Science.gov

Sample records for detecting early response

  1. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Simberloff, Daniel; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  2. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  3. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  4. In vivo chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging allows early detection of a therapeutic response in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sagiyama, Koji; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Togao, Osamu; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Maher, Elizabeth A; Mickey, Bruce E; Pan, Edward; Sherry, A Dean; Bachoo, Robert M; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-03-25

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which account for more than 50% of all gliomas, is among the deadliest of all human cancers. Given the dismal prognosis of GBM, it would be advantageous to identify early biomarkers of a response to therapy to avoid continuing ineffective treatments and to initiate other therapeutic strategies. The present in vivo longitudinal study in an orthotopic mouse model demonstrates quantitative assessment of early treatment response during short-term chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) by amide proton transfer (APT) imaging. In a GBM line, only one course of TMZ (3 d exposure and 4 d rest) at a dose of 80 mg/kg resulted in substantial reduction in APT signal compared with untreated control animals, in which the APT signal continued to increase. Although there were no detectable differences in tumor volume, cell density, or apoptosis rate between groups, levels of Ki67 (index of cell proliferation) were substantially reduced in treated tumors. In another TMZ-resistant GBM line, the APT signal and levels of Ki67 increased despite the same course of TMZ treatment. As metabolite changes are known to occur early in the time course of chemotherapy and precede morphologic changes, these results suggest that the APT signal in glioma may be a useful functional biomarker of treatment response or degree of tumor progression. Thus, APT imaging may serve as a sensitive biomarker of early treatment response and could potentially replace invasive biopsies to provide a definitive diagnosis. This would have a major impact on the clinical management of patients with glioma.

  5. Using a novel spatial tool to inform invasive species early detection and rapid response efforts.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Alisha D; Fusaro, Abigail J; Kashian, Donna R

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  6. Using a Novel Spatial Tool to Inform Invasive Species Early Detection and Rapid Response Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Fusaro, Abigail J.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  7. Early detection of disease program: Evaluation of the cellular immune response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, B. S.; Knight, V.; Martin, R. R.; Kasel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The early cellular responses of specific components of the leukocyte and epithelial cell populations to foreign challenges of both an infectious and noninfectious character were evaluated. Procedures for screening potential flight crews were developed, documented, and tested on a control population. Methods for preparing suitable populations of lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and epithelial cells were first established and evaluated. Epithelial cells from viral infected individuals were screened with a number of anti-viral antisera. This procedure showed the earliest indication of disease as well as providing a specific diagnosis to the physicians. Both macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied from normal individuals, smokers, and patients with viral infections. Newer techniques enabling better definition of lymphocyte subpopulations were then developed, namely the E and EAC rosette procedures for recognition of T (thymus-derived) and B (bone-marrow-derived) lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocyte and lymphocyte subpopulation response to multiple mitogens have been evaluated.

  8. Detection of Early Tumor Response to Axitinib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lo, Glen M; Al Zahrani, Hassan; Jang, Hyun Jung; Menezes, Ravi; Hudson, John; Burns, Peter; McNamara, Mairéad G; Kandel, Sonja; Khalili, Korosh; Knox, Jennifer; Rogalla, Patrik; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) in measuring early tumor response of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma to axitinib. Twenty patients were enrolled (aged 18-78 y; median 65). DCE-US was performed with bolus injection and infusion/disruption replenishment. Median overall survival was 7.1 mo (1.8-27.3) and progression free survival was 3.6 mo (1.8-17.4). Fifteen patients completed infusion scans and 12 completed bolus scans at 2 wk. Among the perfusion parameters, fractional blood volume at infusion (INFBV) decreased at 2 wk in 10/15 (16%-81% of baseline, mean 47%) and increased in 5/15 (116%-535%, mean 220%). This was not significantly associated with progression free survival (p = 0.310) or progression at 16 wk (p = 0.849), but was borderline statistically significant (p = 0.050) with overall survival, limited by a small sample size. DCE-US is potentially useful in measuring early tumor response of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma to axitinib, but a larger trial is needed.

  9. A review of UHMWPE wear-induced osteolysis: the role for early detection of the immune response

    PubMed Central

    Kandahari, Adrese M; Yang, Xinlin; Laroche, Kevin A; Dighe, Abhijit S; Pan, Dongfeng; Cui, Quanjun

    2016-01-01

    In a world where increasing joint arthroplasties are being performed on increasingly younger patients, osteolysis as the leading cause of failure after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has gained considerable attention. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear-induced osteolysis is the process by which prosthetic debris mechanically released from the surface of prosthetic joints induces an immune response that favors bone catabolism, resulting in loosening of prostheses with eventual failure or fracture. The immune response initiated is innate in that it is nonspecific and self-propagating, with monocytic cells and osteoclasts being the main effectors. To date, detecting disease early enough to implement effective intervention without unwanted systemic side effects has been a major barrier. These barriers can be overcome using newer in vivo imaging techniques and modules linked with fluorescence and/or chemotherapies. We discuss the pathogenesis of osteolysis, and provide discussion of the challenges with imaging and therapeutics. We describe a positron emission tomography imaging cinnamoyl-Phe-(D)-Leu-Phe-(D)-Leu-Phe-Lys module, specific to macrophages, which holds promise in early detection of disease and localization of treatment. Further research and increased collaboration among therapeutic and three-dimensional imaging researchers are essential in realizing a solution to clinical osteolysis in TJA. PMID:27468360

  10. Plant Responses to Brief Touching: A Mechanism for Early Neighbour Detection?

    PubMed

    Markovic, Dimitrije; Nikolic, Neda; Glinwood, Robert; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2016-01-01

    In natural habitats plants can be exposed to brief and light contact with neighbouring plants. This mechanical stimulus may represent a cue that induces responses to nearby plants. However, little is known about the effect of touching on plant growth and interaction with insect herbivores. To simulate contact between plants, a soft brush was used to apply light and brief mechanical stimuli to terminal leaves of potato Solanum tuberosum L. The number of non-glandular trichomes on the leaf surface was counted on images made by light microscope while glandular trichomes and pavement cells were counted on images made under scanning electronic microscope. Volatile compounds were identified and quantified using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Treated plants changed their pattern of biomass distribution; they had lower stem mass fraction and higher branch and leaf mass fraction than untouched plants. Size, weight and number of tubers were not significantly affected. Touching did not cause trichome damage nor change their total number on touched terminal leaves. However, on primary leaves the number of glandular trichomes and pavement cells was significantly increased. Touching altered the volatile emission of treated plants; they released higher quantities of the sesquiterpenes (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D-4-ol and (E)-nerolidol, and lower quantities of the terpenes (E)-ocimene and linalool, indicating a systemic effect of the treatment. The odour of touched plants was significantly less preferred by the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae compared to odour of untouched plants. The results suggest that light contact may have a potential role in the detection of neighbouring plants and may affect plant-insect interactions.

  11. Plant Responses to Brief Touching: A Mechanism for Early Neighbour Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Dimitrije; Nikolic, Neda; Glinwood, Robert; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2016-01-01

    In natural habitats plants can be exposed to brief and light contact with neighbouring plants. This mechanical stimulus may represent a cue that induces responses to nearby plants. However, little is known about the effect of touching on plant growth and interaction with insect herbivores. To simulate contact between plants, a soft brush was used to apply light and brief mechanical stimuli to terminal leaves of potato Solanum tuberosum L. The number of non-glandular trichomes on the leaf surface was counted on images made by light microscope while glandular trichomes and pavement cells were counted on images made under scanning electronic microscope. Volatile compounds were identified and quantified using coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Treated plants changed their pattern of biomass distribution; they had lower stem mass fraction and higher branch and leaf mass fraction than untouched plants. Size, weight and number of tubers were not significantly affected. Touching did not cause trichome damage nor change their total number on touched terminal leaves. However, on primary leaves the number of glandular trichomes and pavement cells was significantly increased. Touching altered the volatile emission of treated plants; they released higher quantities of the sesquiterpenes (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D-4-ol and (E)-nerolidol, and lower quantities of the terpenes (E)-ocimene and linalool, indicating a systemic effect of the treatment. The odour of touched plants was significantly less preferred by the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae compared to odour of untouched plants. The results suggest that light contact may have a potential role in the detection of neighbouring plants and may affect plant-insect interactions. PMID:27828995

  12. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  13. Photoacoustic Imaging of Cancer Treatment Response: Early Detection of Therapeutic Effect from Thermosensitive Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging methods capable of indicating the potential for success of an individualized treatment course, during or immediately following the treatment, could improve therapeutic outcomes. Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSLs) provide an effective way to deliver chemotherapeutics to a localized tumoral area heated to mild-hyperthermia (HT). The high drug levels reached in the tumor vasculature lead to increased tumor regression via the cascade of events during and immediately following treatment. For a TSL carrying doxorubicin (DOX) these include the rapid and intense exposure of endothelial cells to high drug concentrations, hemorrhage, blood coagulation and vascular shutdown. In this study, ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging was used to probe the changes to tumors following treatment with the TSL, HaT-DOX (Heat activated cytoToxic). Levels of oxygen saturation (sO2) were studied in a longitudinal manner, from 30 min pre-treatment to 7 days post-treatment. The efficacious treatments of HT-HaT-DOX were shown to induce a significant drop in sO2 (>10%) as early as 30 min post-treatment that led to tumor regression (in 90% of cases); HT-Saline and non-efficacious HT-HaT-DOX (10% of cases) treatments did not show any significant change in sO2 at these timepoints. The changes in sO2 were further corroborated with histological data, using the vascular and perfusion markers CD31 and FITC-lectin. These results allowed us to further surmise a plausible mechanism of the cellular events taking place in the TSL treated tumor regions over the first 24 hours post-treatment. The potential for using photoacoustic imaging to measure tumor sO2 as a surrogate prognostic marker for predicting therapeutic outcome with a TSL treatment is demonstrated. PMID:27788199

  14. MOLECULAR IMAGING OF THE INITIAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY DETECTION OF DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Beat A.; Carr, Chad L.; Belcik, J. Todd; Xie, Aris; Yue, Qi; Chadderdon, Scott; Caplan, Evan S.; Khangura, Jaspreet; Bullens, Sherry; Bunting, Stuart; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that molecular imaging of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression could non-invasively evaluate pre-lesion pro-atherogenic phenotype. Methods Mice deficient for the LDL-receptor and the Apobec-1 editing peptide (DKO mice) were studied as an age-dependent model of atherosclerosis. At 10, 20, and 40 weeks of age, ultrasound molecular imaging of the proximal thoracic aorta was performed with contrast agents targeted to P-selectin and VCAM-1. Atherosclerotic lesion severity and content were assessed by ultra-high frequency ultrasound, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Results In wild-type mice at all ages, there was neither aortic thickening nor targeted tracer signal enhancement. In DKO mice, lesions progressed from sparse mild intimal thickening at 10 weeks to widespread severe lesions with luminal encroachment at 40 weeks. Molecular imaging for P-selectin and VCAM-1 demonstrated selective signal enhancement (p<0.01 vs. non-targeted agent) at all ages for DKO mice. P-selectin and VCAM-1 signal in DKO mice were greater by 3-fold at 10 wks, 4–6-fold at 20 wks, and 9–10-fold at 40 weeks compared to wild-type mice. En face microscopy demonstrated preferential attachment of targeted microbubbles to regions of lesion formation. Conclusions Non-invasive ultrasound molecular imaging of endothelial activation can detect lesion-prone vascular phenotype before the appearance of obstructive atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:19834105

  15. From Data to Knowledge — Faster: GOES Early Fire Detection System to Inform Operational Wildfire Response and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltunov, A.; Quayle, B.; Prins, E. M.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fire managers at various levels require near-real-time, low-cost, systematic, and reliable early detection capabilities with minimal latency to effectively respond to wildfire ignitions and minimize the risk of catastrophic development. The GOES satellite images collected for vast territories at high temporal frequencies provide a consistent and reliable source for operational active fire mapping realized by the WF-ABBA algorithm. However, their potential to provide early warning or rapid confirmation of initial fire ignition reports from conventional sources remains underutilized, partly because the operational wildfire detection has been successfully optimized for users and applications for which timeliness of initial detection is a low priority, contrasting to the needs of first responders. We present our progress in developing the GOES Early Fire Detection (GOES-EFD) system, a collaborative effort led by University of California-Davis and USDA Forest Service. The GOES-EFD specifically focuses on first detection timeliness for wildfire incidents. It is automatically trained for a monitored scene and capitalizes on multiyear cross-disciplinary algorithm research. Initial retrospective tests in Western US demonstrate significantly earlier identification detection of new ignitions than existing operational capabilities and a further improvement prospect. The GOES-EFD-β prototype will be initially deployed for the Western US region to process imagery from GOES-NOP and the rapid and 4 times higher spatial resolution imagery from GOES-R — the upcoming next generation of GOES satellites. These and other enhanced capabilities of GOES-R are expected to significantly improve the timeliness of fire ignition information from GOES-EFD.

  16. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  17. DCE-MRI Detects Early Vascular Response in Breast Tumor Xenografts Following Anti-DR5 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunki; Folks, Karri D.; Guo, Lingling; Stockard, Cecil R.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Grizzle, William E.; George, James F.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Morgan, Desiree E.; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) measured the early vascular changes after administration of TRA-8, bevacizumab, or TRA-8 combined with bevacizumab in breast tumor xenografts. Procedures Groups 1–4 of nude mice bearing human breast carcinoma were injected with phosphate-buffered saline, TRA-8, bevacizumab, and TRA-8 + bevacizumab on day0, respectively. DCE-MRI was performed on days0, 1, 2, and 3, and thereafter tumors were collected for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUT nick end labeling and CD31 staining. Results DCE-MRI measured a significant Ktrans change within 3 days after TRA-8 therapy that correlated with tumor growth arrest, whichwas not shown with statistical significance by histopathology at these early time points posttreatment. The Ktrans changes followed quadratic polynomial curves. Conclusion DCE-MRI detected significantly lower Ktrans levels in breast tumor xenografts following TRA-8 monotherapy or combined therapy with bevacizumab. PMID:20383593

  18. Non-invasive Presymptomatic Detection of Cercospora beticola Infection and Identification of Early Metabolic Responses in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Nadja; Backhaus, Andreas; Döll, Stefanie; Fischer, Sandra; Seiffert, Udo; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cercospora beticola is an economically significant fungal pathogen of sugar beet, and is the causative pathogen of Cercospora leaf spot. Selected host genotypes with contrasting degree of susceptibility to the disease have been exploited to characterize the patterns of metabolite responses to fungal infection, and to devise a pre-symptomatic, non-invasive method of detecting the presence of the pathogen. Sugar beet genotypes were analyzed for metabolite profiles and hyperspectral signatures. Correlation of data matrices from both approaches facilitated identification of candidates for metabolic markers. Hyperspectral imaging was highly predictive with a classification accuracy of 98.5–99.9% in detecting C. beticola. Metabolite analysis revealed metabolites altered by the host as part of a successful defense response: these were L-DOPA, 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-β-D-glucoside, pantothenic acid, and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid. The accumulation of glucosylvitexin in the resistant cultivar suggests it acts as a constitutively produced protectant. The study establishes a proof-of-concept for an unbiased, presymptomatic and non-invasive detection system for the presence of C. beticola. The test needs to be validated with a larger set of genotypes, to be scalable to the level of a crop improvement program, aiming to speed up the selection for resistant cultivars of sugar beet. Untargeted metabolic profiling is a valuable tool to identify metabolites which correlate with hyperspectral data. PMID:27713750

  19. Early detection of tubular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1991-11-01

    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.

  20. Early detection and response to meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: appraisal of the WHO strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Leake, J. A. D.; Kone, M. L.; Yada, A. A.; Barry, L. F.; Traore, G.; Ware, A.; Coulibaly, T.; Berthe, A.; Mambu Ma Disu, H.; Rosenstein, N. E.; Plikaytis, B. D.; Esteves, K.; Kawamata, J.; Wenger, J. D.; Heymann, D. L.; Perkins, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    were followed in a timely manner. CONCLUSION: The use of the WHO strategy was sensitive and specific for the early detection of meningococcal disease epidemics in countries of sub-Saharan Africa during 1997 and had a substantial impact on a district epidemic. Nevertheless, the burden of meningococcal disease in these countries remains formidable and additional control measures are needed. PMID:12077608

  1. Early detection of materials degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  2. Early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  3. Early detection of cataract and response to pantethine therapy with non-invasive static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Seeberger, Teri; Clark, John I.

    2003-07-01

    Cataractogenesis is a risk factor for space travelers. Here on earth, half of all blindness is due to cataracts. At this time, the only known treatment is surgical removal of the lens. In this paper, we present static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements of early onset of cataract before it has any effect on vision and to test the effectiveness of pantethine as an anticataract agent in reversing cataracts. In this preliminary study, experiments were conducted on 12 rodents. Static measurements were performed by scanning the animal eye (cornea to retina) at a laser power of 80 microwatts to collect photons or scattered intensity in steps of 10 microns. The rodents studied were control, selenite injected, and selenite plus pantethine injected. Selenite was used to induce cataracts. Static and dynamic changes (increase in light scatter and crystalline size) in the lenses are quantitatively measured as early as 1 day post selenite injections. Scattering intensity and DLS measurements from lenses of animals administered pantethine resembled controls. These subtle molecular changes are not noticeable when the animals are examined with conventional ophthalmic instruments because their lenses remain transparent. Acknowledgements: Technical support from C.Ganders, University of Washington, Seattle, NEI research grant EY04542 (JIC) and support under a NASA-NEI/NIH interagency agreement (RRA) are greatly appreciated. JFK works for QSS Inc. at NASA GRC.

  4. Early Detection of Therapeutic Response to Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marugami, Nagaaki; Tanaka, Toshihiro Kitano, Satoru; Hirohashi, Shinji; Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Aki; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masaki; Otsuji, Toshio; Takahama, Junko; Higashiura, Wataru; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for early detection of the response of hepatic colorectal metastases to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The subjects were 12 patients with hepatic colorectal metastases. The indwelling catheter for HAIC was placed in the hepatic artery, and 1000 mg/m{sup 2} 5-FU was given repeatedly once a week. DWI was performed before and 9 days after HAIC. The minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (minADC and meanADC) were measured. The relative change in ADC values (%ADC) and the relative change in tumor size on follow-up CT after 3 months (reduction ratio) were determined. Liver metastases were divided into two groups, responder and nonresponder. The correlation between %ADC and reduction ratio was determined, and %ADC was compared between the two groups. Eleven patients successfully completed HAIC over the 3-month period; 48 metastatic lesions were evaluated. Positive correlations were observed for relative change between %minADC and reduction ratio (r = 0.709) and between %meanADC and reduction ratio (r = 0.536). Both %minADC and %meanADC were significantly greater in the responder group than in the nonresponder group. With the threshold determined as < 3.5%, the receiver-operating curve analysis showed higher sensitivity and specificity values for %minADC (100% and 92.6%, respectively) than for %meanADC (66.7% and 74.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the relative change in minimum ADC values on DWI may be useful for early detection of the response of liver metastases to HAIC with 5-FU.

  5. Poliomyelitis in Oman: acute flaccid paralysis surveillance leading to early detection and rapid response to a type 3 outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, S. E.; Suleiman, A. J.; Mehta, F. R.; al-Dhahry, S. H.; el-Bualy, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Countries are increasingly requesting guidance on carrying out acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, aimed at detecting and confirming all cases of acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The experience of Oman provides many lessons in this respect. AFP surveillance in Oman was established systematically. First, an epidemiologist was assigned to coordinate surveillance, and a laboratory for performing polio-virus isolation was identified. Next, operational guidelines for AFP surveillance were developed and widely promoted among health staff. The quality of the system has been monitored for more than 3 years with selected performance indicators. From January 1990 to April 1993, 49 AFP cases were reported, corresponding to an average annual rate of 2.1 AFP cases per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years. A total of 98% of the AFP cases were investigated within 48 hours of being reported; two stool samples were obtained from 94% of the cases. Following complete investigation, nearly a third of the reported AFP cases were classified as being clinically compatible with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Four AFP cases, all reported in 1991, were confirmed to be due to wild type 3 poliovirus. Because AFP surveillance detected these cases rapidly, Oman was able to carry out outbreak control measures promptly and more than 350,000 extra doses of oral poliovirus vaccine were delivered to children under 6 years of age. PMID:7867136

  6. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  7. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI detects early response to adoptive NK cellular immunotherapy targeting the NG2 proteoglycan in a rat model of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rygh, Cecilie Brekke; Wang, Jian; Thuen, Marte; Gras Navarro, Andrea; Huuse, Else Marie; Thorsen, Frits; Poli, Aurelie; Zimmer, Jacques; Haraldseth, Olav; Lie, Stein Atle; Enger, Per Øyvind; Chekenya, Martha

    2014-01-01

    There are currently no established radiological parameters that predict response to immunotherapy. We hypothesised that multiparametric, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of physiological parameters and pharmacokinetic models might detect early biological responses to immunotherapy for glioblastoma targeting NG2/CSPG4 with mAb9.2.27 combined with natural killer (NK) cells. Contrast enhanced conventional T1-weighted MRI at 7±1 and 17±2 days post-treatment failed to detect differences in tumour size between the treatment groups, whereas, follow-up scans at 3 months demonstrated diminished signal intensity and tumour volume in the surviving NK+mAb9.2.27 treated animals. Notably, interstitial volume fraction (ve), was significantly increased in the NK+mAb9.2.27 combination therapy group compared mAb9.2.27 and NK cell monotherapy groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.017 respectively) in cohort 1 animals treated with 1 million NK cells. ve was reproducibly increased in the combination NK+mAb9.2.27 compared to NK cell monotherapy in cohort 2 treated with increased dose of 2 million NK cells (p<0.0001), indicating greater cell death induced by NK+mAb9.2.27 treatment. The interstitial volume fraction in the NK monotherapy group was significantly reduced compared to mAb9.2.27 monotherapy (p<0.0001) and untreated controls (p = 0.014) in the cohort 2 animals. NK cells in monotherapy were unable to kill the U87MG cells that highly expressed class I human leucocyte antigens, and diminished stress ligands for activating receptors. A significant association between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water and ve in combination NK+mAb9.2.27 and NK monotherapy treated tumours was evident, where increased ADC corresponded to reduced ve in both cases. Collectively, these data support histological measures at end-stage demonstrating diminished tumour cell proliferation and pronounced apoptosis in the NK+mAb9.2.27 treated tumours compared to the other groups. In

  8. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI Detects Early Response to Adoptive NK Cellular Immunotherapy Targeting the NG2 Proteoglycan in a Rat Model of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Thuen, Marte; Gras Navarro, Andrea; Huuse, Else Marie; Thorsen, Frits; Poli, Aurelie; Zimmer, Jacques; Haraldseth, Olav; Lie, Stein Atle; Enger, Per Øyvind; Chekenya, Martha

    2014-01-01

    There are currently no established radiological parameters that predict response to immunotherapy. We hypothesised that multiparametric, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of physiological parameters and pharmacokinetic models might detect early biological responses to immunotherapy for glioblastoma targeting NG2/CSPG4 with mAb9.2.27 combined with natural killer (NK) cells. Contrast enhanced conventional T1-weighted MRI at 7±1 and 17±2 days post-treatment failed to detect differences in tumour size between the treatment groups, whereas, follow-up scans at 3 months demonstrated diminished signal intensity and tumour volume in the surviving NK+mAb9.2.27 treated animals. Notably, interstitial volume fraction (ve), was significantly increased in the NK+mAb9.2.27 combination therapy group compared mAb9.2.27 and NK cell monotherapy groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.017 respectively) in cohort 1 animals treated with 1 million NK cells. ve was reproducibly increased in the combination NK+mAb9.2.27 compared to NK cell monotherapy in cohort 2 treated with increased dose of 2 million NK cells (p<0.0001), indicating greater cell death induced by NK+mAb9.2.27 treatment. The interstitial volume fraction in the NK monotherapy group was significantly reduced compared to mAb9.2.27 monotherapy (p<0.0001) and untreated controls (p = 0.014) in the cohort 2 animals. NK cells in monotherapy were unable to kill the U87MG cells that highly expressed class I human leucocyte antigens, and diminished stress ligands for activating receptors. A significant association between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water and ve in combination NK+mAb9.2.27 and NK monotherapy treated tumours was evident, where increased ADC corresponded to reduced ve in both cases. Collectively, these data support histological measures at end-stage demonstrating diminished tumour cell proliferation and pronounced apoptosis in the NK+mAb9.2.27 treated tumours compared to the other groups. In

  9. Early Cancer Detection for Filipino American Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    The research goal is to develop a comprehensive intervention designed to increase early breast and cervical cancer detection among Filipino American...women. This population has been shown to have high rates of late stage breast and cervical cancer The first step toward increased early detection is

  10. Early detection and early intervention of hearing handicapped children.

    PubMed

    Victor, P

    1992-01-01

    Early detection means the detection of hearing impairment in an infant under 2 years of age. It is vital as language and other sound-related mental development takes place within the first 3 years of life, and delay leads to secondary disabilities. The delay in language development may be observed by attentive parents at 10-12 months of age and by some not until 3-4 years of age. The family physician often detects a false-positive response, and a child specialist's opinion often is not much different. Most ear, nose, and throat departments have some provisions for audiological testing, however, the audiological section's role is to identify and assess cases for middle ear surgery. Early intervention consists of 1) the provision of amplification, 2) medical assistance, and 3) educational assistance. Pre school programs are held in nursery day schools where deaf children are given 4 hours of daily assistance for 3 years preparing them for placement in the ordinary hearing school in Class I. Special schools for the deaf in India include 1) oral schools without individual hearing aids but with group hearing aids, 2) oral and aural schools with individual hearing aids and group hearing aids, and 3) combined method schools without individual hearing aids and with or without group hearing aids. The evaluation of a program in New Delhi, after its 6 years of existence, sought to identify the strong points and weaknesses in the management of deaf children. This role model was disseminated through 4 series of Max Mueller Bhavan's All India Workshops for parents and teachers of hearing impaired children held at New Delhi, Bombay, Madras, Bangalore and Calcutta between 1981 and 1985. The parents and the professionals who attend these courses publicize them further. Many of them visited the programs in New Delhi with the desire to establish this role model in their school or city.

  11. Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    effective marker for diagnosis and detection of prostate cancer. Low concentrations of PSA would be detected using acoustic wave sensors because of...associated electrical field. For biological sensors, binding of a substance onto the resonating membrane surface causes a decrease in the acoustic...of diverse conditions and diseases including those that affect the thyroid, HIV, diabetes , pregnancy, and several types of cancer. In clinical

  12. Early Detection of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating illness, although its autosomal dominant genetic transmission allows a unique opportunity to study apparently healthy individuals before manifest disease. Attempts to study early disease are not unique in neurology (e.g., Mild Cognitive Impairment, Vascular Cognitive Impairment), but studying otherwise-healthy appearing individuals who will go on with nearly 99% certainty to manifest the symptoms of brain disease does provide distinct but valuable information about the true natural history of the disease. The field has witnessed an explosion of research examining possible early indicators of HD during what is now referred to as the “prodrome” of HD. A NIH study in its ninth year (PREDICT-HD) has offered a glimpse into the transition from an apparently healthy state to an obviously diseased state, and can serve as a model for many other genetic diseases, both neurological and non-neurological. PMID:24348095

  13. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  14. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  15. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  16. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends that men have a chance to ...

  17. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    PubMed

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base.

  18. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  19. DESPIC: Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion in Information Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Alessandro Flammini Alessandro Flammini, Filippo Menczer, Qiaozhu Mei, Sergey Malinchik c. THIS PAGE The public...on social media in their early stage of diffusion. Such campaigns include rumors, spread of misinformation, persuasion attempts, and advertising...27709-2211 infrastructure for Twitter data collection, archival and retrieval. clustering of streaming social media data. Detection of Social Bots

  20. Detecting Careless Responses to Self-Reported Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kountur, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…

  1. Early Cancer Detection at the Epithelial Surface.

    PubMed

    Rogalla, Stephan; Contag, Christopher H

    2015-01-01

    Malignant neoplastic lesions derived from epithelial tissue, carcinomas, account for 80% to 100% of all human cancers including some of the most deadly diseases such as cervical and non-small cell lung cancer. Many of these carcinomas present at readily accessible epithelial surfaces offering unique detection opportunities. Effective clinical management of carcinomas is enabled by early detection, at a time when full surgical resection is possible and before invasion of adjacent tissue or significant intravasation into blood vessels leading to metastasis. Good prognosis with long-term disease-free survival is more likely after early detection when progression is limited. At present, detection of carcinomas at epithelial surfaces largely relies on routine inspection with the naked eye (e.g., skin and oropharynx) or simple white light tools (e.g., cervix and colon). Emerging optical tools based on differential refraction, absorption, reflection, scattering, or fluorescence of carcinomas relative to normal tissues enable label-free visualization of neoplasia. However, the differences in intrinsic optical properties of normal and malignant tissues can be subtle, and relying on these may lead to high miss rates. Enhanced optical contrast offered by molecularly targeted agents can be used to improve early detection; and given that optical imaging and sensing tools can be readily combined, integrated systems that image over a range of scales, or detect multiple parameters, can be developed to aid in early detection. Diagnosis is, at present, made by histologic examination of tissue biopsies after identification of suspicious lesions. Miniature and handheld microscopic imaging tools have recently been developed, and integration of these tools with wide-field optical surveillance devices offers both rapid detection and confirmatory histologic examination at the point-of-care, that can provide guidance for biopsy and/or resection. A wide variety of targeted probe strategies

  2. Dynamic Light-Scattering Probe Used for the Very Early Detection of Cataracts and to Measure Response to Therapy (or Treatment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari,Rafat R.; Clark, John I.; King, James F.

    2002-01-01

    Half of all blindness worldwide is due to cataracts, and 34 million Americans over the age of 65 have cataracts. This figure is expected to rise to 70 million by the year 2030. Currently, no medical treatment is available to prevent or halt the progression of a cataract; nor is there any way to reverse a cataract once it has been detected by conventional methods. The only known treatment is surgical removal of the lens. It is estimated that over $5 billion will be spent this year for the treatment of cataract patients in the United States alone. According to Carl Kupfer, M.D., former Director of the National Eye Institute at the National Institutes of Health, "A delay in cataract formation of about 10 years would reduce the prevalence of visually disabling cataracts by about 45 percent." However, this vision remains a dream because of the lack of objective methods that can be used to detect cataracts very early and, hence, can be used for screening potential anticataract drugs. This is about to change. The National Eye Institute and NASA entered into a formal interagency agreement in late 1996 to develop and test a dynamic light-scattering (DLS) device to detect the earliest changes due to cataract formation. The new DLS probe developed by Dr. Ansari at the NASA Glenn Research Center is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than conventional clinical systems. This ultrahigh sensitivity enables the probe to detect the onset of a cataract before it has any effect on vision and allows researchers to test the effectiveness of anticataract drugs in reversing cataracts. This device (see the following illustration) was originally designed to study transport phenomena in microgravity fluid physics experiments onboard the space shuttle orbiters and space station. It will be very useful in testing anticataract drugs to halt or reverse the progression of cataracts during longitudinal clinical trials.

  3. Early and Late Responses to Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Reinhard; Ling, Ted

    Early and late responses to ion beam therapy (IBT) are the result of complex interactions between host, dose volume, and radiobiological factors. Our understanding of these early and late tissue responses has improved greatly with the accumulation of laboratory and clinical experience with proton and heavy ion irradiation. With photon therapy becoming increasingly conformal, many concepts developed for 3D conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy with photons are also applicable to IBT. This chapter reviews basic concepts and experimental data of early and late tissue responses to protons and ions.

  4. GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Liu, Z.; Khachikyan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. The development of the Indo-Pacific GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection (GATED) system will be reported.

  5. Automated Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Russell, Stephen R.; Folk, James C.; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Quellec, Gwénolé

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, (‘Challenge2009’) against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Participants Fundus photographic sets, consisting of two fundus images from each eye, were evaluated from 16,670 patient visits of 16,670 people with diabetes who had not previously been diagnosed with DR. Methods The fundus photographic set from each visit was analyzed by a single retinal expert; 793 of the 16,770 sets were classified as containing more than minimal DR (threshold for referral). The outcomes of the two algorithmic detectors were applied separately to the dataset and compared by standard statistical measures. Main Outcome Measures The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC), a measure of the sensitivity and specificity of DR detection. Results Agreement was high, and exams containing more than minimal DR were detected with an AUC of 0.839 by the ‘Eyecheck’ algorithm and an AUC of 0.821 for ‘Challenge2009’, a statistically non-significant difference (z-score 1.91). If either of the algorithms detected DR in combination, AUC for detection was 0.86, the same as the theoretically expected maximum. At 90% sensitivity, the specificity of the ‘EyeCheck’ algorithm was 47.7% and the ‘Challenge2009’ algorithm, 43.6%. Conclusions DR detection algorithms appear to be maturing, and further improvements in detection performance cannot be differentiated from best clinical practices, because the performance of competitive algorithm development has now reached the human intra-reader variability limit. Additional validation studies on larger, well-defined, but more diverse populations of patients with diabetes are urgently needed, anticipating cost-effective early detection of DR in

  6. Vision 20/20: The role of Raman spectroscopy in early stage cancer detection and feasibility for application in radiation therapy response assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Devpura, Suneetha Barton, Kenneth N.; Brown, Stephen L.; Siddiqui, Farzan; Chetty, Indrin J.; Palyvoda, Olena; Kalkanis, Steven; Naik, Vaman M.; Naik, Ratna

    2014-05-15

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique capable of identifying chemical constituents of a sample by their unique set of molecular vibrations. Research on the applicability of Raman spectroscopy in the differentiation of cancerous versus normal tissues has been ongoing for many years, and has yielded successful results in the context of prostate, breast, brain, skin, and head and neck cancers as well as pediatric tumors. Recently, much effort has been invested on developing noninvasive “Raman” probes to provide real-time diagnosis of potentially cancerous tumors. In this regard, it is feasible that the Raman technique might one day be used to provide rapid, minimally invasive real-time diagnosis of tumors in patients. Raman spectroscopy is relatively new to the field of radiation therapy. Recent work involving cell lines has shown that the Raman technique is able to identify proteins and other markers affected by radiation therapy. Although this work is preliminary, one could ask whether or not the Raman technique might be used to identify molecular markers that predict radiation response. This paper provides a brief review of Raman spectroscopic investigations in cancer detection, benefits and limitations of this method, advances in instrument development, and also preliminary studies related to the application of this technology in radiation therapy response assessment.

  7. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program’s ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia. PMID:21388561

  8. Detection of histone acetylation levels in the dorsal hippocampus reveals early tagging on specific residues of H2B and H4 histones in response to learning.

    PubMed

    Bousiges, Olivier; Neidl, Romain; Majchrzak, Monique; Muller, Marc-Antoine; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Pereira de Vasconcelos, Anne; Schneider, Anne; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The recent literature provides evidence that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are crucial to gene transcription linked to synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain--notably in the hippocampus--and memory formation. We measured global histone acetylation levels in the rat hippocampus at an early stage of spatial or fear memory formation. We found that H3, H4 and H2B underwent differential acetylation at specific sites depending on whether rats had been exposed to the context of a task without having to learn or had to learn about a place or fear therein: H3K9K14 acetylation was mostly responsive to any experimental conditions compared to naive animals, whereas H2B N-terminus and H4K12 acetylations were mostly associated with memory for either spatial or fear learning. Altogether, these data suggest that behavior/experience-dependent changes differently regulate specific acetylation modifications of histones in the hippocampus, depending on whether a memory trace is established or not: tagging of H3K9K14 could be associated with perception/processing of testing-related manipulations and context, thereby enhancing chromatin accessibility, while tagging of H2B N-terminus tail and H4K12 could be more closely associated with the formation of memories requiring an engagement of the hippocampus.

  9. A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    informatics, immunology , benign cancer , prognostic studies, baseline diagnostics, heatmaps, ROCurves 2 Major Activities 1. Production of IMS arrays...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0231 TITLE: A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing

  10. Early and complete detection of HIV exposure.

    PubMed

    Jehuda-Cohen, T

    1993-10-01

    Currently, HIV diagnosis relies on serology. Yet in groups at high risk for HIV serology is not sufficient because of the window period between infection and seroconversion. There is a growing body of reports on HIV-infected yet seronegative individuals. Some tests have been developed to identify exposure to HIV by its effect on the cells of the immune system that would differentiate following exposure to the foreign antigens. Detection, in vitro, of HIV-specific B and T cells in seronegative, at risk individuals has been reported. In only some of these individuals was an HIV infection confirmed by other methods. These new assays to detect HIV immunity enable us to identify two new groups among seronegative, at risk individuals; namely those with immunity to HIV and a detectable HIV infection (silent carriers), and those with immunity and no proof of infection. Both groups have been exposed to HIV yet are not being detected by serology. Both might hold information on other forms of HIV immunity, possibly a protective one. Thus there could be an important role for other immunological assays in early detection of HIV exposure.

  11. [From early detection to early care: intervention strategies based on prospective screening].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; García-Primo, Patricia; Hernández-Fabián, Aránzazu; Magán-Maganto, María; Sánchez, Ana B; Posada-De la Paz, Manuel

    2015-02-25

    INTRODUCTION. The challenge of early detection can be tackled from an evolutionary perspective. Early intervention treatments have shown themselves to be effective provided that they are applied systematically as part of the strategic planning of the treatment. AIMS. The aim of this study is to provide an updated review in response to the criticism targeted towards early detection and to offer some considerations on the intervention strategy. Our research is based on a review of the early care techniques that are commonly used within the field of autism and it intends to reflect the most significant aspects that can be deduced from the experiments and studies carried out to date. CONCLUSIONS. From the findings of the review it can be concluded that early detection may be more efficient if carried out within the framework of developmental surveillance, which also offers the opportunity to provide guidance on the child's development. Early care is an effective resource for attending to the needs of children with autism. Professionals have the duty to assess the work they do on available treatments with a reflexive, judicious attitude, taking into account the values and preferences of the families. Programmes must focus on the core symptoms and apply the active ingredients of the treatment.

