptor usually concealed beneath the glycocalyx can bind selectively to glycocalyx-free areas of a tumor cell layer. We propose that the absence of a glycocalyx may serve as novel type of tumor marker. If the absence of the glycocalyx can be detected e.g. via binding of imaging probes to non-shielded surface receptors of anomalously differentiated cells, this tumor marker could be used to enable early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. PMID:28033349

  18. Mining multi-item drug adverse effect associations in spontaneous reporting systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multi-item adverse drug event (ADE) associations are associations relating multiple drugs to possibly multiple adverse events. The current standard in pharmacovigilance is bivariate association analysis, where each single drug-adverse effect combination is studied separately. The importance and difficulty in the detection of multi-item ADE associations was noted in several prominent pharmacovigilance studies. In this paper we examine the application of a well established data mining method known as association rule mining, which we tailored to the above problem, and demonstrate its value. The method was applied to the FDAs spontaneous adverse event reporting system (AERS) with minimal restrictions and expectations on its output, an experiment that has not been previously done on the scale and generality proposed in this work. Results Based on a set of 162,744 reports of suspected ADEs reported to AERS and published in the year 2008, our method identified 1167 multi-item ADE associations. A taxonomy that characterizes the associations was developed based on a representative sample. A significant number (67% of the total) of potential multi-item ADE associations identified were characterized and clinically validated by a domain expert as previously recognized ADE associations. Several potentially novel ADEs were also identified. A smaller proportion (4%) of associations were characterized and validated as known drug-drug interactions. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that multi-item ADEs are present and can be extracted from the FDA’s adverse effect reporting system using our methodology, suggesting that our method is a valid approach for the initial identification of multi-item ADEs. The study also revealed several limitations and challenges that can be attributed to both the method and quality of data. PMID:21044365

  19. Nuclear Potential Clustering As a New Tool to Detect Patterns in High Dimensional Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkova, V.; Paulus, D.; Neeb, H.

    2013-02-01

    We present a new approach for the clustering of high dimensional data without prior assumptions about the structure of the underlying distribution. The proposed algorithm is based on a concept adapted from nuclear physics. To partition the data, we model the dynamic behaviour of nucleons interacting in an N-dimensional space. An adaptive nuclear potential, comprised of a short-range attractive (strong interaction) and a long-range repulsive term (Coulomb force) is assigned to each data point. By modelling the dynamics, nucleons that are densely distributed in space fuse to build nuclei (clusters) whereas single point clusters repel each other. The formation of clusters is completed when the system reaches the state of minimal potential energy. The data are then grouped according to the particles' final effective potential energy level. The performance of the algorithm is tested with several synthetic datasets showing that the proposed method can robustly identify clusters even when complex configurations are present. Furthermore, quantitative MRI data from 43 multiple sclerosis patients were analyzed, showing a reasonable splitting into subgroups according to the individual patients' disease grade. The good performance of the algorithm on such highly correlated non-spherical datasets, which are typical for MRI derived image features, shows that Nuclear Potential Clustering is a valuable tool for automated data analysis, not only in the MRI domain.

  20. The potential for early and rapid pathogen detection within poultry processing through hyperspectral microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acquisition of hyperspectral microscopic images containing both spatial and spectral data has shown potential for the early and rapid optical classification of foodborne pathogens. A hyperspectral microscope with a metal halide light source and acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) collects 89 ...

  1. Adverse Events of Auricular Therapy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Molassiotis, Alexander; Wang, Tao; Suen, Lorna K. P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the literature on adverse events associated with auricular therapy (AT). Case reports, case series, surveys, and all types of clinical trials reporting adverse events of AT were included. Relevant articles were mainly retrieved from 13 electronic databases and seven Chinese journals on complementary medicine. AT-related adverse events were reported in 32 randomized controlled trials, five uncontrolled clinical trials, four case reports, and two controlled clinical trials. For auricular acupuncture, the most frequently reported adverse events were tenderness or pain at insertion, dizziness, local discomfort, minor bleeding and nausea, and so forth. For auricular acupressure, local skin irritation and discomfort, mild tenderness or pain, and dizziness were commonly reported. Skin irritation, local discomfort, and pain were detected in auricular electroacupuncture, and minor infection was identified in auricular bloodletting therapy. Most of these events were transient, mild, and tolerable, and no serious adverse events were identified. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that AT is a relatively safe approach. Considering the patient's safety, prospective or retrospective surveys are needed in future research to gather practitioner-reported and patient-reported adverse events on AT, and the quality of adverse events reporting in future AT trials should be improved. PMID:25435890

  2. Event-related brain potentials reveal the time-course of language change detection in early bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    Using event-related brain potentials, we investigated the temporal course of language change detection in proficient bilinguals as compared to matched controls. Welsh-English bilingual participants and English controls were presented with a variant of the oddball paradigm involving picture-word pairs. The language of the spoken word was manipulated such that English was the frequent stimulus (75%) and Welsh the infrequent stimulus (25%). We also manipulated semantic relatedness between pictures and words, such that only half of the pictures were followed by a word that corresponded with the identity of the picture. The P2 wave was significantly modulated by language in the bilingual group only, suggesting that this group detected a language change as early as 200 ms after word onset. Monolinguals also reliably detected the language change, but at a later stage of semantic integration (N400 range), since Welsh words were perceived as meaningless. The early detection of a language change in bilinguals triggered stimulus re-evaluation mechanisms reflected by a significant P600 modulation by Welsh words. Furthermore, compared to English unrelated words, English words matching the picture identity elicited significantly greater P2 amplitudes in the bilingual group only, suggesting that proficient bilinguals validate an incoming word against their expectation based on the context. Overall, highly proficient bilinguals appear to detect language changes very early on during speech perception and to consciously monitor language changes when they occur.

  3. No adverse effects detected for simultaneous whole-body exposure to multiple-frequency radiofrequency electromagnetic fields for rats in the intrauterine and pre- and post-weaning periods.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tomoyuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kawabe, Mayumi; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, So-Ichi; Takahashi, Satoru; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, people are exposed to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) with multiple frequencies. To evaluate the possible adverse effects of multifrequency RF EMFs, we performed an experiment in which pregnant rats and their delivered offspring were simultaneously exposed to eight different communication signal EMFs (two of 800 MHz band, two of 2 GHz band, one of 2.4 GHz band, two of 2.5 GHz band and one of 5.2 GHz band). Thirty six pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) 10-week-old rats were divided into three groups of 12 rats: one control (sham exposure) group and two experimental (low- and high-level RF EMF exposure) groups. The whole body of the mother rats was exposed to the RF EMFs for 20 h per day from Gestational Day 7 to weaning, and F1 offspring rats (46-48 F1 pups per group) were then exposed up to 6 weeks of age also for 20 h per day. The parameters evaluated included the growth, gestational condition and organ weights of the dams; the survival rates, development, growth, physical and functional development, memory function, and reproductive ability of the F1 offspring; and the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in the F2 rats. No abnormal findings were observed in the dams or F1 offspring exposed to the RF EMFs or to the F2 offspring for any of the parameters evaluated. Thus, under the conditions of the present experiment, simultaneous whole-body exposure to eight different communication signal EMFs at frequencies between 800 MHz and 5.2 GHz did not show any adverse effects on pregnancy or on the development of rats.

  4. No adverse effects detected for simultaneous whole-body exposure to multiple-frequency radiofrequency electromagnetic fields for rats in the intrauterine and pre- and post-weaning periods

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Tomoyuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kawabe, Mayumi; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, So-ichi; Takahashi, Satoru; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, people are exposed to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) with multiple frequencies. To evaluate the possible adverse effects of multifrequency RF EMFs, we performed an experiment in which pregnant rats and their delivered offspring were simultaneously exposed to eight different communication signal EMFs (two of 800 MHz band, two of 2 GHz band, one of 2.4 GHz band, two of 2.5 GHz band and one of 5.2 GHz band). Thirty six pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) 10-week-old rats were divided into three groups of 12 rats: one control (sham exposure) group and two experimental (low- and high-level RF EMF exposure) groups. The whole body of the mother rats was exposed to the RF EMFs for 20 h per day from Gestational Day 7 to weaning, and F1 offspring rats (46–48 F1 pups per group) were then exposed up to 6 weeks of age also for 20 h per day. The parameters evaluated included the growth, gestational condition and organ weights of the dams; the survival rates, development, growth, physical and functional development, memory function, and reproductive ability of the F1 offspring; and the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in the F2 rats. No abnormal findings were observed in the dams or F1 offspring exposed to the RF EMFs or to the F2 offspring for any of the parameters evaluated. Thus, under the conditions of the present experiment, simultaneous whole-body exposure to eight different communication signal EMFs at frequencies between 800 MHz and 5.2 GHz did not show any adverse effects on pregnancy or on the development of rats. PMID:27694283

  5. Adverse drug reactions: part II.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2010-11-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the process of identifying, monitoring, and effectively reducing adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important consideration when assessing a patient's health. The proliferation of new pharmaceuticals means that the incidence of ADRs is increasing. The goal for all health care providers must be to minimize the risk of ADRs as much as possible. Steps to achieve this include understanding the pharmacology for all drugs prescribed and proactively assessing and monitoring those patients at greatest risk for developing an ADR. Groups at greatest risk for developing ADRs include the elderly, children, and pregnant patients, as well as others. Pharmacovigilance must be effectively practiced by all health care providers in order to avoid ADRs.

  6. Adverse drug reactions: Part I.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2010-10-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the process of identifying, monitoring, and effectively reducing adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important consideration when assessing a patient's health. The proliferation of new pharmaceuticals means that the incidence of ADRs is increasing. The goal for all health care providers must be to minimize the risk of ADRs as much as possible. Steps to achieve this include understanding the pharmacology for all drugs prescribed and proactively assessing and monitoring those patients at greatest risk for developing an ADR. Groups at greatest risk for developing ADRs include the elderly, children, and pregnant patients, as well as others. Pharmacovigilance must effectively be practiced by all health providers in order to avoid ADRs.

  7. Occurrence and potential significance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) detected in New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Cooper, Keith R; Boros-Russo, Betty Jane; Lippincott, R Lee

    2009-06-15

    After detection of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in two New Jersey (NJ) public water systems (PWS) at concentrations up to 0.19 microg/L, a study of PFOA in 23 other NJ PWS was conducted in 2006. PFOA was detected in 15 (65%) of the systems at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.039 microg/L. To assess the significance of these data, the contribution of drinking water to human exposure to PFOA was evaluated, and a health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure of 0.04 microg/L was developed through a risk assessment approach. Both the exposure assessment and the health-based drinking water concentrations are based on the previously reported 100:1 ratio between the concentration of PFOA in serum and drinking water in a community with highly contaminated drinking water. The applicability of this ratio to lower drinking water concentrations was confirmed using data on serum levels and water concentrations from other communities. The health-based concentration is based on toxicological end points identified by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in its 2005 draft risk assessment Recent information on PFOA's toxicity not considered in the USEPA risk assessment urther supports the health-based concentration of 0.04 microg/L. In additional sampling of 18 PWS in 2007-2008, PFOA in most systems was below the health-based concentration. However, PFOA was detected above the health-based concentration in five systems, including one not previously sampled.

  8. Potential improvement of computerized mass detection on mammograms using a bilateral pairing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquerault, S.; Petrick, N.; Sahiner, B.; Myers, K. J.; Chan, H.-P.

    2006-03-01

    We are developing a bilateral pairing technique to help reduce false-positives identified by a single-view computer-aided detection (CAD) system for breast masses. In this study, we compare the performance of the proposed bilateral CAD to a single-view CAD. A database of 172 right/left breast pairs containing 205 biopsy-proven masses was used. Single-view CAD was run on each image using a lax selection threshold so that 5 objects per image were retained. The automated bilateral pairing algorithm identified all objects in a left breast mammogram "matching" a CAD detected object in the corresponding right breast image and visa-versa. Bilateral pairing was based on geometrical correspondence between objects with a matching score derived from a paired right/left object feature set and a linear discriminant analysis classifier. Leave-one out resampling was used to train/test the technique. We compared the FROC performances of the single-view CAD, the proposed bilateral technique and a modified CAD using manual pairing of bilateral structures. At a per-lesion detection sensitivity of 0.7, there were 3.8 FPs/image for the original CAD, 3.3 for the proposed technique, and 2.2 for the modified CAD using manual matching, a 12.6% and 42.1% reduction, respectively. At an FP rate of 1.0 per image, the sensitivities for the original CAD, the proposed technique and the modified CAD using manual matching were 0.47, 0.51 and 0.60, respectively. Preliminary results show that CAD with bilateral pairing did not achieve a significant FP-reduction.

  9. Exploring the potential of next-generation sequencing in detection of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; Koopmans, Marion P; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Schürch, Anita C; Pas, Suzan D; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Poovorawan, Yong; Haagmans, Bart L; Smits, Saskia L

    2014-10-01

    Efficient detection of human respiratory viral pathogens is crucial in the management of patients with acute respiratory tract infection. Sequence-independent amplification of nucleic acids combined with next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analyses is a promising strategy for identifying pathogens in clinical and public health settings. It allows the characterization of hundreds of different known pathogens simultaneously and of novel pathogens that elude conventional testing. However, major hurdles for its routine use exist, including cost, turnaround time, and especially sensitivity of the assay, as the detection limit is dependent on viral load, host genetic material, and sequencing depth. To obtain insights into these aspects, we analyzed nasopharyngeal aspirates from a cohort of 81 Thai children with respiratory disease for the presence of respiratory viruses using a sequence-independent next-generation sequencing approach and routinely used diagnostic real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (real-time RT-PCR) assays. With respect to the detection of rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus, the next-generation sequencing approach was at least as sensitive as diagnostic real-time RT-PCR in this small cohort, whereas for bocavirus and enterovirus, next-generation sequencing was less sensitive than real-time RT-PCR. The advantage of the sequencing approach over real-time RT-PCR was the immediate availability of virus-typing information. Considering the development of platforms capable of generating more output data at declining costs, next-generation sequencing remains of interest for future virus diagnosis in clinical and public health settings and certainly as an additional tool when screening results from real-time RT-PCR are negative.

  10. Autoantibodies to Ca2+ binding protein Calnuc is a potential marker in colon cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Lin, Ping; Qiu, Suimin; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Looi, Koksun; Farquhar, Marilyn Gist; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2007-05-01

    Calnuc is a calcium (Ca2+) binding protein found in both Golgi and cytoplasm, and it may play a role in G protein- and Ca2+-regulated signal transduction events. This study was designed to investigate the possibility of whether Calnuc protein might be a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that induces autoantibody response in human cancers, and to evaluate the feasibility of the Calnuc antigen-antibody system as a marker in cancer detection. Purified full-length recombinant Calnuc protein was used as an antigen in enzyme-linked immunoassay and Western blotting for the detection of autoantibodies in cancers. Sera from 447 patients with 9 different types of cancer were analyzed. Although the frequency of autoantibody to Calnuc was found to be 4.7% in total groups of cancer, it was not significantly different to that of normal individuals (1.2%). However, the frequency of autoantibody to Calnuc in colon cancer (11.5%) was significantly higher than that in normal individuals (1.2%). The expression analysis of Calnuc in multiple colon cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry on tissue array further confirmed the high specificity of Calnuc in colon cancer. Of 69 colon cancer tissue specimens examined, 41 tissues (59.4%) overexpressed Calnuc, while normal colon tissues did not show any expression of Calnuc. The subcellular distribution analysis of Calnuc examined by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence indicates that Calnuc is a membrane associated protein and mostly distributed in Golgi, which is consistent with previous reports. With adding Calnuc into a TAA array (including p53, c-myc, cyclin B1, cyclin D1), the cumulative frequency of antibody to multiple TAAs in colon cancer was raised to 65.4% which is significantly higher than the cumulative frequency in normal individuals (6.1%). This indicates that a mini-array of multiple TAAs which includes Calnuc might provide a novel non-invasive approach to enhance antibody detection for colon cancer diagnosis.

