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Sample records for detect waste tire

  1. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  2. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  3. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  4. Coliquefaction of waste rubber tires with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, E.C.; Tuntawiroon, W.

    1994-12-31

    There is an interest in the conversion of coal to liquid fuels because of the abundant supply of coal and the diminishing reserves of petroleum. Standard coal liquefaction techniques utilize H{sub 2} gas as a source of hydrogen to cap the radical species produced during liquefaction. Waste materials such as plastics, oils, and rubber tires with a high hydrogen content could be an alternative source of hydrogen that, in principle, could be transferred from the waste materials to the coal during liquefaction. An added benefit of such a program of waste material utilization would be a diminution in materials disposed of in landfills or incinerators. Rubber tires are approximately one third by weight carbon black. Farcasiu and Smith have shown that carbon black increases yields in coal liquefaction. Since carbon black is one of the top fifty chemicals produced in America during 1993 (3.22 billion pounds) the recovery and reuse of carbon black from tires could become economically attractive. Giavarini has shown in recent work that carbon black could be reclaimed and activated to produce quality carbon blacks after pyrolyzing waste rubber tires. Rubber tires also contain zinc oxide which is added as a filler and also aids in the vulcanization of the rubber. Waste plastics contain many metals used for coloring, waste oils contain metals acquired while used as a lubricant, and waste rubber tires contain zinc. A past investigation suggested that coal undergoing liquefaction may act as a {open_quotes}scavenger{close_quotes} for heavy metals. The ability of coal to trap metals will be discussed in the present paper. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique which can map the dispersion of an element within a sample by the detection of characteristic X-rays. Using EPMA, samples of the insoluble fraction produced by the coliquefaction experiments were analyzed to determine whether several heavy elements of interest were trapped in coal particles.

  5. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    PubMed

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  6. Award-winning cooperation: Missouri's waste tire to energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, E.; Fester, D.

    1999-07-01

    Cooperation and planning among two state agencies and the University of Missouri produced benefits for all and gained national recognition for innovation. Abandoned waste Tire facilities in Missouri Pose a significant health threat to nearby residents. In addition to being mosquito breeding grounds, facilities have been set on fire. These fires have released enormous quantities of air toxics and particulate matter to the surrounding communities. Three Missouri institutions have created a unique partnership to begin cleaning up these facilities. The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Department of Correction, and the University of Missouri- Columbia have transformed a waste stream into an emission reducing fuel stream. An air emission test at the university's coal fired power plant demonstrate that tire derived fuel (TDF) reduces emissions. Data presented will demonstrate a new method of reducing emission at coal-fired power plants while removing abandoned tires from the environment.

  7. Chlorinolysis reclaims rubber of waste tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.; Tervet, J. H.; Hull, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Process reclaims rubber and reduces sulfur content by using chlorine gas to oxidize sulfur bonds in preference to other bonds. Rubber does not have poor hysteresis and abrasion resistance like conventionally reclaimed rubber and is suitable for premium radial tires. Chlorinated rubber is less susceptible to swelling by oils and may be used as paint ingredient.

  8. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  9. Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  10. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    PubMed

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties.

  12. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified.

  13. Additive effect of waste tire on the hydrogenolysis reaction of coal liquefaction residue

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyuki Sugano; Daigorou Onda; Kiyoshi Mashimo

    2006-12-15

    A numerous amount of waste tire is landfilled or dumped all over the world, which causes environmental problems, such as destruction of natural places and the risk of fires. On the other hand, the coal liquefaction residue (CLR) is produced in 30% yield through the process supporting unit (PSU) of the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. Therefore, the investigation on an effective method for utilization of waste tire and CLR is required. In this study, the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and pulverized waste tire was carried out by using tetralin. The yields in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis were compared with algebraic sum of the yields of the individual hydrogenolyses of waste tire alone and coal alone. In the simultaneous hydrogenolysis, the synergistic effects to upgrading, such as an increase in the yield of the oil constituent and a decrease in the yield of the asphaltene constituent, occurred because of the stabilization of asphaltenic radicals from CLR with aliphatic radicals from tire. The decrease in asphaltene yield in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis was pronounced with the increase in the tire:CLR ratio because the solvent effects of liquefied tire, such as stabilization of radicals, hydrogen shuttling, and heat transfer, were enhanced. Accordingly, it is estimated that the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and waste tire is an effective method for processing both materials. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmetli, Gulnare Gungor, Ahmet Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  15. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  16. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  17. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications. PMID:19110410

  18. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications.

  19. Waste tires: A future source of activated carbon?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Millions of used tires are disposed in the United States each year, causing major environmental problems and representing a loss of valuable resources. Currently, over 80% of discarded tires are landfilled (approximately 200 million per year). Because tires disposed in municipal landfills rarely stay buried, regulators, landfill operators, and even the general public are constantly reminded of this problem. These ever-surfacing tires can serve as a breeding ground for disease-causing mosquitoes; in addition, large mounds of tires often catch fire, causing significant air pollution. Recent research indicates that used tires may soon represent a source of carbon-based adsorbents and energy-rich liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Details of this research are discussed briefly in this paper. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated.

  1. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated. PMID:18838261

  2. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek; Kaiser, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire.

  3. Scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Scrap tires, one small part of the country's massive solid waste problem, are causing a disproportional headache. A city the size of Newark, N.J., for example, can pay up to $700,000 a year just to bury its waste tires, assuming it can find landfills to accept them. Many landfills no longer do, and in some areas, it is actually illegal. So stockpiles of scrap tires mount up and illegal dumping runs rampant. Scrap tires represent less than 1 percent of the nation's total solid waste. While we generate approximately a ton of solid waste per year per person, or 250,000,000 tons, we generate only one 20-pound tire per person, or 2,500,000 tons. Despite this small percentage, these tires present a special disposal/reuse challenge because of their size, shape, and physicochemical nature. Classified as a special waste, they are not generally collected with household waste by municipal authorities. Notwithstanding the unique disposal/reuse challenges of scrap tires, it must be stressed that a tire is essentially a petrochemical product than can be reused, can be a source of recoverable petrochemicals, or can be used as a fuel with a higher Btu value than coal. Thus what appears as a waste disposal challenge is also a resource recovery opportunity. Unfortunately, at present, only 30 percent of the country's scrap tires are being reclaimed or recycled. In terms of options, there are three viable areas in which to approach the waste tire problem: whole tire applications; physically processed tire applications; and physicochemical processes.

  4. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  6. Characterization of the properties of thermoplastic elastomers containing waste rubber tire powder

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shuling; Xin Zhenxiang; Zhang Zhenxiu; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this research was to recycle waste rubber tires by using powdering technology and treating the waste rubber tire powder with bitumen. It has been proven that the elongation at break, thermal stability and processing flowability of composites of polypropylene (PP), waste rubber tire powder (WRT) and bitumen composites are better than those of PP/WRT composite. A comparative study has been made to evaluate the influence of bitumen content and different compatibilizers on the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites, using a universal testing machine (UTM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a capillary rheometer. The results suggested that the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites were dependent on the bitumen content and the kind of compatibilizer used.

  7. Production of activated carbons from waste tire--process design and economical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Danny C K; Mui, Edward L K; Lau, Ken S T; McKay, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    The process design and economic analysis of process plants to produce activated carbons from waste tires and coal have been performed. The potential range of products from each process has been considered, namely for waste tire--pyro-gas, active carbon, carbon black and pyro-oil; for coal--pyro-gas and active carbons. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out on the main process factors; these are product price, production capacity, total production cost, capital investment and the tipping fee. Net present values for the two plants at various discount factors have been determined and the internal rates of return have been determined as 27.4% and 18.9% for the waste tire plant and the coal plant, respectively.

  8. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  9. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Ching; Yamada, Tetsuji; Chiu, I-Ming; Liu, Yi-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases). Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average. PMID:19440434

  10. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. |

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  11. Markets for scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    It is the goal of the EPA to eliminate illegal dumping altogether and to reduce the stockpiling and landfilling of discarded tires as much as possible. Interestingly enough, over the last 40 years, tires have been somewhat of a success story for source reduction. The advent of the 40,000-mile tire means that tires last longer before they wear out. Potential source reduction measures for tires include the design of longer lived tires, reuse of tires removed from vehicles, and retreading. These practices all extend the useful life of tires before they are discarded. In the report, tire utilization methods are described and the market barriers to their utilization. Also discussed are options to address the waste tire problem.

  12. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  13. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Naskar, Amit K; Bi,; Saha, Dipendu; Chi, Miaofang; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  14. Production of activated carbons from pyrolysis of waste tires impregnated with potassium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Teng, H; Lin, Y C; Hsu, L Y

    2000-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from waste tires using a chemical activation method. The carbon production process consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) impregnation followed by pyrolysis in N2 at 600-900 degrees C for 0-2 hr. The activation method can produce carbons with a surface area (SA) and total pore volume as high as 470 m2/g and 0.57 cm3/g, respectively. The influence of different parameters during chemical activation, such as pyrolysis temperature, holding time, and KOH/tire ratio, on the carbon yield and the surface characteristics was explored, and the optimum preparation conditions were recommended. The pore volume of the resulting carbons generally increases with the extent of carbon gasified by KOH and its derivatives, whereas the SA increases with degree of gasification to reach a maximum value, and then decreases upon further gasification. PMID:11111338

  15. [Gasification characteristics of waste tires in laboratory-scale fluidized-bed gasifier].

    PubMed

    Miao, Qi; Chi, Yong; Xiao, Gang; Zhu, Wen-li; Jiang, Xu-guang; Cen, Ke-fa

    2006-05-01

    A laboratory-scale fluidized-bed gasifier was designed and used to investigate the characteristics of waste tires gasification. Granulated tires were gasified with different excessive air ratios at a temperature range of 400-700 degrees C. The gasification efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value, yield and components of syngas were analyzed. Results showed that the optimum operation conditions were achieved when the gasification temperature was 700 degrees C and the excessive air radio (EAR) was 0.4. A gaseous product, mainly containing CH4, CO, H2, C2H6, and longer-chain hydrocarbon with a lower heating value (LHV) of about 4804 kJ/m3, can be generated at the highest gasification efficiency of 47.96% under the optimum operation conditions.

  16. Waste tire derived carbon-polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode with long cycle life

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boota, M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K.; Gogotsi, Yury; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2/g–1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as supercapacitor electrode. The narrow pore size distribution (PSD) and high surface area led to a good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI/TC). The composite film was highly flexible, conductive and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F/g–1 at 1 mV/s–1 with excellent capacitance retention up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life weremore » ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon via - interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. Here, we anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials with low-cost TC to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life, a key challenge for redox active polymers.« less

  17. Waste tire derived carbon-polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode with long cycle life

    SciTech Connect

    Boota, M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K.; Gogotsi, Yury; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2/g–1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as supercapacitor electrode. The narrow pore size distribution (PSD) and high surface area led to a good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI/TC). The composite film was highly flexible, conductive and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F/g–1 at 1 mV/s–1 with excellent capacitance retention up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon via - interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. Here, we anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials with low-cost TC to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life, a key challenge for redox active polymers.

  18. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    PubMed

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers. PMID:26404735

  19. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  20. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    PubMed

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers.

  1. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  2. A new class of magnetorheological elastomers based on waste tire rubber and the characterization of their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubaidillah; Imaduddin, Fitrian; Li, Yancheng; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Sutrisno, Joko; Koga, Tsuyoshi; Yahya, Iwan; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a new type of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) using rubber from waste tires and describes its performance characteristics. In this work, scrap tires were utilized as a primary matrix for the MRE without incorporation of virgin elastomers. The synthesis of the scrap tire based MRE adopted a high-temperature high-pressure sintering technique to achieve the reclaiming of vulcanized rubber. The material properties of the MRE samples were investigated through physical and viscoelastic examinations. The physical tests confirmed several material characteristics—microstructure, magnetic, and thermal properties–while the viscoelastic examination was conducted with a laboratory-made dynamic compression apparatus. It was observed from the viscoelastic examination that the proposed MRE has magnetic-field-dependent properties of the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent at different excitation frequencies and strain amplitudes. Specifically, the synthesized MRE showed a high zero field modulus, a reasonable MR effect under maximum applied current, and remarkable damping properties.

  3. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M.R.; Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M.; Takai, K.; Haniu, H.

    2011-09-15

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  4. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology.

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Joardder, M U H; Hasan, S M; Takai, K; Haniu, H

    2011-01-01

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  5. Recycled tire rubber and other waste materials in asphalt mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers in this volume, dealing with various facets of recycled tire rubber and other waste materials in asphalt mixtures, should be of interest to state and local construction, design, materials, and research engineers as well as contractors and material producers. In the first papers, Rebala and Estakhri, Malpass and Khosla, and Baker and Connolly describe research related to crumb rubber modified mixtures that was done for the Texas, North Carolina, and New Jersey State Departments of Transportation. Ali et al. report on their research in Canada to determine the feasibility of sing reclaimed roofing materials in hot mix asphalt pavement. Emery discusses the evaluation of 11 Ontario rubber modified demonstration projects in terms of pavement performance, environmental impacts, and recyclability. In the last paper, Fwa and Aziz report on their work in Singapore related to the use of incinerator residue in asphalt mixtures.

  6. Detection of Road Surface States from Tire Noise Using Neural Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongrattanaprasert, Wuttiwat; Nomura, Hideyuki; Kamakura, Tomoo; Ueda, Koji

    This report proposes a new processing method for automatically detecting the states of road surfaces from tire noises of passing vehicles. In addition to multiple indicators of the signal features in the frequency domain, we propose a few feature indicators in the time domain to successfully classify the road states into four categories: snowy, slushy, wet, and dry states. The method is based on artificial neural networks. The proposed classification is carried out in multiple neural networks using learning vector quantization. The outcomes of the networks are then integrated by the voting decision-making scheme. Experimental results obtained from recorded signals for ten days in the snowy season demonstrated that an accuracy of approximately 90% can be attained for predicting road surface states using only tire noise data.

  7. Potential of activated carbon from waste rubber tire for the adsorption of phenolics: effect of pre-treatment conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Nayak, Arunima; Agarwal, Shilpi; Tyagi, Inderjeet

    2014-03-01

    Rubber tire activated carbon modification (RTACMC) and rubber tire activated carbon (RTAC) were prepared from waste rubber tire by microwave assisted chemical treatment and physical heating respectively. A greater improvement in porosity and total pore volume was achieved in RTACMC as compared to that of RTAC. But both have a predominantly mesoporous structure. Under identical operating conditions, an irradiation time of 10 min, chemical impregnation ratio of 1.50 and a microwave power of 600 W resulted in maximizing the efficiency of RTACMC for p-cresol (250 mg/g) at a contact time of 90 min while RTAC showed a 71.43 mg/g adsorption capacity at 150 min. Phenol, due to its higher solubility was adsorbed to a lesser extent by both adsorbents. Physical nature of interactions, pore diffusion mechanism and exothermicity of the adsorption process was operative in both adsorbents. The outcomes support the feasibility of preparing high quality activated carbon from waste rubber tire by microwave assisted chemical activation.

  8. Fundamental understanding of the thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires and their air pollutant generation in a N2 atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhann; Castaldi, Marco J

    2009-08-01

    The thermal decomposition of waste tires has been characterized via thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) tests, and significant mass loss has been observed between 300 and 500 degrees C. A series of gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) measurements, in which the instrument was coupled to a TGA unit, have been carried out to investigate the thermal degradation mechanisms as well as the air pollutant generation including volatile organic carbons (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a nitrogen atmosphere. In order to understand fundamental information on the thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires, the main constituents of tires, poly-isoprene rubber (IR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), have been studied under the same conditions. All of the experimental work indicated that the bond scission on each monomer of the main constituents of tires was followed by hydrogenation and gas phase reactions. This helped to clarify the independent pathways and species attributable to IR and SBR during the pyrolysis process. To extend that understanding to a more practical level, a flow-through reactor was used to test waste tire, SBR and IR samples in the temperature range of 500-800 degrees C at a heating rate of approximately 200 degrees C. Lastly, the formation of VOCs (approximately 1-50 PPMV/10 mg of sample) and PAHs (approximately 0.2-7 PPMV/10 mg of sample) was observed at relatively low temperatures compared to conventional fuels, and its quantified concentration was significantly high due to the chemical structure of SBR and IR. The measurement of chemicals released during pyrolysis suggests not only a methodology for reducing the air pollutants but also the feasibility of petrochemical recovery during thermal treatment.

  9. Tire Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The workshop was organized into six sessions dealing with finite element developments, applications to tire dynamic problems, solution techniques for tire contact problems, experimental data, tire thermal studies, and current design practices.

  10. Properties and potential environmental applications of carbon adsorbents from waste tire rubber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rameriz, D.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The properties of tire-derived carbon adsorbents (TDCA) produced from select tire chars were compared with those derived from an Illinois coal and pistachio nut shells. Chemical analyses of the TDCA indicated that these materials contain metallic elements not present in coal-and nut shell-derived carbons. These metals, introduced during the production of tire rubber, potentially catalyze steam gasification reactions of tire char. TDCA carbons contained larger meso-and macopore volumes than their counterparts derived from coal and nut shell (on the moisture-and ash-free-basis). Adsorptive properties of the tire-derived adsorbent carbons for air separation, gas storage, and gas clean up were also evaluated and compared with those of the coal-and nut shell derived carbons as well as a commercial activated carbon. The results revealed that TDCA carbons are suitable adsorbents for removing vapor-phase mercury from combustion flue gases and hazardous organic compounds from industrial gas streams.

  11. Characterization of carbon silica hybrid fillers obtained by pyrolysis of waste green tires by the STEM–EDX method

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hartomy, Omar A.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Al Said, Said A. Farha; Dishovsky, Nikolay; Ward, Michael B.; Mihaylov, Mihail; Ivanov, Milcho

    2015-03-15

    Dual phase carbon–silica hybrid fillers obtained by pyrolysis-cum-water vapor of waste green tires have been characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope, silicate analysis, weight analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy and by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy. The results achieved have shown that the location and distribution of the phases in the carbon silica hybrid fillers as well as their most essential characteristics are influenced by the pyrolysis conditions. The carbon phase of the filler thus obtained is located predominantly in the space among silica aggregates which have already been existing while it has been formed by elastomer destruction in the course of pyrolysis. The presence of ZnS also has been found in the hybrid fillers investigated. - Highlights: • Dual phase fillers obtained by pyrolysis of waste green tires have been characterized. • The STEM–EDX method was used for characterization. • The phase distributions in the fillers are influenced by the pyrolysis conditions.

  12. Spring Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  13. Solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) operated with waste polymers. Case study: 2,4-dichlorophenol biodegradation with used automobile tires as the partitioning phase.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Annesini, M Cristina; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Used automobile tire pieces were tested for their suitability as the sequestering phase in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor to treat 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP). Abiotic sorption tests and equilibrium partitioning tests confirmed that tire "crumble" possesses very favourable properties for this application with DCP diffusivity (4.8 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) and partition coefficient (31) values comparable to those of commercially available polymers. Biodegradation tests further validated the effectiveness of using waste tires to detoxify a DCP solution, and allow for enhanced biodegradation compared to conventional single-phase operation. These results establish the potential of using a low-cost waste material to assist in the bioremediation of a toxic aqueous contaminant.

  14. Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

  15. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  16. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  17. The adsorptive capacity of vapor-phase mercury chloride onto powdered activated carbon derived from waste tires

    SciTech Connect

    Hsun-Yu Lin; Chung-Shin Yuan; Chun-Hsin Wu; Chung-Hsuang Hung

    2006-11-15

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) upstream of particulate removal devices (such as electrostatic precipitator and baghouses) has been used effectively to remove hazardous air pollutants, particularly mercury containing pollutants, emitted from combustors and incinerators. Compared with commercial PACs (CPACs), an alternative PAC derived from waste tires (WPAC) was prepared for this study. The equilibrium adsorptive capacity of mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) vapor onto the WPAC was further evaluated with a self-designed bench-scale adsorption column system. The adsorption temperatures investigated in the adsorption column were controlled at 25 and 150{sup o}C. The superficial velocity and residence time of the flow were 0.01 m/sec and 4 sec, respectively. The adsorption column tests were run under nitrogen gas flow. Experimental results showed that WPAC with higher Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area could adsorb more HgCl{sub 2} at room temperature. The equilibrium adsorptive capacity of HgCl{sub 2} for WPAC measured in this study was 1.49 x 10{sup -1} mg HgCl{sub 2}/g PAC at 25{sup o}C with an initial HgCl{sub 2} concentration of 25 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. With the increase of adsorption temperature {le} 150{sup o}C, the equilibrium adsorptive capacity of HgCl{sub 2} for WPAC was decreased to 1.34 x 10{sup -1} mg HgCl{sub 2}/g PAC. Furthermore, WPAC with higher sulfur contents could adsorb even more HgCl{sub 2}. It was demonstrated that the mechanisms for adsorbing HgCl{sub 2} onto WPAC were physical adsorption and chemisorption at 25 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. 35 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. New uses for old tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The creative juices of large and small companies alike are flowing in efforts to help solve the U.S. solid waste problem. One product that has received a great deal of attention is tires. Two Pennsylvania companies, Air Products and Chemicals of Allentown and a new company headed by John Kuc of Chester, have developed technologies that utilize the rubber from tires in conjunction with plastic to make new products. In the Air Products method, tires are finely ground and treated with a mixture of flourine and other gases, prior to bonding with a polymer such as epoxy. The resulting material can be used to make gaskets and hoses. Huc's methods rely on grinding tires to a powder and adding it to plastic. The mixture is heated and extruded under high pressure. According to Leslie Sandor of Widener Univ., who is working on the project, the final products cost less than a quarter as much as conventional PVC piping.