  12. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    DOEpatents

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  13. Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    expand from six existing deepwater tsunami detection buoys to a total of 32 for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, Gulf of Mexico , and Caribbean Sea by...rapid U.S. response to upgrade existing capacity for warning in the Pacific, and expand this capacity to the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico , and Caribbean Sea...Senator Inouye’s bill is closely aligned with the Administration’s proposal, released on January 14, 2005, but also addresses social issues such as

  14. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  15. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  16. Early esophageal cancer detection using RF classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse, Markus H. A.; van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising forms of cancer in the Western world. Using High-Definition (HD) endoscopy, gastroenterology experts can identify esophageal cancer at an early stage. Recent research shows that early cancer can be found using a state-of-the-art computer-aided detection (CADe) system based on analyzing static HD endoscopic images. Our research aims at extending this system by applying Random Forest (RF) classification, which introduces a confidence measure for detected cancer regions. To visualize this data, we propose a novel automated annotation system, employing the unique characteristics of the previous confidence measure. This approach allows reliable modeling of multi-expert knowledge and provides essential data for real-time video processing, to enable future use of the system in a clinical setting. The performance of the CADe system is evaluated on a 39-patient dataset, containing 100 images annotated by 5 expert gastroenterologists. The proposed system reaches a precision of 75% and recall of 90%, thereby improving the state-of-the-art results by 11 and 6 percentage points, respectively.

  17. Biomarkers for early detection of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Barber, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    The existence of an effective biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer disease would facilitate improved diagnosis and stimulate therapeutic trials. Multidisciplinary clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is time consuming and expensive and relies on experts who are rarely available outside of specialty clinics. Thus, many patients do not receive proper diagnosis until the disease has progressed beyond stages in which treatments are maximally effective. In the clinical trial setting, rapid, cost-effective screening of patients for Alzheimer disease is of paramount importance for the development of new treatments. Neuroimaging of cortical amyloid burden and volumetric changes in the brain and assessment of protein concentrations (eg, β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau) in cerebrospinal fluid are diagnostic tools that are not widely available. Known genetic markers do not provide sufficient discriminatory power between different forms of dementia to be useful in isolation. Recent studies using panels of biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment have been promising, though no such studies have been cross-validated in independent samples of subjects. The ideal biomarker enabling early detection of Alzheimer disease has not yet been identified.

  18. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  19. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  20. Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  1. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Van't Westeinde, Susan C; van Klaveren, Rob J

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer with an estimated 342,000 deaths in 2008 (20% of total) is the most common cause of death from cancer, followed by colorectal cancer (12%), breast cancer (8%), and stomach cancer (7%) in Europe. In former smokers, the absolute lung cancer risk remains higher than in never-smokers; these data therefore call for effective secondary preventive measures for lung cancer in addition to smoking cessation programs. This review presents and discusses the most recent advances in the early detection and screening of lung cancer.An overview of randomized controlled computerized tomography-screening trials is given, and the role of bronchoscopy and new techniques is discussed. Finally, the approach of (noninvasive) biomarker testing in the blood, exhaled breath, sputum, and bronchoscopic specimen is reviewed.

  2. Prevention and early detection of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugaratnam, K.

    1985-01-01

    The axiom that prevention is better than cure is especially true for a serious disease such as cancer for which therapy is expensive and seldom fully effective. However, it is only for some cancers that the major determinants are known and for which primary prevention programs are likely to result in substantial reduction in incidence. Past efforts at primary prevention have not been very successful where avoidance of cancer determinants involves changing pleasurable personal habits or has major economic effects. Control of the disease is now largely based on therapy. Because successful therapy is influenced by the stage of the disease at diagnosis there is increasing interest in early detection through the application of various screening techniques. Only some of these have been demonstrably effective in reducing cancer mortality. The introduction of any mass screening program should be based on an assessment of its costs, risks, and effectiveness in reducing mortality from the disease.

  3. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error’s extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  4. Barriers on Breast Cancer Early Detection Methods

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Yasemin Erkal; Turfan, Esin Çeber; Sert, Ebru; Mermer, Gülengül

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusion Barriers against implementation of breast cancer screening methods in women were related to level of education and lack of adequate information about breast cancer screening, and symptoms of breast cancer. Women’s lack of information about signs, symptoms and treatment in the early stages of breast cancer needs to be eliminated. Health care providers may have a key role in increasing breast cancer early detection rates.

  5. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  6. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  7. Early Holocene initiation of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam, and the response to Holocene sea-level changes detected from DT1 core analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Lap; Ta, Thi Kim Oanh; Saito, Yoshiki

    The Early Holocene initiation of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam, was investigated based on sedimentary facies, microfossil analyses, and radiocarbon dating of DT1 core taken from the upper delta plain. The DT1 core (105°38'51″E, 10°17'02″N, elevation + 2 m) is 51.5 m long and located in fill of a buried incised valley. This incised valley of the Paleo-Mekong River formed during the last glacial maximum, which is 20-30 km wide, has been traced spatially from the Cambodian border to the South China Sea coast by compilation of existing core data. The DT1 core records the history of the estuarine channel and delta systems of the Mekong River during the early to middle Holocene. The sedimentary facies, determined particularly from sedimentary structures, diatom and foraminifera assemblages, grain-size variation, and the accumulation rate, clearly show an upward-deepening succession in the lower part of the core from marsh or intertidal flat to subtidal-inner bay facies and an overlying upward-shallowing succession from prodelta to intertidal flat-floodplain. The boundary between the two successions, indicating the maximum flooding surface, occurred at approximately 8.0 ka, at the time that the Mekong River delta was initiated. The delta initiation and sediment facies succession are closely linked to Holocene sea-level changes, particularly a standstill from 8.0 to 7.5 ka after a rapid rise of sea level from 8.8 to 8.2 ka. During the further sea-level rise from 7.5 to 7.0 ka, sediments aggraded, forming topset sedimentary deposits.

  8. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  9. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positive rates that could lead to unnecessary surgery. A review of epidemiologic data suggests that familial ovarian cancer kindreds are rare, but women with first-degree relatives who have had ovarian cancer have a significant risk themselves for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, women with a great number of ovulatory cycles are at an increased risk for the disease. Circulating tumor markers are frequently elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer, but their value in early detection of ovarian cancer has yet to be established. Advances in endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow technology have significantly improved our ability to assess pelvic organs. This article presents the background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program for ovarian cancer, whose goals are to identify the best techniques for diagnosing ovarian cancer in an early stage, to determine the frequency with which such tests should be employed, to assess false-positive results, and to identify women who might benefit from prophylactic oophorectomies. PMID:1810100

  10. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  11. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation.

  12. Early cytokine responses during intestinal parasitic infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, N; Goyal, P K; Mahida, Y R; Li, K F; Wakelin, D

    1998-01-01

    Infections with gastro-intestinal nematodes elicit immune and inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines released from T-helper type-2 (Th2) cells. In vitro assays of cells from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of experimentally infected rodents confirm that, after about 1 week, the dominant cytokine responses to mitogens and antigens are those associated with this Th-cell subset. Polarization of the Th response in this way implies an initial local cytokine environment that favours Th2 development. However, experimental infections with Trichinella spiralis and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis show that, within 2 days of worms reaching the intestine, MLN cells (MLNC) respond with a Th1 rather than a Th2 response [i.e. there is an increase in mRNA for the type 1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and mitogen-stimulated MLNC release IFN-gamma rather than interleukin-5 (IL-5)]. Antigen stimulation at this time does not elicit IFN-gamma release and the MLNC cannot adoptively transfer immunity. Within a few days the MLNC phenotype changes. There is a Th2 response (IL-5 release) to both mitogen and antigen stimulation and MLNC can adoptively transfer immunity. Early release of IFN-gamma is T-cell dependent, with CD4+ T cells playing the major role. The data are discussed in relation to factors regulating the mucosal response to invasion by parasites. PMID:9616376

  13. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  14. Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion in Information Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ADDRESS. Indiana University at Bloomington Trustees of Indiana University 509 E 3RD ST Bloomington, IN 47401 -3654 Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion ...SMISC  Project:   DESPIC:  Detecting  Early  Signatures  of   Persuasion  in  Information  Cascades     Teams:   Indiana

  15. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  16. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  17. Novel Serum Inflammatory Biomarkers for Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas R. Brown, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oxford Biomedical...Biomarkers for Early Detection of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0711 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas R. Brown, Ph.D. 5d... cancer however, their study as a source of cancer biomarkers is still at a relatively early stage. Identifying these biomarkers in serum presents a

  18. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

  19. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: summative review.

    PubMed

    Chari, Suresh T; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Thayer, Sarah P; Ahlquist, David A; Andersen, Dana K; Batra, Surinder K; Brentnall, Teresa A; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F; Firpo, Matthew A; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W; Hines, O Joe; Kenner, Barbara J; Klimstra, David S; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Michael J; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J; Petersen, Gloria M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I; Wong, David

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC.

  20. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  1. Early detection of CLas infections in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Early” detection of CLas infection is essential to minimize the risk of Huanglongbing (HLB) epidemics in areas where the pathogen has been recently introduced. Any delay in confirmation of CLas infection results in delays of regulatory and management actions, and increased spread of the pathogen ev...

  2. Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2011-11-01

    This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

  3. Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices.

  4. Detection of Early Lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among...September 2012-29 September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel... lung cancer in Military Treatment Facilities and Veteran’s Administration Hospitals. Over the course of the second year of this award, we have

  5. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science. | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  6. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  7. Stationary Digital Tomosynthesis System for Early Detection of Breast Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer occurring in women...Early detection is considered as the best hope for decreasing the mortality rate from breast cancer [1-4]. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has the...potential to improve the effectiveness of early breast cancer screening at a similar dose and comparable cost as the full-field digital

  8. The Early Endocrine Stress Response in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Christoffer; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Hillered, Lars; Stridsberg, Mats; Ronne Engström, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In patients with severe illness, such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a physiologic stress response is triggered. This includes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the very early responses of these systems. Methods A porcine animal model of aneurysmal SAH was used. In this model, blood is injected slowly to the basal cisterns above the anterior skull base until the cerebral perfusion pressure is 0 mm Hg. Sampling was done from blood and urine at -10, +15, +75 and +135 minutes from time of induction of SAH. Analyses of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, catecholamines and chromogranin-A were performed. Results Plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma aldosterone increased in the samples following induction of SAH, and started to decline after 75 minutes. Urine cortisol also increased after SAH. Urine catecholamines and their metabolites were found to increase after SAH. Many samples were however below detection level, not allowing for statistical analysis. Plasma chromogranin-A peaked at 15 minutes after SAH, and thereafter decreased. Conclusions The endocrine stress response after aneurysmal SAH was found to start within 15 minutes in the HPA axis with early peak values of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone. The fact that the concentrations of the HPA axis hormones decreased 135 minutes after SAH may suggest that a similar pattern exists in SAH patients, thus making it difficult to catch these early peak values. There were also indications of early activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the small number of valid samples made interpretation difficult. PMID:27007694

  9. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Alzheimer Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C.M.; Davatzikos, C.; Borthakur, A.; Newberg, A.; Leight, S.; Lee, V.M.-Y.; Trojanowski, J.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and the devastating consequences of late-life dementia motivates the drive to develop diagnostic biomarkers to reliably identify the pathology associated with this disorder. Strategies to accomplish this include the detection of altered levels of tau and amyloid in cerebrospinal fluid, the use of structural MRI to identify disease-specific patterns of regional atrophy and MRI T1ρ to detect disease-related macromolecular protein aggregation, and the direct imaging of amyloid deposits using positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerized tomography. Success will facilitate the ability to reliably diagnose Alzheimer’s disease while the symptoms of brain failure are mild and may provide objective measures of disease-modifying treatment efficacy. PMID:18097155

  10. Radiation detection and wireless networked early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David A.; Litz, Marc S.; Carroll, James J.; Katsis, Dimosthenis

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a compact, wireless, GPS-enabled array of inexpensive radiation sensors based on scintillation counting. Each sensor has a scintillator, photomultiplier tube, and pulse-counting circuit that includes a comparator, digital potentiometer and microcontroller. This design provides a high level of sensitivity and reliability. A 0.2 m2 PV panel powers each sensor providing a maintenance-free 24/7 energy source. The sensor can be mounted within a roadway light-post and monitor radiological activity along transport routes. Each sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data (as counts per second) up to 2 miles with a XBee radio module, and the data is received by a XBee receive-module on a computer. Data collection software logs the information from all sensors and provides real-time identification of radiation events. Measurements performed to-date demonstrate the ability of a sensor to detect a 20 μCi source at 3.5 meters when packaged with a PVT (plastic) scintillator, and 7 meters for a sensor with a CsI crystal (more expensive but ~5 times more sensitive). It is calculated that the sensor-architecture can detect sources moving as fast as 130 km/h based on the current data rate and statistical bounds of 3-sigma threshold detection. The sensor array is suitable for identifying and tracking a radiation threat from a dirty bomb along roadways.

  11. Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER).

    PubMed

    Generoso, Jose Roberto; Latoures, Renee Elizabeth; Acar, Yahya; Miller, Dean Scott; Ciano, Mark; Sandrei, Renan; Vieira, Marlon; Luong, Sean; Hirsch, Jan; Fidler, Richard Lee

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER)," found on pages 255-263, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Define the purpose of the Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER) study. Review the outcome of the STEER study. DISCLOSURE

  12. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  13. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Early detection and referral

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Justin M.; Noth, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Summary Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a devastating progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) with no known cause or cure, is the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. With a median survival of 3–5 years following diagnosis, IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function and quality of life in most patients. Vigilance among clinicians in recognizing IPF early in the disease course remains critical to properly caring for these patients, as this provides the widest range of management options. When IPF is suspected, a multidisciplinary evaluation (MDE) by a clinician, radiologist and pathologist with ILD expertise should occur, as this improves diagnostic agreement in both community and academic settings. When community MDE is not possible, or diagnostic doubt exists, referral to an ILD center should be considered. ILD center referral may also provide access specialized care, including clinical trials and lung transplantation, and should be considered for any patient with an established diagnosis of IPF. PMID:24746629

  14. Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

  15. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  16. Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women were encouraged to follow American Cancer Society guidelines for mammography. Stool was checked for occult blood. Endometrial sampling was offered to post-menopausal women. No participant has developed an ovarian cancer since entering the program. One woman has been diagnosed to have breast cancer. False-positive levels of circulating tumor markers (CA 125, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; lipid-associated sialic acid in plasma, 13/84 [15.5 percent]; NB/70K, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; and urinary gonadotropin fragment, 1/65 [1.5 percent]) were observed on entry into the program. Low resistive indices (less than 0.5) were documented in 8/91 (8.8 percent) ovaries studied by the color Doppler flow technique. One participant underwent a laparotomy based on a false-positive endovaginal ultrasound examination. Tests now being employed in community practice have a high likelihood of being associated with false-positive results. Therapeutic interventions based on isolated abnormal tumor markers or ultrasound studies obtained from women with family histories of ovarian cancer may lead to inappropriate surgery. It is necessary for cancer centers to develop expertise in ovarian cancer detection techniques to advise physicians in their geographic areas appropriately about the significance of the abnormal screening test. PMID:1810101

  17. EARLY DETECTION AND PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGAHAN, F.E.

    THE GALENA PARK SPECIAL PROGRAM IS AN EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION TO DETECT, AT THE EARLIEST TIME, ANY STUDENT PROBLEM WHICH MAY LEAD TO DIFFICULTIES IN SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT. ALL PHASES OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES ARE PLACED UNDER ONE COORDINATOR TO EXPEDITE SERVICES TO THE CHILD IN DIFFICULTY. EARLY DETECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM…

  18. Detecting Structural Failures Via Acoustic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Joshi, Sanjay S.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced method of acoustic pulse reflectivity testing developed for use in determining sizes and locations of failures within structures. Used to detect breaks in electrical transmission lines, detect faults in optical fibers, and determine mechanical properties of materials. In method, structure vibrationally excited with acoustic pulse (a "ping") at one location and acoustic response measured at same or different location. Measured acoustic response digitized, then processed by finite-impulse-response (FIR) filtering algorithm unique to method and based on acoustic-wave-propagation and -reflection properties of structure. Offers several advantages: does not require training, does not require prior knowledge of mathematical model of acoustic response of structure, enables detection and localization of multiple failures, and yields data on extent of damage at each location.

  19. The importance of early detection of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Endotoxin is considered a key signaling molecule in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. Anti-endotoxin therapies may result in the improvement of a patient's clinical condition and lower mortality. The pressing clinical challenge is to identify patients for whom endotoxin elimination would be the most beneficial. An endotoxin activity assay (EAA) has been available for detection of endotoxins, allowing selection of patients at high risk of endotoxemia in intensive care units (ICUs). We studied a cohort of 172 consecutive patients who had septic shock on admission to the ICU. Endotoxin activity (EA) was measured with a rapid chemiluminescent EAA, regarded as point-of-care testing. Endotoxemia with a mean EA of 0.59 ± 0.14 EAU was present in 104 patients (60%) and absent in 68 patients (EA = 0.25 ± 0.11 EAU). The risk of endotoxemia increased with the presence of a Gram-negative infection [odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.9; P = 0.001] and bacteremia (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-8.9; P = 0.02) but did not change with a diagnosis of peritonitis (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.54-1.97; P = 0.90). These findings indicate that anti-endotoxin interventions should be tailored to individual patients based on both clinical conditions and measured endotoxin levels.

  20. Evasion of early antiviral responses by herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Ibañez, Francisco J; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency.

  1. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based screening in women aged 50–69 are recommended. A pilot project to evaluate programmatic approaches (opportunistic screening) was designed, and it is expected that organized hospital-based screening for breast cancer will represent a move towards population-based screening in the near future in accordance with country specific conditions. PMID:20824017

  2. Gallbladder Carcinoma, the Difficulty of Early Detection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Stephen L; Bear, Jonathan R; Van Echo, David C; Dainer, Hugh M

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is an uncommon malignancy with a high mortality rate. Detecting gallbladder carcinoma in its early stages can be difficult, despite improvements in ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Most diagnoses of GBC are made at advanced stages, with the majority being found incidentally during surgery for cholelithiasis. The presented case demonstrates the difficulty of diagnosing GBC preoperatively in its early stages. PMID:27014527

  3. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  4. Advances in pancreatic cancer research: moving towards early detection.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang-Yi; Yuan, Yao-Zong

    2014-08-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patient management have been significant. However, most patients (nearly 80%) who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease have an extremely poor prognosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localized to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Therefore, the early detection of pancreatic cancer may benefit patients with PDAC. However, its low rate of incidence and the limitations of current screening strategies make early detection difficult. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of PDAC suggest that it is possible to detect PDAC in early stages and even identify precursor lesions. The presence of new-onset diabetes mellitus in the early phase of pancreatic cancer may provide clues for its early diagnosis. Advances in the identification of novel circulating biomarkers including serological signatures, autoantibodies, epigenetic markers, circulating tumor cells and microRNAs suggest that they can be used as potential tools for the screening of precursors and early stage PDAC in the future. However, proper screening strategies based on effective screening methodologies need to be tested for clinical application.

  5. Screening and Early Detection of Gastric Cancer: East Versus West.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yun-Suhk; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2015-10-01

    Low ratio of mortality over incidence of gastric cancer in Asian countries including Korea and Japan could be explained by early detection after screening, different treatment strategy, or genetic disparity between the East and West. Early detection after screening program for gastric cancer and subsequent surgical treatment including appropriate lymph node dissection has been developed successfully in high risk areas such as East Asian countries. Even in countries with a low prevalence of gastric cancer, a specific screening program is recommended for any high-risk population.

  6. Screening and early detection efforts in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanodra, Neeti M; Silvestri, Gerard A; Tanner, Nichole T

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Since publication of results from the National Lung Screening Trial, several professional organizations, including the US Preventive Services Task Force, have published guidelines recommending low-dose computed tomography for screening in asymptomatic, high-risk individuals. The benefits of screening include detection of cancer at an early stage when a definitive cure is possible, but the risks include overdiagnosis, false-positive results, psychological distress, and radiation exposure. The current review covers the scope of low-dose computed tomography screening, potential risks, costs, and future directions in the efforts for early detection of lung cancer.

  7. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  8. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Non-indigenous Species in Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introductions of non-indigenous species (NIS). Early detection of new NIS is desirable to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this in a consistent, cost-effective manner. To that end, ...

  9. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Fefferman, NH; Naumova, EN

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old ones—health threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorism—call for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

  10. Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

  11. Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-28

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer.

  12. Early prenatal detection of double outlet right ventricle by echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P A; Wladimiroff, J W; Becker, A E

    1985-01-01

    A double outlet right ventricle with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect and right sided hypoplastic aorta was diagnosed in a 22 week fetus of a mother with diabetes mellitus. Elective termination of pregnancy was carried out and the echocardiographic findings were confirmed. Early prenatal detection of congenital heart disease may allow elective termination of pregnancy when the fetus has severe defects. Images PMID:4041305

  13. Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

  14. EARLY DETECTION MONITORING OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES HARBORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Ships Initiative (GSI) has asked for a presentation on designing harbor monitoring. Our research/development project on early detection provides some examples and lessons for GSI to consider in evaluating effectiveness of ballast water treatments; the presentation allo...

  15. Sweet-spot training for early esophageal cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, the imaging tools for endoscopists have improved drastically. This has enabled physicians to visually inspect the intestinal tissue for early signs of malignant lesions. Besides this, recent studies show the feasibility of supportive image analysis for endoscopists, but the analysis problem is typically approached as a segmentation task where binary ground truth is employed. In this study, we show that the detection of early cancerous tissue in the gastrointestinal tract cannot be approached as a binary segmentation problem and it is crucial and clinically relevant to involve multiple experts for annotating early lesions. By employing the so-called sweet spot for training purposes as a metric, a much better detection performance can be achieved. Furthermore, a multi-expert-based ground truth, i.e. a golden standard, enables an improved validation of the resulting delineations. For this purpose, besides the sweet spot we also propose another novel metric, the Jaccard Golden Standard (JIGS) that can handle multiple ground-truth annotations. Our experiments involving these new metrics and based on the golden standard show that the performance of a detection algorithm of early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus can be increased significantly, demonstrating a 10 percent point increase in the resulting F1 detection score.

  16. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    PubMed

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics.

  17. Proteomics approaches for early detection and targeted therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Tripti; Khare, Sharad; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. HCC incidences have increased worldwide though more prevalent in Asia and Africa. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are mostly responsible of increased number of HCC cases. Biomarkers can help early detection and improve treatment regimen in patients as advanced stage is chemo-refractive with limited treatment options. Potential of proteomics in finding new biomarkers for early detection has been explored more recently. Future developments in this area rely on how efficiently we manage vast amount of data generated by these techniques and speed up the clinical trials to improve patient care. PMID:28144394

  18. Early Biventricular Molecular Responses to an Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Erdal, Cenk; Karakülah, Gökhan; Fermancı, Emel; Kunter, İmge; Silistreli, Erdem; Canda, Tülay; Erdal, Esra; Hepaguslar, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains as one of the most common lethal diseases in the world and therefore it is necessary to understand its effect on molecular basis. Genome-wide microarray analysis provides us to predict potential biomarkers and signaling pathways for this purpose. Objectives: The aim of this study is to understand the molecular basis of the immediate right ventricular cellular response to left ventricular AMI. Material and Methods: A rat model of left anterior descending coronary artery ligation was used to assess the effect of left ventricular AMI on both the right ventricle as a remote zone and the left ventricle as an ischemic/infarct zone. Microarray technology was applied to detect the gene expression. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathways analysis were done to identify effected pathways and related genes. Results: We found that immune response, cell chemotaxis, inflammation, cytoskeleton organization are significantly deregulated in ischemic zone as early response within 30 min. Unexpectedly, there were several affected signaling pathways such as cell chemotaxis, regulation of endothelial cell proliferation, and regulation of caveolea regulation of anti-apoptosis, regulation of cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesion on the remote zone in the right ventricle. Conclusion: This data demonstrates that there is an immediate molecular response in both ventricles after an AMI. Although the ischemia did not histologically involve the right ventricle; there is a clear molecular response to the infarct in the left ventricle. This provides us new insights to understand molecular mechanisms behind AMI and to find more effective drug targets. PMID:22211093

  19. New strategies for the early detection of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Maria Chiara; Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains a deadly disease and early detection through screening is likely to be our best hope to improve survival. Considering the low incidence of PC, population-based screening is not feasible, but is advisable for high-risk patients. Screening individuals at high risk for developing PC leads to the detection of premalignant lesions. High-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm are the targets for early detection of PC. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance imaging are considered the most accurate techniques for pancreatic imaging; in particular EUS has emerged as a promising imaging test given its potential for tissue sampling to obtain diagnosis and to provide material for molecular profiling of PC. At the moment, screening should be performed within research protocols at experienced centers with a specific clinical and research interest, where a multidisciplinary team of specialists is available.

  20. Dose response signal detection under model uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Dette, Holger; Titoff, Stefanie; Volgushev, Stanislav; Bretz, Frank

    2015-12-01

    We investigate likelihood ratio contrast tests for dose response signal detection under model uncertainty, when several competing regression models are available to describe the dose response relationship. The proposed approach uses the complete structure of the regression models, but does not require knowledge of the parameters of the competing models. Standard likelihood ratio test theory is applicable in linear models as well as in nonlinear regression models with identifiable parameters. However, for many commonly used nonlinear dose response models the regression parameters are not identifiable under the null hypothesis of no dose response and standard arguments cannot be used to obtain critical values. We thus derive the asymptotic distribution of likelihood ratio contrast tests in regression models with a lack of identifiability and use this result to simulate the quantiles based on Gaussian processes. The new method is illustrated with a real data example and compared to existing procedures using theoretical investigations as well as simulations.

  1. Application of glycoscience to the early detection of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Eiji; Kamada, Yoshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer is extremely poor compared to other cancers. One of the reasons for this is the difficulty of early diagnosis. Surveillance using cancer biomarkers and image diagnosis can enable early detection and has improved the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan. However, it is very difficult to detect pancreatic cancer at an early stage using cancer biomarkers and image diagnosis alone. Fucosylation is one of the most important types of glycosylation involved in cancer and inflammation. We have developed a novel glycocancer biomarker, fucosylated haptoglobin (Fuc-Hpt), and have investigated its usefulness for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer over approximately 10 years. Recently, we also found that most pancreatic tissues surrounding pancreatic cancer exhibit chronic pancreatitis with fibrosis and/or fatty degeneration. Certain forms of chronic pancreatitis might indicate high risk for the development of pancreatic cancer. In this review, we provide a historical summary of our research on Fuc-Hpt as a cancer biomarker, and discuss a potential early detection system for pancreatic cancer.

  2. A concept for early cancer detection and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waynant, Ronald W.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Mitra, Kunal

    2003-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is least costly in terms of dollars, morbidity and mortality. With new early detection x-ray technology, tumors can be found, diagnosed and treated at a much smaller size than is currently possible. This paper proposes the development of a high resolution, high quality imaging system. It is a laser-driven x-ray system with time-gated detection that removes scattering noise in the image and produces resolution on the order of 10 μm. This higher resolution and higher image quality will enable the detection of one or two millimeter tumors hopefully detecting them before metastasis. We also propose that tumor detection should be followed by an immediate needle-directed, optical fiber biopsy to instantly determine if cancer is present and, if present, the tumor should immediately be given a lethal treatment of laser or x-radiation through the same needle using fiber optics or hollow waveguides. This technology will help prevent multiple interventions resulting in both the lowest overall cost and a more efficacious therapy. The approach can be stopped at the first negative (benign) indication and will help forestall repeated examination as well as reduce patient anxiety.

  3. The early antibody-forming response to Salmonella antigens

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Pamela J.; Diener, E.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the morphological study of individual antibody-forming cells (AFC) on cell smears of the quality of normal haematological preparations. The early AFC response to polymerized flagellin of S. adelaide was studied in vivo using C57BL mice, which have very low background levels of AFC and in vitro using dispersed spleen cell cultures from CBA mice. AFC, arising as a result of in vivo or in vitro stimulation were found to comprise a heterogeneous population, including basophilic mononuclear cells, lymphocytes of most sizes, immature blast cells and occasional plasma cells. The earliest AFC detected comprised a high percentage (28 per cent in vivo, 31 per cent in vitro) of small lymphocyte-like cells. Studies of the incorporation of [3H]thymidine showed that most AFC arose by proliferation but that a proportion of AFC, the small lymphocyte-like cells, arose by differentiation of precursor cells not involving cell division. The effects of antigen concentration on the kinetics of AFC were investigated in vitro. Subtolerogenic antigen doses caused a delayed and decreased AFC response. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5529118

  4. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  5. The pupil dilation response to visual detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Claudio M.; Renninger, Laura W.; Carney, Thom; Klein, Stanley; Aguilar, Mario

    2008-02-01

    The pupil dilation reflex is mediated by inhibition of the parasympathetic Edinger-Westphal oculomotor complex and sympathetic activity. It has long been documented that emotional and sensory events elicit a pupillary reflex dilation. Is the pupil response a reliable marker of a visual detection event? In two experiments where viewers were asked to report the presence of a visual target during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), pupil dilation was significantly associated with target detection. The amplitude of the dilation depended on the frequency of targets and the time of the detection. Larger dilations were associated with trials having fewer targets and with targets viewed earlier during the trial. We also found that dilation was strongly influenced by the visual task.

  6. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. ); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  7. Exploring early public responses to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Corner, Adam; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa; Butler, Catherine; Poortinga, Wouter

    2012-09-13

    Proposals for geoengineering the Earth's climate are prime examples of emerging or 'upstream' technologies, because many aspects of their effectiveness, cost and risks are yet to be researched, and in many cases are highly uncertain. This paper contributes to the emerging debate about the social acceptability of geoengineering technologies by presenting preliminary evidence on public responses to geoengineering from two of the very first UK studies of public perceptions and responses. The discussion draws upon two datasets: qualitative data (from an interview study conducted in 42 households in 2009), and quantitative data (from a subsequent nationwide survey (n=1822) of British public opinion). Unsurprisingly, baseline awareness of geoengineering was extremely low in both cases. The data from the survey indicate that, when briefly explained to people, carbon dioxide removal approaches were preferred to solar radiation management, while significant positive correlations were also found between concern about climate change and support for different geoengineering approaches. We discuss some of the wider considerations that are likely to shape public perceptions of geoengineering as it enters the media and public sphere, and conclude that, aside from technical considerations, public perceptions are likely to prove a key element influencing the debate over questions of the acceptability of geoengineering proposals.

  8. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  9. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    PubMed

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services.

  10. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    PubMed

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  11. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  12. B cells enhance early innate immune responses during bacterial sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M.; Scumpia, Philip O.; Weinstein, Jason S.; Delano, Matthew J.; Cuenca, Alex G.; Nacionales, Dina C.; Wynn, James L.; Lee, Pui Y.; Kumagai, Yutaro; Efron, Philip A.; Akira, Shizuo; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Microbes activate pattern recognition receptors to initiate adaptive immunity. T cells affect early innate inflammatory responses to viral infection, but both activation and suppression have been demonstrated. We identify a novel role for B cells in the early innate immune response during bacterial sepsis. We demonstrate that Rag1−/− mice display deficient early inflammatory responses and reduced survival during sepsis. Interestingly, B cell–deficient or anti-CD20 B cell–depleted mice, but not α/β T cell–deficient mice, display decreased inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production and reduced survival after sepsis. Both treatment of B cell–deficient mice with serum from wild-type (WT) mice and repletion of Rag1−/− mice with B cells improves sepsis survival, suggesting antibody-independent and antibody-dependent roles for B cells in the outcome to sepsis. During sepsis, marginal zone and follicular B cells are activated through type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor (IFN-α/β receptor [IFNAR]), and repleting Rag1−/− mice with WT, but not IFNAR−/−, B cells improves IFN-I–dependent and –independent early cytokine responses. Repleting B cell–deficient mice with the IFN-I–dependent chemokine, CXCL10 was also sufficient to improve sepsis survival. This study identifies a novel role for IFN-I–activated B cells in protective early innate immune responses during bacterial sepsis. PMID:21746813

  13. Road to early detection of pancreatic cancer: Attempts to utilize epigenetic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Fukushige, Shinichi; Horii, Akira

    2014-01-28

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer is extremely poor, mainly because of its aggressive biological behavior and late onset of symptoms for clinical diagnosis; these impose limitations on therapeutic intervention. Deeper genomic sequencing analyses of pancreatic cancers revealed 12 core pathways and a long duration, nearly 20 years from initiation to distant metastases. This evidence will offer a broader aspect and time window of opportunity for early detection, thus preventing deaths from this cruel cancer. Epigenetic biomarkers can be utilized for assessing cancer risk, early detection, and predicting prognosis and therapeutic responses. In this review, we briefly summarize relevant issues associated with pancreatic cancer progression and recent advances in epigenetic biomarkers such as DNA methylation, miRNAs, satellite repeats, and histone modifications for early diagnosis.

  14. Early detection of radioactive fallout by gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aage, H K; Korsbech, U; Bargholz, K

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rates of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for 137Cs and even lower for 131I. For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components produced by NASVD. Stripping is not used and false alarms due to washout of atmospheric radon progeny are almost eliminated. Detection levels and the criteria for setting warning and alarm levels are discussed. The method may also be useful in other situations, for example where low-level signals from radioactive sources need to be detected.

  15. Early detection of COPD is important for lung cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yasuo; Katsura, Hideki; Koh, Eitetsu; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2012-05-01

    It is well known that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant risk factor for lung cancer. Approximately 1% of COPD patients develop lung cancer every year, which may be associated with genetic susceptibility to cigarette smoke. Chronic inflammation caused by toxic gases can induce COPD and lung cancer. Inflammatory mediators may promote the growth of bronchioalveolar stem cells, and activation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 play crucial roles in the development of lung cancer from COPD. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is an effective procedure for the early detection of lung cancer in high-risk patients. However, determining which patients should be screened for lung cancer in a primary care setting is difficult. In this article, we review the epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer associated with COPD, verify the efficacy of lung cancer screening by LDCT, and discuss the importance of early detection of COPD for lung cancer surveillance. We propose that, for the prevention of both diseases, COPD screening in smokers should be initiated as early as possible, so they can stop smoking and so that candidates for an efficient lung cancer screening programme can be identified.

  16. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, C. A.; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices. PMID:26664695

  17. Environmental DNA as a new method for early detection of New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Baumgardt, Jeremy; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a critical task for management of aquatic ecosystems. This task is hindered by the difficulty and cost of surveying aquatic systems thoroughly. The New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a small, invasive parthenogenic mollusk that can reach very high population densities and severely affects ecosystem functioning. To assist in the early detection of this invasive species, we developed and validated a highly sensitive environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) assay. We used a dose–response laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between New Zealand mudsnail density and eDNA detected through time. We documented that as few as 1 individual in 1.5 L of water for 2 d could be detected with this method, and that eDNA from this species may remain detectable for 21 to 44 d after mudsnail removal. We used the eDNA method to confirm the presence of New Zealand mudsnail eDNA at densities as low as 11 to 144 snails/m2 in a eutrophic 5th-order river. Combined, these results demonstrate the high potential for eDNA surveys to assist with early detection of a widely distributed invasive aquatic invertebrate.

  18. Dynamic linear models using the Kalman filter for early detection and early warning of malaria outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkord, C. L.; Liu, Y.; DeVos, M.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria early detection and early warning systems are important tools for public health decision makers in regions where malaria transmission is seasonal and varies from year to year with fluctuations in rainfall and temperature. Here we present a new data-driven dynamic linear model based on the Kalman filter with time-varying coefficients that are used to identify malaria outbreaks as they occur (early detection) and predict the location and timing of future outbreaks (early warning). We fit linear models of malaria incidence with trend and Fourier form seasonal components using three years of weekly malaria case data from 30 districts in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. We identified past outbreaks by comparing the modeled prediction envelopes with observed case data. Preliminary results demonstrated the potential for improved accuracy and timeliness over commonly-used methods in which thresholds are based on simpler summary statistics of historical data. Other benefits of the dynamic linear modeling approach include robustness to missing data and the ability to fit models with relatively few years of training data. To predict future outbreaks, we started with the early detection model for each district and added a regression component based on satellite-derived environmental predictor variables including precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and land surface temperature (LST) and spectral indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We included lagged environmental predictors in the regression component of the model, with lags chosen based on cross-correlation of the one-step-ahead forecast errors from the first model. Our results suggest that predictions of future malaria outbreaks can be improved by incorporating lagged environmental predictors.

  19. On early detection of strong infections in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi

    2014-02-01

    Various complex systems are exposed to different kinds of infections ranging from computer viruses to rumors. An intuitive solution for limiting the damages caused by such infections is to detect the infection spreading as early as possible and then take necessary actions. In this paper, we study on how much we may expect to achieve in infection control by deploying a number of monitors in complex networks for detecting the outbreak of a strong infection at its early stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of finding the optimal locations for a given number of monitors in order to minimize the worst-case infection size. The NP-hardness of the problem is proved and a heuristic algorithm is proposed. Extensive simulations on both synthetic and real-life networks show that the worst-case infection size may be put under control by deploying a moderate number of monitors in a large complex network. Effects of a few different factors, including transmissibility of the infection, network topology and probability of detection failure, are also evaluated.

  20. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  1. Factors Influencing Early Detection of Oral Cancer by Primary Health-Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Shahin, A; Maayta, W; Sawair, F

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine early detection practices performed by primary healthcare professionals, to compare medical and dental sub-groups, and to identify factors that influence the ability of medical and dental practitioners to recognize precancerous changes and clinical signs of oral cancer. A 28-item survey instrument was used to interview a total of 330 Jordanian primary health-care professionals (165 dental and 165 medical). An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge. An early detection practice scale (0 to 24) was generated from the reported usage and frequency of procedures in oral cancer examination. Also, a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Only 17.8 % of the participants reported that they routinely performed oral cancer screening in practices. Their oral cancer knowledge scores ranged from 3 to 31 with a mean of 15.6. The early detection practice scores ranged from 2 to 21 with a mean of 11.6. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge scores and early detection practice scores (r = 0.22; p < 0.001). The diagnostic ability scores ranged from 11.5 to 96 with a mean of 43.6. The diagnostic ability score was significantly correlated with knowledge scores (r = 0.39; p < 0.001), but not with early detection practice scores (r = 0.01; p = 0.92). Few significant differences were found between medical and dental primary care professionals. Continuous education courses on early diagnosis of oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions are needed for primary health-care professionals.

  2. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  3. Detection of smoke plume for a land-based early forest fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Davenport, Tim; Garges, David

    2015-09-01

    A promising daytime smoke plume detection for a land-based early forest fire detection system is proposed. The visible video imagery from a land-based monitoring camera is processed to detect the smoke which likely rises in an early stage of a forest fire. Unlike the fire core and its surrounding heat which are detected via day/night infrared imaging, the relatively cold smoke plume can only be captured in the visible spectrum of light. The smoke plume is detected via exploitation of its temporal signature. This is accomplished via Principal Component Transformation (PCT) operations on consecutive sequences of visible video frames followed by spatial filtering of one of the resulting low-order Principal Component (PC) images. It is shown that the blue channel of the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color camera is most effective in detecting the smoke plume. Smoke plume is clearly detected and isolated via simple blurring, thresholding, and median filtering of one of the resulting low-order principle component (PC) images. The robustness of this PCA-based method relative to simple temporal frame differencing and use of color, i.e., visible spectral signature of smoke, are discussed. Various parameters of the system including the required observation time and number of frames to retain for PCT, selection of which low-order PC to use, and types and sizes of the filters applied to the selected PC image to detect and isolate the smoke plume, are discussed.

