Sordillo, E.M.; Sordillo, P.P.; Hajdu, S.I.; Good, R.A.
A case of lymphangiosarcoma of a lower extremity is described in a patient with chronic lymphedema of that leg from a filarial infection in childhood. Histologically, the neoplasm resembled lymphangiosarcomas that arise in arms that become lymphedematous after mastectomies, but was different in that it also contained areas of calcification consistent with prior filarial infection. Calcifications were also present in muscle uninvolved by the lymphangiosarcoma of this case. The prolonged survival of this patient is unlike that of most patients with lymphangiosarcoma, which is generally shorter. Although lymphedema after filariasis is common, this is the first case of a lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphedema of filarial origin.
Tritten, Lucienne; Burkman, Erica; Moorhead, Andrew; Satti, Mohammed; Geary, James; Mackenzie, Charles; Geary, Timothy
Filarial nematodes cause chronic and profoundly debilitating diseases in both humans and animals. Applications of novel technology are providing unprecedented opportunities to improve diagnosis and our understanding of the molecular basis for host-parasite interactions. As a first step, we investigated the presence of circulating miRNAs released by filarial nematodes into the host bloodstream. miRNA deep-sequencing combined with bioinformatics revealed over 200 mature miRNA sequences of potential nematode origin in Dirofilaria immitis-infected dog plasma in two independent analyses, and 21 in Onchocerca volvulus-infected human serum. Total RNA obtained from D. immitis-infected dog plasma was subjected to stem-loop RT-qPCR assays targeting two detected miRNA candidates, miR-71 and miR-34. Additionally, Brugia pahangi-infected dog samples were included in the analysis, as these miRNAs were previously detected in extracts prepared from this species. The presence of miR-71 and miR-34 discriminated infected samples (both species) from uninfected samples, in which no specific miRNA amplification occurred. However, absolute miRNA copy numbers were not significantly correlated with microfilaraemia for either parasite. This may be due to the imprecision of mf counts to estimate infection intensity or to miRNA contributions from the unknown number of adult worms present. Nonetheless, parasite-derived circulating miRNAs are found in plasma or serum even for those species that do not live in the bloodstream. PMID:25033073
Tripathi, Praveen Kumar; Mahajan, Ramesh Chander; Malla, Nancy; Mewara, Abhishek; Bhattacharya, Shailja Misra; Shenoy, Ranganatha Krishna; Sehgal, Rakesh
Human lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of disability globally. The success of global elimination programmes for LF depends upon effectiveness of tools for diagnosis and treatment. In this study on stage-specific antigen detection in brugian filariasis, L3, adult worm (AW) and microfilarial antigenaemia were detected in around 90-95% of microfilariae carriers (MF group), 50-70% of adenolymphangitis (ADL) patients, 10-25% of chronic pathology (CP) patients and 10-15% of endemic normal (EN) controls. The sensitivity of the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detection in serum samples from MF group was up to 95%. In sera from ADL patients, unexpectedly, less antigen reactivity was observed. In CP group all the CFA positive individuals were from CP grade I and II only and none from grade III or IV, suggesting that with chronicity the AWs lose fecundity and start to disintegrate and die. Amongst EN subject, 10-15% had CFA indicating that few of them harbour filarial AWs, thus they might not be truly immune as has been conventionally believed. The specificity for antigen detection was 100% when tested with sera from various other protozoan and non-filarial helminthic infections.
Aliota, Matthew T.; Chen, Cheng-Chen; Dagoro, Henry; Fuchs, Jeremy F.; Christensen, Bruce M.
Background Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness). Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis) but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections
Dissanaike, A. S.
This article gives an account of the filarial parasites found in man and their potential transmissibility to and from other vertebrate animals under natural and experimental conditions. Those species that are regarded as being primarily parasites of other vertebrates, but which also infect man, are then dealt with in greater detail. These include the subperiodic strain of Brugia malayi and perhaps also B. pahangi, both of which are found in wild and domestic carnivores and monkeys, and Dirofilaria species of dogs and racoons. The Brugia parasites develop to maturity with the production of microfilaraemia and clinical manifestations in man similar to those caused by periodic B. malayi in man. Human dirofilariasis, on the other hand, represents a transmission cul-de-sac for the parasite. Clinical manifestations are mild or absent and generally the worms do not mature and, even if they do, they rarely give rise to microfilaraemia. D. immitis causes pulmonary dirofilariasis, and D. repens and D. tenuis give rise to subcutaneous nodules in man. The diagnosis of dirofilariasis depends on an awareness of the infection in the animal reservoirs and of the possibility of man being exposed to bites of infected vectors. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:314349
Dissanaike, A S
This article gives an account of the filarial parasites found in man and their potential transmissibility to and from other vertebrate animals under natural and experimental conditions.Those species that are regarded as being primarily parasites of other vertebrates, but which also infect man, are then dealt with in greater detail. These include the subperiodic strain of Brugia malayi and perhaps also B. pahangi, both of which are found in wild and domestic carnivores and monkeys, and Dirofilaria species of dogs and racoons.The Brugia parasites develop to maturity with the production of microfilaraemia and clinical manifestations in man similar to those caused by periodic B. malayi in man. Human dirofilariasis, on the other hand, represents a transmission cul-de-sac for the parasite. Clinical manifestations are mild or absent and generally the worms do not mature and, even if they do, they rarely give rise to microfilaraemia. D. immitis causes pulmonary dirofilariasis, and D. repens and D. tenuis give rise to subcutaneous nodules in man. The diagnosis of dirofilariasis depends on an awareness of the infection in the animal reservoirs and of the possibility of man being exposed to bites of infected vectors.
Gleave, Katherine; Cook, Darren; Taylor, Mark J.; Reimer, Lisa J.
Understanding vector-parasite interactions is increasingly important as we move towards the endpoint goals set by the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), as interaction dynamics may change with reduced transmission pressure. Elimination models used to predict programmatic endpoints include parameters for vector-specific transmission dynamics, despite the fact that our knowledge of the host-seeking behaviour of filariasis infected mosquitoes is lacking. We observed a dynamic, stage-specific and density dependent change in Aedes aegypti behaviour towards host cues when exposed to Brugia malayi filarial parasites. Infected mosquitoes exhibited reduced activation and flight towards a host during the period of larval development (L1/L2), transitioning to a 5 fold increase in activation and flight towards a host when infective stage larvae (L3) were present (p < 0.001). In uninfected control mosquitoes, we observed a reduction in convergence towards a host during the same period. Furthermore, this behaviour was density dependent with non-activated mosquitoes harbouring a greater burden of L1 and L2 larvae while activated mosquitoes harboured a greater number of L3 (p < 0.001). Reductions in fecundity were also density-dependent, and extended to mosquitoes that were exposed to microfilariae but did not support larval development. PMID:27796352
Bonne-Année, S; Nutman, T B
Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in nonmucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations, the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged. Despite the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in murine helminth infections, little is actually known about the role of human ILCs during parasitic infections. The focus of this review will be to highlight the composition of ILCs in the skin, lymphatics and blood; where the host-parasite interaction is well-defined and to examine the role of ILCs during filarial infections. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Fink, Doran L; Fahle, Gary A; Fischer, Steven; Fedorko, Daniel F; Nutman, Thomas B
The diagnosis of filarial infections among individuals residing in areas where the disease is not endemic requires both strong clinical suspicion and expert training in infrequently practiced parasitological methods. Recently developed filarial molecular diagnostic assays are highly sensitive and specific but have limited availability and have not been closely evaluated for clinical use outside populations residing in areas of endemicity. In this study, we assessed the performance of a panel of real-time PCR assays for the four most common human filarial pathogens among blood and tissue samples collected from a cohort of patients undergoing evaluation for suspected filarial infections. Compared to blood filtration, real-time PCR was equally sensitive for the detection of microfilaremia due to Wuchereria bancrofti (2 of 46 samples positive by both blood filtration and PCR with no discordant results) and Loa loa (24 of 208 samples positive by both blood filtration and PCR, 4 samples positive by PCR only, and 3 samples positive by blood filtration only). Real-time PCR of skin snip samples was significantly more sensitive than microscopic examination for the detection of Onchocerca volvulus microfiladermia (2 of 218 samples positive by both microscopy and PCR and 12 samples positive by PCR only). The molecular assays required smaller amounts of blood and tissue than conventional methods and could be performed by laboratory personnel without specialized parasitology training. Taken together, these data demonstrate the utility of the molecular diagnosis of filarial infections in mobile populations.
Fink, Doran L.; Fahle, Gary A.; Fischer, Steven; Fedorko, Daniel F.; Nutman, Thomas B.
The diagnosis of filarial infections among individuals residing in areas where the disease is not endemic requires both strong clinical suspicion and expert training in infrequently practiced parasitological methods. Recently developed filarial molecular diagnostic assays are highly sensitive and specific but have limited availability and have not been closely evaluated for clinical use outside populations residing in areas of endemicity. In this study, we assessed the performance of a panel of real-time PCR assays for the four most common human filarial pathogens among blood and tissue samples collected from a cohort of patients undergoing evaluation for suspected filarial infections. Compared to blood filtration, real-time PCR was equally sensitive for the detection of microfilaremia due to Wuchereria bancrofti (2 of 46 samples positive by both blood filtration and PCR with no discordant results) and Loa loa (24 of 208 samples positive by both blood filtration and PCR, 4 samples positive by PCR only, and 3 samples positive by blood filtration only). Real-time PCR of skin snip samples was significantly more sensitive than microscopic examination for the detection of Onchocerca volvulus microfiladermia (2 of 218 samples positive by both microscopy and PCR and 12 samples positive by PCR only). The molecular assays required smaller amounts of blood and tissue than conventional methods and could be performed by laboratory personnel without specialized parasitology training. Taken together, these data demonstrate the utility of the molecular diagnosis of filarial infections in mobile populations. PMID:20980560
Nelson, G. S.; Pester, F. R. N.
Although it is recognized that the presence of animal filariae can lead to confusion in the interpretation of infection rates in mosquito vectors of filariasis, the filariae found in man-biting simuliids are usually assumed to be Onchocerca volvulus. The authors of this paper emphasize that it is unwise to calculate transmission indices from infection rates in man-biting simuliids unless there is confidence in the identification of the filarial larvae. In this respect they cite their observations on Mount Elgon in Uganda which show that the majority of the filarial larvae in Simulium neavei—the local vector of onchocerciasis—are of species that do not affect man. To assist in the correct interpretation of infection rates in the vectors the authors made a detailed study of the morphological character of O. volvulus infective larvae and established criteria for distinguishing O. volvulus from other filariae known to be transmitted by simuliids. PMID:13938041
Singh, Amit Kumar; Agarwal, Loveleena; Lakhmani, Krishna; Sengupta, Chandrim; Singh, Ravinder Pal
Background: The knowledge of the current prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and its transmission will be helpful in its elimination. Thus, the present study is aimed to determine its prevalence among hydrocele patients which is a common presentation in chronically infected cases. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients suffering from hydrocele admitted to the surgical ward were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the patients during the day hours for the detection of anti-filarial antibody and during night hours to detect the presence of microfilaria by smear examination. Blood samples were also collected from the family member attending the ward along with the patients to determine the presence of anti-filarial antibodies. Serum IgE level and eosinophil count were also determined in the patients showing a positive result for the anti-filarial antibody test. Results: Out of 100 hydrocele patients, 21% patients showed anti-filarial antibody card test positive with maximum patients belonging to age group of 20–40 years. Microfilaria was detected in 5% of the hydrocele patients, whereas none of the family members showed positive anti-filarial antibody test. Serum IgE level and eosinophil count were more than 1000 ng/ml and 500/mm3, respectively. Conclusions: The study has found a high prevalence of filariasis among hydrocele patients. It is suggested that more studies are needed to know the real time prevalence of the cases showing manifestations of the filariasis in the acute stage which will help the eradication program to formulate new strategies. PMID:28217582
Panda, A K; Das, B K
Nematode infections have been observed to inversely correlate with autoimmune disorders. Recently, we have shown the absence of filarial infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who live in filarial-endemic areas. The mechanism(s) by which filarial-infected individuals are protected against the development of RA or SLE are unknown. In mice CIA, an experimental model for RA, ES-62, an execratory product of rodent filarial nematode , has been shown to improve arthritis through suppression of the IL-17 pathway. A total of 160 individuals, 40 each of endemic normal, filarial-infected cases, SLE and RA patients, from filarial-endemic areas, were enrolled in the study. Plasma levels of IL17-A, IFN-α and TNF-α were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RA and SLE patients displayed significantly higher plasma IL-17A, IFN-α and TNF-α levels compared to endemic normal and infected individuals. Furthermore, IL-17A levels were significantly low in participants with filarial infection compared to endemic controls ( p < 0.05). Interestingly, plasma IL-17A levels correlated inversely with circulating filarial antigen (CFA) ( p = 0.004, Spearman r = -0.51). Filarial infection was associated with low plasma IL-17A levels, a mechanism by which it possibly protects individuals in filarial-endemic areas from the development of autoimmune disorders like RA and SLE.
Radwan, A. M.; Ahmed, N. E.; Elakabawy, L. M.; Ramadan, M. Y.; Elmadawy, R. S.
Aim: The primary objective of the present study is to determine the commonness of filarial parasites in donkeys in Egypt, identification of the filarial species tainting them and the delivered pathogenic impact connected with the infestation. Materials and Methods: A total of 188 donkeys were examined for filarial infection. The blood samples and scraping of the cutaneous bleeding lesions were collected, stained, and inspected for microfilariae all through the period from March 2011 to October 2013. The adult worms were perceived in tissue samples acquired from skin scraping, testes, eyes, tendons, peritoneal and pleural cavities, and the ligamentum nuchae. Results: On the basis of morphological identification, 163 of 188 donkeys (86.70%) were infected with Onchocerca cervicalis (82.98%), Setaria equina (31.11%), Parafilaria multipapillosa (5.32%), and Onchocerca reticulata (4.26%). There was no significant effect of the sex on the incidence of all the encounteredfilarial worms except for S. equina, where the infection rate prevailed in males versus females (40.82% vs. 35.90%). In addition, age group of 5-15 years old exhibited a fundamentally higher predominance (p< 0.05) of the recognized filarial worms versus those of < 5 years old and >15 years old. Conclusion: The preliminary results add to our comprehension of filarial species infecting donkeys in Egypt, their impact on animal execution and production. Accentuation must be taken for avoidance, control of filarial disease, and improvement of the management system of donkeys. PMID:27651679
Bal, Madhusmita; Ranjit, Manoranjan; Achary, K. Gopinath; Satapathy, Ashok K.
Background Children born from filarial infected mothers are comparatively more susceptible to filarial infection than the children born to uninfected mothers. But the mechanism of such increased susceptibility to infection in early childhood is not exactly known. Several studies have shown the association of active filarial infection with T cell hypo-responsiveness which is mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Since the Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ CD25hi thymocytes at an early stage of the human fetus, it can be hypothesized that the maternal infection during pregnancy affects the development of Tregs in children at birth as well as early childhood. Hence the present study was designed to test the hypothesis by selecting a cohort of pregnant mothers and children born to them subsequently in a filarial endemic area of Odisha, India. Methodology and Principal finding A total number of 49 pregnant mothers and children born to them subsequently have been followed up (mean duration 4.4 years) in an area where the microfilariae (Mf) rate has come down to <1% after institution of 10 rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA). The infection status of mother, cord and children were assessed through detection of microfilariae (Mf) and circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Expression of Tregs cells were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of IL-10 were evaluated by using commercially available ELISA kit. A significantly high level of IL-10 and Tregs have been observed in children born to infected mother compared to children of uninfected mother at the time of birth as well as during early childhood. Moreover a positive correlation between Tregs and IL-10 has been observed among the children born to infected mother. Significance From these observations we predict that early priming of the fetal immune system by filarial antigens modulate the development of Tregs, which ultimately scale up the production of IL-10 in neonates and creates a milieu for high rate
Bal, Madhusmita; Ranjit, Manoranjan; Achary, K Gopinath; Satapathy, Ashok K
Children born from filarial infected mothers are comparatively more susceptible to filarial infection than the children born to uninfected mothers. But the mechanism of such increased susceptibility to infection in early childhood is not exactly known. Several studies have shown the association of active filarial infection with T cell hypo-responsiveness which is mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Since the Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ CD25hi thymocytes at an early stage of the human fetus, it can be hypothesized that the maternal infection during pregnancy affects the development of Tregs in children at birth as well as early childhood. Hence the present study was designed to test the hypothesis by selecting a cohort of pregnant mothers and children born to them subsequently in a filarial endemic area of Odisha, India. A total number of 49 pregnant mothers and children born to them subsequently have been followed up (mean duration 4.4 years) in an area where the microfilariae (Mf) rate has come down to <1% after institution of 10 rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA). The infection status of mother, cord and children were assessed through detection of microfilariae (Mf) and circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Expression of Tregs cells were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of IL-10 were evaluated by using commercially available ELISA kit. A significantly high level of IL-10 and Tregs have been observed in children born to infected mother compared to children of uninfected mother at the time of birth as well as during early childhood. Moreover a positive correlation between Tregs and IL-10 has been observed among the children born to infected mother. From these observations we predict that early priming of the fetal immune system by filarial antigens modulate the development of Tregs, which ultimately scale up the production of IL-10 in neonates and creates a milieu for high rate of acquisition of infection in children born to infected
Nuchprayoon, Surang; Junpee, Alisa; Poovorawan, Yong; Scott, Alan L
Filarial nematode parasites are a serious cause of morbidity in humans and animals. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. We report on a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)-based method to detect and differentiate a broad range of filarial species in a single PCR. The first internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) along with the flanking 18S and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were isolated and cloned from Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia pahangi. Sequence analysis identified conserved sites in the 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequence that could be used as universal priming sites to generate ITS1-distinctive PCR products that were useful for distinguishing filariae at the genus level. The addition of a digestion of the ITS1 PCR product with the restriction endonuclease Ase I generated a fragment profile that allowed differentiation down to the species level for W. bancrofti, B. malayi, B. pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and D. repens. The PCR-RFLP of ITS1 rDNA will be useful in diagnosing and differentiating filarial parasites in human, animal reservoir hosts, and mosquito vectors in disease-endemic areas.
Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M.; Tortosa, Pablo
We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors. PMID:26751792
Ritchie, Ryan; Goundry, Amy; O’Neill, Kerry; Marchesi, Francesco; Devaney, Eileen
Helminth parasites remain a major constraint upon human health and well-being in many parts of the world. Treatment of these infections relies upon a very small number of therapeutics, most of which were originally developed for use in animal health. A lack of high throughput screening systems, together with limitations of available animal models, has restricted the development of novel chemotherapeutics. This is particularly so for filarial nematodes, which are long-lived parasites with a complex cycle of development. In this paper, we describe attempts to visualise the immune response elicited by filarial parasites in infected mice using a non-invasive bioluminescence imaging reagent, luminol, our aim being to determine whether such a model could be developed to discriminate between live and dead worms for in vivo compound screening. We show that while imaging can detect the immune response elicited by early stages of infection with L3, it was unable to detect the presence of adult worms or, indeed, later stages of infection with L3, despite the presence of worms within the lymphatic system of infected animals. In the future, more specific reagents that detect secreted products of adult worms may be required for developing screens based upon live imaging of infected animals. PMID:27992545
Background Knowledge of the potential vector role of Culicidae mosquitoes in Germany is very scanty, and until recently it was generally assumed that they are not involved in the transmission of anthroponotic or zoonotic pathogens in this country. However, anticipated changes in the course of global warming and globalization may alter their status. Methods We conducted a molecular mass screening of mosquitoes for filarial parasites using mitochondrial 12S rRNA-based real-time PCR. Results No parasites causing disease in humans such as Dirofilaria spp. were detected in about 83,000 mosquitoes tested, which had been collected in 2009 and 2010 in 16 locations throughout Germany. However, minimum infection rates of up to 24 per 1000 mosquitoes were revealed, which could be attributed to mosquito infection with Setaria tundra and a yet unidentified second parasite. Setaria tundra was found to be widespread in southern Germany in various mosquito species, except Culex spp. In contrast, the unidentified filarial species was exclusively found in Culex spp. in northern Baden-Württemberg, and is likely to be a bird parasite. Conclusions Although dirofilariasis appears to be emerging and spreading in Europe, the absence of Dirofilaria spp. or other zoonotic filariae in our sample allows the conclusion that the risk of autochthonous infection in Germany is still very low. Potential vectors of S. tundra in Germany are Ochlerotatus sticticus, Oc. cantans, Aedes vexans and Anopheles claviger. Technically, the synergism between entomologists, virologists and parasitologists, combined with state-of-the-art methods allows a very efficient near-real-time monitoring of a wide spectrum of both human and veterinary pathogens, including new distribution records of parasite species and the incrimination of their potential vectors. PMID:22236560
Kwarteng, Alexander; Ahuno, Samuel Terkper
Data obtained from expression microarrays enables deeper understanding of the molecular signatures of infectious diseases. It provides rapid and accurate information on how infections affect the clustering of gene expression profiles, pathways and networks that are transcriptionally active during various infection states compared to conventional diagnostic methods, which primarily focus on single genes or proteins. Thus, microarray technologies offer advantages in understanding host-parasite interactions associated with filarial infections. More importantly, the use of these technologies can aid diagnostics and helps translate current genomic research into effective treatment and interventions for filarial infections. Studying immune responses via microarray following infection can yield insight into genetic pathways and networks that can have a profound influence on the development of anti-parasitic vaccines. PMID:27600086
Weitzel, Thomas; Rosas, Reinaldo; Fica, Alberto; Dabanch, Jeannette; Polanco, Myriam; Egaña, Alicia; Triantafilo, Vjera; Pfarr, Kenneth; Hoerauf, Achim; Reiter-Owona, Ingrid
Haiti has the highest prevalence of lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti) in the Western Hemisphere. Still, the risk of filarial infection for long-term visitors such as humanitarian aid workers or military personnel is uncertain. The presented study analyzed the exposure to W. bancrofti in Chilean participants of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) in 2011. Blood samples collected from 531 participants were screened for antifilarial antibodies by IgG ELISA, and, if positive, analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA), IgG4 ELISA, Real-Time PCR, and circulating filarial antigen (CFA) card test. ELISA screening was positive in 10 cases. Seroconversion occurred in only two cases (0.38%) based on ELISA values determined in samples taken before and after deployment. Positive IgG ELISA values could not be confirmed by IFA and IgG4 ELISA. Real-Time PCR and CFA testing did not reveal the presence of filaria. Our data indicate that in the examined cohort of MINUSTAH participants in 2011, the risk of filarial exposure or infection was low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michael, E; Bundy, D A
Despite the existence of an impressive body of work on human immune responses against filarial infections, the occurrence of a protective response to infection remains unclear. Here, we use a combined modelling and comparative data analysis framework to address this issue for human infections with the filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti. By analogy with previous work, the analysis involves the comparison of observed field patterns of infection with epidemiological patterns predicted by a mathematical model of parasite immunity. Unlike most other human helminths, which are transmitted by ingestion or dermal penetration, exposure to infection with lymphatic filariasis can be measured explicitly in terms of vector mosquito biting rates, thereby also allowing, probably for the first time, examination of the suggested role of exposure in generating herd immunity to macroparasites. Observed field patterns in this study were derived from 19 different published studies, which gave parallel estimates of community exposure rates and the corresponding age--prevalence patterns of infection, while predictions of the epidemiological impact of herd immunity were obtained using a catalytic model framework. The results provide the first conclusive evidence to date that variations in the observed age--prevalence patterns of infection in filariasis can be effectively explained by the occurrence of an exposure-driven acquisition of herd immunity. We discuss this result in terms of implications for the new World Health Organization-led initiative for the global control of this parasitic disease. PMID:9633111
Mavoungou, Donatien; Poaty-Mavoungou, Virginie; Ongali, Brice; Akoume, Marie Yvonne; Maka, Gontran; Mavoungou, Elie
Bi-directional relationships operate between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the immune system. Cytokines, peptide hormones and their shared receptors/ligands are used as a common biological language for communication within and between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Such communication suggests an immunoregulatory role for the brain and a sensory function for the immune system. We used a radioimmunoassay to measure the concentrations of steroid hormones (cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and progesterone) and pituitary hormones [follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and prolactin] in peripheral blood plasma from 78 young Gabonese women with chronic filarial infections. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine the concentrations of four proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6] in the same plasma samples. Progesterone was unchanged and all other steroid hormone plasma concentrations were lower in microfilaremic women than in amicrofilaremic women. The concentration of LH was higher in amicrofilaremic women, whereas the prolactin concentration was higher in microfilaremics. The plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1 and IL-6 were higher in microfilaremic women. A strong negative correlation was found between the steroid and pituitary hormones and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conversely, a strong positive correlation was found between prolactin and the same cytokines. These data provide first evidence of immune system and hormonal system disturbance during chronic filarial infections and suggest that the observed imbalance should be taken into account in the diagnosis and treatment of filarial infections.