  19. Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Caveny, B.; Ashford, D.; Garcia, J.G.; Hammack, R.

    1998-08-31

    In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

  20. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    SciTech Connect

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  1. Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Denhof, D.

    1993-03-01

    For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

  2. Turning tires into electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tikalsky, S.

    1991-05-01

    Nationally, nearly one million tires a day are retired from vehicles. With landfill space at a premium, old tires are usually heaped in growing piles across the country. Old tires have not only become a highly visible environmental problem, but a health menace as well. Mounds of discarded tires are perfect breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other insects. In addition, hazards to air and water quality from tire fires are well documented. At Wisconsin Power and Light Co, the author has been experimenting with using scrap tires as fuel to create electricity. In 1990, the utility burned 130,000 tons of tire chips in a cyclone furnace, saving about $75,000 in fuel cost. The project is a joint experiment with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to determine the feasibility of using old tires to create electricity.

  3. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  4. Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golueke, Clarence G.

    1971-01-01

    To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

  5. Tire/wheel concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, P. M., Sr. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tire and wheel assembly is disclosed in which a low profile pneumatic tire (having sidewalls which deflect inwardly under load) and a wheel (having a rim featuring a narrow central channel and extended rim flanges) form the combination. The extended rim flanges support the tire sidewalls under static and dynamic loading conditions to produce a combination particularly suited to aircraft applications.

  6. Computational Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Tanner, John A. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Modeling of Tires. The workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air force, tire companies, commercial software developers, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the computational modeling of tires and to provide guidelines for future research.

  7. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories. PMID:18697324

  8. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  9. Tire footprint studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-08-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  10. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction

    SciTech Connect

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Goekhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-15

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  11. Experiments on spray from a rolling tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovich, Charles Anthony

    A novel laboratory apparatus has been built to understand the key mechanisms behind spray emerging from a rolling tire. Several researchers have assessed the performance of spray suppression devices; however, there are no known efforts that address the question "what needs to be suppressed?" This investigation into how water in a tire groove evolves into a droplet field will ultimately contribute to driver safety. Using high-speed imaging, water passing through a single circumferential groove was observed to leave the tire patch in the form of a thin liquid sheet, connecting the roadway and the tire. The sheet disintegrates into a droplet field and the breakup modes associated with this decay were identified with respect to Weber number. Weber numbers based on the properties of water, tire speed and tire groove width were tested at 2700, 10900 and 24400. Measurements for the breakup length of the liquid sheet showed a dependence on Weber number proportional to We-1/6. The lateral displacement of the water exiting the tire patch was also measured. These tests showed the overall size of the spray field grows with We; however, the maximum water volume for all We's was delivered to the same distance from the road. Downstream from the tire patch, a determination of the droplet field was performed. From this study, the distribution of droplet sizes was determined as a function of Weber number. At We = 2,700, droplet sizes between 80 and 9000 microm were detected, with a mean diameter near 800 microm. Both the range of droplet sizes and the mean diameter were found to decrease with Weber number by approximately We-1/2. Based on these size distributions, Correlation Image Velocimetry (CIV) was used to estimate the distribution of droplet velocities as function of their size. These results reveal a strong correlation between droplet diameter and velocity which is comparable to that predicted for a simple sphere.

  12. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  13. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  14. Structural modeling of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Lackey, J. I.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the feasibility of determining the mechanical properties of aircraft tires from small-scale model tires was accomplished. The theoretical results indicate that the macroscopic static and dynamic mechanical properties of aircraft tires can be accurately determined from the scale model tires although the microscopic and thermal properties of aircraft tires can not. The experimental investigation was conducted on a scale model of a 40 x 12, 14 ply rated, type 7 aircraft tire with a scaling factor of 8.65. The experimental results indicate that the scale model tire exhibited the same static mechanical properties as the prototype tire when compared on a dimensionless basis. The structural modeling concept discussed in this report is believed to be exact for mechanical properties of aircraft tires under static, rolling, and transient conditions.

  15. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  16. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  17. Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

    2003-02-26

    Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them.

  18. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  19. Building with Tires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eugenio, Terrance

    Text, drawings, and photographs show how tires, no longer usable for transportation, were assembled in a variety of ways to make swings, climbers, tunnels, and walls for a homemade playground. With the support of community representatives and a local high school class, a playground in Brockton, Massachusetts, was built in four days from tires…

  20. Toxicological evaluation for the hazard assessment of tire crumb for use in public playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Detlef A; Belton, Kathy L; Guidotti, Tee L

    2003-07-01

    Disposal of used tires has been a major problem in solid waste management. New uses will have to be found to consume recycled tire products. One such proposed use is as ground cover in playgrounds. However, concern has been expressed regarding exposure of children to hazardous chemicals and the environmental impact of such chemicals. We designed a comprehensive hazard assessment to evaluate and address potential human health and environmental concerns associated with the use of tire crumb in playgrounds. Human health concerns were addressed using conventional hazard analyses, mutagenicity assays, and aquatic toxicity tests of extracted tire crumb. Hazard to children appears to be minimal. Toxicity to all aquatic organisms (bacteria, invertebrates, fish, and green algae) was observed; however, this activity disappeared with aging of the tire crumb for three months in place in the playground. We conclude that the use of tire crumb in playgrounds results in minimal hazard to children and the receiving environment.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process.

  2. Extraction of tire size code using local phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; He, Jin; Huang, Zhanhua

    2009-11-01

    Tire size code (TSC) specifies the dimensions of the tire, and some of its key limitations, such as load-bearing ability and maximum speed. The key challenge of vision based TSC identification is the low contrast of TSC to tire background. In order to extract TSC from low-contrast tire images, this paper proposed to consider the contours of TSC as the symmetry axes of the neighbor pixels along the contours. The symmetry axes were detected using local phase information which is robust to image brightness and contrast. Firstly, the ring shaped tire region was segmented and then expanded to a rectangular region, where all characters were upright. Due to the intensity values of the neighbor pixels along the contours of TSC were symmetric, the contours in low-contrast tire image were enhanced using local phase information, which is computed by Log-Gabor wavelets. Finally, the thin contours were extracted by non-maxima suppression and thresholding with hysteresis. Experiments on real tire images showed that, in comparison with intensity based algorithms, the proposed algorithm were robust to uneven illumination and low-contrast.

  3. Effect of fines on mechanical properties of soil-tire chip mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tatlisoz, N.; Benson, C.H.; Edil, T.B.

    1997-12-31

    Large quantities of waste tires can be beneficially used by incorporating them into structural fill employed in earthwork projects such as highway embankments and backfills for retaining structures. These applications require knowledge of the bulk mechanical properties of tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures. The objective of the study described in this paper was to evaluate the mechanical properties and behavior of waste tire chips and their mixtures with fine- and coarse-grained soils. Large-scale laboratory testing equipment was used to conduct the study. Tests were conducted to evaluate shear strength, deformability, and compressibility. Mixtures made with typical backfill soils such as clean sand, sandy silt, and clay were tested. Results of the tests show that tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures behave like soils, but are more compressible and also require more deformation to mobilize their ultimate shear strength. Incorporation of tire chips in the backfill results in a reduction in unit weight and, for mixtures containing sand or sandy silt, an increase in shear strength. In contrast, clay-tire chip mixtures have the same or lower shear strength as clay alone. Strength envelopes for sand-tire chip mixtures can be non-linear, and have virtually no cohesion intercept. Mixtures containing sandy silt behave similar to mixtures made with sand, except the shear strength envelope for the sandy silt-tire chip mixture is linear and has a cohesion intercept. Sand-tire chip and sandy silt-tire chip mixtures exhibit similar long-term compression behavior.

  4. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  5. Tire deflation device

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  6. Monitoring Temperatures of Tires Using Luminescent Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J

    2006-01-01

    demonstrated in application to the outside surface of a tire (see Figure 2), using both constant and pulsed light sources for illumination and cooled, slow-scan, gated CCD cameras for detection. For observing the temperature of the inside surface of a tire (this has not yet been done), it would probably be necessary to use fiber optics and/or windows for coupling excitation light into, and coupling luminescence out of, the interior volume.

  7. "Tired" Professors Can Be Rejuvenated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    At a recent national conference, colleagues from different academic disciplines but all worked in college or university teaching-improvement programs found that the subject most frequently discussed was how to improve the teaching of "tired" faculty members. Tired faculty members are most often senior professors who have worked at their…

  8. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... register online at . (5) Include the sentence: “Do it today.” (C) Include space for recording tire... for it by a designee, a record of each tire distributor and dealer that purchases tires directly from the manufacturer and sells them to tire purchasers, the number of tires purchased by each...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  11. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  12. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    Nondestructive detection of the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste is accomplished by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solifified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  13. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    A method of nondestructively detecting the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solidified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  14. Automotive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  15. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  16. Frictionless contact of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure for the solution of frictionless contact problems of spacecraft tires was developed using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory incorporating the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities to model the nose-gear tire of a space shuttle. Numerical results are presented for the case when the nose-gear tire is subjected to inflation pressure and pressed against a rigid pavement. The results are compared with experimental results obtained at NASA Langley, demonstrating a high accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the computational procedure.

  17. Detection of ocean waste in the New York Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W.; Klemas, V.

    1979-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to detection and monitoring of ocean waste disposal in the New York Bight is discussed. Attention is focused on the two major pollutants in this area--sewage sludge and iron-acid waste--and on detecting and identifying these pollutants. The emphasis is on the use of LANDSAT multispectral data in identifying these pollutants and distinguishing them from other substances. The analysis technique applied to the LANDSAT data is the eigenvector. This approach proved to be quite successful in detecting iron-acid waste of the coast of Delaware and is applied here with relatively minor modifications. The results of the New York Bight work are compared to the Delaware results. Finally, other remote sensing systems (Nimbus G, aircraft photography and multispectral scanner systems) are discussed as possible complements of or replacements for the Landsat observations.

  18. A tire contact solution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating the contact boundary and interfacial pressure distribution was developed. This solution technique utilizes the discrete Fourier transform to establish an influence coefficient matrix for the portion of the pressurized tire surface that may be in the contact region. This matrix is used in a linear algebra algorithm to determine the contact boundary and the array of forces within the boundary that are necessary to hold the tire in equilibrium against a specified contact surface. The algorithm also determines the normal and tangential displacements of those points on the tire surface that are included in the influence coefficient matrix. Displacements within and outside the contact region are calculated. The solution technique is implemented with a finite-element tire model that is based on orthotropic, nonlinear shell of revolution elements which can respond to nonaxisymmetric loads. A sample contact solution is presented.

  19. Tire and runway surface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    The condition of aircraft tires and runway surfaces can be crucial in meeting the stringent demands of aircraft ground operations, particularly under adverse weather conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing the tire/pavement interface is the aim of several ongoing NASA Langley research programs which are described in this paper. Results from several studies conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and some recent aircraft accident investigations are summarized to indicate effects of different tire and runway properties. The Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program is described together with some preliminary test findings. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed towards solving aircraft ground operational problems related to the tire/pavement interface is given.

  20. Traction of Pneumatic Tires on Wet Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Walter B.; Joyner, Upshur T.

    1965-01-01

    Recent work on the traction of pneumatic tires on wet runways is discussed, and it is shown that a loss of tire traction adversely affects cross-wind landings. The effect of runway surface texture is discussed,, and a simple method for measuring surface texture is described. A preliminary correlation of tire traction with surface texture is shown. Results of work at Langley Research Center on the use of air jets to improve tire traction on wet or flooded runways indicate that this is a promising approach for alleviating the large losses in tire braking and sideways traction that occur when tire hydroplaning occurs on a flooded runway.

  1. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are...

  2. Waste to fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, N.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses methods for making synthetic fuels from various kinds of wastes. Basic chemistry of synthesis gas creation and conversion is covered. Potentially productive wastes discussed are landfill natural gas, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, industrial wastes, biomass, and tires. (VC)

  3. Waste to fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses methods for making synthetic fuels from various kinds of wastes. Basic chemistry of synthesis gas creation and conversion is covered. Potentially productive wastes discussed are landfill natural gas, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, industrial wastes, biomass, and tires. (VC)

  4. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 97-311, 96 Stat. 1619 (15 U.S.C. 1418); and delegation of authority at 49 CFR 1.50) ..., new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name...

  5. Radial fryers. [Used tire power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlicki, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Experience has shown that tires have their limits as a primary power generation fuel. As a supplemental fuel, however, they may prove to be cost effective. This article discusses the use of tires as a alternate fuel source.

  6. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  7. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reactions in paragraph (b) of this section, on the nose wheel tire, except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section. (b) The applicable ground reactions for nose wheel tires are as follows: (1) The static ground reaction for the tire corresponding to the most critical combination...

  8. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the beginning of each trip and each time the vehicle is parked. (b) If, as the result of an examination pursuant... inflated, the driver must cause the tire to be repaired, replaced, or properly inflated before the...

  9. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the beginning of each trip and each time the vehicle is parked. (b) If, as the result of an examination pursuant... inflated, the driver must cause the tire to be repaired, replaced, or properly inflated before the...

  10. Occupational dermatitis from IPPD in tires.

    PubMed

    Ancona, A; Monroy, F; Fernández-Diez, J

    1982-03-01

    A tire assembler developed contact dermatitis from IPPD, a rubber antioxidant. The lichenoid clinical pattern corresponded histologically to lichenified dermatitis. Tire assemblers appear to acquire contact dermatitis to this aromatic amine more frequently than any other workers in the tire manufacturing industry. Possible adjuvant factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  11. Results from recent NASA tire thermal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The testing technique and some results from an experimental study to determine tire temperature profiles to aid in defining the strength and fatigue limitations of the tire carcass structure are described. This effort is part of a program to explore analytically and through experiment the temperature distribution in an aircraft tire during free roll and braked and yawed rolling conditions.

  12. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... circumference of the tire at the area of greatest wear. (b) Type. Vehicles should be equipped with tires on...

  13. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... circumference of the tire at the area of greatest wear. (b) Type. Vehicles should be equipped with tires on...

  14. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions.

  15. X-ray characterization of tire derived particles resulting from different solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, R.C.; Smithhart, C.B.; Quin, J.; Wertz, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, 200 million scrap tires are being annually stockpiled, landfilled, or illegally dumped, with ca. 50 million scrap tires being recycled in a variety of ways. The current disposal methods are causing numerous short-term environmental problems. Whole tires occupy large amounts of space and may {open_quotes}float{close_quotes} or rise to the top of landfills, causing puncturing of the landfill cover. In an attempt to prevent floating, many landfills require that the scrap tires be shredded, a process which is energy intensive and wasteful. Scrap tire stock piles produce large health risks by providing a place for rodents and mosquitos to breed -- aiding in the spread of diseases. Large stockpile fires have also broken out in major cities in Florida, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. These fires are long lasting and produce unwanted smoke into the environment. For many reasons, the recycling of scrap tires is desirable. This paper describes the processing of scrap tires by several liquids and acids.

  16. The energy saving research of the flat tire vulcanization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; He, J.-Y.; Zhang, J. Y.; An, Y.; Yang, W.-M.; Tan, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vulcanization was an important step in tire production process, directly determining the mechanical properties of the tire which was the most energy-intensive link. The traditional vulcanization process of a flat tire did not consider the post curing effect, which may result in a waste of energy. Early finite element simulation showed that the traditional process caused excessive vulcanization. In order to find ways to improve the curing process, in the paper effect of process parameters on the flat tire vulcanization had been studied. Curing parameters included heating temperature, curing time and preheating temperature. Corresponding to these three factors, the three-dimensional model was established by ABAQUS finite element software to carry out three groups of simulation. Result showed that heat source temperature on the maximum temperature was the largest, effect of preheating temperature was the lowest; heat source temperature on the curing degree was the largest, effect of the curing time was lowest. According to the data analysis the optimal process parameters had been raised.

  17. Concurrent Monitoring of In-plane Strain and Out-of-plane Displacement of Tire Using Digital Image Correlation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    In order to improve performance of anti lock brake system (ABS) and detect condition of road surface, intelligent tires that monitor strain of interior surface and rolling radius of tire are demanded. However, the high stiffness of an attached sensor like a strain gauge causes debonding of sensors from tire rubber. In the present study, noncontact concurrent monitoring method is proposed using digital image correlation method (DICM) and spotlight projection. In-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement (rolling radius) are calculated by using image processing with an image of interior surface of tire that is taken with a single CCD camera fixed on wheel rim. New monitoring system is applied to Al beam and commercially available radial tire. As a result, this monitoring system is proved to be able to measure in-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement with high accuracy, and confirmed to be effective for concurrent monitoring of tires.

  18. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  19. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  20. New tire black sidewall composition

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D.D.; Fusco, J.V.; Gursky, L.J.; Young, D.G.

    1991-08-01

    This article describes a new isobutylene-based polymer with improved functionality, completely saturated to provide ozone, oxidation and flex fatigue resistance. This new polymer, in combination with appropriate blends of general purpose rubbers, gives a sidewall composition to meet current and future needs while retaining all other basic performance requirements for the tire sidewall.

  1. Monitor for detecting nuclear waste leakage in a subsurface repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klainer, S.; Hirschfeld, T.; Bowman, H.; Milanovich, F.; Perry, D.; Johnson, D.

    1980-11-01

    A remote fiber optics system is employed in conjunction with the coprecipitation enhanced fluorimetry technique to detect radioactive waste leakage. An in situ monitoring capability using fiber optics to effect communication between the instrumentation and the sample is demonstrated. The sample is an actinide or a tracer material leaking from an underground nuclear waste repository into the ground water. A lanthanide (which is an excellent fluorescent agent), actinide or other species which does not radiation damage is chosen as the tracer to maximize sensitivity, specificity, and relevance. Taggants having variable excitation and emission wavelengths create a need for an acromatic retroreflective fiber coupler. This was done using the geometrical properties of the fiber to design a coupler requiring no dichroics or glossy energy splitting surfaces.

  2. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  3. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  4. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  5. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  6. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  7. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  8. Design of highway embankments using tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Bosscher, P.J.; Edil, T.B.; Kuraoka, S.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes research undertaken to develop design procedures for using shredded scrap tires as a lightweight fill material in highway construction. The benefits of using scrap tires are particularly enhanced if they can be used to replace virgin construction materials made from nonrenewable resources. This paper addresses the use of tire chips as a highway embankment material. Design parameters for embankments constructed using discarded shredded tires are presented based on laboratory model studies, numerical analyses, and field performance of test fills. The conclusions of this report support the use of tire chips as an environmentally acceptable lightweight fill in highway applications if properly confined. Recommendations for design procedures and construction specifications for the use of tire chips in highway fills are provided.

  9. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J

    2015-08-05

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  10. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators †

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J.

    2015-01-01

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. PMID:26251914

  11. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J

    2015-01-01

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. PMID:26251914

  12. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)) unless: (1) The vehicle is being operated under the... in FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)). (h) Tire inflation pressure. (1) No motor vehicle shall... Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.75 Tires. (a) No motor vehicle shall be operated on any tire that—...

  13. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)) unless: (1) The vehicle is being operated under the... in FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)). (h) Tire inflation pressure. (1) No motor vehicle shall... Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.75 Tires. (a) No motor vehicle shall be operated on any tire that—...

  14. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to the number of plies and types of ply... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition...

  15. Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

  16. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  17. Tire blow-outs and motorway accidents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Laumon, Bernard

    2005-03-01

    During the period from 1996 to 2002, 60,397 vehicles were involved in crashes with property damage and/or injury on a French motorway network of 2000 km. It was observed that 6.7% of these accidents involved tire blow-outs. In 87% of cases, only one vehicle was involved in the accident. Tire blow-outs occurred in 6.5% of cars that represented more than 80% of the vehicles involved in crashes. The occurrence of this phenomenon is very high for vans (22%), though it concerns trucks less (2.5%). The proportion of tire blow-outs decreased from 1997, when it was 8.0%, to 5.9% in 2002. However, two main facts require examination: (1) On inter-urban motorways, crashes involving blow-outs of rear tires occur four times more frequently than for blow-outs of front tires. (2) The frequency of tire blow-outs is especially high for vans, and almost always involves rear tires. This higher frequency for rear tires is the result of two phenomena, which are indistinguishable given the data available: firstly, a four-wheel vehicle is more difficult to control if a blow-out occurs on a rear tire (confirmed experimentally); secondly, rear tires may be in poor condition more often than front tires, and so more prone to blow-outs. Consequently, users are strongly recommended to install the best tires on rear wheels. In practice, if only the front tires are replaced, which often occurs because they tend to be worn out more quickly than the rear ones (especially for front wheel drive vehicles), it is necessary to move the rear tires to the front and fit the new ones on the rear wheels. Very interesting technological developments are in progress that should reduce the number of tire blow-outs. However, considering the time necessary to renew the number of cars on the roads, this very simple and inexpensive recommendation should apply to all cars and especially to vans. PMID:15823875

  18. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative.