  4. Analytical Validation of Telomerase Activity for Cancer Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P.; Wang, Wendy; Barker, Peter E.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Atha, Donald H.

    2004-01-01

    Activation of telomerase plays a critical role in unlimited proliferation and immortalization of cells. Telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with tumor progression, indicating that tumors expressing this enzyme possess aggressive clinical behavior and that telomerase activity may be a useful biomarker for early detection of cancer. However, measurements of telomerase activity by current methods such as telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)/polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody-based radioimmunoassay (RIA) are low-throughput and not robust enough to easily accommodate the required statistical analysis to determine whether telomerase activity is a practical biomarker. As part of the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network of analytical validation, we have developed a robot assisted TRAP assay (RApidTRAP) of telomerase, a potential biomarker for cancer early detection. Measurements of human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT) mRNA were performed in concert with measurement of telomerase activity. For this purpose we determined hTERT mRNA concentration and telomerase activity in human normal (RPE-28) and cancer (A549) cell lines as well as in human serum (SRM 1951A). Telomerase activity measurements were made using the TRAP/PCR capillary electrophoresis (CE) method on (50 to 1000) cells/reaction isolated from cell extracts. Measurement of hTERT mRNA was made using specific primers and probes on a LightCycler in the range of (10 to 7000) cells/reaction. Comparison of high-throughput telomerase activity measurements using the robot and those performed manually were consistent in sensitivity and reproducibility. Using this combination of telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA measurements, the automated system improved efficiency over traditional TRAP/PCR methods. PMID:15269291

  5. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  6. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  7. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  8. Early Detection of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    García-Campayo, J; Pérez-Yus, M C; García-Bustinduy, M; Daudén, E

    2016-05-01

    Many skin diseases are associated with mental disorders. When the psychological symptoms are mild, as is often the case in dermatology, it can be difficult to distinguish between normality and the manifestations of a mental disorder. To facilitate the distinction we review the concept of mental disorder in the present article. It is also important to have instruments that can facilitate early detection of psychological disease, i.e. when the symptoms are still mild. Short, simple, self-administered questionnaires have been developed to help dermatologists and other health professionals identify the presence of a mental disorder with a high degree of certainty. In this article, we focus on the questionnaires most often used to detect the 2 most common mental disorders: anxiety and depression. Finally, we describe the circumstances in which it is advisable to refer a dermatological patient to a psychiatrist, who can diagnose and treat the mental disorder in accordance with standard protocols.

  9. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Swanepoel, De Wet; Chapchap, Mônica J; Castillo, Salvador; Habib, Hamed; Mukari, Siti Z; Martinez, Norberto V; Lin, Hung-Ching; McPherson, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. Results Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. Conclusion Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development partners need to complement

  10. A Framework for Providing Culturally Responsive Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework that offers a way for early intervention (EI) service providers to better meet the needs of the culturally diverse children and families they serve. This framework was created to organize existing research and literature on cultural responsiveness in a way that fit the unique context of EI. The…

  11. Early Twentieth Century Responses to the Drug Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Dennis Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Describes early twentieth-century responses to the drug problem in the United States. Discusses pressure from the media and reformers to control the availability of drugs such as opium and cocaine that were widely available in over-the-counter medications. Focuses on New York State, which took the lead in enacting drug control legislation. (DK)

  12. A Comparison of Responsive Interventions on Kindergarteners' Early Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-man; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Simmons, Leslie E.; Fogarty, Melissa; Oslund, Eric; Coyne, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effects of Tier 2 reading interventions that operated in response-to-intervention contexts. Kindergarten children (N = 90) who were identified as at risk for reading difficulties were stratified by school and randomly assigned to receive (a) Early Reading Intervention (ERI; Pearson/Scott Foresman, 2004) modified in response…

  13. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B.; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0–12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers. PMID:27140836

  14. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions.

  15. Protein microarrays and quantum dot probes for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Aleksandra; Song, Dansheng; Qian, Wei; Zhukov, Tatyana

    2007-08-01

    We describe here a novel approach for detection of cancer markers using quantum dot protein microarrays. Both relatively new technologies; quantum dots and protein microarrays, offer very unique features that together allow detection of cancer markers in biological specimens (serum, plasma, body fluids) at pg/ml concentration. Quantum dots offer remarkable photostability and brightness. They do not exhibit photobleaching common to organic fluorophores. Moreover, the high emission amplitude for QDs results in a marked improvement in the signal to noise ratio of the final image. Protein microarrays allow highly parallel quantitation of specific proteins in a rapid, low-cost and low sample volume format. Furthermore the multiplexed assay enables detection of many proteins at once in one sample, making it a powerful tool for biomarker analysis and early cancer diagnostics. In a series of multiplexing experiments we investigated ability of the platform to detect six different cytokines in protein solution. We were able to detect TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-6, MIP-1beta, IL-13 and IL-1beta down to picomolar concentration, demonstrating high sensitivity of the investigated detection system. We have also constructed and investigated two different models of quantum dot probes. One by conjugation of nanocrystals to antibody specific to the selected marker--IL-10, and the second by use of streptavidin coated quantum dots and biotinylated detector antibody. Comparison of those two models showed better performance of streptavidin QD-biotinylated detector antibody model. Data quantitated using custom designed computer program (CDAS) show that proposed methodology allows monitoring of changes in biomarker concentration in physiological range.

  16. Early detection of cancer: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Joshua D; Fisher, Paul G; Gibbs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Screening in both healthy and high-risk populations offers the opportunity to detect cancer early and with an increased opportunity for treatment and curative intent. Currently, a defined role for screening exists in some cancer types, but each screening test has limitations, and improved screening methods are urgently needed. Unfortunately, many cancers still lack effective screening recommendations, or in some cases, the benefits from screening are marginal when weighed against the potential for harm. Here we review the current status of cancer screening: we examine the role of traditional tumor biomarkers, describe recommended imaging for early tumor surveillance, and explore the potential of promising novel cancer markers such as circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating tumor DNA. Consistent challenges for all of these screening tests include limited sensitivity and specificity. The risk for overdiagnosis remains a particular concern in screening, whereby lesions of no clinical consequence may be detected and thus create difficult management decisions for the clinician and patient. If treatment is pursued following overdiagnosis, patients may be exposed to morbidity from a treatment that may not provide any true benefit. The cost-effectiveness of screening tests also needs to be an ongoing focus. The improvement of genomic and surveillance technologies, which leads to more precise imaging and the ability to characterize blood-based tumor markers of greater specificity, offers opportunities for major progress in cancer screening.

  17. Future directions for the early detection of colorectal cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Walker, Avery S; Johnson, Eric K; Maykel, Justin A; Stojadinovic, Alex; Nissan, Aviram; Brucher, Bjorn; Champagne, Bradley J; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection remains a mainstay of treatment and is highly effective for localized colorectal cancer. However, ~30-40% of patients develop recurrence following surgery and 40-50% of recurrences are apparent within the first few years after initial surgical resection. Several variables factor into the ultimate outcome of these patients, including the extent of disease, tumor biology, and patient co-morbidities. Additionally, the time from initial treatment to the development of recurrence is strongly associated with overall survival, particularly in patients who recur within one year of their surgical resection. Current post-resection surveillance strategies involve physical examination, laboratory, endoscopic and imaging studies utilizing various high and low-intensity protocols. Ultimately, the goal is to detect recurrence as early as possible, and ideally in the asymptomatic localized phase, to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. While current strategies have been effective, several efforts are evolving to improve our ability to identify recurrent disease at its earliest phase. Our aim with this article is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in the early detection of colon and rectal cancer recurrence.

  18. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    10-1-0422 TITLE: Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early PRINCIPAL...molecular imaging 7 cdrescher@fhcrc.org Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early Page 3...Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early Charles W Drescher, MD, Principle Investigator

  19. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  20. Early detection for lung cancer. New tools for casefinding.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, S.; Lam, B.; Petty, T. L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review data from published population trials and clinical practice guidelines on screening for lung cancer to provide a recommendation for early detection of lung cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Literature was searched via MEDLINE using the MeSH headings "lung neoplasm," "mass screening," "thoracic radiography," and "sputum." Only prospective randomized controlled trials with large numbers of subjects were selected. MAIN MESSAGE: Risk of lung cancer among long-term heavy smokers continues even years after stopping smoking. Risk is highest in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Canadian clinical practice guidelines currently recommend that sputum cytology examination and chest radiography (CXR) not be used for lung cancer screening. This guideline was deducted from four randomized population trials in the 1970s that have serious limitations and applies to asymptomatic adults only. A CXR and sputum cytology examination are indicated in symptomatic current and former smokers older than 45 years with a smoking history of 30 pack-years or more and airflow obstruction defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of 70% or less and a FEV1 lower than 70%. Curative treatment is available for early lung cancer. Substantial advances in innovative technologies for early detection using low-dose spiral CT and newer sputum tests have been made in the last three decades. Additional studies are under way to evaluate these new technologies. CONCLUSION: Primary care physicians have an important role in identifying people at risk of developing lung cancer and in supporting research to evaluate new screening technology. PMID:11281087

  1. An analysis of media coverage on the prevention and early detection of CKD in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Chapman, Simon; Sainsbury, Peter; Craig, Jonathan C

    2008-07-01

    News media raise public awareness about health and can influence public policy agenda. Recently, nephrologists have sought to make prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) a health care priority. We assessed the extent and manner in which Australian television news and newspapers cover CKD prevention or early detection. Electronic news databases for print media and television programs were searched (May 2005 to March 2007) for items referring to CKD prevention or early detection. We analyzed all relevant items for spokespeople, main news frame, focus of responsibility, proposed solutions, and trigger/reason for publication. Of 2,439 newspaper articles and 10,430 television broadcasts retrieved, only 214 articles (8.77%) and 7 broadcasts (0.06%) were eligible. Kidney transplantation dominated CKD-related news. Lay person or high-profile advocates were virtually absent. Risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality conferred by CKD were not emphasized by news reports; instead, CKD received peripheral mention as a secondary consequence of diabetes or obesity. Few reports cited the economic consequences of CKD. The media focused on lifestyle causes and solutions, whereas nonlifestyle causes and screening and prevention strategies were rarely mentioned. Kidney health professionals need to actively engage with the media in efforts to amplify desired messages on CKD prevention or early detection. Medical journals, research institutions, universities, hospitals, and advocacy groups should issue press releases that highlight newsworthy aspects of this topic. Extending news media coverage can help exert an influence on health policies and agenda setting and increase public awareness to improve prevention and early detection of CKD.

  2. Determinants of early life immune responses to RSV infection.

    PubMed

    Ruckwardt, Tracy J; Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Graham, Barney S

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus causes significant morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries, and a vaccine that adequately protects from severe disease remains an important unmet need. RSV disease has an inordinate impact on the very young, and the physical and immunological immaturity of early life complicates vaccine design. Defining and targeting the functional capacities of early life immune responses and controlling responses during primary antigen exposure with selected vaccine delivery approaches will be important for protecting infants by active immunization. Alternatively, vaccination of older children and pregnant mothers may ameliorate disease burden indirectly until infants reach about six months of age, when they can generate more effective anti-RSV immune responses.

  3. Quadrant Field Pupillometry Detects Melanopsin Dysfunction in Glaucoma Suspects and Early Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prakash; Zele, Andrew J.; Thomas, Ravi; Feigl, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to detect visual function deficits in patients at risk for glaucoma (glaucoma suspects) and at early disease stages with conventional ophthalmic tests such as perimetry. To this end, we introduce a novel quadrant field measure of the melanopsin retinal ganglion cell mediated pupil light response corresponding with typical glaucomatous arcuate visual field defects. The melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) was measured in 46 patients with different stages of glaucoma including glaucoma suspects and compared to a healthy group of 21 participants with no disease. We demonstrate that the superonasal quadrant PIPR differentiated glaucoma suspects and early glaucoma patients from controls with fair (AUC = 0.74) and excellent (AUC = 0.94) diagnostic accuracy, respectively. The superonasal PIPR provides a linear functional correlate of structural retinal nerve fibre thinning in glaucoma suspects and early glaucoma patients. This first report that quadrant PIPR stimulation detects melanopsin dysfunction in patients with early glaucoma and at pre-perimetric stages may have future implications in treatment decisions of glaucoma suspects. PMID:27622679

  4. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.0005). Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p < 0.009). In injured segments high cholesterol diet resulted in lower recorded fluorescence emission at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.001) associated with the increase in intimal thickness. Spectra from uninjured elastic aorta (aortic arch and thoracic aorta) had greater fluorescence intensity at 380 - 445 nm than muscular (abdominal) aorta (p < 0.01), therefore, only spectra from injured and uninjured segments of corresponding areas of the aorta were compared. The conclusion is: (1) Early intimal proliferative changes after angioplasty can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. (2) Spectra from elastic thoracic aorta differ significantly from the spectra of muscular abdominal aorta.

  5. Serum Protein Markers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer: A Focus on Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Broodman, Ingrid; Lindemans, Jan; van Sten, Jenny; Bischoff, Rainer; Luider, Theo

    2017-01-06

    Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and noncurable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mortality rate. However, the still high false-positive rate of CT screening may harm healthy individuals because of unnecessary follow-up scans and invasive follow-up procedures. Alternatively, false-negative and indeterminate results may harm patients due to the delayed diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Noninvasive biomarkers, complementary to CT screening, could lower the false-positive and false-negative rate of CT screening at baseline and thereby reduce the number of patients that need follow-up and diagnose patients at an earlier stage of lung cancer. Lung cancer tissue generates lung cancer-associated proteins to which the immune system might produce high-affinity autoantibodies. This autoantibody response to tumor-associated antigens starts during early stage lung cancer and may endure over years. Identification of tumor-associated antigens or the corresponding autoantibodies in body fluids as potential noninvasive biomarkers could thus be an effective approach for early detection and monitoring of lung cancer. We provide an overview of differentially expressed protein, antigen, and autoantibody biomarkers that combined with CT imaging might be of clinical use for early detection of lung cancer.

  6. Surface engineered biosensors for the early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Muhymin

    Cancer commences in the building block of human body which is cells and in most of the cases remains silent at early stage. Diseases are only expressed at molecular and cellular level at primary stages. Recognition of diseases at this micro and nano level might reduce the mortality rate of cancer significantly. This research work aimed to introduce novel electronic biosensors for for identification of cancer at cellular level. The dissertation study focuses on 1) Label-Free Isolation of Metastatic Tumor Cells Using Filter Based Microfluidic device; 2) Nanotextured Polymer Substrates for Enhanced Cancer Cell Isolation and Cell Growth; 3) Nanotextured Microfluidic Channel for Electrical Profiling and Detection of Tumor Cells from Blood; and 4) Single Biochip for the Detection of Tumor Cells by Electrical Profile and Surface Immobilized Aptamer. Standard silicon processing techniques were followed to fabricate all of the biosensors. Nantoextruing and surface functionalizon were also incorporated to elevate the efficiency of the devices. The first approach aimed to detect cancer cells from blood based on their mechanophysical properties. Cancer cells are larger than blood cells but highly elastic in nature. These cells can squeeze through small microchannels much smaller than their size. The cross sectional area of the microchannels was optimized to isolate tumor cells from blood. Nanotextured polymer substrates, a platform inspired from the natural basement membrane was used to enhance the isolation and growth of tumor cells. Micro reactive ion etching was performed to have better control on features of nantoxtured surfaces and did not require any template. Next, electrical measurement of ionic current was performed across single microchannel to detect tumor cells from blood. Later, nanotexturing enhanced the efficiency of the device by selectively altering the translocation profile of cancer cells. Eventually aptamer functionalized nanotextured polymer surface was

  7. Replicated evolution of integrated plastic responses during early adaptive divergence.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Kevin J; Robinson, Beren W

    2006-04-01

    Colonization of a novel environment is expected to result in adaptive divergence from the ancestral population when selection favors a new phenotypic optimum. Local adaptation in the new environment occurs through the accumulation and integration of character states that positively affect fitness. The role played by plastic traits in adaptation to a novel environment has generally been ignored, except for variable environments. We propose that if conditions in a relatively stable but novel environment induce phenotypically plastic responses in many traits, and if genetic variation exists in the form of those responses, then selection may initially favor the accumulation and integration of functionally useful plastic responses. Early divergence between ancestral and colonist forms will then occur with respect to their plastic responses across the gradient bounded by ancestral and novel environmental conditions. To test this, we compared the magnitude, integration, and pattern of plastic character responses in external body form induced by shallow versus open water conditions between two sunfish ecomorphs that coexist in four postglacial lakes. The novel sunfish ecomorph is present in the deeper open water habitat, whereas the ancestral ecomorph inhabits the shallow waters along the lake margin. Plastic responses by open water ecomorphs were more correlated than those of their local shallow water ecomorph in two of the populations, whereas equal levels of correlated plastic character responses occurred between ecomorphs in the other two populations. Small but persistent differences occurred between ecomorph pairs in the pattern of their character responses, suggesting a recent divergence. Open water ecomorphs shared some similarities in the covariance among plastic responses to rearing environment. Replication in the form of correlated plastic responses among populations of open water ecomorphs suggests that plastic character states may evolve under selection

  8. Diagnosis and early detection of COPD using spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The standard respiratory function test for case detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is spirometry. The criterion for diagnosis defined in guidelines is based on the FEV1/FVC ratio forced expiratory ratio (FER) and its severity is based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from measurements obtained during maximal forced expiratory manoeuvres. Spirometry is a safe and practical procedure, and when conducted by a trained operator using a spirometer that provides quality feedback, the majority of patients can be coached to provide acceptable and repeatable results. This allows potentially wide application of testing to improve recognition and diagnosis of COPD, such as for case finding in primary care. However, COPD remains substantially under diagnosed in primary care and a major reason for this is underuse of spirometry. The presence of symptoms is not a reliable indicator of disease and diagnosis is often delayed until more severe airflow obstruction is present. Early diagnosis is worthwhile, as it allows risk factors for COPD such as smoking to be addressed promptly and treatment optimised. Paradoxically, investigation of the patho-physiology in COPD has shown that extensive small airway disease exists before it is detectable with conventional spirometric indices, and methods to detect airway disease earlier using the flow-volume curve are discussed. PMID:25478197

  9. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program partnerships in action.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Latasha D; Larkins, Teri L; Boyle, John N; George, Susan F; Triplett, Erin W; Leypoldt, Melissa D

    2014-08-15

    Since the inception of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in 1990, partnerships have played a significant role in providing breast and cervical cancer screening and early detection to uninsured and underinsured women. The state, tribal, and territorial NBCCEDP grantees have shared resources and responsibilities with a variety of partners (eg, community-based organizations, government agencies, tribes, health care systems, companies, professional organizations) to achieve common goals. National partners, such as the American Cancer Society, Susan G. Komen for the Cure, and the Avon Foundation for Women, have provided funding, lobbied for national and state funding, supported outreach and education activities, and provided treatment referral services for the programs. This article provides an overview of grantee partnerships to illustrate the effects, successes, and challenges of these partnerships and how they have affected the populations served by the program.

  10. Innate immune gene expression differentiates the early avian intestinal response between Salmonella and Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Ronan G; Meade, Kieran G; Cahalane, Sarah; Allan, Brenda; Reiman, Carla; Callanan, John J; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2009-12-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni are major human pathogens, yet colonise chickens without causing pathology. The aim of this study was to compare intestinal innate immune responses to both bacterial species, in a 4-week-old broiler chicken model. Challenged and control birds were sacrificed and tissue samples taken for histopathology and RNA extraction. No significant clinical or pathological changes were observed in response to infection with either bacterial species. Expression of selected genes involved in pathogen detection and the innate immune response were profiled in caecal tissues by quantitative real-time PCR. TLR4 and TLR21 gene expression was transiently increased in response to both bacterial species (P<0.05). Significant increases in TLR5 and TLR15 gene expression were detected in response to S. Typhimurium but not to C. jejuni. Transient increases of proinflammatory cytokine (IL6 and IFNG) and chemokine (IL8 and K60) genes increased as early as 6h in response to S. Typhimurium. Minimal cytokine gene expression was detected in response to C. jejuni after 20h. IL8 gene expression however, was significantly increased by 24-fold (P<0.01). The differential expression profiles of innate immune genes in both infection models shed light on the tailored responses of the host immune system to specific microbes. It is further evidence that innate regulation of these responses is an important prerequisite to preventing development of disease.

  11. Sensory Detection and Responses to Toxic Gases

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F.; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2010-01-01

    The inhalation of reactive gases and vapors can lead to severe damage of the airways and lung, compromising the function of the respiratory system. Exposures to oxidizing, electrophilic, acidic, or basic gases frequently occur in occupational and ambient environments. Corrosive gases and vapors such as chlorine, phosgene, and chloropicrin were used as warfare agents and in terrorist acts. Chemical airway exposures are detected by the olfactory, gustatory, and nociceptive sensory systems that initiate protective physiological and behavioral responses. This review focuses on the role of airway nociceptive sensory neurons in chemical sensing and discusses the recent discovery of neuronal receptors for reactive chemicals. Using physiological, imaging, and genetic approaches, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels in sensory neurons were shown to respond to a wide range of noxious chemical stimuli, initiating pain, respiratory depression, cough, glandular secretions, and other protective responses. TRPA1, a TRP ion channel expressed in chemosensory C-fibers, is activated by almost all oxidizing and electrophilic chemicals, including chlorine, acrolein, tear gas agents, and methyl isocyanate, the highly noxious chemical released in the Bhopal disaster. Chemicals likely activate TRPA1 through covalent protein modification. Animal studies using TRPA1 antagonists or TRPA1-deficient mice confirmed the role of TRPA1 in chemically induced respiratory reflexes, pain, and inflammation in vivo. New research shows that sensory neurons are not merely passive sensors of chemical exposures. Sensory channels such as TRPA1 are essential for maintenance of airway inflammation in asthma and may contribute to the progression of airway injury following high-level chemical exposures. PMID:20601631

  12. Optimizing early upper gastrointestinal cancer detection at endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Andrew M; Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi; East, James E

    2015-11-01

    Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers are poor and oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing. Upper gastrointestinal cancer is also often missed during examinations; a predicament that has not yet been sufficiently addressed. Improvements in the detection of premalignant lesions, early oesophageal and gastric cancers will enable organ-preserving endoscopic therapy, potentially reducing the number of advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers and resulting in improved prognosis. Japan is a world leader in high-quality diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the clinical routine in this country differs substantially from Western practice. In this Perspectives article, we review lessons learnt from Japanese gastroscopy technique, training and screening for risk stratification. We suggest a key performance indicator for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a minimum total procedure time of 8 min, and examine how quality assurance concepts in bowel cancer screening in the UK could be applied to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and improve clinical practice.

  13. Klinefelter syndrome: are we missing opportunities for early detection?

    PubMed

    Nahata, Leena; Rosoklija, Ilina; Yu, Richard N; Cohen, Laurie E

    2013-10-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is a common condition that remains underdiagnosed, particularly prior to adulthood. Early detection could prevent morbidity and mortality, but the classic phenotype of small testes and tall stature may not be apparent until adolescence, and there is minimal guidance regarding whom to screen. We performed a retrospective study at Boston Children's Hospital in patients with the ICD-9 code for "Klinefelter syndrome" diagnosed prior to age 20 years, and determined age and reason for diagnosis, karyotype, heights, and comorbid conditions. Eighty percent had a 47,XXY karyotype, of whom half were diagnosed at age 11 to 19 years. The most common comorbidities were neurocognitive, including learning disabilities (67%), psychosocial problems (33%), and attention deficit disorder (27%). Subjects were only slightly taller than average in childhood (height standard deviation score = 0.64). These data show that Klinefelter syndrome is associated with long-standing comorbidities that frequently remain under-recognized; a karyotype should be considered in boys with neurocognitive problems.

  14. Rethinking Positron Emission Technology for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, D. B.

    2006-04-01

    Current PET technology, which detects cancer indirectly by measuring the size of tumors, is contrasted with a new technology that emphasizes measuring directly the abnormal metabolic activity characteristic of the very first cancerous cells by improving the efficiency of the medical imaging device hundreds of times. Rather than maximizing spatial resolution, this approach minimizes the abnormal metabolic threshold needed for early cancer diagnosis. A redesigned detector assembly takes full advantage of innovations in electronics to implement real-time algorithms that allow the use of economical crystal detectors. The tradeoffs inherent in choosing components, such as crystals, sensors, and electronics, for achieving the largest reduction in cancer deaths is discussed and justified. Theoretical calculations and prototype data are provided in references that demonstrate that all this can be achieved at a significantly lower radiation dosage and per exam cost to the patient.

  15. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  16. Semiology, proteomics, and the early detection of symptomatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Porta, Miquel; Fernandez, Esteve; Alguacil, Joan

    2003-09-01

    "Diagnostic delay," the duration of symptoms or the symptom to diagnosis interval (SDI), are highly complex variables that reflect the behavior of the patient and the attending physician, tumor biology and host-tumor interactions, the functioning of the health care system, and sociocultural norms. In addition to tumor stage, other variables mediate the relationship between duration of symptoms and survival; clinical and epidemiologic procedures to measure them must be improved. Largely at odds with clinical and common wisdom, decades of research have shown that often SDI is not associated with tumor stage and/or with survival from cancer. It would be relevant to increase evidence in support of the notion that, for each type of tumor, there is a positive relationship between the length of the presymptomatic and the symptomatic phases. SDI could then be used to classify tumors according to their likelihood of being detected early when still asymptomatic. Also, tumors could be classified according to the ratio of the median SDI to the median survival (SDI to survival ratio, SSR), which may estimate the relative likelihood for clinical lead-time bias. If adhering to rigorous methodologic standards, proteomic analyses of early-stage cancers might provide new insights into changes that occur in early phases of tumorigenesis. More real examples are needed of uses of pathologic and genomic data to study mechanisms through which SDI influences-or fails to influence-prognosis. The degree of correlation between proteomic patterns and classic semiology constitutes an area of interest in itself; their respective correlations with cancer prognosis should be assessed in properly designed epidemiologic studies.

  17. Early detection of intentional harm in the human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Eugenia; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean; Sigman, Mariano; Garcia, María del Carmen; Silva, Walter; Ciraolo, Carlos; Vaucheret, Esteban; Baglivo, Fabricio; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    A decisive element of moral cognition is the detection of harm and its assessment as intentional or unintentional. Moral cognition engages brain networks supporting mentalizing, intentionality, empathic concern and evaluation. These networks rely on the amygdala as a critical hub, likely through frontotemporal connections indexing stimulus salience. We assessed inferences about perceived harm using a paradigm validated through functional magnetic resonance imaging, eye-tracking and electroencephalogram recordings. During the task, we measured local field potentials in three patients with depth electrodes (n = 115) placed in the amygdala and in several frontal, temporal, and parietal locations. Direct electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that intentional harm induces early activity in the amygdala (<200 ms), which--in turn--predicts intention attribution. The amygdala was the only site that systematically discriminated between critical conditions and predicted their classification of events as intentional. Moreover, connectivity analysis showed that intentional harm induced stronger frontotemporal information sharing at early stages. Results support the 'many roads' view of the amygdala and highlight its role in the rapid encoding of intention and salience--critical components of mentalizing and moral evaluation.

  18. [Epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Corvalán R, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the first cause of death for cancer in Chile. The recently identified genetic alterations in these tumors have not yielded new biomarkers for the disease. Epigenetics or the study of reversible genomic changes that do not affect protein codifying DNA sequences but cause phenotypic disturbances, is identifying new cancer biomarkers. Specifically, the loss of expression caused by the covalent link of a methyl group to carbon 5 of cytosine (DNA hypermethylation) is extensively evaluated. Performing an epigenetic evaluation of 24 genes, we have identified eight genes associated to the aggressive signet ring cell type gastric cancer, the association between APC hypermethylation and worse prognosis and BRCA1 hypermethylation association with early onset of gastric cancer. The most interesting findings are the hypermethylation of Reprimo gene in plasma as a population biomarker and the tissue over expression of p73 gene (as a consequence of hypomethylation) as a high risk indicator of progression to gastric cancer. All these findings are indicating an important role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer.

  19. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  20. Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

    1999-04-01

    Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

  1. Implementation of responsiveness to intervention in early education settings.

    PubMed

    Justice, Laura M; McGinty, Anita; Guo, Ying; Moore, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    This article provides an overview of how response to intervention (RTI) may be used effectively within early childhood settings. Discussion is organized to address such issues regarding RTI implementation as (1) how to design and implement a high-quality Tier 1 learning environment that systematically improves children's language and literacy outcomes, (2) how to design and implement a high-quality Tier 2 supplemental learning intervention that systematically improves the language and literacy outcomes of children who are unresponsive to Tier 1, and (3) how to design and implement a comprehensive and cohesive assessment system that appropriately identifies children who show inadequate response to the Tier 1 and Tier 2 learning opportunities. A model for implementing RTI using the supplemental curriculum by Justice and McGinty, READ IT AGAIN-PREK! (2008), is presented. This tool was developed to meet the needs of early childhood programs as they seek to implement RIA in a cost-effective and scalable manner.

  2. Early Response of Prostate Carcinoma Xenografts to Docetaxel Chemotherapy Monitored With Diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Dominique; Hatton, B Nicholas; Guo, Jingyu; Galons, Jean-Philippe; Trouard, Theodore P; Raghunand, Natarajan; Marshall, James; Gillies, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Abstract For many anticancer therapies, it would be desirable to accurately monitor and quantify tumor response early in the treatment regimen. This would allow oncologists to continue effective therapies or discontinue ineffective therapies early in the course of treatment, and hence, reduce morbidity. This is especially true for second-line therapies, which have reduced response rates and increased toxicities. Previous works by others and ourselves have shown that water mobility, measured by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI), increases early in tumors destined to respond to therapies. In the current communication, we further characterize the utility of DW-MRI to predict response of prostate cancer xenografts to docetaxel in SCID mice in a preclinical setting. The current data illustrate that tumor volumes and secreted prostate-specific antigen both respond strongly to docetaxel in a dose-responsive manner, and the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCw) increases significantly by 2 days even at the lowest doses (10 mg/kg). The ADCw data were parsed by histogram analyses. Our results indicate that DW-MRI can be used for early detection of prostate carcinoma xenograft response to docetaxel chemotherapy. PMID:11988845

  3. Early responses of vascular endothelial cells to topographic cues.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Britta; Gasiorowski, Joshua Z; Morgan, Joshua T; Nealey, Paul F; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J

    2013-08-01

    Vascular endothelial cells in vivo are exposed to multiple biophysical cues provided by the basement membrane, a specialized extracellular matrix through which vascular endothelial cells are attached to the underlying stroma. The importance of biophysical cues has been widely reported, but the signaling pathways that mediate cellular recognition and response to these cues remain poorly understood. Anisotropic topographically patterned substrates with nano- through microscale feature dimensions were fabricated to investigate cellular responses to topographic cues. The present study focuses on early events following exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to these patterned substrates. In serum-free medium and on substrates without protein coating, HUVECs oriented parallel to the long axis of underlying ridges in as little as 30 min. Immunocytochemistry showed clear differences in the localization of the focal adhesion proteins Src, p130Cas, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs cultured on topographically patterned surfaces and on planar surfaces, suggesting involvement of these proteins in mediating the response to topographic features. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that FAK was not necessary for HUVEC alignment in response to topographic cues, although FAK knockdown did modulate HUVEC migration. These data identify key events early in the cellular response to biophysical stimuli.

  4. [Health threats and health system crises. An approach to early warning and response. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Simón Soria, Fernando; Guillén Enríquez, Francisco Javier

    2008-04-01

    The world is changing more and faster than ever before. New diseases are coming to light each year, controlled diseases are reemerging as potential threats, and natural or man-made disasters are increasingly affecting human health. The "International Health Regulations (2005)" reflect the changes in the response of public health to this new situation. Surveillance of specific diseases and predefined control measures have been replaced by surveillance of public health events of international concern and control measures adapted to each situation. The public health events of international interest are characterized by their seriousness, predictability, the risk of international spread and potential for travel or trade restrictions. The development of the European Early Warning and Response System in 1998 and the creation of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2005 demonstrate political commitment in Europe, with early detection of and response to public health threats. However, timely risk evaluation and response at a national level requires improved data digitalization and accessibility, automatic notification processes, data analysis and dissemination of information, the combination of information from multiple sources and adaptation of public health services. The autonomous regions in Spain are initiating this adaptation process, but interoperability between systems and the development of guidelines for a coordinated response should be steered by the National Interregional Health Council and coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Efficient early warning systems of health threats that allow for a timely response and reduce uncertainty about information would help to minimize the risk of public health crises. The profile of public health threats is nonspecific. Early detection of threats requires access to information from multiple sources and efficient risk assessment. Key factors for improving the response to public health threats are the

  5. Detecting early recovery of consciousness: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristin V; DiNapoli, Michael V; Whyte, John

    2017-04-07

    Early detection of the return of consciousness has important implications for prognosis and rehabilitation access. The aim of this study was to compare the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) with individualised quantitative behavioural assessments (IQBA) to determine which method is capable of detecting command-following earlier and more consistently in persons with disorders of consciousness (DoC). Data from 27 patients with DoC, who underwent both assessments concurrently during inpatient rehabilitation, were retrospectively analysed. For each person, performance trajectories on the CRS-R auditory subscale item and IQBA dual command protocols were graphed together to identify earlier and more consistent evidence of consciousness; grouped data were analysed statistically. For 22 patients, IQBA more consistently documented consciousness than the CRS-R, whereas no patients showed the reverse pattern. For 14 of 20 analysable patients, IQBA provided earlier evidence of consciousness, for two patients CRS-R provided earlier evidence, and for four patients both methods provided initial evidence on the same day. These findings suggest that IQBA approaches can provide more consistent and earlier evidence of command-following than the comparable item on the CRS-R. Whether this advantage is due to the individualisation of IQBA or the greater volume of data gathered requires further research.

  6. Saliva: an emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T

    2009-08-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor posttreatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future.

  7. Blood based cell biopsy for early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Mei; Adams, Daniel; Adams, Diane; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Martin, Stuart; Chumsri, Saranya; Marks, Jeffrey

    Early detection (ED) of cancer holds the promise for less aggressive treatments and better outcome. However, there are few accepted methods for ED. We report on a previously unknown blood cell found specifically in the peripheral blood of many solid tumors. They are defined as Cancer Associated Macrophage-Like cells (CAMLs) and are characterized by large size (25-300 μm) and expression of cancer markers. CAMLs were isolated on precision filters during blood filtration. We conducted prospective studies in breast cancer (BC) to ascertain CAML prevalence, specificity and sensitivity in relation to disease status at clinical presentation. We report on two related but separate studies: 1) the isolation of CAMLs from patients with known invasive BC, compared to healthy volunteers and, 2) a double blind study conducted on women undergoing core needle biopsy to evaluate suspicious breast masses. The studies show that CAMLs are found in all stages of BC and suggest that detection of CAMLs can differentiate patients with BC from those with benign breast conditions and healthy individuals. This non-invasive blood test can be potentially used for ED of BC and other malignancies after validation studies with the advantage of a minimally invasive procedure and longitudinal monitoring. This work was supported by Grants from Maryland TEDCO MTTCF, R01-CA154624 from NIH, KG100240 from Susan G. Komen Foundation, Era of Hope Scholar award from DoD (BC100675), and U01-CA084955 from NCI EDRN.

  8. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases. PMID:28158192

  9. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  10. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset.

    PubMed

    Won, Miguel; Marques-Pita, Manuel; Louro, Carlota; Gonçalves-Sá, Joana

    2017-02-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases.

  11. A new system for early chloride detection in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laferrière, Francine; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2008-08-01

    In a national and worldwide context, countless reinforced concrete structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. A principal cause of such degradation is chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement bars. This phenomenon is accentuated in countries where de-icing salts are used for road safety, as well as in maritime zones. To date, no non-destructive method quantifying chloride content during the corrosion initiation phase has been established. Measurement of such a parameter is important for the development of a better understanding of the complexity of corrosion phenomena and, more practically, for better management of existing structures. This paper proposes a new method for non-destructive measurement, for monitoring continuously and in real time free chloride content in concrete pores. In this context, a chemical sensor that employs optical fibers was developed and tested. The sensor functions using the fluorescence of an indicator dye that is sensitive to chlorides. Through fluorescence spectroscopy, variations in the concentration of free chlorides are related to intensity fluctuations of fluorescence. The use of optical fibers also provides an advantage compared with existing electric non-destructive detection systems due to superior electromagnetic stability. Theoretical and experimental studies calibrated and validated the sensor for implementation within mortar samples. Free chloride concentrations between 30 and 350 mM can be detected. Two experiments reproduced climatic variations in a controlled environment. The first test simulated a hot maritime climate and the second test simulated a cold continental climate. These tests confirmed that it is possible to determine with precision the free chloride content. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy with optical fibers offers an innovative means for early and non-destructive detection of free chloride content in concrete. As a result, this new method has potential for improving the science of corrosion

  12. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast...

  13. Early redox, Src family kinase, and calcium signaling integrate wound responses and tissue regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sa Kan; Freisinger, Christina M; LeBert, Danny C; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2012-10-15

    Tissue injury can lead to scar formation or tissue regeneration. How regenerative animals sense initial tissue injury and transform wound signals into regenerative growth is an unresolved question. Previously, we found that the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn functions as a redox sensor in leukocytes that detects H(2)O(2) at wounds in zebrafish larvae. In this paper, using zebrafish larval tail fins as a model, we find that wounding rapidly activated SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia. The immediate SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia was important for late epimorphic regeneration of amputated fins. Wound-induced activation of SFKs in epithelia was dependent on injury-generated H(2)O(2). A SFK member, Fynb, was responsible for fin regeneration. This work provides a new link between early wound responses and late regeneration and suggests that redox, SFK, and calcium signaling are immediate "wound signals" that integrate early wound responses and late epimorphic regeneration.

  14. Stomatal Blue Light Response Is Present in Early Vascular Plants.

    PubMed

    Doi, Michio; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Light is a major environmental factor required for stomatal opening. Blue light (BL) induces stomatal opening in higher plants as a signal under the photosynthetic active radiation. The stomatal BL response is not present in the fern species of Polypodiopsida. The acquisition of a stomatal BL response might provide competitive advantages in both the uptake of CO2 and prevention of water loss with the ability to rapidly open and close stomata. We surveyed the stomatal opening in response to strong red light (RL) and weak BL under the RL with gas exchange technique in a diverse selection of plant species from euphyllophytes, including spermatophytes and monilophytes, to lycophytes. We showed the presence of RL-induced stomatal opening in most of these species and found that the BL responses operated in all euphyllophytes except Polypodiopsida. We also confirmed that the stomatal opening in lycophytes, the early vascular plants, is driven by plasma membrane proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase and K(+) accumulation in guard cells, which is the same mechanism operating in stomata of angiosperms. These results suggest that the early vascular plants respond to both RL and BL and actively regulate stomatal aperture. We also found three plant species that absolutely require BL for both stomatal opening and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, including a gymnosperm, C. revoluta, and the ferns Equisetum hyemale and Psilotum nudum.