Ziewer, Sebastian; Hübner, Marc P.; Dubben, Bettina; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H.; Bain, Odile; Martin, Coralie; Hoerauf, Achim; Specht, Sabine
Background Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are two chronic diseases mediated by parasitic filarial worms causing long term disability and massive socioeconomic problems. Filariae are transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes that take up the first stage larvae from an infected host and deliver it after maturation into infective stage to a new host. After closure of vector control programs, disease control relies mainly on mass drug administration with drugs that are primarily effective against first stage larvae and require many years of annual/biannual administration. Therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative treatment ways, i.e. other effective drugs or vaccines. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the Litomosoides sigmodontis murine model of filariasis we demonstrate that immunization with microfilariae together with the adjuvant alum prevents mice from developing high microfilaraemia after challenge infection. Immunization achieved 70% to 100% protection in the peripheral blood and in the pleural space and furthermore strongly reduced the microfilarial load in mice that remained microfilaraemic. Protection was associated with the impairment of intrauterine filarial embryogenesis and with local and systemic microfilarial-specific host IgG, as well as IFN-γ secretion by host cells from the site of infection. Furthermore immunization significantly reduced adult worm burden. Conclusions/Significance Our results present a tool to understand the immunological basis of vaccine induced protection in order to develop a microfilariae-based vaccine that reduces adult worm burden and prevents microfilaraemia, a powerful weapon to stop transmission of filariasis. PMID:22413031
Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash
Interleukin 19 (IL-19) and interleukin 24 (IL-24) are cytokines that are highly expressed in filarial infections. To study the role of IL-19 and IL-24 in regulating T-cell responses, we examined the frequency of T-helper type 1 (Th1)/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, Th22/Tc22, and Tr1 cells in 26 filariae-infected individuals stimulated with filarial antigen following IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization. IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1 and/or Th17/Tc17 cells and significantly reduced frequencies of Th2/Tc2, Tr1, and/or Th9/Tc9 cells. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the modulation of T-cell responses in filarial infections. PMID:26486636
Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T; Nejsum, Peter; Simonsen, Paul E
Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott's concentration methods revealed microfilariae in 16 (5.9%) of the dogs. PCR confirmed that most of these dogs had Acanthocheilonema reconditum infection. Ten (4.0%) of the examined dogs were positive for Dirofilaria immitis circulating antigen (by DiroCHEK(®) test), but D. immitis microfilariae were not identified in any of the dogs and the status of this infection remains unclear. Further studies are needed to explore the occurrence of filariae in Zambian dogs and the zoonotic potential for humans.
Karadjian, Gregory; Berrebi, Dominique; Dogna, Nathalie; Vallarino-Lhermitte, Nathaly; Bain, Odile; Landau, Irène; Martin, Coralie
Infection with multiple parasite species is clearly the norm rather than the exception, in animals as well as in humans. Filarial nematodes and Plasmodium spp. are important parasites in human public health and they are often co-endemic. Interactions between these parasites are complex. The mechanisms underlying the modulation of both the course of malaria and the outcome of filarial infection are poorly understood. Despite increasing activity in recent years, studies comparing co- and mono-infections are very much in their infancy and results are contradictory at first sight. In this study we performed controlled and simultaneous co-infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis filaria and with Plasmodium spp. (Plasmodium yoelii 17 XNL or Plasmodium chabaudi 864VD). An analysis of pathological lesions in the kidneys and lungs and a parasitological study were conducted at different times of infection. Whatever the plasmodial species, the filarial recovery rate was strongly decreased. The peak of parasitaemia in the plasmodial infection was decreased in the course of P. yoelii infection but not in that of P. chabaudi. Regarding pathological lesions, L. sigmodontis can reverse lesions in the kidneys due to the presence of both Plasmodium species but does not modify the course of pulmonary lesions. The filarial infection induces granulomas in the lungs. PMID:24717449
Achary, K G; Mandal, N N; Mishra, S; Sarangi, S S; Kar, S K; Satapathy, A K; Bal, M S
Maternal filarial infection influences the risk of acquiring infection and development of immunity in children. Here we have analysed the blood samples of 60 mothers (24 infected and 36 uninfected) and their corresponding cord bloods to assess the impact of maternal infection on the anti-sheath antibodies and cytokine production in neonates born from them. About 69·4% of non-infected mothers and their cord bloods showed the presence of anti-sheath antibodies, while only 16·6% of the cord bloods from infected mothers were positive for it. The IL-10 level was significantly high in cord bloods of infected mothers compared with non-infected mothers. At the same time the IL-10 level was also observed to be remarkably high in cord bloods of both infected and non-infected mothers negative for anti-sheath antibody. In contrast, IFN-γ levels were significantly high in cord bloods of non-infected mothers compared with infected mothers and the increment was prominent in cord bloods of both infected and non-infected mothers positive for anti-sheath antibody. The study reveals that the presence or absence of anti-sheath antibodies in association with cytokines skews the filarial specific immunity to either Th1 or Th2 responses in neonates. This may affect the natural history of filarial infection in early childhood.
Mhashilkar, Amruta S.; Vankayala, Sai L.; Liu, Canhui; Kearns, Fiona; Mehrotra, Priyanka; Tzertzinis, George; Palli, Subba R.; Woodcock, H. Lee; Unnasch, Thomas R.
Background A homologue of the ecdysone receptor has previously been identified in human filarial parasites. As the ecdysone receptor is not found in vertebrates, it and the regulatory pathways it controls represent attractive potential chemotherapeutic targets. Methodology/ Principal Findings Administration of 20-hydroxyecdysone to gerbils infected with B. malayi infective larvae disrupted their development to adult stage parasites. A stable mammalian cell line was created incorporating the B. malayi ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain, its heterodimer partner and a secreted luciferase reporter in HEK293 cells. This was employed to screen a series of ecdysone agonist, identifying seven agonists active at sub-micromolar concentrations. A B. malayi ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain was developed and used to study the ligand-receptor interactions of these agonists. An excellent correlation between the virtual screening results and the screening assay was observed. Based on both of these approaches, steroidal ecdysone agonists and the diacylhydrazine family of compounds were identified as a fruitful source of potential receptor agonists. In further confirmation of the modeling and screening results, Ponasterone A and Muristerone A, two compounds predicted to be strong ecdysone agonists stimulated expulsion of microfilaria and immature stages from adult parasites. Conclusions The studies validate the potential of the B. malayi ecdysone receptor as a drug target and provide a means to rapidly evaluate compounds for development of a new class of drugs against the human filarial parasites. PMID:27300294
Madhan Mohan, T; Nath, N; Anand, S
Optical waveguides based immunoassay has been reported in the literature for the detection of pathogens likeC. botulinum and F1 antigen ofY. pestis (3) and also for the antibodies to pathogens like the Rubella virus (4) in the serum or the whole blood. In this line we have demonstrated the FOI for the detection ofS. digitata antibody. Experiments are in progress in our laboratory to standardise the sensor for detection of Bancroftian filariasis caused byW. bancrofti. Few modifications are also in the process so as to improve the signal amplification at evanescent region as well as to reduce the two step method into single step method. The FOI has an advantage over other conventional methods because no extensive washing steps are required and the whole procedure takes just 15 minutes to get the result. The FOI designed for this experiment can be made portable for use in the field level for epidemiological studies.
Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Frutos, Roger; Moulia, Catherine; Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nathaly; Bain, Odile; Gavotte, Laurent; Martin, Coralie
Filariae are a leading cause of infections which are responsible for serious dermatological, ocular, and vascular lesions. Infective third stage larvae (L3) are transmitted through the bite of a haematophagous vector. Litomosoides sigmodontis is a well-established model of filariasis in the mouse, with the vector being the mite Ornithonyssus bacoti. The aim of the study was to analyse the filarial infection in mites to determine the consequences of filarial infection in the blood-feeding and the reproduction of mites as well as in the regulation of vector-induced inflammation in the mouse skin. Firstly, L3 are unevenly distributed throughout the host population and the majority of the population harbours a moderate infection (1 to 6 L3). Filarial infection does not significantly affect the probing delay for blood feeding. The number of released protonymphs is lower in infected mites but is not correlated with the L3 burden. Finally, induced excreted proteins from infected mites but not from uninfected mites stimulate TNF- α and the neutrophil-chemoattractant KC production by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Altogether, these results describe the modification of the mite behavior under filarial infection and suggest that the immunomodulatory capacity of the mite may be modified by the presence of the parasite, hindering its defensive ability towards the vertebrate host.
Sunish, I P; Rajendran, R; Mani, T R; Munirathinam, A; Reuben, R; Dash, A P
The impact of single dose mass drug administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), DEC with albendazole (ALB), and ivermectin (IVR) with albendazole, was examined on the human bancroftian filarial infections in village scale trials in south India, from a follow-up study after 2 years. The treatment arms administered with DEC alone and DEC+ALB demonstrated long-term benefits in reducing microfilaraemia significantly (P<0.05), while antigenaemia reduction was negligible. The arm with ALB+IVR did not show such reductions. Among the antigenaemic and microfilaraemic individuals, 87% became amicrofilaraemic in DEC+ALB arm, which were higher than that observed in the other 2 treatment arms. Among amicrofilaraemics (but Ag+), nearly 35% cleared of infection in DEC+ALB, while 26% and 6% in DEC alone and IVR+ALB arms, respectively. The drug combination DEC+ALB was observed to demonstrate a significant impact in reducing filarial infection even after 2 years post treatment.
Barbuto, Michela; Martin, Coralie; Lo, Nathan; Uni, Shigehiko; Landmann, Frederic; Baccei, Sara G.; Guerrero, Ricardo; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Bandi, Claudio; Wanji, Samuel; Diagne, Moustapha; Casiraghi, Maurizio
Background Wolbachia are intriguing symbiotic endobacteria with a peculiar host range that includes arthropods and a single nematode family, the Onchocercidae encompassing agents of filariases. This raises the question of the origin of infection in filariae. Wolbachia infect the female germline and the hypodermis. Some evidences lead to the theory that Wolbachia act as mutualist and coevolved with filariae from one infection event: their removal sterilizes female filariae; all the specimens of a positive species are infected; Wolbachia are vertically inherited; a few species lost the symbiont. However, most data on Wolbachia and filaria relationships derive from studies on few species of Onchocercinae and Dirofilariinae, from mammals. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the Wolbachia distribution testing 35 filarial species, including 28 species and 7 genera and/or subgenera newly screened, using PCR, immunohistochemical staining, whole mount fluorescent analysis, and cocladogenesis analysis. (i) Among the newly screened Onchocercinae from mammals eight species harbour Wolbachia but for some of them, bacteria are absent in the hypodermis, or in variable density. (ii) Wolbachia are not detected in the pathological model Monanema martini and in 8, upon 9, species of Cercopithifilaria. (iii) Supergroup F Wolbachia is identified in two newly screened Mansonella species and in Cercopithifilaria japonica. (iv) Type F Wolbachia infect the intestinal cells and somatic female genital tract. (v) Among Oswaldofilariinae, Waltonellinae and Splendidofilariinae, from saurian, anuran and bird respectively, Wolbachia are not detected. Conclusions/Significance The absence of Wolbachia in 63% of onchocercids, notably in the ancestral Oswaldofilariinae estimated 140 mya old, the diverse tissues or specimens distribution, and a recent lateral transfer in supergroup F Wolbachia, modify the current view on the role and evolution of the endosymbiont and their hosts. Further
Gondorf, Fabian; Berbudi, Afiat; Buerfent, Benedikt C; Ajendra, Jesuthas; Bloemker, Dominique; Specht, Sabine; Schmidt, David; Neumann, Anna-Lena; Layland, Laura E; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P
Helminths immunomodulate their hosts and induce a regulatory, anti-inflammatory milieu that prevents allergies and autoimmune diseases. Helminth immunomodulation may benefit sepsis outcome by preventing exacerbated inflammation and severe pathology, but the influence on bacterial clearance remains unclear. To address this, mice were chronically infected with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis (L.s.) and the outcome of acute systemic inflammation caused by i.p. Escherichia coli injection was determined. L.s. infection significantly improved E. coli-induced hypothermia, bacterial clearance and sepsis survival and correlated with reduced concentrations of associated pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and a less pronounced pro-inflammatory macrophage gene expression profile. Improved sepsis outcome in L.s.-infected animals was mediated by macrophages, but independent of the alternatively activated macrophage subset. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria that are present in most human pathogenic filariae, as well as L.s., signal via TLR2 and modulate macrophage function. Here, gene expression profiles of peritoneal macrophages from L.s.-infected mice revealed a downregulation of genes involved in TLR signaling, and pulsing of macrophages in vitro with L.s. extract reduced LPS-triggered activation. Subsequent transfer improved sepsis outcome in naïve mice in a Wolbachia- and TLR2-dependent manner. In vivo, phagocytosis was increased in macrophages from L.s.-infected wild type, but not TLR2-deficient animals. In association, L.s. infection neither improved bacterial clearance in TLR2-deficient animals nor ameliorated E. coli-induced hypothermia and sepsis survival. These results indicate that chronic L.s. infection has a dual beneficial effect on bacterial sepsis, reducing pro-inflammatory immune responses and improving bacterial control. Thus, helminths and their antigens may not only improve the outcome of autoimmune and allergic diseases, but may also
Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash
Interleukin 19 (IL-19) and interleukin 24 (IL-24) are cytokines that are highly expressed in filarial infections. To study the role of IL-19 and IL-24 in regulating T-cell responses, we examined the frequency of T-helper type 1 (Th1)/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, Th22/Tc22, and Tr1 cells in 26 filariae-infected individuals stimulated with filarial antigen following IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization. IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1 and/or Th17/Tc17 cells and significantly reduced frequencies of Th2/Tc2, Tr1, and/or Th9/Tc9 cells. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the modulation of T-cell responses in filarial infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Poole, Catherine B.; Li, Zhiru; Alhassan, Andy; Guelig, Dylan; Diesburg, Steven; Tanner, Nathan A.; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C.; LaBarre, Paul; Wanji, Samuel; Burton, Robert A.; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.
Accurate detection of filarial parasites in humans is essential for the implementation and evaluation of mass drug administration programs to control onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Determining the infection levels in vector populations is also important for assessing transmission, deciding when drug treatments may be terminated and for monitoring recrudescence. Immunological methods to detect infection in humans are available, however, cross-reactivity issues have been reported. Nucleic acid-based molecular assays offer high levels of specificity and sensitivity, and can be used to detect infection in both humans and vectors. In this study we developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) tests to detect three different filarial DNAs in human and insect samples using pH sensitive dyes for enhanced visual detection of amplification. Furthermore, reactions were performed in a portable, non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification (NINA) device that provides a stable heat source for LAMP. The efficacy of several strand displacing DNA polymerases were evaluated in combination with neutral red or phenol red dyes. Colorimetric NINA-LAMP assays targeting Brugia Hha I repeat, Onchocerca volvulus GST1a and Wuchereria bancrofti LDR each exhibit species-specificity and are also highly sensitive, detecting DNA equivalent to 1/10-1/5000th of one microfilaria. Reaction times varied depending on whether a single copy gene (70 minutes, O. volvulus) or repetitive DNA (40 min, B. malayi and W. bancrofti) was employed as a biomarker. The NINA heater can be used to detect multiple infections simultaneously. The accuracy, simplicity and versatility of the technology suggests that colorimetric NINA-LAMP assays are ideally suited for monitoring the success of filariasis control programs. PMID:28199317
McKenzie, Valerie J; Starks, Hilary A
The 2 objectives of this study were: (1) to compare parasite detectability in blood smears obtained from toe-clips versus the heart from amphibian hosts; and (2) to test whether microfilariae density is correlated with adult filarial worm intensity. We examined blood parasites of 2 species of amphibians, Rana vaillanti (n = 45) and Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri (n = 36), from Costa Rica collected during the summer of 2003. Separate blood smears were obtained from toe-clips and the heart during necrospy. Eight species of blood parasites were identified from R. vaillanti and 1 from E. fitzingeri. Each parasite species was counted in a 2 x 2.2-cm2 area on each blood smear, and the density of host red blood cells (RBCs) was estimated using a sub-sampling approach, allowing parasite infections to be expressed as individuals per RBC. The detection failure rate for toe-cut smears ranged from 71-100% (x = 92.3%) and from 0-9% (x = 2.4%) for heart smears, depending on parasite species. The density of RBCs was significantly higher in smears produced from heart samples and may explain the differences in detectability. Foleyellides striatus microfilariae densities (per RBC) were significantly correlated with adult female worm intensity (R2 = 0.32, P = 0.011).
Petersen, Heidi H; Nielsen, Nina O; Monrad, Jesper; Magesa, Stephen M; Simonsen, Paul E
The effect of HIV on filarial-specific antibody response before and after treatment with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was analysed by comparing two groups of Wuchereria bancrofti-infected adult individuals (positive for circulating filarial antigen) who were positive (n=15) or negative (n=21) for HIV co-infection. Prior to DEC treatment there was no significant difference in filarial-specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG4 and IgE antibody response between the HIV negative and the HIV positive group, while a five times (statistically significant) higher filarial-specific IgG3 response was observed in the HIV positive than in the HIV negative group. At 12 weeks after treatment with DEC, a significant decrease in filarial-specific IgG4 was observed in the HIV positive but not in the HIV negative group, indicating that DEC treatment had a stronger antifilarial effect in individuals co-infected with HIV. DEC treatment had no significant effect on the other classes of filarial specific antibodies, neither in the HIV negative or the HIV positive group.
Chatterjee, Soumya; Clark, Carolyn E; Lugli, Enrico; Roederer, Mario; Nutman, Thomas B
Exaggerated CD4(+) T helper 2-specific cytokine producing memory T cell responses developing concomitantly with a T helper 1 response might have a detrimental role in immunity to infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To assess the dynamics of Ag-specific memory T cell compartments in the context of filarial infection, we used multiparameter flow cytometry on PBMCs from 25 microfilaremic filarial-infected (Inf) and 14 filarial-uninfected (Uninf) subjects following stimulation with filarial Ag (BmA) or with the M. tuberculosis-specific Ag culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10). Our data demonstrated that the Inf group had a marked increase in BmA-specific CD4(+)IL-4(+) cells (median net frequency compared with baseline [Fo] = 0.09% versus 0.01%; p = 0.038) but also to CFP-10 (Fo = 0.16% versus 0.007%; p = 0.04) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (Fo = 0.49% versus 0.26%; p = 0.04). The Inf subjects showed a BmA-specific expansion of CD4(+)CD45RO(+)IL-4(+) producing central memory (TCM, CD45RO(+)CCR7(+)CD27(+); Fo = 1.1% versus 0.5%; p = 0.04) as well as effector memory (TEM, CD45RO(+)CCR7(-)CD27(-); Fo = 1.5% versus 0.2%; p = 0.03) with a similar but nonsignificant response to CFP-10. In addition, there was expansion of CD4(+)IL-4(+)CD45RA(+)CCR7(+)CD27(+) (naive-like) in Inf individuals compared with Uninf subjects. Among Inf subjects with definitive latent tuberculosis, there were no differences in frequencies of IL-4-producing cells within any of the memory compartments compared with the Uninf group. Our data suggest that filarial infection induces Ag-specific, exaggerated IL-4 responses in distinct T cell memory compartments to M. tuberculosis-specific Ags, which are attenuated in subjects who are able to mount a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to M. tuberculosis.
Chatterjee, Soumya; Clark, Carolyn E.; Lugli, Enrico; Roederer, Mario; Nutman, Thomas B.