  19. Detection of pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-01-01

    As the number of biogas plants has grown rapidly in the last decade, the amount of potentially contaminated wastes with pathogenic Clostridium spp. has increased as well. This study reports the results from examining 203 biogas plant wastes (BGWs). The following Clostridium spp. with different frequencies could be isolated via a new enrichment medium (Krüne medium) and detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): Clostridium perfringens (58 %) then Clostridium bifermentans (27 %), Clostridium tertium (23 %) and Clostridium butyricum (19 %), Clostridium cadaveris (15 %), Clostridium parapurificum (6 %), Clostridium glycolicum (5 %), Clostridium baratii (4 %), Clostridium sporogenes (2 %), Clostridium sordellii (1 %) and Clostridium subterminale (0.5 %). The mean most probable number (MPN) count of sulfite reducing bacteria was between 10(3) and 10(4)/mL, and the higher the MPN, the more pathogenic Clostridium spp. were present. Also, real-time PCR was used to be compared with culture method for C. perfringens, C. bifermentans, C. butyricum, C. sporogenes/Clostridium botulinum and C. sordellii. Although real-time PCR was more sensitive than the culture method, both systems improve the recovery rate but in different ways and are useful to determine pathogenic clostridia in biogas plants. In conclusion, BGWs could present a biohazard risk of clostridia for humans and animals. PMID:24984829

  20. Technical bases for leak detection surveillance of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.G.; Badden, J.J.

    1995-02-13

    This document provides the technical bases for specification limits, monitoring frequencies and baselines used for leak detection and intrusion (for single shell tanks only) in all single and double shell radioactive waste storage tanks, waste transfer lines, and most catch tanks and receiver tanks in the waste tank farms and associated areas at Hanford.

  1. A Tire Gasification Senior Design Project That Integrates Laboratory Experiments and Computer Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Brian; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    A reactor to convert waste rubber tires to useful products such as CO and H2, was investigated in a university undergraduate design project. The student worked individually with mentorship from a faculty professor who aided the student with professional critique. The student was able to research the background of the field and conceive of a novel…

  2. Assessing Risk Posed By Land Application Of Ash From The Combustion Of Wood And Tires

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total and leachable metal concentrations in ash from the combustion of waste wood and vehicle tires (WT ash) were characterized. These data were then used to examine a variety of issues associated with determining whether the WT ash could be beneficially used outside of a la...

  3. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum weight... rating approved for such tires) equal to the reaction obtained at the nose wheel, assuming the mass of... downward and 0.31 W forward (where W is the design maximum weight), with the reactions distributed to...

  4. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  5. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum weight... rating approved for such tires) equal to the reaction obtained at the nose wheel, assuming the mass of... downward and 0.31 W forward (where W is the design maximum weight), with the reactions distributed to...

  6. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  7. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  8. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  9. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraph (g) of this section) shall be operated with tires that carry a weight greater than that marked on the sidewall of the tire or, in the absence of such a marking, a weight greater than that specified... Safety Standard No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)) unless: (1) The vehicle is being operated under...

  10. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  11. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of 10,000 Pounds or Less... vehicles other than passenger cars, it may be necessary to measure tread depth with a tread gauge. (b) Type. Vehicle shall be equipped with tires on the same axle that are matched in tire size...

  12. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of 10,000 Pounds or Less... vehicles other than passenger cars, it may be necessary to measure tread depth with a tread gauge. (b) Type. Vehicle shall be equipped with tires on the same axle that are matched in tire size...

  13. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Trevor

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  14. Computational strategies for tire monitoring and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Kent T.; Noor, Ahmed K.; Green, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Computational strategies are presented for the modeling and analysis of tires in contact with pavement. A procedure is introduced for simple and accurate determination of tire cross-sectional geometric characteristics from a digitally scanned image. Three new strategies for reducing the computational effort in the finite element solution of tire-pavement contact are also presented. These strategies take advantage of the observation that footprint loads do not usually stimulate a significant tire response away from the pavement contact region. The finite element strategies differ in their level of approximation and required amount of computer resources. The effectiveness of the strategies is demonstrated by numerical examples of frictionless and frictional contact of the space shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire. Both an in-house research code and a commercial finite element code are used in the numerical studies.

  15. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  16. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  17. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  18. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  19. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  20. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  1. Function-based Biosensor for Hazardous Waste Toxin Detection

    SciTech Connect

    James J Hickman

    2008-07-09

    There is a need for new types of toxicity sensors in the DOE and other agencies that are based on biological function as the toxins encountered during decontamination or waste remediation may be previously unknown or their effects subtle. Many times the contents of the environmental waste, especially the minor components, have not been fully identified and characterized. New sensors of this type could target unknown toxins that cause death as well as intermediate levels of toxicity that impair function or cause long term impairment that may eventually lead to death. The primary question posed in this grant was to create an electronically coupled neuronal cellular circuit to be used as sensor elements for a hybrid non-biological/biological toxin sensor system. A sensor based on the electrical signals transmitted between two mammalian neurons would allow the marriage of advances in solid state electronics with a functioning biological system to develop a new type of biosensor. Sensors of this type would be a unique addition to the field of sensor technology but would also be complementary to existing sensor technology that depends on knowledge of what is to be detected beforehand. We integrated physics, electronics, surface chemistry, biotechnology, and fundamental neuroscience in the development of this biosensor. Methods were developed to create artificial surfaces that enabled the patterning of discrete cells, and networks of cells, in culture; the networks were then aligned with transducers. The transducers were designed to measure electromagnetic fields (EMF) at low field strength. We have achieved all of the primary goals of the project. We can now pattern neurons routinely in our labs as well as align them with transducers. We have also shown the signals between neurons can be modulated by different biochemicals. In addition, we have made another significant advance where we have repeated the patterning results with adult hippocampal cells. Finally, we

  2. Scrap tire management in the mid south region

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

  3. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-03-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests.

  4. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  5. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the airplane to be concentrated at the most critical center of gravity and exerting a force of 1.0 W... and critical center of gravity; and (2) By a load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the...

  6. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the airplane to be concentrated at the most critical center of gravity and exerting a force of 1.0 W... and critical center of gravity; and (2) By a load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the...

  7. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the airplane to be concentrated at the most critical center of gravity and exerting a force of 1.0 W... and critical center of gravity; and (2) By a load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the...

  8. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  9. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  10. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  11. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  12. Tire-derived carbon composite anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Yunchao; Paranthaman, M. Parans; Akato, Kokouvi; Naskar, Amit K.; Levine, Alan M.; Lee, Richard J.; Kim, Sang-Ok; Zhang, Jinshui; Dai, Sheng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-04-04

    We report that hard-carbon materials are considered as one of the most promising anodes for the emerging sodium-ion batteries. Here, we report a low-cost, scalable waste tire-derived carbon as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The tire-derived carbons obtained by pyrolyzing the acid-treated tire at 1100 °C, 1400 °C and 1600 °C show capacities of 179, 185 and 203 mAh g-1, respectively, after 100 cycles at a current density of 20 mA g-1 in sodium-ion batteries with good electrochemical stability. The portion of the low-voltage plateau region in the charge-discharge curves increases as the heat-treatment temperature increases. The low-voltage plateaumore » is beneficial to enhance the energy density of the full cell. However, this plateau suffers rapid capacity fade at higher current densities. This study provides a new pathway for inexpensive, environmentally benign and value-added waste tire-derived products towards large-scale energy storage applications.« less

  13. Tire-derived carbon composite anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunchao; Paranthaman, M. Parans; Akato, Kokouvi; Naskar, Amit K.; Levine, Alan M.; Lee, Richard J.; Kim, Sang-Ok; Zhang, Jinshui; Dai, Sheng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-06-01

    Hard-carbon materials are considered as one of the most promising anodes for the emerging sodium-ion batteries. Here, we report a low-cost, scalable waste tire-derived carbon as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Tire-derived carbons obtained by pyrolyzing acid-treated tire at 1100 °C, 1400 °C and 1600 °C show capacities of 179, 185 and 203 mAh g-1, respectively, after 100 cycles at a current density of 20 mA g-1 in sodium-ion batteries with good electrochemical stability. The portion of the low-voltage plateau region in the charge-discharge curves increases as the heat-treatment temperature increases. The low-voltage plateau is beneficial to enhance the energy density of the full cell. This study provides a new pathway for inexpensive, environmentally benign and value-added waste tire-derived products towards large-scale energy storage applications.

  14. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.

  15. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  16. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are exempt... to have included in the database of information available to consumers on NHTSA's Web site....

  17. Tire-wear particles as a source of zinc to the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Councell, T.B.; Duckenfield, K.U.; Landa, E.R.; Callender, E.

    2004-01-01

    Tire-tread material has a zinc (Zn) content of about 1 wt %. The quantity of tread material lost to road surfaces by abrasion has not been well characterized. Two approaches were used to assess the magnitude of this nonpoint source of Zn in the U.S. for the period 1936-1999. In the first approach, tread-wear rates from the automotive engineering literature were used in conjunction with vehicle distance-driven data from the U.S. Department of Transportation to determine Zn releases. A second approach calculated this source term from the volume of tread lost during lifetime tire wear. These analyses showed that the quantity of Zn released by tire wear in the mid-1990s was of the same magnitude as that released from waste incineration. For 1999, the quantity of Zn released by tire wear in the U.S. is estimated to be 10 000-11 000 metric tons. A specific case study focused on Zn sources and sinks in an urban-suburban watershed (Lake Anne) in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area for a time period of the late 1990s. The atmospheric flux of total Zn (wet deposition) to the watershed was 2 ??g/cm2/yr. The flux of Zn to the watershed estimated from tire wear was 42 ??g/cm2/yr. The measured accumulation rate of total Zn in age-dated sediment cores from Lake Anne was 27 ??g/cm2/yr. These data suggest that tire-wear Zn inputs to urban-suburban watersheds can be significantly greater than atmospheric inputs, although the watershed appears to retain appreciable quantities of vehicular Zn inputs.

  18. A study of the dynamic tire properties over a range of tire constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Dodge, R. N.; Clark, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    The dynamic properties of four model aircraft tires of various construction were evaluated experimentally and compared with available theory. The experimental investigation consisted of measuring the cornering force and the self-aligning torque developed by the tires undergoing sinusoidal steering inputs while operating on a small scale, road-wheel tire testing apparatus. The force and moment data from the different tires are compared with both finite- and point-contact patch string theory predictions. In general, agreement between finite contact patch theory and experimental observation is good. A modified string theory is also presented in which coefficients for cornering force and self-aligning torque are determined separately. This theory improves the correspondence between the experimental and analytical data, particularly on tires with relatively high self-aligning torques.

  19. Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

  20. [Investigations of some chemical compounds produced by the incineration of old tires in the open air (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Möse, J R; Binder, H; Raber, H; Eder, J

    1977-08-01

    The chemical compounds which are discharged from the site at which old tires are incinerated in the open air roughly corresponded to those of waste water. In the smoke "mushroom" above the site of incineration, at a height of 31 to 40 metres, many types and large quantities of polycyclic aromatic and also cancerogenic hydrocarbons were found adsorbed on soot particles. PMID:910585

  1. Reduction technique for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1995-01-01

    A reduction technique and a computational procedure are presented for predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of the reduction technique, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface.

  2. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter; Kornish, Brian

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  3. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for use on passenger cars. However, this section does not apply to deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or to... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having...

  4. Fuels from pyrolysis of waste plastic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large quantity of carbon containing materials, such as waste plastic, used tires, food waste, and biomass end up in landfills. These materials represent a rich energy source that is currently untapped or underutilized. Municipal solid waste is comprised of 12% waste plastic, but only a small fract...

  5. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology. Part I: detection of preservative-treated wood waste.

    PubMed

    Rasem Hasan, A; Schindler, John; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-04-01

    Waste wood is frequently contaminated with wood treatment preservatives including chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and alkaline copper quat (ACQ), both of which contain metals which contaminate recycled wood products. The objective of this research was to propose a design for online automated identification of As-based and Cu-based treated wood within the recovered wood waste stream utilizing an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system, and to evaluate the detection parameters of such system. A full-scale detection unit was used for experimentation. Two main parameters (operational threshold (OT) and measurement time) were evaluated to optimize detection efficiencies. OTs of targeted metals, As and Cu, in wood were reduced to 0.02 and 0.05, respectively. The optimum minimum measurement time of 500 ms resulted in 98%, 91%, and 97% diversion of the As, Cu and Cr mass originally contained in wood, respectively. Comparisons with other detection methods show that XRF technology can potentially fulfill the need for cost-effective processing at large facilities (>30 tons per day) which require the removal of As-based preservatives from their wood waste stream. PMID:21186117

  6. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology. Part I: detection of preservative-treated wood waste.

    PubMed

    Rasem Hasan, A; Schindler, John; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-04-01

    Waste wood is frequently contaminated with wood treatment preservatives including chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and alkaline copper quat (ACQ), both of which contain metals which contaminate recycled wood products. The objective of this research was to propose a design for online automated identification of As-based and Cu-based treated wood within the recovered wood waste stream utilizing an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system, and to evaluate the detection parameters of such system. A full-scale detection unit was used for experimentation. Two main parameters (operational threshold (OT) and measurement time) were evaluated to optimize detection efficiencies. OTs of targeted metals, As and Cu, in wood were reduced to 0.02 and 0.05, respectively. The optimum minimum measurement time of 500 ms resulted in 98%, 91%, and 97% diversion of the As, Cu and Cr mass originally contained in wood, respectively. Comparisons with other detection methods show that XRF technology can potentially fulfill the need for cost-effective processing at large facilities (>30 tons per day) which require the removal of As-based preservatives from their wood waste stream.

  7. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  8. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  9. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  10. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  11. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  12. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may not have tires with a minimum thickness less than that indicated in the table in this paragraph (d). When retaining rings are used, measurements of tires to be taken from the outside circumference of the ring,...

  13. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  14. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  15. Feasibility of operating a solid-liquid bioreactor with used automobile tires as the sequestering phase for the biodegradation of inhibitory compounds.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2013-08-15

    Finding new uses for waste or discarded material is an important environmental goal; being able to use a waste material to treat another waste is an even more attractive objective, and this was the purpose of the present work. We previously showed that used automobile tires have an affinity for a toxic contaminant, dichlorophenol (DCP), absorbing and releasing it based on concentration driving forces. Here we have exploited this phenomenon by using used tires as the sequestering phase in a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TPPB) to treat otherwise-toxic levels of DCP, far out-performing single phase operation in a sequencing batch bioreactor. A comprehensive examination of substrate loading, reactor exchange ratio, and tire fraction used, demonstrated that the tire-TPPB system could handle a 40% higher influent substrate loading and an increase of the exchange ratio value from 0.5 (prohibitive for single phase operation) to 0.7. Such improvement was obtained with a tire fraction ≤9%, comparable to that for commercial polymers previously employed in TPPBs. This study has opened the door to the identification of other waste plastics suitable for use in TPPBs for the treatment of recalcitrant organic contaminants.

  16. Feasibility of operating a solid-liquid bioreactor with used automobile tires as the sequestering phase for the biodegradation of inhibitory compounds.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2013-08-15

    Finding new uses for waste or discarded material is an important environmental goal; being able to use a waste material to treat another waste is an even more attractive objective, and this was the purpose of the present work. We previously showed that used automobile tires have an affinity for a toxic contaminant, dichlorophenol (DCP), absorbing and releasing it based on concentration driving forces. Here we have exploited this phenomenon by using used tires as the sequestering phase in a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TPPB) to treat otherwise-toxic levels of DCP, far out-performing single phase operation in a sequencing batch bioreactor. A comprehensive examination of substrate loading, reactor exchange ratio, and tire fraction used, demonstrated that the tire-TPPB system could handle a 40% higher influent substrate loading and an increase of the exchange ratio value from 0.5 (prohibitive for single phase operation) to 0.7. Such improvement was obtained with a tire fraction ≤9%, comparable to that for commercial polymers previously employed in TPPBs. This study has opened the door to the identification of other waste plastics suitable for use in TPPBs for the treatment of recalcitrant organic contaminants. PMID:23629012

  17. Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, S.

    1995-10-01

    Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

  18. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and 0.007 inches thick; (C) Be not more than 41/4 inches high, 6 inches long, and 0.016 inch thick...: “In case of a recall, we can reach you only if we have your name and address.” (3) Indicate that... tire manufacturer voluntarily provides a Web site or other means by which its tires can be...

  19. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Joan; Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps. PMID:27448048

  20. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Joan; Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  1. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping

    PubMed Central

    Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G.

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps. PMID:27448048

  2. Yawed-Rolling Tire Mechanical Properties Testing of the Navy T-45 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    The T-45 Goshawk is a United States Navy Jet aircraft used primarily as a trainer. The aircraft design makes use of "off the shelf" hardware as much as possible and was found to have unusual directional control issues during around operations. The aircraft was involved in numerous pilot-induced-oscillation incidents as well as observed to have unusual directional control reactions to failed main gear tires, a condition that is normally handled relatively easily by conventional aircraft steering control techniques. The behavior of the aircraft's tires had previously been modeled in simulators as a result of approximations provided in 40-year-old reference publications. Since knowledge of the true tire cornering and braking behavior is essential to modeling, understanding, and fixing directional control problems, the United States Navy requested assistance from the NASA Langley Research Center's (LARC) Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the yawed-rolling mechanical properties of the T-45 aircraft tires. The purpose of this report is to document the results of testing the subject tires at the NASA LaRC ALDF in September 1998. Brief descriptions of the Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) are included to familiarize the reader with the ITTV capabilities, data acquisition system, test and measurement techniques, data accuracy, and analysis and presentation of the testing results.

  3. Solid waste bin detection and classification using Dynamic Time Warping and MLP classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Hannan, M.A.; Basri, Hassan; Hussain, Aini; Arebey, Maher

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Solid waste bin level detection using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW). • Gabor wavelet filter is used to extract the solid waste image features. • Multi-Layer Perceptron classifier network is used for bin image classification. • The classification performance evaluated by ROC curve analysis. - Abstract: The increasing requirement for Solid Waste Management (SWM) has become a significant challenge for municipal authorities. A number of integrated systems and methods have introduced to overcome this challenge. Many researchers have aimed to develop an ideal SWM system, including approaches involving software-based routing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Radio-frequency Identification (RFID), or sensor intelligent bins. Image processing solutions for the Solid Waste (SW) collection have also been developed; however, during capturing the bin image, it is challenging to position the camera for getting a bin area centralized image. As yet, there is no ideal system which can correctly estimate the amount of SW. This paper briefly discusses an efficient image processing solution to overcome these problems. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) was used for detecting and cropping the bin area and Gabor wavelet (GW) was introduced for feature extraction of the waste bin image. Image features were used to train the classifier. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier was used to classify the waste bin level and estimate the amount of waste inside the bin. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to statistically evaluate classifier performance. The results of this developed system are comparable to previous image processing based system. The system demonstration using DTW with GW for feature extraction and an MLP classifier led to promising results with respect to the accuracy of waste level estimation (98.50%). The application can be used to optimize the routing of waste collection based on the estimated bin level.

  4. Detection and Enumeration of Microorganisms in Water and Waste Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, S.

    1980-01-01

    Presents and explains analytical procedures for the detection and quantitative enumeration of bacteria which constitute or are indicators of fecal contamination of aquatic environments. Tests are given for Escherichia coli, fecal Streptococci, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella. (WB)

  5. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  6. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  7. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  8. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  9. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  10. How Do Tubeless Tires Support an Auto?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, John; Jones, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Provides an explanation of how tubeless tires support the weight of an automobile with reference to the use of free body diagrams in physics. Presents a second activity in which an inexpensive laser pointer is used to obtain diffraction photographs. Offers project ideas for students. (ZWH)

  11. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (up to maximum weight) and center of gravity position, and (2) The loads corresponding to the ground... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g acting downward at the center of gravity. This load may not exceed the load rating of the tire. (2) The...

  12. 40 CFR 1037.650 - Tire manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tire manufacturers. 1037.650 Section 1037.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... that choose to provide test data or emission warranties for purposes of this part. (a) Testing. You...

  13. Tires and Tracks. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on tires and tracks servicing is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The…

  14. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  20. Michelin Tire Company Workplace Literacy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This packet provides generic versions of curriculum developed for the Michelin Tire Corporation workplace literacy program, specifically the mathematics portion. Altered material included in the packet protects proprietary information; some lessons include lines that take the place of deleted information. Other companies are recommended to use…

  1. Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Joel N; Cone, Michael T; Hokr, Brett H; Mason, John D; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S; Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Scully, Marlan O

    2014-05-20

    Clean water is paramount to human health. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. The detection of femtomolar concentrations of urobilin, a metabolic byproduct of heme metabolism that is excreted in both human and animal waste in water, was achieved through the use of an integrating cavity. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment.

  2. Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Joel N.; Cone, Michael T.; Hokr, Brett H.; Mason, John D.; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2014-01-01

    Clean water is paramount to human health. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. The detection of femtomolar concentrations of urobilin, a metabolic byproduct of heme metabolism that is excreted in both human and animal waste in water, was achieved through the use of an integrating cavity. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment. PMID:24799690

  3. Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Joel N; Cone, Michael T; Hokr, Brett H; Mason, John D; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S; Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Scully, Marlan O

    2014-05-20

    Clean water is paramount to human health. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. The detection of femtomolar concentrations of urobilin, a metabolic byproduct of heme metabolism that is excreted in both human and animal waste in water, was achieved through the use of an integrating cavity. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment. PMID:24799690

  4. Continuum removed band depth analysis for waste detection in the north of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayet, F.; Mezned, N.; Abdeljaouad, S.