  15. Apparent Motion Suppresses Responses in Early Visual Cortex: A Population Code Model

    PubMed Central

    Van Humbeeck, Nathalie; Putzeys, Tom; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Two stimuli alternately presented at different locations can evoke a percept of a stimulus continuously moving between the two locations. The neural mechanism underlying this apparent motion (AM) is thought to be increased activation of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons tuned to locations along the AM path, although evidence remains inconclusive. AM masking, which refers to the reduced detectability of stimuli along the AM path, has been taken as evidence for AM-related V1 activation. AM-induced neural responses are thought to interfere with responses to physical stimuli along the path and as such impair the perception of these stimuli. However, AM masking can also be explained by predictive coding models, predicting that responses to stimuli presented on the AM path are suppressed when they match the spatio-temporal prediction of a stimulus moving along the path. In the present study, we find that AM has a distinct effect on the detection of target gratings, limiting the maximum performance at high contrast levels. This masking is strongest when the target orientation is identical to the orientation of the inducers. We developed a V1-like population code model of early visual processing, based on a standard contrast normalization model. We find that AM-related activation in early visual cortex is too small to either cause masking or to be perceived as motion. Our model instead predicts strong suppression of early sensory responses during AM, consistent with the theoretical framework of predictive coding. PMID:27783622

  16. Early COPD patients with lung hyperinflation associated with poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunlan; Jian, Wenhua; Gao, Yi; Xie, Yanqing; Song, Yan; Zheng, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether aggressive medication strategies should be used for early COPD with or without lung hyperinflation. We aimed to explore the characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness of early COPD patients (stages I and II) with/without lung hyperinflation. Methods Four hundred and six patients with COPD who performed both lung volume and bronchodilation tests were retrospectively analyzed. Residual volume to total lung capacity >120% of predicted values indicated lung hyperinflation. The characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness were compared between the patients with and without lung hyperinflation across all stages of COPD. Results The percentages of patients with lung hyperinflation were 72.7% in the entire cohort, 19.4% in stage I, 68.5% in stage II, 95.3% in stage III, and 100.0% in stage IV. The patients with lung hyperinflation exhibited poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness of both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity than those without lung hyperinflation during early COPD (t=2.21–5.70, P=0.000–0.029), especially in stage I, while age, body mass index, smoking status, smoking history, and disease duration were similar between the two subgroups in the same stages. From stages I to IV of subgroups with lung hyperinflation, stage I patients had the best bronchodilator responsiveness. Use of bronchodilator responsiveness of forced vital capacity to detect the presence of lung hyperinflation in COPD patients showed relatively high sensitivities (69.5%–75.3%) and specificities (70.3%–75.7%). Conclusion We demonstrated the novel finding that early COPD patients with lung hyperinflation are associated with poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness and established a simple method for detecting lung hyperinflation. PMID:27785008

  17. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Tost, Brian; Rose, Kelly; Aminzadeh, Fred; Ante, Magdalene A.; Huerta, Nicolas

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filtered out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.

  19. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  20. Model Development and Trial of Early Detection Manual for the Special Needs Children at Early Age Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Zainul; Ingarianti, Tri Muji; Suryaningrum, Cahyaning

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed to produce the manual for early detection for ABK at the level of early age education (PAUD = "Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini"). Research was "action research" with stages as proposed by Buunk and Van Vugt. Metodology of research these stages were called as PATH ("Problem-Analysis-Test…

  1. A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

    2003-01-01

    Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

  2. Lung cancer risk prediction: a tool for early detection.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adrian; Duffy, Stephen W; Myles, Jonathan P; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Field, John K

    2007-01-01

    Although 45% of men and 39% of women will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be affected. For some cancers, substantial progress in individual risk estimation has already been made. However, relatively few models have been developed to predict lung cancer risk beyond effects of age and smoking. This paper reviews published models for lung cancer risk prediction, discusses their potential contribution to clinical and research settings and suggests improvements to the risk modeling strategy for lung cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of existing cancer risk models is less than optimal. Improvement in individual risk prediction is important for selection of individuals for prevention or early detection interventions. In addition to smoking, factors related to occupational exposure, personal medical history and family history of cancer can add to the predictive power. A good risk prediction model is one that can identify a small fraction of the population in which a large proportion of the disease cases will occur. In the future, genetic and other biological markers are likely to be useful, although they will require rigorous evaluation. Validation is essential to establish the predictive effect and for ongoing monitoring of the model's continued relevance.

  3. Early detection of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, John Lynn; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a common problem in children undergoing cardiac surgery, with well documented increases in morbidity and mortality in both the short and the long term. Traditional approaches to the identification of AKI such as changes in serum creatinine have revealed a large incidence in this population with significant negative impact on clinical outcomes. However, the traditional diagnostic approaches to AKI diagnosis have inherent limitations that may lead to under-diagnosis of this pathologic process. There is a dearth of randomized controlled trials for the prevention and treatment of AKI associated with cardiac surgery, at least in part due to the paucity of early predictive biomarkers. Novel non-invasive biomarkers have ushered in a new era that allows for earlier detection of AKI. With these new diagnostic tools, a more consistent approach can be employed across centers that may facilitate a more accurate representation of the actual prevalence of AKI and more importantly, clinical investigation that may minimize the occurrence of AKI following pediatric cardiac surgery. A thoughtful management approach is necessary to mitigate the effects of AKI after cardiac surgery, which is best accomplished in close collaboration with pediatric nephrologists. Long-term surveillance for improvement in kidney function and potential development of chronic kidney disease should also be a part of the comprehensive management strategy. PMID:27429538

  4. [Importance of early detection in autism spectrum disorder].

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor

    2007-01-01

    Autism, currently known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a lifelong neuropsychiatric disorder that starts before three years of age. The behavioral and cognitive symptoms seem to be caused by an abnormal synaptic connectivity that leads to deficits in the ability to filter sensory information. Poor filtering seems to constitute a barrier for the integration and processing of neuronal information. Because ASD is not a neurodegenerative disorder, under appropriate conditions, symptoms usually improve over time, probably because the autistic person learns to filter sensory information by alternative neuronal routes. This allows him/her to have a better understanding of the surrounding environment and in turn facilitates learning. Early intervention on children identified before age 2 notably improves prognosis. Currently, ASD can be detected in boys and girls when they are about 18 months old. However, parents and autism experts can observe symptoms before that age. The participation of the health system in order to prepare parents, pediatricians, and caregivers is highly important and leads to significant improvements in the quality of life of autistic individuals and of caregivers.

  5. Cytokine response after severe RSV bronchiolitis in early life

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Mario; Schweiger, Toni; Yin-DeClue, Huiquing; Ramkumar, Thiruvamoor P; Christie, Chandrika; Zheng, Jie; Cohen, Rebecca; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Strunk, Robert; Bacharier, Leonard B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Immune response following viral infection usually involves Th1-mediated response; however, severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection appears to be associated with the development of asthma, a Th2-predominant phenotype. Objective To understand the early and subsequent immunologic response to a serious RSV infection in children over time. Methods 206 previously healthy infants hospitalized with severe RSV bronchiolitis were enrolled in a prospective cohort called the RSV Bronchiolitis in Early Life (RBEL) study. Peripheral blood T cells were obtained immediately following RSV infection and at 2, 4 and 6 years of age, stimulated with PMA and ionomycin, and analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, -4, and - 13 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) by flow cytometry and real time PCR. Results 48% (n=97) of the children developed asthma (physician-diagnosed) and 48% (n=97) had eczema by age 6. 32% (n=48 of 150) developed allergic sensitization by 3 yrs of age. Children with asthma had lower IL-13 expression at 6 yrs of age than those without (p=0.001). IFN-γ, IL-2 and -4 levels did not differ by asthma or eczema status during follow-up (all p>0.05). Allergic sensitization was not associated with differences in cytokine levels during follow-up (all p>0.05). Conclusion Severe RSV infection early in life is associated with a high incidence of asthma and eczema. Contrary to expectations, subsequent immunologic development in those who developed asthma, eczema or allergic sensitization was not associated with a Th2 phenotype in the peripheral blood. PMID:18760461

  6. Radiation Detection Overview for Nuclear Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Steven Charles

    2016-11-16

    This presentation discusses the fundamentals of gamma and neutron detection; presents an overview of the DOE Triage and JTOT Programs, gamma, and neutron signatures in select measurements; and offers a detector demonstration.

  7. Responsiveness of the core set, response criteria, and utilities in early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, A; Boers, M; van der Linden, S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Validation of responsiveness and discriminative power of the World Health Organisation/International League of Associations for Rheumatology (WHO/ILAR) core set, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), and European League for Rheumatology (EULAR) criteria for improvement/response, and other single and combined measures (indices) in a trial in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—Ranking of measures by response (standardised response means and effect sizes) and between-group discrimination (unpaired t test and χ2 values) at two time points in the COBRA study. This study included 155 patients with early RA randomly allocated to two treatment groups with distinct levels of expected response: combined treatment, high response; sulfasalazine treatment, moderate response.
RESULTS—At week 16, standardised response means of core set measures ranged between 0.8 and 3.5 for combined treatment and between 0.4 and 1.2 for sulfasalazine treatment (95% confidence interval ±0.25). Performance of patient oriented measures (for example, pain, global assessment) was best when the questions were focused on the disease. The most responsive single measure was the patient's assessment of change in disease activity, at 3.5. Patient utility, a generic health status measure, was moderately (rating scale) to poorly (standard gamble) responsive. Response means of most indices (combined measures) exceeded 2.0, the simple count of core set measures improved by 20% was most responsive at 4.1. Discrimination performance yielded similar but not identical results: best discrimination between treatment groups was achieved by the EULAR response and ACR improvement criteria (at 20% and other percentage levels), the pooled index, and the disease activity score (DAS), but also by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and grip strength.
CONCLUSIONS—Responsiveness and discrimination between levels of response are not identical concepts, and

  8. Implementation of an alert and response system in Haiti during the early stage of the response to the cholera epidemic.

    PubMed

    Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2013-10-01

    The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and

  9. Implementation of an Alert and Response System in Haiti during the Early Stage of the Response to the Cholera Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and

  10. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  11. Computed tomography in the early detection of asbestosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bégin, R; Ostiguy, G; Filion, R; Colman, N; Bertrand, P

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT; both conventional (CCT) and high resolution (HRCT)) scans of the thorax were evaluated to detect early asbestosis in 61 subjects exposed to asbestos dust in Québec for an average of 22(3) years and in five controls. The study was limited to consecutive cases with chest radiographs of the International Labour Organisation categories 0 or 1 determined independently. All subjects had a standard high kilovoltage posteroanterior and lateral chest radiograph, a set of 10-15 1 cm collimation CCT scans and a set of three to five 2 mm collimation HRCT scans in the upper, middle, and lower lung fields. Five experienced readers independently read each chest radiograph and sets of CT scans. On the basis of three to five readers agreeing for small opacities of the lung parenchyma, 12/46 (26%) negative chest radiographs were positive on CT scans, but 6/18 (33%) positive chest radiographs were negative on CT scan. On the basis of four to five readers agreeing on a chest radiograph, 36/66 (54%) subjects were normal (group A), 17/66 (26%) were indeterminate (group B), and 13/66 (20%) were abnormal (group C). By the combined readings of CCT and HRCT, 4/31 (13%) asbestos exposed subjects of group A were abnormal (p < 0.001), 6/17 (35%) of group B were abnormal, and in group C, 1/13 (8%) was normal, 2/13 were indeterminate, and 10/13 (77%) were abnormal. Separate readings of CCT and HRCT on distinct films in 14 subjects showed that all cases of asbestosis were abnormal on both CCT and HRCT. Inter-reader analyses by kappa statistics showed significantly better agreement for the readings of CT than the chest radiographs (p < 0.001), and for the reading of CCT than HRCT (p < 0.01). Thus CT scans of the thorax identifies significantly more irregular opacities consistent with the diagnosis of asbestosis than the chest radiograph (20 cases on CT scans v 13 on chest radiographs when four to five readers agreed, 13% of asbestos exposed subjects with normal chest

  12. Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; E. Maier-Reimer; C. Heinze

    2009-02-19

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact calcification rates in many pelagic organisms, which may in turn cause significant changes in marine ecosystem structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean using the global biogeochemical ocean model HAMOCC. We test a variety of future calcification scenarios because experimental studies with different organisms have revealed a wide range of calcification sensitivities to CaCO3 saturation state. The model integrations start at a preindustrial steady state in the year 1800 and run until the year 2300 forced with anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Calculated trends in TA are evaluated taking into account the natural variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, as derived from repeat hydrographic transects. We conclude that the data currently available does not allow discerning significant trends in TA due to changes in pelagic calcification caused by ocean acidification. Given different calcification scenarios, our model calculations indicate that the TA increase over time will start being detectable by the year 2040, increasing by 5–30 umol/kg compared to the present-day values. In a scenario of extreme reductions in calcification, large TA changes relative to preindustrial conditions would have occurred at present, which we consider very unlikely. However, the time interval of reliable TA observations is too short to disregard this scenario. The largest increase in surface ocean TA is predicted for the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to monitor and quantify possible early signs of acidification effects, we suggest to specifically target those regions during future ocean chemistry surveys.

  13. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out.

  14. Selection for early response to photostimulation in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Tyler, N C; Gous, R M

    2011-08-01

    1. To determine if selection for early response to photostimulation could be successful, 150 male broiler breeders were photostimulated at 8 weeks of age. The first 20 to produce a semen sample and have a reddened comb with an area > 10 cm2 were selected as responders (R) and 20 birds that did not show these signs of sexual development were chosen as non-responders (NR). Once sexually mature, 8 birds from each group that consistently produced a semen sample were mated with both egg-type hybrids and broiler breeder females to observe the response to 8-week photostimulation in the as-hatched offspring. 2. The AFE of the F1 females with NR or R paternity and egg-type hybrid layer maternity (F1L) were similar, but AFE was advanced in birds from R relative to NR paternity when they had broiler breeder maternity (F1B). 3. Date following a normal distribution of AFE were extracted from the overall data set. This group included offspring from both NR and R paternity, but AFE in F1L and F1B females with R paternity was advanced compared to those with NR paternity. 4. Mean testis weights, or age at most rapid testis growth predicted using parameters from Tyler and Gous (2009), of F1 males were not significantly different in birds with NR or R paternity. A strong correlation was found between predicted age at most rapid growth and AFE of full sibs and so it is likely that an advance in AFE in female offspring would also result in an advance in age of testis development of males. 5. There was no significant difference in 21-d body weight of F1B females of NR or R paternity, but the 21-d body weights of F1L females were higher from R than from NR sires, suggesting that although fertility and meat-type traits are often negatively correlated, there was no adverse effect of selection for responsiveness to early photostimulation and broiler growth rates to 21 d. 6. These findings showed that the response to early stimulation is heritable, and should be useful to the broiler breeder

  15. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  16. Detecting Test Tampering Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollack, James A.; Cohen, Allan S.; Eckerly, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Test tampering, especially on tests for educational accountability, is an unfortunate reality, necessitating that the state (or its testing vendor) perform data forensic analyses, such as erasure analyses, to look for signs of possible malfeasance. Few statistical approaches exist for detecting fraudulent erasures, and those that do largely do not…

  17. Early immune responses and development of pathogenesis of avian infectious bronchitis viruses with different virulence profiles

    PubMed Central

    Mores, Marcos Antônio Zanella; Trevisol, Iara Maria; Coldebella, Arlei; Montassier, Hélio José; Brentano, Liana

    2017-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) primarily replicates in epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract of chickens, inducing both morphological and immune modulatory changes. However, the association between the local immune responses induced by IBV and the mechanisms of pathogenesis has not yet been completely elucidated. This study compared the expression profile of genes related to immune responses in tracheal samples after challenge with two Brazilian field isolates (A and B) of IBV from the same genotype, associating these responses with viral replication and with pathological changes in trachea and kidney. We detected a suppressive effect on the early activation of TLR7 pathway, followed by lower expression levels of inflammatory related genes induced by challenge with the IBV B isolate when compared to the challenge with to the IBV A isolate. Cell-mediated immune (CMI) related genes presented also lower levels of expression in tracheal samples from birds challenged with B isolate at 1dpi. Increased viral load and a higher percentage of birds with relevant lesions were observed in both tracheal and renal samples from chickens exposed to challenge with IBV B isolate. This differential pattern of early immune responses developed after challenge with IBV B isolate, related to the downregulation of TLR7, leading to insufficient pro-inflammatory response and lower CMI responses, seem to have an association with a most severe renal lesion and an enhanced capability of replication of this isolate in chicken. PMID:28199419

  18. Early response mechanisms of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) to phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Foito, Alexandre; Hedley, Pete E.; Morris, Jenny A.; Stewart, Derek; Barth, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Improving phosphorus (P) nutrient efficiency in Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) is likely to result in considerable economic and ecological benefits. To date, research into the molecular and biochemical response of perennial ryegrass to P deficiency has been limited, particularly in relation to the early response mechanisms. This study aimed to identify molecular mechanisms activated in response to the initial stages of P deficiency. Methods A barley microarray was successfully used to study gene expression in perennial ryegrass and this was complemented with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic profiling to obtain an overview of the plant response to early stages of P deficiency. Key Results After 24 h of P deficiency, internal phosphate concentrations were reduced and significant alterations were detected in the metabolome and transcriptome of two perennial ryegrass genotypes. Results indicated a replacement of phospholipids with sulfolipids and the utilization of glycolytic bypasses in response to P deficiency in perennial ryegrass. Conclusions The transcriptome and metabolome of perennial ryegrass undergo changes in response to reductions in P supply after 24 h. PMID:21148585

  19. Cloning of a long HIV-1 readthrough transcript and detection of an increased level of early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) mRNA in chronically infected U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Hameau, L; Benboudjema, L; Guymarho, J; Cajean-Feroldi, C; Rizza, P; Godard, C; Jasmin, C; Tovey, M G; Lang, M C

    1999-01-01

    To identify the pathways involved in HIV-1 modification of cellular gene expression, chronically infected U937 cells were screened by mRNA differential display. A chimeric transcript consisting of the 3' end of the LTR of a HIV-1 provirus, followed by 3.7 kb of cellular RNA was identified suggesting that long readthrough transcription might be one of the mechanisms by which gene expression could be modified in individual infected cells. Such a phenomenon may also be the first step towards the potential transduction of cellular sequences. Furthermore, the mRNA encoding for the transcription factor Egr-1 was detected as an over-represented transcript in infected cells. Northern blot analysis confirmed the increase of Egr-1 mRNA content in both HIV-1 infected promonocytic U937 cells and T cell lines such as Jurkat and CEM. Interestingly a similar increase of Egr-1 mRNA has previously been reported to occur in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infected T cell lines. Despite the consistent increase in the level of Egr-1 mRNA, the amount of the encoded protein did not appear to be modified in HIV-1 infected cells, suggesting an increased turn over of the protein in chronically infected cells.

  20. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiya; Jia, Mengyu; Gao, Feng; Yang, Lihong; Qu, Pengpeng; Zou, Changping; Liu, Pengxi; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-02-01

    The cervical cancer screening at a pre-cancer stage is beneficial to reduce the mortality of women. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening is introduced in this paper. In this system, three electrodes alternately discharge to the cervical tissue and three light emitting diodes in different wavelengths alternately irradiate the cervical tissue. Then the relative optical reflectance and electrical voltage attenuation curve are obtained by optical and electrical detection, respectively. The system is based on DSP to attain the portable and cheap instrument. By adopting the relative reflectance and the voltage attenuation constant, the classification algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) discriminates abnormal cervical tissue from normal. We use particle swarm optimization to optimize the two key parameters of SVM, i.e. nuclear factor and cost factor. The clinical data were collected on 313 patients to build a clinical database of tissue responses under optical and electrical stimulations with the histopathologic examination as the gold standard. The classification result shows that the opto-electronic joint detection has higher total coincidence rate than separate optical detection or separate electrical detection. The sensitivity, specificity, and total coincidence rate increase with the increasing of sample numbers in the training set. The average total coincidence rate of the system can reach 85.1% compared with the histopathologic examination.

  1. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  2. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  3. Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of Metastases and to Predict Breast Cancer Premetastatic Niche

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Aug 2013 - 31 Jul 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of...proposed a a new approach for the early detection of metastatic disease in BC patients using cancer cell derived particles known as exosomes as a guide. We

  4. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-Ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    DATES COVERED 15 May 2013 - 14 May 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In this project, we proposed to develop the imaging method for early detection of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer’s

  5. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease Via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0138 Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease Via X-ray Phase CT 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ray phase contrast CT imaging method for early detection of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer’s disease. As specified in SA#1 and the project timeline, the

  6. Progress towards an AIS early detection monitoring network for the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the lower St. Louis River system (SLR) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates f...

  7. Cancer in global health: how do prevention and early detection strategies relate?

    PubMed

    Ilbawi, André M; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2015-03-11

    National cancer control plans are needed to stem the rapidly rising global cancer burden. Prevention and early detection are complementary but distinct strategies for cancer control. Some cancers are prevented through behavior and/or environmental modifications that reduce cancer risk, whereas other cancers are more amenable to treatment when they are successfully diagnosed at early stages. Prevention and early detection strategies should be prioritized on the basis of country-specific cancer demographics, modifiable risk factor distribution, and existing treatment resource availability. Following an individualized plan integrating prevention and early detection strategies, deficits can be targeted to strengthen national health systems for cancer control.

  8. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  9. Human Macrophage Response to L. (Viannia) panamensis: Microarray Evidence for an Early Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Ricardo; Ettinger, Nicholas A.; Tikhonova, Irina; Alexander, Neal D.; Valderrama, Liliana; Hager, Janet; Wilson, Mary E.; Lin, Aiping; Zhao, Hongyu; Saravia, Nancy G.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous findings indicate that susceptibility to Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infection of monocyte-derived macrophages from patients and asymptomatically infected individuals were associated with the adaptive immune response and clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the basis for this difference we examined differential gene expression of human monocyte-derived macrophages following exposure to L. (V.) panamensis. Gene activation profiles were determined using macrophages from healthy volunteers cultured with or without stationary phase promastigotes of L. (V.) panamensis. Significant changes in expression (>1.5-fold change; p<0.05; up- or down-regulated) were identified at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours. mRNA abundance profiles varied over time, with the highest level of activation occurring at earlier time points (0.5 and 4 hrs). In contrast to observations for other Leishmania species, most significantly changed mRNAs were up- rather than down-regulated, especially at early time points. Up-regulated transcripts over the first 24 hours belonged to pathways involving eicosanoid metabolism, oxidative stress, activation of PKC through G protein coupled receptors, or mechanism of gene regulation by peroxisome proliferators via PPARα. Additionally, a marked activation of Toll-receptor mediated pathways was observed. Comparison with published microarray data from macrophages infected with L. (Leishmania) chagasi indicate differences in the regulation of genes involved in signaling, motility and the immune response. Conclusions Results show that the early (0.5 to 24 hours) human monocyte-derived macrophage response to L. (Viannia) panamensis is not quiescent, in contrast to published reports examining later response times (48–96 hours). Early macrophage responses are important for the developing cellular response at the site of infection. The kinetics and the mRNA abundance profiles induced by L. (Viannia) panamensis illustrate the

  10. Graphene quantum dots FRET based sensor for early detection of heart attack in human.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Deepika; Kumar, Vanish; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-05-15

    Cardiac immunosensor for early detection of heart attack (myocardial infarction) was developed using amine functionalized graphene quantum dots (afGQDs) conjugated with antibody anti-cardiac Troponin I (anti-cTnI) to detect cardiac marker antigen Troponin I (cTnI) in blood based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between conjugate and graphene (quencher) only in 10 min. The anti-cTnI was covalently conjugated to afGQDs through carbodiimide coupling reaction. The conjugate was characterized by zeta potential UV-vis spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in the photon count and photoluminescence of GQDs based on interaction of target cTnI with its specific anti-cTnI antibody. The sensor is highly specific and shows negligible response to non-specific antigens. The sensor displayed a linear response to cTnI from 0.001 to 1000 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 0.192 pg mL(-1).

  11. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Prostate Cancer Early Detection, Version 2.2016.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Peter R; Parsons, J Kellogg; Andriole, Gerald; Bahnson, Robert R; Castle, Erik P; Catalona, William J; Dahl, Douglas M; Davis, John W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Etzioni, Ruth B; Farrington, Thomas; Hemstreet, George P; Kawachi, Mark H; Kim, Simon; Lange, Paul H; Loughlin, Kevin R; Lowrance, William; Maroni, Paul; Mohler, James; Morgan, Todd M; Moses, Kelvin A; Nadler, Robert B; Poch, Michael; Scales, Chuck; Shaneyfelt, Terrence M; Smaldone, Marc C; Sonn, Geoffrey; Sprenkle, Preston; Vickers, Andrew J; Wake, Robert; Shead, Dorothy A; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2016-05-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for prostate cancer screening in healthy men who have elected to participate in an early detection program. The NCCN Guidelines focus on minimizing unnecessary procedures and limiting the detection of indolent disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Prostate Cancer Early Detection Panel's most significant discussions for the 2016 guideline update, which included issues surrounding screening in high-risk populations (ie, African Americans, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers), approaches to refine patient selection for initial and repeat biopsies, and approaches to improve biopsy specificity.

  12. Early Detection of Dyslexia in Children Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson-Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2009-01-06

    03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Early Detection of NSCLC with scFv Selected against IgM Autoantibody

    PubMed Central

    Pedchenko, Tetyana; Mernaugh, Ray; Parekh, Dipti; Li, Ming; Massion, Pierre P.

    2013-01-01

    Survival of patients with lung cancer could be significantly prolonged should the disease be diagnosed early. Growing evidence indicates that the immune response in the form of autoantibodies to developing cancer is present before clinical presentation. We used a phage-displayed antibody library to select for recombinant scFvs that specifically bind to lung cancer-associated IgM autoantibodies. We selected for scFv recombinant antibodies reactive with circulating IgM autoantibodies found in the serum of patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma but not matched controls. Discriminatory performance of 6 selected scFvs was validated in an independent set of serum from stage 1 adenocarcinoma and matching control groups using two independent novel methods developed for this application. The panel of 6 selected scFvs predicted cancer based on seroreactivity value with sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.87. Receiver Operative Characteristic curve (ROC) for combined 6 scFv has an AUC of 0.88 (95%CI, 0.76–1.0) as determined by fluorometric microvolume assay technology (FMAT) The ROC curve generated using a homogeneous bridging Mesa Scale Discovery (MSD) assay had an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59–0.85). The panel of all 6 antibodies demonstrated better discriminative power than any single scFv alone. The scFv panel also demonstrated the association between a high score - based on seroreactivity - with poor survival. Selected scFvs were able to recognize lung cancer associated IgM autoantibodies in patient serum as early as 21 months before the clinical presentation of disease. The panel of antibodies discovered represents a potential unique non-invasive molecular tool to detect an immune response specific to lung adenocarcinoma at an early stage of disease. PMID:23585862

  14. Population responses to contour integration: early encoding of discrete elements and late perceptual grouping.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Ariel; Meirovithz, Elhanan; Slovin, Hamutal

    2013-04-24

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying perceptual grouping of discrete, similarly oriented elements are not well understood. To investigate this, we measured neural population responses using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in V1 of monkeys trained on a contour-detection task. By mapping the contour and background elements onto V1, we could study their neural processing. Population response early in time showed activation patches corresponding to the contour/background individual elements. However, late increased activity in the contour elements, along with suppressed activity in the background elements, enabled us to visualize in single trials a salient continuous contour "popping out" from a suppressed background. This modulated activity in the contour and in background extended beyond the cortical representation of individual contour or background elements. Finally, the late modulation was correlated with behavioral performance of contour saliency and the monkeys' perceptual report. Thus, opposing responses in the contour and background may underlie perceptual grouping in V1.

  15. Early auditory change detection implicitly facilitated by ignored concurrent visual change during a Braille reading task.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Tomohiro; Kuriki, Shinya

    2013-09-01

    Unconscious monitoring of multimodal stimulus changes enables humans to effectively sense the external environment. Such automatic change detection is thought to be reflected in auditory and visual mismatch negativity (MMN) and mismatch negativity fields (MMFs). These are event-related potentials and magnetic fields, respectively, evoked by deviant stimuli within a sequence of standard stimuli, and both are typically studied during irrelevant visual tasks that cause the stimuli to be ignored. Due to the sensitivity of MMN/MMF to potential effects of explicit attention to vision, however, it is unclear whether multisensory co-occurring changes can purely facilitate early sensory change detection reciprocally across modalities. We adopted a tactile task involving the reading of Braille patterns as a neutral ignore condition, while measuring magnetoencephalographic responses to concurrent audiovisual stimuli that were infrequently deviated either in auditory, visual, or audiovisual dimensions; 1000-Hz standard tones were switched to 1050-Hz deviant tones and/or two-by-two standard check patterns displayed on both sides of visual fields were switched to deviant reversed patterns. The check patterns were set to be faint enough so that the reversals could be easily ignored even during Braille reading. While visual MMFs were virtually undetectable even for visual and audiovisual deviants, significant auditory MMFs were observed for auditory and audiovisual deviants, originating from bilateral supratemporal auditory areas. Notably, auditory MMFs were significantly enhanced for audiovisual deviants from about 100 ms post-stimulus, as compared with the summation responses for auditory and visual deviants or for each of the unisensory deviants recorded in separate sessions. Evidenced by high tactile task performance with unawareness of visual changes, we conclude that Braille reading can successfully suppress explicit attention and that simultaneous multisensory changes can

  16. Root Cause Analysis of Sexual Assault: Shifting from Early Detection to a Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT: SHIFTING FROM EARLY DETECTION TO A VACCINE by Christine F.L. Holliday, Lt...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Root Cause Analysis Of Sexual Assault: Shifting From Early Detection To A Vaccine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... vaccine . Unarguably, the Air Force needs to remedy the cancer with detection, reporting, and treatment when sexual assault does occur. But current AF

  17. Early Detection of Breast Cancer via Multiplane Correlation Breast Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    superior diagnostic information. Towards this end, a LG CHO mathematical observer model was constructed to assess the detectability of a simulated mass...on mathematical observer model was developed to assess the detectability of the mass. Detectability was measured in terms of Receiver Operating...This task has been accomplished. The goal of this task was to develop an observer model which could be used to quantify the performance of MCI in

  18. The early epigenetic response to ozone: impacts on DNA ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epigenetics have been increasingly recognized as a mechanism linking environment and gene expression. Despite awareness of the role of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation as potential drivers of the response to air pollutants, very little work has been performed investigating the direct epigenetic effects following exposure to ambient air pollution. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the early epigenetic response to ozone in comparison to the epigenetic modifier 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) in rats. 12 week old, male Long-Evans rats (n=16) were exposed to 4 hours of whole-body 1.0 ppm ozone or air and immediately euthanized. A subset of animals were additionally treated with 5-Aza (n=16) to serve as an epigenetic control to ozone exposure. Neither 5-Aza nor ozone by itself induced changes to the global methylome or hydroxmethylome of the lung measured by ELISA. Despite this finding, ozone exposure induced a significant increase in the activity of the DNA methyltransferase enzymes in the lung which was reversed with 5-Aza treatment. Interestingly, a significant interaction between 5-Aza treatment and ozone exposure was found in a large array of data. The interaction between 5-Aza and ozone produced indicators of pulmonary edema and elevated lung damage. Along with these adverse changes, expression of major epigenetic enzymes (Tet 1-3, Dnmt3 a-b) were found to be perturbed in both the lung and hepatic tissues. While ozone exposure appears to in

  19. Early detection of schizophrenia: current evidence and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    HÄFNER, HEINZ; MAURER, KURT

    2006-01-01

    Research into the early course of schizophrenia has identified a prepsychotic prodromal stage (mean duration: 4.8 years) and a psychotic prephase (mean duration: 1.3 years). Comparisons of individually matched samples have demonstrated prodromal symptoms common to schizophrenia and moderate to severe depression. It is not until positive symptoms emerge that psychosis and mood disorders become distinguishable from each other. In both disorders the prodromal stage early produces functional impairment and related social consequences. Hence, early intervention is of great public health relevance. This intervention is targeted at manifest symptoms and not at the underlying, still unknown disease process. Cognitive-behavioural therapy at the prepsychotic prodromal stage seems to favourably influence the short-term illness course. In the psychotic prephase, a combination with low-dose antipsychotics seems to have some efficacy. The aim of early recognition by the instruments discussed in this paper is to permit the identification of the largest possible proportion of at-risk persons as early as possible and their referral to appropriate treatment. PMID:17139339

  20. Toward the early evaluation of therapeutic effects: an electrochemical platform for ultrasensitive detection of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zheng, Ting-Ting; Cheng, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2011-10-15

    The ability for early evaluation of therapeutic effects is a significant challenge in leukemia research. To address this challenge, we developed a novel electrochemical platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of apoptotic cells in response to therapy. In order to construct the platform, a novel three-dimensional (3-D) architecture was initially fabricated after combining nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles via a layer-by-layer method. The formed architecture provided an effective matrix for annexin V with high stability and bioactivity to enhance sensitivity. On the basis of the specific recognition between annexin V and phosphatidylserine on the apoptotic cell membrane, the annexin V/3-D architecture interface showed a predominant capability for apoptotic cell capture. Moreover, a lectin-based nanoprobe was designed by noncovalent assembly of concanavalin A on CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-labeled silica nanospheres with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) as a linker. This nanoprobe incorporated both the specific carbohydrate recognition and the multilabeled QDs-based signal amplification. By coupling with the QDs-based nanoprobe and electrochemical stripping analysis, the proposed sandwich-type cytosensor showed an excellent analytical performance for the ultrasensitive detection of apoptotic cells (as low as 48 cells), revealing great potential toward the early evaluation of therapeutic effects.

  1. Response-Guided Community Detection: Application to Climate Index Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, Gonzalo; Angus, Michael; Pedemane, Navya; Harlalka, Jitendra; Semazzi, Fredrick; Kumar, Vipin; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2015-01-01

    Discovering climate indices-time series that summarize spatiotemporal climate patterns-is a key task in the climate science domain. In this work, we approach this task as a problem of response-guided community detection; that is, identifying communities in a graph associated with a response variable of interest. To this end, we propose a general strategy for response-guided community detection that explicitly incorporates information of the response variable during the community detection process, and introduce a graph representation of spatiotemporal data that leverages information from multiple variables. We apply our proposed methodology to the discovery of climate indices associated with seasonal rainfall variability. Our results suggest that our methodology is able to capture the underlying patterns known to be associated with the response variable of interest and to improve its predictability compared to existing methodologies for data-driven climate index discovery and official forecasts.

  2. Patient-Specific Early Seizure Detection from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Minasyan, Georgiy R.; Chatten, John B.; Chatten, Martha Jane; Harner, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Develop a method for automatic detection of seizures prior to or immediately after clinical onset using features derived from scalp EEG. Methods This detection method is patient-specific. It uses recurrent neural networks and a variety of input features. For each patient we trained and optimized the detection algorithm for two cases: 1) during the period immediately preceding seizure onset, and 2) during the period immediately following seizure onset. Continuous scalp EEG recordings (duration 15 – 62 h, median 25 h) from 25 patients, including a total of 86 seizures, were used in this study. Results Pre-onset detection was successful in 14 of the 25 patients. For these 14 patients, all of the testing seizures were detected prior to seizure onset with a median pre-onset time of 51 sec and false positive rate was 0.06/h. Post-onset detection had 100% sensitivity, 0.023/hr false positive rate and median delay of 4 sec after onset. Conclusions The unique results of this study relate to pre-onset detection. Significance Our results suggest that reliable pre-onset seizure detection may be achievable for a significant subset of epilepsy patients without use of invasive electrodes. PMID:20461014

  3. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence for early breast cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Brian T; Zangar, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features.

  4. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  5. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  6. Development of a Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Early Detection of Masses Using Retrospectively Detected Cancers on Prior Mammograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    system (C) Development of image processing techniques for improvement of mass detection on prior mammograms ( D ) Continue to develop a two-view...increase the overall accuracy for detection of subtle early-stage breast cancers. 13 ( D ) Continuation of Development of a Two-view Information Fusion...Petrick, B. Sahiner, S. C. B. Lo, M. Freedman, D . Adler, J. Bailey, et al., "Sensitivity of noncommercial computer-aided detection system for

  7. Early neuronal responses in right limbic structures mediate harmony incongruity processing in musical experts.

    PubMed

    James, Clara E; Britz, Juliane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauert, Claude-Alain; Michel, Christoph M

    2008-10-01

    In western tonal music, musical phrases end with an explicit harmonic consequent which is highly expected. As such expectation is a consequence of musical background, cerebral processing of incongruities of musical grammar might be a function of expertise. We hypothesized that a subtle incongruity of standard closure should evoke a profound and rapid reaction in an expert's brain. If such a reaction is due to neuroplasticity as a consequence of musical training, it should be correlated with distinctive activations in sensory, motor and/or cognitive function related brain areas in response to the incongruent closure. Using event related potential (ERP) source imaging, we determined the temporal dynamics of neuronal activity in highly trained pianists and musical laymen in response to syntactic harmonic incongruities in expressive music, which were easily detected by the experts but not by the laymen. Our results revealed that closure incongruity evokes a selective early response in musical experts, characterized by a strong, right lateralized negative ERP component. Statistical source analysis could demonstrate putative contribution to the generation of this component in right temporal-limbic areas, encompassing hippocampal complex and amygdala, and in right insula. Its early onset (approximately 200 ms) preceded responses in frontal areas that may reflect more conscious processing. These results go beyond previous work demonstrating that musical training can change activity of sensory and motor areas during musical or audio-motor tasks, and suggest that functional plasticity in right medial-temporal structures and insula also modulates processing of subtle harmonic incongruities.

  8. The immune response in the CNS in Theiler's virus induced demyelinating disease switches from an early adaptive response to a chronic innate-like response.