  11. [Finasteride adverse effects: An update].

    PubMed

    Carreño-Orellana, Néstor; Moll-Manzur, Catherina; Carrasco-Zuber, Juan Eduardo; Álvarez-Véliz, Sergio; Berroeta-Mauriziano, Daniela; Porras-Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-01

    Finasteride is a 5-α reductase inhibitor that is widely used in the management of benign prostate hyperplasia and male pattern hair loss. It is well known that these agents improve the quality of life in men suffering from these conditions. However, they are associated with some transient and even permanent adverse effects. The aim of this article is to clarify the controversies about the safety of finasteride by analyzing the evidence available in the literature.

  12. CdMnTe in X-ray and Gamma-ray Detection: Potential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cui,Y.; Bolotnikov, A.; Hossain, A.; Camarda, G.; Mycielski, A.; Yang, G.; Kochanowska, D.; Witkowska-Baran, M.; James, R.B.

    2008-08-11

    CdMnTe can be a good candidate for gamma-ray detection because of its wide band-gap, high resistivity, and good electro-transport properties. Further, the ability to grow CMT crystals at relatively low temperatures ensures a high yield for manufacturing detectors with good compositional uniformity and few impurities. Our group at Brookhaven National Laboratory is investigating several CMT crystals, selecting a few of them to make detectors. In this paper, we discuss our initial characterization of these crystals and describe our preliminary results with a gamma-ray source.

  13. An Assessment of Technical Factors Influencing the Potential Use of RPVs for Minefield Detection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    and haze [4]. There is little data on variations in extinction coefficients as a function of altitude; collection of more data appears to be warran... tea . 9 LIM RAoAR AND OPTICS DIVISION 4 RPV SENSOR CONSIDERATIONS Experience has Shown and Array I tests have confirmed that tar- gets to be detected...spectral response char- acteristic whose peaks occur between 0.4 to 0.5 um or in the blue to green oortion of the spectrum. The response is lown to about

  14. A potential means of using acoustic emission for crack detection under cyclic-load conditions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Klima, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to assess the feasibility of monitoring acoustic emission signals from fatigue cracks during cyclic bend tests. Plate specimens of 6Al-4V titanium, 2219-T87 aluminum, and 18-Ni maraging steel were tested with and without crack starter notches. It was found that significant acoustic emission signals could be detected in the frequency range from 100 to 400 kHz. Cracks emanating from starter notches were monitored by the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique and periodically measured by micro-optical examination. The investigation indicated that it was possible to extract meaningful acoustic emission signals in a cyclic bend machine environment.

  15. Determinants of Adverse Events in Vascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; McDonald, Kathryn; Morton, John; Dalman, Ron L; Bech, Fritz R

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient safety is a national priority. Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) monitor potential adverse events during hospital stays. Surgical specialty PSI benchmarks do not exist, which are needed to account for differences in the range of procedures performed, reasons for the procedure, and differences in patient characteristics. A comprehensive profile of adverse events in vascular surgery was created. Study Design The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for 8 vascular procedures using ICD-9-CM codes from 2005–2009. Factors associated with PSI development were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 1,412,703 patients underwent a vascular procedure and 5.2% developed a PSI. PSIs were more frequent in female, non-white patients with public payers (p<.01). Patients at mid and low volume hospitals had greater odds of developing a PSI (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.10–1.23 and OR, 1.69; CI, 1.53–1.87). Amputations had highest PSI risk-adjusted rate (RAR) and carotid endarterectomy and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair had lower RAR (p<.0001). PSI RAR increased linearly by severity of patient indication: claudicants (OR, 0.40, CI, 0.35–0.46), rest pain patients (OR, 0.78, CI 0.69–0.90), ulcer (OR: 1.20, CI: 1.07–1.34) and gangrene patients (OR:1.85, CI: 1.66–2.06). Conclusions Patient safety events in vascular surgery were high and varied by procedure, with amputations and open AAA having substantially more potential adverse events. PSIs were associated with black race, public payer, and procedure indication. It is important to note the overall higher rates of PSIs occurring in vascular patients and appropriately adjust benchmarks for this surgical specialty. PMID:22425449

  16. Thiocolchicoside: review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Thiocolchicoside has long been used as a muscle relaxant, despite a lack of proven efficacy beyond the placebo effect. Its chemical structure consists of colchicine, a sugar (ose) and a sulphur-containing radical (thio), and its adverse effects are therefore likely to be similar to those of colchicine. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we reviewed the available data on the adverse effects of thiocolchicoside. Liver injury, pancreatitis, seizures, blood cell disorders, severe cutaneous disorders, rhabdomyolysis and reproductive disorders have all been recorded in the French and European pharmacovigilance databases and in the periodic updates that the companies concerned submit to regulatory agencies. These data do not specify the frequency of the disorders nor do they identify the most susceptible patient populations. Thiocolchicoside is teratogenic in experimental animals and also damages chromosomes. Human data are limited to a follow-up of about 30 pregnant women (no major malformations) and reports of altered spermatogenesis, including cases of azoospermia. In practice, there is no justification for exposing patients to the adverse effects of thiocolchicoside. It is better to use an effective, well-known analgesic for patients complaining of muscle pain, starting with paracetamol.

  17. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1).

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of a potential molecular therapeutic target for canine hemangiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Mami; HOSHINO, Yuki; IZUMI, Yusuke; TAKAGI, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm of dogs for which there is currently no effective treatment. A recent study suggested that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MAPK pathways are all activated in canine and human HSA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry in canine splenic HSA to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets. A total of 10 splenic HSAs and two normal splenic samples surgically resected from dogs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological diagnosis or analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of RTKs, c-kit, VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-2, as well as PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MEK was higher in canine splenic HSAs compared to normal spleens. These proteins may therefore be potential therapeutic targets in canine splenic HSA. PMID:26685984

  19. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  20. TsPKA-r: a potential immunodiagnostic antigen for the detection of porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangxue; Liang, Panhong; Zhang, Shaohua; Guo, Aijiang; Wang, Lijie; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong

    2017-03-27

    Cysticercosis, caused by metacestodes of Taenia solium, has a significant soci-economic impact and is of considerable importance in public health. However, there are no specific diagnostic antigens to distinguish between T. solim and Taenia hydatigena. In the present study, cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit (TsPKA-r), an excretory/secretary (ES) antigen of T. solium, was used to establish a specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for detection of porcine cysticercosis. The full-length sequence encoding TsPKA-r was amplified by PCR, sequenced and then identified by bioinformatics. The fusion protein with 6×His-tags was expressed in E. coli, purified by Ni Sepharose™ 6 Fast Flow and used to test reactionogenicity by immunoblotting. TsPKA-r based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISA) showed good performance in recognition of sera of pigs experimentally infected with T. solium metacestodes, with 93.88% sensitivity and 96.40% specificity. There were no cross-reactions against the sera samples from pigs experimentally infected with T. hydatigena, Toxoplasma gondii or Trichinella spiralis. These results indicate that the TsPKA-r is a promising immunodiagnostic antigen for detection of porcine cysticercosis.

  1. An experimental evaluation of potential scavenger effects on snake road mortality detections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    As road networks expand and collisions between vehicles and wildlife become more common, accurately quantifying mortality rates for the taxa that are most impacted will be critical. Snakes are especially vulnerable to collisions with vehicles because of their physiology and behavior. Reptile road mortality is typically quantified using driving or walking surveys; however, scavengers can rapidly remove carcasses from the road and cause underestimation of mortality. Our objective was to determine the effect that scavengers might have had on our ability to accurately detect reptile road mortality during over 150 h and 4,000 km of driving surveys through arid shrublands in southwest Wyoming, which resulted in only two observations of mortality. We developed unique simulated snake carcasses out of Burbot (Lota lota), a locally invasive fish species, and examined removal rates across three different road types at three study sites. Carcass size was not a significant predictor of time of removal, and carcass removal was comparable during the daytime and nighttime hours. However, removal of simulated carcasses was higher on paved roads than unpaved or two-track roads at all study sites, with an average of 75% of the carcasses missing within 60 h compared to 34% and 31%, respectively. Scavengers may therefore negatively impact the ability of researchers to accurately detect herpetofaunal road mortality, especially for paved roads where road mortality is likely the most prevalent.

  2. Glyphosate detection with ammonium nitrate and humic acids as potential interfering substances by pulsed voltammetry technique.

    PubMed

    Martínez Gil, Pablo; Laguarda-Miro, Nicolas; Camino, Juan Soto; Peris, Rafael Masot

    2013-10-15

    Pulsed voltammetry has been used to detect and quantify glyphosate on buffered water in presence of ammonium nitrate and humic substances. Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide active ingredient in the world. It is a non-selective broad spectrum herbicide but some of its health and environmental effects are still being discussed. Nowadays, glyphosate pollution in water is being monitored but quantification techniques are slow and expensive. Glyphosate wastes are often detected in countryside water bodies where organic substances and fertilizers (commonly based on ammonium nitrate) may also be present. Glyphosate also forms complexes with humic acids so these compounds have also been taken into consideration. The objective of this research is to study the interference of these common pollutants in glyphosate measurements by pulsed voltammetry. The statistical treatment of the voltammetric data obtained lets us discriminate glyphosate from the other studied compounds and a mathematical model has been built to quantify glyphosate concentrations in a buffer despite the presence of humic substances and ammonium nitrate. In this model, the coefficient of determination (R(2)) is 0.977 and the RMSEP value is 2.96 × 10(-5) so the model is considered statistically valid.

  3. Potential for detection of explosive and biological hazards with electronic terahertz systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ki; Bettermann, Alan; van der Weide, D W

    2004-02-15

    The terahertz (THz) regime (0.1-10 THz) is rich with emerging possibilities in sensing, imaging and communications, with unique applications to screening for weapons, explosives and biohazards, imaging of concealed objects, water content and skin. Here we present initial surveys to evaluate the possibility of sensing plastic explosives and bacterial spores using field-deployable electronic THz techniques based on short-pulse generation and coherent detection using nonlinear transmission lines and diode sampling bridges. We also review the barriers and approaches to achieving greater sensing-at-a-distance (stand-off) capabilities for THz sensing systems. We have made several reflection measurements of metallic and non-metallic targets in our laboratory, and have observed high contrast relative to reflection from skin. In particular, we have taken small quantities of energetic materials such as plastic explosives and a variety of Bacillus spores, and measured them in transmission and in reflection using a broadband pulsed electronic THz reflectometer. The pattern of reflection versus frequency gives rise to signatures that are remarkably specific to the composition of the target, even though the target's morphology and position is varied. Although more work needs to be done to reduce the effects of standing waves through time-gating or attenuators, the possibility of mapping out this contrast for imaging and detection is very attractive.

  4. Current and potential technologies for the detection of radionuclide signatures of proliferation (R and D efforts)

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.W.; Wogman, N.A.

    1993-03-01

    A country with the goal of developing nuclear weapons could pursue their ambition in several ways. These could range from the purchase or theft of a weapon or of the principal weapons components to a basic development program which may independently produce all the materials and components which are necessary. If the latter approach were pursued, there would be many signatures of such an effort and the more definitive of these include the actual materials which would be produced in each phase of the fuel cycle/weapons production process. By identifying the more definitive signatures and employing appropriate environmental sampling and analysis techniques for their observation, including imaging procedures, it should be possible to detect nuclear proliferation processes. Possible proliferation processes include: uranium acquisition through fuel fabrication; uranium enrichment for weapons production; reactor operation for plutonium production; fuel reprocessing for plutonium extraction; weapons fabrication; and uranium 233 production. Each of these are briefly discussed. The technologies for the detection of proliferation signatures which are in concept or research and development phase are: whole air beta counter; radiokrypton/xenon separator/analyzer; I-129 detector; isotope analyzer; deuterium/tritium analysis by IR/Raman spectroscopy and scintillation counting; noble gas daughter analysis; and airborne radionuclide collector/analyzer.

  5. Automatic detection of position and depth of potential UXO using continuous wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Stephen D.; Herrmann, Felix J.

    2003-09-01

    Inversion algorithms for UXO discrimination using magnetometery have recently been used to achieve very low False Alarm Rates, with 100% recovery of detected ordnance. When there are many UXO and/or when the UXO are at significantly different depths, manual estimation of the initial position and scale for each item, is a laborious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we utilize the multi-resolution properties of wavelets to automatically estimate both the position and scale of dipole peaks. The Automated Wavelet Detection (AWD) algorithm that we develop consists of four-stages: (i) maxima and minima in the data are followed across multiple scales as we zoom with a continuous wavelet transform; (ii) the decay of the amplitude of each peak with scale is used to estimate the depth to source; (iii) adjacent maxima and minima of comparable depth are joined together to form dipole anomalies; and (iv) the relative positions and amplitudes of the extrema, along with their depths, are used to estimate a dipole model. We demonstrate the application of the AWD algorithm to three datasets with different characteristics. In each case, the method rapidly located the majority of dipole anomalies and produced accurate estimates of dipole parameters.

  6. The potential of seismic methods for detecting cavities and buried objects: experimentation at a test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Leparoux, Donatienne

    2004-06-01

    One of the recurring problems in civil engineering and landscape management is the detection of natural and man-made cavities in order to mitigate the problems of collapse and subsurface subsidence. In general, the position of the cavities is not known, either because they are not recorded in a database or because location maps are not available. In such cases, geophysical methods can provide an effective alternative for cavity detection, particularly ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic methods, for which pertinent results have been recently obtained. Many studies carried out under real conditions have revealed that the signatures derived from interaction between seismic signals and voids are affected by complex geology, thus making them difficult to interpret. We decided to analyze this interaction under physical conditions as simple as possible, i.e., at a test site built specifically for that purpose. The test site was constructed of a homogeneous material and a void-equivalent body so that the ratio between wavelength and heterogeneity size was compatible with that encountered in reality. Numerical modeling was initially used to understand wave interaction with the body, prior to the design of various data-processing protocols. P-wave imagery and surface-wave sections were then acquired and processed. The work involved in this experiment and the associated results are presented, followed by a discussion concerning the reliability of such a study, and its consequences for future seismic projects.