Exaggerated CD4+T helper 2-specific cytokine producing memory T cell responses developing concomitantly with a T helper1 response might have a detrimental role in immunity to infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). To assess the dynamics of antigen (Ag)-specific memory T cell compartments in the context of filarial infection we used multiparameter flow cytometry on PBMCs from 25 microfilaremic filarial -infected (Inf) and 14 filarial-uninfected (Uninf) subjects following stimulation with filarial (BmA) or with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific Ag CFP10. Our data demonstrated that the Inf group not only had a marked increase in BmA-specific CD4+IL-4+ cells (Median net frequency compared to baseline (Fo)=0.09% vs. 0.01%, p=0.038) but also to CFP10 (Fo =0.16% vs. 0.007%, p=0.04) and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) (Fo =0.49% vs. 0.26%, p=0.04). The Inf subjects showed a BmA-specific expansion of CD4+CD45RO+IL-4+ producing central memory (TCM, CD45RO+CCR7+CD27+) (Fo =1.1% vs. 0.5%, p=0.04) as well as effector memory (TEM CD45RO+CCR7-CD27-) (Fo =1.5% vs. 0.2%, p=0.03) with a similar but non-significant response to CFP10. In addition, there was expansion of CD4+ IL-4+ CD45RA+ CCR7+CD27+ (naïve-like) in Inf individuals compared to Uninf subjects. Among Inf subjects with definitive latent tuberculosis , there were no differences in frequencies of IL-4 producing cells within any of the memory compartments compared to the Uninf group. Our data suggest that filarial infection induces antigen-specific, exaggerated IL-4 responses in distinct T cell memory compartments to Mtb-specific antigens, which are attenuated in subjects who are able to mount a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to Mtb. PMID:25667413
Tang, Thuy-Huong Ta; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Lanza, Marta; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Jose Miguel; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa
We present filaria-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on amplification of first internal transcribed spacer rDNA to distinguish three parasitic filarial species (Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonella ozzardi and Mansonella perstans) that can be found in the Amazon Region. Nested PCR-based identifications yielded the same results as those utilizing morphological characters. Nested PCR is highly sensitive and specific and it detects low-level infections in both humans and vectors. No cross-amplifications were observed with various other blood parasites and no false-positive results were obtained with the nested PCR. The method works efficiently with whole-blood, blood-spot and skin biopsy samples. Our method may thus be suitable for assessing the efficacy of filaria control programmes in Amazonia by recording parasite infections in both the human host and the vector. By specifically differentiating the major sympatric species of filaria, this technique could also enhance epidemiological research in the region.
Sunish, I P; Munirathinam, A; Kalimuthu, M; Ashok Kumar, V; Tyagi, B K
Under the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF), mass drug administration (MDA) is being implemented in Tamil Nadu, south India, by the State health machinery. The impact of six annual rounds of MDA using diethylcarbamazine (DEC) with and without albendazole (ALB) on filarial infection (microfilaraemia prevalence-MFP; antigenaemia prevalence-AGP) in paediatric population of 2-9 years was determined in two revenue blocks, with a population of 321 000. After each MDA, 300-400 children were screened for filarial infection. After six MDAs, an overall MFP reduction of 84.67% and 57.95% was observed in DEC+ALB and DEC alone arms, respectively. Corresponding AGP reductions were 72.88% (p < 0.001) and 41.51% (p = 0.023). Observation of microfilaraemic children after six MDAs (0.32% in DEC+ALB; 0.75% in DEC alone), necessitates the need for supplementary control strategies (viz., vector control), in order to achieve the goal of LF elimination. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne parasitic disease, is endemic in several parts of India and mostly affects the poor or those with a low-income. The disease results in huge numbers of morbidities, disabilities, and deaths every year. Association of co-infection with other pathogens makes the condition more severe. Although co-infection is becoming a growing area of research, it is yet to emerge as a frontier research topic in filarial research specifically. This study reports the occurrence of a fungal infection in a large number of patients suffering from bancroftian filariasis in two districts of West Bengal, India. Methods Nocturnal blood samples from filarial patients containing parasites and fungus were initially co-cultured, and further the fungus was isolated and characterized. Molecular identification of the isolate was carried out by PCR-based selective amplification and sequencing of highly-conserved D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA, whereas pathogenicity was determined by amplification of the RPS0 gene. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the relationship between the isolate and common pathogenic yeasts. The isolate was studied for antibiotic sensitivity, whereas morphological characterization was performed by microscopic techniques. Results The isolate was identified as Pichia guilliermondii and this fungus was found to exist in co-infection with Wuchereria bancrofti in filarial patients. The fungus showed resistance to azole antifungals, griseofulvin, and, amphotericin B, whereas significant susceptibility was evident in cases of nystatin and cycloheximide. A total of 197 out of 222 patients showed this co-infection. Conclusion This study revealed, for the first time, that P. guilliermondii exists as a co-infection in microfilaraemic individuals living in a filarial endemic zone. The findings are important and have relevance to human health, especially for filarial patients. PMID:24708881
Metenou, Simon; Dembele, Benoit; Konate, Siaka; Dolo, Housseini; Coulibaly, Siaka Y.; Coulibaly, Yaya I.; Diallo, Abdallah A.; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel E.; Sanogo, Dramane; Doumbia, Salif S.; Wagner, Marissa; Traoré, Sekou F.; Klion, Amy; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nutman, Thomas B.
The effect of filarial infections on malaria-specific immune responses was investigated in Malian villages co-endemic for filariasis and malaria. Cytokines were measured from plasma and Ag-stimulated whole blood from individuals with Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) and/or Mansonella perstans (Mp) infections (Fil+; n = 19) and those without evidence of filarial infection (Fil−; n = 19). Plasma levels of IL-10 (geometric mean [GM] 22.8 vs. 10.4) were higher in Fil+ compared with Fil−, whereas levels of IP-10 were lower in Fil+ (GM = 66.3 vs. 110.0). Fil+ had higher levels of spontaneously secreted IL-10 (59.3 vs. 6.8 pg/ml) and lower levels of IL-2 (1.0 vs. 1.2 pg/ml) than did Fil−. Although there were no differences in levels of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B-induced cytokines between the two groups, Fil+ mounted a lower IL-12p70 (1.11 vs. 3.83 pg/ml; p = 0.007), IFN-γ (5.44 vs. 23.41 pg/ml; p = 0.009), and IP-10 (29.43 vs. 281.7 pg/ml; p = 0.007) response following malaria Ag (MalAg) stimulation compared with Fil−. In contrast, Fil+ had a higher MalAg-specific IL-10 response (7318 pg/ml vs. 3029 pg/ml; p = 0.006) compared with those without filarial infection. Neutralizing Ab to IL-10 (but not to TGFβ) reversed the downregulated MalAg-specific IFN-γ and IP-10 (p < 0.001) responses in Fil+. Together these data demonstrate that filarial infections modulate the Plasmodium falciparum-specific IL-12p70/IFN-γ secretion pathways known to play a key role in resistance to malaria and thata they do so in an IL-10-dependent manner. PMID:19561105
Rajendran, R; Sunish, I P; Mani, T R; Munirathinam, A; Arunachalam, N; Satyanarayana, K; Dash, A P
As part of the Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), India is implementing mass drug administration (MDA) with annual single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) with and without albendazole (ALB). The impact of MDAs on filarial infections and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections was assessed during a 3-year period in two communities, one with DEC + ALB and the other with DEC alone. Prior to each MDA (during 2001, 2002 and 2003), filarial indices (microfilaraemia and antigenaemia) were assessed from blood samples of 450-650 persons aged 2-25 years and STH infections in stool samples (Kato-Katz method) from 325 to 500 children aged 9-10 years. Mosquitoes resting indoors were collected to determine the filarial infection status. The microfilaraemia prevalence decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both arms, with the highest decline in the DEC + ALB arm (72%vs. 51%). Decline in micrefilaria intensity was also higher in the DEC + ALB arm (81.4%vs. 48.5%). In this arm alone, the antigenaemia prevalence was reduced significantly (62%; P < 0.001). The reduction in STH prevalence was lower in the DEC alone arm (6.5%; NS) than in the DEC + ALB arm (70.9%; P < 0.001). Also, the egg reduction in DEC alone arm was only half that of DEC + ALB arm (49%vs. 97%). Our community-based follow-up study showed higher and sustained benefits with regard to filarial and STH infections for the two-drug arm over the DEC alone arm. The trends suggest that at least 10 MDAs may be necessary to achieve the goal of elimination.
Pionnier, Nicolas; Brotin, Emilie; Karadjian, Gregory; Hemon, Patrice; Gaudin-Nomé, Françoise; Vallarino-Lhermitte, Nathaly; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Fercoq, Frédéric; Aknin, Marie-Laure; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Bachelerie, Françoise; Martin, Coralie
Our knowledge and control of the pathogenesis induced by the filariae remain limited due to experimental obstacles presented by parasitic nematode biology and the lack of selective prophylactic or curative drugs. Here we thought to investigate the role of neutrophils in the host innate immune response to the infection caused by the Litomosoides sigmodontis murine model of human filariasis using mice harboring a gain-of-function mutation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and characterized by a profound blood neutropenia (Cxcr4(+/1013)). We provided manifold evidence emphasizing the major role of neutrophils in the control of the early stages of infection occurring in the skin. Firstly, we uncovered that the filarial parasitic success was dramatically decreased in Cxcr4(+/1013) mice upon subcutaneous delivery of the infective stages of filariae (infective larvae, L3). This protection was linked to a larger number of neutrophils constitutively present in the skin of the mutant mice herein characterized as compared to wild type (wt) mice. Indeed, the parasitic success in Cxcr4(+/1013) mice was normalized either upon depleting neutrophils, including the pool in the skin, or bypassing the skin via the intravenous infection of L3. Second, extending these observations to wt mice we found that subcutaneous delivery of L3 elicited an increase of neutrophils in the skin. Finally, living L3 larvae were able to promote in both wt and mutant mice, an oxidative burst response and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). This response of neutrophils, which is adapted to the large size of the L3 infective stages, likely directly contributes to the anti-parasitic strategies implemented by the host. Collectively, our results are demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils in early anti-filarial host responses through their capacity to undertake different anti-filarial strategies such as oxidative burst, degranulation and NETosis.
Pionnier, Nicolas; Brotin, Emilie; Karadjian, Gregory; Hemon, Patrice; Gaudin-Nomé, Françoise; Vallarino-Lhermitte, Nathaly; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Fercoq, Frédéric; Aknin, Marie-Laure; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine
Our knowledge and control of the pathogenesis induced by the filariae remain limited due to experimental obstacles presented by parasitic nematode biology and the lack of selective prophylactic or curative drugs. Here we thought to investigate the role of neutrophils in the host innate immune response to the infection caused by the Litomosoides sigmodontis murine model of human filariasis using mice harboring a gain-of-function mutation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and characterized by a profound blood neutropenia (Cxcr4+/1013). We provided manifold evidence emphasizing the major role of neutrophils in the control of the early stages of infection occurring in the skin. Firstly, we uncovered that the filarial parasitic success was dramatically decreased in Cxcr4+/1013 mice upon subcutaneous delivery of the infective stages of filariae (infective larvae, L3). This protection was linked to a larger number of neutrophils constitutively present in the skin of the mutant mice herein characterized as compared to wild type (wt) mice. Indeed, the parasitic success in Cxcr4+/1013 mice was normalized either upon depleting neutrophils, including the pool in the skin, or bypassing the skin via the intravenous infection of L3. Second, extending these observations to wt mice we found that subcutaneous delivery of L3 elicited an increase of neutrophils in the skin. Finally, living L3 larvae were able to promote in both wt and mutant mice, an oxidative burst response and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). This response of neutrophils, which is adapted to the large size of the L3 infective stages, likely directly contributes to the anti-parasitic strategies implemented by the host. Collectively, our results are demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils in early anti-filarial host responses through their capacity to undertake different anti-filarial strategies such as oxidative burst, degranulation and NETosis. PMID:27111140
Washington, Charles H; Radday, Jeanne; Streit, Thomas G; Boyd, Heather A; Beach, Michael J; Addiss, David G; Lovince, Rodrigue; Lovegrove, Maribeth C; Lafontant, Jack G; Lammie, Patrick J; Hightower, Allen W
increase in distance from the residence of a person who was antigen-positive in 2000 was associated a 4.68 unit decrease in antifilarial IgG1 level in 2001, controlling for other factors (p = 0.04). DISCUSSION: Antifilarial antibody assays can be used as a measure of filarial exposure. Our results suggest that micro-scale spatial heterogeneity exists in LF exposure and infection. Treatment appeared to be associated with reduced exposure at the sub-community level, suggesting the need to achieve high and homogeneous coverage. Public health messages should note the benefits of having one's neighbors receive treatment with antifilarial drugs.
Washington, Charles H; Radday, Jeanne; Streit, Thomas G; Boyd, Heather A; Beach, Michael J; Addiss, David G; Lovince, Rodrigue; Lovegrove, Maribeth C; Lafontant, Jack G; Lammie, Patrick J; Hightower, Allen W
in distance from the residence of a person who was antigen-positive in 2000 was associated a 4.68 unit decrease in antifilarial IgG1 level in 2001, controlling for other factors (p = 0.04). Discussion Antifilarial antibody assays can be used as a measure of filarial exposure. Our results suggest that micro-scale spatial heterogeneity exists in LF exposure and infection. Treatment appeared to be associated with reduced exposure at the sub-community level, suggesting the need to achieve high and homogeneous coverage. Public health messages should note the benefits of having one's neighbors receive treatment with antifilarial drugs. PMID:15128461
Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; Sakran, Thabet
This study aimed to detect the cross-reactive proteins in filarial parasite adult worm Setaria equina and two different tumor cell lines (MCF-7 human breast cancer and Huh-7 hepatoma cells). This was performed using rabbit anti-S. equina extract (SeqE) or DEC (Diethylcarbamazine citrate) polyclonal IgG antibodies by indirect ELISA and western blotting. The results indicated cross-reactive bands at 70 and 75 kDa in all extracts by anti-DEC and SeqE antibodies, respectively. In addition, the expression of 70 kDa protein was only reduced in filarial worms and Huh-7 after in vitro DEC treatment compared to the control.
Dyab, Ahmed K; Galal, Lamia A; Mahmoud, Abeer E; Mokhtar, Yasser
Wolbachia is an obligatory intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium, present in over 20% of all insects altering insect reproductive capabilities and in a wide range of filarial worms which is essential for worm survival and reproduction. In Egypt, no available data were found about Wolbachia searching for it in either mosquitoes or filarial worms. Thus, we aimed to identify the possible concurrent presence of Wolbachia within different mosquitoes and filarial parasites, in Assiut Governorate, Egypt using multiplex PCR. Initially, 6 pools were detected positive for Wolbachia by single PCR. The simultaneous detection of Wolbachia and filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) by multiplex PCR was spotted in 5 out of 6 pools, with an overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) of 0.24%. Unexpectedly, the highest ERI (0.53%) was for Anopheles pharoensis with related Wolbachia and W. bancrofti, followed by Aedes (0.42%) and Culex (0.26%). We also observed that Wolbachia altered Culex spp. as a primary vector for W. bancrofti to be replaced by Anopheles sp. Wolbachia within filaria-infected mosquitoes in our locality gives a hope to use bacteria as a new control trend simultaneously targeting the vector and filarial parasites.
Dyab, Ahmed K.; Galal, Lamia A.; Mahmoud, Abeer E.; Mokhtar, Yasser
Wolbachia is an obligatory intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium, present in over 20% of all insects altering insect reproductive capabilities and in a wide range of filarial worms which is essential for worm survival and reproduction. In Egypt, no available data were found about Wolbachia searching for it in either mosquitoes or filarial worms. Thus, we aimed to identify the possible concurrent presence of Wolbachia within different mosquitoes and filarial parasites, in Assiut Governorate, Egypt using multiplex PCR. Initially, 6 pools were detected positive for Wolbachia by single PCR. The simultaneous detection of Wolbachia and filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) by multiplex PCR was spotted in 5 out of 6 pools, with an overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) of 0.24%. Unexpectedly, the highest ERI (0.53%) was for Anopheles pharoensis with related Wolbachia and W. bancrofti, followed by Aedes (0.42%) and Culex (0.26%). We also observed that Wolbachia altered Culex spp. as a primary vector for W. bancrofti to be replaced by Anopheles sp. Wolbachia within filaria-infected mosquitoes in our locality gives a hope to use bacteria as a new control trend simultaneously targeting the vector and filarial parasites. PMID:27417080
Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed
Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site.
Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed
Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site. PMID:28182103
Aravindhan, Vivekanandhan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Surendar, Jayagopi; Rao, Maradana Muralidhara; Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Deepa, Mohan; Babu, Subash
Helminth infections can potentially confer protection against metabolic disorders, possibly through immunomodulation. In this study, the baseline prevalence of lymphatic filariasis (LF) among subjects without (N = 236) and with (N = 217) coronary artery disease (CAD) was examined as part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES). The prevalence of LF was not significantly different between CAD− and CAD+ subjects. The LF antigen load and antibody levels indicated comparable levels of infection and exposure between the groups. Within the CAD group, LF+ and LF− subjects had no significant difference in the intimal medial thickness and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values. However, LF infection was associated with augmented levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 among CAD+ subjects. The LF infection had no effect on serum adipocytokine profile. In conclusion, unlike type-2 diabetes, there is no association between the prevalence of LF and CAD and also no evidence of protective immunomodulation of LF infection on CAD in the Asian Indian population. PMID:22556082
Babu, Subash; Nutman, Thomas B
Although two thirds of the 120 million people infected with lymph-dwelling filarial parasites have subclinical infections, ~40 million have lymphedema and/or other pathologic manifestations including hydroceles (and other forms of urogenital disease), episodic adenolymphangitis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, lymphedema, and (in its most severe form) elephantiasis. Adult filarial worms reside in the lymphatics and lymph nodes and induce changes that result in dilatation of lymphatics and thickening of the lymphatic vessel walls. Progressive lymphatic damage and pathology results from the summation of the effect of tissue alterations induced by both living and nonliving adult parasites, the host inflammatory response to the parasites and their secreted antigens, the host inflammatory response to the endosymbiont Wolbachia, and those seen as a consequence of secondary bacterial or fungal infections. Inflammatory damage induced by filarial parasites appears to be multifactorial, with endogenous parasite products, Wolbachia, and host immunity all playing important roles. This review will initially examine the prototypical immune responses engendered by the parasite and delineate the regulatory mechanisms elicited to prevent immune-mediated pathology. This will be followed by a discussion of the proposed mechanisms underlying pathogenesis, with the central theme being that pathogenesis is a two-step process-the first initiated by the parasite and host innate immune system and the second propagated mainly by the host's adaptive immune system and by other factors (including secondary infections).
Michalski, Michelle L.; Erickson, Sara M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Christensen, Bruce M.
Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex thrive in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, and serve as efficient vectors of Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Asia, Africa, the West Indies, South America, and Micronesia. However, members of this mosquito complex do not act as natural vectors for Brugian LF caused by Brugia malayi, or for the cat parasite B. pahangi, despite their presence in South Asia where these parasites are endemic. Previous work with the Iowa strain of Culex pipiens pipiens demonstrates that it is equally susceptible to W. bancrofti as is the natural Cx. p. pipiens vector in the Nile Delta, however it is refractory to infection with Brugia spp. Here we report that the infectivity barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens is the mosquito midgut, which inflicts internal and lethal damage to ingested microfilariae. Following per os Brugia exposures, the prevalence of infection is significantly lower in Cx. p. pipiens compared to susceptible mosquito controls, and differs between parasite species with <50% and <5% of Cx. p. pipiens becoming infected with B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. When Brugia spp. mf were inoculated intrathoracically to bypass the midgut, larvae developed equally well as in controls, indicating that, beyond the midgut, Cx. p. pipiens is physiologically compatible with Brugia spp. Mf isolated from Cx. p. pipiens midguts exhibited compromised motility, and unlike mf derived from blood or isolated from the midguts of Ae. aegypti, failed to develop when inoculated intrathoracically into susceptible mosquitoes. Together these data strongly support the role of the midgut as the primary infection barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens. Examination of parasites recovered from the Cx. p. pipiens midgut by vital staining, and those exsheathed with papain, suggest that the damage inflicted by the midgut is subcuticular and disrupts internal tissues. Microscopic studies of these worms
Pionnier, Nicolas; Vallarino-Lhermitte, Nathaly; Lefoulon, Emilie; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Specht, Sabine; Carlin, Leo M.; Martin, Coralie
Filarial infections are tropical diseases caused by nematodes of the Onchocercidae family such as Mansonella perstans. The infective larvae (L3) are transmitted into the skin of vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding vectors. Many filarial species settle in the serous cavities including M. perstans in humans and L. sigmodontis, a well-established model of filariasis in mice. L. sigmodontis L3 migrate to the pleural cavity where they moult into L4 around day 9 and into male and female adult worms around day 30. Little is known of the early phase of the parasite life cycle, after the L3 is inoculated in the dermis by the vector and enters the afferent lymphatic vessels and before the moulting processes in the pleural cavity. Here we reveal a pulmonary phase associated with lung damage characterized by haemorrhages and granulomas suggesting L3 reach the lung via pulmonary capillaries and damage the endothelium and parenchyma by crossing them to enter the pleural cavity. This study also provides evidence for a transient inflammation in the lung characterized by a very early recruitment of neutrophils associated with high expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins. PMID:28486498
Chakraborty, Arkaprabha; Mukherjee, Anindya; Talukdar, Payel; Talukdar, Arunansu
Filarial infection can have varied manifestations, but hydropneumothorax at presentation has not yet been reported. A 28-year-old man presented to our hospital with heaviness of the left chest for the past 10 days, which was preceded by a sudden, short stabbing pain in the left chest after straining. Chest X-ray revealed left-sided hydropneumothorax. A peripheral blood picture revealed significant eosinophilia. A pleural fluid report also showed eosinophilia and a few motile microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. Microfilaria was also documented in peripheral blood. There was no evidence of other organ system involvement. The patient was diagnosed with 'Filarial Hydropneumothorax'. After treatment with a temporary chest drain and oral diethylcarbamazine citrate, there was dramatic relief of symptoms and radiological improvement. The patient has been symptom free with no features of recurrence through 8 months of follow-up. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Vasuki, V; Subramanian, S; Hoti, S L; Jambulingam, P
Molecular xenomonitoring of filariasis is the detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes by PCR and a useful tool for monitoring transmission. DNA extraction coupled with PCR allows rapid detection of the presence or absence of the filarial parasite in vector mosquitoes compared to traditional method of manual dissection of the mosquito and observation for parasite under a microscope. A Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer-based boiling method of DNA extraction developed earlier by us was employed and explored for its suitability in the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in pools of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in real-time PCR assay. In this preliminary study, 1,000 laboratory-reared C. quinquefasciatus were made into 40 pools, each containing 25 mosquitoes spiked with 2mf. DNA from the first 20 pools was extracted using Qiagen DNeasy blood and tissue kit as standard, and the other 20 pools were subjected to TE buffer-based boiling method of DNA extraction. When the results (Ct values) obtained for DNA samples extracted by TE buffer-based boiling method were compared with that of the DNA samples extracted by the standard Qiagen method, they were found to be highly concordant without any significant difference (P = 0.9). Besides being cost- and time-effective, this protocol was found useful in extracting filarial DNA from two other mosquito genus Aedes and Anopheles, species of which have been reported as important vectors of W. bancrofti in other endemic regions of the world. Thus, TE buffer-based boiling method of DNA extraction is useful for the high-throughput detection of W. bancrofti in vector mosquitoes.