    PubMed

    Gilli, Francesca; Li, Libin; Pachner, Andrew R

    2016-02-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) is an important model of the progressive disability caused by irreversible CNS tissue injury, and provides an example of how a CNS pathogen can cause inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal damage. We were interested in which molecules, especially inflammatory mediators, might be upregulated in the CNS throughout TMEV-IDD. We quantitated by a real-time RT-PCR multi-gene system the expression of a pathway-focused panel of genes at 30 and 165 days post infection, characterizing both the early inflammatory and the late neurodegenerative stages of TMEV-IDD. Also, we measured 32 cytokines/chemokines by multiplex Luminex analysis in CSF specimens from early and late TMEV-IDD as well as sham-treated mice. Results indicate that, in the later stage of TMEV-IDD, activation of the innate immune response is most prominent: TLRs, type I IFN response genes, and innate immunity-associated cytokines were highly expressed in late TMEV-IDD compared to sham (p ≤ 0.0001) and early TMEV-IDD (p < 0.05). Conversely, several molecular mediators of adaptive immune response were highly expressed in early TMEV-IDD (all p ≤ 0.001). Protein detection in the CSF was broadly concordant with mRNA abundance of the corresponding gene measured by real-time RT-PCR in the spinal cord, since several cytokines/chemokines were increased in the CSF of TMEV-IDD mice. Results show a clear shift from adaptive to innate immunity from early to late TMEV-IDD, indicating that adaptive and innate immune pathways are likely involved in the development and progression of the disease to different extents. CSF provides an optimal source of biomarkers of CNS neuroinflammation.

  9. Grade of Membership Response Time Model for Detecting Guessing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokropek, Artur

    2016-01-01

    A response model that is able to detect guessing behaviors and produce unbiased estimates in low-stake conditions using timing information is proposed. The model is a special case of the grade of membership model in which responses are modeled as partial members of a class that is affected by motivation and a class that responds only according to…

  10. Structural brain alterations can be detected early in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Renee; Wu, Ying; Sammet, Christina L.; Shoukry, Alfred; Epstein, Leon G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Brain changes occurring early in HIV infection are not well characterized. The Chicago Early HIV Infection Study aimed to evaluate the presence and extent of structural brain alterations using quantitative MRI. Methods: Forty-three HIV and 21 control subjects were enrolled. Mean length of infection was estimated as less than 1 year based on assay results. High-resolution neuroanatomical images were acquired. Automated image analysis was used to derive measurements for total brain, ventricular volume, and for tissue classes (total and cortical gray matter, white matter, and CSF). A separate image analysis algorithm was used to calculate measurements for individual brain regions. Cognitive function was assessed by neuropsychological evaluation. Results: Reductions were quantified in total (p = 0.0547) and cortical (p = 0.0109) gray matter in the HIV group. Analysis of individual brain regions with a separate image analysis algorithm revealed consistent findings of reductions in cerebral cortex (p = 0.042) and expansion of third ventricle (p = 0.046). The early HIV group also demonstrated weaker performance on several neuropsychological tests, with the most pronounced difference in psychomotor speed (p = 0.001). Conclusions: This cross-sectional brain volumetric study indicates structural alterations early in HIV infection. The findings challenge the prevailing assumption that the brain is spared in this period. Revisiting the question of the brain's vulnerability to processes unfolding in the initial virus-host interaction and the early natural history may yield new insights into neurologic injury in HIV infection and inform neuroprotection strategies. PMID:23197750

  11. Cardenas receives, 2011 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2012-06-01

    Meinhard Bayani Cardenas received the 2011 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award is for significant early career contributions to hydrologic science.

  12. Developing ways to encourage early detection and presentation of oral cancer: what do high-risk individuals think?

    PubMed

    Scott, S E; Weinman, J; Grunfeld, E A

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to improve understanding of individuals at risk of oral cancer, to determine their attitudes towards and responses to early detection interventions. In-depth interviews with the target group (n = 25) were used to determine their views, attitudes and requirements for an intervention to encourage early detection of oral cancer. This data was used in combination with theory-based constructs to develop written material that aimed to increase awareness of oral cancer, encourage mouth self-examination (MSE) and early presentation. A second pilot study used a think-aloud protocol to assess the target groups' (n = 14) reactions to the written information. In both studies the tape-recorded responses were analysed using framework analysis. The target group had limited knowledge about oral cancer, particularly the signs and symptoms. Participants saw benefits in performing MSE but noted the main barriers were not knowing what signs to look for or where to look. The written information was generally well-received but required some modifications. In particular, the target group required further persuasion that their lifestyle contributed to an increased risk of oral cancer. The results of these pilot studies have informed the development of a theory-based intervention for the early detection of oral cancer.

  13. Early detection of open fires and spontaneous combustion in mines.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, C D; Makower, A D

    1983-01-01

    Until fairly recently the detection of heatings was based on men seeing or smelling smoke and the laboratory analysis of mine air samples. Continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide by means of tube bundle systems has been a big step forward in detecting spontaneous combustion of coal and has found widespread acceptance in U.K. mines; general fire detection relies on shaft monitors. Both are based on infra-red analysers like the Unor CO-analysers that can be installed underground. In recent years British laboratories have developed and adapted several devices based on other principles: ionisation, semi-conductors, electro-chemical cells, thermistors, detection "thermal noise", infra-red imagers. All these instruments are briefly described by the authors in this paper presented by Mr. Makower.

  14. A method for the early detection of instabilities in rotordynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalik, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    For a simple Jeffcott model with deadband, a method is developed to determine stability margins by an analysis of the Discrete Fourier transform of the system response. The viability of this method is demonstrated by means of numerical simulations. The circular behavior of the system response on the stability boundary is also explained.

  15. Circulating tumor DNA as an early marker of therapeutic response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tie, J.; Kinde, I.; Wang, Y.; Wong, H. L.; Roebert, J.; Christie, M.; Tacey, M.; Wong, R.; Singh, M.; Karapetis, C. S.; Desai, J.; Tran, B.; Strausberg, R. L.; Diaz, L. A.; Papadopoulos, N.; Kinzler, K. W.; Vogelstein, B.; Gibbs, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early indicators of treatment response in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) could conceivably be used to optimize treatment. We explored early changes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) levels as a marker of therapeutic efficacy. Patients and methods This prospective study involved 53 mCRC patients receiving standard first-line chemotherapy. Both ctDNA and CEA were assessed in plasma collected before treatment, 3 days after treatment and before cycle 2. Computed tomography (CT) scans were carried out at baseline and 8–10 weeks and were centrally assessed using RECIST v1.1 criteria. Tumors were sequenced using a panel of 15 genes frequently mutated in mCRC to identify candidate mutations for ctDNA analysis. For each patient, one tumor mutation was selected to assess the presence and the level of ctDNA in plasma samples using a digital genomic assay termed Safe-SeqS. Results Candidate mutations for ctDNA analysis were identified in 52 (98.1%) of the tumors. These patient-specific candidate tissue mutations were detectable in the cell-free DNA from the plasma of 48 of these 52 patients (concordance 92.3%). Significant reductions in ctDNA (median 5.7-fold; P < 0.001) levels were observed before cycle 2, which correlated with CT responses at 8–10 weeks (odds ratio = 5.25 with a 10-fold ctDNA reduction; P = 0.016). Major reductions (≥10-fold) versus lesser reductions in ctDNA precycle 2 were associated with a trend for increased progression-free survival (median 14.7 versus 8.1 months; HR = 1.87; P = 0.266). Conclusions ctDNA is detectable in a high proportion of treatment naïve mCRC patients. Early changes in ctDNA during first-line chemotherapy predict the later radiologic response. PMID:25851626

  16. Responses to Developmental and Family Changes in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; And Others

    Research has identified several factors which may be stressful in early adolescence, including school change, puberty, and family changes. This study used a longitudinal cohort sequential design to examine whether stressful changes in early adolescence have impact beyond early adolescence. Of the 335 sixth graders initially sampled, 169 were…

  17. Is the Ultimate Treatment Response Predictable with Early Response in Major Depressive Episode?

    PubMed Central

    ÇİFTÇİ, Aslı; ULAŞ, Halis; TOPUZOĞLU, Ahmet; TUNCA, Zeliha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New evidence suggests that the efficacy of antidepressants occurs within the first weeks of treatment and this early response predicts the later response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if the partial response in the first week predicts the response at the end of treatment in patients with major depressive disorder who are treated with either antidepressant medication or electroconvulsive therapy. Methods Inpatients from Dokuz Eylül University Hospital with a major depressive episode, treated with antidepressant medication (n=52) or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (n=48), were recruited for the study. The data were retrospectively collected to decide whether a 25% decrease in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score at the first week of treatment predicts a 50% decrease at the third week using validity analysis. In addition, the effects of socio-demographic and clinical variables on the treatment response were assessed. Results A 25% decrease in the HDRS score in the first week of treatment predicted a 50% decrease in the HDRS score in the third week with a 78.3% positive predictive value, 62.1% negative predictive value, 62.1% sensitivity, and 78.3% specificity for antidepressant medications and an 88% positive predictive value, 52.2% negative predictive value, 66.7% sensitivity, and 80% specificity for ECT. The number of previous hospitalizations, comorbid medical illnesses, number of depressive episodes, duration of illness, and duration of the current episode were related to the treatment response. Conclusion Treatment response in the first week predicted the response in the third week with a high specificity and a high positive predictive value. Close monitoring of the response from the first week of treatment may thus help the clinician to predict the subsequent response. PMID:28373802

  18. Early Transcriptional Response of Soybean Contrasting Accessions to Root Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar Costa; Pandolfi, Valesca; Guimaraes, Francismar Corrêa Marcelino; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Romero, Cynara; Silva, Roberta Lane de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Abdelnoor, Ricardo Vilela; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Kido, Ederson Akio

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a significant constraint to yield increase in soybean. The early perception of water deprivation is critical for recruitment of genes that promote plant tolerance. DeepSuperSAGE libraries, including one control and a bulk of six stress times imposed (from 25 to 150 min of root dehydration) for drought-tolerant and sensitive soybean accessions, allowed to identify new molecular targets for drought tolerance. The survey uncovered 120,770 unique transcripts expressed by the contrasting accessions. Of these, 57,610 aligned with known cDNA sequences, allowing the annotation of 32,373 unitags. A total of 1,127 unitags were up-regulated only in the tolerant accession, whereas 1,557 were up-regulated in both as compared to their controls. An expression profile concerning the most representative Gene Ontology (GO) categories for the tolerant accession revealed the expression “protein binding” as the most represented for “Molecular Function”, whereas CDPK and CBL were the most up-regulated protein families in this category. Furthermore, particular genes expressed different isoforms according to the accession, showing the potential to operate in the distinction of physiological behaviors. Besides, heat maps comprising GO categories related to abiotic stress response and the unitags regulation observed in the expression contrasts covering tolerant and sensitive accessions, revealed the unitags potential for plant breeding. Candidate genes related to “hormone response” (LOX, ERF1b, XET), “water response” (PUB, BMY), “salt stress response” (WRKY, MYB) and “oxidative stress response” (PER) figured among the most promising molecular targets. Additionally, nine transcripts (HMGR, XET, WRKY20, RAP2-4, EREBP, NAC3, PER, GPX5 and BMY) validated by RT-qPCR (four different time points) confirmed their differential expression and pointed that already after 25 minutes a transcriptional reorganization started in response to the new condition, with

  19. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  20. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  1. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document.

  2. Early Detection of Breast Cancer via Multiplane Correlation Breast Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    survival rates of patients through early diagnosis. Additionally, disorders such as hemochromatosis (liver iron overload associated with...34 Curr Opin Hematol, vol. 4, pp. 436-41, 1997. [15] L. W. Powell and K. J. Isselbacher, " Hemochromatosis ," in Harrison’s Principles of Internal...Medicine: McGraw-Hill. [16] L. W. Powell, "Diagnosis of hemochromatosis ," Semin Gastrointest Dis, vol. 13, pp. 80-8, 2002. [17] L. W. Powell, D. K

  3. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  4. Early detection of cell activation events by means of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Jitto; Filfili, Chadi; Hilliard, Julia K.; Ward, John A.; Unil Perera, A. G.

    2014-06-01

    Activation of Jurkat T-cells in culture following treatment with anti-CD3 (Cluster of Differentiation 3) antibody is detectable by interrogating the treated T-cells using the Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy technique. Cell activation was detected within 75 min after the cells encountered specific immunoglobulin molecules. Spectral markers noted following ligation of the CD3 receptor with anti CD3 antibody provides proof-of-concept that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is a sensitive measure of molecular events subsequent to cells interacting with anti-CD3 Immunoglobulin G. The resultant ligation of the CD3 receptor results in the initiation of well defined, specific signaling pathways that parallel the measurable molecular events detected using ATR-FTIR. Paired t-test with post-hoc Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons has resulted in the identification of statistically significant spectral markers (p < 0.02) at 1367 and 1358 cm-1. Together, these data demonstrate that early treatment-specific cellular events can be measured by ATR-FTIR and that this technique can be used to identify specific agents via the responses of the cell biosensor at different time points postexposure.

  5. In vivo diagnostics of early abiotic plant stress response via Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Narangerel; Ariunbold, Gombojav O; Gorman, Connor; Alkahtani, Masfer H; Borrego, Eli J; Bohlmeyer, Dwight; Hemmer, Philip; Kolomiets, Michael V; Yuan, Joshua S; Scully, Marlan O

    2017-03-28

    Development of a phenotyping platform capable of noninvasive biochemical sensing could offer researchers, breeders, and producers a tool for precise response detection. In particular, the ability to measure plant stress in vivo responses is becoming increasingly important. In this work, a Raman spectroscopic technique is developed for high-throughput stress phenotyping of plants. We show the early (within 48 h) in vivo detection of plant stress responses. Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) plants were subjected to four common abiotic stress conditions individually: high soil salinity, drought, chilling exposure, and light saturation. Plants were examined poststress induction in vivo, and changes in the concentration levels of the reactive oxygen-scavenging pigments were observed by Raman microscopic and remote spectroscopic systems. The molecular concentration changes were further validated by commonly accepted chemical extraction (destructive) methods. Raman spectroscopy also allows simultaneous interrogation of various pigments in plants. For example, we found a unique negative correlation in concentration levels of anthocyanins and carotenoids, which clearly indicates that plant stress response is fine-tuned to protect against stress-induced damages. This precision spectroscopic technique holds promise for the future development of high-throughput screening for plant phenotyping and the quantification of biologically or commercially relevant molecules, such as antioxidants and pigments.

  6. Phenological behaviour of early spring flowering trees in Spain in response to recent climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Galvez, M. D.; García-Mozo, H.; Oteros, J.; Mestre, A.; Botey, R.; Galán, C.

    2017-03-01

    This research reports the phenological trends of four early spring and late winter flowering trees in Spain (south Europe) from a recent period (1986-2012). The studied species were deciduous trees growing in different climatic areas: hazel (Corylus avellana L.), willow (Salix alba L.), ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and white mulberry (Morus alba L.). We analysed the response to climate and the trends of the following phenophases observed at the field: budburst, leaf unfolding, flowering, fruit ripening, fruit harvesting, leaf colour change and leaf-fall. The study was carried out in 17 sampling sites in the country with the aim of detecting the recent phenological response to the climate of these species, and the possible effect of climate change. We have observed differences in the phenological response to climate depending on each species. Sixty-one percent of studied sites suffered an advance of early spring phenophases, especially budburst on average by -0.67 days and flowering on average by -0.15 days during the studied period, and also in the subsequent fruit ripening and harvesting phases on average by -1.06 days. By contrast, it has been detected that 63% of sampling sites showed a delay in autumn vegetative phases, especially leaf-fall events on average by +1.15 days. The statistic correlation analysis shows in the 55% of the studied localities that phenological advances are the consequence of the increasing trend detected for temperature—being minimum temperature the most influential factor—and in the 52% of them, phenological advances occurred by rainfall variations. In general, leaf unfolding and flowering from these species showed negative correlations in relation to temperature and rainfall, whereas that leaf colour change and leaf-fall presented positive correlations. The results obtained have a great relevance due to the fact that they can be considered as reliable bio-indicators of the impact of the recent climate changes in southern

  7. Gold nanoparticle-enabled blood test for early stage cancer detection and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianyu; Pierre-Pierre, Nickisha; Yan, Xin; Huo, Qun; Almodovar, Alvin J O; Valerio, Felipe; Rivera-Ramirez, Inoel; Griffith, Elizabeth; Decker, David D; Chen, Sixue; Zhu, Ning

    2015-04-01

    When citrate ligands-capped gold nanoparticles are mixed with blood sera, a protein corona is formed on the nanoparticle surface due to the adsorption of various proteins in the blood to the nanoparticles. Using a two-step gold nanoparticle-enabled dynamic light scattering assay, we discovered that the amount of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the gold nanoparticle protein corona is increased in prostate cancer patients compared to noncancer controls. Two pilot studies conducted on blood serum samples collected at Florida Hospital and obtained from Prostate Cancer Biorespository Network (PCBN) revealed that the test has a 90-95% specificity and 50% sensitivity in detecting early stage prostate cancer, representing a significant improvement over the current PSA test. The increased amount of human IgG found in the protein corona is believed to be associated with the autoantibodies produced in cancer patients as part of the immunodefense against tumor. Proteomic analysis of the nanoparticle protein corona revealed molecular profile differences between cancer and noncancer serum samples. Autoantibodies and natural antibodies produced in cancer patients in response to tumorigenesis have been found and detected in the blood of many cancer types. The test may be applicable for early detection and risk assessment of a broad spectrum of cancer. This new blood test is simple, low cost, requires only a few drops of blood sample, and the results are obtained within minutes. The test is well suited for screening purpose. More extensive studies are being conducted to further evaluate and validate the clinical potential of the new test.

  8. Early detection of foot ulcers through asymmetry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaabouch, Naima; Chen, Yi; Hu, Wen-Chen; Anderson, Julie; Ames, Forrest; Paulson, Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Foot ulcers affect millions of Americans annually. Areas that are likely to ulcerate have been associated with increased local skin temperatures due to inflammation and enzymatic autolysis of tissue. Conventional methods to assess skin, including inspection and palpation, may be valuable approaches, but usually they do not detect changes in skin integrity until an ulcer has already developed. Conversely, infrared imaging is a technology able to assess the integrity of the skin and its many layers, thus having the potential to index the cascade of physiological events in the prevention, assessment, and management of foot ulcers. In this paper, we propose a technique, asymmetry analysis, to automatically analyze the infrared images in order to detect inflammation. Preliminary results show that the proposed technique can be reliable and efficient to detect inflammation and, hence, predict potential ulceration.

  9. A new approach to detect early or hidden fungal development in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Anton, Rukshala; Moularat, Stéphane; Robine, Enric

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the biodegradation problems encountered in buildings, exposure of their occupants to mold is responsible for numerous diseases such as respiratory infections, immediate or delayed allergies and different types of irritations. However, current techniques are unable to detect mold at an early stage of development or hidden contaminants. Moularat et al., in 2008 has established chemical fingerprints of moldy growth from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) arising specifically from fungal metabolism and developed the Fungal Contamination Index (FCI) (Moularat et al., 2008a,b). This index has the advantage of detecting fungal development both reliably and rapidly before any visible signs of contamination could be detected. However, even though the FCI has been widely tested, VOCs' analysis by GC/MS, which is required for index calculation, is incompatible with real-time monitoring strategy for indoor environments. In this context, researches around FCI exploitation have been followed up in order to provide a monitoring device widely deployable which is the result of the miniaturization of an analytical chain for portable, reliable and low-cost applications. This device is based on one hand the selection and concentration of chemical compounds from the sample of interest and on the other hand the development of an array of different conducting polymer based sensors in order to obtain a specific footprint. This fungal contamination detection device was the subject of patent applications by the CSTB. The modularity of the system (ability to vary both the elements of detection polymers and retention time of interest) allows for expansion of its use to other pollutants.

  10. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC...

  11. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  12. Use of digital PCR to improve early detection of CLas infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing has devastated the Florida citrus industry and is threatening citrus in Texas and California. Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infections as early as possible is ...

  13. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  14. EPA, NASA, NOAA and USGS Creating Early Warning System to Detect Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that it is developing an early warning indicator system using historical and current satellite data to detect algal blooms. EPA researchers will develop a mobile app to inform water

  15. Evidence-based medical perspectives: the evolving role of PSA for early detection, monitoring of treatment response, and as a surrogate end point of efficacy for interventions in men with different clinical risk states for the prevention and progression of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Following FDA approval and introduction into the clinic in the mid-1980s, PSA testing has become arguably the most versatile serum tumor marker in urologic oncology with clinical use for early detection (screening) of prostate cancer (PC), risk stratification for clinical staging, prognosis, intermediate biomarker for monitoring tumor recurrence, and more recently as an intermediate biomarker for assessing therapeutic response to antiandrogens, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. PSA now routinely guides health care providers for the clinical management of PC over a wide range of clinical risk states for men at risk of PC, after local definitive therapy and after systemic therapy to prevent progression to metastatic bone disease, and to palliate men with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). To further assess the evidence that supports these clinical applications, this commentary reviews and critically evaluates the emerging body of new data focusing on several recently published seminal articles by D'Amico et al and Thompson et al, the new National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2004 recommendations for starting PSA testing at the age of 40 years old, the latest results from 2 phase 3 randomized, controlled trials of taxane-based regimens showing improved survival for men with HRPC, and the recent US FDA Public Workshop on Clinical Trial Endpoints in Prostate Cancer that helped to distill and synthesize the current state of the art and the progress toward validation of PSA metrics (eg, PSA velocity) as a surrogate end point (SE) for treatment efficacy with taxane-based regimens. Furthermore, several randomized, controlled chemoprevention trials in progress evaluating agents such as selenium and vitamin E in high-risk cohorts are well poised to confirm the validity of PSA as an SE for clinical efficacy for the prevention and progression of PC. Although there continues to be a need to validate better biomarkers before diagnosis of PC (more sensitive and specific

  16. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  17. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  18. Early detection of autism. Diagnostic instruments for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, C; Nordin, V; Ehlers, S

    1996-06-01

    Autism and Asperger syndrome are disorders with early childhood onset. They are believed to exist on the same spectrum of impairments of reciprocal communication and social interaction restriction of imagination and behaviour. A number of screening and diagnostic tools have been developed in the field, and several of these are briefly reviewed here. It is concluded that autism may be screened around age 18 months and a diagnosis reliably be made around age 30 months, whereas a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome is not usually suspected, screened or made until into the child's school age.

  19. Neonatal and early infancy management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Swords, Kelly A; Peters, Craig A

    2015-09-01

    Hydronephrosis discovered during prenatal ultrasound will often resolve spontaneously; however, it should be evaluated in the postnatal period in a manner commensurate with its risk of renal injury. Early intervention is appropriate in cases of bladder outlet obstruction or the severely obstructed solitary kidney. In most other cases, it is both safe and reasonable to allow the possibility of spontaneous improvement with the intensity of follow-up based on the severity of the hydronephrosis. Clinical decision making should be a shared process between families and caregivers.

  20. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0596 TITLE: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer. A Multi-Institutional...Validation Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jesse McKenney, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Cleveland Clinic Foundation Cleveland, OH 44195 REPORT DATE...COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer. A

  1. Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of Metastases and to Predict Breast Cancer Premetastatic Niche

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0249 TITLE: Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of...COVERED August 2013- July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of Metastases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER and to...disease in BC patients using cancer cell derived particles known as exosomes as a guide. We hypothesized that exosomes tagged with appropriate

  2. Probing Alzheimers Disease Pathology and Early Detection at the NSLS with Infrared, XRF, and DEI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong,Z.; Bennett, D.; Chapman, D.; Chen, J.; Connor, D.; Dilmanian, A.; Faulconer, L.; Kao, T.; Leskovjan, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    We explored diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) in both planar and computed tomography (CT) modes for early detection of beta amyloid deposition, a hallmark feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since amyloid plaques precede clinical symptoms by years, their early detection is of great interest. These findings were correlated with results from synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy, to determine the secondary structure of the amyloid beta protein and metal concentration in the amyloid plaques, respectively.

  3. Dual-mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, K. L.; El-Mahdi, A. M.; Shaeffer, J.

    1981-01-01

    A dual-mode microwave system has been developed that will permit early detection of cancer. The system combines the use of the passive microwave radiometer with an active transmitter. The active transmitter will provide localized heating to enhance early detection by taking advantage of the differential heating (i.e., tumor temperature with respect to surrounding tissue) associated with the thermal characteristics of tumors.

  4. Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

  5. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening recommendations for both breast and cervical cancer on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  6. The Importance of Distinguishing "Propensity" versus "Ability" to Imitate in ASD Research and Early Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivanti, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Imitation abnormalities are often documented in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), however the relevance of imitation to early development and early detection of ASD remains unclear. Recent studies that investigated whether imitation at 12 months distinguishes children who will subsequently receive an ASD diagnosis from other…

  7. Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer—a Defined Future Using Lessons From Other Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Maitra, Anirban; Srivastava, Sudhir; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.; Rothschild, Laura J.; Goldberg, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The implementation of effective early detection programs has significantly improved treatment, prognosis, and life expectancy in breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Early-detection methods need to be developed for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), where progress during the past decades has remained slow. Addressing this need, the forum “Early Detection: Lessons Learned from Other Cancers” was held in November 2015 and presented by the Kenner Family Research Fund in partnership with the American Pancreatic Association. Leading experts from breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers described the development of early detection methods in their respective fields. Emerging opportunities for scientific advancement were subsequently identified that hold the greatest promise for the future of early detection in PDAC, including a 4-part strategic map of necessary actionable items. Knowledge from other fields must be applied to achieve large-scale change within the arena of PDAC. A major breakthrough in early detection of PDAC will occur only through a definitive interdisciplinary collaborative effort involving a critical mass of committed academic research institutions, government agencies, industry leaders, and philanthropies. PMID:27518362

  8. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    tissue types. For example, it is difficult to distinguish a ductal carcinoma in-situ from a phyllodes tumor based on E alone (since the ratio is about...cancer, it is less effective in younger women (≤ 40 years), usually because the higher density of their breasts can obscure tumors . While the...to breast cancer detection (see [2] for example) utilizes the fact that breast tumors tend to be significantly stiffer than the surrounding tissue [3

  9. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Posttranslationally Modified Biomarkers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Globo H (16-18), sialosyl-TF (19-22) and advanced glycation end products (AGE) (23, 24). However, we are lacking of specific antibodies for this...we found out that the sialosyl-TF and advanced glycation end products (AGE) are too low to detect or the sensitivity of these antibodies are not...and Zima, T. (2007) Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)--soluble form (sRAGE) and gene polymorphisms in patients with breast cancer

  10. Early Lung Cancer Detection via Global Protein Modification Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    remission at 3 years (low risk) following diagnosis (Figure 2). The top graph shows the mean difference in the observed expression of the first 100...in patients with remission at 3 years. These preliminary results suggest that the PTM profiles of Lung cancer tumors with poor prognosis may be...highly divergent from that of tumors from patients that were in remission at 3 years following diagnosis and these differences can be detected using

  11. Using ductoscopy to detect breast mass at an early stage.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Carol A

    2002-11-01

    Using a new procedure termed fiberoptic ductoscopy, a surgeon can visualize a patient's breast mammary ducts directly with a 0.9-mm scope. Eighty-five percent of breast cancers are thought to originate in the epithelial lining of the mammary ducts. The hope is that this new technique will allow surgeons to detect breast cancer in high-risk patients before a mass is felt or seen via mammography.

  12. Remote Sensing Plant Stress Using Combined Fluorescence and Reflectance Measurements for Early Detection of Defoliants within the Battlefield Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-02

    REPORT Remote sensing plant stress using combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefied...stress using combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefied environment Report Title...combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefield environment ARO Proposal # (49364-EV

  13. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  14. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  15. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15-21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  16. The Indirect Detection of GRBs by Ionospheric Response - Detection of GRB060124A

    SciTech Connect

    Slosiar, Rudolf; Hudec, Rene

    2008-05-22

    We report on the independent and indirect detection of GRBs by their ionospheric response (SID-Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) observed at VLF (Very Low Frequency). Although few such detections have been already reported in the past, the capability of such alternative and indirect investigations of GRBs still remains to be investigated in more details. We present and discuss an example of such VLF/SID detection of the GRB 060124A.

  17. Federal privacy regulations and the provision of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Houston, K Todd; Behl, Diane D; White, Karl R; Forsman, Irene

    2010-08-01

    To be successful, Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs require individually identifiable information about children to be shared among people who are responsible for screening, diagnosis, early intervention, family support, and medical home services. Pediatricians and other stakeholders in the EHDI process often point to federal laws that were passed to ensure privacy and confidentiality in health care and educational programs as major obstacles to achieving efficient and effective EHDI programs. In this article we summarize the provisions of 3 federal laws (the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act [FERPA], and Part C privacy regulations of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]) that most directly affect information-sharing in EHDI programs. We suggest strategies for sharing the information needed to operate successful EHDI programs while remaining in compliance with these laws, including obtaining signed parental consent to share information between providers, including an option on the individual family services plan for parents to permit sharing of the plan with pediatricians and other providers, and giving copies of all relevant test results to parents to share with providers as they wish.

  18. Application of multispectral reflectance for early detection of tomato disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    Automatic diagnosis of plant disease is important for plant management and environmental preservation in the future. The objective of this study is to use multispectral reflectance measurements to make an early discrimination between the healthy and infected plants by the strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-U1) infection. There were reflectance changes in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) between the healthy and infected plants. Discriminant models were developed using discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and Mahalanobis distance (MD). The DPLS models had a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.397 and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.59 and the MD model correctly classified 86.7% healthy plants and up to 91.7% infected plants.

  19. Detecting early stage osteoarthritis by optical coherence tomography?

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Holger; Brill, Nicolai; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of our joints, manifested by a dynamically increasing degeneration of hyaline articular cartilage (AC). While currently no therapy can reverse this process, the few available treatment options are hampered by the inability of early diagnosis. Loss of cartilage surface, or extracellular matrix (ECM), integrity is considered the earliest sign of OA. Despite the increasing number of imaging modalities surprisingly few imaging biomarkers exist. In this narrative review, recent developments in optical coherence tomography are critically evaluated for their potential to assess different aspects of AC quality as biomarkers of OA. Special attention is paid to imaging surface irregularities, ECM organization and the evaluation of posttraumatic injuries by light-based modalities. PMID:26862954

  20. Early Detection System of Vascular Disease and Its Application Prospect

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Markers of imaging, structure, and function reflecting vascular damage, integrating a long time accumulation effect of traditional and unrecognized cardiovascular risk factors, can be regarded as surrogate endpoints of target organ damage before the occurrence of clinical events. Prevention of cardiovascular disease requires risk stratification and treatment of traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. However, traditional risk stratification is not sufficient to provide accurate assessment of future cardiovascular events. Therefore, vascular injury related parameters obtained by ultrasound or other noninvasive devices, as a surrogate parameter of subclinical cardiovascular disease, can improve cardiovascular risk assessment and optimize the preventive treatment strategy. Thus, we will summarize the research progress and clinical application of early assessment technology of vascular diseases in the present review. PMID:28042567

  1. Information Assurance: Detection & Response to Web Spam Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-28

    As online social media applications such as blogs, social bookmarking (folksonomies), and wikis continue to gain its popularity, concerns about the...sites. The goal of this research is to investigate novel techniques to detect Web spam in social media web sites. Specifically, we have developed a...co-classification framework that simultaneously detects web spam and the spammers who are responsible for posting them on social media web sites. Using

  2. Validation of Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Colorectal Adenocarcinoma (GLNE 010) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    We propose a Phase 2 (large cross-sectional) PRoBE-compliant validation trial of stool-based and serum-based tests for the detection of colorectal neoplasia (1). The trial is powered to detect early stage colorectal adenocarcinoma or high grade dysplasia. This is the most stringent, conservative approach to the early diagnosis of colonic neoplasia and addresses the most important endpoint of identifying individuals with curable, early stage cancer and those with very high risk non-invasive neoplasia (high grade dysplasia).

  3. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Posttranslationally Modified Biomarkers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b . ABSTRACT U... B CP-GSH No rm al iz ed Fl uo re sc en ce In te ns ity Be nig n Inv as ive C an ce r 0.5 1 2...between studies. A .CP- GSH, glutathionylated ceruloplasmin; B . PDGF-4HNE, 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted platelet-derived growth factor. Each data point

  4. Fluorescence video endoscopic system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, A. Charles; Dunn, J. B.; Paspa, Paul M.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Balchum, Oscar J.

    1990-06-01

    A video system is being developed to allow the detection of cancerous lesions that are too small to be accurately identified visually or with x-ray. The system makes use of standard endoscopes and provides a video display of both the color image and a false color fluorescence image, with automated switching between the two views. Excitation of the fluorescence marker, Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) , or it ' 5 purified form , diheinatoporphyrin ether! ester (DHE) , is provided by a krypton ion laser operating in the violet. A brief discussion of fluorescence diagnostic theory and a description of the prototype system, its clinical use , and performance is reviewed.

  5. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  6. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    distinguish a ductal carcinoma in-situ from a phyllodes tumor based on E alone (since the ratio is about 1.1), while it should be relatively easy to do so...are unaffected by the denseness of the breast. The application of EI to breast cancer detection utilizes the fact that tumors are stiffer than the...years), usually because the higher density of their breasts can obscure tumors . While the incidence of cancer in younger women is relatively low, it is

  7. Early detection of thrombin activity in neuroinflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Davalos, Dimitrios; Baeten, Kim M; Whitney, Michael A; Mullins, Eric S; Friedman, Beth; Olson, Emilia S; Ryu, Jae Kyu; Smirnoff, Dimitri S; Petersen, Mark A; Bedard, Catherine; Degen, Jay L; Tsien, Roger Y; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with the coagulation system, the temporal and spatial regulation of coagulation activity in neuroinflammatory lesions is unknown. Using a novel molecular probe, we characterized the activity pattern of thrombin, the central protease of the coagulation cascade, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thrombin activity preceded onset of neurological signs, increased at disease peak, and correlated with fibrin deposition, microglial activation, demyelination, axonal damage, and clinical severity. Mice with a genetic deficit in prothrombin confirmed the specificity of the thrombin probe. Thrombin activity might be exploited for developing sensitive probes for preclinical detection and monitoring of neuroinflammation and MS progression. PMID:24740641

  8. Indirect detections and analyses of GRBs by ionospheric response

    SciTech Connect

    Slosiar, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-05-25

    We report on the independent and indirect detection of GRBs by their ionospheric response (SID--Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) observed at VLF (Very Low Frequency), and discus its possible impact on GRB science and investigations in general. Although few such detections have been already reported in the past, the capability of such alternative and indirect investigations of GRBs still remains to be investigated in more details. We present and discuss examples of such VLF/SID detection of GRBs 060124A, GRB080319D a GRB080320A. A network of SID monitors has been created and is operated to detect more GRBs. The importance of these detections for GRB analyses and GRB science in general is still to be further and in full detail exploited. Some possible outcomes in this direction will be outlined and discussed.

  9. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  10. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resist...

  11. Biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Reena; Jones, Emma; Vidart, Victoire; Kuppen, Peter J K; Conti, John A; Francis, Nader K

    2014-09-01

    There is growing interest in early detection of colorectal cancer as current screening modalities lack compliance and specificity. This study systematically reviewed the literature to identify biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps. Literature searches were conducted for relevant papers since 2007. Human studies reporting on early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps using biomarkers were included. Methodologic quality was evaluated, and sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value (PPV) were reported. The search strategy identified 3,348 abstracts. A total of 44 papers, examining 67 different tumor markers, were included. Overall sensitivities for colorectal cancer detection by fecal DNA markers ranged from 53% to 87%. Combining fecal DNA markers increased the sensitivity of colorectal cancer and adenoma detection. Canine scent detection had a sensitivity of detecting colorectal cancer of 99% and specificity of 97%. The PPV of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) is 1.26%, compared with 0.31% for the current screening method of guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT). A panel of serum protein biomarkers provides a sensitivity and specificity above 85% for all stages of colorectal cancer, and a PPV of 0.72%. Combinations of fecal and serum biomarkers produce higher sensitivities, specificities, and PPVs for early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomas. Further research is required to validate these biomarkers in a well-structured population-based study.

  12. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  13. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  14. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  15. Early detection of changes in lung mechanics with oscillometry following bariatric surgery in severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ubong; Hernandez, Paul; Dechman, Gail; Ellsmere, James; Maksym, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is associated with respiratory symptoms that are reported to improve with weight loss, but this is poorly reflected in spirometry, and few studies have measured respiratory mechanics with oscillometry. We investigated whether early changes in lung mechanics following weight loss are detectable with oscillometry. Furthermore, we investigated whether the changes in lung mechanics measured in the supine position following weight loss are associated with changes in sleep quality. Nineteen severely obese female subjects (mean body mass index, 47.2 ± 6.6 kg/m(2)) were evaluated using spirometry, oscillometry, plethysmography, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index before and 5 weeks after bariatric surgery. These tests were conducted in both the upright and the supine position, and pre- and postbronchodilation with 200 μg of salbutamol. Five weeks after surgery, weight loss of 11.5 ± 2.5 kg was not associated with changes in spirometry and plethysmography, with the exception of functional residual capacity. There were also no changes in upright respiratory system resistance (Rrs) or reactance following weight loss. Importantly, however, in the supine position, weight loss caused a substantial reduction in Rrs. In addition, sleep quality improved significantly and was highly correlated with the reduction in supine Rrs. Prior to weight loss, subjects did not respond to the bronchodilator when assessed in the upright position with either spirometry or oscillometry; however, with modest weight loss, bronchodilator responsiveness returned to the normal range. Improvements in lung mechanics occur very early after weight loss, mostly in the supine position, resulting in improved sleep quality. These improvements are detectable with oscillometry but not with spirometry.

  16. [CODEPEH 2014 recommendations for the early detection of delayed hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, José

    2016-10-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as key element to define the educational prognosis and inclusion of the deaf child, as advantage can be taken in the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between those deaf persons who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or inappropriate intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge of all childcare professionals. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planned in order to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the Committee for the Early Detection of Deafness (CODEPEH) would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring on the hearing health of children. And, for this reason, CODEPEH drafts the recommendations included in the present document.

  17. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts: a multiple method evaluation for management application.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Gröger, Joachim P; Gårdmark, Anna; Kornilovs, Georgs; Otto, Saskia A; Möllmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited. Using real monitoring data of a key ecosystem component, we here apply multiple early-warning indicators in order to assess their ability to forewarn a major ecosystem regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. We show that some indicators and methods can result in clear early-warning signals, while other methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face of ecosystem change.