  7. Potential of hybrid adaptive filtering in inflammatory lesion detection from capsule endoscopy images

    PubMed Central

    Charisis, Vasileios S; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2016-01-01

    A new feature extraction technique for the detection of lesions created from mucosal inflammations in Crohn’s disease, based on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images processing is presented here. More specifically, a novel filtering process, namely Hybrid Adaptive Filtering (HAF), was developed for efficient extraction of lesion-related structural/textural characteristics from WCE images, by employing Genetic Algorithms to the Curvelet-based representation of images. Additionally, Differential Lacunarity (DLac) analysis was applied for feature extraction from the HAF-filtered images. The resulted scheme, namely HAF-DLac, incorporates support vector machines for robust lesion recognition performance. For the training and testing of HAF-DLac, an 800-image database was used, acquired from 13 patients who undertook WCE examinations, where the abnormal cases were grouped into mild and severe, according to the severity of the depicted lesion, for a more extensive evaluation of the performance. Experimental results, along with comparison with other related efforts, have shown that the HAF-DLac approach evidently outperforms them in the field of WCE image analysis for automated lesion detection, providing higher classification results, up to 93.8% (accuracy), 95.2% (sensitivity), 92.4% (specificity) and 92.6% (precision). The promising performance of HAF-DLac paves the way for a complete computer-aided diagnosis system that could support physicians’ clinical practice. PMID:27818583

  8. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology

    PubMed Central

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings. PMID:25368348

  9. A Practical Map-Analysis Tool for Detecting Potential Dispersal Corridors

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, William Walter; Hoffman, Forrest M; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann

    2005-01-01

    We describe the Pathway Analysis Through Habitat (PATH) tool, which can predict the location of potential corridors of animal movement between patches of habitat within any map. The algorithm works by launching virtual entities that we call 'walkers' from each patch of habitat in the map, simulating their travel as they journey through land cover types in the intervening matrix, and finally arrive at a different habitat 'island.' Each walker is imbued with a set of user-specified habitat preferences that make its walking behavior resemble a particular animal species. Because the tool operates in parallel on a supercomputer, large numbers of walkers can be efficiently simulated. The importance of each habitat patch as a source or a sink for a species is calculated, consistent with existing concepts in the metapopulation literature. The manipulation of a series of contrived artificial landscapes demonstrates that the location of potential dispersal corridors and relative source and sink importance among patches can be purposefully altered in expected ways. Finally, potential dispersal corridors are predicted among remnant woodlots within three actual landscape maps.

  10. In vivo ROS and redox potential fluorescent detection in plants: Present approaches and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Villasante, Cristina; Burén, Stefan; Barón-Sola, Ángel; Martínez, Flor; Hernández, Luis E

    2016-10-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are metabolic by-products in aerobic organisms including plants. Endogenously produced ROS act as cellular messengers and redox regulators involved in several plant biological processes, but excessive accumulation of ROS cause oxidative stress and cell damage. Understanding ROS signalling and stress responses requires precise imaging and quantification of local, subcellular and global ROS dynamics with high selectivity, sensitivity, and spatiotemporal resolution. Several fluorescent vital dyes have been tested so far, which helped to provide relevant spatially resolved information of oxidative stress dynamics in plants subjected to harmful environmental conditions. However, certain plant characteristics, such as high background fluorescence of plant tissues in vivo and antioxidant mechanisms, can interfere with ROS detection. The development of improved small-molecule fluorescent dyes and protein-based ROS sensors targeted to subcellular compartments will enable in vivo monitoring of ROS and redox changes in photosynthetic organisms.

  11. Detection of temporal gaps in noise in dolphins: evoked-potential study.

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin AYa

    1997-08-01

    Temporal resolution of hearing was studied in bottlenosed dolphins by recording the auditory brain-stem response (ABR) evoked by gap in noise. Gaps shorter than 0.5 ms evoked a response combining both off- and on-components; longer gaps evoked separate off- and on-responses. Both the response to a short gap and on-response to the end of a long gap increased with increasing gap duration. On-response recovered completely at gap duration of 5-10 ms. Small but detectable response arose at gap duration as short as 0.1 ms. Contrary to the on-response after a long silence, the response to a short gap was less dependent on noise intensity. From these data, the temporal transfer function of the supposed integrator was derived assuming nonlinear transform of the integrator output to ABR amplitude. Equivalent rectangular duration of the found temporal transfer function was 0.27 ms.

  12. Potential Application of Fabricated Sulfide-Based Scintillation Materials for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Hee-Jung; Dai, Sheng; Pawel, Michelle D; Brown, Suree

    2010-01-01

    In our laboratories, we have produced ZnS(Ag)/{sup 6}Li sol-gel scintillation materials which produce an excellent light output with an alpha radiation (compared to commercial high temperature lithiated glass; KG-2 and a plastic scintillator; BC-400). However, when tested with a neutron radiation, the opacity of the ZnS(Ag)/{sup 6}Li sol-gel scintillation materials, which were composed of a homogeneous micron-sized ZnS(Ag), prevented a clear neutron energy peak formation, thus making it difficult to set a threshold for neutron-gamma discrimination. In an effort to increase the transparency of the scintillation materials and to develop new technologies to fabricate sulfide-based scintillation materials for neutron detection, we turned to the methods of a chemical bath deposition (CBD) and a nano-particle synthesis for possible solutions.

  13. Detecting and Quantifying Forest Change: The Potential of Existing C- and X-Band Radar Datasets.

    PubMed

    Tanase, Mihai A; Ismail, Ismail; Lowell, Kim; Karyanto, Oka; Santoro, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the opportunity provided by global interferometric radar datasets for monitoring deforestation, degradation and forest regrowth in tropical and semi-arid environments. The paper describes an easy to implement method for detecting forest spatial changes and estimating their magnitude. The datasets were acquired within space-borne high spatial resolutions radar missions at near-global scales thus being significant for monitoring systems developed under the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The approach presented in this paper was tested in two areas located in Indonesia and Australia. Forest change estimation was based on differences between a reference dataset acquired in February 2000 by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and TanDEM-X mission (TDM) datasets acquired in 2011 and 2013. The synergy between SRTM and TDM datasets allowed not only identifying changes in forest extent but also estimating their magnitude with respect to the reference through variations in forest height.

  14. A potential means of using acoustic emission for crack detection under cyclic-load conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Klima, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to assess the feasibility of monitoring acoustic emission signals from fatigue cracks during cyclic bend tests. Plate specimens of 6A1-4V titanium, 2219-T87 aluminum, and 18-Ni maraging steel were tested with and without crack starter notches. It was found that significant acoustic emission signals could be detected in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 400 kHz. Cracks emanating from starter notches were monitored by the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique and periodically measured by micro-optical examination. Methods used to reduce the effects of extraneous noises (i.e., machine noises, fretting) are described. A frequency spectrum analyzer was used to characterize the emissions and to evaluate methods used to acquire the signals (i.e., transducer location, bandwidth selection). The investigation indicated that it was possible to extract meaningful acoustic emission signals in a cyclic bend machine environment.

  15. Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C. |; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C.; Whitaker, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

  16. Investigation of sterols as potential biomarkers for the detection of pig (S. s. domesticus) decomposition fluid in soils.

    PubMed

    von der Lühe, Barbara; Dawson, Lorna A; Mayes, Robert W; Forbes, Shari L; Fiedler, Sabine

    2013-07-10

    This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of using cholesterol and coprostanol, as indicators for the detection of decomposition fluid of buried pigs (S. s. domesticus) in soils. In May 2007, four pig carcasses (∼35kg) were buried in shallow graves (∼40 cm depth) at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology in Canada. Two pigs were exhumed after three months (Pig 1, Pig 2) and six months (Pig 3, Pig 4) post burial. Soil samples were collected beneath the pig carcasses (∼40cm depth) and from grave walls (∼15-20 cm depth) as well as from a parallel control site. Coprostanol and cholesterol were extracted from soils, purified with solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A significant increase in cholesterol concentrations (p<0.05) and amounts of coprostanol were detected in soil located beneath the pig carcasses after three months of burial. It is assumed that during the putrefaction and liquefaction stages of decomposition pig fluid which contains cholesterol and coprostanol is released into the underlying soil. Therefore, cholesterol and coprostanol could be used as potential biomarkers to detect the presence of decomposition fluid three months after burial under comparable soil and environmental conditions. Further research is suggested for additional soil sampling before and after three months to investigate the abundance of these and other sterols.

  17. Suitability of a cytotoxicity assay for detection of potentially harmful compounds produced by freshwater bloom-forming algae.

    PubMed

    Sorichetti, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Jace T; Creed, Irena F; Trick, Charles G

    2014-01-01

    Detecting harmful bioactive compounds produced by bloom-forming pelagic algae is important to assess potential risks to public health. We investigated the application of a cell-based bioassay: the rainbow trout gill-w1 cytotoxicity assay (RCA) that detects changes in cell metabolism. The RCA was used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of (1) six natural freshwater lake samples from cyanobacteria-rich lakes in central Ontario, Canada; (2) analytical standards of toxins and noxious compounds likely to be produced by the algal communities in these lakes; and (3) complex mixtures of compounds produced by cyanobacterial and chrysophyte cultures. RCA provided a measure of lake water toxicity that could not be reproduced using toxin or noxious compound standards. RCA was not sensitive to toxins and only sensitive to noxious compounds at concentrations higher than reported environmental averages (EC50≥10(3)nM). Cultured algae produced bioactive compounds that had recognizable dose dependent and toxic effects as indicated by RCA. Toxicity of these bioactive compounds depended on taxa (cyanobacteria, not chrysophytes), growth stage (stationary phase more toxic than exponential phase), location (intracellular more toxic than extracellular) and iron status (cells in high-iron treatment more toxic than cells in low-iron treatment). The RCA provides a new avenue of exploration and potential for the detection of natural lake algal toxic and noxious compounds.

  18. 3D Pharmacophoric Similarity improves Multi Adverse Drug Event Identification in Pharmacovigilance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilar, Santiago; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Hripcsak, George

    2015-03-01

    Adverse drugs events (ADEs) detection constitutes a considerable concern in patient safety and public health care. For this reason, it is important to develop methods that improve ADE signal detection in pharmacovigilance databases. Our objective is to apply 3D pharmacophoric similarity models to enhance ADE recognition in Offsides, a pharmacovigilance resource with drug-ADE associations extracted from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We developed a multi-ADE predictor implementing 3D drug similarity based on a pharmacophoric approach, with an ADE reference standard extracted from the SIDER database. The results showed that the application of our 3D multi-type ADE predictor to the pharmacovigilance data in Offsides improved ADE identification and generated enriched sets of drug-ADE signals. The global ROC curve for the Offsides ADE candidates ranked with the 3D similarity score showed an area of 0.7. The 3D predictor also allows the identification of the most similar drug that causes the ADE under study, which could provide hypotheses about mechanisms of action and ADE etiology. Our method is useful in drug development, screening potential adverse effects in experimental drugs, and in drug safety, applicable to the evaluation of ADE signals selected through pharmacovigilance data mining.

  19. 3D pharmacophoric similarity improves multi adverse drug event identification in pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Santiago; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Hripcsak, George

    2015-03-06

    Adverse drugs events (ADEs) detection constitutes a considerable concern in patient safety and public health care. For this reason, it is important to develop methods that improve ADE signal detection in pharmacovigilance databases. Our objective is to apply 3D pharmacophoric similarity models to enhance ADE recognition in Offsides, a pharmacovigilance resource with drug-ADE associations extracted from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We developed a multi-ADE predictor implementing 3D drug similarity based on a pharmacophoric approach, with an ADE reference standard extracted from the SIDER database. The results showed that the application of our 3D multi-type ADE predictor to the pharmacovigilance data in Offsides improved ADE identification and generated enriched sets of drug-ADE signals. The global ROC curve for the Offsides ADE candidates ranked with the 3D similarity score showed an area of 0.7. The 3D predictor also allows the identification of the most similar drug that causes the ADE under study, which could provide hypotheses about mechanisms of action and ADE etiology. Our method is useful in drug development, screening potential adverse effects in experimental drugs, and in drug safety, applicable to the evaluation of ADE signals selected through pharmacovigilance data mining.

  20. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Pasquale; Gaetano, Raffaele; Caroleo, Mariarita; Cerminara, Gregorio; Maida, Francesca; Bruno, Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria; Moreno, Maria Jose Jaén; Russo, Emilio; Segura-García, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine (CLZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate knowledge of the drug, clinical vigilance, and rapid intervention can drastically reduce the morbidity and mortality related to CLZ treatment. PMID:26273202

  1. Feasibility analysis of microwave frequency to detect wood for potential microwave application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas W. K., T.; Rahiman, M. H. F.; Soh, P. J.; Rahim, R. A.; Zakaria, Z.; Ang, Vernoon; Siow, L. T.

    2017-03-01

    Microwave frequency has the potential to assist and improve forest product industry in terms of quality and quantity. Consequently, it has been selected to perform non-destructive inspection on wood which is defected or contains resin internally. This paper describes an experiment to determine the relationship between the attenuation of microwave signals and the different diameters of the holes in tree trunks. This analysis can be used as a reference for an optimal setup for a new microwave tomography aimed at the inspection of valuable wood trunks.

  2. A 2015 survey of established or potential epigenetic biomarkers for the accurate detection of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Amacher, David E

    2016-07-01

    Context The silencing or activation of cancer-associated genes by epigenetic mechanisms can ultimately lead to the clonal expansion of cancer cells. Objective The aim of this review is to summarize all relevant epigenetic biomarkers that have been proposed to date for the diagnosis of some prevalent human cancers. Methods A Medline search for the terms epigenetic biomarkers, human cancers, DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs was performed. Results One hundred fifty-seven relevant publications were found and reviewed. Conclusion To date, a significant number of potential epigenetic cancer biomarkers of human cancer have been investigated, and some have advanced to clinical implementation.

  3. Adverse Risks Associated With Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly utilized agents for treatment of symptomatic disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, accounting for a significant proportion of sales of both over-the-counter and prescription formulations. A systematic review of the literature was conducted via MEDLINE to evaluate the most rigorous studies linking the potential risk of PPI therapy with adverse events. Emerging data illustrate the potential risks associated with both short-and long-term PPI therapy, including Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea, community-acquired pneumonia, osteoporotic fracture, vitamin B12 deficiency, and inhibition of antiplatelet therapy. Due to these associations, it is recommended that clinicians assess the continuing need for PPI therapy and use the lowest possible dose to achieve the desired therapeutic goals.