Ramaprasad, P; Harinath, B C
Fractionated urinary filarial antigen UFA C2 has shown high antigenic activity after absorption of urinary albumin present in the fraction. As little as 500 ag (10(-18) g) of albumin absorbed UFA C2, labelled as UFA C2-A, was found to be sufficient to detect filarial antibody. Stick enzyme immunoassay to assess the immunodiagnostic potential of UFA C2-A indicated filarial IgG antibody in 89% of microfilaraemic (mf) cases, 84% of clinical filariasis and 7% of endemic normals. UFA C2-A was found to be present in circulation in active as well as clinical infections as observed by inhibition assay using UFA C2-A penicillinase conjugate. Eighty-six per cent of mf, 50% of clinical cases and 6% of endemic normal subjects revealed parasite antigen to UFA C2-A on further serological analysis. None of the non-endemic normal sera showed the presence of filarial antibody/antigen to UFA C2-A. Furthermore, the test to determine phosphorylcholine (PC) bearing epitopes in UFA C2-A indicated no immunological reaction with anti-PC monoclonal antibody by avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The highly sensitive and more easily obtainable non-PC urinary filarial antigen, UFA C2-A, is of great immunodiagnostic interest for lymphatic filariasis.
Panditi, Surekha; Shelke, Ashwini G; Thummalakunta, Laxmi Narasimha Praveen
Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by Filarial nematodes (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori) that commonly causes lymphatic obstruction resulting in edema and increase in the size of the affected organ. Filariasis is diagnosed by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stain. The immunochromatographic card test is diagnostic. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for detecting adult filarial worms/microfilaria in the lymphatic system, which are responsible for the classic "filarial dance sign" caused by twirling movements of the microfilariae. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:500-501, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bhandary, Y P; Krithika, K N; Kulkarni, Sandeep; Reddy, M V R; Harinath, B C
Lymphatic filariasis caused mainly by infection fromW. bancrofti andB. malayi remains a major cause of clinical morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries. Analysis ofB. malayi mf, infective larval and adult worm lysates for the activity of enzymes led to the demonstration of activities of three key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism viz., Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), Malic enzyme (ME) and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in all the three stages of the parasite. The specific activity of all the three dehydrogenases was significantly high in mf lysate compared to their activity in lysates of the other two stages (P<0.001). Analysis by native polyacrylamide gel to their activity inlysates of the other two stages (P<0.001). Analysis by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) using 7.5% non-gradient gel showed the presence of two isoforms of each of the three enzymes (MDH, ME & G6PDH) in mf lysate, while only one form of each enzyme was present in L(3) larval and adult worm lysates. Further proteolytic enzyme activity was demonstrated both in microfilarial and infective larval lysates ofB. malayi. While both mf and L(3) larval lysates showed optimal protease activity at alkaline pH of 9.0, the mf lysate showed increased activity also at pH 3.0. The infective larval lysate was markedly inhibited by Tosylamide-L-Phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), a thiol protease inhibitor, while the protease activity in mf lysate was significantly inhibited by both TPCK and a serine protease inhibitor Phenyl Methyl Sulphonyl Flouride (PMSF). In sodium do-decyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), using gelatin copolymerized gel, the microfilarial lysate showed 3 protease molecules of 40 kDa, 180 kDa and 200 kDa and the L(3) larval lysate had 6 protease molecules of 18, 25, 37, 49, 70 and 200 kDa size.
SCOTT, A. L.; GHEDIN, E.; NUTMAN, T. B.; McREYNOLDS, L. A.; POOLE, C. B.; SLATKO, B. E.; FOSTER, J. M.
SUMMARY Filarial nematode parasites, the causative agents for a spectrum of acute and chronic diseases including lymphatic filariasis and river blindness, threaten the well-being and livelihood of hundreds of millions of people in the developing regions of the world. The 2007 publication on a draft assembly of the 95-Mb genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi – representing the first helminth parasite genome to be sequenced – has been followed in rapid succession by projects that have resulted in the genome sequencing of six additional filarial species, seven nonfilarial nematode parasites of animals and nearly 30 plant parasitic and free-living species. Parallel to the genomic sequencing, transcriptomic and proteomic projects have facilitated genome annotation, expanded our understanding of stage-associated gene expression and provided a first look at the role of epigenetic regulation of filarial genomes through microRNAs. The expansion in filarial genomics will also provide a significant enrichment in our knowledge of the diversity and variability in the genomes of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia leading to a better understanding of the genetic principles that govern filarial–Wolbachia mutualism. The goal here is to provide an overview of the trends and advances in filarial and Wolbachia genomics. PMID:22098559
Rodrigo, Maria B; Schulz, Sandy; Krupp, Vanessa; Ritter, Manuel; Wiszniewsky, Katharina; Arndts, Kathrin; Tamadaho, Ruth S E; Endl, Elmar; Hoerauf, Achim; Layland, Laura E
BALB/c mice develop a patent state [release of microfilariae (Mf), the transmission life-stage, into the periphery] when exposed to the rodent filariae Litomosoides sigmodontis. Interestingly, only a portion of the infected mice become patent, which reflects the situation in human individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. Since those individuals had differing filarial-specific profiles, this study compared differences in immune responses between Mf(+) and Mf(-) infected BALB/c mice. We demonstrate that cultures of total spleen or mediastinal lymph node cells from Mf(+) mice produce significantly more interleukin-5 (IL-5) to filarial antigens but equal levels of IL-10 when compared with Mf(-) mice. However, isolated CD4(+) T cells from Mf(+) mice produced significantly higher amounts of all measured cytokines, including IL-10, when compared with CD4(+) T-cell responses from Mf(-) mice. Since adaptive immune responses are influenced by triggering the innate immune system we further studied the immune profiles and parasitology in infected Toll-like receptor-2-deficient (TLR2(-/-)) and TLR4(-/-) BALB/c mice. Ninety-three per cent of L. sigmodontis-exposed TLR4(-/-) BALB/c mice became patent (Mf(+)) although worm numbers remained comparable to those in Mf(+) wild-type controls. Lack of TLR2 had no influence on patency outcome or worm burden but infected Mf(+) mice had significantly lower numbers of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and dampened peripheral immune responses. Interestingly, in vitro culturing of CD4(+) T cells from infected wild-type mice with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived TLR2(-/-) dendritic cells resulted in an overall diminished cytokine profile to filarial antigens. Hence, triggering TLR4 or TLR2 during chronic filarial infection has a significant impact on patency and efficient CD4(+) T-cell responses, respectively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dyab, Ahmed Kamal; Galal, Lamia Ahmed; Mahmoud, Abeer El-Sayed; Mokhtar, Yasser
Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles genera. Screening by vector dissection is a tiresome technique. We aimed to screen filarial parasites in their vectors by single and multiplex PCR and evaluate the usefulness of multiplex PCR as a rapid xenomonitoring and simultaneous differentiation tool, in area where 3 filarial parasites are coexisting. Female mosquitoes were collected from 7 localities in Assiut Governorate, were microscopically identified and divided into pools according to their species and collection site. Detection of W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens using single PCR was reached followed by multiplex PCR. Usefulness of multiplex PCR was evaluated by testing mosquito pools to know which genera and species are used by filarial parasites as a vector. An overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) in mosquitoes was 0.6%; the highest was Culex spp. (0.47%). W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens could be simultaneously and differentially detected in infected vectors by using multiplex PCR. Out of 100 mosquito pools, 8 were positive for W. bancrofti (ERI of 0.33%) and 3 pools each were positive for D. immitis and D. repens (ERI 0.12%). The technique showed 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity. El-Nikhila, El-Matiaa villages, and Sahel Seleem district in Assiut Governorate, Egypt are still endemic foci for filarial parasites. Multiplex PCR offers a reliable procedure for molecular xenomonitoring of filariasis within their respective vectors in endemic areas. Therefore, it is recommended for evaluation of mosquito infection after lymphatic filariasis eradication programs. PMID:25748712
Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Oksanen, Antti; Chriél, Mariann; le Fèvre Harslund, Jakob; Woolsey, Ian David; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman
Setaria tundra is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode of cervids in Europe. It has recently been associated with an emerging epidemic disease causing severe morbidity and mortality in reindeer and moose in Finland. Here, we present the first report of S. tundra in six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) collected between October 2010 and March 2014 in Denmark. The deer originated from various localities across the country: the eastern part of the Jutland peninsular and four locations on the island Zealand. With the exception of one deer, with parasites residing in a transparent cyst just under the liver capsule, worms (ranging from 2 to >20/deer) were found free in the peritoneal cavity. The worms were identified as S. tundra by morphological examination and/or molecular typing of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cox1 genes, which showed 99.1-99.8% identity to previously published S. tundra isolates from Europe. Roe deer are generally considered as asymptomatic carriers and their numbers in Denmark have increased significantly in recent decades. In light of climatic changes which result in warmer, more humid weather in Scandinavia greater numbers of mosquitoes and, especially, improved conditions for development of parasite larvae in the mosquito vectors are expected, which may lead to increasing prevalence of S. tundra. Monitoring of this vector-borne parasite may thus be needed in order to enhance the knowledge of factors promoting its expansion and prevalence as well as predicting disease outbreaks.
Small, Scott T; Tisch, Daniel J; Zimmerman, Peter A
Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) is the most widely distributed of the three nematodes known to cause lymphatic filariasis (LF), the other two being Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Current tools available to monitor LF are limited to diagnostic tests targeting DNA repeats, filarial antigens, and anti-filarial antibodies. While these tools are useful for detection and surveillance, elimination programs have yet to take full advantage of molecular typing for inferring infection history, strain fingerprinting, and evolution. To date, molecular typing approaches have included whole mitochondrial genomes, genotyping, targeted sequencing, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). These studies have revealed much about Wb biology. For example, in one study in Papua New Guinea researchers identified 5 major strains that were widespread and many minor strains some of which exhibit geographic stratification. Genome data, while rare, has been utilized to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among taxa of the Onchocercidae (the clade of filarial nematodes) and identify gene synteny. Their phylogeny reveals that speciation from the common ancestor of both B. malayi and Wb occurred around 5-6 millions years ago with shared ancestry to other filarial nematodes as recent as 15 million years ago. These discoveries hold promise for gene discovery and identifying drug targets in species that are more amenable to in vivo experiments. Continued technological developments in whole genome sequencing and data analysis will likely replace many other forms of molecular typing, multiplying the amount of data available on population structure, genetic diversity, and phylogenetics. Once widely available, the addition of population genetic data from genomic studies should hasten the elimination of LF parasites like Wb. Infectious disease control programs have benefited greatly from population genetics data and recently from population genomics data. However, while there is currently a surplus
Pilotte, Nils; Zaky, Weam I.; Abrams, Brian P.; Chadee, Dave D.; Williams, Steven A.
Background Given the continued successes of the world’s lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programs and the growing successes of many malaria elimination efforts, the necessity of low cost tools and methodologies applicable to long-term disease surveillance is greater than ever before. As many countries reach the end of their LF mass drug administration programs and a growing number of countries realize unprecedented successes in their malaria intervention efforts, the need for practical molecular xenomonitoring (MX), capable of providing surveillance for disease recrudescence in settings of decreased parasite prevalence is increasingly clear. Current protocols, however, require testing of mosquitoes in pools of 25 or fewer, making high-throughput examination a challenge. The new method we present here screens the excreta/feces from hundreds of mosquitoes per pool and provides proof-of-concept for a practical alternative to traditional methodologies resulting in significant cost and labor savings. Methodology/Principal Findings Excreta/feces of laboratory reared Aedes aegypti or Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes provided with a Brugia malayi microfilaria-positive or Plasmodium vivax-positive blood meal respectively were tested for the presence of parasite DNA using real-time PCR. A titration of samples containing various volumes of B. malayi-negative mosquito feces mixed with positive excreta/feces was also tested to determine sensitivity of detection. Real-time PCR amplification of B. malayi and P. vivax DNA from the excreta/feces of infected mosquitoes was demonstrated, and B. malayi DNA in excreta/feces from one to two mf-positive blood meal-receiving mosquitoes was detected when pooled with volumes of feces from as many as 500 uninfected mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance While the operationalizing of excreta/feces testing may require the development of new strategies for sample collection, the high-throughput nature of this new methodology has the
Granberg, Ove; Bellika, Johan Gustav; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar
An infected person may be contagious already before the first symptoms appear. This person can, in the period of disease evolution, infect several associated citizens before consulting a general practitioner (GP). Early detection of contagion is therefore important to prevent spreading of diseases. The Automatic Infection Detection (AID) System faces this problem through investigating the hypothesis that the blood glucose (BG) level increases when a person is infected. The first objective of the prototyped version of the AID system was to identify possible BG elevations in the incubation time that could be related to the spread of infectious diseases. To do this, we monitored two groups of people, with and without diabetes mellitus. The AID system analyzed the results and we were able to detect two cases of infection during the study period. The time of detection occurred simultaneous or near the time of onset of symptoms. The detection did not occur earlier for a number of reasons. The most likely one is that the evolution process of an infectious disease is both complicated and involves the immune system and several organs in the body. The investigation with regard to isolating the key relations is therefore considered as a very complex study. Nevertheless, the AID system managed to detect the infection much earlier than what is possible with today's early warning systems for infectious diseases.
Keiser, Paul B.; Coulibaly, Yaya; Kubofcik, Joseph; Diallo, Abdallah A.; Klion, Amy D.; Traoré, Sekou F.; Nutman, Thomas B.
Wolbachiae are bacterial endosymbionts of insects and many filarial nematodes whose products trigger inflammation in filarial infections. The dependence of the parasites on their endosymbionts has also led to the use of antibiotics directed against the Wolbachiae, therapy that has been demonstrated to have a profound salutary effect on filarial infections. The identification of Wolbachiae in Mansonella species has been conclusively shown for Mansonella ozzardi (Mo), but not for Mansonella perstans (Mp) Using primers known to amplify the 16S ribosomal DNA of other filarial Wolbachiae, an identical 1393 bp band was found in all samples tested. Sequence analysis of these samples demonstrated a single consensus sequence for Mp Wolbachia 16S rDNA that was most similar to Wolbachia sequences from other filarial nematodes. When aligned with the only other Mansonella Wolbachia sequence (Mo) there were only 8 nucleotide differences in the 1369 bp overlapping sequence. Phylogenetic dendrograms, showing the relationship of the Mp Wolbachia to other Wolbachia 16S rDNA, tracked almost identically to the 5S rRNA of their parasite host. Wolbachia surface protein (WSP) was also demonstrated in protein extracted from Mp-containing whole blood. In advance of a treatment trial of Mp, a method for the quantitation of Mp Wolbachia was developed and used to demonstrate not only a relationship between microfilarial numbers and Wolbachia copy numbers, but also to demonstrate the effect of antibiotic on ridding Mp of Wolbachia. PMID:18538871
Rocha, Abraham; Lima, Guilherme; Medeiros, Zulma; Aguiar-Santos, Ana; Alves, Sandra; Montarroyos, Ulisses; Oliveira, Paula; Béliz, Fátima; Netto, Maria José; Furtado, André
The purpose of this study was to examine the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detected by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) Og4C3-ELISA in paired samples of serum and hydrocele fluid from 104 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area of Wuchereria bancrofti. Nocturnal blood specimens were filtered and examined for microfilariae (MF) and ultrasound was used in order to identify the presence of adult worms (the filaria dance sign - FDS) in the lymphatic vessels of the scrotal area. Four groups were selected according to their parasitological status: group I - 71 MF- and FDS-; group II - 21 MF+ and FDS+; group III - 10 MF- and FDS+ and group IV- 2 MF+ and FDS-. CFA was identified simultaneously (fluid and serum) in 11 (15.5%), 21 (100%), 3 (30%), and 1 (50%) in groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. In despite of high CFA+ level (antigen Og4C3) units/ml, the Geometrical Mean (GM) = 2696) in the sera of these 36/104 paired samples, when compared to the hydrocele fluid, (GM = 1079), showed a very good correlation between the CFA level in the serum and CFA level in the fluid (r = 0.731). CFA level in the serum of the 23 microfilaremics (groups II and IV) was extremely high (GM = 4189) and was correlated with MF density (r = 0.442). These findings report for the first time the potential alternative use of the hydrocele fluid to investigate CFA using the mAb Og4C3-ELISA.
Song, Jinzhao; Liu, Changchun; Bais, Swarna; Mauk, Michael G.; Bau, Haim H.; Greenberg, Robert M.
Parasitic helminths such as schistosomes, as well as filarial and soil-transmitted nematodes, are estimated to infect at least a billion people worldwide, with devastating impacts on human health and economic development. Diagnosis and monitoring of infection dynamics and efficacy of treatment depend almost entirely on methods that are inaccurate, labor-intensive, and unreliable. These shortcomings are amplified and take on added significance in mass drug administration programs, where measures of effectiveness depend on accurate monitoring of treatment success (or failure), changes in disease transmission rates, and emergence of possible drug resistance. Here, we adapt isothermal molecular assays such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to a simple, hand-held, custom-made field-ready microfluidic device that allows sensitive and specific detection of schistosome cell-free nucleic acids in serum and plasma (separated with a point-of-care plasma separator) from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Cell-free S. mansoni DNA was detected with our device without prior extraction from blood. Our chip exhibits high sensitivity (~2x10−17 g/μL), with a positive signal for S. mansoni DNA detectable as early as one week post infection, several weeks before parasite egg production commences. These results indicate that incorporation of isothermal amplification strategies with our chips could represent a strategy for rapid, simple, low-cost diagnosis of both pre-patent and chronic schistosome infections as well as potential monitoring of treatment efficacy. PMID:26720725
Small, Scott T.; Tisch, Daniel J.; Zimmerman, Peter A.
Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) is the most widely distributed of the three nematodes known to cause lymphatic filariasis (LF), the other two being Brugia malayi and B. timori. Current tools available to monitor LF are limited to diagnostic tests targeting DNA repeats, filarial antigens, and anti-filarial antibodies. While these tools are useful for detection and surveillance, elimination programs have yet to take full advantage of molecular typing for inferring infection history, strain fingerprinting, and evolution. To date, molecular typing approaches have included whole mitochondrial genomes, genotyping, targeted sequencing, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). These studies have revealed much about Wb biology. For example, in one study in Papua New Guinea researchers identified 5 major strains that were widespread and many minor strains some of which exhibit geographic stratification. Genome data, while rare, has been utilized to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among taxa of the Onchocercidae (the clade of filarial nematodes) and identify gene synteny. Their phylogeny reveals that speciation from the common ancestor of both B. malayi and Wb occurred around 5–6 millions years ago with shared ancestry to other filarial nematodes as recent as 15 million years ago. These discoveries hold promise for gene discovery and identifying drug targets in species that are more amenable to in vivo experiments. Continued technological developments in whole genome sequencing and data analysis will likely replace many other forms of molecular typing, multiplying the amount of data available on population structure, genetic diversity, and phylogenetics. Once widely available, the addition of population genetic data from genomic studies should hasten the elimination of LF parasites like Wb. PMID:25176600
Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Maclean, Mary J.; Coates, Ruby; McCoy, Ciaran J.; Reaves, Barbara J.
The macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are one of the few classes of drug used in the control of the human filarial infections, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and the only one used to prevent heartworm disease in dogs and cats. Despite their importance in preventing filarial diseases, the way in which the MLs work against these parasites is unclear. In vitro measurements of nematode motility have revealed a large discrepancy between the maximum plasma concentrations achieved after drug administration and the amounts required to paralyze worms. Recent evidence has shed new light on the likely functions of the ML target, glutamate-gated chloride channels, in filarial nematodes and supports the hypothesis that the rapid clearance of microfilariae that follows treatment involves the host immune system. PMID:27279086
Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Maclean, Mary J; Coates, Ruby; McCoy, Ciaran J; Reaves, Barbara J
The macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are one of the few classes of drug used in the control of the human filarial infections, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and the only one used to prevent heartworm disease in dogs and cats. Despite their importance in preventing filarial diseases, the way in which the MLs work against these parasites is unclear. In vitro measurements of nematode motility have revealed a large discrepancy between the maximum plasma concentrations achieved after drug administration and the amounts required to paralyze worms. Recent evidence has shed new light on the likely functions of the ML target, glutamate-gated chloride channels, in filarial nematodes and supports the hypothesis that the rapid clearance of microfilariae that follows treatment involves the host immune system.