  18. Quantum dots hold promise for early cancer imaging and detection.

    PubMed

    Pericleous, Pericles; Gazouli, Maria; Lyberopoulou, Anna; Rizos, Spyros; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2012-08-01

    Despite all major breakthroughs in recent years of research concerning the complex events that lead to cancer expression and metastasis, we are not yet able to effectively treat cancer that has spread to vital organs. The various clinical phases originating from cancer diagnosis through treatment and prognosis require a comprehensive understanding of these events, to utilise pre-symptomatic, minimally invasive and targeted cancer management techniques. Current imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and gamma scintigraphy facilitate the pre-operative study of tumours, but they have been rendered unable to visualise cancer in early stages, due to their intrinsic limitations. The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular (in vitro) and in vivo molecular imaging. However, the same unique physical and chemical properties which renowned QDs attractive may be associated with their potentially catastrophic effects on living cells and tissues. There are critical issues that need to be further examined to properly assess the risks associated with the manufacturing and use of QDs in cancer management. In this review, we aim to describe the current utilisation of QDs as well as their future prospective to decipher and confront cancer.

  19. Early growth response 1 mediates the systemic and hepatic inflammatory response initiated by hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jose M; Ming, Mei Jian; Levy, Ryan M; Liu, Shubing; Pinsky, David J; Vodovotz, Yoram; Billiar, Timothy R

    2007-02-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. The early growth response 1 (Egr-1) transcription factor is induced by a variety of cellular stresses, including hypoxia, and may function as a master switch to trigger the expression of numerous key inflammatory mediators. We hypothesized that HS would induce hepatic expression of Egr-1 and that Egr-1 upregulates the inflammatory response after HS. The Egr-1 mice and wild-type (WT) controls (n>or=5 for all groups) were subjected to HS alone or HS followed by resuscitation (HS/R). Other mice were subjected to a sham procedure which included general anesthesia and vessel cannulation but no shock (sham). After the HS, HS/R, or sham procedures, mice were euthanized for determination of serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, and alanine aminotransferase. Northern blot analysis was performed to evaluate Egr-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Liver whole cell lysates were evaluated for Egr-1 protein expression by Western blot analysis. Hepatic expression of IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 mRNA was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The Egr-1 DNA binding was assessed using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Hemorrhagic shock results in a rapid and transient hepatic expression of Egr-1 mRNA in WT mice by 1 h, whereas protein and DNA binding activity was evident by 2.5 h. The Egr-1 mRNA expression diminished after 4 h of resuscitation, whereas Egr-1 protein expression and DNA binding activity persisted through resuscitation. The Egr-1 mice exhibited decreased levels of hepatic inflammatory mediators compared with WT controls with a decrease in hepatic mRNA levels of IL-6 by 42%, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor by 39%, and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 by 43%. Similarly, Egr-1 mice demonstrated a decreased systemic inflammatory response and hepatic injury after HS

  20. Tumor response estimation in radar-based microwave breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Kurrant, Douglas J; Fear, Elise C; Westwick, David T

    2008-12-01

    Radar-based microwave imaging techniques have been proposed for early stage breast cancer detection. A considerable challenge for the successful implementation of these techniques is the reduction of clutter, or components of the signal originating from objects other than the tumor. In particular, the reduction of clutter from the late-time scattered fields is required in order to detect small (subcentimeter diameter) tumors. In this paper, a method to estimate the tumor response contained in the late-time scattered fields is presented. The method uses a parametric function to model the tumor response. A maximum a posteriori estimation approach is used to evaluate the optimal values for the estimates of the parameters. A pattern classification technique is then used to validate the estimation. The ability of the algorithm to estimate a tumor response is demonstrated by using both experimental and simulated data obtained with a tissue sensing adaptive radar system.

  1. An Online Change of Activity in Energy Spectrum for Detection on an Early Intervention Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Boudergui, K.; Laine, F.; Montagu, T.; Blanc, P.; Deltour, A.; Mozziconacci, S.

    2015-07-01

    With the growth of industrial risks and the multiplication of CBRNe (Chemical Biological Radiological and explosive) attacks through toxic chemicals, biological or radiological threats, public services and military authorities face with increasingly critical situations, whose management is strongly conditioned by fast and reliable establishment of an informative diagnostic. Right after an attack, the five first minutes are crucial to define the various scenarios and the most dangerous for a human intervention. Therefore the use of robots is considered essential by all stakeholders of security. In this context, the SISPEO project (Systeme d'Intervention Sapeurs Pompiers Robotise) aims to create/build/design a robust response through a robotic platform for early intervention services such as civil and military security in hostile environments. CEA LIST has proposed an adapted solution to detect and characterize nuclear and radiological risks online and in motion, using a miniature embedded CdZnTe (CZT) crystal Gamma-ray spectrometer. This paper presents experimental results for this miniature embedded CZT spectrometer and its associated mathematical method to detect and characterize radiological threats online and in motion. (authors)

  2. The use of electro-acoustic impedance measurements in detecting early clinical otosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Van Wagoner, R S; Campbell, J D

    1976-02-01

    The first evidence that sodium fluoride (NaFl) can stop the otosclerotic process was recently presented. This development has placed new emphasis on the early detection of clinical otosclerosis. Electro-acoustic impedance measurements often detect minute changes in absolute impedance and compliance of the ossicular chain. The most valuable diagnostic information, however, is a negative on-off (biphasic) type of acoustic reflex. These results are often evident prior to the detection of positive clinical signs of otosclerosis. The negative on-off acoustic reflex is reviewed in this paper along with case discussions involving medical/surgical management of early otosclerosis.

  3. Detection of cord blood hepcidin levels as a biomarker for early-onset neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Kara, Semra; Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Simavli, Serap; Duvan, Candan Iltemur; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2014-03-01

    Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) continues to be a severe condition associated with a high mortality and morbidity. However, symptoms and laboratory markers of this serious condition are nonspecific and currently there are no available standard tests to provide perfect diagnostic accuracy. An early recognition and initiation of antimicrobial therapy are essential in order to prevent morbidity and mortality. Hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis, is also an acute-phase reactant, which has a critical role in inflammation and contributes to host defense by interfering with microorganism's access to iron. Since hepcidin expression is induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6), it also plays role in the innate immune system. Recently, endogenous expression of hepcidin by macrophages and neutrophils in response to bacterial pathogens confirmed its role in innate immunity. The clear link between the hepcidin molecule and innate immunity may be used for the detection of EONS. We hypothesized that an increased level of hepcidin in cord blood may be used as a reliable biological marker of EONS and designed a prospective cohort study to test this hypothesis and collected pilot data. Cord blood samples of all infants born between January 2009 and December 2010 at our university hospital were collected after parental consent and a total of 38 infants were enrolled in the study who fulfilled the sepsis criteria. The range of cord blood hepcidin was found to be significantly increased in newborns with EONS (min-max: 118.1-8400 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the pathophysiologic relevance of hepcidin in EONS and demonstrate increased levels of hepcidin in cord blood as an acute-phase reactant in response to sepsis.

  4. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  5. Early dutasteride monotherapy in men with detectable serum prostate-specific antigen levels following radical prostatectomy: A prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yu Seob; Lee, Jea Whan; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of early administration of dutasteride in patients with detectable serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and Methods A prospective open-label study, with a cumulative analysis of asymptomatic increase in PSA following RP, was conducted from January 2005 to December 2013. An early increase in PSA level was defined as detectable serum PSA level> 0.04 ng/mL. Patients with PSA level>0.04 ng/mL were treated with dutasteride 0.5 mg daily. Serum PSA level and biochemical recurrence (BCR) were monitored. We divided the patients into 2 groups based on the serum PSA response after dutasteride treatment. Results Eighty patients were included in the study. At the median follow-up of 51.8 months, 56 patients (70.0%) showed a decrease of greater than 10% in serum PSA level, and 24 showed increased PSA levels. Twelve of the 56 patients with PSA response showed subsequently increased PSA. Intergroup differences in preoperative PSA levels, PSA nadir levels, and Gleason score of 6 or less were significant (p=0.028, p=0.030, and p=0.035, respectively). A multivariate analysis revealed that Gleason score of 6 or less (p=0.018) and PSA nadir levels (p=0.011) were predictive factors for PSA response after early dutasteride treatment in men with increased PSA levels following RP. Conclusions Early monotherapy of dutasteride showed a decline in serum PSA levels in men with lower nadir PSA levels, and a Gleason score 6, when the serum PSA was detected after RP. PMID:28261678

  6. Auditory Detection of the Human Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Gerald, Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated whether listeners can distinguish human brainstem auditory evoked responses elicited by acoustic clicks from control waveforms obtained with no acoustic stimulus when the waveforms are presented auditorily. Detection performance for stimuli presented visually was slightly, but consistently, superior to that which occurred for…

  7. Stimuli-responsive electrodes detect oxidative stress and liver injury.

    PubMed

    Aran, Kiana; Parades, Jacobo; Rafi, Mohammad; Yau, Jennifer F; Acharya, Abhinav P; Zibinsky, Mikhail; Liepmann, Dorian; Murthy, Niren

    2015-02-25

    A digital point-of-care biosensor for measuring reactive oxygen species is presented based on novel reactive oxygen species responsive polymer-based electrodes. The biosensor is able to detect a drug-induced liver injury by monitoring the oxidative stress in the blood.

  8. A Nominal Response Model Approach for Detecting Answer Copying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollack, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces a new Item Response Theory (IRT) based statistic for detecting answer copying. Compares this omega statistic with the best classical test theory-based statistic under various conditions, and finds omega superior based on Type I error rate and power. (SLD)

  9. Early 1900 s detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Korean amphibians.

    PubMed

    Fong, Jonathan J; Cheng, Tina L; Bataille, Arnaud; Pessier, Allan P; Waldman, Bruce; Vredenburg, Vance T

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a major conservation concern because of its role in decimating amphibian populations worldwide. We used quantitative PCR to screen 244 museum specimens from the Korean Peninsula, collected between 1911 and 2004, for the presence of Bd to gain insight into its history in Asia. Three specimens of Rugosa emeljanovi (previously Rana or Glandirana rugosa), collected in 1911 from Wonsan, North Korea, tested positive for Bd. Histology of these positive specimens revealed mild hyperkeratosis - a non-specific host response commonly found in Bd-infected frogs - but no Bd zoospores or zoosporangia. Our results indicate that Bd was present in Korea more than 100 years ago, consistent with hypotheses suggesting that Korean amphibians may be infected by endemic Asian Bd strains.

  10. Early responses of human cancer cells upon photodynamic treatment monitored by laser phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Theo A.; Graschew, Georgi; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Rakowsky, Stefan; Dressler, Cathrin; Beuthan, Juergen; Schlag, Peter M.

    2001-04-01

    Photodynamic treatment of cancer cells is known to eventually cause cell death in most cases. The precise pathways and the time course seem to vary among different cell types and modes of photodynamic treatment. In this contribution, the focus was put on the responses of human colon carcinoma cells HCT-116 within the first 15 minutes after laser irradiation in the presence of Photofrin« II (PII). To monitor the cell response in this early time period laser phase microscopic imaging was used, a method sensitive to changes in overall cell shape and intracellular structures, mediated by changes in the local refractive index. Laser irradiation of cells loaded with PII induced a significant reduction of the phase shifts, which probably reflects the induced damage to the different cellular membrane structures. The data suggest that even within the first 30 s after the onset of laser illumination, a significant reduction of the phase shifts can be detected. These results underline that laser phase microscopy is a suitable diagnostic tool for cellular research, also in the early time domain.

  11. Early detection monitoring for larval dreissenid mussels: How much plankton sampling is enough?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Bollens, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of quagga and zebra mussel (dreissenids) monitoring programs in the Pacific Northwest provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a regional invasive species detection effort early in its development. Recent studies suggest that the ecological and economic costs of a dreissenid infestation in the Pacific Northwest of the USA would be significant. Consequently, efforts are underway to monitor for the presence of dreissenids. However, assessments of whether these efforts provide for early detection are lacking. We use information collected from 2012 to 2014 to characterize the development of larval dreissenid monitoring programs in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in the context of introduction and establishment risk. We also estimate the effort needed for high-probability detection of rare planktonic taxa in four Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and assess whether the current level of effort provides for early detection. We found that the effort expended to monitor for dreissenid mussels increased substantially from 2012 to 2014, that efforts were distributed across risk categories ranging from high to very low, and that substantial gaps in our knowledge of both introduction and establishment risk exist. The estimated volume of filtered water required to fully census planktonic taxa or to provide high-probability detection of rare taxa was high for the four reservoirs examined. We conclude that the current level of effort expended does not provide for high-probability detection of larval dreissenids or other planktonic taxa when they are rare in these reservoirs. We discuss options to improve early detection capabilities.

  12. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

  13. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  14. Applications of a single-molecule detection in early disease diagnosis and enzymatic reaction study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jiangwei

    2008-01-01

    polyclonal detector antibody. The capture antibody was covalently immobilized on modified glass slides. The detector antibody was conjugated with AF532 labeled secondary antibody prior to being used as probe for the antigen. Imaging was performed with a TIRF system. This technique is demonstrated for detecting HIV-1 p24 antigen down to 0.1 pg/mL with a dynamic range of over 4 orders of magnitude. A Langmuir isotherm fit the molecule count dependence on the target concentration. The results also showed that neither sensitivity nor dynamic range was affected by the biological matrix. SMISA is therefore a promising approach for the early diagnosis of virus-induced diseases. Single-molecule enzymatic kinetics and enantioselectivity were monitored in real time by using TIRF microscopy. AF532 labeled poly-L-lysine (PLL) or poly-D-lysine (PDL) was covalently immobilized on a dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) self-assembled monolayer (DSU SAM). Chain shortening due to enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the reduction of the individual fluorescence intensities. A broad distribution was obtained when 100 single-molecule half-lives were analyzed. However, the detailed hydrolysis process involved also a long-lived component and an induction period that varied significantly among molecules. Charge and steric heterogeneity at the surface are responsible for these features.

  15. [Value of electroencephalography in the early detection of neonatal leucinosis].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M; Carrascosa-Romero, M C; Grande, A; Martinez-Gonzalez, M; Godes-Medrano, B

    2016-08-16

    Introduccion. La leucinosis es una metabolopatia neonatal grave. Es consecuencia del deficit enzimatico determinado geneticamente del complejo descarboxilasa-dihidrolipoil transacilasa y dihidrolipoil deshidrogenasa, y del acumulo consecuente de los metabolitos precursores, aminoacidos ramificados de cadena larga y sus alfa-cetoacidos. Son potentes neurotoxicos, responsables del rapido establecimiento de edema y desmielinizacion cerebral difusa. La demora en el diagnostico suele provocar graves secuelas psicomotoras o incluso la muerte. Caso clinico. Se presenta una paciente neonata con encefalopatia neonatal grave, crisis epilepticas y un electroencefalograma (EEG) con unas caracteristicas especiales que oriento el diagnostico hacia una posible leucinosis. El diagnostico temprano permitio instaurar rapidamente el tratamiento especifico y conseguir una evolucion favorable de la paciente. Conclusiones. El EEG en pacientes con sospecha de encefalopatia neonatal ofrece informacion funcional de alta rentabilidad con un bajo coste, en especial por promover diagnosticos y tratamientos tempranos. El EEG en la leucinosis presenta signos peculiares, reconocibles en periodos tempranos en la mayor parte de los afectados, como ocurrio en el caso descrito. Parece recomendable integrar el EEG en el cribado de encefalopatias neonatales por ser una tecnica diagnostica valiosa, inocua y, por lo general, accesible y especialmente de ayuda en metabolopatias tratables, como la leucinosis.

  16. Detecting Answer Copying when the Regular Response Process Follows a Known Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    A statistical test for detecting answer copying on multiple-choice items is presented. The test is based on the exact null distribution of the number of random matches between two test takers under the assumption that the response process follows a known response model. The null distribution can easily be generalized to the family of distributions…

  17. Detection and response to unauthorized access to a communication device

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Rhett; Gordon, Colin

    2015-09-08

    A communication gateway consistent with the present disclosure may detect unauthorized physical or electronic access and implement security actions in response thereto. A communication gateway may provide a communication path to an intelligent electronic device (IED) using an IED communications port configured to communicate with the IED. The communication gateway may include a physical intrusion detection port and a network port. The communication gateway may further include control logic configured to evaluate physical intrusion detection signal. The control logic may be configured to determine that the physical intrusion detection signal is indicative of an attempt to obtain unauthorized access to one of the communication gateway, the IED, and a device in communication with the gateway; and take a security action based upon the determination that the indication is indicative of the attempt to gain unauthorized access.

  18. An Architecture for Automated Fire Detection Early Warning System Based on Geoprocessing Service Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadzadegan, F.; Saber, M.; Zahmatkesh, H.; Joze Ghazi Khanlou, H.

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly discovering, sharing, integrating and applying geospatial information are key issues in the domain of emergency response and disaster management. Due to the distributed nature of data and processing resources in disaster management, utilizing a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to take advantages of workflow of services provides an efficient, flexible and reliable implementations to encounter different hazardous situation. The implementation specification of the Web Processing Service (WPS) has guided geospatial data processing in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) platform to become a widely accepted solution for processing remotely sensed data on the web. This paper presents an architecture design based on OGC web services for automated workflow for acquisition, processing remotely sensed data, detecting fire and sending notifications to the authorities. A basic architecture and its building blocks for an automated fire detection early warning system are represented using web-based processing of remote sensing imageries utilizing MODIS data. A composition of WPS processes is proposed as a WPS service to extract fire events from MODIS data. Subsequently, the paper highlights the role of WPS as a middleware interface in the domain of geospatial web service technology that can be used to invoke a large variety of geoprocessing operations and chaining of other web services as an engine of composition. The applicability of proposed architecture by a real world fire event detection and notification use case is evaluated. A GeoPortal client with open-source software was developed to manage data, metadata, processes, and authorities. Investigating feasibility and benefits of proposed framework shows that this framework can be used for wide area of geospatial applications specially disaster management and environmental monitoring.

  19. High-Throughput Analysis of Plasma Hybrid Markers for Early Detection of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Jung-hyun; Lampe, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers for the early detection of cancer in the general population have to perform with high sensitivity and specificity in order to prevent the costs associated with over-diagnosis. There are only a few current tissue or blood markers that are recommended for generalized cancer screening. Despite the recognition that combinations of multiple biomarkers will likely improve their utility, biomarker panels are usually limited to a single class of molecules. Tissues and body fluids including plasma and serum contain not only proteins, DNA and microRNAs that are differentially expressed in cancers but further cancer specific information might be gleaned by comparing different classes of biomolecules. For example, the level of a certain microRNA might be related to the level of a particular protein in a cancer specific manner. Proteins might have cancer-specific post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation or glycosylation) or lead to the generation of autoantibodies. Most currently approved biomarkers are glycoproteins. Autoantibodies can be produced as a host’s early surveillance response to cancer-specific proteins in pre-symptomatic and pre-diagnostic stages of cancer. Thus, measurement of the level of a protein, the level of its glycosylation or phosphorylation and whether autoantibodies are produced to it can yield multi-dimensional information on each protein. We consider specific proteins that show consistent cancer-specific changes in two or three of these measurements to be “hybrid markers”. We hypothesize these markers will suffer less variation between different individuals since one component can act to “standardize” the other measurement. As a proof of principle, a 180 plasma sample set consisting of 120 cases (60 colon cancers and 60 adenomas) and 60 controls were analyzed using our high-density antibody array for changes in their protein, IgG-complex and sialyl-Lewis A (SLeA) modified proteins. At p < 0.05, expression changes in

  20. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  1. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons.

  2. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Ji, Yanju; Zhao, Ling; Ji, Mengying; Ye, Zhuang; Li, Suyi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  3. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Ji, Mengying; Ye, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer. PMID:27642365

  4. Early Development of Brain Responses to Rapidly Presented Auditory Stimulation: a Magnetoencephalographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Carolin; Draganova, Rossitza; Ware, Maureen; Murphy, Pamela; Govindan, Rathinaswamy; Siegel, Eric R; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Background The processing of rapidly presented stimuli has been shown to be a precursor for the perception of speech in infants, long before they learn to speak. However, the onset and early development of rapid temporal processing (RTP) skills is not yet well understood. The main goal of this study was to assess the development of RTP skills during the prenatal and early postnatal stages of life. Methodology Tone pairs were presented in two difficulties (long and short) and event-related magnetic fields were recorded using MEG. 22 pregnant women (gestational ages between 29 and 38 weeks’) participated in the fetal study and 15 returned for a neonatal follow-up study between 2 and 38 days after delivery or 38 and 44 weeks gestational age (GA). Results In the postnatal follow-up study, a trend towards two peaks with increasing chronological and gestational age was observed in the longer tone pair. However, no such trend was evident in neonatal responses to the short tone pairs or in fetal recordings. Conclusions Neonates showed a gradual trend to successful processing of the longer tone pair with increasing age. By 22 days of chronological age, the infants processed this tone pair successfully, as indicated by two-peak waveforms. Therefore, the first three weeks of life could be critical for the development of RTP. Significance This study is a first approach towards the assessment of early RTP development. The results provide promising indications for future studies, which might lead to an early detection of deficits in speech perception and therefore prevent further language impairments. PMID:19900775

  5. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  6. Computational Analysis of Specific MicroRNA Biomarkers for Noninvasive Early Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tianci; Liang, Yanchun; Cao, Zhongbo

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease residing in various tissues of human body, accompanied with many abnormalities and mutations in genomes, transcriptome, and epigenome. Early detection plays a crucial role in extending survival time of all major cancer types. Recent advances in microarray and sequencing techniques have given more support to identifying effective biomarkers for early detection of cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are more and more frequently used as candidates for biomarkers in cancer related studies due to their regulation of target gene expression. In this paper, the comparative analysis is used to discover miRNA expression patterns in cancer versus normal samples on early stage of eight prevalent cancer types. Our work focuses on the specific miRNAs biomarkers identification and function analysis. Several identified miRNA biomarkers in this paper are matched well with those reported in existing researches, and most of them could serve as potential candidate indicators for clinical early diagnosis applications. PMID:28357401

  7. Elevated Amygdala Response to Faces following Early Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tottenham, N.; Hare, T. A.; Millner, A.; Gilhooly, T.; Zevin, J. D.; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    A functional neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing conditions in humans as they relate to socio-emotional development. Previously institutionalized (PI) children and a same-aged comparison group were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an Emotional Face Go/Nogo…

  8. Singaporean Early Childhood Teachers' Responses to Myths about Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Freda; Potter, Gillian K.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to attending seminars on child abuse and domestic violence, 86 kindergarten and 64 special education (early childhood) teachers completed a questionnaire seeking views relating to the accuracy of statements relating to all forms of child abuse. This was designed to identify the accuracy of teachers' knowledge of child abuse and neglect…

  9. Investigating Early Years Teachers' Understanding and Response to Children's Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambouri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…

  10. Paediatric early warning systems for detecting and responding to clinical deterioration in children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Veronica; Matthews, Anne; MacDonell, Rachel; Fitzsimons, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the available evidence on paediatric early warning systems (PEWS) for use in acute paediatric healthcare settings for the detection of, and timely response to, clinical deterioration in children. Method The electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched systematically from inception up to August 2016. Eligible studies had to refer to PEWS, inclusive of rapid response systems and teams. Outcomes had to be specific to the identification of and/or response to clinical deterioration in children (including neonates) in paediatric hospital settings (including emergency departments). 2 review authors independently completed the screening and selection process, the quality appraisal of the retrieved evidence and data extraction; with a third reviewer resolving any discrepancies, as required. Results were narratively synthesised. Results From a total screening of 2742 papers, 90 papers, of varied designs, were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review. Findings revealed that PEWS are extensively used internationally in paediatric inpatient hospital settings. However, robust empirical evidence on which PEWS is most effective was limited. The studies examined did however highlight some evidence of positive directional trends in improving clinical and process-based outcomes for clinically deteriorating children. Favourable outcomes were also identified for enhanced multidisciplinary team work, communication and confidence in recognising, reporting and making decisions about child clinical deterioration. Conclusions Despite many studies reporting on the complexity and multifaceted nature of PEWS, no evidence was sourced which examined PEWS as a complex healthcare intervention. Future research needs to investigate PEWS as a complex multifaceted sociotechnical system that is embedded in a wider safety culture influenced by many organisational and human factors. PEWS should be embraced as a part of a

  11. Early cytokine and antibody responses against Coxiella burnetii in aerosol infection of BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Schoffelen, Teske; Self, Joshua S.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Netea, Mihai G.; van Deuren, Marcel; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kersh, Gilbert J.

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium, can give rise to Q fever in humans and is transmitted mainly by inhalation of infected aerosols from animal reservoirs. Serology is commonly used to diagnose Q fever, but the early cellular immune response –i.e. C. burnetii-specific interferon(IFN)-γ production in response to antigen challenge– might be an additional diagnostic. Detection of IFN-γ responses has been used to identify past and chronic Q fever infections, but the IFN-γ response in acute Q fever has not been described. By challenging immunocompetent BALB/c mice with aerosols containing phase I C. burnetii, the timing and extent of IFN-γ recall responses was evaluated in an acute C. burnetii infection. Other cytokines were also measured in an effort to identify other potential diagnostic markers. The data show that after initial expansion of bacteria first in lungs and then in other tissues, the infection was cleared from day 10 onwards as reflected by the decreasing number of bacteria. The antigen-induced IFN-γ production by splenocytes coincided with emergence of IgM phase II-antibodies at day 10 post-infection, and preceded appearance of IgG-antibodies. This was accompanied by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, KC and IP-10, followed by MCP-1, but not by IL-1β and TNF-α, and only very low production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These data suggest that analysis of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses could be a useful tool for diagnosis of acute Q-fever. Moreover, the current model of C.burnetii infection could be used to give new insights into immunological factors that predispose to development of persistent infection. PMID:25618420

  12. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meiye; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Hatch, Anson

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  13. Increased detection of latent tuberculosis by tuberculin skin test and booster phenomenon in early rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Barbosa, L; Esquivel-Valerio, J A; Arana-Guajardo, A C; Vega-Morales, D; Riega-Torres, J; Garza-Elizondo, M A

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is up to four times higher when compared to the general population, but their risk increases with the use of TNF-a drugs. Appropriate screening of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and proper management of such cases substantially reduce the incidence of active TB. Tuberculin skin test (TST) is a widely used method for the detection of LTBI. The time of diagnosis of RA as well as the age of the patient might modify the TST performance. We did an observational, comparative study of RA patients with early and established disease, with the objective to know the prevalence of LTBI using the TST and booster test; an induration ≥5 mm was considered reactive. We evaluated 143 patients (83 [58 %] early RA patients). We found 31.3 and 21.7 % TST positivity in early and established RA patients, respectively. With the use of booster test, the positivity increased to 46.5 and 28.8 %, respectively (p = 0.048, OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.01-1.75). In conclusion, we found that TST and booster test increased LTBI detection in early RA patients, which may suggest that time of RA diagnosis might affect cellular immunity and therefore the TST response.

  14. Early Detection of Acute Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Noninvasive Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Kristine O.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular and cholestatic forms of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are major reasons for late-stage termination of small-molecule drug discovery research projects. Biochemical serum markers are limited in their ability to sensitively and specifically detect both of these common DILI forms in preclinical models, and tissue-specific approaches to assessing this are labor intensive, requiring extensive animal dosing, tissue preparation, and pathology assessment. In vivo fluorescent imaging offers noninvasive detection of biologic changes detected directly in the livers of living animals. Three different near-infrared fluorescent imaging probes, specific for cell death (Annexin-Vivo 750), matrix metalloproteases (MMPSense 750 FAST), and transferrin receptor (Transferrin-Vivo 750) were used to measure the effects of single bolus intraperitoneal doses of four different chemical agents known to induce liver injury. Hepatocellular injury–inducing agents, thioacetamide and acetaminophen, showed optimal injury detection with probe injection at 18–24 hours, the liver cholestasis-inducing drug rifampicin required early probe injection (2 hours), and chlorpromazine, which induces mixed hepatocellular/cholestatic injury, showed injury with both early and late injection. Different patterns of liver responses were seen among these different imaging probes, and no one probe detected injury by all four compounds. By using a cocktail of these three near-infrared fluorescent imaging probes, all labeled with 750-nm fluorophores, each of the four different DILI agents induced comparable tissue injury within the liver region, as assessed by epifluorescence imaging. A strategy of probe cocktail injection in separate cohorts at 2 hours and at 20–24 hours allowed the effective detection of drugs with either early- or late-onset injury. PMID:28115551

  15. The impact of early detection and intervention of breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Douglas W; Wazer, David; Khan, Atif; Ridner, Sheila; Vicini, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) has become an increasingly important clinical issue as noted by the recent update of the 2015 NCCN breast cancer guidelines which recommends to "educate, monitor, and refer for lymphedema management." The purpose of this review was to examine the literature regarding early detection and management of BCRL in order to (1) better characterize the benefit of proactive surveillance and intervention, (2) clarify the optimal monitoring techniques, and (3) help better define patient groups most likely to benefit from surveillance programs. A Medline search was conducted for the years 1992-2015 to identify articles addressing early detection and management of BCRL. After an initial search, 127 articles were identified, with 13 of these studies focused on early intervention (three randomized (level of evidence 1), four prospective (level of evidence 2-3), six retrospective trials (level of evidence 4)). Data from two, small (n = 185 cases), randomized trials with limited follow-up demonstrated a benefit to early intervention (physiotherapy, manual lymphatic drainage) with regard to reducing the rate of chronic BCRL (>50% reduction) with two additional studies underway (n = 1280). These findings were confirmed by larger prospective and retrospective series. Several studies were identified that demonstrate that newer diagnostic modalities (bioimpedance spectroscopy, perometry) have increased sensitivity allowing for the earlier detection of BCRL. Current data support the development of surveillance programs geared toward the early detection and management of BCRL in part due to newer, more sensitive diagnostic modalities.

  16. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Alina

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  17. Prostate cancer early detection, version 1.2014. Featured updates to the NCCN Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Peter R; Parsons, J Kellogg; Andriole, Gerald; Bahnson, Robert R; Barocas, Daniel A; Catalona, William J; Dahl, Douglas M; Davis, John W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Etzioni, Ruth B; Giri, Veda N; Hemstreet, George P; Kawachi, Mark H; Lange, Paul H; Loughlin, Kevin R; Lowrance, William; Maroni, Paul; Mohler, James; Morgan, Todd M; Nadler, Robert B; Poch, Michael; Scales, Chuck; Shanefelt, Terrence M; Vickers, Andrew J; Wake, Robert; Shead, Dorothy A; Ho, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for men choosing to participate in an early detection program for prostate cancer. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight notable recent updates. Overall, the 2014 update represents a more streamlined and concise set of recommendations. The panel stratified the age ranges at which initiating testing for prostate cancer should be considered. Indications for biopsy include both a cutpoint and the use of multiple risk variables in combination. In addition to other biomarkers of specificity, the Prostate Health Index has been included to aid biopsy decisions in certain men, given recent FDA approvals.

  18. Application of SVM classifier in thermographic image classification for early detection of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the application of machine learning algorithms for early detection of breast cancer on the basis of thermographic images. Supervised learning model: Support vector machine (SVM) and Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm (SMO) for the training of SVM classifier were implemented. The SVM classifier was included in a client-server application which enables to create a training set of examinations and to apply classifiers (including SVM) for the diagnosis and early detection of the breast cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of SVM classifier were calculated based on the thermographic images from studies. Furthermore, the heuristic method for SVM's parameters tuning was proposed.

  19. Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Wah, Liew Oi; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in the plants. Calcium deficiency could be detected as early as two days from the onset of stress in mature plants when optical data were collected from terminal young leaves. Young plants subjected to calcium stress for 9 days could not be distinguished from nutrient sufficient plants.

  20. Responses in early visual areas to contour integration are context dependent

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Cheng; Burton, Philip C.; Kersten, Daniel; Olman, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that early visual areas are involved in contour processing. However, it is not clear how local and global context interact to influence responses in those areas, nor has the interarea coordination that yields coherent structural percepts been fully studied, especially in human observers. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activity in early visual cortex while observers performed a contour detection task in which alignment of Gabor elements and background clutter were manipulated. Six regions of interest (two regions, containing either the cortex representing the target or the background clutter, in each of areas V1, V2, and V3) were predefined using separate target versus background functional localizer scans. The first analysis using a general linear model showed that in the presence of background clutter, responses in V1 and V2 target regions of interest were significantly stronger to aligned than unaligned contours, whereas when background clutter was absent, no significant difference was observed. The second analysis using interarea correlations showed that with background clutter, there was an increase in V1–V2 coordination within the target regions when perceiving aligned versus unaligned contours; without clutter, however, correlations between V1 and V2 were similar no matter whether aligned contours were present or not. Both the average response magnitude and the connectivity analysis suggest different mechanisms support contour processing with or without background distractors. Coordination between V1 and V2 may play a major role in coherent structure perception, especially with complex scene organization. PMID:27366994

  1. Responses in early visual areas to contour integration are context dependent.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cheng; Burton, Philip C; Kersten, Daniel; Olman, Cheryl A

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that early visual areas are involved in contour processing. However, it is not clear how local and global context interact to influence responses in those areas, nor has the interarea coordination that yields coherent structural percepts been fully studied, especially in human observers. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activity in early visual cortex while observers performed a contour detection task in which alignment of Gabor elements and background clutter were manipulated. Six regions of interest (two regions, containing either the cortex representing the target or the background clutter, in each of areas V1, V2, and V3) were predefined using separate target versus background functional localizer scans. The first analysis using a general linear model showed that in the presence of background clutter, responses in V1 and V2 target regions of interest were significantly stronger to aligned than unaligned contours, whereas when background clutter was absent, no significant difference was observed. The second analysis using interarea correlations showed that with background clutter, there was an increase in V1-V2 coordination within the target regions when perceiving aligned versus unaligned contours; without clutter, however, correlations between V1 and V2 were similar no matter whether aligned contours were present or not. Both the average response magnitude and the connectivity analysis suggest different mechanisms support contour processing with or without background distractors. Coordination between V1 and V2 may play a major role in coherent structure perception, especially with complex scene organization.

  2. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reddy-Kantharaj, Yashoda-Bhoomi; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Janardhan-Reddy, Sujatha; Sahu, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Background Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. Material and Methods The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Results Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Conclusions Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct

  3. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: strategic map for innovation--a white paper.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W

    2015-07-01

    Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

  4. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-04-09

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires.

  5. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-01-01

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires. PMID:27070618

  6. Method of Detecting System Function by Measuring Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, John L. (Inventor); Morrison, William H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Real time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using one time record, Compensated Synchronous Detection (CSD). This parallel method enables battery diagnostics. The excitation current to a test battery is a sum of equal amplitude sin waves of a few frequencies spread over range of interest. The time profile of this signal has duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known, synchronous detection processes the time record and each component, both magnitude and phase, is obtained. For compensation, the components, except the one of interest, are reassembled in the time domain. The resulting signal is subtracted from the original signal and the component of interest is synchronously detected. This process is repeated for each component.

  7. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.

    2008-07-01

    Real time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using one time record, Compensated Synchronous Detection (CSD). This parallel method enables battery diagnostics. The excitation current to a test battery is a sum of equal amplitude sin waves of a few frequencies spread over range of interest. The time profile of this signal has duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known, synchronous detection processes the time record and each component, both magnitude and phase, is obtained. For compensation, the components, except the one of interest, are reassembled in the time domain. The resulting signal is subtracted from the original signal and the component of interest is synchronously detected. This process is repeated for each component.

  8. The Auditory-Evoked N2 and P3 Components in the Stop-Signal Task: Indices of Inhibition, Response-Conflict or Error-Detection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimoska, Aneta; Johnstone, Stuart J.; Barry, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The N2 and P3 components have been separately associated with response inhibition in the stop-signal task, and more recently, the N2 has been implicated in the detection of response-conflict. To isolate response inhibition activity from early sensory processing, the present study compared processing of the stop-signal with that of a…

  9. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-09-05

    Neutron detectors are utilized in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutron detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Finally, modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.

  10. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    DOE PAGES

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; ...

    2014-09-05

    Neutron detectors are utilized in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutronmore » detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Finally, modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.« less

  11. Early and late mammalian responses to heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview summarizes murine results on acute lethality responses, inactivation of marrow CFU-S and intestinal microcolonies, testes weight loss, life span shortening, and posterior lens opacification in mice irradiated with heavy charged particles. RBE-LET relationships for these mammalian responses are compared with results from in vitro studies. The trend is that the maximum RBE for in vivo responses tends to be lower and occurs at a lower LET than for inactivation of V79 and T-1 cells in culture. Based on inactivation cross sections, the response of CFU-S in vivo conforms to expectations from earlier studies with prokaryotic systems and mammalian cells in culture. Effects of heavy ions are compared with fission spectrum neutrons, and the results are consistent with the interpretation that RBEs are lower than for fission neutrons at about the same LET, probably due to differences in track structure.

  12. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Jonas; Nascimento, Henry M; Yamauchi, Elaine Y; Li, Rosamaria W C; Esteves, Carlos H A; Rehder, Gustavo P; Gaylarde, Christine C; Shirakawa, Márcia A

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s.

  13. Current and Future Trends in Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: Molecular Targets and PET Probes.

    PubMed

    Alauddin, Mian M; De Palatis, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of pancreatic cancer has been a long-standing challenge in determining prognosis and management of the deadly disease. Although the incidence of pancreatic cancer is low (2% of all malignancies), it is the fourth leading cause of deaths attributable to cancer in the U.S. A major cause for the high mortality rate, which exceeds 85%, is the difficulty in diagnosing the disease early in its development. The relative lack of reliable diagnostic tools to screen patients who are asymptomatic prior to the aggressive progression of disease has been the primary contributing factor in the high mortality rate in this patient population. Indeed, 80-90% of patients with pancreatic cancer have relatively small unresectable tumors at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a highly sensitive diagnostic imaging modality to detect early-stage pancreatic cancer, as this may save the lives of many thousands of patients. Many literature reviews have been published on various aspects of pancreatic cancer, including biology, screening, and therapy; however, limited information is available on early detection, especially the use of highly sensitive modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET). Current [(18)F]FDG/PET imaging combined with CT (PET/CT) lacks the necessary sensitivity and specificity for detection of small lesions (~2-3 mm) of pancreatic cancer that may be resectable and curable. Furthermore, accumulation of [(18)F]FDG in inflammatory tissue is a major problem; therefore, an appropriate PET tracer that is both highly sensitive and specific for carcinoma is necessary for PET imaging of early stage pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on early detection of pancreatic cancer by PET, including new targets and the development and application of new PET tracers.