    2015-10-01

    The geologic context of the north of Tunisia is favorable to varied mining activities. Wastes quantities which were left over after smelting have a wide spread distribution. These immense quantities threaten soils, vegetation and above all human health. Reflectance spectroscopy provides information about targets between visible (VIS) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) (300-2500 nm) wavelengths. As mine wastes constitute a mixture of minerals, the analysis of the spectral behavior of mine wastes using reflectance spectroscopy is an alternative approach to traditional methods. Signatures resulting from measures reflectance are quantified according to the ratio between reflected energy and incident energy on a defined target. Mine wastes analysis by means of reflectance spectroscopy with respect to laboratory analysis have provided favorable results in detecting and mapping transformation processes in environmental systems, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. In this study we analyze the spectral behavior of mine wastes in the VIS and SWIR regions using hyperspectral reflectance spectroscopy supported by ground-truth based X ray diffraction XRD. Wastes samples collected in the field were measured in situ in order to determine their spectral reflectance properties. The wastes spectral signatures were normalized and compared to laboratory results. This study was performed in the environs of Jebel Ressas mine in the north of Tunisia which is considered as pilot site.

  5. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7.

  6. Using a Macroalgal δ15N Bioassay to Detect Cruise Ship Waste Water Effluent Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  7. Fixed-bed adsorption study of methylene blue onto pyrolytic tire char

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrigianni, Vassiliki; Giannakas, Aris; Papadaki, Maria; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the adsorption efficiency of acid treated pyrolytic tire char to cationic methylene blue (MB) dye adsorption from aqueous solutions was investigated by fixed-bed adsorption column experiments. The effects of the initial dye concentration (10 - 40 mg L-1) and feed flow rate (50 - 150 mL min -1) with a fixed bed height (15 cm) were studied in order to determine the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system. The Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson and Thomas model were applied to the adsorption of MB onto char at different operational conditions to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the column. The results showed that the maximum adsorbed quantities decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing initial MB concentration. Breakthrough time and exhaustion time increased with decreasing inlet dye concentration and flow rate. In contrast with Adams-Bohart model, Yoon-Nelson model followed by Thomas model were found more suitable to describe the fixed-bed adsorption of methylene blue by char. The correlation coefficient values R2 for both models at different operating conditions are higher than 0.9 and the low average relative error values provided very good fittings of experimental data at different operating conditions. Higher adsorption capacity of 3.85 mg g -1 was obtained at 15 cm of adsorbent bed height, flow rate of 100 mL min -1and initial MB concentration of 40 mg L-1. Although that activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities in the literature, acid-treated pyrolytic tire char was found to be considerably efficient adsorbent for the removal of MB dye column taking into account the advantages of the simpler production process compared to activated carbons, as well as, the availability of waste tire feedstock and concurrent waste tire management.

  8. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light....” If the production plant is located outside the United States, the full plant name must be...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  11. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  12. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  14. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  15. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  17. Orbiter post-tire failure and skid testing results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the post-tire failure drag characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main tire and wheel assembly. Skid tests on various materials were also conducted to define their friction and wear rate characteristics under higher speed and bearing pressures than any previous tests. The skid tests were conducted to support a feasibility study of adding a skid to the orbiter strut between the main tires to protect an intact tire from failure due to overload should one of the tires fail. Roll-on-rim tests were conducted to define the ability of a standard and a modified orbiter main wheel to roll without a tire. Results of the investigation are combined into a generic model of strut drag versus time under failure conditions for inclusion into rollout simulators used to train the shuttle astronauts.

  18. Quasi-Static Viscoelasticity Loading Measurements of an Aircraft Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Angela J.; Tanner, John A.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    1997-01-01

    Stair-step loading, cyclic loading, and long-term relaxation tests were performed on an aircraft tire to observe the quasi-static viscoelastic response of the tire. The data indicate that the tire continues to respond viscoelastically even after it has been softened by deformation. Load relaxation data from the stair-step test at the 15,000-lb loading was fit to a monotonically decreasing Prony series.

  19. Heat generation in aircraft tires under free rolling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  20. Exploiting symmetries in the modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, Carl M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple and efficient computational strategy for reducing both the size of a tire model and the cost of the analysis of tires in the presence of symmetry-breaking conditions (unsymmetry in the tire material, geometry, or loading) is presented. The strategy is based on approximating the unsymmetric response of the tire with a linear combination of symmetric and antisymmetric global approximation vectors (or modes). Details are presented for the three main elements of the computational strategy, which include: use of special three-field mixed finite-element models, use of operator splitting, and substantial reduction in the number of degrees of freedom. The proposed computational stategy is applied to three quasi-symmetric problems of tires: linear analysis of anisotropic tires, through use of semianalytic finite elements, nonlinear analysis of anisotropic tires through use of two-dimensional shell finite elements, and nonlinear analysis of orthotropic tires subjected to unsymmetric loading. Three basic types of symmetry (and their combinations) exhibited by the tire response are identified.

  1. Robot Drills Holes To Relieve Excess Tire Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrott, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive, remotely controlled robot called "tire assault vehicle" (TAV) developed to relieve excess tire pressures to protect ground crew, aircraft equipment, and nearby vehicles engaged in landing tests of CV-990 Landing System Research Aircraft. Reduces costs and saves time in training, maintenance, and setup related to "yellow" and "red" tire conditions. Adapted to any heavy-aircraft environment in which ground-crew safety at risk because of potential for tire explosions. Also ideal as scout vehicle for performing inspections in hazardous locations.

  2. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-02-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests.

  3. Zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Emily P; Ren, Zhiyong; Mays, David C

    2012-12-01

    Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 h. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber.

  4. Monitor for detecting nuclear waste leakage in a subsurface repository

    SciTech Connect

    Klainer, S.; Hirschfeld, T.; Bowman, H.; Milanovich, F.; Perry, D.; Johnson, D.

    1980-11-05

    The remote fiber fluorimetric portion of the program is slightly ahead of schedule and proceeding well technically. Proof of principle has been demonstrated over a 0.2 km path length using an organic tracer material. Performance and design calculations have been made for the fiber optic components of the system. Optimized fibers have been ordered and special jigs and optical couplings are presently being fabricated. Progress on the high-sensitivity analyzer using coprecipitation techniques has proceeded well ahead of schedule with technical results far above expectations. Preliminary measurements in the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +//CaF/sub 2/ detection system has proved sensitivities well beyond the natural background limit. While further improvement of sensitivity (to 10/sup -15/ g) already is planned, emphasis will now be placed on locating and dealing with possible interferences and on determining how to improve and optimize quantitative accuracy. In addition, simplication of the sample preparation procedure and downscaling to use very small (< 1 ml) groundwater samples is planned. In the longer time frame, work on maximum chemical speciation and the possibility of isotopic speciation will be undertaken. Once the coprecipitation procedures, instrumentation, and spectroscopy have been fully refined for uranium, then the process will be repeated for plutonium and perhaps americium and thorium.

  5. Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.M.; Mueller, G. ); Hemphill, D.C. )

    1994-08-01

    Cover is important to aquatic habitat and fisheries often try to improve habitats by addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments and to a lesser extent in freshwater and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material benefiting fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation have quantified the importance of tire reefs to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are placed in canals. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the past because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are inert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is in the literature. Stone demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. found no harmful substances leached from tire material soaked in fresh water. Because there are few data on toxicity associated with tires, this became the focus of our study. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures developed by the EPA were used to evaluate water quality impacted by tires. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Immune biosensors based on the SPR and TIRE: efficiency of their application for bacteria determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, N. F.; Ogorodniichuk, J.; Lebedeva, T.; Shpylovyy, P.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have designed high-specific biosensors for Salmonella typhimurium detection based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). It has been demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity of analysis. As a registering part for our experiments the Spreeta (USA) and "Plasmonotest" (Ukraine) with flowing cell have been applied among of SPR device. Previous researches confirmed an efficiency of SPR biosensors using for detecting of specific antigen-antibody interactions therefore this type of reactions with some previous preparations of surface binding layer was used as reactive part. It has been defined that in case with Spreeta sensitivity was on the level 103 - 107 cells/ml. Another biosensor based on the SPR has shown the sensitivity within 101 - 106 cells/ml. Maximal sensitivity was on the level of several cells in 10 ml (up to the fact that less than 5 cells) which has been obtained using the biosensor based on TIRE.

  7. Automatic Detection and Recognition of Pig Wasting Diseases Using Sound Data in Audio Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yongwha; Oh, Seunggeun; Lee, Jonguk; Park, Daihee; Chang, Hong-Hee; Kim, Suk

    2013-01-01

    Automatic detection of pig wasting diseases is an important issue in the management of group-housed pigs. Further, respiratory diseases are one of the main causes of mortality among pigs and loss of productivity in intensive pig farming. In this study, we propose an efficient data mining solution for the detection and recognition of pig wasting diseases using sound data in audio surveillance systems. In this method, we extract the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC) from sound data with an automatic pig sound acquisition process, and use a hierarchical two-level structure: the Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) and the Sparse Representation Classifier (SRC) as an early anomaly detector and a respiratory disease classifier, respectively. Our experimental results show that this new method can be used to detect pig wasting diseases both economically (even a cheap microphone can be used) and accurately (94% detection and 91% classification accuracy), either as a standalone solution or to complement known methods to obtain a more accurate solution. PMID:24072029

  8. Detection and Characterization of Chemicals Present in Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G.; Sepaniak, M.J.

    1999-06-01

    The goal of this three-year project is to develop and demonstrate novel multi-parameter micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors that are robust and can be used to simultaneously detect the presence of target chemicals in a mixture, radiation emitted from radioactive materials and the heat generated by the absorption of photons of specific wavelength by the target molecules.The goal of this program is to study and develop effective methods of immobilizing chemical selective phases for improved microsensor performance 1. Investigations of Photo-Induced and Adsorption-Induced Stress in Micromechanical Structures and Photothermal Spectroscopy Microcantilevers respond to chemical stimuli by undergoing changes in their bending and resonance frequency even when a small number of molecules adsorb on their surface. In our present studies, we extended this concept by studying changes in both the adsorption-induced stress and photo-induced stress as target chemicals adsorb on th e surface of microcantilevers. For example, microcantilevers that have adsorbed molecules will undergo photo-induced bending that depends on the number of absorbed molecules on the surface. However, microcantilevers that have undergone photo-induced bending will adsorb molecules on their surfaces in a distinctly different way. Coating the surface of a microstructure with a different material can provide chemical specificity for the target chemicals. Therefore combining measurements of photo-induced and adsorption-induced stress in MEMS devices caused by target molecules with microcalorimetric spectroscopy both the presence and identity of target molecules can be determined. In addition, radioactive chemicals can also be identified by measuring the temperature changes of micromechanical sensors as the absorb emitted radiation. (i) Studies of Adsorption-Induced Stress in MEMS We investigated the effect of absorption of trace amounts of target molecules, 2- mercaptoethanol and diisopropyl

  9. Solid waste bin detection and classification using Dynamic Time Warping and MLP classifier.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shafiqul; Hannan, M A; Basri, Hassan; Hussain, Aini; Arebey, Maher

    2014-02-01

    The increasing requirement for Solid Waste Management (SWM) has become a significant challenge for municipal authorities. A number of integrated systems and methods have introduced to overcome this challenge. Many researchers have aimed to develop an ideal SWM system, including approaches involving software-based routing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Radio-frequency Identification (RFID), or sensor intelligent bins. Image processing solutions for the Solid Waste (SW) collection have also been developed; however, during capturing the bin image, it is challenging to position the camera for getting a bin area centralized image. As yet, there is no ideal system which can correctly estimate the amount of SW. This paper briefly discusses an efficient image processing solution to overcome these problems. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) was used for detecting and cropping the bin area and Gabor wavelet (GW) was introduced for feature extraction of the waste bin image. Image features were used to train the classifier. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier was used to classify the waste bin level and estimate the amount of waste inside the bin. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to statistically evaluate classifier performance. The results of this developed system are comparable to previous image processing based system. The system demonstration using DTW with GW for feature extraction and an MLP classifier led to promising results with respect to the accuracy of waste level estimation (98.50%). The application can be used to optimize the routing of waste collection based on the estimated bin level. PMID:24238802

  10. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse.

  11. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. PMID:25712610

  12. Waste products in highway construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Han, C.

    1993-04-01

    The report presents waste materials and products for highway construction. The general legislation, local liability, and research projects related to waste materials are outlined. The waste materials and products presented include waste paving materials, industrial ash materials, taconite tailing materials, waste tire rubber materials and products, building rubble materials, incinerator ash products and materials, waste glass materials, waste shingle materials and products, waste plastics products, and slag materials. For each waste category, the legislation and restrictions, material properties, construction and application, field performance, and recycling at the end of service life if available are discussed.

  13. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542; Docket No. NHTSA-2008- 0121). The new consumer..., and treadwear (75 FR 15894; Docket No. NHTSA- 2010-0036). The final rule did not include any of the... test machine(s) for the TFECIP. This would allow tire manufacturers to know the identity of the...

  14. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, 74 FR 49454 (Sept. 28, 2009... Program, 74 FR 29542 (June 22, 2009); Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0121-0014 (hereinafter ``Tire Fuel Efficiency... Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency...

  15. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ..., and proposed to require manufacturers to report various data concerning replacement tires to NHTSA..., Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 74 FR 29542 (June 22, 2009); Docket No. NHTSA-2008... Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 75 FR 15894 (Mar. 30, 2010); Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0036- 001....

  16. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... sidewall of each tire it retreads by permanently molding or branding into or onto the sidewall, in...

  17. 75 FR 11806 - Notice of Public Meeting; Tire Fuel Efficiency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) proposing a new consumer information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542). The new consumer information program responded to a... union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register at 65 FR...

  18. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  19. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  20. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  1. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  2. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  3. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor... the demonstration is conducted at the highway speed limit in effect at the inspection location, or,...

  4. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  5. Energy from waste via coal/waste co-firing

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, J.; Ekmann, J.; Smouse, S.; Ramezan, M.; Harding, S.

    1996-12-31

    The paper reviews the feasibility of waste-to-energy plants using the cocombustion of coal with refuse-derived fuels. The paper discusses the types of wastes available: municipal solid wastes, plastics, tires, biomass, and specialized industrial wastes, such as waste oils, post-consumer carpet, auto shredder residues, and petroleum coke. The five most common combustion systems used in co-firing are briefly described. They are the stoker boiler, suspension-fired boilers, cyclone furnaces, fluidized bed boilers, and cement kilns. The paper also discusses the economic incentives for generating electricity from waste.

  6. Dynamic Tire Pressure Sensor for Measuring Ground Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application. PMID:23202206

  7. Application of tire dynamics to aircraft landing gear design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The tire plays a key part in many analyses used for design of aircraft landing gear. Examples include structural design of wheels, landing gear shimmy, brake whirl, chatter and squeal, complex combination of chatter and shimmy on main landing gear (MLG) systems, anti-skid performance, gear walk, and rough terrain loads and performance. Tire parameters needed in the various analyses are discussed. Two tire models are discussed for shimmy analysis, the modified Moreland approach and the von Schlippe-Dietrich approach. It is shown that the Moreland model can be derived from the Von Schlippe-Dietrich model by certain approximations. The remaining analysis areas are discussed in general terms and the tire parameters needed for each are identified. Accurate tire data allows more accurate design analysis and the correct prediction of dynamic performance of aircraft landing gear.

  8. Dimensionally stable PET fibers for tire reinforcement. [Polyethylene terephthalate (POLYESTERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rim, P.B.; Nelson, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    High-modulus, high-tenacity polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers have gained wide acceptance in reinforcement for rubber products such as tires and hoses; in geotextiles, and in ropes and cordage. Accordingly, a great deal of fundamental research has been conducted on how the processing and resulting morphology of these thermoplastic fibers affect their physical properties. The translation of these starting fiber properties to those in the final end-use product has received much less attention. This article compares the structure-property relationships of recently-developed PET yarns possessing high dimensional stability (i.e., high modulus and low shrinkage) with conventional PET tire yarn. Interest in these materials is stimulated by their ability to improve tire uniformity and, for some tire manufacturers, eliminate the need for post-cure inflation during tire manufacturing. Where possible, cause and effect relationships will be developed.

  9. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  10. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinsong; Huang, Jianchao; Sun, Wei

    2008-11-01

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI. PMID:18255276

  11. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  13. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia

    2015-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  14. Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Hughes, Robert Clark; Wang, Yifeng; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Gao, Huizhen

    2004-09-01

    Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Application of Microsensor Technology in Radioactive Waste Management with Emphasis on Headspace Gas Detection'. The objective of this project is to bridge the technical gap between the current status of microsensor development and the intended applications of these sensors in nuclear waste management. The major results are summarized below: {sm_bullet} A literature review was conducted on the regulatory requirements for headspace gas sampling/analysis in waste characterization and monitoring. The most relevant gaseous species and the related physiochemical environments were identified. It was found that preconcentrators might be needed in order for chemiresistor sensors to meet desired detection {sm_bullet} A long-term stability test was conducted for a polymer-based chemresistor sensor array. Significant drifts were observed over the time duration of one month. Such drifts should be taken into account for long-term in-situ monitoring. {sm_bullet} Several techniques were explored to improve the performance of sensor polymers. It has been demonstrated that freeze deposition of black carbon (CB)-polymer composite can effectively eliminate the so-called 'coffee ring

  15. Highlights from the 7th Cachexia Conference: muscle wasting pathophysiological detection and novel treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Nicole; Steinbeck, Lisa; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    This article highlights preclinical and clinical studies in the field of wasting disorders that were presented at the 7th Cachexia Conference held in Kobe, Japan, in December 2013. This year, the main topics were the development of new methods and new biomarkers in the field of cachexia and wasting disorders with particular focus on inflammatory pathways, growth differentiation factor-15, myostatin, the ubiquitin proteasome-dependent pathway, valosin and the regulation of ubiquitin-specific protease 19 that is involved in the differentiation of myogenin and myosin heavy chain. This article presents highlights from the development of drugs that have shown potential in the treatment of wasting disorders, particularly the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin, the myostatin antagonist REGN1033, the selective androgen receptor modulators enobosarm and TEI-E0001, and the anabolic catabolic transforming agent espindolol. In addition, novel data on the prevalence and detection methods of muscle wasting/sarcopenia are presented, including the D3-creatine dilution method and several new biomarkers. PMID:24595460

  16. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... car tires to meet safety criteria similar to those for new pneumatic passenger car tires. S3... 1948. S4. Definitions. S4.1Casing means a used tire to which additional tread may be attached for...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  1. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube... pollutants resulting from the production of pneumatic tires and inner tubes in tire and inner tube plants....

  2. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube... pollutants resulting from the production of pneumatic tires and inner tubes in tire and inner tube plants....

  3. Surveillance to detect chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P

    2009-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting North American cervids, has been discovered in at least 12 states and provinces throughout the continent. Since 2002, a number of states and provinces have initiated surveillance programs to detect CWD in native cervid populations. However, many questions remain about the appropriate methods, geographic scope, and number of samples required for an effective CWD surveillance program. We provide an improved statistical method to calculate the probability of detecting CWD in primary sample units (e.g., county or deer management unit) that also considers deer abundance and the nonrandom distribution of CWD and hunter harvests. We used this method to analyze data from a statewide CWD detection program conducted in Wisconsin during the autumns of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer heads were collected at hunter registration stations, and brainstem (obex) and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were removed for disease testing. Our analysis includes samples from >35,000 deer collected outside the known affected area. The probability of detecting chronic wasting disease at a prevalence of 1% varied from 0.89 to > or =0.99 among the 56 primary sample units. Detection probabilities for 1% CWD prevalence were >0.9 in 55 primary sample units, and >0.99 in 10. Detection probabilities will be higher in areas where CWD prevalence exceeds 1%. CWD-positive deer were detected in eight primary sample units surrounding the known affected area during surveillance activities. Our approach provides a novel statistical technique to accommodate nonrandom sampling in wildlife disease surveillance programs.

  4. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard.

  5. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard. PMID:25753763

  6. Rolling resistance of electric vehicle tires from track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Special low-rolling-resistance tires were made for DOE's ETV-1 electric vehicle. Tests were conducted on these tires and on a set of standard commercial automotive tires to determine the rolling resistance as a function of time during both constant-speed tires and SAE J227a driving cycle tests. The tests were conducted on a test track at ambient temperatures that ranged from 15 to 32 C (59 to 89 F) and with tire pressures of 207 to 276 kPa (30 to 40 psi). At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi) the rolling resistances of the electric vehicle tires and the standard commercial tires, respectively, were 0.0102 and 0.0088 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight. At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 276 kPa (40 psi) the rolling resistances were 0.009 and 0.0074 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight, respectively.