Zhang, Xing; Norris, Douglas E; Rasgon, Jason L
The lone star tick Amblyomma americanum is host to a wide diversity of endosymbiotic bacteria. We identified a novel Wolbachia symbiont infecting A. americanum. Multilocus sequence typing phylogenetically placed the endosymbiont in the increasingly diverse F supergroup. We assayed a total of 1031 ticks (119 females, 78 males and 834 nymphs in 89 pools) from 16 Maryland populations for infection. Infection frequencies in the natural populations were approximately 5% in females and <2% (minimum infection rate) in nymphs; infection was not detected in males. Infected populations were only observed in southern Maryland, suggesting the possibility that Wolbachia is currently invading Maryland A. americanum populations. Because F supergroup Wolbachia have been detected previously in filarial nematodes, tick samples were assayed for nematodes by PCR. Filarial nematodes were detected in 70% and 9% of Wolbachia-positive and Wolbachia-negative tick samples, respectively. While nematodes were more common in Wolbachia-positive tick samples, the lack of a strict infection concordance (Wolbachia-positive, nematode-negative and Wolbachia-negative, nematode-positive ticks) suggests that Wolbachia prevalence in ticks is not due to nematode infection. Supporting this hypothesis, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the nematodes were likely a novel species within the genus Acanthocheilonema, which has been previously shown to be Wolbachia-free. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anuradha, R; George, P Jovvian; Chandrasekaran, V; Kumaran, P Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash
Lymphatic filarial disease is known to be associated with elevated Th1 responses and normal or diminished Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of Th17 cells and the recently described Th22 cells have not been examined in detail in either filarial infection itself or in filarial disease (e.g., lymphedema and elephantiasis). To explore the roles of Th17 and Th22 cells and their subsets, we examined the frequencies of these cells in individuals with filarial lymphedema (chronic pathology [CP]), in clinically asymptomatic infected (INF) individuals, and in uninfected (UN) individuals ex vivo and in response to parasite and nonparasite antigens. Those with disease (CP) had significantly expanded frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells, compared with either INF or UN individuals, at baseline (ex vivo) and in response to parasite antigens. This antigen-driven expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells was dependent on interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-23, and, to lesser extent, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), as blockade of any of these cytokines resulted in significantly diminished frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells. Our findings, therefore, suggest that filarial parasite-driven expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells is associated with the pathogenesis of filarial infections and disease. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Anuradha, R.; George, P. Jovvian; Chandrasekaran, V.; Kumaran, P. Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.
Lymphatic filarial disease is known to be associated with elevated Th1 responses and normal or diminished Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of Th17 cells and the recently described Th22 cells have not been examined in detail in either filarial infection itself or in filarial disease (e.g., lymphedema and elephantiasis). To explore the roles of Th17 and Th22 cells and their subsets, we examined the frequencies of these cells in individuals with filarial lymphedema (chronic pathology [CP]), in clinically asymptomatic infected (INF) individuals, and in uninfected (UN) individuals ex vivo and in response to parasite and nonparasite antigens. Those with disease (CP) had significantly expanded frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells, compared with either INF or UN individuals, at baseline (ex vivo) and in response to parasite antigens. This antigen-driven expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells was dependent on interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-23, and, to lesser extent, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), as blockade of any of these cytokines resulted in significantly diminished frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells. Our findings, therefore, suggest that filarial parasite-driven expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells is associated with the pathogenesis of filarial infections and disease. PMID:24807054
Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.
Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201
Babayan, Simon A; Read, Andrew F; Lawrence, Rachel A; Bain, Odile; Allen, Judith E
Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.
The "filarial dance" is not characteristic of filariasis: observations of "dancing megasperm" on high-resolution sonography in patients from nonendemic areas mimicking the filarial dance and a proposed mechanism for this phenomenon.
Adejolu, Margaret; Sidhu, Paul S
The objective of this series was to show that the sonographic appearance described as the "filarial dance" is not characteristic of filariasis but occurs in nonendemic areas as a manifestation of epididymal obstruction. An experienced observer documented cases after initial observation of the filarial dance in routine clinical practice using high-frequency linear array transducers. The filarial dance was described as excessive to-and-fro movement of echogenic particles within a prominent epididymis and graded 1 to 4 according to the extent and distribution of the abnormality. The country of birth, exposure to filarial infection or travel to a filarial-endemic area, previous scrotal surgery including vasectomy, any previous or current scrotal inflammatory disease, and any congenital testicular abnormalities were recorded. Over a 10-year period, sonographic appearances consistent with the filarial dance were observed in 18 patients (bilateral in 6). The mean patient age was 47.7 (range, 28-91) years. The abnormality was graded in the 24 affected testes as follows: grade 1, n = 3; grade 2, n = 8; grade 3, n = 8; and grade 4, n = 5. No patient had a history of filariasis or travel to an endemic area. Six of 18 patients (33.3%) had bilateral vasectomies; 5 (27.8%) had a history of epididymo-orchitis in the ipsilateral testis; 3 (16.7%) had previous scrotal surgery; and 4 (22.2%) had no relevant urologic history. We have described a sonographic appearance identical to the filarial dance in men with no history of filarial infection. Most had previous scrotal surgery or infection, suggesting that the filarial dance may not always be due to movement of filarial worms. The unifying condition in patients with filariasis and our patients is lymphatic obstruction, likely the underlying cause of the appearance in both groups.
Quintana, J F; Babayan, S A; Buck, A H
Parasitic nematodes have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to communicate with their hosts in order to survive and successfully establish an infection. The transfer of RNA within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has recently been described as a mechanism that could contribute to this communication in filarial nematodes. It has been shown that these EVs are loaded with several types of RNAs, including microRNAs, leading to the hypothesis that parasites could actively use these molecules to manipulate host gene expression and to the exciting prospect that these pathways could result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the literature on the diverse RNAi pathways that operate in nematodes and more specifically our current knowledge of extracellular RNA (exRNA) and EVs derived from filarial nematodes in vitro and within their hosts. We further detail some of the issues and questions related to the capacity of RNA-mediated communication to function in parasite-host interactions and the ability of exRNA to enable us to distinguish and detect different nematode parasites in their hosts. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Kassim, Mustafa; Mansor, Marzida; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Ngui, Romano; Sivanandam, Sinnadurai
To determine the prevalence of the filarial parasites,ie.,Brugia malayi, Brugia, Brugia pahangi(B. pahangi), Dirofilaria immitisandDirofilaria repens (D. repens) in domestic and stray cats. A total of 170 blood sample were collected from domestic and stray cats and examined for filarial worm parasites in two localities, Pulau Carey and Bukit Gasing, Selangor State, Malaysia. The overall prevalence of infection was 23.5% (40/170; 95% CI = 17.4-30.6). Of this, 35% (14/40; 95% CI = 22.1-50.5) and 50% (20/40; 95% CI = 35.2-64.8) were positive for single B. pahangi nd D. repens, respectively. The remaining of 15% (6/40; 95% CI = 7.1-29.1) were positive for mixed B. pahangi and D. repens. In addition, 75% of the infected cats were domestic, and 25% were strays. No Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. Eighty-four cats were captured at Pulau Carey, of which 35.7% (30/84) were infected. Among the cats determined to be infected, 93% (28/30; 95% CI = 78.7-98.2) were domestic, and only 6.7% (2/30; 95% CI = 19.0-21.3) were strays. Conversely, the number of infected cats was three times lower in Bukit Gasing than in Pulau Carey, and most of the cats were stray. B. pahangi and D. repens could be the major parasites underlying filariasis in the study area. Adequate prophylactic plans should be administrated in the cat population in study area. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sanpool, Oranuch; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Intapan, Pewpan M; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Maleewong, Wanchai
Lymphatic filariasis is principally caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi. The other two filarial nematode species, Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis, possibly cause human zoonotic diseases. We propose the development of a PCR assay linked with DNA pyrosequencing as a rapid tool to identify W. bancrofti, B. malayi, B. pahangi, and D. immitis in blood samples and mosquitoes. Primers targeting the fragment of the 5S ribosomal RNA and spliced leader sequences were newly designed and developed to identify these four filarial nematodes. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Pyrosequencing determination of nucleotide variations within 36 nucleotides for B. malayi and B. pahangi, and 32 nucleotides for W. bancrofti and D. immitis is sufficient for differentiation of those filarial nematodes, and for detection of intraspecies genetic variation of B. malayi. This analysis could detect a single B. malayi, B. pahangi, W. bancrofti, and D. immitis microfilaria in blood samples. Overall, the PCR-linked pyrosequencing-based method was faster than direct sequencing and less expensive than real-time PCR or direct sequencing. This is the possibility of choice that can be applied in a high-throughput platform for identification and surveillance of reservoirs and vectors infected with lymphatic filaria in endemic areas.
Touré, F S; Mavoungou, E; Kassambara, L; Williams, T; Wahl, G; Millet, P; Egwang, T G
A nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) assay, targeted on the repeat 3 region (15r3) of the gene coding for a Loa loa 15 kD polyprotein, was developed to detect L. loa infection. The assay has a sensitivity of 95% and is 100% specific with regard to sympatric filarial parasites: Mansonella perstans, Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti. In this field study in a mixed filarial (L. loa and M. perstans) endemic region of Gabon, 157 L. loa amicrofilaraemic blood samples (AMF; diagnosed by leucoconcentration followed by standard microscopic examination) from the residents from four villages were screened by the 15r3-nested PCR assay. The assay detected 106 occult infected subjects among the 157 AMF individuals (68%), including 59 of 87 adults (68%) and 47 of 70 children (67%). In each village the prevalence of occult infection was, respectively, 38%, 52%, 79% and 80% for Moyabi, Djoutou, N'djokaye and Okoumbi. The annual transmission potential (ATP) of loiasis has been estimated to be 250 infective larvae (L 3) per man per year for Moyabi and Djoutou, 1800 for N'djokaye and 433000 L3/man/year for Okoumbi. This implies a correlation between occult infection of loiasis and the intensity of transmission. By contrast, the prevalence of L. loa microfilariae was 21% for Okoumbi, 22%, for N'djokaye and 19% for Djoutou and Moyabi. These results show that the prevalence of loiasis in this region of Gabon is higher than previously described by standard microscopic examination and that the application of this assay will be significant in the development of control strategies for loiasis.
Sowilem, Mohamed M; Bahgat, Iman M; el-Kady, Gamal A; el-Sawaf, Bahira M
Filarial disease is endemic in Egypt in some villages of Nile Delta governorates where it is transmitted by Culex pipiens female. GIS functions are used to identify environmental indicators of high-risk village as indicated by mosquito density, human infection rate, vector species composition, mean life expectancy "e(o)" & environmental variables (geology, hydrology, soil types, etc) as well as meteorological factors (temperature, RH and rainfall) in relation to filaria transmission risk. Remote-sensing technology was used to distinguish between the two studied villages as high and non-infected, as defined by microfilarial prevalence. The results indicate that filaria transmission risk is higher at an area characterized by highly productive aquifers, silt clay soil, receiving little amount of rain with low relative humidity (RH). The results indicate that the most important landscape elements associated with prevalence are water and different vegetation. This work showed that the integration between GIS and remote sensing technologies to analyze and identify the environmental factors, associated with the disease, did not only allow mapping icurrent spatial patterns, but also predicting its distribution under expected future developmental and environmental changes.
Poole, C B; Grandea, A G; Maina, C V; Jenkins, R E; Selkirk, M E; McReynolds, L A
An unusual antigen composed of tandemly repeated protein units was cloned from the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis. The antigen was initially identified by screening a lambda gt11 cDNA library with serum from dogs immunized with irradiated D. immitis third-stage larvae. DNA sequence analysis of the cDNA clone, Di5, revealed a continuous open reading frame composed of two 399-base-pair repeats arranged in tandem. Southern blot analysis of genomic D. immitis DNA showed that the gene coding for Di5 is composed of a tandem array of 25-50 copies of this same 399-base-pair repeat. Antiserum raised against recombinant Di5 protein detected a protein "ladder," from about 14 to greater than 200 kDa with steps approximately 15 kDa apart, on immunoblots of D. immitis extract. Metabolic labeling of adult parasites with [35S]methionine showed that Di5 is synthesized as a large precursor that is subsequently cleaved to produce the ladder-like array. These results suggest that the characteristic ladder is created by proteolytic cleavage of the precursor at the same site in each monomer. The Di5 antigen was localized to the cuticle and hypodermis of adult D. immitis by immunoelectron microscopy. Both male and female parasites were found to release Di5 when cultured in vitro. DNA hybridization analysis demonstrated that Di5 is a member of a gene family present in many filarial parasites that infect both animal and human populations. Images PMID:1631084
Anuradha, R.; George, P. Jovvian; Pavan Kumar, N.; Fay, Michael P.; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash
Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+) or without (CP Ag−) active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF); and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]). Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF) and those without active infection (CP Ag− compared to EN) were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein), acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A), and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α) are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins. PMID:22685406
Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Jovvian P.; Pavankumar, Nathella; Kumaraswami, Vasanthapuram; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash
Background Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti can cause severe disease characterized by subcutaneous fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes governing extracellular remodeling by regulating cellular homeostasis, inflammation, and tissue reorganization, while tissue-inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous regulators of MMPs. Homeostatic as well as inflammation-induced balance between MMPs and TIMPs is considered critical in mediating tissue pathology. Methods To elucidate the role of MMPs and TIMPs in filarial pathology, we compared the plasma levels of a panel of MMPs, TIMPs, other pro-fibrotic factors, and cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+) or without (CP Ag−) active infection to those with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF) and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]). Markers of pathogenesis were delineated based on comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF) and those without active infection (CP Ag− compared to EN). Results and Conclusion Our data reveal that an increase in circulating levels of MMPs and TIMPs is characteristic of the filarial disease process per se and not of active infection; however, filarial disease with active infection is specifically associated with increased ratios of MMP1/TIMP4 and MMP8/TIMP4 as well as with pro-fibrotic cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and TGF-β). Our data therefore suggest that while filarial lymphatic disease is characterized by a non-specific increase in plasma MMPs and TIMPs, the balance between MMPs and TIMPs is an important factor in regulating tissue pathology during active infection. PMID:22679524
Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Esum, M; Che, J N; Mand, S; Tanga Mbi, C; Enyong, P; Hoerauf, A
Lymphoedema, a condition of localized fluid retention, results from a compromised lymphatic system. Although one common cause in the tropics is infection with filarial worms, non-filarial lymphoedema, also known as podoconiosis, has been reported among barefoot farmers in volcanic highland zones of Africa, Central and South America and north-western India. There are conflicting reports on the causes of lymphoedema in the highland regions of Cameroon, where the condition is of great public-health importance. To characterise the focus of lymphoedema in the highlands of the North West province of Cameroon and investigate its real causes, a cross-sectional study was carried out on the adults (aged > or =15 years) living in the communities that fall within the Ndop and Tubah health districts. The subjects, who had to have lived in the study area for at least 10 years, were interviewed, examined clinically, and, when possible, checked for microfilaraemia. The cases of lymphoedema confirmed by ultrasonography and a random sample of the other subjects were also tested for filarial antigenaemia. The interviews, which explored knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) relating to lymphoedema, revealed that the condition was well known, with each study community having a local name for it. Of the 834 individuals examined clinically, 66 (8.1%) had lymphoedema of the lower limb, with all the clinical stages of this condition represented. None of the 792 individuals examined parasitologically, however, had microfilariae of W. bancrofti (or any other filarial parasite) in their peripheral blood, and only one (0.25%) of the 399 individuals tested for the circulating antigens of W. bancrofti gave a positive result. In addition, none of the 504 mosquitoes caught landing on human bait in the study area and dissected was found to harbour any stage of W. bancrofti. These findings indicate that the elephantiasis seen in the North West province of Cameroon is of non-filarial origin.
Chatterjee, R J; Sen, A B
1. A high percentage of Indian jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler), found in and around Lucknow, harbour a natural filarial infection Chandlerella hawkingi. The microfilariae of this species are sheathed and show nocturnal periodicity.2. Fourteen compounds active against other kinds of filariae, especially against Litomosoides carinii, were tested against Ch. hawkingi in jungle crows to find whether this infection would be suitable for routine filarial chemotherapy. This is apparently the first report of systematic screening of antifilarial compounds against an avian filariasis.3. Tartar emetic (10 mg/kg intravenously, daily for 6 days) and arsenamide (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally, daily for 6 days) proved to be effective in killing adult worms. Trivalent tryparsamide, though effective, was toxic in the doses tried. Diethylcarbamazine and other compounds tested were ineffective.4. The chemotherapeutic susceptibilities of Ch. hawkingi differ considerably from those of L. carinii and Wuchereria bancrofti.
Chatterjee, R. K.; Sen, A. B.
1. A high percentage of Indian jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler), found in and around Lucknow, harbour a natural filarial infection Chandlerella hawkingi. The microfilariae of this species are sheathed and show nocturnal periodicity. 2. Fourteen compounds active against other kinds of filariae, especially against Litomosoides carinii, were tested against Ch. hawkingi in jungle crows to find whether this infection would be suitable for routine filarial chemotherapy. This is apparently the first report of systematic screening of antifilarial compounds against an avian filariasis. 3. Tartar emetic (10 mg/kg intravenously, daily for 6 days) and arsenamide (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally, daily for 6 days) proved to be effective in killing adult worms. Trivalent tryparsamide, though effective, was toxic in the doses tried. Diethylcarbamazine and other compounds tested were ineffective. 4. The chemotherapeutic susceptibilities of Ch. hawkingi differ considerably from those of L. carinii and Wuchereria bancrofti. PMID:5774047
Drame, Papa M.; Fink, Doran L.; Kamgno, Joseph; Herrick, Jesica A.
Rapid and accurate tests are currently needed to identify individuals with high levels of Loa loa microfilaria (mf), so that these individuals may be excluded from mass ivermectin administration campaigns against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis being conducted in areas where Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, and L. loa are coendemic. To address this need, colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays targeting the L. loa-specific gene sequences LLMF72 and LLMF342 were developed for the detection and quantification of L. loa microfilaremia. Both LAMP assays were highly specific (100%) for L. loa infection compared to the absence of infection or infection with related filarial pathogens. The LLMF72-based LAMP assay showed greater analytic sensitivity (limit of detection, 0.1 pg/ml of genomic DNA [gDNA] and/or 5 mf/ml) than the LLMF342-based LAMP assay (10 pg/ml of gDNA and/or 50 mf/ml), and its analytic sensitivity was similar to that of LLMF72-based quantitative PCR (qPCR). A high level of correlation was observed between microfilaria counts as determined by LLMF72-based qPCR and time to positivity by the LAMP assay, and performance measures of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were similar for both assays when applied to field-collected clinical samples. By simply varying the run time, the LAMP assay was able to accurately distinguish individuals at risk for serious adverse events (SAEs) after exposure to ivermectin, using thresholds of >5,000 mf/ml and >30,000 mf/ml as indicators of increasing levels of risk. In summary, LLMF72 LAMP represents a new molecular diagnostic tool that is readily applicable as a point-of-care method for L. loa microfilarial detection and quantification in resource-limited countries where L. loa infection is endemic. PMID:24696020
Schiefer, Andrea; Schmitz, Alexander; Schäberle, Till F.; Specht, Sabine; Lämmer, Christine; Johnston, Kelly L.; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; König, Gabriele M.; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth
Doxycycline and rifampicin deplete essential Wolbachia from filarial nematodes that cause lymphatic filariasis or onchocerciasis, resulting in blocked worm development and death. However, doxycycline is contraindicated for children and pregnant/breastfeeding women, as is rifampicin in the latter group with the additional specter of possible resistance development in Mycobacterium spp. Novel antibiotics with a narrower spectrum would aid in eliminating filarial diseases. Corallococcus coralloides synthesizes corallopyronin A, a noncompetitive inhibitor of RNA polymerase ineffective against Mycobacterium spp. Corallopyronin A depleted Wolbachia from infected insect cells (1.89 Thus the antibiotic is effective against intracellular bacteria despite the many intervening surfaces (blood vessels, pleura, worm cuticle) and membranes (worm cell, vesicle, Wolbachia inner and outer membranes). Corallopyronin A is an antibiotic to develop further for filariasis elimination without concern for cross-resistance development in tuberculosis. PMID:22586066
Lu, W; Egerton, G L; Bianco, A E; Williams, S A
Random screening of an Onchocerca volvulus third-stage (L3) cDNA library identified a highly abundant cDNA encoding a newly discovered antioxidant enzyme, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), a member of the peroxidoxin superfamily. This TPx cDNA (Ov-tpx-2) encodes a polypeptide of 199 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 21,890 Da. The Ov-tpx-2 cDNA represents roughly 2.5% of the total cDNAs from the L3 cDNA library. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein product was shown to have antioxidant activity. Antiserum raised against Ov-TPX-2 recognized a native protein from extracts of both the L3 and adult-stages with a molecular weight of 22 kD. The localization and stage-specificity of Ov-TPX-2 protein was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy using monospecific antibodies. Expression was detected in late first-stage larvae during development in the vector and increased in intensity during differentiation to the infective L3-stage. The antigen was also detected in post-infective larvae and adult worms. In larvae, Ov-TPX-2 protein was predominantly localized to the hypodermis and cuticle, with additional sites in the hypodermal chords and multivesicular bodies. In adult worms, the primary sites of expression were the uterine epithelium and intestine, with additional labeling of the body wall and cuticle. Developing embryos and microfilariae in utero were bathed in Ov-TPX-2 protein discharged from epithelial cells. These results suggest that Ov-TPX-2 may protect the parasites from being damaged by host-generated oxidative stress and that Ov-TPX-2 protein provides the H2O2-detoxifying activity predicted but not previously identified in filarial parasites. Its highly upregulated expression in infective larvae may aid in parasite establishment following transmission to the definitive host.
“Early” detection of CLas infection is essential to minimize the risk of Huanglongbing (HLB) epidemics in areas where the pathogen has been recently introduced. Any delay in confirmation of CLas infection results in delays of regulatory and management actions, and increased spread of the pathogen ev...
Sereda, Michal J; Hartmann, Susanne; Büttner, Dietrich W; Volkmer, Rudolf; Hovestädt, Marc; Brattig, Norbert; Lucius, Richard
Tropomyosins of invertebrates are pan-allergens responsible for wide spread allergic reactions against seafood and arthropods. As invertebrate tropomyosins are highly conserved, helminth tropomyosins are likely to show properties similar to these medically important allergens. Studies with a monoclonal antibody, NR1, raised against tropomyosin of the rodent filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae revealed a B cell epitope common to helminths and marine mollusks, which does not occur in vertebrate tropomyosin. This antibody detected tropomyosin of A. viteae, other filariids, nematodes, trematodes and a cestode, and recognized as well tropomyosin of oyster, squid and octopus, but not of arthropods and vertebrates. Immunohistological analyses of A. viteae, Onchocerca volvulus and other nematodes using NR1 showed that tropomyosin is located in the fibrillar part of the body wall muscles and the uterus, and is also conspicuous in muscles of the pharynx, the vagina and other organs of the nematodes. The abundance of a pan-allergen like tropomyosin in parasitic worms and the counterintuitive, but well documented protection against allergic reactivity by some chronic helminth infections is discussed.
Lima, Nathália F.; Veggiani Aybar, Cecilia A.; Dantur Juri, María J.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.
Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is an understudied filarial nematode, originally described by Patrick Manson in 1897, that can be transmitted by two families of dipteran vectors, biting midges (most of them members of the genus Culicoides) and black flies (genus Simulium). With a patchy geographic distribution from southern Mexico to northwestern Argentina, human infection with M. ozzardi is highly prevalent in some of the Caribbean islands, along riverine communities in the Amazon Basin, and on both sides of the border between Bolivia and Argentina. There is no clinical entity unequivocally associated with M. ozzardi infection, although fever, arthralgia, headache, cold lower extremities, and itchy cutaneous rashes are occasionally mentioned in case report series. More recently, ocular manifestations (especially keratitis) have been associated with mansonelliasis, opening an important area of investigation. Here, we briefly review the biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical aspects of M. ozzardi infection and point to some existing knowledge gaps, aiming to stimulate a research agenda to help filling them. PMID:27376501
SUMMARY Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite that is found in nature in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Naturally acquired human infections were thought to be extremely rare until a large focus of human infections was reported in 2004 in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Human infections have since been described throughout Southeast Asia, and P. knowlesi is now recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in humans. The molecular, entomological, and epidemiological data indicate that human infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent and that knowlesi malaria is primarily a zoonosis. Human infections were undiagnosed until molecular detection methods that could distinguish P. knowlesi from the morphologically similar human malaria parasite P. malariae became available. P. knowlesi infections cause a spectrum of disease and are potentially fatal, but if detected early enough, infections in humans are readily treatable. In this review on knowlesi malaria, we describe the early studies on P. knowlesi and focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects, and treatment of knowlesi malaria. We also discuss the gaps in our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead in studying the epidemiology and pathogenesis of knowlesi malaria and in the prevention and control of this zoonotic infection. PMID:23554413
Singh, Balbir; Daneshvar, Cyrus
Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite that is found in nature in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Naturally acquired human infections were thought to be extremely rare until a large focus of human infections was reported in 2004 in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Human infections have since been described throughout Southeast Asia, and P. knowlesi is now recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in humans. The molecular, entomological, and epidemiological data indicate that human infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent and that knowlesi malaria is primarily a zoonosis. Human infections were undiagnosed until molecular detection methods that could distinguish P. knowlesi from the morphologically similar human malaria parasite P. malariae became available. P. knowlesi infections cause a spectrum of disease and are potentially fatal, but if detected early enough, infections in humans are readily treatable. In this review on knowlesi malaria, we describe the early studies on P. knowlesi and focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects, and treatment of knowlesi malaria. We also discuss the gaps in our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead in studying the epidemiology and pathogenesis of knowlesi malaria and in the prevention and control of this zoonotic infection.
Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Supali, Taniawati; Rao, Ramakrishna U; Djuardi, Yenny; Stefani, Difa; Pical, Femmy; Fischer, Peter U; Lloyd, Melanie M; Premaratne, Prasad H; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Weil, Gary J
Filarial antigen tests are key tools for mapping the distribution of bancroftian filariasis and for detecting areas with persistent infections following mass drug administration (MDA). A recent study showed that the new Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) has better analytical sensitivity than the BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (Card Test) for detecting circulating filarial antigen, and the FTS detected more positive results than the Card Test in a field study performed in a highly endemic area in Liberia. The present study compared the performance of the FTS and the Card Test in community surveys that were conducted in southern Sri Lanka and in Indonesia (Central Java) in areas with low-level persistence of LF following multiple rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole. The studies were performed in densely populated semi-urban areas where Wuchereria bancrofti is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus. Antigenemia rates by FTS were 138% higher in the Sri Lanka study (43/852 vs. 18/852) and 21% higher in the Indonesia study (50/778 vs. 41/778) than antigenemia rates by Card Test. Antigenemia rates were significantly higher in males than in females and higher in adults than in children in both study sites. Although overall antigenemia rates and test scores were significantly higher by FTS than by Card Test in both study areas, rates in young children were similar with both tests in both areas. These results extend the previously reported superior sensitivity of the FTS to areas with low residual infection rates following MDA, and this could affect mapping and post-MDA survey results in adults. However, our findings suggest that results of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) performed in school-aged children are likely to be similar with both tests.
The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections. PMID:27681919
Comandatore, Francesco; Cordaux, Richard; Bandi, Claudio; Blaxter, Mark; Darby, Alistair; Makepeace, Benjamin L.; Montagna, Matteo; Sassera, Davide
Wolbachia pipientis is possibly the most widespread endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes. While all Wolbachia strains have historically been defined as a single species, 16 monophyletic clusters of diversity (called supergroups) have been described. Different supergroups have distinct host ranges and symbiotic relationships, ranging from mutualism to reproductive manipulation. In filarial nematodes, which include parasites responsible for major diseases of humans (such as Onchocerca volvulus, agent of river blindness) and companion animals (Dirofilaria immitis, the dog heartworm), Wolbachia has an obligate mutualist role and is the target of new treatment regimens. Here, we compare the genomes of eight Wolbachia strains, spanning the diversity of the major supergroups (A–F), analysing synteny, transposable element content, GC skew and gene loss or gain. We detected genomic features that differ between Wolbachia supergroups, most notably in the C and D clades from filarial nematodes. In particular, strains from supergroup C (symbionts of O. volvulus and D. immitis) present a pattern of GC skew, conserved synteny and lack of transposable elements, unique in the Wolbachia genus. These features could be the consequence of a distinct symbiotic relationship between C Wolbachia strains and their hosts, highlighting underappreciated differences between the mutualistic supergroups found within filarial nematodes. PMID:26631376
Comandatore, Francesco; Cordaux, Richard; Bandi, Claudio; Blaxter, Mark; Darby, Alistair; Makepeace, Benjamin L; Montagna, Matteo; Sassera, Davide
Wolbachia pipientis is possibly the most widespread endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes. While all Wolbachia strains have historically been defined as a single species, 16 monophyletic clusters of diversity (called supergroups) have been described. Different supergroups have distinct host ranges and symbiotic relationships, ranging from mutualism to reproductive manipulation. In filarial nematodes, which include parasites responsible for major diseases of humans (such as Onchocerca volvulus, agent of river blindness) and companion animals (Dirofilaria immitis, the dog heartworm), Wolbachia has an obligate mutualist role and is the target of new treatment regimens. Here, we compare the genomes of eight Wolbachia strains, spanning the diversity of the major supergroups (A-F), analysing synteny, transposable element content, GC skew and gene loss or gain. We detected genomic features that differ between Wolbachia supergroups, most notably in the C and D clades from filarial nematodes. In particular, strains from supergroup C (symbionts of O. volvulus and D. immitis) present a pattern of GC skew, conserved synteny and lack of transposable elements, unique in the Wolbachia genus. These features could be the consequence of a distinct symbiotic relationship between C Wolbachia strains and their hosts, highlighting underappreciated differences between the mutualistic supergroups found within filarial nematodes. © 2015 The Authors.
Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja
Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi.
D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Bakalar, Matthew; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Reber, Clay; Skandarajah, Arunan; Nilsson, Lina; Switz, Neil; Kamgno, Joseph; Pion, Sébastien; Boussinesq, Michel; Nutman, Thomas B; Fletcher, Daniel A
Parasitic helminths cause debilitating diseases that affect millions of people in primarily low-resource settings. Efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa through mass drug administration have been suspended because of ivermectin-associated serious adverse events, including death, in patients infected with the filarial parasite Loa loa. To safely administer ivermectin for onchocerciasis or lymphatic filariasis in regions co-endemic with L. loa, a strategy termed "test and (not) treat" has been proposed whereby those with high levels of L. loa microfilariae (>30,000/ml) that put them at risk for life-threatening serious adverse events are identified and excluded from mass drug administration. To enable this, we developed a mobile phone-based video microscope that automatically quantifies L. loa microfilariae in whole blood loaded directly into a small glass capillary from a fingerprick without the need for conventional sample preparation or staining. This point-of-care device automatically captures and analyzes videos of microfilarial motion in whole blood using motorized sample scanning and onboard motion detection, minimizing input from health care workers and providing a quantification of microfilariae per milliliter of whole blood in under 2 min. To validate performance and usability of the mobile phone microscope, we tested 33 potentially Loa-infected patients in Cameroon and confirmed that automated counts correlated with manual thick smear counts (94% specificity; 100% sensitivity). Use of this technology to exclude patients from ivermectin-based treatment at the point of care in Loa-endemic regions would allow resumption/expansion of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Bal, Madhusmita; Sahu, Prakash K.; Mandal, Nityananda; Satapathy, Ashok K.; Ranjit, Manoranjan; Kar, Shatanu K.
Background Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) launched by WHO aims to eliminate the disease by 2020. To achieve the goal annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) plus albendazole (ABZ) has been introduced in all endemic countries. The current policy however excludes pregnant mothers and children below two years of age from MDA. Since pregnancy and early childhood are critical periods in determining the disease outcome in older age, the present study was undertaken to find out the influence of maternal filarial infection at the time of pregnancy on the susceptibility outcome of children born in a community after implementation of MDA for the first time. Methodology and Principal Findings The participants in this cohort consists of pregnant mothers and their subsequently born children living in eight adjacent villages endemic for filarial infections, in Khurda District, Odisha, India, where MDA has reduced microfilariae (Mf) rate from 12% to 0.34%. Infection status of mother and their children were assessed by detection of Mf as well as circulating filarial antigen (CFA) assay. The present study reveals a high rate of acquiring filarial infection by the children born to infected mother than uninfected mothers even though Mf rate has come down to < 1% after implementation of ten rounds of MDA. Significance To attain the target of eliminating lymphatic filariasis the current MDA programme should give emphasis on covering the women of child bearing age. Our study recommends incorporating supervised MDA to Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Programme (ARSH) to make the adolescent girls free from infection by the time of pregnancy so as to achieve the goal. PMID:26225417
Background Dirofilaria spp., Acanthocheilonema spp. and Brugia spp. have all been reported in Indian dogs. In previous studies, diagnosis was made by morphological identification only. This is the first geographically stratified cross-sectional study in India to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of canine filarial species of veterinary and public health importance, using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques. Results A total of 139 from 525 dogs (26.5%; 95% CI 22.7, 30.3) were positive for microfilariae. The most common species of canine filaria identified in this study was A. reconditum (9.3%) followed by D. repens (6.7%) and D. immitis (1.5%). Three out of 525 dogs were found to have mixed infections on PCR. The morphological and molecular evidence on the sequence of the 18S gene and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS-2 region provided strong evidence that the canine microfilariae discovered in the Himalayan city of Ladakh belong to a novel species of Acanthocheilonema. Two dogs in Ladakh were also found to have mixed infections of the novel species described above and a unique microfilaria which morphologically resembled Microfilaria auquieri Foley, 1921. Conclusions At least six species of filarial nematode are now known to infect dogs in India, two of which were reported for the first time in this study. The study also confirms and extends the geographical distribution of canine heartworm (D. immitis) which overlaps with D. repens, emphasising the importance for veterinary clinicians and diagnostic laboratories to utilise immunodiagnostic tests that will not cross-react between those two filarial species. From a public health viewpoint, the distribution and prevalences of these nematodes warrant an appropriate prophylaxis to be administered to dogs. PMID:20377864
Background Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia spp. is a public health problem in developing countries. To monitor bancroftian filariasis infections, Circulating Filarial Antigen (CFA) test is commonly used, but for brugian infections only microfilariae (Mf) microscopy and indirect IgG4 antibody analyses are available. Improved diagnostics for detecting latent infections are required. Methods An optimized real-time PCR targeting the brugian HhaI repeat was validated with plasma from microfilariae negative Mongolian gerbils (jirds) infected with B. malayi. Plasma samples from microfilaremic patients infected with B. malayi or W. bancrofti were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. PCR results of plasma samples from a transmigrant population in a B. malayi endemic area were compared to those of life-long residents in the same endemic area; and to IgG4 serology results from the same population. To discriminate between active infections and larval exposure a threshold was determined by correlation and Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analyses. Results The PCR detected HhaI in pre-patent (56 dpi) B. malayi infected jirds and B. malayi Mf-positive patients from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. HhaI was also detected in 9/9 elephantiasis patients. In South Sulawesi 87.4% of the transmigrants and life-long residents (94% Mf-negative) were HhaI PCR positive. Based on ROC-curve analysis a threshold for active infections was set to >53 HhaI copies/μl (AUC: 0.854). Conclusions The results demonstrate that the HhaI PCR detects brugian infections with greater sensitivity than the IgG4 test, most notably in Mf-negative patients (i.e. pre-patent or latent infections). PMID:24685183
Sani, B P; Vaid, A; Comley, J C; Montgomery, J A
The present study deals with the discovery and partial characterization of specific binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid from filarial parasites (worms of the superfamily Filarioidea), including those from two species of Onchocerca. These binding proteins, which are distinct in their physicochemical properties and in the mode of ligand interactions from the host-tissue retinoid-binding proteins, may be involved in the mediation of the putative biological roles of retinoids in the control of parasitic growth, differentiation and reproduction. Parasite retinol-binding protein and retinoic acid-binding protein exhibited specificity for binding retinol and retinoic acid respectively. Both the binding proteins showed an s20,w value of 2.0 S. On gel filtration, both proteins were retarded to a position corresponding to the same molecular size (19.0 kDa). On preparative columns, the parasite binding proteins exhibited isoelectric points at pH 5.7 and 5.75. Unlike the retinoid-binding proteins of mammalian and avian origin, the parasite retinoid-binding proteins showed a lack of mercurial sensitivity in ligand binding. The comparative amounts of retinoic acid-binding protein in five parasites, Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca gibsoni, Dipetalonema viteae, Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis, were between 2.7 and 3.1 pmol of retinoic acid bound/mg of extractable protein. However, the levels of parasite retinol-binding protein were between 4.8 and 5.8 pmol/mg, which is considerably higher than the corresponding levels of cellular retinol-binding protein of mammalian and avian origin. Both retinol- and retinoic acid-binding-protein levels in O. volvulus-infected human nodules and O. gibsoni-infected bovine nodules were similar to their levels in mammalian tissues. Also, these nodular binding proteins, like the host-binding proteins, exhibited mercurial sensitivity to ligand interactions. PMID:3004410
Background Wolbachia is a genus of endosymbiotic α-Proteobacteria infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia is able to induce reproductive abnormalities such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), thelytokous parthenogenesis, feminization and male killing, thus affecting biology, ecology and evolution of its hosts. The bacterial group has prompted research regarding its potential for the control of agricultural and medical disease vectors, including Glossina spp., which transmits African trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. Results In the present study, we employed a Wolbachia specific 16S rRNA PCR assay to investigate the presence of Wolbachia in six different laboratory stocks as well as in natural populations of nine different Glossina species originating from 10 African countries. Wolbachia was prevalent in Glossina morsitans morsitans, G. morsitans centralis and G. austeni populations. It was also detected in G. brevipalpis, and, for the first time, in G. pallidipes and G. palpalis gambiensis. On the other hand, Wolbachia was not found in G. p. palpalis, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Wolbachia infections of different laboratory and natural populations of Glossina species were characterized using 16S rRNA, the wsp (Wolbachia Surface Protein) gene and MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing) gene markers. This analysis led to the detection of horizontal gene transfer events, in which Wobachia genes were inserted into the tsetse flies fly nuclear genome. Conclusions Wolbachia infections were detected in both laboratory and natural populations of several different Glossina species. The characterization of these Wolbachia strains promises to lead to a deeper insight in tsetse flies-Wolbachia interactions, which is essential for the development and use of Wolbachia-based biological control methods. PMID:22376025
Bancroft, A.J.; Devaney, E. ); Grencis, R.K.; Else, K.J. )
BALB/c mice immunized with radiation-attenuated third stage larvae of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi are strongly immune to challenge infection. Investigation of the profile of cytokines secreted by spleen cells from immune mice stimulated in vitro with either parasite Ag or with Con A revealed high levels of IL-5 and IL-9 and moderate levels of IL-4. In contrast, secretion of IFN-[gamma] by spleen cells from immune animals was negligible. Spleen cells from control mice secreted low levels of all cytokines assayed. Levels of parasite-specific IgE were significantly elevated in immune animals and a peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed, which exhibited a biphasic distribution. Our results are consistent with the preferential expansion of Th2 cells in immune animals and provide the basis for dissecting the means by which radiation-attenuated larvae of filarial nematodes stimulate immunity. 5l refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P
Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P < 0.05) than alum except for BmVAH antigen. In vitro ADCC assay showed that inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P < 0.01 and as cocktail P < 0.05, respectively) than alum. The results had confirmed the capability of inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice.
Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)
Kalani, Komal; Kushwaha, Vikas; Sharma, Pooja; Verma, Richa; Srivastava, Mukesh; Khan, Feroz; Murthy, P. K.; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar
As part of our drug discovery program for anti-filarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of an anti-filarial agent, ursolic acid (UA) as a major constituent. Antifilarial activity of UA against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using in vitro and in vivo assays, and in silico docking search on glutathione-s-transferase (GST) parasitic enzyme were carried out. The UA was lethal to microfilariae (mf; LC100: 50; IC50: 8.84 µM) and female adult worms (LC100: 100; IC50: 35.36 µM) as observed by motility assay; it exerted 86% inhibition in MTT reduction potential of the adult parasites. The selectivity index (SI) of UA for the parasites was found safe. This was supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock) scores for UA (−8.6) with respect to the standard antifilarial drugs, ivermectin (IVM −8.4) and diethylcarbamazine (DEC-C −4.6) on glutathione-s-transferase enzyme. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that UA possesses drug-like properties. Furthermore, UA was evaluated in vivo in B. malayi-M. coucha model (natural infection), which showed 54% macrofilaricidal activity, 56% female worm sterility and almost unchanged microfilaraemia maintained throughout observation period with no adverse effect on the host. Thus, in conclusion in vitro, in silico and in vivo results indicate that UA is a promising, inexpensive, widely available natural lead, which can be designed and developed into a macrofilaricidal drug. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-filarial potential of UA from E. tereticornis, which is in full agreement with the Thomson Reuter's ‘Metadrug’ tool screening predictions. PMID:25375886
Shenoy, R K; Suma, T K; Kumaraswami, V; Rahmah, N; Dhananjayan, G; Padma, S
Lymphatic filariasis is increasingly viewed as the result of an infection that is often acquired in childhood. The lymphatic pathology that occurs in the disease is generally believed to be irreversible. In a recent study in India, Doppler ultrasonography and lymphoscintigraphy were used to explore subclinical pathology in 100 children from an area endemic for Brugia malayi infection. All the children investigated showed some evidence of current or previous filarial infection. Some were microfilaraemic but asymptomatic, some were amicrofilaraemic but had filarial disease or a past history of microfilaraemia and/or filarial disease, and the rest, though amicrofilaraemic, asymptomatic and without any history of microfilaraemia or filarial disease, were seropositive for antifilarial IgG(4) antibodies. All the children were treated every 6 months, with a single combined dose of diethylcarbamazine (6 mg/kg) and albendazole (400 mg), and followed up for 24 months. By the end of this period all but one of the children were amicrofilaraemic and the 'filarial dance sign' could not be detected in any of the 14 children who had initially been found positive for this sign. Although lymphoscintigraphy revealed lymph-node and lymph-vessel damage in 82% of the children at enrolment, in about 67% of the children this pathology was markedly reduced by the 24-month follow-up. These results indicate that the drug regimens used in the mass drug administrations run by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis are capable of reversing subclinical lymphatic damage and can provide benefits other than interruption of transmission in endemic areas. The implications of these findings are presented and discussed.
Lefoulon, Emilie; Bain, Odile; Makepeace, Benjamin L; d'Haese, Cyrille; Uni, Shigehiko; Martin, Coralie; Gavotte, Laurent
Wolbachia is an alpha-proteobacterial symbiont widely distributed in arthropods. Since the identification of Wolbachia in certain animal-parasitic nematodes (the Onchocercidae or filariae), the relationship between arthropod and nematode Wolbachia has attracted great interest. The obligate symbiosis in filariae, which renders infected species susceptible to antibiotic chemotherapy, was held to be distinct from the Wolbachia-arthropod relationship, typified by reproductive parasitism. While co-evolutionary signatures in Wolbachia-arthropod symbioses are generally weak, reflecting horizontal transmission events, strict co-evolution between filariae and Wolbachia has been reported previously. However, the absence of close outgroups for phylogenetic studies prevented the determination of which host group originally acquired Wolbachia. Here, we present the largest co-phylogenetic analysis of Wolbachia in filariae performed to date including: (i) a screening and an updated phylogeny of Wolbachia; (ii) a co-phylogenetic analysis; and (iii) a hypothesis on the acquisition of Wolbachia infection. First, our results show a general overestimation of Wolbachia occurrence and support the hypothesis of an ancestral absence of infection in the nematode phylum. The accuracy of supergroup J is also underlined. Second, although a global pattern of coevolution remains, the signal is derived predominantly from filarial clades associated with Wolbachia in supergroups C and J. In other filarial clades, harbouring Wolbachia supergroups D and F, horizontal acquisitions and secondary losses are common. Finally, our results suggest that supergroup C is the basal Wolbachia clade within the Ecdysozoa. This hypothesis on the origin of Wolbachia would change drastically our understanding of Wolbachia evolution.
Lefoulon, Emilie; Makepeace, Benjamin L.; d’Haese, Cyrille; Uni, Shigehiko; Gavotte, Laurent
Wolbachia is an alpha-proteobacterial symbiont widely distributed in arthropods. Since the identification of Wolbachia in certain animal-parasitic nematodes (the Onchocercidae or filariae), the relationship between arthropod and nematode Wolbachia has attracted great interest. The obligate symbiosis in filariae, which renders infected species susceptible to antibiotic chemotherapy, was held to be distinct from the Wolbachia-arthropod relationship, typified by reproductive parasitism. While co-evolutionary signatures in Wolbachia-arthropod symbioses are generally weak, reflecting horizontal transmission events, strict co-evolution between filariae and Wolbachia has been reported previously. However, the absence of close outgroups for phylogenetic studies prevented the determination of which host group originally acquired Wolbachia. Here, we present the largest co-phylogenetic analysis of Wolbachia in filariae performed to date including: (i) a screening and an updated phylogeny of Wolbachia; (ii) a co-phylogenetic analysis; and (iii) a hypothesis on the acquisition of Wolbachia infection. First, our results show a general overestimation of Wolbachia occurrence and support the hypothesis of an ancestral absence of infection in the nematode phylum. The accuracy of supergroup J is also underlined. Second, although a global pattern of coevolution remains, the signal is derived predominantly from filarial clades associated with Wolbachia in supergroups C and J. In other filarial clades, harbouring Wolbachia supergroups D and F, horizontal acquisitions and secondary losses are common. Finally, our results suggest that supergroup C is the basal Wolbachia clade within the Ecdysozoa. This hypothesis on the origin of Wolbachia would change drastically our understanding of Wolbachia evolution. PMID:27069790
Although known for many years, non-filarial elephantiasis remains a public health problem in tropical Africa, including the farming community of Ethiopia. The problem may be exacerbated in women who shoulder most of the burden of agricultural labour in the countryside. The intention of this brief review is to emphasise the burden of the disease and to alert researchers and organisations concerned with health care and prevention.