  14. Early Detection of Dengue Infections using Cluster Sampling Around Index Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    EARLY DETECTION OF DENGUE INFECTIONS USING CLUSTER SAMPLING AROUND INDEX CASES CHARMAGNE G. BECKETT, HERMAN KOSASIH, INDRA FAISAL, NURHAYATI, RATNA...Abstract. A two-year study using a cluster investigation method was conducted in West Jakarta, Indonesia to demonstrate the detection of dengue cases prior...to onset of clinical illness. The clusters consisted of family members and neighbors of 53 hospitalized dengue index cases. Among 785 adult and child

  15. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    ABSTRACTS, AND PRESENTATIONS: Lay Press: CDMRP Ovarian Cancer Research Program 2013, Early Detection and Diagnosis , highlighted project. Peer-Reviewed...et al., Detection of elevated plasma levels of epidermal growth factor receptor before breast cancer diagnosis among hormone therapy users. Cancer Res...peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 15, 535 (Mar, 2011). 17. L. E. Kelemen, The

  16. TOWARD EARLY-WARNING DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM COMPACT BINARY COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Kipp; Cariou, Romain; Chapman, Adrian; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Privitera, Stephen; Searle, Antony; Singer, Leo; Weinstein, Alan; Crispin-Ortuzar, Mireia; Frei, Melissa; Hanna, Chad; Kara, Erin; Keppel, Drew; Liao, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from CBC. We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

  17. Early Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    According to the College Board's review of data from the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development, the U.S. ranks 12th out of 36 nations in terms of postsecondary attainment among citizens 25 to 34 years old. Completion is the mantra since President Barack Obama challenged higher education by setting an ambitious goal for 60 percent…

  18. Early detection of population declines: high power of genetic monitoring using effective population size estimators

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Tiago; Pérez-Figueroa, Andrés; Luikart, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of population declines is essential to prevent extinctions and to ensure sustainable harvest. We evaluated the performance of two Ne estimators to detect population declines: the two-sample temporal method and a one-sample method based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). We used simulated data representing a wide range of population sizes, sample sizes and number of loci. Both methods usually detect a population decline only one generation after it occurs if Ne drops to less than approximately 100, and 40 microsatellite loci and 50 individuals are sampled. However, the LD method often out performed the temporal method by allowing earlier detection of less severe population declines (Ne approximately 200). Power for early detection increased more rapidly with the number of individuals sampled than with the number of loci genotyped, primarily for the LD method. The number of samples available is therefore an important criterion when choosing between the LD and temporal methods. We provide guidelines regarding design of studies targeted at monitoring for population declines. We also report that 40 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers give slightly lower precision than 10 microsatellite markers. Our results suggest that conservation management and monitoring strategies can reliably use genetic based methods for early detection of population declines. PMID:25567959

  19. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes.

    PubMed

    Farhat, N M; Staal, M; Siddiqui, A; Borisov, S M; Bucs, Sz S; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2015-10-15

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  20. Early detection of cardiac ischemia using a conductometric pCO(2) sensor: real-time drift correction and parameterization.

    PubMed

    Tronstad, Christian; Pischke, Soeren E; Holhjem, Lars; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Martinsen, Orjan G; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-09-01

    For detection of cardiac ischemia based on regional pCO(2) measurement, sensor drift becomes a problem when monitoring over several hours. A real-time drift correction algorithm was developed based on utilization of the time-derivative to distinguish between physiological responses and the drift, customized by measurements from a myocardial infarction porcine model (6 pigs, 23 sensors). IscAlert conductometric pCO(2) sensors were placed in the myocardial regions supplied by the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCX) while the LAD artery was fully occluded for 1, 3, 5 and 15 min leading to ischemia in the LAD-dependent region. The measured pCO(2), the drift-corrected pCO(2) (DeltapCO(2)) and its time-derivative (TDpCO(2)) were compared with respect to detection ability. Baseline stability in the DeltapCO(2) led to earlier, more accurate detection. The TDpCO(2) featured the earliest sensitivity, but with a lower specificity. Combining DeltapCO(2) and TDpCO(2) enables increased accuracy. Suggestions are given for the utilization of the parameters for an automated early warning and alarming system. In conclusion, early detection of cardiac ischemia is feasible using the conductometric pCO(2) sensor together with parameterization methods.

  1. Evaluating the forced oscillation technique in the detection of early smoking-induced respiratory changes

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Alvaro CD; Lopes, Agnaldo J; Jansen, José M; Melo, Pedro L

    2009-01-01

    Background Early detection of the effects of smoking is of the utmost importance in the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is easy to perform since it requires only tidal breathing and offers a detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. The FOT was recently suggested as an attractive alternative for diagnosing initial obstruction in COPD, which may be helpful in detecting COPD in its initial phases. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to evaluate the ability of FOT to detect early smoking-induced respiratory alterations; and (2) to compare the sensitivity of FOT with spirometry in a sample of low tobacco-dose subjects. Methods Results from a group of 28 smokers with a tobacco consumption of 11.2 ± 7.3 pack-years were compared with a control group formed by 28 healthy subjects using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and a questionnaire as a gold standard. The early adverse effects of smoking were adequately detected by the absolute value of the respiratory impedance (Z4Hz), the intercept resistance (R0), and the respiratory system dynamic compliance (Crs, dyn). Z4Hz was the most accurate parameter (Se = 75%, Sp = 75%), followed by R0 and Crs, dyn. The performances of the FOT parameters in the detection of the early effects of smoking were higher than that of spirometry (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that FOT can be used to detect early smoking-induced respiratory changes while these pathologic changes are still potentially reversible. These findings support the use of FOT as a versatile clinical diagnostic tool in aiding COPD prevention and treatment. PMID:19781078

  2. Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-07-01

    Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

  3. Thompson Receives 2013 Early Career Hydrologic Science Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sally

    2014-08-01

    My most sincere thanks to AGU; the Hydrology section and its chair, Eric Wood; those who were kind enough to nominate me for this award; and, of course, the inimitable Gaby Katul for their support and for this recognition. Receiving the Early Career Hydrologic Science Award is an unexpected and humbling pleasure. After seven schizophrenic years of physical scientists accusing me of being an ecologist and ecologists telling me firmly that I'm an engineer, it's wonderful to be able to come to rest where I have always self-identified—as a hydrologist!

  4. Early Detection of Infection in Pigs through an Online Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Avilés, M; Fernández-Carrión, E; López García-Baones, J M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2017-04-01

    Late detection of emergency diseases causes significant economic losses for pig producers and governments. As the first signs of animal infection are usually fever and reduced motion that lead to reduced consumption of water and feed, we developed a novel smart system to monitor body temperature and motion in real time, facilitating the early detection of infectious diseases. In this study, carried out within the framework of the European Union research project Rapidia Field, we tested the smart system on 10 pigs experimentally infected with two doses of an attenuated strain of African swine fever. Biosensors and an accelerometer embedded in an eartag captured data before and after infection, and video cameras were used to monitor the animals 24 h per day. The results showed that in 8 of 9 cases, the monitoring system detected infection onset as an increase in body temperature and decrease in movement before or simultaneously with fever detection based on rectal temperature measurement, observation of clinical signs, the decrease in water consumption or positive qPCR detection of virus. In addition, this decrease in movement was reliably detected using automatic analysis of video images therefore providing an inexpensive alternative to direct motion measurement. The system can be set up to alert staff when high fever, reduced motion or both are detected in one or more animals. This system may be useful for monitoring sentinel herds in real time, considerably reducing the financial and logistical costs of periodic sampling and increasing the chances of early detection of infection.

  5. Loss of dystrophin staining in cardiomyocytes: a novel method for detection early myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Satwat; Al-Salam, Suhail

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most frequent diagnosis made in majority of sudden death cases subjected to clinical and medicolegal autopsies. When sudden death occurs at a very early stage of MI, traditional macroscopic examination, or histological stains cannot easily detect the myocardial changes. For this reason we propose a new method for detecting MI at an early stage. Murine model of MI was used to induce MI through permanent ligation of left anterior descending branch of left coronary artery. Five groups of C57B6/J mice were used for inducing MI, which includes 20 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, four hours and 24 hours post MI groups. One naïve group and sham-operated groups were used as controls. There is loss of dystrophin membranous staining in cardiac myocytes occurs as early as 20 minutes post myocardial infarction. This can be used as a novel method to diagnose early myocardial infarction in post mortem cases where diagnosis is unclear. In conclusion, evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of dystrophin represents a highly sensitive method for detecting early myocardial infarction due to the loss of staining in the infarcted areas. Dystrophin immunostaining can also be used to assess myocardial architecture. PMID:23330010

  6. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

  7. Frameworks for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood: Description and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication Disorders Quarterly, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February, 2013, the Division of Early Childhood, the National Association for the Education of Young Children, and the National Head Start Association released a collaborative paper to provide clarification and assistance regarding the relationship of response to intervention (RTI) with the field of early childhood (EC). In addition to…

  8. Response to therapy following retreatment of serofast early syphilis patients with benzathine penicillin.

    PubMed

    Seña, Arlene C; Wolff, Mark; Behets, Frieda; Van Damme, Kathleen; Martin, David H; Leone, Peter; McNeil, Linda; Hook, Edward W

    2013-02-01

    Persistent nontreponemal titers after treatment are common among patients with early syphilis. We retreated 82 human immunodeficiency virus-negative early syphilis participants who were serofast at 6 months using benzathine penicillin. Only 27% exhibited serological response after retreatment and after an additional 6 months of follow-up.

  9. Measuring Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Conceptualizations of a Culturally Responsive Classroom Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2009-01-01

    With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…

  10. Using Single Sensillum Recording to Detect Olfactory Neuron Responses of Bed Bugs to Semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2016-01-18

    The insect olfactory system plays an important role in detecting semiochemicals in the environment. In particular, the antennal sensilla which house single or multiple neurons inside, are considered to make the major contribution in responding to the chemical stimuli. By directly recording action potential in the olfactory sensillum after exposure to stimuli, single sensillum recording (SSR) technique provides a powerful approach for investigating the neural responses of insects to chemical stimuli. For the bed bug, which is a notorious human parasite, multiple types of olfactory sensillum have been characterized. In this study, we demonstrated neural responses of bed bug olfactory sensilla to two chemical stimuli and the dose-dependent responses to one of them using the SSR method. This approach enables researchers to conduct early screening for individual chemical stimuli on the bed bug olfactory sensilla, which would provide valuable information for the development of new bed bug attractants or repellents and benefits the bed bug control efforts.

  11. Development of Highly Sensitive Bulk Acoustic Wave Device Biosensor Arrays for Screening and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic Wave Device Biosensor Arrays for Screening and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Anthony J. Dickherber, Ph.D...Arrays for Screening and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0099 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...of developing a cost-effective, highly sensitive and highly selective sensor array for the detection of early cancer proliferation. First I report

  12. Determination of Catechol Estrogen Adducts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    Catechol Estrogen Adducts by High- Performance Liquid Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL...DAMD17-98-1-8216 Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas E. Stack, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING...ultimate goal of this research is the development of a biomarker for the early detection of breast cancer. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Breast

  13. Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…

  14. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers...

  15. Challenges of Early Detection of Oral Cancer: Raising Awareness as a First Step to Successful Campaigning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Eva; Koller, Michael; Wiltfang, Jörg; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Möller, Björn; Hertrampf, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, ~13 000 people are found to have oral and pharyngeal cancer every year. Awareness and knowledge about this cancer remain insufficient, particularly amongst elderly people. A campaign for early detection was launched in Northern Germany in April 2012. The first step of the campaign was to increase awareness about oral cancer. Prior to a…

  16. In-situ plant hyperspectral sensing for early detection of soybean injury from dicamba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dicamba (3, 6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) drift onto non-target crops is a major concern because dicamba is highly active on susceptible crops even at low doses. Early detection of crop injury is critical in crop management. A field study was conducted to determine spectral characteristics of s...

  17. Early detection of prostate cancer. Role of prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, V. M.

    1996-01-01

    Pressure to request prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests for early detection of prostate cancer in middle-aged and older men is increasing. However, current scientific data suggest that such testing does more harm than good. Most professional groups do not advise routine screening for prostate cancer. This paper reviews the current status of PSA testing. PMID:8653039

  18. Changing Concepts of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Battista, Renaldo N.; Huston, Patricia; Davis, M. William L.

    1986-01-01

    The understanding of primary open-angle glaucoma has changed over the past 20 years and recommendations on early detection are being revised. In this paper the use of Shiotz tonometry is critically examined, and the problems encountered in instituting alternative screening techniques are reviewed. ImagesFigure 3c PMID:21267099

  19. [The level of evidence for the use of biomarkers in the early detection of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Salomon, Laurent; Haugh, Margaret; Ceraline, Jocelyn; Fulla, Yvonne; Georges, Agnès; Larré, Stéphane; Loric, Sylvain; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Martin, Pierre-Marie; Mazerolles, Catherine; Molinié, Vincent; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Piffret, Jacques; Thuillier, François; Perrin, Paul; Rebillard, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence for the use of PSA and other biomarkers in the early detection of prostate cancer, we searched PubMed for clinical trials and studies assessing PSA and other biomarkers in the early detection of prostate cancer, published between 2000 and May 2013 that included >200 subjects. The level of evidence (LOE) for clinical utility was evaluated using the tumor marker utility grading system. A total of 84 publications, corresponding to 70 trials and studies were selected for inclusion in this review. We attributed a level of evidence (LoE) of IA to PSA for early PCa detection, but we do not recommend its use in mass screening. Emerging biomarkers were assessed in prospective case-control and cohort studies: PCA3 (n=3); kallikreins (n=3); [-2]proPSA (n=5); fusion oncogenes (n=2). These studies used biopsy results for prostate cancer to determine specificity and sensitivity, but they did not assess the effect on PCa mortality. The LoE attributed was III-C. PSA can be used for early prostate cancer detection but mass screening is not recommended. Studies on other biomarkers suggest that they could be used, individually or in combination, to improve the selection of patients with elevated PSA levels for biopsy, but RCTs assessing their impact on prostate cancer management and mortality are needed. A better use of available tests is possible for men at risk in order to maximize the risk-benefit ratio.

  20. Development of a Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Program for Nurses Working with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Sandra Millon

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of a program for 250 nurses working with African Americans showed it enhanced their ability to provide cancer education, screening, and follow-up. It also heightened sensitivity to, and understanding of, issues and trends influencing prevention and early detection for this population. (SK)

  1. A Model for Early Detection and Primary Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…

  2. Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate on soybean and cotton using plant leaf hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we describe early detection of crop injury from glyphosate using traditionally used spectral indices and newly extracted features from leaf hyperspectral reflectance data in non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton. Spectral bands used in the new features are select...

  3. Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  4. Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

  5. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the...

  6. PCR real time assays for the early detection of BKV-DNA in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Katia; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Gaffi, Gianni; Trappolini, Silvia; Leoni, Pietro; Paggi, Alessandra Mataloni; Della Vittoria, Agnese; Scalise, Giorgio; Varaldo, Pietro Emanuele; Menzo, Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Testing for viral BKV-DNA in urine is a non-invasive early detection and monitoring tool in the diagnostic of BKV-related pathologies: quantitative analysis by Real-Time PCR can provide useful information in addition to cytologic analysis, although our study suggests that high BKV viruria is not necessarily associated with kidney or bladder damage.

  7. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  8. Towards Integrated Practices in Early Detection of and Intervention for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storbeck, Claudine; Calvert-Evers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that undetected hearing loss can have a profound effect on a child's holistic development, including communicative, language and cognitive development. It is crucial therefore that deaf and hard of hearing infants are detected as early as possible so that appropriate intervention services and support can be initiated. To…

  9. Utility of Pamphlets in Promoting Knowledge and Positive Attitudes about Two Early Cancer Detection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…

  10. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  11. Measuring Pragmatic Skills: Early Detection of Infants at Risk for Communication Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocquyt, Mie; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves; Dewart, Hazel; Zink, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the early detection of children who are at risk of communication problems, we need appropriate assessment instruments. Two Dutch-language standardised screening instruments are available: the Dutch version of the Non Speech Test (NNST) and the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDIs). These…

  12. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  13. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  14. DNA Microarray Analysis of Human Monocytes Early Response Genes upon Infection with Rickettsia rickettsii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-15

    DNA Microarray Analysis of Human Monocytes Early Response Genes upon Infection with Rickettsia rickettsii Chien-Chung Chao Rickettsiae Diseases...TITLE AND SUBTITLE DNA Microarray Analysis of Human Monocytes Early Response Genes upon Infection with Rickettsia rickettsii 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ANSI Std Z39-18 Rickettsiae • Gram negative coccobacillary bacteria • Obligate intracellular organisms • Arthropod-borne • Cause febrile diseases (mild

  15. Defining Clinical Response Criteria and Early Response Criteria for Precision Oncology: Current State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Vivek; Chuang, Hubert H.; Gambhire, Dhiraj; Kairemo, Kalevi

    2017-01-01

    In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for “go” versus “no go” decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that arm the immune system. Many different response assessment criteria exist for use in solid tumors and lymphomas. We reviewed the literature using the Medline/PubMed database for keywords “response assessment” and various known response assessment criteria published up to 2016. In this article we review the commonly used response assessment criteria. We present a decision tree to facilitate selection of appropriate criteria. We also suggest methods for standardization of various response assessment criteria. The relevant response assessment criteria were further studied for rational of development, key features, proposed use and acceptance by various entities. We also discuss early response evaluation and provide specific case studies of early response to targeted therapy. With high-throughput, advanced computing programs and digital data-mining it is now possible to acquire vast amount of high quality imaging data opening up a new field of “omics in radiology”—radiomics that complements genomics for personalized medicine. Radiomics is rapidly evolving and is still in the research arena. This cutting-edge technology is poised to move soon to the mainstream clinical arena. Novel agents with new mechanisms of action require advanced molecular imaging as imaging biomarkers. There is an urgent need for development of standardized early response assessment criteria for evaluation of response to precision therapy. PMID:28212290

  16. Defining Clinical Response Criteria and Early Response Criteria for Precision Oncology: Current State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek; Chuang, Hubert H; Gambhire, Dhiraj; Kairemo, Kalevi

    2017-02-15

    In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for "go" versus "no go" decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that arm the immune system. Many different response assessment criteria exist for use in solid tumors and lymphomas. We reviewed the literature using the Medline/PubMed database for keywords "response assessment" and various known response assessment criteria published up to 2016. In this article we review the commonly used response assessment criteria. We present a decision tree to facilitate selection of appropriate criteria. We also suggest methods for standardization of various response assessment criteria. The relevant response assessment criteria were further studied for rational of development, key features, proposed use and acceptance by various entities. We also discuss early response evaluation and provide specific case studies of early response to targeted therapy. With high-throughput, advanced computing programs and digital data-mining it is now possible to acquire vast amount of high quality imaging data opening up a new field of "omics in radiology"-radiomics that complements genomics for personalized medicine. Radiomics is rapidly evolving and is still in the research arena. This cutting-edge technology is poised to move soon to the mainstream clinical arena. Novel agents with new mechanisms of action require advanced molecular imaging as imaging biomarkers. There is an urgent need for development of standardized early response assessment criteria for evaluation of response to precision therapy.

  17. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Autoantibody Markers — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    To identify large numbers of antigens that can be used to recognize the presence of cancer by detecting antibodies to tumor proteins in the serum of the test subjects. Our technology will provide an early detection test for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. We will use bioinformatics techniques to analyze these protein microarray-immunoassays to discriminate between cancer patients and healthy subjects so as to detect disease prior to standard diagnoses as well as discriminate patients with benign conditions or other cancers that might be a false positive in less specific assays.

  18. Monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy with diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Flexman, Molly L; Vlachos, Fotios; Kim, Hyun Keol; Sirsi, Shashank R; Huang, Jianzhong; Hernandez, Sonia L; Johung, Tessa B; Gander, Jeffrey W; Reichstein, Ari R; Lampl, Brooke S; Wang, Antai; Borden, Mark A; Yamashiro, Darrell J; Kandel, Jessica J; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    Although anti-angiogenic agents have shown promise as cancer therapeutics, their efficacy varies between tumor types and individual patients. Providing patient-specific metrics through rapid noninvasive imaging can help tailor drug treatment by optimizing dosages, timing of drug cycles, and duration of therapy-thereby reducing toxicity and cost and improving patient outcome. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging modality that has been shown to capture physiologic changes in tumors through visualization of oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations, using non-ionizing radiation with near-infrared light. We employed a small animal model to ascertain if tumor response to bevacizumab (BV), an anti-angiogenic agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could be detected at early time points using DOT. We detected a significant decrease in total hemoglobin levels as soon as one day after BV treatment in responder xenograft tumors (SK-NEP-1), but not in SK-NEP-1 control tumors or in non-responder control or BV-treated NGP tumors. These results are confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry and lectin perfusion studies. Noninvasive DOT imaging may allow for earlier and more effective control of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  19. Monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy with diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Vlachos, Fotios; Kim, Hyun Keol; Sirsi, Shashank R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Hernandez, Sonia L.; Johung, Tessa B.; Gander, Jeffrey W.; Reichstein, Ari R.; Lampl, Brooke S.; Wang, Antai; Borden, Mark A.; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Kandel, Jessica J.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Although anti-angiogenic agents have shown promise as cancer therapeutics, their efficacy varies between tumor types and individual patients. Providing patient-specific metrics through rapid noninvasive imaging can help tailor drug treatment by optimizing dosages, timing of drug cycles, and duration of therapy--thereby reducing toxicity and cost and improving patient outcome. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging modality that has been shown to capture physiologic changes in tumors through visualization of oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations, using non-ionizing radiation with near-infrared light. We employed a small animal model to ascertain if tumor response to bevacizumab (BV), an anti-angiogenic agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could be detected at early time points using DOT. We detected a significant decrease in total hemoglobin levels as soon as one day after BV treatment in responder xenograft tumors (SK-NEP-1), but not in SK-NEP-1 control tumors or in non-responder control or BV-treated NGP tumors. These results are confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry and lectin perfusion studies. Noninvasive DOT imaging may allow for earlier and more effective control of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  20. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  1. Early detection of Trichinella spiralis DNA in the feces of experimentally infected mice by using PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Lin; Ren, Hua Nan; Shi, Ya Li; Hu, Chen Xi; Song, Yan Yan; Duan, Jiang Yang; Zhang, Hui Ping; Du, Xin Rui; Liu, Ruo Dan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to detect Trichinella spiralis DNA in mouse feces during the early stages of infection using PCR. The target gene fragment, a 1.6kb repetitive sequence of T. spiralis genome, was amplified by PCR from feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae at 3-24h post infection (hpi) and 2-28dpi. The sensitivity of PCR was 0.016 larvae in feces. The primers used were highly specific for T. spiralis. No cross-reactivity was observed with the DNA of other intestinal helminths. T. spiralis DNA was detected in 100% (12/12) of feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae as early as 3hpi, with the peak detection lasting to 12-24hpi, and then fluctuating before declining gradually. By 28dpi, the detection rate of T. spiralis DNA in feces of the two groups of infected mice decreased to 8.33% and 25%, respectively. PCR detection of T. spiralis DNA in feces is simple and specific; it might be useful for the early diagnosis of Trichinella infection.

  2. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-08-21

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness.

  3. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  4. On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  5. On the design of a bioacoustic sensor for the early detection of the red palm weevil.

    PubMed

    Martínez Rach, Miguel; Migallón Gomis, Héctor; López Granado, Otoniel; Perez Malumbres, Manuel; Martí Campoy, Antonio; Serrano Martín, Juan José

    2013-01-30

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%.

  6. Detection of pathogenic viruses in sewage provided early warnings of hepatitis A virus and norovirus outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas; Norder, Heléne

    2014-11-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care.

  7. Early damage detection in epoxy matrix using cyclobutane-based polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin; Liu, Yingtao; Shan, Bohan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Dai, Lenore L.

    2014-09-01

    Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence generation. Two cinnamate derivatives, 1,1,1-tris(cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi), were photoirradiated to produce cyclobutane-containing polymer. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of cyclobutane-containing polymer into epoxy matrix were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescence at a strain level just beyond the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with accumulation of strain. Overall, the results show that damage can be detected through fluorescence generation along crack propagation.

  8. Spectrum and Image Texture Features Analysis for Early Blight Disease Detection on Eggplant Leaves.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-05-11

    This study investigated both spectrum and texture features for detecting early blight disease on eggplant leaves. Hyperspectral images for healthy and diseased samples were acquired covering the wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. Four gray images were identified according to the effective wavelengths (408, 535, 624 and 703 nm). Hyperspectral images were then converted into RGB, HSV and HLS images. Finally, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from gray images, RGB, HSV and HLS images, respectively. The dependent variables for healthy and diseased samples were set as 0 and 1. K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and AdaBoost classification models were established for detecting healthy and infected samples. All models obtained good results with the classification rates (CRs) over 88.46% in the testing sets. The results demonstrated that spectrum and texture features were effective for early blight disease detection on eggplant leaves.

  9. Citrullination of glial intermediate filaments is an early response in retinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Wizeman, John W.; Nicholas, Anthony P.; Ishigami, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A hallmark of retinal gliosis is the increased detection and modification of the type III intermediate filament (IF) proteins vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Here, we investigated vimentin and GFAP in Müller glia in a mouse model of alkali injury, focusing on the posttranslational modification of citrullination. Methods Mice were injured by corneal exposure to 1.0 N NaOH, and eyes were enucleated at different time points following injury. The levels of soluble and cytoskeletal forms of IF proteins and citrullination were measured using western blot analysis. Citrullinated GFAP was identified by immunoprecipitation followed by two-dimensional (2D) isoelectric focusing–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE) western blotting using a specific antibody that recognizes citrullinated GFAP. Vimentin, GFAP, and citrullinated proteins were localized in the retina by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Drug treatments were investigated in retinal explant cultures of posterior eyecups obtained from mouse eyes that were injured in vivo. Results Detection of GFAP in injured retinas increased over a period of 1 to 7 days, showing increased levels in both soluble and cytoskeletal forms of this IF protein. The global level of citrullinated proteins was also induced over this period, with low-salt buffer extraction showing the most abundant early changes in citrullination. Using IHC, we found that GFAP filaments assembled at Müller glial end feet, growing in size with time through the inner layers of the retina at 1–3 h postinjury. Interestingly, over this early time period, levels of soluble citrullinated proteins also increased within the retina, as detected by western blotting, coincident with the localization of the citrullinated epitopes on growing GFAP filaments and existing vimentin filaments by 3 h after injury. Taking advantage of the in vivo injury model to promote a robust gliotic response, posterior eyecups from 7-day postinjured eyes

  10. Genome-Wide Detection of SNP and SV Variations to Reveal Early Ripening-Related Genes in Grape.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanshuai; Gao, Zhihong; Tao, Jianmin; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Shijie; Wang, Qiunan; Qu, Shenchun

    2016-01-01

    Early ripening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is a crucial agronomic trait. The fruits of the grape line 'Summer Black' (SBBM), which contains a bud mutation, can be harvested approximately one week earlier than the 'Summer Black' (SBC)control. To investigate the molecular mechanism of the bud mutation related to early ripening, we detected genome-wide genetic variations based on re-sequencing. In total, 3,692,777 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 81,223 structure variations (SVs) in the SBC genome and 3,823,464 SNPs and 85,801 SVs in the SBBM genome were detected compared with the reference grape sequence. Of these, 635 SBC-specific genes and 665 SBBM-specific genes were screened. Ripening and colour-associated unigenes with non-synonymous mutations (NS), SVs or frame-shift mutations (F) were analysed. The results showed that 90 unigenes in SBC, 76 unigenes in SBBM and 13 genes that mapped to large fragment indels were filtered. The expression patterns of eight genes were confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).The re-sequencing data showed that 635 SBC-specific genes and 665 SBBM-specific genes associated with early ripening were screened. Among these, NCED6 expression appears to be related to NCED1 and is involved in ABA biosynthesis in grape, which might play a role in the onset of anthocyanin accumulation. The SEP and ERF genes probably play roles in ethylene response.

  11. Detection of early functional changes in diabetic retina using slow double-stimulation mfERG paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chan, Henry Ho-lung; Chu, Patrick Ho-wai; Lung, Jenny Chun-yee; Ho, Wing-cheung; Ting, Patrick Wai-ki; Sum, Rita Wing-man; Ng, Yiu-fai

    2011-11-01

    Aim Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a systemic disease with insufficient secretion of insulin or poor response to insulin. This typically causes poor control of blood glucose level leading to a range of complications. Early detection of the retinal function alteration in DM is needed. Methods A newly modified paradigm-slow double-stimulation multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG)-was introduced to measure early changes of retinal function in DM and to investigate changes in the adaptation mechanisms in the diabetic retina. The mfERG was measured by using a slow double-stimulation mfERG paradigm (M(1)M(2)OOO). Results The m1 amplitude of M(1) stimulation from diabetic subjects was significantly reduced in ring 1 in contrast to that of a control group. The m2 amplitude of M(2) stimulation from diabetic subjects was also significantly reduced in ring 1 and 2 as compared with those of the control group. The m1/m2 ratio which minimises intersubject variation shows a reasonable differentiation between the control and diabetic groups. There was a significant increase in the amplitude ratio from diabetic subjects in ring 2 and 3 as compared with those of the control group. Conclusions The present findings suggest that the new mfERG paradigm is a fast and sensitive test for the detection of early functional changes in the diabetic retina.

  12. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-12-15

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false

  13. Danger and Usefulness Are Detected Early in Auditory Lexical Processing: Evidence from Electroencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryuchkova, Tatiana; Tucker, Benjamin V.; Wurm, Lee H.; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Visual emotionally charged stimuli have been shown to elicit early electrophysiological responses (e.g., Ihssen, Heim, & Keil, 2007; Schupp, Junghofer, Weike, & Hamm, 2003; Stolarova, Keil, & Moratti, 2006). We presented isolated words to listeners, and observed, using generalized additive modeling, oscillations in the upper part of the delta…

  14. Early tissue response to transscleral neodymium: YAG cyclophotocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Blasini, M; Simmons, R; Shields, M B

    1990-06-01

    Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation was performed with a neodymium: YAG laser on five patients 24-72 hr before enucleation for a blind, painful eye. The thermal mode at 20 ms and a maximum offset between aiming and therapeutic beams were kept constant. Variable parameters evaluated were energy levels between 2 and 8 J and distance from the limbus of 0.5-3.0 mm. Because of the underlying distortion in three of the eyes, meaningful interpretation by light microscopic evaluation was possible only in the other two. This suggested that the early histologic hallmark of the procedure is similar to that previously observed in human autopsy eyes with ciliary epithelial damage and elevation from underlying tissue. In addition, fibrin and scant inflammatory cells were seen in the space between ciliary epithelium and stroma. Minimal damage was observed in the ciliary muscle. These findings suggest that direct damage to the ciliary epithelium is the most likely mechanism of reduced aqueous production by this cyclodestructive procedure. The findings also support the concept that an anterior placement of approximately 1.0-1.5 mm posterior to the limbus is most likely to damage the ciliary epithelium of the pars plicata.

  15. Combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Takuya; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kadono, Takafumi; Ogawa, Yuki; Iizaka, Shinji; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Sasaki, Sanae; Haga, Nobuhiko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-10-01

    Early detection and intervention of deep tissue injury are important to lead good outcome. Although the efficiency of ultrasonographic assessment of deep tissue injury has been reported previously, it requires a certain level of skill for accurate assessment. In this study, we present an investigation of the combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury. We retrospectively reviewed 28 early-stage pressure ulcers (21 patients) presenting at the University of Tokyo Hospital between April 2009 and February 2010, surveying the associated thermographic and ultrasonographic findings. The wound temperature patterns were divided into low, even and high compared with the surrounding skin. Ultrasonographic findings were classified into unclear layer structure, hypoechoic lesion, discontinuous fascia and heterogeneous hypoechoic area. All 13 ulcers that were associated with low temperature showed good outcome; three ulcers had even temperatures and 12 ulcers showed high temperature on thermographic assessment. The two deep tissue injuries were rated high on thermographic assessment and showed heterogeneous hypoechoic area findings on ultrasonographic assessment. No non-deep tissue injury lesion was associated with these two findings simultaneously. The combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments is expected to increase the accuracy of the early detection of deep tissue injuries.

  16. Transvaginal Sonography Versus Cystoscopy for Detecting Urinary Bladder Invasion in Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zutshi, Vijay; Garg, Anju; Batra, Swaraj

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality from cancer among women. In it’s early stage pre operative staging with cystoscopy is a standard procedure for the detection of urinary bladder involvement. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to compare the efficacy of Transvaginal Sonography (TVS) and cystoscopy in diagnosing bladder involvement in early stage cervical cancer patients by confirming it intraoperatively and further by histopathologic examination. Materials and Methods A prospective partially blinded study was conducted between March 2006 and September 2008 on 30 patients with early stage cervical cancer (Stage I and IIa) who were planned to undergo radical hysterectomy. Pre operatively, these patients underwent both TVS and cystoscopy to diagnose bladder involvement. Presence or absence of bladder involvement was then confirmed intra operatively and by histopathologic examination. Results In all the 30 patients studied, no bladder involvement was seen on cystoscopy where as TVS showed bladder involvement in three patients. Involvement of the bladder in these three patients was confirmed intra operatively and by histopathologic examination. Thus, in our study, TVS was 100% sensitive in detecting bladder involvement. Conclusion TVS is highly sensitive in diagnosing bladder involvement in early stage cervical cancer and could potentially detect cases missed with a cystoscopy.

  17. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced

  18. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panas, Michael W.; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J.; Binder, Steven R.; Rebman, Alison W.; Montoya, Jose G.; Soloski, Mark J.; Steere, Allen C.; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Arnaboldi, Paul M.; Aucott, John N.

    2015-01-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy controls. Upon further analysis, positivity on the novel 10-antigen panel was associated with longer illness duration and multiple erythema migrans. The improved sensitivity and comparable specificity of our 10-antigen panel compared to two-tiered testing in detecting early B. burgdorferi infection indicates that multiplex analysis, featuring the next generation of markers, could advance diagnostic technology to better aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease. PMID:26447113

  19. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Lauren J; Panas, Michael W; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J; Binder, Steven R; Rebman, Alison W; Montoya, Jose G; Soloski, Mark J; Steere, Allen C; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M; Aucott, John N; Robinson, William H

    2015-12-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy controls. Upon further analysis, positivity on the novel 10-antigen panel was associated with longer illness duration and multiple erythema migrans. The improved sensitivity and comparable specificity of our 10-antigen panel compared to two-tiered testing in detecting early B. burgdorferi infection indicates that multiplex analysis, featuring the next generation of markers, could advance diagnostic technology to better aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease.

  20. Measuring Social Motivation Using Signal Detection and Reward Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Coralie; Tonge, Natasha; Safra, Lou; Kahn, David; Kohls, Gregor; Miller, Judith; Schultz, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent trends in psychiatry have emphasized the need for a shift from categorical to dimensional approaches. Of critical importance to this transformation is the availability of tools to objectively quantify behaviors dimensionally. The present study focuses on social motivation, a dimension of behavior that is central to a range of psychiatric conditions but for which a particularly small number of assays currently exist. Methods In Study 1 (N = 48), healthy adults completed a monetary reward task and a social reward task, followed by completion of the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales. In Study 2 (N = 26), an independent sample was recruited to assess the robustness of Study 1’s findings. Results The reward tasks were analyzed using signal detection theory to quantify how much reward cues bias participants’ responses. In both Study 1 and Study 2, social anhedonia scores were negatively correlated with change in response bias in the social reward task but not in the monetary reward task. A median split on social anhedonia scores confirmed that participants with high social anhedonia showed less change in response bias in the social reward task compared to participants with low social anhedonia. Conclusions This study confirms that social anhedonia selectively affects how much an individual changes their behavior based on the presence of socially rewarding cues and establishes a tool to quantify social reward responsiveness dimensionally. PMID:27907025

  1. Identification of Circulating Tumor DNA for the Early Detection of Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Perdomo, Sandra; Avogbe, Patrice H; Leblay, Noemie; Delhomme, Tiffany M; Gaborieau, Valerie; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Chanudet, Estelle; Olivier, Magali; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Vilensky, Marta; Holcatova, Ivana; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Byrnes, Graham; Scelo, Ghislaine; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Foll, Matthieu; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a key potential biomarker for post-diagnosis surveillance but it may also play a crucial role in the detection of pre-clinical cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an excellent candidate for early detection given there are no successful therapeutic options for late-stage disease, and it displays almost universal inactivation of TP53. We assessed the presence of TP53 mutations in the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from the plasma of 51 SCLC cases and 123 non-cancer controls. We identified mutations using a pipeline specifically designed to accurately detect variants at very low fractions. We detected TP53 mutations in the cfDNA of 49% SCLC patients and 11.4% of non-cancer controls. When stratifying the 51 initial SCLC cases by stage, TP53 mutations were detected in the cfDNA of 35.7% early-stage and 54.1% late-stage SCLC patients. The results in the controls were further replicated in 10.8% of an independent series of 102 non-cancer controls. The detection of TP53 mutations in 11% of the 225 non-cancer controls suggests that somatic mutations in cfDNA among individuals without any cancer diagnosis is a common occurrence, and poses serious challenges for the development of ctDNA screening tests.

  2. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  3. Storey building early monitoring based on rapid seismic response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julius, Musa, Admiral; Sunardi, Bambang; Rudyanto, Ariska

    2016-05-01

    Within the last decade, advances in the acquisition, processing and transmission of data from seismic monitoring has contributed to the growth in the number structures instrumented with such systems. An equally important factor for such growth can be attributed to the demands by stakeholders to find rapid answers to important questions related to the functionality or state of "health" of structures during and immediately of a seismic events. Consequently, this study aims to monitor the storey building based on seismic response i. e. earthquake and tremor analysis at short time lapse using accelerographs data. This study used one of storey building (X) in Jakarta city that suffered the effects of Kebumen earthquake January 25th 2014, Pandeglang earthquake July 9th 2014, and Lebak earthquake November 8th 2014. Tremors used in this study are tremors after the three following earthquakes. Data processing used to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), spectral acceleration (SA), spectral velocity (SV), spectral displacement (SD), A/V ratio, acceleration amplification and effective duration (te). Then determine the natural frequency (f0) and peak of H/V ratio using H/V ratio method.The earthquakes data processing result shows the value of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio and acceleration amplification increases with height, while the value of the effective duration give a different viewpoint of building dynamic because duration of Kebumen earthquake shows the highest energy in the highest floor but Pandeglang and Lebak earthquake in the lowest floor. Then, tremors data processing result one month after each earthquakes shows the natural frequency of building in constant value. Increasing of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio, acceleration amplification, then decrease of effective duration following the increase of building floors shows that the building construction supports the

  4. Red-shouldered hawk broadcast surveys: Factors affecting detection of responses and population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLeod, M.A.; Andersen, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Forest-nesting raptors are often difficult to detect and monitor because they can be secretive, and their nests can be difficult to locate. Some species, however, respond to broadcasts of taped calls, and these responses may be useful both in monitoring population trends and in locating nests. We conducted broadcast surveys on roads and at active red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) nests in northcentral Minnesota to determine effects of type of call (conspecific or great horned owl [Bubo virginianus]), time of day, and phase of the breeding cycle on red-shouldered hawk response behavior and to evaluate usefulness of broadcasts as a population monitoring tool using area occupied-probability-of-detection techniques. During the breeding seasons of 1994 and 1995, we surveyed 4 10-station road transects 59 times and conducted 76 surveys at 24 active nests. Results of these surveys indicated conspecific calls broadcast prior to hatch and early in the day were the most effective method of detecting red-shouldered hawks. Probability of detection via conspecific calls averaged 0.25, and area occupied was 100%. Computer simulations using these field data indicated broadcast surveys have the potential to be used as a population monitoring tool.