  4. Prostate-specific Antigen Density Variation Rate as a Potential Guideline Parameter for Second Prostate Cancer Detection Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gan-Sheng; Lyv, Jin-Xing; Li, Gang; Yan, Chun-Yin; Hou, Jian-Quan; Pu, Jin-Xian; Ding, Xiang; Huang, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic value of current prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests is challenged by the poor detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) in repeat prostate biopsy. In this study, we proposed a novel PSA-related parameter named PSA density variation rate (PSADVR) and designed a clinical trial to evaluate its potential diagnostic value for detecting PCa on a second prostate biopsy. Methods: Data from 184 males who underwent second ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy 6 months after the first biopsy were included in the study. The subjects were divided into PCa and non-PCa groups according to the second biopsy pathological results. Prostate volume, PSA density (PSAD), free-total PSA ratio, and PSADVR were calculated according to corresponding formulas at the second biopsy. These parameters were compared using t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test between PCa and non-PCa groups, and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to evaluate their predictability on PCa detection. Results: PCa was detected in 24 patients on the second biopsy. Mean values of PSA, PSAD, and PSADVR were greater in the PCa group than in the non-PCa group (8.39 μg/L vs. 7.16 μg/L, 0.20 vs. 0.16, 14.15% vs. −1.36%, respectively). PSADVR had the largest area under the curve, with 0.667 sensitivity and 0.824 specificity when the cutoff was 10%. The PCa detection rate was significantly greater in subjects with PSADVR >10% than PSADVR ≤10% (28.6% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.001). In addition, PSADVR was the only parameter in this study that showed a significant correlation with mid-to-high-risk PCa (r = 0.63, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that PSADVR improved the PCa detection rate on second biopsies, especially for mid-to-high-risk cancers requiring prompt treatment. PMID:27453228

  5. A suitable method to detect potential fraud of bringing Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) meat into the food chain.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Eaqub; Asing; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Razzak, Md Abdur; Rashid, Nur Raifana Abd; Al Amin, Md; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-01-01

    Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) has been a wildlife-protected vulnerable turtle species in Malaysia since 2005. However, because of its purported usage in traditional medicine, tonic foods and feeds, clandestine black market trade is rampant. Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the taxonomic detection and classification of turtle species have been proposed. These assays are based on long-length target amplicons which are assumed to break down under compromised states and, hence, might not be suitable for the forensic tracing and tracking of turtle trafficking. For the first time this paper develops a very short-amplicon-length PCR assay (120 bp) for the detection of Malayan box turtle meat in raw, processed and mixed matrices, and experimental evidence is produced that such an assay is not only more stable and reliable but also more sensitive than those previously published. We checked the assay specificity against 20 different species and no cross-species detection was observed. The possibility of any false-negative detection was eliminated by a universal endogenous control for eukaryotes. The assay detection limit was 0.0001 ng of box turtle DNA from pure meat and 0.01% turtle meat in binary and ternary admixtures and commercial meatballs. Superior target stability and sensitivity under extreme treatments of boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking suggested that this newly developed assay would be suitable for any forensic and/or archaeological identification of Malayan box turtle species, even in severely degraded specimens. Further, in silico studies indicated that the assay has the potential to be used as a universal probe for the detection of nine Cuora species, all of which are critically endangered.

  6. A Review of Techniques for Detection of Movement Intention Using Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Aqsa; Navid, Muhammad Samran; Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Mazhar, Suleman; Jochumsen, Mads; Niazi, Imran Khan

    2015-01-01

    The movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) is a low-frequency negative shift in the electroencephalography (EEG) recording that takes place about 2 seconds prior to voluntary movement production. MRCP replicates the cortical processes employed in planning and preparation of movement. In this study, we recapitulate the features such as signal's acquisition, processing, and enhancement and different electrode montages used for EEG data recoding from different studies that used MRCPs to predict the upcoming real or imaginary movement. An authentic identification of human movement intention, accompanying the knowledge of the limb engaged in the performance and its direction of movement, has a potential implication in the control of external devices. This information could be helpful in development of a proficient patient-driven rehabilitation tool based on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Such a BCI paradigm with shorter response time appears more natural to the amputees and can also induce plasticity in brain. Along with different training schedules, this can lead to restoration of motor control in stroke patients. PMID:26881008

  7. Adaptive denoising and multiscale detection of the V wave in brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Popescu, M; Papadimitriou, S; Karamitsos, D; Bezerianos, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a wavelet-transform-based system for the V wave identification in brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). The system combines signal denoising and rule-based localization modules. The signal denoising module has the potential of effective noise reduction after signal averaging. It analyses adaptively the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales. The singularities of the signal create wavelet maxima with different properties from those of the induced noise. A non-linear filtering process implemented with a neural network extracts out the noise-induced maxima. The filtered wavelet details are subsequently analysed by the rule-based localization module for the automatic identification of the V wave. In the first phase, it implements a set of statistical observations as well as heuristic criteria used by human experts in order to classify the IV-V complex. At the second phase, using a multiscale focusing algorithm, the IV and V waves are positioned on the BAEP signal. Our experiments revealed that the system provides accurate results even for signals exhibiting unclear IV-V complexes.

  8. Phenotypic and genetic divergence within a single whitefish form – detecting the potential for future divergence

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Eckmann, Reiner; Oppelt, Claus; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced nutrient input can change the selection regime and lead to the loss of biodiversity. For example, eutrophication caused speciation reversal in polymorphic whitefish populations through a flattening of littoral–pelagic selection gradients. We investigated the current state of phenotypic and genetic diversity in whitefish (Coregonus macrophthalmus) in a newly restored lake whose nutrient load has returned to pre-eutrophication levels and found that whitefish spawning at different depths varied phenotypically and genetically: individuals spawning at shallower depth had fewer gill rakers, faster growth, and a morphology adapted to benthic feeding, and they showed higher degrees of diet specialization than deeper spawning individuals. Microsatellite analyses complemented the phenotype analyses by demonstrating reproductive isolation along different spawning depths. Our results indicate that whitefish still retain or currently regain phenotypic and genetic diversity, which was lost during eutrophication. Hence, the population documented here has a potential for future divergence because natural selection can target phenotypes specialized along re-established littoral–pelagic selection gradients. The biodiversity, however, will have better chances to return if managers acknowledge the evolutionary potential within the local whitefish and adapt fishing and stocking measures. PMID:24478795

  9. Use of electrical impedance spectroscopy to detect malignant and potentially malignant oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Craig; Brown, Brian H; Hearnden, Vanessa; Speight, Paul M; D'Apice, Katy; Hegarty, Anne M; Tidy, John A; Healey, T Jamie; Highfield, Peter E; Thornhill, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    The electrical properties of tissues depend on their architecture and cellular composition. We have previously shown that changes in electrical impedance can be used to differentiate between different degrees of cervical dysplasia and cancer of the cervix. In this proof-of-concept study, we aimed to determine whether electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could distinguish between normal oral mucosa; benign, potentially malignant lesions (PML); and oral cancer. EIS data were collected from oral cancer (n=10), PML (n=27), and benign (n=10) lesions. EIS from lesions was compared with the EIS reading from the normal mucosa on the contralateral side of the mouth or with reference spectra from mucosal sites of control subjects (n=51). Healthy controls displayed significant differences in the EIS obtained from different oral sites. In addition, there were significant differences in the EIS of cancer and high-risk PML versus low-risk PML and controls. There was no significant difference between benign lesions and normal controls. Study subjects also deemed the EIS procedure considerably less painful and more convenient than the scalpel biopsy procedure. EIS shows promise at distinguishing among malignant, PML, and normal oral mucosa and has the potential to be developed into a clinical diagnostic tool.

  10. Clinical Experiments of Communication by ALS Patient Utilizing Detecting Event-Related Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanou, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Kenji; Nakashima, Kenji

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) patients are unable to successfully communicate their desires, although their mentality is normal, and so, the necessity of Communication Aids(CA) for ALS patients is realized. Therefore, the authors are focused on Event-Related Potential(ERP) which is elicited primarily for the target by visual and auditory stimuli. P200, N200 and P300 are components of ERP. These are potentials that are elicited when the subject focuses attention on stimuli that appears infrequently. ALS patient participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, a target word out of five words on a computer display was specified. The five words were linked to an each electric appliance, allowing the ALS patient to switch on a target appliance by ERP. In the second experiment, a target word in a 5×5 matrix was specified by measure of ERP. The rows and columns of the matrix were reversed randomly. The word on a crossing point of rows and columns including the target word, was specified as the target word. The rate of correct judgment in the first and second experiments were 100% in N200 and 96% in P200. For practical use of this system, it is very important to determine suitable communication algorithms for each patient by performing these experiments evaluating the results.

  11. Detection of potential mosquito breeding sites based on community sourced geotagged images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Chaudhuri, Usashi; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Seetharaman, Guna

    2014-06-01

    Various initiatives have been taken all over the world to involve the citizens in the collection and reporting of data to make better and informed data-driven decisions. Our work shows how the geotagged images collected through the general population can be used to combat Malaria and Dengue by identifying and visualizing localities that contain potential mosquito breeding sites. Our method first employs image quality assessment on the client side to reject the images with distortions like blur and artifacts. Each geotagged image received on the server is converted into a feature vector using the bag of visual words model. We train an SVM classifier on a histogram-based feature vector obtained after the vector quantization of SIFT features to discriminate images containing either a small stagnant water body like puddle, or open containers and tires, bushes etc. from those that contain flowing water, manicured lawns, tires attached to a vehicle etc. A geographical heat map is generated by assigning a specific location a probability value of it being a potential mosquito breeding ground of mosquito using feature level fusion or the max approach presented in the paper. The heat map thus generated can be used by concerned health authorities to take appropriate action and to promote civic awareness.

  12. Neural recording front-end IC using action potential detection and analog buffer with digital delay for data compression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Yao, Lei; Zou, Xiaodan; Goh, Wang Ling; Je, Minkyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neural recording analog front-end IC intended for simultaneous neural recording with action potential (AP) detection for data compression in wireless multichannel neural implants. The proposed neural recording front-end IC detects the neural spikes and sends only the preserved AP information for wireless transmission in order to reduce the overall power consumption of the neural implant. The IC consists of a low-noise neural amplifier, an AP detection circuit and an analog buffer with digital delay. The neural amplifier makes use of a current-reuse technique to maximize the transconductance efficiency for attaining a good noise efficiency factor. The AP detection circuit uses an adaptive threshold voltage to generate an enable signal for the subsequent functional blocks. The analog buffer with digital delay is employed using a finite impulse response (FIR) filter which preserves the AP waveform before the enable signal as well as provides low-pass filtering. The neural recording front-end IC has been designed using standard CMOS 0.18-µm technology occupying a core area of 220 µm by 820 µm.

  13. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food.

    PubMed

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L; Aalberse, Rob C; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-12-15

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and detecting rabbit antibodies were raised against pepsin-digested hazelnut and untreated hazelnut protein, respectively. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.7 ng/mL hazelnut protein or <1 microg hazelnut in 1 g food matrix and a maximum of 0.034% cross-reactivity (peanut). Chocolate samples spiked with 0.5-100 microg hazelnut/g chocolate showed a mean recovery of 97.3%. In 9/12 food products labeled "may contain nuts", hazelnut was detected between 1.2 and 417 microg hazelnut/g food. It can be concluded that the application of antibodies directed to pepsin-digested food extracts in ELISA can facilitate specific detection of stable proteins that have the highest potential of inducing severe food anaphylaxis.

  14. Detection of aberrant methylated SEPT9 and NTRK3 genes in sporadic colorectal cancer patients as a potential diagnostic biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Behrouz Sharif, Shahin; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Mousavi Ardehaie, Reza; Eftekharsadat, Amirtaher; Ghojazadeh, Mortaza; Mehrtash, Amir Hossein; Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies, and the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Timely detection of CRC in patients with earlier stages provides the highest rate of survival. Epigenetic alterations are important in the occurrence and progression of CRC, and represent the primary modifications of cancer cells. Therefore, detection of these alterations in CRC cases are thought to hold great promise as diagnostic biomarkers. It has been shown that the SEPT9 and NTRK3 genes are aberrantly methylated and their detection can be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of CRC. The present study analyzed promoter methylation status of these genes in CRC patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from 45 CRC and paired adjacent healthy tissues and undergone bisulfite conversion, and the methylation status of NTRK3 and SEPT9 were defined using the MS-HRM assay. Our results showed that there are statistically significant differences in methylation status of NTRK3 and specially SEPT9 between CRC and adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001). High sensitivity and specificity for a specific location in SEPT9 gene promoter as a diagnostic biomarker was observed. SEPT9 promoter hypermethylation may serve as a promising biomarker for the detection of CRC development. However, to validate the biomarker potential of NTRK3 there is a requirement for further investigation. PMID:28105243

  15. A potential method for non-invasive acute myocardial infarction detection based on saliva Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Huang, Zufang; Lin, Jinyong; Lin, Jia; Xu, Zhihong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Weng, Guoxing; Chen, Guannan

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was employed for human saliva biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a rapidly non-invasive test for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. High-quality Raman spectra were obtained from human saliva samples of 46 AMI patients and 43 healthy controls. Significant differences in Raman intensities of prominent bands were observed between AMI and normal saliva. The tentative assignment of the observed Raman bands indicated constituent and conformational differences between the two groups. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and classify the Raman spectra acquired from AMI and healthy saliva, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 81.4%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility and potential for developing RS analysis of human saliva into a clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  16. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging model for potential breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong; Bauer, Daniel R; Witte, Russell; Xin, Hao

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we develop a complete microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) model for potential breast cancer imaging application. Acoustic pressures generated by different breast tissue targets are investigated by finite-difference time-domain simulations of the entire TAI process including the feeding antenna, matching mechanism, fluidic environment, 3-D breast model, and acoustic transducer. Simulation results achieve quantitative relationships between the input microwave peak power and the resulting specific absorption rate as well as the output acoustic pressure. Microwave frequency dependence of the acoustic signals due to different breast tissues is established across a broadband frequency range (2.3-12 GHz), suggesting key advantages of spectroscopic TAI compare to TAI at a single frequency. Reconstructed thermoacoustic images are consistent with the modeling results. This model will contribute to design, optimization, and safety evaluation of microwave-induced TAI and spectroscopy.

  17. Frequency detection with stability coefficient for steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhenghua; Yao, Dezhong

    2008-03-01

    Due to the relative noise and artifact insensitivity, steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) has been used increasingly in the study of a brain-computer interface (BCI). However, SSVEP is still influenced by the same frequency component in the spontaneous EEG, and it is meaningful to find a parameter that can avoid or decrease this influence to improve the transfer rate and the accuracy of the SSVEP-based BCI. In this work, with wavelet analysis, a new parameter named stability coefficient (SC) was defined to measure the stability of a frequency, and then the electrode with the highest stability was selected as the signal electrode for further analysis. After that, the SC method and the traditional power spectrum (PS) method were used comparatively to recognize the stimulus frequency from an analogous BCI data constructed from a real SSVEP data, and the results showed that the SC method is better for a short time window data.