Tamarozzi, F; Wright, H L; Johnston, K L; Edwards, S W; Turner, J D; Taylor, M J
The host inflammatory response to the Onchocerca volvulus endosymbiont, Wolbachia, is a major contributing factor in the development of chronic pathology in humans (onchocerciasis/river blindness). Recently, the toll-like pattern recognition receptor motif of the major inflammatory ligands of filarial Wolbachia, membrane-associated diacylated lipoproteins, was functionally defined in murine models of pathology, including mediation of neutrophil recruitment to the cornea. However, the extent to which human neutrophils can be activated in response to this Wolbachia pattern recognition motif is not known. Therefore, the responses of purified peripheral blood human neutrophils to a synthetic N-terminal diacylated lipopeptide (WoLP) of filarial Wolbachia peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) were characterized. WoLP exposure led to a dose-dependent activation of healthy, human neutrophils that included gross morphological alterations and modulation of surface expressed integrins involved in tethering, rolling and extravasation. WoLP exposure induced chemotaxis but not chemokinesis of neutrophils, and secretion of the major neutrophil chemokine, interleukin 8. WoLP also induced and primed the respiratory burst, and enhanced neutrophil survival by delay of apoptosis. These results indicate that the major inflammatory motif of filarial Wolbachia lipoproteins directly activates human neutrophils in vitro and promotes a molecular pathway by which human neutrophils are recruited to sites of Onchocerca parasitism. PMID:24909063
Taylor, Mark J.; Foster, Jeremy M.
Human disease caused by parasitic filarial nematodes is a major cause of global morbidity. The parasites are transmitted by arthropod intermediate hosts and are responsible for lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) or onchocerciasis (river blindness). Within these filarial parasites are intracellular alpha-proteobacteria, Wolbachia, that were first observed almost 30 years ago. The obligate endosymbiont has been recognized as a target for anti-filarial nematode chemotherapy as evidenced by the loss of worm fertility and viability upon antibiotic treatment in an extensive series of human trials. While current treatments with doxycycline and rifampicin are not practical for widespread use due to the length of required treatments and contraindications, anti-Wolbachia targeting nevertheless appears a promising alternative for filariasis control in situations where current programmatic strategies fail or are unable to be delivered and it provides a superior efficacy for individual therapy. The mechanisms that underlie the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and its nematode hosts remain elusive. Comparative genomics, bioinfomatic and experimental analyses have identified a number of potential interactions, which may be drug targets. One candidate is de novo heme biosynthesis, due to its absence in the genome sequence of the host nematode, Brugia malayi, but presence in Wolbachia and its potential roles in worm biology. We describe this and several additional candidate targets, as well as our approaches for understanding the nature of the host-symbiont relationship. PMID:20730111
Tamarozzi, F; Wright, H L; Johnston, K L; Edwards, S W; Turner, J D; Taylor, M J
The host inflammatory response to the Onchocerca volvulus endosymbiont, Wolbachia, is a major contributing factor in the development of chronic pathology in humans (onchocerciasis/river blindness). Recently, the toll-like pattern recognition receptor motif of the major inflammatory ligands of filarial Wolbachia, membrane-associated diacylated lipoproteins, was functionally defined in murine models of pathology, including mediation of neutrophil recruitment to the cornea. However, the extent to which human neutrophils can be activated in response to this Wolbachia pattern recognition motif is not known. Therefore, the responses of purified peripheral blood human neutrophils to a synthetic N-terminal diacylated lipopeptide (WoLP) of filarial Wolbachia peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) were characterized. WoLP exposure led to a dose-dependent activation of healthy, human neutrophils that included gross morphological alterations and modulation of surface expressed integrins involved in tethering, rolling and extravasation. WoLP exposure induced chemotaxis but not chemokinesis of neutrophils, and secretion of the major neutrophil chemokine, interleukin 8. WoLP also induced and primed the respiratory burst, and enhanced neutrophil survival by delay of apoptosis. These results indicate that the major inflammatory motif of filarial Wolbachia lipoproteins directly activates human neutrophils in vitro and promotes a molecular pathway by which human neutrophils are recruited to sites of Onchocerca parasitism. © 2014 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Trick, William E; Zagorski, Brandon M; Tokars, Jerome I; Vernon, Michael O; Welbel, Sharon F; Wisniewski, Mary F; Richards, Chesley; Weinstein, Robert A
We compared manual and computer-assisted bloodstream infection surveillance for adult inpatients at two hospitals. We identified hospital-acquired, primary, central-venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections by using five methods: retrospective, manual record review by investigators; prospective, manual review by infection control professionals; positive blood culture plus manual CVC determination; computer algorithms; and computer algorithms and manual CVC determination. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, plus the kappa statistic (kappa) between investigator review and other methods, and we correlated infection rates for seven units. The kappa value was 0.37 for infection control review, 0.48 for positive blood culture plus manual CVC determination, 0.49 for computer algorithm, and 0.73 for computer algorithm plus manual CVC determination. Unit-specific infection rates, per 1,000 patient days, were 1.0-12.5 by investigator review and 1.4-10.2 by computer algorithm (correlation r = 0.91, p = 0.004). Automated bloodstream infection surveillance with electronic data is an accurate alternative to surveillance with manually collected data.
Taylor, Matthew D; LeGoff, Laetitia; Harris, Anjanette; Malone, Eva; Allen, Judith E; Maizels, Rick M
Human filarial parasites cause chronic infection associated with long-term down-regulation of the host's immune response. We show here that CD4+ T cell regulation is the main determinant of parasite survival. In a laboratory model of infection, using Litomosoides sigmodontis in BALB/c mice, parasites establish for >60 days in the thoracic cavity. During infection, CD4+ T cells at this site express increasing levels of CD25, CTLA-4, and glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related gene (GITR), and by day 60, up to 70% are CTLA-4(+)GITR(high), with a lesser fraction coexpressing CD25. Upon Ag stimulation, CD4(+)CTLA-4(+)GITR(high) cells are hyporesponsive for proliferation and cytokine production. To test the hypothesis that regulatory T cell activity maintains hyporesponsiveness and prolongs infection, we treated mice with Abs to CD25 and GITR. Combined Ab treatment was able to overcome an established infection, resulting in a 73% reduction in parasite numbers (p < 0.01). Parasite killing was accompanied by increased Ag-specific immune responses and markedly reduced levels of CTLA-4 expression. The action of the CD25(+)GITR+ cells was IL-10 independent as in vivo neutralization of IL-10R did not restore the ability of the immune system to kill parasites. These data suggest that regulatory T cells act, in an IL-10-independent manner, to suppress host immunity to filariasis.
Jha, Ruchi; Gangwar, Mamta; Chahar, Dhanvantri; Setty Balakrishnan, Anand; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja
In the past, immune responses to several Brugia malayi immunodominant antigens have been characterized in filaria-infected populations; however, little is known regarding Wolbachia proteins. We earlier cloned and characterized few B. malayi (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, Bm-TPP and heavy chain myosin, BmAF-Myo) and Wolbachia (translation initiation factor-1, Wol Tl IF-1 and NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase, wBm-LigA) proteins and investigated the immune responses, which they triggered in animal models. The current study emphasizes on immunological characteristics of these proteins in three major categories of filarial endemic zones: endemic normal (EN, asymptomatic, amicrofilaraemic; putatively immune), microfilariae carriers (MF, asymptomatic but microfilaraemic), and chronic filarial patients (CP, symptomatic and mostly amicrofilaraemic). Immunoblotting and ELISA were carried out to measure IgG and isotype antibodies against these recombinant proteins in various clinical categories. Involvement of serum antibodies in infective larvae killing was assessed by antibody-dependent cellular adhesion and cytotoxicity assay. Cellular immune response was investigated by in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in these cells after stimulation. Immune responses of EN and CP displayed almost similar level of IgG to Wol Tl IF-1 while other three proteins had higher serum IgG in EN individuals only. Specific IgA, IgG1, IgG3 and IgM to Bm-TPP were high in EN subjects, while BmAF-Myo additionally showed elevated IgG2. Enhanced IgA and IgG3 were detected in both EN and CP individuals in response to Wol Tl IF-1 antigen, but IgG1 and IgM were high only in EN individuals. wBm-LigA and BmAF-Myo exhibited almost similar pattern of antibody responses. PBMC isolated from EN subjects exhibited higher proliferation and ROS generation when stimulated with all three proteins except for Wol Tl IF-1. Overall, these
Poole, Catherine B.; Gu, Weifeng; Kumar, Sanjay; Jin, Jingmin; Davis, Paul J.; Bauche, David; McReynolds, Larry A.
Human filarial parasites infect an estimated 120 million people in 80 countries worldwide causing blindness and the gross disfigurement of limbs and genitals. An understanding of RNA-mediated regulatory pathways in these parasites may open new avenues for treatment. Toward this goal, small RNAs from Brugia malayi adult females, males and microfilariae were cloned for deep-sequencing. From ∼30 million sequencing reads, 145 miRNAs were identified in the B. malayi genome. Some microRNAs were validated using the p19 RNA binding protein and qPCR. B. malayi miRNAs segregate into 99 families each defined by a unique seed sequence. Sixty-one of the miRNA families are highly conserved with homologues in arthropods, vertebrates and helminths. Of those miRNAs not highly conserved, homologues of 20 B. malayi miRNA families were found in vertebrates. Nine B. malayi miRNA families appear to be filarial-specific as orthologues were not found in other organisms. The miR-2 family is the largest in B. malayi with 11 members. Analysis of the sequences shows that six members result from a recent expansion of the family. Library comparisons found that 1/3 of the B. malayi miRNAs are differentially expressed. For example, miR-71 is 5–7X more highly expressed in microfilariae than adults. Studies suggest that in C.elegans, miR-71 may enhance longevity by targeting the DAF-2 pathway. Characterization of B. malayi miRNAs and their targets will enhance our understanding of their regulatory pathways in filariads and aid in the search for novel therapeutics. PMID:24824352
Ramachandran, Sabarinathan; Kumar, Mishra Pankaj; Rami, Reddy Maryada Venkata; Chinnaiah, Harinath Basker; Nutman, Thomas; Kaliraj, Perumal; McCarthy, James
Genes from the infective stage of lymphatic filarial parasites expressed at the time of host invasion have been identified as potential vaccine candidates. By screening an L3 cDNA library with sera from uninfected longstanding residents of an area endemic for onchocerciasis, so-called "endemic normals" (EN), we have cloned and characterized one such gene termed the abundant larval transcript two (ALT-2). The stage specificity of ALT-2 gene transcription and protein synthesis was confirmed by PCR using genespecific primers, and by western blot analysis of protein extracts from various stages of the parasite life cycle using specific antisera. Significant differences in antibody response to the recombinant ALT-2 were observed in endemic populations with differing clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis with an antibody response present in sera from 18 of 25 (72%) EN subjects compared to 9 of 25 (36%) with subclinical microfilaracmia (MF) and 14 of 25 (52%) of those with chronic lymphatic obstruction (CP) (P=0.01 for comparison of EN to CP or to MF). This differential responsiveness suggests that the protective immunity postulated to account for their uninfected status might be associated with a response to this protein. When the utility of ALT-2 as a vaccine candidate was tested in a murine model using either recombinant protein or a DNA vaccine construct, statistically significant protection was observed when compared to a control filarial gene product expressed across all stages of the parasite lifecycle (SXP-1; P=0.02 for protein and P=0.01 for the DNA vaccine) or compared to adjuvant alone. This level of protection indicates that this vaccine is a promising candidate for further development.
Poole, Catherine B; Gu, Weifeng; Kumar, Sanjay; Jin, Jingmin; Davis, Paul J; Bauche, David; McReynolds, Larry A
Human filarial parasites infect an estimated 120 million people in 80 countries worldwide causing blindness and the gross disfigurement of limbs and genitals. An understanding of RNA-mediated regulatory pathways in these parasites may open new avenues for treatment. Toward this goal, small RNAs from Brugia malayi adult females, males and microfilariae were cloned for deep-sequencing. From ∼ 30 million sequencing reads, 145 miRNAs were identified in the B. malayi genome. Some microRNAs were validated using the p19 RNA binding protein and qPCR. B. malayi miRNAs segregate into 99 families each defined by a unique seed sequence. Sixty-one of the miRNA families are highly conserved with homologues in arthropods, vertebrates and helminths. Of those miRNAs not highly conserved, homologues of 20 B. malayi miRNA families were found in vertebrates. Nine B. malayi miRNA families appear to be filarial-specific as orthologues were not found in other organisms. The miR-2 family is the largest in B. malayi with 11 members. Analysis of the sequences shows that six members result from a recent expansion of the family. Library comparisons found that 1/3 of the B. malayi miRNAs are differentially expressed. For example, miR-71 is 5-7X more highly expressed in microfilariae than adults. Studies suggest that in C.elegans, miR-71 may enhance longevity by targeting the DAF-2 pathway. Characterization of B. malayi miRNAs and their targets will enhance our understanding of their regulatory pathways in filariads and aid in the search for novel therapeutics.
Schiffer, Doris; Tegl, Gregor; Heinzle, Andrea; Sigl, Eva; Metcalf, Dan; Bowler, Philip; Burnet, Michael; Guebitz, Georg M
There is a pressing need for point-of-care diagnostics indicating early stages of infection. Polymers can respond to enzymes secreted by microorganisms or released by the human immune system. This provokes either a direct color reaction or release of dyes, allowing early-stage detection of wound infections and contamination of medical devices. Conventional methods for the detection of infection indicators are based on slow, laboratory-based procedures and, consequently, do not allow a timely assessment. In contrast, polymer-based materials offer real-time responses in point-of-care devices that, in turn, allow therapists to amend treatment before the infection has become firmly established. The use of protein, polysaccharide and mixed polymer systems provides a sensitive means to detect the low levels of proteases and glycosyl hydrolases produced on initiation of infection in the clinical setting. These polymers can be easily fabricated into various forms that can be directly applied in diagnostic devices.
Armstrong, Stuart D; Babayan, Simon A; Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nathaly; Gray, Nick; Xia, Dong; Martin, Coralie; Kumar, Sujai; Taylor, David W; Blaxter, Mark L; Wastling, Jonathan M; Makepeace, Benjamin L
Filarial nematodes (superfamily Filarioidea) are responsible for an annual global health burden of ∼6.3 million disability-adjusted life-years, which represents the greatest single component of morbidity attributable to helminths affecting humans. No vaccine exists for the major filarial diseases, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis; in part because research on protective immunity against filariae has been constrained by the inability of the human-parasitic species to complete their lifecycles in laboratory mice. However, the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis has become a popular experimental model, as BALB/c mice are fully permissive for its development and reproduction. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of excretory-secretory products from L. sigmodontis across five lifecycle stages and identifications of host proteins associated with first-stage larvae (microfilariae) in the blood. Applying intensity-based quantification, we determined the abundance of 302 unique excretory-secretory proteins, of which 64.6% were present in quantifiable amounts only from gravid adult female nematodes. This lifecycle stage, together with immature microfilariae, released four proteins that have not previously been evaluated as vaccine candidates: a predicted 28.5 kDa filaria-specific protein, a zonadhesin and SCO-spondin-like protein, a vitellogenin, and a protein containing six metridin-like ShK toxin domains. Female nematodes also released two proteins derived from the obligate Wolbachia symbiont. Notably, excretory-secretory products from all parasite stages contained several uncharacterized members of the transthyretin-like protein family. Furthermore, biotin labeling revealed that redox proteins and enzymes involved in purinergic signaling were enriched on the adult nematode cuticle. Comparison of the L. sigmodontis adult secretome with that of the human-infective filarial nematode Brugia malayi (reported previously in three independent published studies
Armstrong, Stuart D.; Babayan, Simon A.; Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nathaly; Gray, Nick; Xia, Dong; Martin, Coralie; Kumar, Sujai; Taylor, David W.; Blaxter, Mark L.; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Makepeace, Benjamin L.
Filarial nematodes (superfamily Filarioidea) are responsible for an annual global health burden of ∼6.3 million disability-adjusted life-years, which represents the greatest single component of morbidity attributable to helminths affecting humans. No vaccine exists for the major filarial diseases, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis; in part because research on protective immunity against filariae has been constrained by the inability of the human-parasitic species to complete their lifecycles in laboratory mice. However, the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis has become a popular experimental model, as BALB/c mice are fully permissive for its development and reproduction. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of excretory-secretory products from L. sigmodontis across five lifecycle stages and identifications of host proteins associated with first-stage larvae (microfilariae) in the blood. Applying intensity-based quantification, we determined the abundance of 302 unique excretory-secretory proteins, of which 64.6% were present in quantifiable amounts only from gravid adult female nematodes. This lifecycle stage, together with immature microfilariae, released four proteins that have not previously been evaluated as vaccine candidates: a predicted 28.5 kDa filaria-specific protein, a zonadhesin and SCO-spondin-like protein, a vitellogenin, and a protein containing six metridin-like ShK toxin domains. Female nematodes also released two proteins derived from the obligate Wolbachia symbiont. Notably, excretory-secretory products from all parasite stages contained several uncharacterized members of the transthyretin-like protein family. Furthermore, biotin labeling revealed that redox proteins and enzymes involved in purinergic signaling were enriched on the adult nematode cuticle. Comparison of the L. sigmodontis adult secretome with that of the human-infective filarial nematode Brugia malayi (reported previously in three independent published studies
DelVecchio, Vito G.; Gallia, Gary L.; McCleskey, Ferne K.
The present invention is directed to a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Mycoplasma hominis using M. hominis-specific probes, oligonucleotides or antibodies. In particular a target sequence can be amplified by in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, detected by nucleic acid hybridization using the subject probes and oligonucleotides or detected by immunoassay using M. hominis-specific antibodies. M. hominis-specific nucleic acids which do not recognize or hybridize to genomic nucleic acid of other Mycoplasma species are also provided.
Kwon, Ji Yeon; Hong, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Jea; Choi, Sun Hee; Min, Byeong Eun; Song, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Ryu, Ki Hyun
Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10 pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53 °C to 63 °C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed.
Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi
Various complex systems are exposed to different kinds of infections ranging from computer viruses to rumors. An intuitive solution for limiting the damages caused by such infections is to detect the infection spreading as early as possible and then take necessary actions. In this paper, we study on how much we may expect to achieve in infection control by deploying a number of monitors in complex networks for detecting the outbreak of a strong infection at its early stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of finding the optimal locations for a given number of monitors in order to minimize the worst-case infection size. The NP-hardness of the problem is proved and a heuristic algorithm is proposed. Extensive simulations on both synthetic and real-life networks show that the worst-case infection size may be put under control by deploying a moderate number of monitors in a large complex network. Effects of a few different factors, including transmissibility of the infection, network topology and probability of detection failure, are also evaluated.
Luck, Ashley N.; Yuan, Xiaojing; Voronin, Denis; Slatko, Barton E.; Hamza, Iqbal; Foster, Jeremy M.
Nematodes lack a heme biosynthetic pathway and must acquire heme from exogenous sources. Given the indispensable role of heme, this auxotrophy may be exploited to develop drugs that interfere with heme uptake in parasites. Although multiple heme-responsive genes (HRGs) have been characterized within the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we have undertaken the first study of heme transport in Brugia malayi, a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis. Through functional assays in yeast, as well as heme analog, RNAi, and transcriptomic experiments, we have shown that the heme transporter B. malayi HRG-1 (BmHRG-1) is indeed functional in B. malayi. In addition, BmHRG-1 localizes both to the endocytic compartments and cell membrane when expressed in yeast cells. Transcriptomic sequencing revealed that BmHRG-1, BmHRG-2, and BmMRP-5 (all orthologs of HRGs in C. elegans) are down-regulated in heme-treated B. malayi, as compared to non–heme-treated control worms. Likely because of short gene lengths, multiple exons, other HRGs in B. malayi (BmHRG-3–6) remain unidentified. Although the precise mechanisms of heme homeostasis in a nematode with the ability to acquire heme remains unknown, this study clearly demonstrates that the filarial nematode B. malayi is capable of transporting exogenous heme.—Luck, A. N., Yuan, X., Voronin, D., Slatko, B. E., Hamza, I., Foster, J. M. Heme acquisition in the parasitic filarial nematode Brugia malayi. PMID:27363426
The filarial worm, Litomosoides carinii, has a high rate of aerobic and anaerobic glucose metabolism. Aerobically 30 to 45 per cent of the glucose utilized was converted to lactic acid, 25 to 35 per cent to acetic acid, and 10 to 20 per cent to a polysaccharide. Anaerobically over 80 per cent of the total carbohydrate removed by the filariae was metabolized to lactic acid, the remainder was accounted for by the production of acetic acid. The high rates of aerobic and anaerobic lactic acid production and of aerobic polysaccharide synthesis, as well as the absence of a postanaerobic increase of the oxygen uptake, differentiate the filarial worm, L. carinii, from the known metabolic characteristics of all other helminths and of most other invertebrates. The rate of aerobic lactate and pyruvate utilization by the filariae appears to be much slower than that of glucose. Anaerobically, dismutation of two moles of pyruvate to one mole of lactate, one mole of acetate, and one mole of CO2, occurred. Aerobically, acetate production from pyruvate exceeded that of lactate. A significant proportion of the pyruvate metabolized aerobically by the filariae was not oxidized to acetate. In the presence of fluoroacetate, aerobic incubation of the filariae in a glucose-containing medium produced a marked decrease in the respiration of the organisms, an accumulation of pyruvate, a decreased formation of acetate, and an increase in aerobic glycolysis. Low concentrations of fluoroacetate (1 x 10–3 M) inhibited the oxidative metabolism of pyruvate which did not result in the conversion of pyruvate to acetate; higher concentrations of this inhibitor produced also a decreased oxidation of pyruvate to acetate. No evidence has been obtained that fluoroacetate inhibits the respiration of the filariae because of a competitive inhibition of acetate oxidation. Respiration and glycolysis of filariae were markedly decreased by low concentrations of p-chloromercuric benzoate. This inhibition could
Henning, Tyler C; Orr, John M; Smith, Joshua D; Arias, Jorge R; Rasgon, Jason L; Norris, Douglas E
Ticks collected in 2011 were screened for the presence of filarial nematode genetic material, and positive samples were sequenced for analysis. Monanema-like filarial nematode DNA was recently discovered in Amblyomma americanum in northern Virginia, marking the first time genetic material from this parasite has been discovered in ticks in the state. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this material was directly related to a previously discovered filarial nematode in A. americanum populations in Maryland as well as recently identified parasites in Ixodes scapularis from southern Connecticut. Further study is warranted to visually confirm the presence of these nematodes, characterize their distribution, and determine if these ticks are intermediate hosts.