  5. Strategies for improving early detection and diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Pearse A; de Salvo, Gabriella; Sim, Dawn A; Goverdhan, Srini; Agrawal, Rupesh; Tufail, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been revolutionized by the introduction of such agents as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. As a result, the incidence of legal blindness occurring secondary to AMD has fallen dramatically in recent years in many countries. While these agents have undoubtedly been successful in reducing visual impairment and blindness, patients with neovascular AMD typically lose some vision over time, and often lose the ability to read, drive, or perform other important activities of daily living. Efforts are therefore under way to develop strategies that allow for earlier detection and treatment of this disease. In this review, we begin by providing an overview of the rationale for, and the benefits of, early detection and treatment of neovascular AMD. To achieve this, we begin by providing an overview of the pathophysiology and natural history of choroidal neovascularization, before reviewing the evidence from both clinical trials and “real-world” outcome studies. We continue by highlighting an area that is often overlooked: the importance of patient education and awareness for early AMD detection. We conclude the review by reviewing an array of both established and emerging technologies for early detection of choroidal neovascularization, ranging from Amsler chart testing, to hyperacuity testing, to advanced imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography. PMID:25733802

  6. ITIH3 Is a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Poh Kuan; Lee, Huiyin; Zhou, Jianbiao; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Shia Loh, Marie Chiew; Wang, Ting Ting; Chan, Siew Pang; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Yan So, Jimmy Bok; Lim, Khong Hee; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer has one of the highest morbidities and mortalities worldwide. Early detection is key measure to improve the outcome of gastric cancer patients. In our efforts to identify potential markers for gastric cancer detection, we coupled xenotransplantation mouse model with a plasma proteomic approach. MKN45 gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice and plasma samples from mice bearing different sizes of tumors were collected and subjected to iTRAQ and mass spectrometry analysis. ITIH3 protein was found to be more highly expressed in plasma of tumor bearing mice compared to control. Subsequent screening of ITIH3 expression in 167 clinical plasma samples, including 83 cancer-free subjects and 84 gastric cancer patients, revealed higher ITIH3 level in the plasma of gastric cancer patients. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve estimated a maximal sensitivity of 96% at 66% specificity for ITIH3 in gastric cancer detection. In addition, plasma from early stage gastric cancer patient has significantly (p < 0.001) higher level of ITIH3 compared to that from noncancer subject. Our data suggest that ITIH3 may be a useful biomarker for early detection of gastric cancer. PMID:20515073

  7. Detection of early bronchial carcinoma by imaging of the tissue autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goujon, Didier; Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Gabrecht, Tanja; Zellweger, Matthieu; Radu, Alexandre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    2001-10-01

    Early detection and localisation of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. One approach is to exploit the changes in the autofluorescence characteristics of the bronchial tissue as a diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity. Evidence exists that this native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic and to carcinoma in situ. There is an agreement in the literature that the lesions display a decrease of autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum under illumination with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum is often reported. Imaging devices rely on this principle to detect early cancerous lesions in the bronchi. Based on a previous spectroscopic study, an industrial imaging prototype has been developed to detect early cancerous lesions in collaboration with the firm 'Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH'. A preliminary clinical trial involving 20 patients with this spectrally optimised system proved that autofluorescence can detect lesions that would otherwise have remained invisible even to an experienced endoscopist under white light illumination. A systematic analysis of the autofluorescence images pointed out that real-time decisional functions can be defined in order to reduce the number of false positive results. Using this method, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 75% was achieved using autofluorescence only. A PPV of even 100% were obtained when white light mode and autofluorescence mode were combined under the applied conditions. Furthermore, the sensitivity was estimated to be twice as high in AF mode than in WL mode.

  8. Predictors of Responsiveness to Early Literacy Intervention: A 10-Year Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Elizabeth A.; McMaster, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to update previous reviews on factors related to students' responsiveness to early literacy intervention. The 14 studies in this synthesis used experimental designs, provided small-group or one-on-one reading interventions, and analyzed factors related to responsiveness to those interventions. Participants were…

  9. Effect of the Responsive Environment Early Education Program for Low Birth Weight Children of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askins, Billy E.; And Others

    This paper describes an external evaluation study of the Responsive Environment Early Education Program (formerly known as the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children), an educational intervention program for "high risk" (low birth weight) 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in Clovis, New Mexico. Major goals of the…

  10. Response of Cross-biome Productivity to the Early 21st Century Drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of ecosystem productivity to contemporary drought coupled with record warming presents important challenges to predictive ecological modeling. In this study, we investigated the response of annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP) to precipitation variability during the early ...

  11. The Role Played by the Family in Shaping Early and Middle Adolescent Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Nation, Maury; Voight, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a multi-informant methodology, the current study examines the relative influence of multiple parental characteristics (civic responsibility, encouragement of civic action, parent-youth closeness) on adolescents' civic responsibility (local and global). The participants were 384 early and middle adolescents (47.9% male), randomly selected…

  12. Early genetic responses in rat vascular tissue after simulated diving.

    PubMed

    Eftedal, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Arve; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild; Flatberg, Arnar; Brubakk, Alf O

    2012-12-18

    Diving causes a transient reduction of vascular function, but the mechanisms behind this are largely unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze genetic reactions that may be involved in acute changes of vascular function in divers. Rats were exposed to 709 kPa of hyperbaric air (149 kPa Po(2)) for 50 min followed by postdive monitoring of vascular bubble formation and full genome microarray analysis of the aorta from diving rats (n = 8) and unexposed controls (n = 9). Upregulation of 23 genes was observed 1 h after simulated diving. The differential gene expression was characteristic of cellular responses to oxidative stress, with functions of upregulated genes including activation and fine-tuning of stress-responsive transcription, cytokine/cytokine receptor signaling, molecular chaperoning, and coagulation. By qRT-PCR, we verified increased transcription of neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (Nr4a3), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), cytokine TWEAK receptor FN14 (Tnfrsf12a), transcription factor class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40 (Bhlhe40), and adrenomedullin (Adm). Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF1 subunit HIF1-α was stabilized in the aorta 1 h after diving, and after 4 h there was a fivefold increase in total protein levels of the procoagulant plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) in blood plasma from diving rats. The study did not have sufficient power for individual assessment of effects of hyperoxia and decompression-induced bubbles on postdive gene expression. However, differential gene expression in rats without venous bubbles was similar to that of all the diving rats, indicating that elevated Po(2) instigated the observed genetic reactions.

  13. BioSense: implementation of a National Early Event Detection and Situational Awareness System.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Colleen A; Rolka, H; Walker, D; Loonsk, J

    2005-08-26

    BioSense is a CDC initiative to support enhanced early detection, quantification, and localization of possible biologic terrorism attacks and other events of public health concern on a national level. The goals of the BioSense initiative are to advance early detection by providing the standards, infrastructure, and data acquisition for near real-time reporting, analytic evaluation and implementation, and early event detection support for state and local public health officials. BioSense collects and analyzes Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs ambulatory clinical diagnoses and procedures and Laboratory Corporation of America laboratory-test orders. The application summarizes and presents analytical results and data visualizations by source, day, and syndrome for each ZIP code, state, and metropolitan area through maps, graphs, and tables. An initial proof of a concept evaluation project was conducted before the system was made available to state and local users in April 2004. User recruitment involved identifying and training BioSense administrators and users from state and local health departments. User support has been an essential component of the implementation and enhancement process. CDC initiated the BioIntelligence Center (BIC) in June 2004 to conduct internal monitoring of BioSense national data daily. BIC staff have supported state and local system monitoring, conducted data anomaly inquiries, and communicated with state and local public health officials. Substantial investments will be made in providing regional, state, and local data for early event detection and situational awareness, test beds for data and algorithm evaluation, detection algorithm development, and data management technologies, while maintaining the focus on state and local public health needs.

  14. Sensitivity and accuracy of DNA based methods used to describe aquatic communities for early detection of invasive fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For biomonitoring efforts aimed at early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS), the ability to detect rare individuals is key and requires accurate species level identification to maintain a low occurrence probability of non-detection errors (failure to detect a present spe...

  15. Detecting ATM-Dependent Chromatin Modification in DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumar, Durga; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Mishra, Lope; Hunt, Clayton; Pandita, Tej K.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function or mutation of the ataxia–telangiectasia mutated gene product (ATM) results in inherited genetic disorders characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, and cancer. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product belongs to the PI3K-like protein kinase (PIKKs) family and is functionally implicated in mitogenic signal transduction, chromosome condensation, meiotic recombination, cell-cycle control, and telomere maintenance. The ATM protein kinase is primarily activated in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), the most deleterious form of DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation (IR) or radiomimetic drugs. It is detected at DNA damage sites, where ATM autophosphorylation causes dissociation of the inactive homodimeric form to the activated monomeric form. Interestingly, heat shock can activate ATM independent of the presence of DNA strand breaks. ATM is an integral part of the sensory machinery that detects DSBs during meiosis, mitosis, or DNA breaks mediated by free radicals. These DNA lesions can trigger higher order chromatin reorganization fuelled by posttranslational modifications of histones and histone binding proteins. Our group, and others, have shown that ATM activation is tightly regulated by chromatin modifications. This review summarizes the multiple approaches used to discern the role of ATM and other associated proteins in chromatin modification in response to DNA damage. PMID:25827888

  16. Prediction and set-dependent scaling of early postural responses in cerebellar patients.

    PubMed

    Timmann, D; Horak, F B

    1997-02-01

    We reported previously that patients with cerebellar deficits were unable to scale the magnitude of their early automatic postural responses to the predicted amplitudes of surface translations based on central set from prior experience. The present study investigated whether this deficit in set-dependent amplitude scaling was based predominantly on the cerebellar patient's disability (i) to predict perturbation amplitudes on the basis of prior experience, (ii) to scale the gain or magnitude of upcoming postural responses or (iii) to habituate postural responses. The increase in size of the early postural response when a larger than actual platform amplitude was expected and decrease when a smaller one was expected was defined as a measure of set-dependent amplitude prediction. The suppression of the postural response when the same platform velocity was repeated was used as a measure of habituation. The correlation between the size of early postural responses and platform amplitudes when presented serially, but not randomly, tested the ability to scale the gain of postural responses based on prior experience. Results show that although cerebellar patients could predict perturbation amplitudes based on prior experience, they could not use this prediction to modify precisely the gain of responses. The ability to habituate the magnitude of postural responses was not affected by cerebellar lesions. Thus, the cerebellum might not be critical for predicting upcoming events or for habituating to repeated postural stimuli, although it is important for accurate tuning of response gain based on prediction.

  17. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    MAPK pathways plays a role in early T-cell activation and induction of IL-2, IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) gene expression.

  18. Early transcriptional responses of internalization defective Brucella abortus mutants in professional phagocytes, RAW 264.7

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brucella abortus is an intracellular zoonotic pathogen which causes undulant fever, endocarditis, arthritis and osteomyelitis in human and abortion and infertility in cattle. This bacterium is able to invade and replicate in host macrophage instead of getting removed by this defense mechanism. Therefore, understanding the interaction between virulence of the bacteria and the host cell is important to control brucellosis. Previously, we generated internalization defective mutants and analyzed the envelope proteins. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in early transcriptional responses between wild type and internalization defective mutants infected mouse macrophage, RAW 264.7. Results Both of the wild type and mutant infected macrophages showed increased expression levels in proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, apoptosis and G-protein coupled receptors (Gpr84, Gpr109a and Adora2b) while the genes related with small GTPase which mediate intracellular trafficking was decreased. Moreover, cytohesin 1 interacting protein (Cytip) and genes related to ubiquitination (Arrdc3 and Fbxo21) were down-regulated, suggesting the survival strategy of this bacterium. However, we could not detect any significant changes in the mutant infected groups compared to the wild type infected group. Conclusions In summary, it was very difficult to clarify the alterations in host cellular transcription in response to infection with internalization defective mutants. However, we found several novel gene changes related to the GPCR system, ubiquitin-proteosome system, and growth arrest and DNA damages in response to B. abortus infection. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions and need to be studied further. PMID:23802650

  19. Ultrahigh photo-responsivity and detectivity in multilayer InSe nanosheets phototransistors with broadband response

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Wei; Wu, Jing-Bin; Li, Xiaoli; ...

    2015-05-20

    In this paper, we demonstrate the strategies and principles for the performance improvement of layered semiconductor based photodetectors using multilayer indium selenide (InSe) as the model material. It is discovered that multiple reflection interference at the interfaces in the phototransistor device leads to a thickness-dependent photo-response, which provides a guideline to improve the performance of layered semiconductor based phototransistors. The responsivity and detectivity of InSe nanosheet phototransistor can be adjustable using applied gate voltage. Our InSe nanosheet phototransistor exhibits ultrahigh responsivity and detectivity. An ultrahigh external photo-responsivity of ~104 A W-1 can be achieved from broad spectra ranging from UVmore » to near infrared wavelength using our InSe nanosheet photodetectors. The detectivity of multilayer InSe devices is ~1012 to 1013 Jones, which surpasses that of the currently exploited InGaAs photodetectors (1011 to 1012 Jones). Finally, this research shows that multilayer InSe nanosheets are promising materials for high performance photodetectors.« less

  20. Ultrahigh photo-responsivity and detectivity in multilayer InSe nanosheets phototransistors with broadband response

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Wei; Wu, Jing-Bin; Li, Xiaoli; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Xiao, Kai; Cao, Wenwu; Yang, Bin; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Basile, Leonardo; Tian, Weiquan; Tan, PingHeng; Hu, PingAn

    2015-05-20

    In this paper, we demonstrate the strategies and principles for the performance improvement of layered semiconductor based photodetectors using multilayer indium selenide (InSe) as the model material. It is discovered that multiple reflection interference at the interfaces in the phototransistor device leads to a thickness-dependent photo-response, which provides a guideline to improve the performance of layered semiconductor based phototransistors. The responsivity and detectivity of InSe nanosheet phototransistor can be adjustable using applied gate voltage. Our InSe nanosheet phototransistor exhibits ultrahigh responsivity and detectivity. An ultrahigh external photo-responsivity of ~104 A W-1 can be achieved from broad spectra ranging from UV to near infrared wavelength using our InSe nanosheet photodetectors. The detectivity of multilayer InSe devices is ~1012 to 1013 Jones, which surpasses that of the currently exploited InGaAs photodetectors (1011 to 1012 Jones). Finally, this research shows that multilayer InSe nanosheets are promising materials for high performance photodetectors.

  1. Bursting thalamic responses in awake monkey contribute to visual detection and are modulated by corticofugal feedback.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Tania; Grieve, Kenneth L; Cao, Ricardo; Cudeiro, Javier; Rivadulla, Casto

    2014-01-01

    The lateral geniculate nucleus is the gateway for visual information en route to the visual cortex. Neural activity is characterized by the existence of two firing modes: burst and tonic. Originally associated with sleep, bursts have now been postulated to be a part of the normal visual response, structured to increase the probability of cortical activation, able to act as a "wake-up" call to the cortex. We investigated a potential role for burst in the detection of novel stimuli by recording neuronal activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of behaving monkeys during a visual detection task. Our results show that bursts are often the neuron's first response, and are more numerous in the response to attended target stimuli than to unattended distractor stimuli. Bursts are indicators of the task novelty, as repetition decreased bursting. Because the primary visual cortex is the major modulatory input to the LGN, we compared the results obtained in control conditions with those observed when cortical activity was reduced by TMS. This cortical deactivation reduced visual response related bursting by 90%. These results highlight a novel role for the thalamus, able to code higher order image attributes as important as novelty early in the thalamo-cortical conversation.

  2. NCI Awards 18 Grants to Continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Biomarkers Effort | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has awarded 18 grants to continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), a national infrastructure that supports the integrated development, validation, and clinical application of biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. The awards fund 7 Biomarker Developmental Laboratories, 8 Clinical Validation Centers, 2 Biomarker Reference Laboratories, and a Data Management and Coordinating Center (DMCC). |

  3. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection method development in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates findi...

  4. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  5. Modeling Innate Immune Response to Early Mycobacterium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Rafael V.; Kleijn, Jetty; Meijer, Annemarie H.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of complex patterns in biology, mathematical and computational models are emerging as important tools. In addition to experimental approaches, these modeling tools have recently been applied to address open questions regarding host-pathogen interaction dynamics, including the immune response to mycobacterial infection and tuberculous granuloma formation. We present an approach in which a computational model represents the interaction of the Mycobacterium infection with the innate immune system in zebrafish at a high level of abstraction. We use the Petri Net formalism to model the interaction between the key host elements involved in granuloma formation and infection dissemination. We define a qualitative model for the understanding and description of causal relations in this dynamic process. Complex processes involving cell-cell or cell-bacteria communication can be modeled at smaller scales and incorporated hierarchically into this main model; these are to be included in later elaborations. With the infection mechanism being defined on a higher level, lower-level processes influencing the host-pathogen interaction can be identified, modeled, and tested both quantitatively and qualitatively. This systems biology framework incorporates modeling to generate and test hypotheses, to perform virtual experiments, and to make experimentally verifiable predictions. Thereby it supports the unraveling of the mechanisms of tuberculosis infection. PMID:23365620

  6. Early IFN type I response: Learning from microbial evasion strategies.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Eliana M; Battistini, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) comprises a class of cytokines first discovered more than 50 years ago and initially characterized for their ability to interfere with viral replication and restrict locally viral propagation. As such, their induction downstream of germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is a hallmark of the host antiviral response. The acknowledgment that several PAMPs, not just of viral origin, may induce IFN, pinpoints at these molecules as a first line of host defense against a number of invading pathogens. Acting in both autocrine and paracrine manner, IFN interferes with viral replication by inducing hundreds of different IFN-stimulated genes with both direct anti-pathogenic as well as immunomodulatory activities, therefore functioning as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand an inverse interference to escape the IFN system is largely exploited by pathogens through a number of tactics and tricks aimed at evading, inhibiting or manipulating the IFN pathway, that result in progression of infection or establishment of chronic disease. In this review we discuss the interplay between the IFN system and some selected clinically important and challenging viruses and bacteria, highlighting the wide array of pathogen-triggered molecular mechanisms involved in evasion strategies.

  7. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jinsong Huang Jianchao; Sun Wei

    2008-11-15

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  8. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinsong; Huang, Jianchao; Sun, Wei

    2008-11-01

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  9. Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: the potential role of auditory Gestalt perception.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian-German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome.

  10. Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: The potential role of auditory Gestalt perception

    PubMed Central

    Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian–German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome. PMID:22119693

  11. Detecting biological responses to flow management: Missed opportunities; future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souchon, Y.; Sabaton, C.; Deibel, R.; Reiser, D.; Kershner, J.; Gard, M.; Katopodis, C.; Leonard, P.; Poff, N.L.; Miller, W.J.; Lamb, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusions of numerous stream restoration assessments all around the world are extremely clear and convergent: there has been insufficient appropriate monitoring to improve general knowledge and expertise. In the specialized field of instream flow alterations, we consider that there are several opportunities comparable to full-size experiments. Hundreds of water management decisions related to instream flow releases have been made by government agencies, native peoples, and non-governmental organizations around the world. These decisions are based on different methods and assumptions and many flow regimes have been adopted by formal or informal rules and regulations. Although, there have been significant advances in analytical capabilities, there has been very little validation monitoring of actual outcomes or research related to the response of aquatic dependent species to new flow regimes. In order to be able to detect these kinds of responses and to better guide decision, a general design template is proposed. The main steps of this template are described and discussed, in terms of objectives, hypotheses, variables, time scale, data management, and information, in the spirit of adaptive management. The adoption of such a framework is not always easy, due to differing interests of actors for the results, regarding the duration of monitoring, nature of funding and differential timetables between facilities managers and technicians. Nevertheless, implementation of such a framework could help researchers and practitioners to coordinate and federate their efforts to improve the general knowledge of the links between the habitat dynamics and biological aquatic responses. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Aircraft Fault Detection Using Real-Time Frequency Response Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time method for estimating time-varying aircraft frequency responses from input and output measurements was demonstrated. The Bat-4 subscale airplane was used with NASA Langley Research Center's AirSTAR unmanned aerial flight test facility to conduct flight tests and collect data for dynamic modeling. Orthogonal phase-optimized multisine inputs, summed with pilot stick and pedal inputs, were used to excite the responses. The aircraft was tested in its normal configuration and with emulated failures, which included a stuck left ruddervator and an increased command path latency. No prior knowledge of a dynamic model was used or available for the estimation. The longitudinal short period dynamics were investigated in this work. Time-varying frequency responses and stability margins were tracked well using a 20 second sliding window of data, as compared to a post-flight analysis using output error parameter estimation and a low-order equivalent system model. This method could be used in a real-time fault detection system, or for other applications of dynamic modeling such as real-time verification of stability margins during envelope expansion tests.

  13. Detection of innate immune response modulating impurities in therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Haile, Lydia Asrat; Puig, Montserrat; Kelley-Baker, Logan; Verthelyi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins can contain multiple impurities, some of which are variants of the product, while others are derived from the cell substrate and the manufacturing process. Such impurities, even when present at trace levels, have the potential to activate innate immune cells in peripheral blood or embedded in tissues causing expression of cytokines and chemokines, increasing antigen uptake, facilitating processing and presentation by antigen presenting cells, and fostering product immunogenicity. Currently, while products are tested for host cell protein content, assays to control innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs) in products are focused mainly on endotoxin and nucleic acids, however, depending on the cell substrate and the manufacturing process, numerous other IIRMI could be present. In these studies we assess two approaches that allow for the detection of a broader subset of IIRMIs. In the first, we use commercial cell lines transfected with Toll like receptors (TLR) to detect receptor-specific agonists. This method is sensitive to trace levels of IIRMI and provides information of the type of IIRMIs present but is limited by the availability of stably transfected cell lines and requires pre-existing knowledge of the IIRMIs likely to be present in the product. Alternatively, the use of a combination of macrophage cell lines of human and mouse origin allows for the detection of a broader spectrum of impurities, but does not identify the source of the activation. Importantly, for either system the lower limit of detection (LLOD) of impurities was similar to that of PBMC and it was not modified by the therapeutic protein tested, even in settings where the product had inherent immune modulatory properties. Together these data indicate that a cell-based assay approach could be used to screen products for the presence of IIRMIs and inform immunogenicity risk assessments, particularly in the context of comparability exercises.

  14. Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.

    2002-06-01

    In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

  15. Detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding derived from in utero MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Kim, Kio; Roosta, Ahmad; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding human brain development in utero and detecting cortical abnormalities related to specific clinical conditions is an important area of research. In this paper, we describe and evaluate methodology for detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding from population-based studies of fetal brain anatomies imaged in utero. We use a general linear modeling framework to describe spatiotemporal changes in curvature of the developing brain and explore the ability to detect and localize delays in cortical folding in the presence of uncertainty in estimation of the fetal age. We apply permutation testing to examine which regions of the brain surface provide the most statistical power to detect a given folding delay at a given developmental stage. The presented methodology is evaluated using MR scans of fetuses with normal brain development and gestational ages ranging from 20.57 to 27.86 weeks. This period is critical in early cortical folding and the formation of the primary and secondary sulci. Finally, we demonstrate a clinical application of the framework for detection and localization of folding delays in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly.

  16. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  17. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using histograms in a dissimilarity-based classification framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchtenberg, Anne; Simões, Rita; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2014-03-01

    Classification methods have been proposed to detect early-stage Alzheimer's disease using Magnetic Resonance images. In particular, dissimilarity-based classification has been applied using a deformation-based distance measure. However, such approach is not only computationally expensive but it also considers large-scale alterations in the brain only. In this work, we propose the use of image histogram distance measures, determined both globally and locally, to detect very mild to mild Alzheimer's disease. Using an ensemble of local patches over the entire brain, we obtain an accuracy of 84% (sensitivity 80% and specificity 88%).

  18. Early Detection of Coronary Artery Graft Dysfunction with Intraoperative 2-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Sisto, Donato A.; Hoffman, Darryl M.; Fernandes, Sylvia; Frater, Robert W.M.; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Oka, Yasu

    1992-01-01

    We report 5 cases in which intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was instrumental in the early detection of a left ventricular wall-motion abnormality caused by acute dysfunction of a coronary artery bypass graft. The appearance of a wall-motion abnormality on transesophageal echocardiography preceded signs of myocardial ischemia when such signs were detectable with routine monitoring. By facilitating prompt, appropriate correction of technical problems, transesophageal echocardiography enabled the blood flow to be restored and the ischemic insult to be resolved without further complication. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1992;19:130-3) Images PMID:15227425

  19. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  20. Raman Spectrometric Detection Methods for Early and Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chia-Chi; Isidoro, Ciro

    2017-03-18

    The continuous increasing rate of patients suffering of Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide requires the adoption of novel techniques for non-invasive early diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Here we review the various Raman spectroscopic techniques, including Fourier Transform-Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy, that could be used for the diagnosis of AD. These techniques have shown the potential to detect AD biomarkers, such as the amyloid-β peptide and the tau protein, or the neurotransmitters involved in the disease (e.g., Glutamate and γ-Aminobutyric acid), or the typical structural alterations in specific brain areas. The possibility to detect the specific biomarkers in liquid biopsies and to obtain high resolution 3D microscope images of the affected area make the Raman spectroscopy a valuable ally in the early diagnosis and monitoring of AD.

  1. The role of gravity in ocean acoustics propagation and its implication to early tsunami detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic low frequency sound generated by submarine earthquake travels much faster than tsunamis and leaves pressure signatures that can act as tsunami precursors. In this regard, it is anticipated that the correct measurement and analysis of low frequency acoustics would enhance current early tsunami detection systems. In this work we model the low frequency acoustics generated by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake using the "Method of Normal Modes" and the "Acoustics-Gravity Wave" theory. Ocean acoustic theories usually neglect the effect of gravity. However, we show for rigid and elastic bottom conditions how gravity influences the acoustic normal mode propagation speed. Practically, our results can help in the real time characterization of low frequency sources in the ocean. This will enhance the robustness of early tsunami detection systems.

  2. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  3. Early detection of tooth wear by en-face optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mărcăuteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Eniko; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-02-01

    Excessive dental wear (pathological attrition and/or abfractions) is a frequent complication in bruxing patients. The parafunction causes heavy occlusal loads. The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-face optical coherence tomography was used for investigating and imaging of several extracted tooth, with a normal morphology, derived from patients with active bruxism and from subjects without parafunction. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks in patients with first degree bruxism and with a normal tooth morphology. We conclude that the en-face optical coherence tomography is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for the early detection of occlusal overload, before it becomes clinically evident as tooth wear.

  4. Early Detection of Severe Apnoea through Voice Analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ruben; Blanco, Jose Luis; Díaz, David; Hernández, Luis A.; López, Eduardo; Alcázar, José

    This study is part of an on-going collaborative effort between the medical and the signal processing communities to promote research on applying voice analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition techniques (ASR) for the automatic diagnosis of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Early detection of severe apnoea cases is important so that patients can receive early treatment. Effective ASR-based diagnosis could dramatically cut medical testing time. Working with a carefully designed speech database of healthy and apnoea subjects, we present and discuss the possibilities of using generative Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), generally used in ASR systems, to model distinctive apnoea voice characteristics (i.e. abnormal nasalization). Finally, we present experimental findings regarding the discriminative power of speaker recognition techniques applied to severe apnoea detection. We have achieved an 81.25 % correct classification rate, which is very promising and underpins the interest in this line of inquiry.

  5. Impedance sensing device enables early detection of pressure ulcers in vivo.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Sarah L; Lin, Monica C; Liao, Amy; Leeflang, Elisabeth J; Khan, Yasser; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Mann, Kaylee; Naujokas, Agne; Young, David; Roy, Shuvo; Harrison, Michael R; Arias, Ana Claudia; Subramanian, Vivek; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2015-03-17

    When pressure is applied to a localized area of the body for an extended time, the resulting loss of blood flow and subsequent reperfusion to the tissue causes cell death and a pressure ulcer develops. Preventing pressure ulcers is challenging because the combination of pressure and time that results in tissue damage varies widely between patients, and the underlying damage is often severe by the time a surface wound becomes visible. Currently, no method exists to detect early tissue damage and enable intervention. Here we demonstrate a flexible, electronic device that non-invasively maps pressure-induced tissue damage, even when such damage cannot be visually observed. Using impedance spectroscopy across flexible electrode arrays in vivo on a rat model, we find that impedance is robustly correlated with tissue health across multiple animals and wound types. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an automated, non-invasive 'smart bandage' for early detection of pressure ulcers.

  6. Early detection of childhood autism: a review of screening instruments and rating scales.

    PubMed

    Vostanis, P; Smith, B; Chung, M C; Corbett, J

    1994-01-01

    The detection and diagnosis of autism may be delayed until middle childhood, 3-4 years after its onset. This is more likely in high-functioning autism and in cases of co-morbidity with mental retardation. Such delays have serious effects on children and their families as well as on the provision of clinical and educational resources. In addition to greater awareness among professionals and to the development of comprehensive services, early detection could be facilitated by screening for early signs and symptoms of autism. The instruments that have been developed to rate autistic behaviours, particularly in pre-school children, are reviewed in this paper. Although the majority of these observational or informant-based measures were not initially designed for screening purposes, previous research findings from their application could be useful in the future development of such a screening instrument. Relevant research findings are discussed and suggestions are made for further evaluation in appropriate populations.

  7. [Advancement in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid in molecular diagnosis of sepsis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Ren, Hui; Peng, Dai-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Early diagnosis of sepsis helps make effective clinical decisions and improve the survival rate of patients with severe infection. However, the timely and accurate diagnosis of sepsis is still a great challenge in clinic. In order to settle the very problem, the scientists in the world have made a lot of exploration and research in the field of rapid molecular identification of pathogens. Nowadays, the nucleic acid detection of sepsis is mainly composed of 3 types of methodological strategies, either based on positive blood culture, single colonies, or directly on blood specimens. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of advances in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid as molecular diagnosis of sepsis.

  8. Emerging Cardiac Imaging Modalities for the Early Detection of Cardiotoxicity due to Anticancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Teresa; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2017-02-08

    The undeniable advances in the field of oncology have finally led to a decrease in overall cancer-related mortality. However, this population of long-term cancer survivors is now facing a shift toward a substantial increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because the development of overt cardiotoxicity can be associated with poor outcomes, preclinical identification of cardiac toxicity is important. This will promote early instauration of treatments to prevent overt heart dysfunction and allow oncologists to continue cancer therapy in an uninterrupted manner. Surveillance strategies for the early detection of cardiac injury include cardiac imaging and biomarkers during treatment. In this review, we outline existing cardiac imaging modalities to detect myocardial changes in patients undergoing cancer treatment and in survivors, and their strengths and limitations.

  9. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  10. Early skeletal muscle hypertrophy and architectural changes in response to high-intensity resistance training.

    PubMed

    Seynnes, O R; de Boer, M; Narici, M V

    2007-01-01

    The onset of whole muscle hypertrophy in response to overloading is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the early changes in muscle size and architecture during a 35-day high-intensity resistance training (RT) program. Seven young healthy volunteers performed bilateral leg extension three times per week on a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer. Cross-sectional area (CSA) in the central (C) and distal (D) regions of the quadriceps femoris (QF), muscle architecture, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and electromyographic (EMG) activity were measured before and after 10, 20, and 35 days of RT. By the end of the training period, MVC and EMG activity increased by 38.9 +/- 5.7 and 34.8% +/- 4.7%, respectively. Significant increase in QF CSA (3.5 and 5.2% in the C and D regions, respectively) was observed after 20 days of training, along with a 2.4 +/- 0.7% increase in fascicle length from the 10th day of training. By the end of the 35-day training period, the total increase in QF CSA for regions C and D was 6.5 +/- 1.1 and 7.4 +/- 0.8%, respectively, and fascicle length and pennation angle increased by 9.9 +/- 1.2 and 7.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. The results show for the first time that changes in muscle size are detectable after only 3 wk of RT and that remodeling of muscle architecture precedes gains in muscle CSA. Muscle hypertrophy seems to contribute to strength gains earlier than previously reported; flywheel training seems particularly effective for inducing these early structural adaptations.

  11. Cellular stress response in Eca-109 cells inhibits apoptosis during early exposure to isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Shi, C; Fan, L Y; Cai, Z; Liu, Y Y; Yang, C L

    2012-01-01

    The flavonol aglycone isorhamnetin shows anti-proliferative activity in a variety of cancer cells. Previous work, from our laboratory showed that isorhamnetin inhibits the proliferation of human esophageal squamous carcinoma Eca-109 cells in vitro, but only after 72 h of exposure. This led us to propose that isorhamnetin exposure induces a cellular stress response that inhibits the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of the compound during early exposure. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined the effects of isorhamnetin on Eca-109 cells during the first 72 h of exposure. Cell growth was assessed using the trypan blue exclusion assay, and expression of IκBα, NF-κB/p65, NF-κB/p50, phospho-Akt, Bcl-2, COX-2, Mcl-1, Bax, p53 and Id-1 were analyzed by Western blot. During the first 72 h of exposure, NF-κB/p65 and NF-κB/p50 accumulated in nuclei and expression of COX-2, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 increased. In contrast, expression of IκBα and Bax fell initially but later increased. Expression of phospho-Akt and p53 showed no detectable change during the first 48 h. Pretreatment with the NF-κB inhibitor MG132 before exposure to isorhamnetin blocked the nuclear accumulation of p50 and p65, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. These results show that during early exposure of Eca-109 cells to isorhamnetin, the NF-κB signaling pathway is activated and COX-2 expression increases, and this increase in expression partially inhibits isorhamnetin-induced apoptosis. Beyond 72 h of exposure, however, the apoptotic effect of isorhamnetin dominates, leading to inhibition of the NF-κB pathway and of cellular proliferation. These results will need to be taken into account when exploring the use of isorhamnetin against cancer in vivo.

  12. An endoscopic system for the early detection of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckechnie, Tracy; Jahan, Ali; Tait, Iain; Cuschieri, Alfred; Sibbett, Wilson; Padgett, Miles

    1998-06-01

    We report a compact endoscopic imaging system suitable for the early detection of cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The system incorporates a three-color camera to provide a conventional color image, a mercury lamp filtered between 360 and 450 nm to excite the photosensitizer, and an intensified camera to image the resulting fluorescence at 630 nm. Our results on over 30 resected specimens show a high optical contrast between the cancerous and healthy tissue.

  13. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound-Targeted Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    in serum and its association with ovarian TAN in prospective study. 2a. Hens with ovaries appearing normal (with normal egg laying rates and low egg ...detective of ovarian TAN at early stage of OVCA. Animals: A total of 140 White Leghorn hens (3 years old) with low egg laying rates (eggs/year...matched 100 hens with low egg laying rates and 20 hens with normally egg laying rates and reared under similar environment were selected for CE-US

  14. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  15. Students' Reports of Severe Violence in School as a Tool for Early Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by…

  16. The Development of Technological Support for RAF Early Failure Detection Centers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Key Words: Computer aided ; CASPA ; CAVE; debris analysis; Early Failure Detection Centres; equipment health monitoring; Royal Air Force; Wear Particle...of neural networks and image analysis techniques. CASPA : The Computer Aided Systematic Particle Analysis ( CASPA ) system has been developed as a...advantages of CASPA is that, as an expert system it may be 2 used by inexperienced personnel, while repeated use will train the operator in the

  17. The Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer in the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    and human cells were compared to discern whether CA19-9 is added to known carriers in the genetically engineered mouse system. CA19-9 labeled...elevated exposure to carcinogens present in diesel engine exhaust and cigarette smoke, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals...KEYWORDS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, early detection, carcinogenesis, military, diesel engine exhaust, cigarette smoke, organoids. ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  18. Blood Based Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Early Detection and Evaluation of CT Based Lesions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    miRNA ), methylation and gene expression profiles of tumor and matched non-malignant tissues to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and...from the Pan-Canadian Early Lung Cancer Detection Study. Candidate miRNA that accurately discriminate between tumor and non-malignant samples are...generate miRNA , methylation and gene expression profiles of tumor and normal tissues . Status: Completed Work accomplished: Histological confirmation was

  19. Cardiovascular disease in the developing world: prevalences, patterns, and the potential of early disease detection.

    PubMed

    Celermajer, David S; Chow, Clara K; Marijon, Eloi; Anstey, Nicholas M; Woo, Kam S

    2012-10-02

    Over the past decade or more, the prevalence of traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been increasing in the major populous countries of the developing world, including China and India, with consequent increases in the rates of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Indeed, by 2020, cardiovascular diseases are predicted to be the major causes of morbidity and mortality in most developing nations around the world. Techniques for the early detection of arterial damage have provided important insights into disease patterns and pathogenesis and especially the effects of progressive urbanization on cardiovascular risk in these populations. Furthermore, certain other diseases affecting the cardiovascular system remain prevalent and important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including the cardiac effects of rheumatic heart disease and the vascular effects of malaria. Imaging and functional studies of early cardiovascular changes in those disease processes have also recently been published by various groups, allowing consideration of screening and early treatment opportunities. In this report, the authors review the prevalences and patterns of major cardiovascular diseases in the developing world, as well as potential opportunities provided by early disease detection.

  20. Inversion Method for Early Detection of ARES-1 Case Breach Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A document describes research into the problem of detecting a case breach formation at an early stage of a rocket flight. An inversion algorithm for case breach allocation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown how the case breach can be allocated at an early stage of its development by using the rocket sensor data and the output data from the control block of the rocket navigation system. The results are simulated with MATLAB/Simulink software. The efficiency of an inversion algorithm for a case breach location is discussed. The research was devoted to the analysis of the ARES-l flight during the first 120 seconds after the launch and early prediction of case breach failure. During this time, the rocket is propelled by its first-stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). If a breach appears in SRB case, the gases escaping through it will produce the (side) thrust directed perpendicular to the rocket axis. The side thrust creates torque influencing the rocket attitude. The ARES-l control system will compensate for the side thrust until it reaches some critical value, after which the flight will be uncontrollable. The objective of this work was to obtain the start time of case breach development and its location using the rocket inertial navigation sensors and GNC data. The algorithm was effective for the detection and location of a breach in an SRB field joint at an early stage of its development.