  18. Targeted proteomic approach in prostatic tissue: a panel of potential biomarkers for cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Rosa; Damiano, Rocco; Savino, Rocco; Sindona, Giovanni; Napoli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the sixth highest causes of cancer-related deaths in men. The molecular events underlying its behavior and evolution are not completely understood. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the only approved Food and Drug Administration biomarker. A panel of ten stage-specific tumoral and adjacent non tumoral tissues from patients affected by PCa (Gleason score 6, 3+3; PSA 10 ÷19 ng/ml) was investigated by MS-based proteomics approach. The proposed method was based on identifying the base-soluble proteins from tissue, established an efficient study, which lead to a deeper molecular perspective understanding of the PCa. A total of 164 proteins were found and 132 of these were evaluated differentially expressed in tumoral tissues. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that among all dataset obtained, 105 molecules were involved in epithelial neoplasia with a p-value of 3.62E-05, whereas, only 11 molecules detected were ascribed to sentinel tissue and bodily fluids. PMID:27713912

  19. Potential of F-18 PET/CT in the Detection of Leptomeningeal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Short, Ryan G; Bal, Susan; German, John P; Poelstra, Raymond J; Kardan, Arash

    2014-12-01

    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a rare but increasingly common condition in which malignant cells migrate to the meninges. The gold standard for diagnosing LM is detection of cancer cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) is also used to diagnose LM. We describe a case of LM in which CE-MRI of the neuroaxis was initially negative for meningeal enhancement but F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) revealed hypermetabolism within the lumbar spinal canal. Positive F-18 FDG PET findings have rarely been reported in LM and, to our knowledge, have never been reported in the context of initially negative CE-MRI scanning of the neuroaxis. F-18 FDG PET/CT may represent an alternative modality for diagnosing LM in patients who are unable to undergo CE-MRI and/or LP or in patients for whom initial CE-MRI and/or LP are negative for LM.

  20. Detection of unsuspected pelvic DVTs on abdominopelvic CT scans: a potentially life-saving diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cox, Mougnyan; Patel, Manisha; Li, Zhenteng; Kamel, Sarah; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Roth, Christopher; Needleman, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious common disorder with substantial cost and morbidity to society and can be life threatening in some cases. The majority of VTE is diagnosed on lower extremity ultrasound or CT pulmonary angiography, but some cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) may be occasionally diagnosed on CT of the abdomen and pelvis by the alert radiologist. The purpose of our study was to determine the fraction of new/unsuspected DVTs diagnosed on CTAP and the subsequent management and clinical course of these patients. After Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective search of an institutional imaging database was performed for all cases of DVTs diagnosed on CTs of the abdomen and pelvis. Patients with positive studies were further investigated via clinical chart review for their subsequent management and clinical course. The 90-day mortality of the patients diagnosed with DVT on CTAP was also recorded. Sixty-two patients met the criteria for positive DVT on CTAP. Of these 62 cases, 26 (42 %) were new. Management was substantially changed in 24 out of 26 cases (92 %), most commonly initiation of anticoagulation. The 90-day mortality rate of patients diagnosed with pelvic DVTs on CTAP in our cohort was 21 %. Timely detection of pelvic DVTs can have serious implications for patient management, morbidity, and mortality. The pelvic veins should be included in the search pattern of all radiologists who review CTs of the abdomen and pelvis.

  1. Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Lundby, C

    2014-05-01

    The collection of blood, its storage as red blood cell (RBC) concentrates and its reinjection is prohibited; until now, the practice cannot be reliably detected. A recent innovation-the haematological module of the athlete's biological passport-can provide authorities with indications towards autologous blood transfusion. In situations where a given athlete has been exposed to altitude, heat stress, sickness, etc, additional evidence may be needed to establish beyond any reasonable doubt that a blood transfusion may actually have occurred. Additional evidence may be obtained from at least three different approaches using parameters related to blood and urine matrices.Genomics applied to mRNA or miRNA is one of the most promising analytical tools. Proteomics of changes associated with RBC membranes may reveal the presence of cells stored for some time, as can an abnormal pattern of size distribution of aged cells. In urine, high concentrations of metabolites of plasticisers originating from the blood storing bags strongly suggest a recent blood transfusion. We emphasise the usefulness of simultaneously obtaining and then analysing blood and urine for complementary evidence of autologous blood transfusion ('blood doping').

  2. Potential use of Doppler perfusion index in detection of occult liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patrlj, Leonardo; Bušić, Željko; Kolovrat, Marijan; Rakić, Mislav; Kliček, Robert; Židak, Marcel; Stipančić, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and preclinical studies demonstrated that measurements of liver hemodynamic [Doppler perfusion index (DPI)] may be used to accurately diagnose and predict liver metastases from primary colorectal cancer in a research setting. However, Doppler measurements have some serious limitations when applied to general population. Ultrasound is very operator-dependent, and requires skilled examiners. Also, many conditions may limit the use of Doppler ultrasound and ultrasound in general, such as the presence of air in digestive tract, cardiac arrhythmias, vascular anomalies, obesity and other conditions. Therefore, in spite of the results from clinical studies, its value may be limited in everyday practice. On the contrary, scientific research of the DPI in detection of liver metastases is of great importance, since current research speaks strongly for the presence of systemic vasoactive substance responsible for observed hemodynamic changes. Identification of such a systemic vasoactive substance may lead to the development of a simple and reproducible laboratory test that may reliably identify the presence of occult liver metastases and therefore increase the success of adjuvant chemotherapy through better selection of patients. Further research in this subject is therefore of great importance. PMID:25392837

  3. Adverse Outcomes in Group Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Roback, Howard B.

    2000-01-01

    Group forms of therapy have been growing at a rapid rate, in part because of their documented effectiveness and economic considerations such as managed care. It is therefore becoming increasingly important to assess the psychological risks of these interventions. The author provides an overview of the published literature and conference presentations on negative effects in adult outpatient groups. Although much of the literature on adverse outcomes in group therapy focuses on single risk factors (e.g., negative leader, group process, or patient characteristics), the author argues that an interactional model should be encouraged. Means of reducing casualties are also discussed, as well as methodological issues and research directions. PMID:10896735

  4. Denosumab. Limited efficacy in fracture prevention, too many adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2011-06-01

    The standard drug for postmenopausal osteoporotic women with a high risk of fracture is alendronic acid, used in conjunction with non-drug measures. There are no drugs with demonstrated efficacy on the risk of fracture in castrated men with prostate cancer. Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits a cytokine acting mainly on bone cells and lymphocytes, has been authorised in the European Union for use in both these settings. There are no trials comparing denosumab versus alendronic acid for symptomatic fracture prevention. In two trials involving 1189 and 504 women, the incidence of clinical fractures, recorded as simple adverse effects, did not differ significantly between the groups. In a placebo-controlled trial in about 7900 elderly osteoporotic women, denosumab significantly reduced the incidence of symptomatic vertebral fractures (0.8% versus 2.6% after 3 years) and hip fractures (0.7% versus 1.2%). An indirect comparison, providing weak evidence, suggests that denosumab is less effective than alendronic acid. In a placebo-controlled trial in 1468 castrated men with prostate cancer, denosumab did not reduce the incidence of symptomatic fractures after 3 years. Only the incidence of vertebral fractures, detected on routine radiographs, showed a statistically significant decline (1.5% versus 3.5%). Denosumab has numerous adverse effects. In placebo-controlled trials, this monoclonal antibody was associated with a higher incidence of deep-seated infections such as endocarditis, cancer, and skin rash. More data are needed on the risk of pancreatitis, long-term bone disorders (atypical fractures, delayed fracture healing, osteonecrosis of the jaw), hypocalcaemia and cataracts, all of which were reported in clinical trials. In practice, denosumab is not sufficiently effective to outweigh its established and potential risks in postmenopausal osteoporotic women or in castrated men with prostate cancer.

  5. Atmospheric Transport Modelling confining potential source location of East-Asian radionuclide detections in May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, J. Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The radionuclide component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is in place to detect tiny traces of fission products from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. The challenge for the interpretation of IMS radionuclide data is to discriminate radionuclide sources of CTBT relevance against emissions from nuclear facilities. Remarkable activity concentrations of Ba/La-140 occurred at the IMS radionuclide stations RN 37 (Okinawa) and RN 58 (Ussurysk) mid of May 2010. In those days also an elevated Xe-133 level was measured at RN 38 (Takasaki). Additional regional measurements of radioxenon were reported in the press and further analyzed in various publications. The radionuclide analysis gives evidence for the presence of a nuclear fission source between 10 and 12 May 2010. Backward Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) with HYSPLIT driven by 0.2° ECMWF meteorological data for the IMS samples indicates that, assuming a single source, a wide range of source regions is possible including the Korean Peninsula, the Sea of Japan (East Sea), and parts of China and Russia. Further confinement of the possible source location can be provided by atmospheric backtracking for the assumed sampling periods of the reported regional xenon measurements. New studies indicate a very weak seismic event at the DPRK test site on early 12 May 2010. Forward ATM for a pulse release caused by this event shows fairly good agreement with the observed radionuclide signature. Nevertheless, the underlying nuclear fission scenario remains quite unclear and speculative even if assuming a connection between the waveform and the radionuclide event.

  6. Detection of zoonotic intestinal parasites in public parks of Spain. Potential epidemiological role of microsporidia.

    PubMed

    Dado, D; Izquierdo, F; Vera, O; Montoya, A; Mateo, M; Fenoy, S; Galván, A L; García, S; García, A; Aránguez, E; López, L; del Águila, C; Miró, G

    2012-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the soil of public parks presents an important source of infection which has a significant impact on public health. Children are the main group affected by accidentally ingestion of contaminated soil. This study was performed in order to identify the presence of zoonotic parasites in dog and cat faecal and soil samples from public parks of Madrid, Spain. Six hundred twenty-five and seventy-nine soil and faecal samples (presumably from dogs and cats) respectively were collected from 67 parks. Intestinal parasites were identified in 27 parks (40.3%), which were contamined with Giardia sp. (19.4%), microsporidia (19.4%), Toxocara spp. (16.4%), Cryptosporidium sp. (6%), Entamoeba histolytica (3%) and Ancylostomidae (3%). Combinations of two or more intestinal parasites were found in 11 parks, and it was common to find Giardia and microsporidia together in samples. Intestinal parasites were detected in 18% (112/625) of soil samples. The most frequent parasite species found in the examined soil samples were Toxocara spp. (16.4%), followed by Giardia sp. (4.5%) and Strongyloides sp. larvae (3%). The zoonotic parasites found in the 79 faecal samples were Giardia sp. (17.7%), Cryptosporidium sp. (9%), E. histolytica (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (1.3%), Toxascaris leonina (1.3%) and microsporidia spores (28%). Microsporidia characterization by amplification of DNA confirmed 10 samples as positive, eight for E. bieneusi and two for E. hellem by PCR. The role of those parasites in the environment are discussed.

  7. Radiolabeled tirofiban – a potential radiopharmaceutical for detection of deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Darkovska-Serafimovska, Marija; Janevik-Ivanovska, Emilija; Djorgoski, Icko; Arsova-Sarafinovska, Zorica; Zdravkovska, Milka; Balkanov, Trajan; Ugresic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using 99mtechnetium (99mTc)-labeled tirofiban (a reversible antagonist of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) for detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in rats without causing an antiplatelet effect. Methods The ability of in vitro tirofiban to inhibit adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was evaluated using optical aggregometer. Binding of 99mTc-tirofiban to platelets was evaluated. Serum levels of unlabeled (a validated high performance liquid chromatography method) and 99mTc-tirofiban after single intravenous injection were evaluated in male Wistar rats with or without induced DVT (femoral vein ligation model), and the rats were also subjected to whole body scintigraphy. Results Tirofiban in vitro inhibits ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner (10 nM to 2 μM), but only if it is added before ADP and not after ADP. 99mTc labeling did not affect the ability of tirofiban to bind to either human or rat platelets, nor did it affect tirofiban pharmacokinetics in intact rats or in animals with induced DVT. When 99mTc-tirofiban was injected to rats after induction of DVT, at a molar dose lower than the one showing only a weak antiaggregatory effect in vitro, whole body scintigraphy indicated localization of 99mTc-tirofiban around the place of the induced DVT. Conclusion 99mTc labeling of tirofiban does not affect its ability to bind to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa or its in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats, either intact or with DVT. A low, nonantiaggregatory dose of 99mTc-tirofiban may be used to visualize DVT at an early stage. PMID:27713618

  8. The potential use of biogeochemistry in the detection of petroleum microseepage

    SciTech Connect

    Klusman, R.W.; Saeed, M.A. ); Abu-Ali, M.A. )

    1992-06-01

    Biogeochemistry was applied to the indirect detection of petroleum microseepage in the vicinity of Eagle Springs oil field, Railroad Valley, Nevada, and Cave Canyon field, Paradox basin, Utah. Trace elements were measured in native vegetation over and surrounding areas of production at the test sites. The oxidation of microseepage in the upper part of the soil column is postulated to cause an increase in plant uptake of transition trace elements such as iron, manganese, and vanadium, and a decrease in plant uptake of alkaline earth elements such as calcium, strontium, and barium. Compared to nonproductive areas, an increase in uptake of transition trace elements and a decrease in alkaline earth elements was observed in Fourwing salt-bush over Eagle Springs field. The postulated increase in uptake of transition trace elements and decrease in alkaline earth elements was not as apparent in Big sage-brush nor in Utah juniper over the Cave Canyon field. The observation of the postulated effects on vegetation at Eagle Springs may be due to the relatively large rates of microseepage independently observed using other methods, and the extensive faulting in Railroad Valley. The weaker response observed at Cave Canyon may reflect the lack of faulting and the retention of light hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Another possible reason for weal response is that the available plant species at Cave Canyon do not exhibit the effect at the lower soil pH measured in the area. At low pH and low Eh, the solubility of transition elements in soil pore waters and plant uptake is increased. Due to the high soil pH of the Railroad Valley area, the uptake of alkaline earth elements should be decreased where microseepage is occurring because of crystallization of carbonate minerals.

  9. Influence of aqueous food simulants on potential nanoparticle detection in migration studies involving nanoenabled food-contact substances.

    PubMed

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Noonan, Gregory O

    2016-05-01

    Research focused on assessing potential consumer exposure to nanoparticles released from nano-enabled food-contact materials (FCMs) has often reached conflicting conclusions regarding the detection of migrating nanoparticles. These conflicting conclusions, coupled with the potential for nanoparticles to be unstable in certain food simulants, has necessitated a closer look at the role played by food simulants recommended for use in nanoparticle migration evaluation. The influence of aqueous food simulants on nanoparticles under migration evaluation conditions is reported herein. The stability of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) spiked into three food simulants (water, 10% ethanol and 3% acetic acid) was investigated using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4), ultrafiltration, electron microscopy (EM), and single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS). While 3% acetic acid induced significant oxidative dissolution of AgNP to silver ions, there were very minor to no changes in the physicochemical properties of AgNP in water and 10% ethanol.

  10. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  11. AKI transition of care: a potential opportunity to detect and prevent CKD.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stuart L; Jaber, Bertrand L; Faubel, Sarah; Chawla, Lakhmir S

    2013-03-01

    The incidence rate of AKI is increasing across the spectrum of hospitalized children and adults. Given the increased morbidity and mortality associated with AKI, significant research effort has been appropriately focused on standardizing AKI definitions, identifying risk factors, and discovering and validating novel, earlier structural biomarkers of kidney injury. In addition, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that AKI is a risk factor for the future development or accelerated progression of CKD. Unfortunately, prospective observational studies have not consistently followed survivors of episodes of AKI for longitudinal outcomes after hospital discharge, which could lead to ascertainment bias in terms of over- or underestimation of CKD development. Furthermore, data show that clinical follow-up of AKI survivors is low. This lack of systematic study and clinical follow-up represents a potential missed opportunity to prevent chronic disease after an acute illness and improve outcomes. Therefore, prospective study of transitions of care after episodes of AKI is needed to identify which patients are at risk for CKD development and to optimally target therapeutic interventions.