  7. Radiation and Electromagnetic Induction Data Fusion for Detection of Buried Radioactive Metal Waste - 12282

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Zhiling; Wei, Wei; Turlapaty, Anish; Du, Qian; Younan, Nicolas H.; Waggoner, Charles

    2012-07-01

    At the United States Army's test sites, fired penetrators made of Depleted Uranium (DU) have been buried under ground and become hazardous waste. Previously, we developed techniques for detecting buried radioactive targets. We also developed approaches for locating buried paramagnetic metal objects by utilizing the electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data. In this paper, we apply data fusion techniques to combine results from both the radiation detection and the EMI detection, so that we can further distinguish among DU penetrators, DU oxide, and non- DU metal debris. We develop a two-step fusion approach for the task, and test it with survey data collected on simulation targets. In this work, we explored radiation and EMI data fusion for detecting DU, oxides, and non-DU metals. We developed a two-step fusion approach based on majority voting and a set of decision rules. With this approach, we fuse results from radiation detection based on the RX algorithm and EMI detection based on a 3-step analysis. Our fusion approach has been tested successfully with data collected on simulation targets. In the future, we will need to further verify the effectiveness of this fusion approach with field data. (authors)

  8. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  9. Work Environments and Exposure to Hazardous Substances in Korean Tire Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Methods Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Results Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m3, the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Conclusion To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended. PMID:22993718

  10. 75 FR 62505 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's.../exporters of OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires From the People's...

  11. 76 FR 6603 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic...

  12. 76 FR 14906 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic...

  13. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill - Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Simmons, Donald L.; Wels, Brian R.; Spak, Scott N.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles O.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies' findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg-1), particle number (3.5 × 1016 kg-1), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg-1), EC (2.37 g kg-1), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg-1). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85 to 0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided.

  14. Evaluation of self-combustion risk in tire derived aggregate fills.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Marcos; San Martin, Ignacio; Olivella, Sebastian; Saaltink, Maarten W

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight tire derived aggregate (TDA) fills are a proven recycling outlet for waste tires, requiring relatively low cost waste processing and being competitively priced against other lightweight fill alternatives. However its value has been marred as several TDA fills have self-combusted during the early applications of this technique. An empirical review of these cases led to prescriptive guidelines from the ASTM aimed at avoiding this problem. This approach has been successful in avoiding further incidents of self-combustion. However, at present there remains no rational method available to quantify self-combustion risk in TDA fills. This means that it is not clear which aspects of the ASTM guidelines are essential and which are accessory. This hinders the practical use of TDA fills despite their inherent advantages as lightweight fill. Here a quantitative approach to self-combustion risk evaluation is developed and illustrated with a parametric analysis of an embankment case. This is later particularized to model a reported field self-combustion case. The approach is based on the available experimental observations and incorporates well-tested methodological (ISO corrosion evaluation) and theoretical tools (finite element analysis of coupled heat and mass flow). The results obtained offer clear insights into the critical aspects of the problem, allowing already some meaningful recommendations for guideline revision.

  15. Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, S. M.; Mueller, G.; Hemphill, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    Cover is an important component of aquatic habitat and fisheries management. Fisheries biologists often try to improve habitats through the addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs using sophisticated artificial habitat modules. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments (D'Itri 1985) and to a lesser extent in freshwater (Johnson and Stein 1979) and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material which benefits fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Mueller and Liston 1991) have quantified the importance of tire reeds to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fisheries and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are places in canals. Potential benefits to fishermen are great in the form of recreational fishing. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the part because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are intert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is contained in the literature. Stone et al. (1975) demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's (1991) freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. (1973) found no harmful substances leached from tire

  16. STS-70 Mission Commander Henricks inspects tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-70 Mission Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks inspects the nose wheel landing gear tires of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery along with Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber after the spaceplane touched down on KSC's Runway 33 to successfully conclude the nearly nine-day space flight. Main gear touchdown was unofficially listed at 8:02 a.m. EDT on July 22, 1995 on the second landing attempt after the first opportunity was waved off. The orbiter was originally scheduled to land on the 21st, but fog and low visibility at the Shuttle Landing Facility led to the one-day extension. This was the 24th landing at KSC and the 70th Space Shuttle mission. During the space flight, the five-member crew deployed the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G (TDRS- G). The other crew members were Pilot Kevin R. Kregel and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie and Donald A. Thomas.

  17. Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouser, Paula J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Druschel, Gregory K.; Morales, Sergio E.; Hayden, Nancy; O'Grady, Patrick; Stevens, Lori

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater biogeochemistry is adversely impacted when municipal solid waste leachate, rich in nutrients and anthropogenic compounds, percolates into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques is challenging because well strategies or analytical techniques may be insufficient for detecting low levels of groundwater contamination. We sampled profiles of the microbial community from monitoring wells surrounding a leaking landfill using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results show in situ monitoring of bacteria, archaea, and the family Geobacteraceae improves characterization of groundwater quality. Bacterial T-RFLP profiles showed shifts correlated to known gradients of leachate and effectively detected changes along plume fringes that were not detected using hydrochemical data. Experimental sediment microcosms exposed to leachate-contaminated groundwater revealed a shift from a β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated community to one dominated by Firmicutes and δ-Proteobacteria. This shift is consistent with the transition from oxic conditions to an anoxic, iron-reducing environment as a result of landfill leachate-derived contaminants and associated redox conditions. We suggest microbial communities are more sensitive than hydrochemistry data for characterizing low levels of groundwater contamination and thus provide a novel source of information for optimizing detection and long-term monitoring strategies at landfill sites.

  18. Detection of free liquid in drums of radioactive waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-10-16

    A nondestructive thermal imaging method for detecting the presence of a liquid such as water within a sealed container is described. The process includes application of a low amplitude heat pulse to an exterior surface area of the container, terminating the heat input and quickly mapping the resulting surface temperatures. The various mapped temperature values can be compared with those known to be normal for the container material and substances in contact. The mapped temperature values show up in different shades of light or darkness that denote different physical substances. The different substances can be determined by direct observation or by comparison with known standards. The method is particularly applicable to the detection of liquids above solidified radioactive wastes stored in sealed containers.

  19. 12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  20. MSC products for the simulation of tire behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskivitch, John C.

    1995-08-01

    The modeling of tires and the simulation of tire behavior are complex problems. The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation (MSC) has a number of finite element analysis products that can be used to address the complexities of tire modeling and simulation. While there are many similarities between the products, each product has a number of capabilities that uniquely enable it to be used for a specific aspect of tire behavior. This paper discusses the following programs: (1) MSC/NASTRAN - general purpose finite element program for linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis; (2) MSC/ADAQUS - nonlinear statics and dynamics finite element program; (3) MSC/PATRAN AFEA (Advanced Finite Element Analysis) - general purpose finite element program with a subset of linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis capabilities with an integrated version of MSC/PATRAN for pre- and post-processing; and (4) MSC/DYTRAN - nonlinear explicit transient dynamics finite element program.

  1. MSC products for the simulation of tire behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muskivitch, John C.

    1995-01-01

    The modeling of tires and the simulation of tire behavior are complex problems. The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation (MSC) has a number of finite element analysis products that can be used to address the complexities of tire modeling and simulation. While there are many similarities between the products, each product has a number of capabilities that uniquely enable it to be used for a specific aspect of tire behavior. This paper discusses the following programs: (1) MSC/NASTRAN - general purpose finite element program for linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis; (2) MSC/ADAQUS - nonlinear statics and dynamics finite element program; (3) MSC/PATRAN AFEA (Advanced Finite Element Analysis) - general purpose finite element program with a subset of linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis capabilities with an integrated version of MSC/PATRAN for pre- and post-processing; and (4) MSC/DYTRAN - nonlinear explicit transient dynamics finite element program.

  2. Exploiting symmetries in the modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, C. M.; Tanner, John A.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for reducing the size of the analysis models of tires having unsymmetric material, geometry and/or loading. The two key elements of the procedure when applied to anisotropic tires are: (1) decomposition of the stiffness matrix into the sum of an orthotropic and nonorthotropic parts; and (2) successive application of the finite-element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite-element method is first used to generate few global approximation vectors (or modes). Then the amplitudes of these modes are computed by using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The proposed technique has high potential for handling practical tire problems with anisotropic materials, unsymmetric imperfections and asymmetric loading. It is also particularly useful for use with three-dimensional finite-element models of tires.

  3. Temperature distribution in an aircraft tire at low ground speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to define temperature profiles of 22 x 5.5, type 7, bias ply aircraft tires subjected to freely rolling, yawed rolling, and light braking conditions. Temperatures along the inner wall of freely rolling tires were greater than those near the outer surface. The effect of increasing tire deflection was to increase the temperature within the shoulder and sidewall areas of the tire carcass. The effect of cornering and braking was to increase the treat temperature. For taxi operations at fixed yaw angles, temperature profiles were not symmetric. Increasing the ground speed produced only moderate increases in tread temperature, whereas temperatures in the carcass shoulder and sidewall were essentially unaffected.

  4. Advances in contact algorithms and their application to tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Currently used techniques for tire contact analysis are reviewed. Discussion focuses on the different techniques used in modeling frictional forces and the treatment of contact conditions. A status report is presented on a new computational strategy for the modeling and analysis of tires, including the solution of the contact problem. The key elements of the proposed strategy are: (1) use of semianalytic mixed finite elements in which the shell variables are represented by Fourier series in the circumferential direction and piecewise polynomials in the meridional direction; (2) use of perturbed Lagrangian formulation for the determination of the contact area and pressure; and (3) application of multilevel iterative procedures and reduction techniques to generate the response of the tire. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of a proposed procedure for generating the tire response associated with different Fourier harmonics.

  5. Aircraft tire behavior during high-speed operations in soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Smith, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine aircraft tire behavior and operating problems in soil of different characteristics was conducted at the Langley landing-loads track with a 29 x 110.0-10, 8-ply-rating, type 3 tire. Four clay test beds of different moisture content and one sand test bed were used to explore the effects on axle drag loads developed during operation at different tire inflation pressures in free rolling, locked-wheel braking, and yawed (cornering) modes, all at forward speeds up to 95 knots. The test results indicated a complicated drag-load--velocity relationship, with a peak in the drag-load curve occurring near 40 knots for most test conditions. The magnitude of this peak was found to vary with tire inflation pressure and soil character and, in certain cases, might prove large enough to make take-off hazardous.

  6. Time domain BEM for sound radiation of tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banz, Lothar; Gimperlein, Heiko; Nezhi, Zouhair; Stephan, Ernst P.

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates a time domain boundary element method for the acoustic wave equation in an exterior domain in the half-space mathbb {R}^3_+. The Neumann problem is formulated as a boundary integral equation of the second kind, and the convergence and stability of conforming Galerkin approximations is studied in the complex geometry of a car or truck tire above a street. After a validation experiment, numerical results are presented in time or frequency domain for realistic benchmarks in traffic noise: the sound emission of vibrating tires, noise amplification in the horn-like geometry between the tire and the road, as well as the Doppler effect of a moving tire. The results are compared with calculations in frequency domain.

  7. Environmental health implications of heavy metal pollution from car tires.

    PubMed

    Horner, J M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential for environmental pollution by heavy metals from the disposal of used car tires and describes laboratory work and field research exploring the magnitude of the problem. The metals considered here are cadmium, lead, and zinc; their respective mean concentrations for ten makes of tires used in the United Kingdom ranged from 0-3.0, 8.1-22.3, and 2524-6012 ppm. The metals were extracted from tires by simulated acid-rain solutions (pH 2.5); zinc concentrations of the leachate ranged from 169-463 ppm, but cadmium and lead concentrations were negligible. A significant increase in surface soil concentrations of all three metals was measured with increasing proximity to a tire dump in West London. The respective mean concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in soil at the base of the dump were 22, 1160, and 1235 ppm, indicating contamination by each metal.

  8. 10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE), LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATOR HALL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  9. Test method to measure resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viman, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the Nordic countries most cars are equipped with studded tires during the winter. The studs increase the wear on the road surfaces and a special test method has been developed to measure the aggregates' resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires. The method has proven to correlate very well with the actual wear on the road surfaces. The Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland have agreed to propose this method as a European Standard test method. One reason is to be able to set requirements on aggregates to be used in countries where studded tires are allowed. A cross-testing project regarding this Nordic abrasion test for studded tires was set up in order to determine the repeatability and the reproducibility of the methods to become European Standard.

  10. Monitoring and trace detection of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Dougherty, D.R.; Chen, C.L.

    1993-04-01

    Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon process, which shifts the frequency of an outgoing photon according to the vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. When involving an allowed electronic transition (resonance Raman), this scattering cross section can be enhanced by 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} and provides the basis for a viable technique that can monitor and detect trace quantities of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many of the ideal characteristics for monitoring and detecting of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Some of these traits are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints); (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region); (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk); (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions -- either bulk or aerosols); and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching). Data from a few chemicals will be presented which illustrate these features. In cases where background fluorescence accompanies the Raman signals, an effective frequency modulation technique has been developed, which can completely eliminate this interference.

  11. Monitoring and trace detection of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Dougherty, D.R.; Chen, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon process, which shifts the frequency of an outgoing photon according to the vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. When involving an allowed electronic transition (resonance Raman), this scattering cross section can be enhanced by 10[sup 4] to 10[sup 6] and provides the basis for a viable technique that can monitor and detect trace quantities of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many of the ideal characteristics for monitoring and detecting of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Some of these traits are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints); (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region); (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk); (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions -- either bulk or aerosols); and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching). Data from a few chemicals will be presented which illustrate these features. In cases where background fluorescence accompanies the Raman signals, an effective frequency modulation technique has been developed, which can completely eliminate this interference.

  12. Laser triangulation to measure the carcass deflections of a rolling tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2011-12-01

    Tire sensors are powerful tools to study tire behavior and to evaluate the tire operating state. A laser tire sensor (LTS) is introduced in this paper. It is based on a laser triangulation sensor, which can measure the carcass deflections of a rolling tire. The sensor principle is explained and a special tire sensor module is introduced. The results are shown for several wheel loads and inflation pressures, which have linear influence on both the tire radius mean value and radius amplitude. Results from more complex driving situations are also covered, including soil deformation and aquaplaning. It was possible to observe tire penetration into the soft soil. An aquaplaning study shows significant influence of hydrodynamics forces on tire carcass behavior. Also the influence of inflation pressure on aquaplaning is shown.

  13. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a... tires of its size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a width within... Register citations affecting § 575.104, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...

  14. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a... tires of its size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a width within... Register citations affecting § 575.104, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...

  15. Tech Transfer Office discusses the finer points of tire recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis worked with a tire recycling company in St. Francisville, La., to help the company make better use of the cryogenics, or supercold fluids, in its recycling process. The process separates the rubber from the steel belts and other particles. The rubber is broken down into a material called crumb. Other parts of the tire particle removed is called fluff.

  16. Application of pyrolized carbon black from scrap tires in asphalt pavement design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.; Coree, B.J.; Lovell, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    According to EPA reports (1991) of the over 242 million waste generated each year in the United State, 5% are exported, 6% recycled, 11% incinerated, and 78% are landfilled, stockpiled, or illegally dumped. A variety of uses for these tires are being studied. Among these is pyrolysis which produces 5 5% of oil, 25% of carbon black, 9% of steel, 5% of fiber and 6% of gas. Pyrolized carbon black contains 9 % of ash, 4% of sulfur, 12% of butadine copolymer and 75% of carbon black. The objective of this research is to investigate the viability of using PCB as an additive in hot mix asphalt. The use of PCB in asphalt pavement is expected not only to improve the performance of conventional asphalt, but also to provide a means for the mass disposal of waste fires.

  17. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

  18. Wheelbarrow tire explosion causing trauma to the forearm and hand: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tire explosion injuries are rare, but they may result in a severe injury pattern. Case reports and statistics from injuries caused by exploded truck tires during servicing are established, but trauma from exploded small tires seems to be unknown. Case presentation A 47-year-old german man inflated a wheelbarrow tire. The tire exploded during inflation and caused an open, multiple forearm and hand injury. Conclusion Even small tires can cause severe injury patterns in the case of an explosion. High inflating pressures and low safety distances are the main factors responsible for this occurrence. Broad safety information and suitable filling devices are indispensable for preventing these occurrences. PMID:19946543

  19. Detection of Known and Novel Adenoviruses in Cattle Wastes via Broad-Spectrum Primers ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Samuel D.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    The critical assessment of bovine adenoviruses (BAdV) as indicators of environmental fecal contamination requires improved knowledge of their prevalence, shedding dynamics, and genetic diversity. We examined DNA extracted from bovine and other animal waste samples collected in Wisconsin for atadenoviruses and mastadenoviruses using novel, broad-spectrum PCR primer sets. BAdV were detected in 13% of cattle fecal samples, 90% of cattle urine samples, and 100% of cattle manure samples; 44 percent of BAdV-positive samples contained both Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus DNA. Additionally, BAdV were detected in soil, runoff water from a cattle feedlot, and residential well water. Overall, we detected 8 of 11 prototype BAdV, plus bovine, rabbit, and porcine mastadenoviruses that diverged significantly from previously reported genotypes. The prevalence of BAdV shedding by cattle supports targeting AdV broadly as indicators of the presence of fecal contamination in aqueous environments. Conversely, several factors complicate the use of AdV for fecal source attribution. Animal AdV infecting a given livestock host were not monophyletic, recombination among livestock mastadenoviruses was detected, and the genetic diversity of animal AdV is still underreported. These caveats highlight the need for continuing genetic surveillance for animal AdV and for supporting data when BAdV detection is invoked for fecal source attribution in environmental samples. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report natural BAdV excretion in urine, BAdV detection in groundwater, and recombination in AdV of livestock origin. PMID:21622778

  20. Detection of known and novel adenoviruses in cattle wastes via broad-spectrum primers.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Samuel D; Goldberg, Tony L; Pedersen, Joel A

    2011-07-01

    The critical assessment of bovine adenoviruses (BAdV) as indicators of environmental fecal contamination requires improved knowledge of their prevalence, shedding dynamics, and genetic diversity. We examined DNA extracted from bovine and other animal waste samples collected in Wisconsin for atadenoviruses and mastadenoviruses using novel, broad-spectrum PCR primer sets. BAdV were detected in 13% of cattle fecal samples, 90% of cattle urine samples, and 100% of cattle manure samples; 44 percent of BAdV-positive samples contained both Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus DNA. Additionally, BAdV were detected in soil, runoff water from a cattle feedlot, and residential well water. Overall, we detected 8 of 11 prototype BAdV, plus bovine, rabbit, and porcine mastadenoviruses that diverged significantly from previously reported genotypes. The prevalence of BAdV shedding by cattle supports targeting AdV broadly as indicators of the presence of fecal contamination in aqueous environments. Conversely, several factors complicate the use of AdV for fecal source attribution. Animal AdV infecting a given livestock host were not monophyletic, recombination among livestock mastadenoviruses was detected, and the genetic diversity of animal AdV is still underreported. These caveats highlight the need for continuing genetic surveillance for animal AdV and for supporting data when BAdV detection is invoked for fecal source attribution in environmental samples. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report natural BAdV excretion in urine, BAdV detection in groundwater, and recombination in AdV of livestock origin.

  1. Biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Tetrabromobisphenol A in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Huisheng; Zhou, Xinchu; Yang, Guangxin

    2014-03-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant. A sensitive and selective indirect competitive biotin-streptavidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BA-ELISA) was developed for detecting TBBPA. The optimal hapten of TBBPA was 2-(2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenly)propan-2-yl)) acetic acid. Several physiochemical factors that influence assay performance, such as optimal coupling concentration of immunogen and antibody, organic solvent, ionic strength, and pH, were studied and optimized. The limit of detection (IC10) was 0.027 ng/mL and the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.58 ng/mL. The BA-ELISA was highly selective, with low cross-reactivity with TBBPA analogs. Finally, the assay was used to detect TBBPA in electronic waste samples. The results are consistent with those using liquid chromatography, which proves that the proposed immunoassay is accurate and receptive. This BA-ELISA method is suitable for the rapid and sensitive screening of TBBPA in environmental monitoring. PMID:24468340

  2. Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

  3. 78 FR 51209 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Trading Co., LLC of TX; Tire & Wheel Master, Inc. of CA; Simple Tire of TN; WTD Inc. of CA; Guangzhou..._filing.pdf . Any person desiring to submit a document to the Commission in ] confidence must...

  4. Static and yawed-rolling mechanical properties of two type 7 aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Mccarty, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of 18 x 5.5 and 49 x 17 size, type 7 aircraft tires were evaluated. The tires were subjected to pure vertical loads and to combined vertical and lateral loads under both static and rolling conditions. Parameters for the static tests consisted of tire load in the vertical and lateral directions, and parameters for the rolling tests included tire vertical load, yaw angle, and ground speed. Effects of each of these parameters on the measured tire characteristics are discussed and, where possible, compared with previous work. Results indicate that dynamic tire properties under investigation were generally insensitive to speed variations and therefore tend to support the conclusion that many tire dynamic characteristics can be obtained from static and low speed rolling tests. Furthermore, many of the tire mechanical properties are in good agreement with empirical predictions based on earlier research.

  5. An evaluation of some unbraked tire cornering force characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effects of pavement surface condition on the cornering forces developed by a group of 6.50x13 automobile tires of different tread design was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The tests were made at fixed yaw angles of 3,4.5, and 6 deg at forward speeds up to 80 knots on two concrete surfaces of different texture under dry, damp, and flooded conditions. The results showed that the cornering forces were extremely sensitive to tread pattern and runway surface texture under all conditions and that under flooded conditions tire hydroplaning and complete loss of cornering force occurred at a forward velocity predicted from an existing formula based on tire inflation pressure. Futher, tests on the damp concrete with a smooth tire and a four-groove tire showed higher cornering forces at a yaw angle of 3 deg than at 4.5 deg; this indicated that maximum cornering forces are developed at extremely small steering angles under these conditions.