  12. Detection of Potential Chloroplastic Substrates for Polyphenol Oxidase Suggests a Role in Undamaged Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Boeckx, Tinne; Winters, Ana; Webb, K. Judith; Kingston-Smith, Alison H.

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have a recognized role during pathogen and arthropod attack. As an immediate consequence of such wounding, cellular compartmentation is destroyed allowing the chloroplastic PPO enzyme to interact with vacuolar substrates catalyzing the oxidation of monophenols and/or o-diphenols to o-diquinones. This ultimately results in a reduction in the nutritional value of wounded tissue through the formation of non-digestible secondary melanin pigments. However, the chloroplastic location of PPO enzyme could indicate a role for PPO in undamaged tissues. In this study, a wild-type red clover population exhibiting high leaf PPO activity had significantly higher yield than a low leaf PPO mutant population while leaf isoflavonoids and hydroxycinnammates (PPO substrates) accumulated at similar levels in these plants. These data suggest that the presence of leaf PPO activity affects plant vigor. Understanding how this advantage is conferred requires knowledge of the cellular mechanism, including intra-organellar substrates. Here we present evidence of candidate PPO substrates within chloroplasts of wild-type red clover, including the monophenolic acid, coumaroyl malate, and low levels of the diphenolic acid, phaselic acid (caffeoyl malate). Interestingly, chloroplastic phaselic acid concentration increased significantly under certain growth conditions. We discuss the implications of this in regard to a potential role for chloroplastic PPO in undamaged leaves. PMID:28316605

  13. Systematic Analysis of Adverse Event Reports for Sex Differences in Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Li, Dingcheng; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that sex differences exist in Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). Identifying those sex differences in ADEs could reduce the experience of ADEs for patients and could be conducive to the development of personalized medicine. In this study, we analyzed a normalized US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Chi-squared test was conducted to discover which treatment regimens or drugs had sex differences in adverse events. Moreover, reporting odds ratio (ROR) and P value were calculated to quantify the signals of sex differences for specific drug-event combinations. Logistic regression was applied to remove the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events. We detected among 668 drugs of the most frequent 20 treatment regimens in the United States, 307 drugs have sex differences in ADEs. In addition, we identified 736 unique drug-event combinations with significant sex differences. After removing the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events, there are 266 combinations remained. Drug labels or previous studies verified some of them while others warrant further investigation. PMID:27102014

  14. [Learning from errors after a care-related adverse event].

    PubMed

    Richard, Christian; Pibarot, Marie-Laure; Zantman, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    The mobilisation of all health professionals with regard to the detection and analysis of care-related adverse events is an essential element in the improvement of the safety of care. This approach is required by the authorities and justifiably expected by users.

  15. Muscular mechanical energy expenditure as a process for detecting potential risks in manual materials handling.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, M; Smyth, G

    1991-01-01

    The problem of injuries in manual materials handling remains a big concern in industrialized countries. It has become imperative in occupational biomechanics to extend the analyses to all pertinent factors involved in working tasks and to adopt an experimental approach leading to the understanding of the relative demands imposed simultaneously on all body joints. The evaluation of joint muscular work and the processes of energy generation, absorption and transfer appears promising as a tool in the detection of risk factors in working tasks. The present study consisted of evaluating two tasks (lifting and lowering) performed at five different heights (from 15 to 185 cm) with five different loads (from 3.3 to 22.0 kg). The subjects were eight experienced workers from a food product warehouse. Cinematography techniques and two AMTI force platforms were used to collect the data. Dynamic and planar segmental analyses were performed to calculate the net muscular moments at the joints, and work was calculated from the integration of muscular power. Factorial analyses of variance with repeated measures were performed on the dependent variables to evaluate the main effects of tasks, loads, and heights (for lifting and for lowering) and the interactions. The results revealed the adoption of different movement strategies in the handling of heavier loads. In the first, a larger emphasis of energy transfer and movement economy; in the second, a reduction in the relative contribution of the shoulders to the detriment of an increased participation of the lower back and hips was found. The comparison between lifting and lowering tasks indicated that lifting was only slightly more demanding than lowering for maximum muscular moments (about 15%) but much more so for mechanical work (about 40%); however, the nature of the efforts in eccentric contractions suggests that the lowering of heavy loads may be risky. Finally, the results revealed the deviation of height of handling from the

  16. [Adverse events in patients from a pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Arriaga-Dávila, José de Jesús; Domínguez-Serrano, María Isabel; Guzmán-Bihouet, Beatriz Filomena; Navarrete-Navarro, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Background: detection of adverse events is part of the safety management in hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of adverse events that occurred in a pediatric hospital. Methods: cross-sectional study of the adverse events occurred in a pediatric hospital from 2007 to 2009. Factors associated with their developmental causes were identified. The statistical analysis was descriptive and bivariate, with contingency tables to estimate the relationship between those factors. A p value = 0.05 was considered significant. Results: a total of 177 adverse events were registered. When they began, human factor occurred in 23 cases (13 %, OR = 1.41, p = 0.001), organizational factor was present in 71 cases (40 %, OR = 1.91, p = 0.236) and technical factor in 46 cases (26 %, OR = 0.87, p = 0.01). Blows or bruises from falls as a result of adverse events occurred in 71 cases (40 %, 95 % CI = 64-78). Conclusions: we found 1.84 events per 100 hospital discharges during the study period. The fall of patients ranked first of the adverse events identified.

  17. Application of Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Self-Potential Anomaly in Caves Detection in Djuanda Forest Park, Bandung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srigutomo, Wahyu; Arkanuddin, Muhammad R.; Pratomo, Prihandhanu M.; Novana, Eka C.; Agustina, Rena D.

    2010-12-01

    Self-Potential (SP) is naturally occurring electric potential difference observed at the surface. In the vicinity of a cave, SP anomaly is dominantly generated by the resistivity contrast of the cave with its environment and the current source associated with the streaming potential generated by fluid flow through the cave. In this study we applied a simple qualitative analysis to understand the SP values caused by streaming potential and values that are due to the presence of caves. Further, we conducted two-dimensional SP continuous modeling by solving the fluid velocity vector first in the modeling domain. Current source distribution and hence the SP value are obtained by incorporating resistivity value of the subsurface and calculating the divergence of the velocity vector. For validation, this scheme was applied in detection caves dug by Japanese army during WWII as at Djuanda Forest Park, Bandung. The results can be used to understand the characteristics of fluid flow and current source distribution around cavities that are responsible for the observed SP anomaly at the surface.

  18. Investigation of the potential of Raman spectroscopy for oral cancer detection in surgical margins.

    PubMed

    Cals, Froukje L J; Bakker Schut, Tom C; Hardillo, José A; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Koljenović, Senada; Puppels, Gerwin J

    2015-10-01

    The poor prognosis of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) patients is associated with residual tumor after surgery. Raman spectroscopy has the potential to provide an objective intra-operative evaluation of the surgical margins. Our aim was to understand the discriminatory basis of Raman spectroscopy at a histological level. In total, 127 pseudo-color Raman images were generated from unstained thin tissue sections of 25 samples (11 OCSCC and 14 healthy) of 10 patients. These images were clearly linked to the histopathological evaluation of the same sections after hematoxylin and eosin-staining. In this way, Raman spectra were annotated as OCSCC or as a surrounding healthy tissue structure (i.e., squamous epithelium, connective tissue (CT), adipose tissue, muscle, gland, or nerve). These annotated spectra were used as input for linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models to discriminate between OCSCC spectra and healthy tissue spectra. A database was acquired with 88 spectra of OCSCC and 632 spectra of healthy tissue. The LDA models could distinguish OCSCC spectra from the spectra of adipose tissue, nerve, muscle, gland, CT, and squamous epithelium in 100%, 100%, 97%, 94%, 93%, and 75% of the cases, respectively. More specifically, the structures that were most often confused with OCSCC were dysplastic epithelium, basal layers of epithelium, inflammation- and capillary-rich CT, and connective and glandular tissue close to OCSCC. Our study shows how well Raman spectroscopy enables discrimination between OCSCC and surrounding healthy tissue structures. This knowledge supports the development of robust and reliable classification algorithms for future implementation of Raman spectroscopy in clinical practice.

  19. Adverse effects of new antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Onat, Filiz; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-04-01

    Starting with phenobarbital in the 1900s, it took almost 70-80 years to introduce old-generation agents for the treatment of epilepsy. Then, in eleven years, nine more new antiepileptic drugs were added to the armamentarium. These drugs produce a nearly 40-50% decrease in seizure incidence in refractory patients, but few patients have been able to achieve complete freedom from seizures. So the search for more effective drugs with minimal adverse effect profiles will continue. Although the new antiepileptic drugs do not demonstrate a superior efficacy compared to the older ones, they do offer some advantages in terms of tolerability, fewer drug interactions and simpler pharmacokinetics. However, our knowledge concerning their safety profiles can not yet be considered adequate due to the relatively short time these drugs have been on the market and to the limited number of patients exposed to them. The fact that the serious side effects of felbamate and vigabatrine appeared late after marketing should be taken as an important lesson because it implies the potential for unknown side effects at any time during treatment. Antiepileptic drug treatment should begin with diagnosis of the seizure and epileptic syndrome, followed by selection of the drug most appropriate for treatment of the individual patient, and continued with monitoring of not only the seizures but the adverse effect profile as well.

  20. Immunomodulatory drugs: Oral and systemic adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Riikka; Gomez-Font, Rafael; Meurman, Jukka H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The main objectives are to present the different adverses effects of the immunomodulatory drugs that can impair the quality of life of the immunosupressed patients and study the impact of immunomodualtion on oral diseases. Immunomodulatory drugs have changed the treatment protocols of many diseases where immune functions play a central role, such as rheumatic diseases. Their effect on oral health has not been systematically investigated, however. Study Design: We review current data on the new immunomodulatory drugs from the oral health perspective based on open literature search of the topic. Results: These target specific drugs appear to have less drug interactions than earlier immunomodulating medicines but have nevertheless potential side effects such as activating latent infections. There are some data showing that the new immunomodulatory drugs may also have a role in the treatment of certain oral diseases such as lichen planus or ameliorating symptoms in Sjögren´s syndrome, but the results have not been overly promising. Conclusions: In general, data are sparse of the effect of these new drugs vs. oral diseases and there are no properly powered randomized controlled trials published on this topic. Key words:Immunomodulatory drugs, oral diseases, adverse effects, therapeutic action. PMID:23986016

  1. Investigation of Potential Interferences in the Detection of OH Radicals by Laser-Induced Fluorescence under Dark Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H.; Tan, Z.; Broch, S.; Dorn, H. P.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Gomm, S.; Rohrer, F.; Schrade, S.; Künstler, C.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent findings from atmospheric OH measurements by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instruments have shown that the detected OH signals may contain a significant interference in the presence of biogenic VOCs and ozone. The fractional contribution of the interfering signal to the total measured signal in field campaigns was observed to be largest during nighttime, but was also present during daytime. The exact nature of this interference is not fully clear, but it has been proposed to be related to the short-lived products of the ozonolysis of alkenes (Criegee intermediates). Here, we will show investigations of potential interferences in the OH detection for the Juelich LIF instruments for nighttime conditions in laboratory studies. The inlet of the instrument was overflown by excess synthetic air containing one or more reactants. In order to distinguish between OH produced by reactions upstream of the inlet and artificial signals produced inside the instrument, a chemical titration scheme for OH was applied. Experiments included the investigation of potential interferences related to the nitrate radical and related to the ozonolysis of alkenes, monoterpenes, and isoprene. A small interference signal was found, if nitrate radicals are sampled by the Juelich LIF instrument. Internally produced OH was observed, if exceptionally large, non-atmospheric concentrations of ozone and alkenes were sampled. However, this signal is most likely not related to the presence of Criegee intermediates.

  2. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production

    PubMed Central

    Saxami, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Olga S.; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Galanis, Alex

    2016-01-01

    A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties. PMID:27153065

  3. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production.

    PubMed

    Saxami, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Olga S; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Galanis, Alex

    2016-05-04

    A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties.

  4. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  5. The international serious adverse events consortium.

    PubMed

    Holden, Arthur L; Contreras, Jorge L; John, Sally; Nelson, Matthew R

    2014-11-01

    The International Serious Adverse Events Consortium is generating novel insights into the genetics and biology of drug-induced serious adverse events, and thereby improving pharmaceutical product development and decision-making.

  6. RSR13, a potential athletic performance enhancement agent: detection in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, A; Catlin, D H

    2001-01-01

    RSR13 (2-[4-[[(3,5-dimethylanilino)carbonyl]methyl]phenoxyl]-2-methylpropionic acid) is a synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin that is currently in a phase III clinical trial as a radio-enhancing agent. RSR13 has been shown to increase maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) in a canine skeletal model, which makes it a potential performance-enhancing agent for endurance athletes, since VO(2max) is an index of aerobic capacity. In this study we present a method for the detection of RSR13-bis-TMS in human urine by gas chromatography/electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) suitable for doping control laboratories. The presence of RSR13 is detected by monitoring the ions m/z 485 ([M](+.)) and 470 ([M - CH3](+)). The limit of detection (LOD) is less than 2 ng/mL in urine. Urine samples collected from clinical trial subjects immediately prior to receiving an infusion of RSR13 showed no evidence of RSR13, whereas post-infusion urine samples contained up to 1181 microg/mL. A urine sample collected 36 h after administration of a small dose (10 mg/kg) and diluted 100-fold showed a signal 80 times higher than the LOD. Urine samples obtained from 100 randomly selected athletes in our routine testing program did not show any traces of RSR13. Sport authorities may wish to add RSR13 to the list of prohibited substances.

  7. Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 3 (TRPC3) Channels Are Required for Hypothalamic Glucose Detection and Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, Chloé; Fenech, Claire; Liénard, Fabienne; Grall, Sylvie; Chevalier, Charlène; Chaudy, Sylvie; Brenachot, Xavier; Berges, Raymond; Louche, Katie; Stark, Romana; Nédélec, Emmanuelle; Laderrière, Amélie; Andrews, Zane B; Benani, Alexandre; Flockerzi, Veit; Gascuel, Jean; Hartmann, Jana; Moro, Cédric; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Leloup, Corinne; Pénicaud, Luc; Fioramonti, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    The mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) contains neurons capable of directly detecting metabolic signals such as glucose to control energy homeostasis. Among them, glucose-excited (GE) neurons increase their electrical activity when glucose rises. In view of previous work, we hypothesized that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels are involved in hypothalamic glucose detection and the control of energy homeostasis. To investigate the role of TRPC3, we used constitutive and conditional TRPC3-deficient mouse models. Hypothalamic glucose detection was studied in vivo by measuring food intake and insulin secretion in response to increased brain glucose level. The role of TRPC3 in GE neuron response to glucose was studied by using in vitro calcium imaging on freshly dissociated MBH neurons. We found that whole-body and MBH TRPC3-deficient mice have increased body weight and food intake. The anorectic effect of intracerebroventricular glucose and the insulin secretory response to intracarotid glucose injection are blunted in TRPC3-deficient mice. TRPC3 loss of function or pharmacological inhibition blunts calcium responses to glucose in MBH neurons in vitro. Together, the results demonstrate that TRPC3 channels are required for the response to glucose of MBH GE neurons and the central effect of glucose on insulin secretion and food intake.

  8. Prevention of adverse events in hospitalized patients using an antimicrobial review program.

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmo, B J; Luber, A D; Corelli, R L; Flaherty, J F; Jacobs, R A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an antimicrobial review system is associated with a reduction in antimicrobial-associated adverse events. DESIGN: All antimicrobial medication orders for patients hospitalized over a two-year period were evaluated. High-level interventions intended to prevent adverse antimicrobial events were collated. Based on literature estimates of adverse antimicrobial events, potential reduction of high-level adverse antimicrobial events was estimated. SETTING: Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Division of Infectious Diseases at a tertiary care teaching hospital. RESULTS: A total of 452 interventions were classified as "high-level." The incidence of preventable adverse antimicrobial events requiring intervention was 16 per 1000 antimicrobial orders. The incidence of high-level errors necessitating intervention was 4.4 per 1000 antimicrobial orders. An estimated 125 to 198 high-level adverse events were avoided. CONCLUSION: An antimicrobial review program has the potential to reduce significant adverse events in hospitalized patients. PMID:10560287

  9. Signal-on dual-potential electrochemiluminescence based on luminol-gold bifunctional nanoparticles for telomerase detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huai-Rong; Wu, Mei-Sheng; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-04-15

    Here, we report a novel type of signal-on dual-potential electrochemiluminescence (ECL) approach for telomerase detection based on bifunctionalized luminol-gold nanoparticles (L-Au NPs). In this approach, CdS nanocrystals (NCs) were first coated on glassy carbon electrode, and then thiol-modified telomerase primer was attached on CdS NCs via Cd-S bond. In the presence of telomerase and dNTPs, the primer could be extended. Telomerase primer would hybridize with its complementary DNA, and the extended part would hybridize with the capture DNA which was tagged with L-Au NPs. In the presence of coreactant H2O2, the L-Au NPs could not only enhance the ECL intensity of CdS NCs at -1.25 V (vs SCE) induced by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au NPs but also produce a new ECL signal at +0.45 V (vs SCE) that resulted from luminol in L-Au NPs. Both signals at two potentials increased with the increase of telomerase concentration. This method could be used to detect the telomerase from 100 to 9000 HL-60 cells and investigate the apoptosis of tumor cells. The ratio of the two signal increments (ΔECL(Luminol)/ΔECL(CdS NCs)), which showed a high consistency value for different numbers of cells, could be used to verify the reliability of tests. This dual-potential ECL strategy showed great promise in avoiding false positive or negative results in bioanalysis.

  10. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  11. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of our knowledge this has not been previously reported in the formal medical literature. We briefly describe the most common classes of nootropics, including their postulated or proven methods of actions, their desired effects, and their adverse side effects, and provide a brief discussion of the cases. Our objective is to raise awareness among physicians in general and psychiatrists and addiction specialists in particular of the potentially dangerous phenomenon of unsupervised nootropic use among young adults who may be especially vulnerable to nootropics’ negative effects. PMID:27222762

  12. Adverse reactions to the sulphite additives

    PubMed Central

    Misso, Neil LA

    2012-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. Most studies report a prevalence of sulphite sensitivity of 3 to 10% among asthmatic subjects who ingest these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. Although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed, the precise mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear. PMID:24834193

  13. Investigation of potential interferences in the detection of atmospheric ROx radicals by laser-induced fluorescence under dark conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H.; Tan, Z.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Broch, S.; Dorn, H.-P.; Holland, F.; Künstler, C.; Gomm, S.; Rohrer, F.; Schrade, S.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2015-11-01

    Direct detection of highly reactive, atmospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH) is widely accomplished by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instruments. The technique is also suitable for the indirect measurement of HO2 and RO2 peroxy radicals by chemical conversion to OH. It requires sampling of ambient air into a low pressure cell, where OH fluorescence is detected after excitation by 308 nm laser radiation. Although the residence time of air inside the fluorescence cell is typically only on the order of milliseconds, there is potential that additional OH is internally produced, which would artificially increase the measured OH concentration. Here, we present experimental studies investigating potential interferences in the detection of OH and peroxy radicals for the LIF instruments of Forschungszentrum Jülich for nighttime conditions. For laboratory experiments, the inlet of the instrument was overflown by excess synthetic air containing one or more reactants. In order to distinguish between OH produced by reactions upstream of the inlet and artificial signals produced inside the instrument, a chemical titration for OH was applied. Additional experiments were performed in the simulation chamber SAPHIR where simultaneous measurements by an open-path differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) served as reference for OH to quantify potential artifacts in the LIF instrument. Experiments included the investigation of potential interferences related to the nitrate radical (NO3, N2O5), related to the ozonolysis of alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, α-pinene, limonene, isoprene), and the laser photolysis of acetone. Experiments studying the laser photolysis of acetone yield OH signals in the fluorescence cell, which are equivalent to 0.05 × 106 cm-3 OH for a mixing ratio of 5 ppbv acetone. Under most atmospheric conditions, this interference is negligible. No significant interferences were found for atmospheric concentrations of reactants

  14. Investigation of potential interferences in the detection of atmospheric ROx radicals by laser-induced fluorescence under dark conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Hendrik; Tan, Zhaofeng; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Broch, Sebastian; Dorn, Hans-Peter; Holland, Frank; Künstler, Christopher; Gomm, Sebastian; Rohrer, Franz; Schrade, Stephanie; Tillmann, Ralf; Wahner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Direct detection of highly reactive, atmospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH) is widely accomplished by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instruments. The technique is also suitable for the indirect measurement of HO2 and RO2 peroxy radicals by chemical conversion to OH. It requires sampling of ambient air into a low-pressure cell, where OH fluorescence is detected after excitation by 308 nm laser radiation. Although the residence time of air inside the fluorescence cell is typically only on the order of milliseconds, there is potential that additional OH is internally produced, which would artificially increase the measured OH concentration. Here, we present experimental studies investigating potential interferences in the detection of OH and peroxy radicals for the LIF instruments of Forschungszentrum Jülich for nighttime conditions. For laboratory experiments, the inlet of the instrument was over flowed by excess synthetic air containing one or more reactants. In order to distinguish between OH produced by reactions upstream of the inlet and artificial signals produced inside the instrument, a chemical titration for OH was applied. Additional experiments were performed in the simulation chamber SAPHIR where simultaneous measurements by an open-path differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) served as reference for OH to quantify potential artifacts in the LIF instrument. Experiments included the investigation of potential interferences related to the nitrate radical (NO3, N2O5), related to the ozonolysis of alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, α-pinene, limonene, isoprene), and the laser photolysis of acetone. Experiments studying the laser photolysis of acetone yield OH signals in the fluorescence cell, which are equivalent to 0.05 × 106 cm-3 OH for a mixing ratio of 5 ppbv acetone. Under most atmospheric conditions, this interference is negligible. No significant interferences were found for atmospheric concentrations of reactants

  15. iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

    2012-12-01

    Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined.

  16. Current and Emerging Potential of Magnetoencephalography in the Detection and Localization of High-Frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Madsen, Joseph R.; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Pearl, Phillip L.; Papadelis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Up to one-third of patients with epilepsy are medically intractable and need resective surgery. To be successful, epilepsy surgery requires a comprehensive preoperative evaluation to define the epileptogenic zone (EZ), the brain area that should be resected to achieve seizure freedom. Due to lack of tools and methods that measure the EZ directly, this area is defined indirectly based on concordant data from a multitude of presurgical non-invasive tests and intracranial recordings. However, the results of these tests are often insufficiently concordant or inconclusive. Thus, the presurgical evaluation of surgical candidates is frequently challenging or unsuccessful. To improve the efficacy of the surgical treatment, there is an overriding need for reliable biomarkers that can delineate the EZ. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) have emerged over the last decade as new potential biomarkers for the delineation of the EZ. Multiple studies have shown that HFOs are spatially associated with the EZ. Despite the encouraging findings, there are still significant challenges for the translation of HFOs as epileptogenic biomarkers to the clinical practice. One of the major barriers is the difficulty to detect and localize them with non-invasive techniques, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) or scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Although most literature has studied HFOs using invasive recordings, recent studies have reported the detection and localization of HFOs using MEG or scalp EEG. MEG seems to be particularly advantageous compared to scalp EEG due to its inherent advantages of being less affected by skull conductivity and less susceptible to contamination from muscular activity. The detection and localization of HFOs with MEG would largely expand the clinical utility of these new promising biomarkers to an earlier stage in the diagnostic process and to a wider range of patients with epilepsy. Here, we conduct a thorough critical review of the recent MEG literature that

  17. Current and Emerging Potential of Magnetoencephalography in the Detection and Localization of High-Frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Madsen, Joseph R; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Pearl, Phillip L; Papadelis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Up to one-third of patients with epilepsy are medically intractable and need resective surgery. To be successful, epilepsy surgery requires a comprehensive preoperative evaluation to define the epileptogenic zone (EZ), the brain area that should be resected to achieve seizure freedom. Due to lack of tools and methods that measure the EZ directly, this area is defined indirectly based on concordant data from a multitude of presurgical non-invasive tests and intracranial recordings. However, the results of these tests are often insufficiently concordant or inconclusive. Thus, the presurgical evaluation of surgical candidates is frequently challenging or unsuccessful. To improve the efficacy of the surgical treatment, there is an overriding need for reliable biomarkers that can delineate the EZ. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) have emerged over the last decade as new potential biomarkers for the delineation of the EZ. Multiple studies have shown that HFOs are spatially associated with the EZ. Despite the encouraging findings, there are still significant challenges for the translation of HFOs as epileptogenic biomarkers to the clinical practice. One of the major barriers is the difficulty to detect and localize them with non-invasive techniques, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) or scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Although most literature has studied HFOs using invasive recordings, recent studies have reported the detection and localization of HFOs using MEG or scalp EEG. MEG seems to be particularly advantageous compared to scalp EEG due to its inherent advantages of being less affected by skull conductivity and less susceptible to contamination from muscular activity. The detection and localization of HFOs with MEG would largely expand the clinical utility of these new promising biomarkers to an earlier stage in the diagnostic process and to a wider range of patients with epilepsy. Here, we conduct a thorough critical review of the recent MEG literature that

  18. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety.

  19. Detection of pharmaceutically active compounds in the rivers and tap water of the Madrid Region (Spain) and potential ecotoxicological risk.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Y; González Alonso, S; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; Gil, A; Catalá, M

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the order of ng L(-1) to μg L(-1) have been reported worldwide in waste, fluvial and even drinking water, raising concern about the efficacy of the currently employed waste water treatments in the elimination of this kind of compounds. Despite ranking 29th in terms of population, Spain is currently the 8th country on pharmaceutical prescription with an expense of 14×10(9) euros in 2008. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of 33 pharmaceutically active compounds in specific points of the main rivers of the Madrid Region (MR) as well as tap water samples from the metropolitan area of Madrid. Additionally, a screening level risk characterization by means of the Hazard Quotient (HQ) method was applied. A total of 25 pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites were detected in the 10 sampling points downstream the outlet of the major STPs of the MR. The highest concentrations were detected for the anticonvulsant carbamazepine and the stimulant caffeine. Concentrations for most of the analyzed compounds exceed levels previously reported in the literature. Moreover, we report the highest concentration of the cytostatic ifosfamide, detected for the first time in Spain in surface water. Preliminary risk characterization shows that a total of 16 compounds represent at least a low potential hazard based on their scored HQs, with five of them present in a concentration that exceeds the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). Toxic Units calculation indicates that for all the selected sampling points high hazard is anticipated from the presence of the analyzed compounds in the measured concentrations (TUs>10). Caffeine and cotinine were detected in all (10) the analyzed tap water samples. Carbamazepine and nicotine were detected in six and venlafaxine in two samples. No studies venlafaxine in drinking water have been reported. These results clearly pinpoint the need for water

  20. Minimizing AED adverse effects: improving quality of life in the interictal state in epilepsy care.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Erik K; Louis, Erik K

    2009-06-01

    The goals of epilepsy therapy are to achieve seizure freedom while minimizing adverse effects of treatment. However, producing seizure-freedom is often overemphasized, at the expense of inducing adverse effects of treatment. All antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have the potential to cause dose-related, "neurotoxic" adverse effects (i.e., drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, blurry vision, and incoordination). Such adverse effects are common, especially when initiating AED therapy and with polytherapy. Dose-related adverse effects may be obviated in most patients by dose reduction of monotherapy, reduction or elimination of polytherapy, or substituting for a better tolerated AED. Additionally, all older and several newer AEDs have idiosyncratic adverse effects which usually require withdrawal in an affected patient, including serious rash (i.e., Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), hematologic dyscrasias, hepatotoxicity, teratogenesis in women of child bearing potential, bone density loss, neuropathy, and severe gingival hyperplasia. Unfortunately, occurrence of idiosyncratic AED adverse effects cannot be predicted or, in most cases, prevented in susceptible patients. This article reviews a practical approach for the definition and identification of adverse effects of epilepsy therapies, and reviews the literature demonstrating that adverse effects result in detrimental quality of life in epilepsy patients. Strategies for minimizing AED adverse effects by reduction or elimination of AED polytherapy, appropriately employing drug-sparing therapies, and optimally administering AEDs are outlined, including tenets of AED selection, titration, therapeutic AED laboratory monitoring, and avoidance of chronic idiosyncratic adverse effects.

  1. Application of adverse outcome pathway-based tools to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Increasing numbers and diversity of chemical contaminants are being detected in ambient surface waters. States, regions, and communities across the US are faced with the issue of understanding which chemicals may warrant concern and at what concentrations. Integrating new scientific data streams and predictive approaches into the process of numeric water aquatic life criteria development offers the potential to develop more criteria, for more chemicals, more rapidly. For example, well established models of non-polar narcosis provide an effective estimate of “baseline” toxicity. Emerging data streams from high throughput, pathway-based, toxicity testing programs provide broad spectrum screening for more specific modes of action that may result in deviations from “baseline” toxicity predictions (i.e., excess toxicity). The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework provides a scientifically credible basis for linking specific pathway-perturbations to predicted hazard and facilitates systematic consideration of taxa and life stages likely to be sensitive. Application of this information can facilitate more targeted and hypothesis-driven approaches to the collection of data for use in numeric criteria development. It can also support interim application of appropriate AOP-based prediction models in cases where empirical data are lacking. While these approaches will be subject to error and uncertainty, they offer the ability to provide a scientifically-based pre

  2. Adaptive and context-aware detection and classification of potential QoS degradation events in biomedical wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Carlos; Miranda, Francisco; Mendes, Paulo M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks in healthcare has the potential to enhance the services provided to citizens. In particular, they play an important role in the development of state-of-the-art patient monitoring applications. Nevertheless, due to the critical nature of the data conveyed by such patient monitoring applications, they have to fulfil high standards of quality of service in order to obtain the confidence of all players in the healthcare industry. In such context, vis-à-vis the quality of service being provided by the wireless sensor network, this work presents an adaptive and context-aware method to detect and classify performance degradation events. The proposed method has the ability to catch the most significant and damaging variations on the metrics being used to quantify the quality of service provided by the network without overreacting to small and innocuous variations on the metric's value.