  6. Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

  7. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  8. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  9. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....1Retreaded tires. S5.1.1Except as specified in S5.1.3, each retreaded tire, when mounted on a test rim of the....3, each retreaded tire, when mounted on a test rim of the width specified for the tire's size... requirements of S5.1.1 and S5.1.2 when mounted on any rim in accordance with those sections. S5.1.4No...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  14. Using macroalgal δ15N bioassay to detect cruise ship waste water effluent inputs in Skagway, AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  15. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., plant where manufactured, and model year of tire manufactured during the reporting period and the four... of tires with the same SKU, plant where manufactured, and year for which the volume produced or imported is less than 15,000, or are deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use...

  16. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd... complainants are: Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd., 1-17-18 Edobori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550- 8661, Japan Toyo Tire... Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd., The West of JinGuang Street, Chenming Industrial Park, Shouguang...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10579 - Carbon black derived from the pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). 721.10579 Section 721.10579 Protection of Environment... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... rubber tire shreds (PMN P-10-367) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... person selling or leasing the defective or noncompliant tire: (i) A statement that the report is being submitted pursuant to 49 CFR 573.10(a) (sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires); (ii) The name, address and phone number of the person who purchased or leased the tire; (iii) The name of...

  3. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to provide information indicating the relative performance of replacement passenger car tires in the... consumers in making better educated choices in the purchase of passenger car tires. (c) Application. This... achieve the level of performance represented by each rating. (A) Ratings. Each tire shall be rated...

  4. Target detection and mapping of aquatic hazardous waste sites in Massachusetts Bay utilizing sidescan sonar

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, D.J.; Capone, V.; Cook, G.S.; Casey, D.A.; Wiley, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    The oceans have frequently been used for disposal for a variety of industrial, chemical, and low-level radioactive wastes. In Massachusetts Bay, several areas have been used for the permitted and possible non-permitted disposal of waste containers with environmentally sensitive materials. During the Summer and Fall of 1991, the Industrial Waste Site (IWS) and the Boston Lightship Dumping Ground (BLDG) in Massachusetts Bay were the subject of intensive surveys to determine the areal extent, distribution and location of waste containers.

  5. Thermal and catalytic coprocessing of coal and waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, E.C.; Tuntawiroon, W.; Ding, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    Coprocessing of coal with waste materials to produce liquid fuels with emphasis on finding reasonable reaction pathways and catalysts for such processing is presently the subject of intensive investigation. Polymer wastes such as polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene and used rubber tires are not naturally degraded over time. More than 22 million tons of plastic waste are annually discarded in landfills and over 75 percent of used rubber tires are similarly treated. In order to obtain distillate liquids or petroleum compatible refined products from coal, addition of hydrogen is necessary. A possible method for hydrogen addition is coprocessing of coal with polymeric waste materials since these latter materials contain hydrogen at levels much higher than are found in coal. The breakdown of waste rubber tires is interesting because the liquids derived may prove to be important as a coal dissolution and/or hydrogen donor solvent. Recently, Badger and coworkers reported that hydrogenated tire oils (hydrogenated in the presence of CoMo catalyst) were effective for the dissolution of coal. Studies on the coprocessing of coal and waste materials have only recently been done intensively. Limited data are available on reaction conditions and catalytic effects for processing coal mixed with post-consumer wastes. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of reaction temperature, pressure, catalysts, and mixture ratio on the coprocessing of coal and waste materials.

  6. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.

  7. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  8. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone. PMID:27010486

  9. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone.

  10. 75 FR 28567 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice... antidumping duty order on New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China... Administrative Review, 74 FR 45179 (September 1, 2009). On September 28, 2009, Guizhou Tire I&E...

  11. 75 FR 46914 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1... Jinyu. \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China:...

  12. 75 FR 49459 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ..., 73 FR 40485 (July 15, 2008) (``Final Determination''); Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from... International Trade Administration A-570-912 Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic... determination in the antidumping investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'')...

  13. 75 FR 31422 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-912 Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic... antidumping investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's... Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Determination of...

  14. 75 FR 64268 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the- road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China... (CVD) order on OTR tires from the People's Republic of China. See Certain New Pneumatic...

  15. 75 FR 62504 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China...''). See Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires from the People's Republic of China: Final...

  16. 75 FR 76956 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission, in Part...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period January 1... Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

  17. 76 FR 23286 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final... certain new pneumatic off-the- road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the.... See New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  18. 77 FR 4996 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires... Pneumatic Off-the-road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Respondent Selection,'' dated December...

  19. 78 FR 22513 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires...''). \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China:...

  20. 75 FR 22742 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China... shipper review. See New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

  1. 78 FR 33341 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty new shipper review of certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the... merchandise at less than normal value. \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the...

  2. 75 FR 34098 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... new pneumatic off-the- road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China, Request for Changed Circumstances...

  3. 78 FR 14267 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China... covered by this order includes new pneumatic tires designed for off-the-road and off-highway use,...

  4. 78 FR 78814 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Initiation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended Final...

  5. 75 FR 46917 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration (A-570-912) New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission...

  6. 76 FR 7816 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires... Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Countervailing...

  7. Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement interface and effect on aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    A finite-difference analysis was performed on temperature records obtained from a free rolling automotive tire and from pavement surface. A high thermal contact conductance between tire and asphalt was found on a statistical basis. Average slip due to squirming between tire and asphalt was about 1.5 mm. Consequent friction heat was estimated as 64 percent of total power absorbed by bias-ply, belted tire. Extrapolation of results to aircraft tire indicates potential braking improvement by even moderate increase of heat absorbing capacity of runway surface.

  8. Scrap tire management in the New York/Mid Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.

    1995-05-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufactures sponsored, advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. The primary goal of the Council is to assist in the creation of demand for 100 percent of the annually generated scrap tires in the United States. Based on current market demand and projected market growth, we envision the primary goal to be met by the turn of the century. A national overview of the scrap tire situation is presented, and then the situations in New York/Mid Atlantic region are discussed.

  9. A laser-based sensor system for tire tread deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yi; Tuononen, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Optical tire sensors are powerful engineering tools that can reveal the mechanisms behind tire-road interactions. This paper presents a laser-based sensor system to measure tire-tread block deformation. The methodology and corresponding procedure for the system are introduced. Practical issues, such as tire sensor localization, are discussed. Validation experiments were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, and an asymmetric tire tread deformation along the contact patch was observed. It is proposed that asymmetric tread deformation is due to rolling resistance. The measurements under different operational conditions, including the rolling direction, wheel load, rolling velocity, and inflation pressure, were analyzed in the context of rolling resistance.

  10. Geotechnical investigation of the potential use of shredded scrap tires in soil stabilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shakoor, A.; Chu, C.J.

    1998-11-01

    Silt-tire and clay-tire mixtures, containing 0% to 100% shredded tire material by weight, with tire chips ranging in size from 7mm--13mm, 13mm--25mm, and 25mm--38mm, were tested for a series of engineering properties including compaction characteristics, permeability, unconfined compressive strength, friction angle, cohesion, and compression index. In addition, the leachate samples from shredded tire material, soil-tire mixtures, and a test embankment, containing 70% clay and 30% shredded tire material by weight, were analyzed for chemical composition. The results show that density and unconfined compressive strength decrease, and permeability increases, with increasing shredded tire content for both soil types and all three tire sizes used in the study. In general, the addition of shredded tire material improves the friction angle for both silt and clay by a few degrees but also increases their compression index values. The results of leachate analyses show that concentrations of trace elements from soil-tire mixtures are less than the maximum allowed contaminant levels specified in United States Environmental Protection Agency`s regulations.

  11. Satellite remote sensing for detection and inventory of mass wasting events in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y.; Franklin, S.; Barlow, J.

    2003-04-01

    Landsliding is a major mechanism of mass wasting in humid, alpine terrain. The collection of large, landsliding inventories is critical from both an applied and theoretical perspective. These inventories can be used to improve our understanding of the contribution of landsliding to sediment transfers in steep terrain and also form a key component of many hazard assessment studies. The collection of large inventories has traditionally been based on interpretation of aerial photographs, a methodology which is labour-intensive and not cost-effective. Automated approaches based on satellite image digital data sources have much potential for improving the efficiency of data collection and may help remove interpretation bias. As the quality and quantity of such data increases, methods of analyzing the imagery together with digital elevation models (DEMs) must be developed and tested in a variety of environmental conditions. We examined the potential of Landsat satellite data in conjunction with DEM data to detect translational landslides in the Cascade Mountains of British Columbia. Image segmentation, followed by object-based classification using spectral and geomorphometric data derived from the DEM, resulted in an overall accuracy of 75% in the detection of landslides that were over 1 ha in area. Use of a geomorphometric software package enabled the calculation of slope shape parameters and the path of steepest slope, two key discriminators of landslide morphology. We tested fusion of the Landsat optical/infrared spectral channels with the 15 m spatial resolution panchromatic data to obtain additional increase in accuracy. Texture analysis was used to discriminate between shallow and bedrock landslides. This research suggests there is a strong potential to develop accurate large-area landslide inventories from satellite imagery in British Columbia.

  12. Tests to Determine the Adhesive Power of Passenger-Car Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foerster, B.

    1956-01-01

    The concept of the adhesive power of a tire with respect to the road involves several properties which result from the purpose of the tire; namely, connecting link between vehicle and road: (1) The tire must transfer the tractive and braking forces acting in the direction of travel (tractive and braking adhesion); (2) The tire is to prevent lateral deviations of the vehicle from the desired direction of travel (track adhesion). Moreover, the rubber tire provides part of the springing of the vehicle. Above all, it has to level out the minor road irregularities; thus it smoothes, as it were, the road and simultaneously reduces the noise of driving. The springing properties of the tire affect the adhesive power. The tests described below comprise a determination of the braking and track adhesion of individual tires. The adhesion of driven wheels has not been investigated so far.

  13. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  14. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  15. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  16. Early detection and evaluation of waste through sensorized containers for a collection monitoring application

    SciTech Connect

    Rovetta, Alberto; Fan Xiumin; Vicentini, Federico; Zhu Minghua; Giusti, Alessandro; He Qichang

    2009-12-15

    The present study describes a novel application for use in the monitoring of municipal solid waste, based on distributed sensor technology and geographical information systems. Original field testing and evaluation of the application were carried out in Pudong, Shanghai (PR China). The local waste management system in Pudong features particular requirements related to the rapidly increasing rate of waste production. In view of the fact that collected waste is currently deployed to landfills or to incineration plants within the context investigated, the key aspects to be taken into account in waste collection procedures include monitoring of the overall amount of waste produced, quantitative measurement of the waste present at each collection point and identification of classes of material present in the collected waste. The case study described herein focuses particularly on the above mentioned aspects, proposing the implementation of a network of sensorized waste containers linked to a data management system. Containers used were equipped with a set of sensors mounted onto standard waste bins. The design, implementation and validation procedures applied are subsequently described. The main aim to be achieved by data collection and evaluation was to provide for feasibility analysis of the final device. Data pertaining to the content of waste containers, sampled and processed by means of devices validated on two purpose-designed prototypes, were therefore uploaded to a central monitoring server using GPRS connection. The data monitoring and management modules are integrated into an existing application used by local municipal authorities. A field test campaign was performed in the Pudong area. The system was evaluated in terms of real data flow from the network nodes (containers) as well as in terms of optimization functions, such as collection vehicle routing and scheduling. The most important outcomes obtained were related to calculations of waste weight and

  17. Detection and Characterization of Chemicals Present in Tank Waste - Final Report - 09/15/1998 - 09/14/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2001-09-14

    DOE has a strong commitment to the efficient and safe remediation of waste (high level radioactive waste, mixed waste, and hazardous waste) present in underground waste storage tanks. Safety issues arise from the presence of organic chemicals and oxidizers and concerns are raised about the flammability, explosivity, and the possible corrosion of storage tanks due to presence of nitrates and nitrites. Knowledge of the physical parameters and chemical and radioactive composition of waste is necessary for effective and safe tank remediation. New and improved characterization and monitoring of waste present in storage tanks is necessary. The overall goal of this project has been to develop and demonstrate novel multi-parameter micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors based on Si and SiNx microcantilever (MC) structures that are robust and can be used to simultaneously detect the presence of target chemicals (analytes) in a mixture, radiation emitted from radioactive materials, an d the heat generated by the absorption of photons of specific wavelength by the target analytes. The mechanisms by which adsorption, photophysical, photothermal processes cause stress in MC surfaces are better understood. Methods of applying a wide variety of chemically selective coatings have been developed specifically for miniaturized MC surfaces, and the response characteristic of the cantilever were shown to be altered dramatically and predictably through incorporation of these phases on the surfaces. By addressing sensitivity and liquid matrix issues, the spectroscopic approach promises to provide an essential element of specificity for integrated sensors. We discovered early in these studies that fundamental limitations exist regarding the degree to which adsorption of analytes on smooth surfaces cause stress and this significantly limits chemi-mechanical response. To circumvent this limitation a concerted effort was made to devise and test ways to nanostructure cantilever

  18. The application of induced polarization techniques to detect metal-bearing offshore anthropogenic waste and unexploded ordnance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff; Roberts, William

    2009-01-01

    Raw sewage and industrial waste have been dumped into sensitive estuaries, bays, and sounds for centuries. The full extents of the resulting sludge deposits are largely unknown, because they move in response to tidal and long‐shore currents, and because they are often buried by younger inert sediments. USGS field and laboratory measurements of toxic mine waste and organic effluent samples suggest that anthropogenic wastes typically contain finely‐divided metal and metal‐sulfide particles. The anoxic environment provided by anthropogenic wastes promotes the growth of anaerobic bacteria, creating a self‐reducing environment. We suggest that the finely‐divided metal and metal‐sulfide particles are the products of bacterial reduction and precipitation. The fine‐grained metallic precipitates are ideal targets for a surface‐effect electrochemical detection methodology called Induced Polarization (IP). A USGS‐patented (1998/2001) marine IP streamer technology has recently been commercialized and used to map “black smoker” sulfide deposits and their disseminated halos in the Bismarck Sea (2005), and titanium‐sand deposits offshore of South Africa (2007). The marine induced polarization system can do this mapping in three dimensions, more rapidly (it is towed at 3 knots), and with far higher resolution that land‐based measurements or vibracoring. Laboratory‐scale studies at the USGS suggest that anthropogenic wastes may display a specific multi‐frequency IP spectral signature that may be applicable to waste‐deposit mapping.

  19. Detection and molecular characterization of swine hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine herds and their faecal wastes.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Correa, Maria T; Sobsey, Mark D

    2009-06-01

    Recent findings of almost genetically indistinguishable swine and human strains, have suggested swine play a role in the transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV). The extent to which HEV may be present and persist in the faecal waste generated from intensive swine operations is largely unknown. The fate of swine waste liquid is often land application, possibly resulting in unintentional seepage into groundwater or run-off into surface waters, hence validating concerns of human exposure risks. Freshly passed swine faeces, barn flush liquid waste, and lagoon liquid from production sites in North Carolina were surveyed periodically for HEV using RT-PCR primers located in ORF2. On three farms where HEV RNA was detected in swine faeces, it was also found in stored liquid waste on several occasions. HEV presence was related to swine age but not to animal management and waste management procedures, which varied amongst the farms. Seasonal patterns of HEV prevalence could not be established as viral RNA was isolated at all time points from two farms. Phylogenetic analysis of 212 bases of the genomic RNA indicated that isolates resembled the known US swine and human strains (percentage nucleic acid homology 91 to 94%), with one amino acid substitution. PMID:19240360

  20. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier Operations Standards §...

  1. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier Operations Standards §...

  2. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier Operations Standards §...

  3. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier Operations Standards §...

  4. 32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO GIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO GIVE CURVATURE TO WHEEL RIMS ON ELI WINDMILLS) TO BINS ALONG NORTH INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY WITH NEW OLD STOCK UNASSEMBLED PARTS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  5. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... measured from tread to the top of the flange. (i) Tires less than 11/2 inches thick. (j) Rims less than 1 inch thick on a locomotive in road service or less than 3/4 inch on a locomotive in yard service. (k)...

  6. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... runs northwest to Water Valley, northeast toward Robert Lee and returns via Texas 208 to the vicinity... of Water Valley (11). Turn right onto FM2034 and proceed north to Texas 208 (12). Turn right onto... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having...

  7. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... runs northwest to Water Valley, northeast toward Robert Lee and returns via Texas 208 to the vicinity... of Water Valley (11). Turn right onto FM2034 and proceed north to Texas 208 (12). Turn right onto... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having...

  8. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Confidential Business... 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) and concluded that no additional consultation with States, local... information about the treadwear, traction, and temperature resistance of passenger car tires. To ensure...

  9. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... molded, be laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 1, during the... laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 2, during the retreading...

  10. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... molded, be laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 1, during the... laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 2, during the retreading...

  11. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... molded, be laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 1, during the... laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 2, during the retreading...

  12. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... molded, be laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 1, during the... laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 2, during the retreading...

  13. DETAIL VIEW OF TIRE BEAD BREAKER (LEFT) AND PRESSURE MONITOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF TIRE BEAD BREAKER (LEFT) AND PRESSURE MONITOR PANEL (RIGHT), ROOM 1M9, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  15. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  16. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  17. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  18. Prion infectivity detected in swine challenged with chronic wasting disease via the intracerebral or oral route

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of North American cervids. The potential for swine to serve as a host for the agent of chronic wasting disease is unknown. In the US, feeding of ruminant by-products to ruminants is prohibited, but feeding of rum...

  19. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill – Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika; Simmons, Donald L.; Wels, Brian R.; Spak, Scott N.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies’ findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg−1), particle number (3.5×1016 kg−1), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg−1), EC (2.37 g kg−1), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg−1). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85-0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided. PMID:25663800

  20. 7th Annual waste reduction, prevention, recycling and composting symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Technical papers from the Waste Reduction, Prevention, Recycling and Composting Symposium are presented. 21 of the 22 papers were selected for inclusion in the database. The majority of the papers focus on municipal wastes produced by the business sector; however, wastes generated in the residential and industrial sectors are also included. Topics addressed include workplace recycling, scrap tire and used oil recycling, employee education, construction and demolition waste reuse, composting, waste reduction, and market development for recycled products.

  1. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  2. Measurements of Flow Rate and Trajectory of Aircraft Tire-Generated Water Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray generated by an aircraft tire operating on a flooded runway. Tests were conducted in the Hydrodynamics Research Facility and made use of a partial airframe and a nose tire from a general aviation aircraft. Nose tires from a commercial transport aircraft were also used. The effects of forward speed, tire load, and water depth on water spray patterns were evaluated by measuring the amount and location of water captured by an array of tubes mounted behind the test tire. Water ejected from the side of the tire footprint had the most significant potential for ingestion into engine inlets. A lateral wake created on the water surface by the rolling tire can dominate the shape of the spray pattern as the distance aft of the tire is increased. Forward speed increased flow rates and moved the spray pattern inboard. Increased tire load caused the spray to become less dense. Near the tire, increased water depths caused flow rates to increase. Tests using a fuselage and partial wing along with the nose gear showed that for certain configurations, wing aerodynamics can cause a concentration of spray above the wing.

  3. A study of the cornering forces generated by aircraft tires on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the cornering forces produced by a rolling aircraft tire installed on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear. The parameters studied included tilt angle, trial, tire inflation pressure, rake angle, vertical load, and whether or not a twin tire configuration corotates. These parameters were evaluated by measuring the cornering force produced by an aircraft tire installed on the nose gear of a modified vehicle as it was towed slowly. Cornering force coefficient increased with increasing tilt angle. Increasing trial or rake angle decreased the magnitude of the cornering force coefficient. Tire inflation pressure had no effect on the cornering force coefficient. Increasing vertical load decreased the cornering force coefficient. When the tires of a twin tire system rotated independently, the cornering force coefficients were the same as those for the single-tire configuration. When the twin tire system was made to corotate, however, the cornering force coefficients increased significantly.

  4. From the field: Efficacy of detecting Chronic Wasting Disease via sampling hunter-killed white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Boyd, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Surveillance programs for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids often use a standard of being able to detect 1% prevalence when determining minimum sample sizes. However, 1% prevalence may represent >10,000 infected animals in a population of 1 million, and most wildlife managers would prefer to detect the presence of CWD when far fewer infected animals exist. We wanted to detect the presence of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania when the disease was present in only 1 of 21 wildlife management units (WMUs) statewide. We used computer simulation to estimate the probability of detecting CWD based on a sampling design to detect the presence of CWD at 0.1% and 1.0% prevalence (23-76 and 225-762 infected deer, respectively) using tissue samples collected from hunter-killed deer. The probability of detection at 0.1% prevalence was <30% with sample sizes of ???6,000 deer, and the probability of detection at 1.0% prevalence was 46-72% with statewide sample sizes of 2,000-6,000 deer. We believe that testing of hunter-killed deer is an essential part of any surveillance program for CWD, but our results demonstrated the importance of a multifaceted surveillance approach for CWD detection rather than sole reliance on testing hunter-killed deer.

  5. Prompt non-tire rubber recycling : final report for phases 1 and 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F. G.; Daniels, E. J.

    1999-06-25

    This report summarizes an assessment conducted by Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., under a subcontract to Argonne National Laboratory. The project was conducted in two phases. An assessment of alternative technologies for recycling of prompt non-tire rubber was conducted in the first phase, and an experimental program focusing on a new technology called the catalytic Regeneration Process offered the greatest opportunity for recovery of high-value recyclable rubber material. An experimental and large-scale test program was undertaken to further delineate the economic potential as an essential step leading to commercial deployment and to determine the course of continued development of the technology by the private sector. The experimental program defined process-operating conditions for the technology and verified the degree of devulcanisation achievable for two rubber compounds: ethylene-propylene-nonconjugated-diene monomer (EPDM) and neoprene. To determine product acceptance, samples of devulcanized EPDM and neoprene were prepared and used in factory trials for the production of automotive moldings (EPDM) and fiber-filled belting (neoprene). The factory trials indicated that the physical properties of the products were acceptable in both cases. The appearance of molded and calendared surface finishes was acceptable, while that of extruded finishes was unsatisfactory. The fiber-filled neoprene belting application offers the greatest economic potential. Process costs were estimated at $0.34/lb for neoprene waste rubber relative to a value of $0.57/lb. The results of the experimental program led to the decision to continue development of this technology is being planned, subject to the availability of about $3 million in financing from private-sector investors. The ability to recycle non-tire rubber scrap could conserve as much as 90,000 Btu/lb, thus yielding an estimated energy savings potential of about 0.25 quad/yr.

  6. Determination of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates in tire and clothing textile samples by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny; Westerholm, Roger

    2013-09-13

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method utilizing electrospray ionization in positive and negative mode has been developed for the separation and detection of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates. Ultra-sonication assisted solvent extraction of these compounds has also been developed and the overall method demonstrated on a selected clothing textile and an automobile tire sample. Matrix effects and extraction recoveries, as well as linearity and limits of detection have been evaluated. The calibration curves spanned over more than two orders of magnitude with coefficients of correlation R(2)>0.99 and the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range 1.7-58pg injected and 18-140pg/g, respectively. The extraction recoveries ranged between 69% and 102% and the matrix effects between 75% and 101%. Benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates were determined in the textile sample and benzothiazole derivatives determined in the tire sample with good analytical performance.

  7. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  8. Enhanced surveillance strategies for detecting and monitoring chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide wildlife management agencies with the foundation upon which they can build scientifically rigorous and cost-effective surveillance and monitoring programs for chronic wasting disease (CWD) or refine their existing programs. The first chapter provides an overview of potential demographic and spatial risk factors of susceptible wildlife populations that may be exploited for CWD surveillance and monitoring. The information contained in this chapter explores historic as well as recent developments in our understanding of CWD disease dynamics. It also contains many literature references for readers who may desire a more thorough review of the topics or CWD in general. The second chapter examines methods for enhancing efforts to detect CWD on the landscape where it is not presently known to exist and focuses on the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the surveillance program. Specifically, it describes the means of exploiting current knowledge of demographic and spatial risk factors, as described in the first chapter, through a two-stage surveillance scheme that utilizes traditional design-based sampling approaches and novel statistical methods to incorporate information about the attributes of the landscape, environment, populations and individual animals into CWD surveillance activities. By accounting for these attributes, efficiencies can be gained and cost-savings can be realized. The final chapter is unique in relation to the first two chapters. Its focus is on designing programs to monitor CWD once it is discovered within a jurisdiction. Unlike the prior chapters that are more detailed or prescriptive, this chapter by design is considerably more general because providing comprehensive direction for creating monitoring programs for jurisdictions without consideration of their monitoring goals, sociopolitical constraints, or their biological systems, is not possible. Therefore, the authors draw upon their collective

  9. Metals associated with stormwater-relevant brake and tire samples

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Money, Jon E.; Green, Peter G.; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Properly apportioning the loads of metals in highway stormwater runoff to the appropriate sources requires accurate data on source composition, especially regarding constituents that help to distinguish among sources. Representative tire and brake samples were collected from privately owned vehicles and aqueous extracts were analyzed for twenty-eight elements. Correlation principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that tires were most influenced by Zn, Pb, and Cu, while brakes were best characterized by Na and Fe followed by Ba, Cu, Mg, Mn, and K; the latter three may be due to roadside soil contributions. Notably elevated Cd contributions were found in several brake samples. A targeted Cd-plated brake rotor was sampled, producing results consistent with the elevated levels found in the larger sample population. This enriched source of Cd is of particular concern due to high toxicity of Cd in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19709720

  10. Evaluation of synergy in tire rubber-coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.; Garcia, T.; Tejero, M.P.; Torres, N.

    1998-09-01

    The tire rubber-coal synergy is evaluated through the different roles that rubber can have in coprocessing systems. For that, two different experimental designs were used: a swept fixed-bed reactor and tubing bomb minireactors. In this way, coal was coprocessed with rubber liquids from rubber pyrolysis and rubber hydrogenation, in a hydrogen atmosphere at 400 C. Coal was mixed as well with rubber in different proportions and hydrogenated at 375, 400, and 425 C, and oils obtained were characterized by thin-layer chromatography to obtain hydrocarbon type composition. Rubber behavior was compared to each of the main components of tires, and all the results indicated that the slight synergy found can be due to the small free radicals from vulcanized rubber decomposition, which are able to stabilize coal radicals to light products.

  11. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  12. Detection of a Common and Persistent tet(L)-Carrying Plasmid in Chicken-Waste-Impacted Farm Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hilpert, Markus; Ward, Mandy J.

    2012-01-01

    The connection between farm-generated animal waste and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities, via mobile genetic elements, remains obscure. In this study, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying of a broiler chicken farm assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, a disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (Tcr) levels among culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence and prevalence of several tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a relatively pristine regional forest. When the farm was in operation, tet(L), tet(M), tet(O), erm(A), erm(B), and erm(C) genes were detected in the waste-affected soil. Two years after all waste was removed from the farm, tet(L), tet(M), tet(O), and erm(C) genes were still detected. The abundances of tet(L), tet(O), and erm(B) were measured using quantitative PCR, and the copy numbers of each were normalized to eubacterial 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. tet(L) was the most prevalent gene, whereas tet(O) was the most persistent, although all declined over the 2-year period. A mobilizable plasmid carrying tet(L) was identified in seven of 14 Tcr soil isolates. The plasmid's hosts were identified as species of Bhargavaea, Sporosarcina, and Bacillus. The plasmid's mobilization (mob) gene was quantified to estimate its prevalence in the soil, and the ratio of tet(L) to mob was shown to have changed from 34:1 to 1:1 over the 2-year sampling period. PMID:22389375

  13. Polymer concrete reinforced with recycled-tire fibers: Mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Cruz, E.; Martínez-Barrera, G.; Martínez-López, M.

    2013-06-01

    Polymer Concrete was reinforced with recycled-tire fibers in order to improve the compressive and flexural strength. Polymer concrete specimens were prepared with 70% of silicious sand, 30% of polyester resin and various fiber concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 vol%). The results show increment of 50% in average of the compressive and flexural strength as well as on the deformation when adding 1.2 vol% of recycled-fibers.

  14. Numerical analysis of tire/contact pressure using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Hidayat, Royan; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between the road surface and vehicle's tire may significantly determine the stability of a vehicle. We could study the tire contact-pressure to road surfaces through a numerical simulation in this present study. In particular, the main purpose of the study was to present an illustration of the effect of the varied loads to the tire, which would affect the contact pressure on the road surface sand stress distribution on the tire by employing a commercial ABAQUS software, based on the finite element method. To make the process of data analysis easier, the tire was assumed to be made from natural rubber which composition consisted of 2 layers of the inner tire and 1 layer of carcass. In pre-conditions, the tire was given air pressure as much as 17 psi, and loads as much as 2 KN, 6 KN, and 10 KN; then, the air pressure was increased to be 30 psi; consequently, the simulation results of stress distribution and deformation on each of loads condition would be acquired. The simulation results indicated that the loads carried by the tire on the vehicle were an important factor to determine the tire-stress profile.

  15. Application of a pattern recognition technique to the prediction of tire noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jinn-Tong; Tu, Fu-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Tire treads are one of the main sources of car noise. To meet the EU's tire noise regulation ECE-R117, a new method using a pattern recognition technique is adopted in this paper to predict noise from tire tread patterns, thus facilitating the design of low-noise tires. When tires come into contact with the road surface, air pumping may occur in the grooves of tire tread patterns. Using the image of a tread pattern, a matrix is constructed by setting the patterns of tire grooves and tread blocks. The length and width of the contact patch are multiplied by weight functions. The resulting sound pressure as a function of time is subjected to a Fourier transform to simulate a 1/3-octave-band sound pressure level. A particle swarm algorithm is adopted to optimize the weighting parameters for the sound pressure in the frequency domain so that simulated values approach the measured noise level. Two sets of optimal weighting parameters associated with the length and width of the contact patch are obtained. Finally, the weight function is used to predict the tread pattern noise of tires in the same series. A comparison of the prediction and experimental results reveals that, in the 1/3-octave band of frequency (800-2000 Hz), average errors in sound pressure are within 2.5 dB. The feasibility of the proposed application of the pattern recognition technique in predicting noise from tire treads is verified.

  16. Efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent Aedes breeding in tires.

    PubMed

    Pettit, William J; Whelan, Peter I; McDonnell, Joseph; Jacups, Susan P

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (Cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in Darwin, Australia. Insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. All mosquito larvae, pupae, and dead adults were collected from the treatment and control tires weekly over the 24-wk study period and were later identified to species in the laboratory. Control tires were colonized by Aedes notoscriptus in wk 2 and by Culex quinquefasciatus in wk 4. Aedes notoscriptus failed to colonize any alpha-cypermethrin-treated tires until wk 22 and did not colonize any lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires during the 24-wk trial. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires from wk 11 and wk 15, respectively. These results indicate both insecticides using either application method can prevent colonization of Ae. notoscriptus for at least 20 wk and demonstrate great potential for the prevention of breeding in receptacles for other receptacle-breeding Aedes species, such as the dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  17. NASA evaluation of Type 2 chemical depositions. [effects of deicer deposition on aircraft tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Howell, W. Edward; Webb, Granville L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type 2 chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32 - 96 km/hr (20 - 60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.

  18. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Plastic manufacturers 325211 Electrometallurgical Ferroalloy 331112 Product Manufacturing. Recycling... Solid Waste Disposal Act TDF Tire Derived Fuel VSMWC Very Small Municipal Waste Combustor III... Incineration Units (referred to as the ``CISWI Rule''). 65 FR 75338 (December 1, 2000). Under CAA section...

  19. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  20. Reducing the Detection Limit for Tetraphenylborate in Tank 50H Waste

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, THOMASL.

    2004-07-14

    SRTC personnel are developing a technique that can determine the concentration of tetraphenylborate (TPB) at 300 grams in 100,000 gallons of salt solution (0.8 mg/L) in the presence of0.378 Ci/gal of Cs-137. The current High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method of analysis can determine the TPB concentration at 5 mg/L and higher. The limit of quantitation was lowered by modification of the sample preparation steps. The HPLC sample preparation method currently used requires neutralization of the tank waste sample followed by extraction with acetonitrile. This method dilutes the tank waste sample 6.5 to 1 increasing the limit of quantitation. The method described in this report concentrates the sample two-fold lowering the limit of quantitation from 5 mg/L to 0.25mg/L. Researchers used solvent extraction of undiluted tank waste to isolate, and concentrate (two-fold) samples of tank supernate and Plant Inhibited Water (PIW) that simulated tank supernate at the cesium level of approximately 0.3 Ci/gal. The 137Cs content in the tank supernate measured 0.65 Ci/gal prior to a two-fold dilution with PIW. The concentration of the TPB was determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase HPLC column using methanol, acetonitrile, and buffered water as the mobile phase. Important Findings: The 0.8 mg/L quantitation limit was met in the presence of radioactive cesium. A 93 per cent reduction in activity in the acetonitrile layer was achieved. A five-mL acetonitrile aliquot from the extraction of a tank waste sample containing 0.378 Ci/gal of Cs-137 could be handled in a radiological hood and comply with the less than 5 mR/hr hood limit. This method is applicable to tank waste solutions of high ionic strength (greater than 2.0 M Na). The ionic strength of tank waste solutions of low ionic strength will need to be adjusted by the addition of NaOH or 5.6 M average salt solution to facilitate the formation of two layers (organic and aqueous). Increasing the ionic strength of tank

  1. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  2. Sensitivity of protein misfolding cyclic amplification versus immunohistochemistry in ante-mortem detection of chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Carver, Scott; Telling, Glenn C.; Zabel, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    As the only prion disease affecting free-ranging animals, ante-mortem identification of affected cervids has become paramount in understanding chronic wasting disease (CWD) pathogenesis, prevalence and control of horizontal or vertical transmission. To seek maximal sensitivity in ante-mortem detection of CWD infection, this study used paired tonsil biopsy samples collected at various time points from 48 CWD-exposed cervids to compare blinded serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) with the assay long considered the ‘gold standard’ for CWD detection, immunohistochemistry (IHC). sPMCA-negative controls (34 % of the samples evaluated) included tissues from mock-inoculated animals and unspiked negative controls, all of which tested negative throughout the course of the study. It was found that sPMCA on tonsil biopsies detected CWD infection significantly earlier (2.78 months, 95 % confidence interval 2.40–3.15) than conventional IHC. Interestingly, a correlation was observed between early detection by sPMCA and host PRNP genotype. These findings demonstrate that in vitro-amplification assays provide enhanced sensitivity and advanced detection of CWD infection in the peripheral tissues of cervids, with a potential role for spike or substrate genotype in sPMCA amplification efficiency. PMID:22278825

  3. Proposed strategy for leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation during Hanford single-shell tank waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-07-18

    The objective of this document is to propose a strategy for addressing applicable LDMM-related criteria in order to determine an allowable leakage volume for SSTs targeted for waste retrieval using sluicing. A strategy is required to work through the individual ALV criterion (and related issues) in a prioritized,orderly, and efficient manner. All components of the strategy are based upon LDMM-related issues, functions and requirements,and technology alternatives.

  4. 77 FR 26508 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... shipper review.\\5\\ \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... Request of Trelleborg Wheel Systems (Xingtai) China, Co. Ltd.: New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from...

  5. 77 FR 10476 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``off-the-road tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period, September 1,...

  6. 76 FR 31584 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... new pneumatic off-the-road tires from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). This review covers the... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires from the PRC....

  7. 77 FR 14495 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China...-2010 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires... International Co., Ltd. (``TUTRIC''). \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the...

  8. 75 FR 74003 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period January 1... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 53635 (September 1, 2010). Guizhou...

  9. 76 FR 14919 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires...; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 53635 (September 1, 2010). On September 17, 2010,...

  10. 75 FR 846 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period December... Administrative Review, 74 FR 45179 (September 1, 2009). GPX timely requested an administrative review of...

  11. 78 FR 46607 - Certain Off-The-Road Tires From China Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Off-The-Road Tires From China Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on certain off-the-road tires... published antidumping and countervailing duty orders on imports of certain off-the-road tires from China...

  12. 75 FR 32376 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road (``OTR'') tires from the People's... New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

  13. 75 FR 24884 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period December...., Tianjin Wanda Tyre Co., Ltd., and Triangle Tyre Co., Ltd. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road...

  14. 75 FR 32158 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR Tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). This review... Revocation in Part, 74 FR 54956 (October 26, 2009). The preliminary results of this review are currently...

  15. 77 FR 6536 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``off-the-road... administrative review of the antidumping order on off- the-road tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic......

  16. 78 FR 33059 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China...'' of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires from the People's Republic... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires, with respect...

  17. 3 CFR - Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tires From the People's Republic of China Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China Memorandum for the Secretary of Commerce the Secretary... vehicle and light truck tires from the People's Republic of China (China) are being imported into...

  18. 77 FR 69541 - Technical Report Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . Please send two paper copies... Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in Proper Tire Pressure Maintenance AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... its existing Safety Standard 138, Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems. The report's title is:...

  19. Pathology of non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE)-induced ablation of the canine brain.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H; Garcia, Paulo A; Roberston, John L; Ellis, Thomas L; Davalos, Rafael V

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the neuropathologic features of normal canine brain ablated with non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE). The parietal cerebral cortices of four dogs were treated with N-TIRE using a dose-escalation protocol with an additional dog receiving sham treatment. Animals were allowed to recover following N-TIRE ablation and the effects of treatment were monitored with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Brains were subjected to histopathologic and ultrastructural assessment along with Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 immunohistochemical staining following sacrifice 72 h post-treatment. Adverse clinical effects of N-TIRE were only observed in the dog treated at the upper energy tier. MRI and neuropathologic examinations indicated that N-TIRE ablation resulted in focal regions of severe cytoarchitectural and blood-brain-barrier disruption. Lesion size correlated to the intensity of the applied electrical field. N-TIRE-induced lesions were characterized by parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage; however, large blood vessels were preserved. A transition zone containing parenchymal edema, perivascular inflammatory cuffs, and reactive gliosis was interspersed between the necrotic focus and normal neuropil. Apoptotic labeling indices were not different between the N-TIRE-treated and control brains. This study identified N-TIRE pulse parameters that can be used to safely create circumscribed foci of brain necrosis while selectively preserving major vascular structures. PMID:23820168

  20. Pathology of non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE)-induced ablation of the canine brain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Roberston, John L.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the neuropathologic features of normal canine brain ablated with non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE). The parietal cerebral cortices of four dogs were treated with N-TIRE using a dose-escalation protocol with an additional dog receiving sham treatment. Animals were allowed to recover following N-TIRE ablation and the effects of treatment were monitored with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Brains were subjected to histopathologic and ultrastructural assessment along with Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 immunohistochemical staining following sacrifice 72 h post-treatment. Adverse clinical effects of N-TIRE were only observed in the dog treated at the upper energy tier. MRI and neuropathologic examinations indicated that N-TIRE ablation resulted in focal regions of severe cytoarchitectural and blood-brain-barrier disruption. Lesion size correlated to the intensity of the applied electrical field. N-TIRE-induced lesions were characterized by parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage; however, large blood vessels were preserved. A transition zone containing parenchymal edema, perivascular inflammatory cuffs, and reactive gliosis was interspersed between the necrotic focus and normal neuropil. Apoptotic labeling indices were not different between the N-TIRE-treated and control brains. This study identified N-TIRE pulse parameters that can be used to safely create circumscribed foci of brain necrosis while selectively preserving major vascular structures. PMID:23820168

  1. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all comments received... noncompliance is that, due to a mold labeling error, the sidewall marking on the reference side of the tires... has corrected the affected tire molds and all future production will have the correct material...

  2. 77 FR 2775 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... with a 30- day public comment period, on March 18, 2011, in the Federal Register (76 FR 15045). No... that the noncompliance is that, due to a mold labeling error, the sidewall marking on the tires... has corrected the affected tire molds and all future production will have the correct material...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at the tire cord... affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds per ton) of fabric... exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of total coatings used at the tire cord...

  4. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Statement is available for review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of Petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined...

  5. 78 FR 47050 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... (78 FR 9775.) No comments were received. To view the petition and all supporting documents log onto... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision...: Grant of petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper) \\1\\ has determined that certain...

  6. 78 FR 54369 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Register (77 FR 71678). One comment was received from Goodyear stating that after further review it now... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for.... ACTION: Notice of Petition Mootness. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear),\\1\\...

  7. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all comments received... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of petition. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has...

  8. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... FR 12869, 12870 (March 7, 1977). b. Physical Dimensions Test The purpose of the physical dimensions... (which is the metric equivalent of 60 psi) \\6\\ for the physical dimensions test.\\7\\ \\5\\ 74 FR 56166... test pressure for the physical dimensions test for T-type tires (temporary use spare tires) from...

  9. 76 FR 73007 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition...

  10. 75 FR 17827 - Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... name of each cord material used in the plies (both sidewall and tread area) of the tire; * * * Goodyear explains that the noncompliance is that the sidewall marking incorrectly identifies the generic material of... number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers...

  11. 77 FR 71679 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting...),\\1\\ has determined that certain Bridgestone brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011 and March... Wide Oval AS size 245/40R19 and 245/35R20 brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011, and March...

  12. 78 FR 47049 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... comment period, on December 3, 2012 in the Federal Register (77 FR 71679). No comments were received. To...\\ has determined that certain Bridgestone brand replacement tires manufactured between June 19, 2011 and... approximately 1,102 Firestone Firehawk Wide Oval AS size 245/40R19 and 245/35R20 brand tires...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at the tire cord... affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds per ton) of fabric... exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of total coatings used at the tire cord...

  14. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  15. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  16. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submitted pursuant to 49 CFR 573.10(a) (sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires); (ii) The name... noncompliant tires. 573.10 Section 573.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... AND NONCOMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITY AND REPORTS § 573.10 Reporting the sale or lease of defective...

  17. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges of...

  18. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges of...

  19. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges of...

  20. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standard tire. Groove means the space between two adjacent tread ribs. Innerliner means the layer(s... listing for a tire must include dimensional specifications and a diagram of the rim and must be in one of... dimensional specifications or a diagram of a rim whose dimensional specifications and diagram are contained...