  3. Molecular methods for pathogen and microbial community detection and characterization: current and potential application in diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Christopher D; Peirano, Gisele; Church, Deirdre L

    2012-04-01

    Clinical microbiology laboratories worldwide have historically relied on phenotypic methods (i.e., culture and biochemical tests) for detection, identification and characterization of virulence traits (e.g., antibiotic resistance genes, toxins) of human pathogens. However, limitations to implementation of molecular methods for human infectious diseases testing are being rapidly overcome allowing for the clinical evaluation and implementation of diverse technologies with expanding diagnostic capabilities. The advantages and limitation of molecular techniques including real-time polymerase chain reaction, partial or whole genome sequencing, molecular typing, microarrays, broad-range PCR and multiplexing will be discussed. Finally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and deep sequencing are introduced as technologies at the clinical interface with the potential to dramatically enhance our ability to diagnose infectious diseases and better define the epidemiology and microbial ecology of a wide range of complex infections.

  4. Adverse Reactions to Radioiodine 131I Therapy of Goiter in West African Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Onimode, Yetunde A.; Ejeh, John E.; Orunmuyi, Akintunde T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Radioactive iodine therapy (RAIT) is established as an efficient means of treating toxic goiter (TG) globally. The field of nuclear medicine (NM) still appears novel to many Nigerian clinicians and patients. A culturally embedded dread of radiation may raise ethical and moral concerns about potential adverse effects in the wake of RAIT in our setting. An adverse drug reaction may be described as “a response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man”. This study therefore, seeks to review adverse reactions (ARs) experienced following RAIT. We would also like to improve patient and physician education about the safety profile of RAIT. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients who had received RAIT for thyroid disease from August 2006 to June 2015. Results: Forty typical ARs were experienced following 36 therapy sessions (18.65%) with RAIT in 35 patients (21.47%) aged 17-78 years, of which three had multiple sessions for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC). Conclusion: RAIT remains a safe option for the treatment of benign and TG. The experienced ARs are mainly mild to moderate in severity and mostly short-lived. As larger doses of radioactive iodine for WDTC and TG were more commonly associated with ARs, our study suggests that these patients merit stronger prophylactic measures as well as closer monitoring for earlier detection and management of these reactions. PMID:27751975

  5. Adverse cardiac events to monoclonal antibodies used for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are currently used in the treatment of neoplastic, hematological, or inflammatory diseases, a practice that is occasionally associated with a variety of systemic and cutaneous adverse events. Cardiac adverse events include cardiomyopathy, ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, arrests, and acute coronary syndromes, such as acute myocardial infarction and vasospastic angina pectoris. These events generally follow hypersensitivity reactions including cutaneous erythema, pruritus chills, and precordial pain. Recently, IgE specific for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been detected, pointing to the existence of hypersensitivity and Kounis hypersensitivity-associated syndrome. Therefore, the careful monitoring of cardiovascular events is of paramount importance in the course of monoclonal antibody-based therapies. Moreover, further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of cardiovascular adverse events elicited by monoclonal antibodies and to identify preventive, protective, and therapeutic measures. PMID:25340003

  6. Enteric Viruses of Humans and Animals in Aquatic Environments: Health Risks, Detection, and Potential Water Quality Assessment Tools

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Lipp, Erin K.

    2005-01-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses threaten both human and animal health. These pathogens are host specific and cause a wide range of diseases and symptoms in humans or other animals. While considerable research has documented the risk of enteric viruses to human health from contact with contaminated water, the current bacterial indicator-based methods for evaluation of water quality are often ineffectual proxies for pathogenic viruses. Additionally, relatively little work has specifically investigated the risk of waterborne viruses to animal health, and this risk currently is not addressed by routine water quality assessments. Nonetheless, because of their host specificity, enteric viruses can fulfill a unique role both for assessing health risks and as measures of contamination source in a watershed, yet the use of animal, as well as human, host-specific viruses in determining sources of fecal pollution has received little attention. With improved molecular detection assays, viruses from key host groups can be targeted directly using PCR amplification or hybridization with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. A multispecies viral analysis would provide needed information for controlling pollution by source, determining human health risks based on assessments of human virus loading and exposure, and determining potential risks to production animal health and could indicate the potential for the presence of other zoonotic pathogens. While there is a need to better understand the prevalence and environmental distribution of nonhuman enteric viruses, the development of improved methods for specific and sensitive detection will facilitate the use of these microbes for library-independent source tracking and water quality assessment tools. PMID:15944460

  7. A medium-term rat liver bioassay for rapid in vivo detection of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Tamano, Seiko; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-01-01

    A reliable medium-term bioassay system for rapid detection of carcinogenic potential of chemicals in the human environment has been developed. The 8-week-protocol consists of 2 stages; male F344 rats are given a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg) for initiation of liver carcinogenesis, followed by a 6-week test chemical treatment starting 2 weeks thereafter. Test chemicals are usually given in the diet or the drinking water and in the 2nd week of test chemical treatment, all rats are subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy in order to induce regenerative cell replication. The end-point marker is the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive hepatic focus, the numbers and sizes of which are analyzed using an image-analyzer and expressed as values per unit liver section (1 cm2). When the yield of GST-P-positive foci is significantly enhanced (P<0.05) over the control value, a chemical is judged to possess carcinogenic or promotion potential for the liver. Among 313 chemicals already tested in this system in our laboratory, 30/31 (97%) mutagenic hepatocarcinogens and 29/33 (88%) non-mutagenic hepatocarcinogens gave positive results. Ten out of 43 (23%) agents known to be carcinogenic in organs other than the liver were also positive. It is particularly important that only one of 48 non-carcinogens gave a very weak positive result, so that the system has a very low false-positivity rate. It is now well documented that the assay system is highly effective for detecting hepatocarcinogens, bridging the gap between traditional long-term carcinogenicity tests and short-term screening assays. At the Fourth International Conference on Harmonization, our medium-term liver bioassay based on an initiation and promotion protocol was recommended in the guidelines as an acceptable alternative to the long-term rodent carcinogenicity test.

  8. Rapid on-site detection of airborne asbestos fibers and potentially hazardous nanomaterials using fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Akio; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Ishida, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    A large number of peptides with binding affinity to various inorganic materials have been identified and used as linkers, catalysts, and building blocks in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. However, there have been few applications of material-binding peptides in the fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing (FM method) of environmental pollutants. A notable exception is the application of the FM method for the detection of asbestos, a dangerous industrial toxin that is still widely used in many developing countries. This review details the selection and isolation of asbestos-binding proteins and peptides with sufficient specificity to distinguish asbestos from a large variety of safer fibrous materials used as asbestos substitutes. High sensitivity to nanoscale asbestos fibers (30-35 nm in diameter) invisible under conventional phase contrast microscopy can be achieved. The FM method is the basis for developing an automated system for asbestos biosensing that can be used for on-site testing with a portable fluorescence microscope. In the future, the FM method could also become a useful tool for detecting other potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the environment.

  9. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Niyyati, Maryam; Lasgerdi, Zohreh; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Amoebic keratitis, a sight-threatening corneal infection, mainly occurs in contact lens wearers who wash their eyes with tap water. The present research was conducted to identify the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) in tap water sources on Kish Island, a tourist region in Iran. Amoebae were detected using a culture-enriched method and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing of the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba. In the case of other free-living amoebae species, PCR/sequencing analysis of the 18S rDNA was conducted. Results of this study showed the presence of Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, T5, and T11 genotypes in tap water sources. Additionally, Vermamoebae vermiformis was detected in three water samples. This is the first report of the Acanthamoeba genotypes T3, T4, T5, and T11 and V. vermiformis species in tap water sources in a tourist region in Iran. PMID:25922581

  10. Study on the potential application of salivary inorganic anions in clinical diagnosis by capillary electrophoresis coupled with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Yiliang; Huang, Zhipeng; Cheng, Yiyuan; Ye, Jiannong; Chu, Qingcui; Huang, Dongping

    2016-03-01

    A capillary electrophoresis approach with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection method has been developed for the determination of inorganic metabolites (thiocyanate, nitrite and nitrate) in human saliva. Field amplified sample injection, as a simple sample stacking technique, was used in conjunction for online preconcentration of above inorganic anions. A selective separation for the target anions from other coexisting constituents present in saliva could be obtained within 14min in a 10mmol/L His-90mmol/L HAc buffer (pH 3.70) at the separation voltage of -18kV. The limits of detection and limits of quantification of the three analytes were within the range of 3.1-4.9ng/mL (S/N=3) and 10-16ng/mL (S/N=10), respectively. The average recovery data were in the range of 81-108% at three different concentrations. This method provides a simple, rapid and direct approach for metabolite analyses of nitric oxide and cyanide based on noninvasive saliva sample, which presents a potential fast screening tool for clinical test.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction detection of human host preference and Plasmodium parasite infections in field collected potential malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Sunil; Bhola, Rakesh Kumar; Goswami, Diganta; Rabha, Bipul; Kumar, Dinesh; Baruah, Indra; Singh, Lokendra

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine the human host preference and presence of Plasmodium parasite in field collected Anopheles mosquitoes among four villages around a military cantonment located in malaria endemic Sonitpur district of Assam, India. Encountered malaria vector mosquitoes were identified and tested for host preference and Plasmodium presence using PCR method. Human host preference was detected using simple PCR, whereas vectorial status for Plasmodium parasite was confirmed using first round PCR with genus specific primers and thereafter nested PCR with three Plasmodium species specific primers. Out of 1874 blood fed vector mosquitoes collected, 187 (10%) were processed for PCR, which revealed that 40·6% had fed on human blood; 9·2% of human blood fed mosquito were harbouring Plasmodium parasites, 71·4% of which were confirmed to Plasmodium falciparum. In addition to An. minimus, An. annularis and An. culicifacies were also found positive for malaria parasites. The present study exhibits the human feeding tendency of Anopheles vectors highlighting their malaria parasite transmission potential. The present study may serve as a model for understanding the human host preference of malaria vectors and detection of malaria parasite inside the anopheline vector mosquitoes in order to update their vectorial status for estimating the possible role of these mosquitoes in malaria transmission. The study has used PCR method and suggests that PCR-based method should be used in this entire malarious region to correctly report the vectorial position of different malaria vectors.

  12. 20Hz membrane potential oscillations are driven by synaptic inputs in collision-detecting neurons in the frog optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Gytis; Svirskiene, Natasa; Svirskis, Gytis

    2012-10-24

    Although the firing patterns of collision-detecting neurons have been described in detail in several species, the mechanisms generating responses in these neurons to visual objects on a collision course remain largely unknown. This is partly due to the limited number of intracellular recordings from such neurons, particularly in vertebrate species. By employing patch recordings in a novel integrated frog eye-tectum preparation we tested the hypothesis that OFF retinal ganglion cells were driving the responses to visual objects on a collision course in the frog optic tectum neurons. We found that the majority (22/26) of neurons in layer 6 responding to visual stimuli fitted the definition of η class collision-detectors: they readily responded to a looming stimulus imitating collision but not a receding stimulus (spike count difference ∼10 times) and the spike firing rate peaked after the stimulus visual angle reached a threshold value of ∼20-45°. In the majority of these neurons (15/22) a slow frequency oscillation (f=∼20Hz) of the neuronal membrane potential could be detected in the responses to a simulated collision stimulus, as well as to turning off the lights. Since OFF retinal ganglion cells could produce such oscillations, our observations are in agreement with the hypothesis that 'collision' responses in the frog optic tectum neurons are driven by synaptic inputs from OFF retinal ganglion cells.

  13. Evaluation of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection: potential application for sulfur speciation in shale oil.

    PubMed

    Mitrevski, Blagoj; Amer, Mohammad W; Chaffee, Alan L; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-11-25

    Flame photometric detection in the sulfur channel has been evaluated for sulfur speciation and quantification in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography [GC × GC-FPD(S)] for S-compound speciation in shale extracts. Signal non-linearity and potential quenching effects were reportedly major limitations of this detector for analysis of sulfur in complex matrices. However, reliable linear relationships with correlation coefficient >0.99 can be obtained if the sum of the square root of each modulation slice in GC × GC is plotted vs. sulfur concentration. Furthermore, the quenching effects are reduced due to essentially complete separation of S-containing components from the hydrocarbon matrix. An increase of S/N of up to 150 times has been recorded for benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene in GC × GC-FPD when compared to GC-FPD due to the modulation process. As a consequence, 10 times lower detection limits were observed in the former mode. The applicability of the method was demonstrated using shale oil sample extracts. Three sulfur classes were completely separated and the target class (thiophenes) was successfully quantified after the rest of the sample was diverted to the second detector by using a heart-cut strategy. Based on the proposed method, 70% of the sulfur in the shale oil was assigned to the thiophenes, 24% to benzothiophenes, and 5% to dibenzothiophene compounds.

  14. Serum anti-Ku86 is a potential biomarker for early detection of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Fumio; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Noda, Kenta; Seimiya, Masanori; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Miura, Toshihide; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Imazeki, Fumio; Takizawa, Hirotaka; Mogushi, Kaoru; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2012-05-18

    stage I solitary tumor <2 cm in diameter, whereas the sensitivities of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) were 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. The results of ROC analyses indicated the better performance of anti-Ku86 for early detection of HCC. Serum anti-Ku86 levels decreased after surgical resection of the tumors in the 12 HCC cases tested, Elevation of anti-Ku86 in solid tumors other than liver was minimal. Serum anti-Ku86 is a potential biomarker for early detection of HCV-related HCC. Further studies in a larger number of HCC patients with various etiologies are needed to further evaluate the diagnostic and pathophysiological roles of elevation of serum anti-Ku86 in early HCC.

  15. The Potential Importance of Detection of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration When Visual Acuity Is Relatively Good.

    PubMed

    Ho, Allen C; Albini, Thomas A; Brown, David M; Boyer, David S; Regillo, Carl D; Heier, Jeffrey S

    2017-03-01

    The advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment has changed the prognosis for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). The ability to stabilize or improve vision with these treatments is a major step in enabling patients to continue to function at the highest possible level. Many studies have demonstrated that the better the visual acuity (VA) is at the time of treatment initiation, the higher the likelihood that VA will be better during at least the following 2 years; as such, detection of nvAMD when VA is relatively good is important. Data on the VA of patients with intermediate AMD and VA at the time of nvAMD diagnosis suggest that patients are typically losing an average of 3 to 5 lines of vision and possibly more between the time that intermediate AMD progresses to nvAMD and the diagnosis of nvAMD is made. The average patient may have nvAMD for 6 to 12 months before diagnosis and treatment initiation. Current efforts in m