  1. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter E; Nybroe, Ole; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed

    2014-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu speciation and bioavailability artifacts during Leu-PICT detection. Hence, the agricultural application of urban wastes (sewage sludge or composted municipal waste) simulating more than 100 years of use did not result in sufficient accumulation of Cu to select for Cu resistance. Our findings also have implications for previously published PICT field studies and demonstrate that stringent PICT detection criteria are needed for field identification of specific toxicants.

  2. Growing with wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1995-05-01

    When officials at Regional Waste Services (Peabody, Mass.) were looking for an outlet for their used wood products in the late 1980s, they had no idea that the material would eventually turn into a whole new market for them. Simply tired of paying exorbitant disposal fees and seeking out obscure landfills willing to accept the waste, company officials decided to build and operate their own 1,000-tpd wood recycling facility. Encouraged by the immediate success of the facility, principals at Regional Waste Services, which at the time was the fifth largest independent waste hauling, transfer, and disposal firm in the US made a strategic business decision to sell their waste hauling business and to concentrate on the wood recycling operation full time. Their newly named company, Wood Recycling, Inc. (WRI, Peabody, Mass.), was officially established in July 1990. Today, nearly five years later, that decision appears to be paying off in a big way. WRI has successfully diverted thousands of tons of urban wood wastes from landfills. It also has turned that waste into an innovative line of recycled wood and paper fiber mulch lawn care products that are being marketed to consumers and commercial entities across the country.

  3. Cardiopulmonary responses of intratracheally instilled tire particles and constituent metal components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gottipolu, R.R.; Landa, E.R.; Schladweiler, M.C.; McGee, J.K.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Richards, J.H.; Wallenborn, G.J.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2008-01-01

    Tire and brake wear particles contain transition metals, and contribute to near-road PM. We hypothesized that acute cardiopulmonary injury from respirable tire particles (TP) will depend on the amount of soluble metals. Respirable fractions of two types of TP (TP1 and TP2) were analyzed for water and acid-leachable metals using ICP-AES. Both TP types contained a variety of transition metals, including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), aluminum, and iron. Zn and Cu were detected at high levels in water-soluble fractions (TP2 > TP1). Male Wistar Kyoto rats (12-14 wk) were intratracheally instilled, in the first study, with saline, TP1 or TP2 (5 mg/kg), and in the second study, with soluble Zn, Cu (0.5 ??mol/kg), or both. Pulmonary toxicity and cardiac mitochondrial enzymes were analyzed 1 d, 1 wk, or 4 wk later for TP and 4 or 24 h later for metals. Increases in lavage fluid markers of inflammation and injury were observed at d 1 (TP2 > TP1), but these changes reversed by wk 1. No effects on cardiac enzymes were noted with either TP. Exposure of rats to soluble Zn and Cu caused marked pulmonary inflammation and injury but temporal differences were apparent (Cu effects peaked at 4 h and Zn at 24 h). Instillation of Zn, Cu, and Zn+ Cu decreased the activity of cardiac aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome-c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase suggesting mitochondrial oxidative stress. The observed acute pulmonary toxicity of TP could be due to the presence of water soluble Zn and Cu. At high concentrations these metals may induce cardiac oxidative stress. Copyright ?? Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  4. Graphic products used in the evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected superfund hazardous waste sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the overhead imagery and field sampling results used to prepare U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1050, 'Evaluation of Traditional and Emerging Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites'. These graphic products were used in the evaluation of remote sensing technology in postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites and represent an ongoing research effort. Soil sampling results presented here were accomplished with field portable x-ray fluoresence (XRF) technology and are used as screening tools only representing the current conditions of metals and other contaminants at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites.

  5. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  6. Simulation research of the tire Basic Relaxation Model in conditions of the wheel cornering angle oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luty, W.

    2016-09-01

    - A description of the tire Basic Relaxation Model (BRM) is presented in this paper. Simulation research of the tire BRM model in conditions of oscillatory changes of the wheel cornering angle were performed. During the simulation tests the courses of changes in the value of lateral reaction force, transmitted by the wheel, as a response to the sinusoidal changes in the value of the wheel cornering angle have been presented. There have been compared the simulation results obtained for the model of tire-road interaction in two modes: including and not including the BRM. The simulation results allowed to verify prepared BRM and also to determine the influence of the tire relaxation process on the tire behavior in conditions of dynamic changes of the wheel cornering angle.

  7. Removal of polychlorinated phenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.S.; Yoo, K.S.; Park, J.K.

    1999-05-01

    Scrap vehicle tire chips were used as packing material for sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors to remove persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Adsorption capacity of scrap tires was greater under acidic conditions than under basic conditions. However, it was only approximately 0.04 to 0.3% of that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of scrap tires was 3.16 and 3.72 mg volatile suspended solids/cm{sup 2} after 14 and 37 days, respectively. Two laboratory-scale, down-flow anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips were operated to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP). More than 98% of DCP was dehalogenated to CP in the anaerobic reactor, 70 to 98% of which was subsequently degraded in the aerobic reactor. Scrap tires did not cause any operational problems when used as biofilter media.

  8. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae.

    PubMed

    Camponelli, Kimberly M; Casey, Ryan E; Snodgrass, Joel W; Lev, Steven M; Landa, Edward R

    2009-02-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg(-1)) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. PMID:18995883

  9. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Possibilities of detecting health effects by studies of populations exposed to chemicals from waste disposal sites.

    PubMed Central

    Buffler, P A; Crane, M; Key, M M

    1985-01-01

    Factors affecting the design of an epidemiologic study assessing possible health effects from chemical waste disposal sites are reviewed. Such epidemiologic studies will most likely be prompted either by a known release of chemicals into the environment around the site, or by an unusual disease cluster in a population near the site. In the latter situation, a method for evaluating the health effects is needed, and one possible approach is discussed. In the former situation, it may not be obvious what health outcomes are relevant. Reported associations between health effects and chemicals in humans were reviewed. Studies from the occupational and environmental literature were classified by chemical and target organ affected and presented in tabular form. No attempt was made to critically evaluate the quality of evidence for each health effect, although bibliographic documentation was provided where possible. Episodes of chemical contamination of food, drinking water and other media were also reviewed and presented in a separate table. The organ sites likely to be affected by toxic chemicals from waste disposal sites depend heavily on the route of exposure and the dose that is received. Ingestion is the most frequently reported route of exposure in episodes of environmental contamination. These have affected the hepatic, renal, hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous systems. The type and severity of effects were dose-dependent. Direct skin contact is important in the occupational environment where dermal and central nervous system effects have been reported but seems less likely as a route of exposure for populations around waste disposal sites. Inhalation, unless at relative high concentrations or as a result of fire, is unlikely to be important, although hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous system effects have been reported in occupational studies. PMID:3910420

  11. Definition of Tire Properties Required for Landing System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Luchini, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The data bank constructed provided two basic advantages for the user of aircraft tire information. First, computerization of the data bank allowed mechanical property data to be stored, corrected, updated, and revised quickly and easily as more reliable tests and measurements were carried out. Secondly, the format of the book which can be printed from the computerized data bank can be easily adjusted to suit the needs of the users without the great expense normally associated with reprinting and editing books set by ordinary typography.

  12. Recent studies of tire braking performance. [for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results from recent studies of some factors affecting tire braking and cornering performance are presented together with a discussion of the possible application of these results to the design of aircraft braking systems. The first part of the paper is concerned with steady-state braking, that is, results from tests conducted at a constant slip ratio or steering angle or both. The second part deals with cyclic braking tests, both single cycle, where brakes are applied at a constant rate until wheel lockup is achieved, and rapid cycling of the brakes under control of a currently operational antiskid system.

  13. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  16. Detection of Septic System Waste in the Groundwaters of Southern California Using Emerging Contaminants and Isotopic Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Conkle, J.; Sickman, J. O.; Lucero, D.; Pang, F.; Gan, J.

    2011-12-01

    In California, groundwater supplies 30-40% of the State's water and in rapidly growing regions like the Inland Empire, groundwater makes up 80-90% of the municipal water supply. However, anthropogenic contamination could adversely affect groundwater quality and thereby reduce available supplies. Appropriate tracers are needed to identify groundwater contamination and protect human health. Stable isotopes δ15N and δ 18O offer unique information about the importance of nitrate sources and processes affecting nitrate in aquifers. We investigated the influence of septic systems on groundwater quality in and around the city of Beaumont, CA during 2010-11. Groundwater samples were collected from 38 active wells and 10 surface water sites in the region (urban and natural streams, agricultural drainage and groundwater recharge basins supplied by the California State Water Project). Stable isotopes and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed for all the water samples. The variations of δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate were 2 - 21 per mil and -4 - 9 per mil respectively. δ15N-NO3 values greater than 10 per mil have been associated with nitrate inputs from sewage and animal waste, but in the Beaumont wells, PPCP concentrations were at or below the detection limit in most wells with high isotope ratios. We also observed a strong linear relationship between δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate (slope of~ 0.5) in the vast majority of our samples including those with high isotope ratios. Our results suggest that denitrification was widespread in the Beaumont aquifer and strongly affected the isotope composition of nitrate. In some wells, PPCPs (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, primidone, meprobamate and diuron) and isotope measurements indicated inputs from human waste, but these sites were affected primarily by local waste-water treatment plant effluent. A mixing model was developed using multiple tracers to determine sources and contributions of groundwater

  17. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  18. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  19. Fate and effect of tire rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Moghaddasi, Sahar; Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir; Karimzadeh, Fatholah; Chaney, Rufus

    2015-05-01

    There are growing interests on effects of nano-materials on living organisms including higher plants. No report is available on positive and negative effects of rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) on edible plants. Recently, we reported the possibility of using waste tire rubber and rubber ash as zinc (Zn) fertilizer for plants. In this nutrient solution culture study, for the first time, root uptake and the effects of RANPs on growth and Zn, cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) concentration in cucumber was investigated. Various Zn levels (0, 1, 5, 25, 125mgL(-1)) were applied in the form of RANPs or ZnSO4. The root RANPs uptake was visualized by light (LA), scanning electron (SEM), and transmission electron microcopies (TEM). At all Zn levels, cucumber plants supplied with RANPs produced higher shoot and root biomass compared with those supplied with ZnSO4. In addition, the RANPs resulted in higher accumulation of Zn in cucumber tissues in comparison with ZnSO4; although phytotoxicity of Zn from ZnSO4 was greater than that from RANPs. Clear evidence of the RANPs penetration into the root cells was obtained by using SEM and TEM. Filaments of RANPs were also observed at the end of roots by LM and TEM. Further research is needed to clarify the fate of the RANPs in plant cells and their possible risks for food chain.

  20. Friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type 7, aircraft tires constructed with different tread rubber compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Yager, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to evaluate the friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type, aircraft tires constructed with experimental cut-resistant, tread rubber compounds. These compounds consisted of different blends of natural rubber (NR) and an alfin catalyzed styrene-butadiene copolymer rubber (SBR). One tire having a blend of 30 SBR and 70 NR and another having a blend of 60 SBR and 40 NR in the tread were tested together with a standard production tire with no SBR content in the tread rubber. The results of this investigation indicated that the test tires constructed with the special cut-resistant tread rubber compositions did not suffer any significant degradation in tire friction capability when compared with the standard tire. In general, tire friction capability decreased with increasing speed and surface wetness condition. As yaw angle increased, tire braking capability decreased while tire cornering capability increased. Tread-wear data based on number of brake cycles, however, suggested that the tires with alfin SBR blends experienced significantly greater wear than the standard production tire.

  1. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  2. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    PubMed

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.

  3. An evaluation of remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted to assess the potential for using both traditional remote sensing, such as aerial imagery, and emerging remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imaging, as tools for postclosure monitoring of selected hazardous waste sites. Sixteen deleted Superfund (SF) National Priorities List (NPL) sites in Pennsylvania were imaged with a Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Airborne Real-Time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) sensor between 2009 and 2012. Deleted sites are those sites that have been remediated and removed from the NPL. The imagery was processed to radiance and atmospherically corrected to relative reflectance with standard software routines using the Environment for Visualizing Imagery (ENVI, ITT–VIS, Boulder, Colorado) software. Standard routines for anomaly detection, endmember collection, vegetation stress, and spectral analysis were applied.

  4. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  5. Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

    2006-04-01

    Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution

  6. Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

    2006-04-01

    Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution

  7. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  8. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    PubMed

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted <2% of the sum of the 15 analyzed HMW PAHs. These findings show that automobile tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  9. Advantage of SBR/carbon black masterbatch for tire tread application

    SciTech Connect

    Sone, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Akimoto, H.; Ishida, M.

    1992-04-01

    The performance required of tire tread is becoming more severe and more various year by year, as social demands on tires have been changing. To improve wear resistance, driving safety and good drive feeling, new HP tires (high performance passenger car tires) are developed intensively. In addition, good fuel efficiency is required to satisfy the CAFE rule, which was proposed for a better global environment. To support this movement of the tire industry, material suppliers are making an effort to supply better materials. Mitsubishi Kasei has been improving the quality and production process of WMB, a SBR/carbon black master-batch produced by co-coagulation of SBR latex, carbon black and extender oil under the wet dispersion process. Compared to the tire tread made from dry-mixing compounds, that made from the WMB shows the following characteristics: (1) the abrasion resistance and the durability are higher; (2) from the viscoelastic properties, skid performance and driving stability are expected to be improved. These characteristics are remarkable when WMB is compounded in the recipes for HP and racing tires using fine carbon black. In this article, these features of WMB are studied from the view point of carbon black dispersion and polymer-carbon black interaction. Furthermore, the changes of carbon black structure during abrasion and fatigue process are analyzed and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

  10. Stress investigation on the rolling tires across the speed bump using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Royan; Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between road surface and tire on a vehicle may strongly determine the vehicle's stability. This study was conducted to find out the stress distribution as a result of pressure on the tires rolling across the speed bumps. This study used Abaqus software to simulate the movement of the tire, which rolls across the speed bump to determine the stress distribution that may occur. The tire component material used was a full path rubber on a speed bump. For the boundary conditions of the study, it was assumed that the tires had load variations as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN, as well as pressure variations as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi. The tires were then rolled 8 km/h crossing the speed bump. Modeling speed bumps also varied i.e. the first variation of speed bumps that have a height of 50 mm with a width of 250 mm, the second variation of height 75 mm with a width of 300 mm, and a third variation of height 100 mm with a width of 400 mm. The simulation was done by giving the tire pressures as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi and loads as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN. Further, the tires were rolled three times. It was rolled crossing the first speed bump, the second, and the third, respectively. Results showed stress distribution's fig and graphs. From the analysis results and simulation, it was shown that the greater the load received by the tires, the higher stress they produced.

  11. Interaction of In-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor with tire dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyou; Li, Jianqiu; Wei, Yintao; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao

    2015-05-01

    Drive wheel systems combined with the in-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor (I-PMSM) and the tire are highly electromechanical-coupled. However, the deformation dynamics of this system, which may influence the system performance, is neglected in most existing literatures. For this reason, a deformable tire and a detailed I-PMSM are modeled using Matlab/Simulink. Furthermore, the influence of tire/road contact interface is accurately described by the non-linear relaxation length-based model and magic formula pragmatic model. The drive wheel model used in this paper is closer to that of a real tire in contrast to the rigid tire model which is widely used. Based on the near-precise model mentioned above, the sensitivity of the dynamic tire and I-PMSM parameters to the relative error of slip ratio estimation is analyzed. Additionally, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations of the drive wheel are presented both in time and frequency domains when a quarter vehicle is started under conditions of a specific torque curve, which includes an abrupt torque change from 30 N · m to 200 N · m. The parameters sensitivity on drive wheel vibrations is also studied, and the parameters include the mass distribution ratio of tire, the tire torsional stiffness, the tire damping coefficient, and the hysteresis band of the PMSM current control algorithm. Finally, different target torque curves are compared in the simulation, which shows that the estimation error of the slip ratio gets violent, and the longitudinal force includes more fluctuation components with the increasing change rate of the torque. This paper analyzes the influence of the drive wheel deformation on the vehicle dynamic control, and provides useful information regarding the electric vehicle traction control.

  12. Correlations of Different Surface Tests: Tire Behavior Math Model for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Michelin Tire Properties Tests for Boeing 777

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Ivan

    1995-01-01

    In the surfaces correlation study, several different volumetric and drainage measurement techniques for classifying surface texture were evaluated as part of a major study to develop and improve methods for predicting tire friction performance on all types of pavement. The objective of the evaluation was to seek relationships between the different techniques, and to relate those results to surface frictional characteristics. We needed to know how each of the tests could be related to each other. Another of my assigned projects was to make a tire behavior math model for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) using the same methods used for the space shuttle a few years ago. A provided third order equation with two variables was used. This model will also be used for studies with the Boeing 777. Only a few changes will be necessary to adapt it for this other aircraft, which is the newest offered by Boeing. In my final project I was involved with testing the tires for this new aircraft using the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) test carriage within the carriage house at LaRC. A 50 inch diameter radial tire manufactured by Michelin Aircraft Tire Corporation had to be tested to double overload of 114,000 pounds. The rated load of each tire is 57,000 pounds, but Boeing required tests assuming failure of a companion tire that could have cost Michelin approximately $12 million to build a facility to provide the required test capability. Here at LaRC, only minimum modifications to the facility were required to perform this specific test.

  13. Reduced basis technique for evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the nonlinear tire response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1992-01-01

    An efficient reduced-basis technique is proposed for calculating the sensitivity of nonlinear tire response to variations in the design variables. The tire is modeled using a 2-D, moderate rotation, laminated anisotropic shell theory, including the effects of variation in material and geometric parameters. The vector of structural response and its first-order and second-order sensitivity coefficients are each expressed as a linear combination of a small number of basis vectors. The effectiveness of the basis vectors used in approximating the sensitivity coefficients is demonstrated by a numerical example involving the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire, which is subjected to uniform inflation pressure.

  14. Test burning of tire-derived fuel in solid fuel combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    This study was commissioned to determine the overall viability of utilizing scrap tire chips, known as tire-derived fuel (TDF), as a supplemental fuel in conventional coal-fired boilers. The study involved actual tests at Monsanto Company`s W.G. Krummrich Plant in Sauget, Illinois, as well as general extrapolations as to the feasibility of using TDF at other sites. This report will show that TDF can be an excellent supplemental fuel supply, providing a cost-effective fuel source while helping to alleviate the dilemma of scrap tire disposal.

  15. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Chanthy, Lay Nitivattananon, Vilas

    2011-04-15

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  16. Induction of microsomal cytochrome P450s by tire-leachate compounds, habitat components of Aedes albopictus mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Suwanchaichinda, Chansak; Brattsten, Lena B

    2002-02-01

    Benzothiazole (BZT) and its derivatives are the major leachate compounds of automobile tires, the principal breeding habitat of Aedes albopictus, particularly in the United States. Effects of the compounds on insecticide toxicity, and activities and expression of microsomal cytochrome P450s (P450s) in the mosquito larvae were examined. Mosquito larvae were more tolerant to carbaryl, rotenone, and temephos when they were pre-exposed to tire-leachate compounds, particularly BZT. There was no change in toxicity from the aldrin treatment by BZT. The effect of BZT was reversed when a P450 inhibitor, piperonyl butoxide, was applied in admixture with the insecticides. Microsomes from BZT-treated larvae had increased peroxidation activity of tetramethylbenzidine. This correlated with increased intensity of SDS-PAGE protein bands corresponding to molecular weights of 59 and 62 kD, which were detected as heme-containing proteins, a characteristic of P450s. The results suggest that BZT induces P450s, which detoxify insecticides and thus cause insecticide tolerance in the mosquito larvae. Arch.

  17. Co-processing of agricultural and biomass waste with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, Ji-Perng

    1995-12-31

    A major thrust of our research program is the use of waste materials as co-liquefaction agents for the first-stage conversion of coal to liquid fuels. By fulfilling one or more of the roles of an expensive solvent in the direct coal liquefaction (DCL) process, the waste material is disposed off ex-landfill, and may improve the overall economics of DCL. Work in our group has concentrated on co-liquefaction with waste rubber tires, some results from which are presented elsewhere in these Preprints. In this paper, we report on preliminary results with agricultural and biomass-type waste as co-liquefaction agents.

  18. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  19. Are you tired? Overcoming leadership styles that create leader fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2013-01-01

    Part of the culture of nursing is convincing everyone you are perpetually overworked and overwhelmed. The leadership style the leader chooses will determine whether he or she will be energized or overwhelmed. When the leader is unable and unwilling to surround him or herself with people who are more knowledgeable and astute, the level of stress and worry becomes unbearable. Relationships thrive when a structure is present. Your staff will be energized and empowered, and will reach incredible levels of productivity and the highest level of achievement possible. Doing "nothing" allows your staff to grow as people and as a team, and you will be free to do the work of the leader, and not be tired. PMID:23923244

  20. Energy saving tire with silica-rich tread

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Schaefer, R. J.

    1985-05-28

    A pneumatic radial tire is provided with a tread having from 1 part by weight of hydrated amorphous fine-particle silica per 3 parts of carbon black tread reinforcing filler, to about 3 parts by weight of the silica to 1 part of the carbon black. The amount of silica present is preferably in the range from about 18 parts to about 50 parts by weight per 100 parts of natural or synthetic rubber. When such a tread is compounded with a mercaptosilane in which the mercapto group is reversibly blocked, the tread provides reduced rolling resistance without loss of traction. Such reduction in rolling resistance without loss of traction is not observed when the silica is not coupled with the mercaptosilane coupling agent.