Nirmalan, Niroshini; Cordeiro, N. J. V.; Kläger, Sabine L.; Bradley, Janette E.; Allen, Judith E.
Ov20 is a structurally novel 20-kDa retinol binding protein secreted by Onchocerca volvulus. Immunological and biological investigation of this protein has been hampered by the inability to maintain O. volvulus in a laboratory setting. In an effort to find a system more amenable to laboratory investigation, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed cDNA encoding homologues of Ov20 from two closely related filarial species, Brugia malayi (Bm20) and Acanthocheilonema viteae (Av20). Sequence comparisons have highlighted differences in glycosylation of the homologues. We present here an analysis of mouse immune responses to Ov20, Bm20, and Av20. The results suggest a strong genetic restriction in response to native Bm20 that is overcome when recombinant, nonnative material is used. Reactivity of human filarial sera to the three recombinant proteins confirmed previous specificity studies with Ov20 but highlighted important differences in the reactivity patterns of the O. volvulus and B. malayi homologues that may be due to differences in glycosylation patterns. Ov20 is a dominant antigen in infected individuals, while Bm20 is not. The availability of the B. malayi homologue enabled us to use defined murine reagents and inbred strains for genetic analysis of responsiveness in a way that is not possible for Ov20. However, the close sequence similarity between Ov20 and Av20 suggests that the A. viteae model may be more suited to the investigation of the biological functions of Ov20. PMID:10569745
Ariani, Cristina V; Juneja, Punita; Smith, Sophia; Tinsley, Matthew C; Jiggins, Francis M
Mosquitoes are one of the most important vectors of human disease. The ability of mosquitoes to transmit disease is dependent on the age structure of the population, as mosquitoes must survive long enough for the parasites to complete their development and infect another human. Age could have additional effects due to mortality rates and vector competence changing as mosquitoes senesce, but these are comparatively poorly understood. We have investigated these factors using the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. Rather than observing any effects of immune senescence, we found that older mosquitoes were more resistant, but this only occurred if they had previously been maintained on a nutrient-poor diet of fructose. Constant blood feeding reversed this decline in vector competence, meaning that the number of parasites remained relatively unchanged as mosquitoes aged. Old females that had been maintained on fructose also experienced a sharp spike in mortality after an infected blood meal ("refeeding syndrome") and few survived long enough for the parasite to develop. Again, this effect was prevented by frequent blood meals. Our results indicate that old mosquitoes may be inefficient vectors due to low vector competence and high mortality, but that frequent blood meals can prevent these effects of age.
Gillan, Victoria; O'Neill, Kerry; Maitland, Kirsty; Sverdrup, Francis M.; Devaney, Eileen
Novel drugs are required for the elimination of infections caused by filarial worms, as most commonly used drugs largely target the microfilariae or first stage larvae of these infections. Previous studies, conducted in vitro, have shown that inhibition of Hsp90 kills adult Brugia pahangi. As numerous small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 have been developed for use in cancer chemotherapy, we tested the activity of several novel Hsp90 inhibitors in a fluorescence polarization assay and against microfilariae and adult worms of Brugia in vitro. The results from all three assays correlated reasonably well and one particular compound, NVP-AUY922, was shown to be particularly active, inhibiting Mf output from female worms at concentrations as low as 5.0 nanomolar after 6 days exposure to drug. NVP-AUY922 was also active on adult worms after a short 24 h exposure to drug. Based on these in vitro data, NVP-AUY922 was tested in vivo in a mouse model and was shown to significantly reduce the recovery of both adult worms and microfilariae. These studies provide proof of principle that the repurposing of currently available Hsp90 inhibitors may have potential for the development of novel agents with macrofilaricidal properties. PMID:24551261
Harnett, M M; Melendez, A J; Harnett, W
The dramatic recent rise in the incidence of allergic or autoimmune inflammatory diseases in the West has been proposed to reflect the lack of appropriate priming of the immune response by infectious agents such as parasitic worms during childhood. Consistent with this, there is increasing evidence supporting an inverse relationship between worm infection and T helper type 1/17 (Th1/17)-based inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Perhaps more surprisingly, given that such worms often induce strong Th2-type immune responses, there also appears to be an inverse correlation between parasite load and atopy. These findings therefore suggest that the co-evolution of helminths with hosts, which has resulted in the ability of worms to modulate inflammatory responses to promote parasite survival, has also produced the benefit of protecting the host from pathological lesions arising from aggressive proinflammatory responses to infection or, indeed, aberrant inflammatory responses underlying autoimmune and allergic disorders. By focusing upon the properties of the filarial nematode-derived immunomodulatory molecule, ES-62, in this review we shall discuss the potential of exploiting the immunomodulatory products of parasitic worms to identify and develop novel therapeutics for inflammation.
Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N
In recent years, molecular genetic methodologies have provided significant additional knowledge about components of the microbiota associated with infections of endodontic origin. Following this research line, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Centipeda periodontii in primary endodontic infections using a species-specific nested PCR assay. Samples were collected from fifty teeth having carious lesions, necrotic pulps, and different forms of periradicular diseases. DNA extracted from the samples was initially amplified using universal 16S rDNA primers, and a second round of amplification used the first PCR products to detect a specific fragment of C. periodontii 16S rDNA. This species was detected in 3 (13%) of 23 asymptomatic cases, in 1 (14%) of 7 cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, and in 3 (15%) of 20 pus samples aspirated from acute periradicular abscesses. There was no significant association between C. periodontii and the presence of clinical symptoms. Overall, C. periodontii was detected in 14% of the cases of endodontic infections. This is probably the hitherto first study to detect C. periodontii in primary endodontic infections. The specific role played by this bacterial species in infections of endodontic origin awaits further clarification.
Desjardins, Christopher A.; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Hotopp, Julie C. Dunning; Haas, Brian J.; Zucker, Jeremy; Ribeiro, Jose’ M.C.; Saif, Sakina; Levin, Joshua Z.; Fan, Lin; Zeng, Qiandong; Russ, Carsten; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Fink, Doran L.; Birren, Bruce W.
Loa loa, the African eyeworm, is a major filarial pathogen of humans. Unlike most filariae, Loa loa does not contain the obligate intracellular Wolbachia endosymbiont. We describe the 91.4 Mb genome of Loa loa, and the genome of the related filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti, and predict 14,907 Loa loa genes based on microfilarial RNA sequencing. By comparing these genomes to that of another filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, and to several other nematode genomes, we demonstrate synteny among filariae but not with non-parasitic nematodes. The Loa loa genome encodes many immunologically relevant genes, as well as protein kinases targeted by drugs currently approved for humans. Despite lacking Wolbachia, Loa loa shows no new metabolic synthesis or transport capabilities compared to other filariae. These results suggest that the role played by Wolbachia in filarial biology is more subtle than previously thought and reveal marked differences between parasitic and non-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23525074
Ghedin, Elodie; Wang, Shiliang; Spiro, David; Caler, Elisabet; Zhao, Qi; Crabtree, Jonathan; Allen, Jonathan E; Delcher, Arthur L; Guiliano, David B; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Creasy, Todd; Amedeo, Paolo; Haas, Brian; El-Sayed, Najib M; Wortman, Jennifer R; Feldblyum, Tamara; Tallon, Luke; Schatz, Michael; Shumway, Martin; Koo, Hean; Salzberg, Steven L; Schobel, Seth; Pertea, Mihaela; Pop, Mihai; White, Owen; Barton, Geoffrey J; Carlow, Clotilde K S; Crawford, Michael J; Daub, Jennifer; Dimmic, Matthew W; Estes, Chris F; Foster, Jeremy M; Ganatra, Mehul; Gregory, William F; Johnson, Nicholas M; Jin, Jinming; Komuniecki, Richard; Korf, Ian; Kumar, Sanjay; Laney, Sandra; Li, Ben-Wen; Li, Wen; Lindblom, Tim H; Lustigman, Sara; Ma, Dong; Maina, Claude V; Martin, David M A; McCarter, James P; McReynolds, Larry; Mitreva, Makedonka; Nutman, Thomas B; Parkinson, John; Peregrín-Alvarez, José M; Poole, Catherine; Ren, Qinghu; Saunders, Lori; Sluder, Ann E; Smith, Katherine; Stanke, Mario; Unnasch, Thomas R; Ware, Jenna; Wei, Aguan D; Weil, Gary; Williams, Deryck J; Zhang, Yinhua; Williams, Steven A; Fraser-Liggett, Claire; Slatko, Barton; Blaxter, Mark L; Scott, Alan L
Parasitic nematodes that cause elephantiasis and river blindness threaten hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. We have sequenced the approximately 90 megabase (Mb) genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi and predict approximately 11,500 protein coding genes in 71 Mb of robustly assembled sequence. Comparative analysis with the free-living, model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that, despite these genes having maintained little conservation of local synteny during approximately 350 million years of evolution, they largely remain in linkage on chromosomal units. More than 100 conserved operons were identified. Analysis of the predicted proteome provides evidence for adaptations of B. malayi to niches in its human and vector hosts and insights into the molecular basis of a mutualistic relationship with its Wolbachia endosymbiont. These findings offer a foundation for rational drug design.
Nenoff, Pietro; Simon, Jan Christoph; Muylowa, Grace K; Davey, Gail
Podoconiosis or mossy foot is a form of non-filarial lymphedema. This geochemical elephantiasis is a disabling condition caused by the passage of microparticles of silica and aluminum silicates through the skin of people walking barefoot in areas with a high content of soil of volcanic origin. Podoconiosis is widespread in tropical Africa, Central America and North India, yet it remains a neglected and under-researched condition. The disabling effects of podoconiosis cause great hardship to patients. It adversely affects the economic (reduced productivity and absenteeism), social (marriage, education, etc.) and psychological (social stigma) well-being of those affected. Podoconiosis can be prevented; the main primary preventive measure is protective footwear. Secondary measures include a strict hygiene regimen and compression therapy, which can reverse initial lesions. Tertiary approaches include surgical management, such as shaving operations to reduce hyperplastic and verrucous elephantiasis.
The specific aims of this project were to develop detection systems for recognizing and quanitating antigens and genomes of hemorrhagic fever viruses ...and to use these detection systems to investigate the pathogenesis of these viruses in animal models. These were to be accomplished using existing...antibodies and nucleic acid probes supplied by the MRDC as well as virus infected tissues or cell cultures. Pichinde virus , an arenavirus non
Distéfano, Angélica Lidia; Alonso, Alicia; Martin, Fabián; Pardon, Fabián
Background Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most commonly found agents of congenital infections. Primary maternal infection is associated with risk of symptomatic congenital diseases, and high morbidity is frequently associated with very low birth weight. Neonates with asymptomatic infection develop various sequelae during infancy. This is the first Argentine study performed in neonates with congenital and postnatal HCMV infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique with different pairs of primers, to detect cytomegalovirus isolated in tissue cultures and directly in urine and dried blood spot (DBS) specimens. Results were compared with IgM detection. Methods The study was performed between 1999 and 2001 on routine samples in the Laboratory. A total of 61 urine and 56 serum samples were selected from 61 newborns/infants, 33 patients whose samples were analyzed during the first two to three weeks of life were considered congenital infections; the remaining 28 patients whose samples were taken later than the third week were grouped as perinatal infections, although only in 4 the perinatal transmission of infection was determined unequivocally Cytomegalovirus diagnosis was made by isolating the virus from urine samples in human foreskin fibroblast cells. Three different primer pairs directed to IE, LA and gB genes were used for the HCMV PCR assay in viral isolates. Subsequently, PCR and nested PCR (nPCR) assays with gB primers were performed directly in urine and in 11 samples of dried blood spot (DBS) on Guthrie Card, these results were then compared with serology. Results The main clinical manifestations of the 33 patients with congenital infection were purpura, jaundice, hepatomegaly and anaemia. Three patients presented low birth weight as single symptom, 10, intracranial calcifications, and 2, kidney failure. In the 28 patients grouped as with perinatal infection, anaemia
Agbedanu, Prince N; Harischandra, Hiruni; Moorhead, Andrew R; Day, Tim A; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Kimber, Michael J
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a socio-economically devastating mosquito-borne Neglected Tropical Disease caused by parasitic filarial nematodes. The interaction between the parasite and host, both mosquito and human, during infection, development and persistence is dynamic and delicately balanced. Manipulation of this interface to the detriment of the parasite is a promising potential avenue to develop disease therapies but is prevented by our very limited understanding of the host-parasite relationship. Exosomes are bioactive small vesicles (30–120 nm) secreted by a wide range of cell types and involved in a wide range of physiological processes. Here, we report the identification and partial characterization of exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) released from the infective L3 stage of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Exosome-like vesicles were isolated from parasites in culture media and electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis were used to confirm that vesicles produced by juvenile B. malayi are exosome-like based on size and morphology. We show that loss of parasite viability correlates with a time-dependent decay in vesicle size specificity and rate of release. The protein cargo of these vesicles is shown to include common exosomal protein markers and putative effector proteins. These Brugia-derived vesicles contain small RNA species that include microRNAs with host homology, suggesting a potential role in host manipulation. Confocal microscopy shows J774A.1, a murine macrophage cell line, internalize purified ELVs, and we demonstrate that these ELVs effectively stimulate a classically activated macrophage phenotype in J774A.1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of exosome-like vesicle release by a human parasitic nematode and our data suggest a novel mechanism by which human parasitic nematodes may actively direct the host responses to infection. Further interrogation of the makeup and function of these bioactive vesicles could seed
Smith, Davey; Little, Susan; Cheng, Pok Man; Jordan, Parris; Ignacio, Caroline; Richman, Douglas; Pond, Sergei Kosakovsky
Abstract Current methods to detect intraclade HIV dual infection are poorly suited for determining its prevalence in large cohorts. To investigate the potential of ultra-deep sequencing to screen for dual infection, we compared it to bulk sequence-based synonymous mixture index and the current standard of single genome sequencing. The synonymous mixture index identified samples likely to harbor dual infection, while ultra-deep sequencing captured more intra-host viral diversity than single genome sequencing at approximately 40% of the cost and 20% of the laboratory and analysis time. The synonymous mixture index and ultra-deep sequencing are promising methods for rapid and cost-effective systematic identification of HIV dual infection. PMID:20954840
Raj, R K; Puranam, R S; Kurup, C K; Ramasarma, T
The oxidative metabolic potential of Setaria digitata, a filarial parasite found in the intraperitoneal cavity of cattle, was investigated. These worms showed active wriggling movements which were not affected by respiratory poisons such as cyanide, rotenone and malonate. They also possessed cyanide-insensitive and glucose-independent oxygen consumption pathways. By differential centrifugation of sucrose homogenates, a fraction containing mitochondria-like particles was obtained in which the activity of the marker enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase, was recovered. This fraction catalysed succinate- and NADH-dependent reduction of both cytochrome c and dyes. Oxygen uptake found with succinate, NADH and ascorbate as substrates was not sensitive to cyanide. Cytochromes could not be detected in either this fraction or homogenates of the worms. H2O2 generation with a number of substrates and lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde formed as well as by accompanying oxygen uptake were demonstrated in the mitochondria-like particles. A lipid quinone, possibly with a short side chain and related to ubiquinone, was detected in the worms. The results suggested the existence of two cyanide-insensitive oxygen-consuming reactions in Setaria: one respiratory substrate-independent lipid peroxidation, and a second substrate-dependent reaction that requires an auto-oxidizable quinone but not a cytochrome system. PMID:3223930
Raj, R K; Puranam, R S; Kurup, C K; Ramasarma, T
The oxidative metabolic potential of Setaria digitata, a filarial parasite found in the intraperitoneal cavity of cattle, was investigated. These worms showed active wriggling movements which were not affected by respiratory poisons such as cyanide, rotenone and malonate. They also possessed cyanide-insensitive and glucose-independent oxygen consumption pathways. By differential centrifugation of sucrose homogenates, a fraction containing mitochondria-like particles was obtained in which the activity of the marker enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase, was recovered. This fraction catalysed succinate- and NADH-dependent reduction of both cytochrome c and dyes. Oxygen uptake found with succinate, NADH and ascorbate as substrates was not sensitive to cyanide. Cytochromes could not be detected in either this fraction or homogenates of the worms. H2O2 generation with a number of substrates and lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde formed as well as by accompanying oxygen uptake were demonstrated in the mitochondria-like particles. A lipid quinone, possibly with a short side chain and related to ubiquinone, was detected in the worms. The results suggested the existence of two cyanide-insensitive oxygen-consuming reactions in Setaria: one respiratory substrate-independent lipid peroxidation, and a second substrate-dependent reaction that requires an auto-oxidizable quinone but not a cytochrome system.
Mito, Tsutomu; Hirota, Yusuke; Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Uehara, Takanori; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi
A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted with a 4-month history of fatigue and exertional dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a vegetation on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Accordingly, infective endocarditis and heart failure were diagnosed. Although a blood culture was negative on day 7 after admission, a prolonged blood culture with subculture was performed according to the patient's history of contact with cats. Consequently, Bartonella henselae was isolated. Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative infective endocarditis. This case demonstrates that B. henselae may be detected by prolonged incubation of blood cultures. PMID:27746451
Mito, Tsutomu; Hirota, Yusuke; Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Uehara, Takanori; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi
A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted with a 4-month history of fatigue and exertional dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a vegetation on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Accordingly, infective endocarditis and heart failure were diagnosed. Although a blood culture was negative on day 7 after admission, a prolonged blood culture with subculture was performed according to the patient's history of contact with cats. Consequently, Bartonella henselae was isolated. Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative infective endocarditis. This case demonstrates that B. henselae may be detected by prolonged incubation of blood cultures.
Elfant, Adam B.; Howden, Colin W.; Stollman, Neil
Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent, affecting approximately half of the world’s population. While the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, H. pylori infection is associated with certain diseases, including peptic ulcers (either duodenal or gastric), gastritis, and 2 malignancies—gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Many of the epidemiologic associations between these diseases and H. pylori infection have been further validated by treatment studies, which show that effective eradication therapy correlates with a decreased risk of disease. A variety of testing strategies are used to detect H. pylori infection. Serologic techniques are widely available and inexpensive, but they are no longer preferred as they have low sensitivities and specificities, and they may show a positive result for a long period following effective therapy. The remaining testing methods are divided into 2 categories: invasive tests (which require endoscopy) and noninvasive tests. Noninvasive test methods such as the urea breath test and stool antigen test have gained popularity due to their high sensitivities and specificities. Further, both of these methods may be used to confirm the absence of infection following eradication therapy. Due to the increasing incidence of treatment failure (caused in part by antibiotic resistance), post-treatment testing is recommended to confirm H. pylori eradication. PMID:24847180
Vu, Dung M.; Sakamuri, Rama M.; Waters, W. Ray; ...
Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. Here in this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-based optical biosensor. We apply an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed by our team, termed lipoprotein capture, that exploits the pull-down of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs from cattle blood that allows for the recovery and detection of associated LM. We also profile the change in the expression of these TB biomarkers as amore » function of time from a small set of samples collected from studies of bovine TB-infected cattle. Lastly, we demonstrate for the first time the direct detection of bovine LM in serum, and clearly show that the biomarker is expressed in detectable concentrations during the entire course of the infection.« less
Nayak, Ananya; Gayen, Prajna; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Niladri; Babu, Santi P Sinha
Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is a major curcuminoid from Curcuma longa that exhibits various pharmacological effects and has shown multiple beneficial activities. Our understanding of its anticarcinogenic and other activities occurring through curcumin-induced apoptosis in several cancer cells has greatly expanded in recent years. Lymphatic filariasis is a worldwide health problem causing global disability in humans and is caused by filarial nematodes. Development of efficient strategies to promote programmed cell death in filarial worms remains a key challenge for anti-filarial drug developing research and a crucial unmet medical need. In this study, we have taken molecular and biochemical approaches toward understanding the molecular basis for curcumin-mediated anti-filarial activity in the filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Results of MTT assay showed that curcumin causes a significant reduction in viability of Mf and adults and thus acts as a potent macro- and micro-filaricidal agent. Hoechst staining, TUNEL staining, showed several apoptotic nuclei in different parts of curcumin-treated adults. At 25 μM concentration it showed chromosomal DNA fragmentation in adult worms. Our results indicate that curcumin decreases protein and mRNA expression levels of anti-apoptotic gene ced-9 and enhances both the levels of pro-apoptotic genes ced-3 and ced-4 in a dose-dependent manner. All these observations ascertained the apoptogenicity of curcumin at a minimum concentration of 50 μM in this filarial worm. Furthermore, we showed that curcumin causes depletion of parasitic glutathione level, enhances the activities of glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase and stimulates rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we present molecular evidence on curcumin-induced apoptosis in the filarial nematode S. cervi with probable involvement of ROS in a caspase-dependent manner.
Uliukin, I M; Bolekhan, V N; Iusupov, V V; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Orlova, E S
The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection. Have been reviewed the questions medical-diagnostic and medical-psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers. Been analyzed the social consequences of delays in seeking medical help of patients in this group, the opportunities and challenges of their dispensary observation. It was noted that early detection of HIV infection and proper medical and psychological support in the dynamics of pathological process helps to reduce the number of new cases and improve their outcomes and to reduce the period of efficiency recovery of military personnel.
Goldschmidt, Pablo; Degorge, Sandrine; Benallaoua, Djida; Batellier, Laurence; Di Cave, David; Chaumeil, Christine
Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba by microscopic examination, culture, and polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) has several limitations (sensitivity, specificity, lack of detection of several strains, cost of testing for discrimination among strains). We developed a new high-resolution melting real-time PCR (HRM) to detect and characterize Acanthamoeba infections. HRM performances were evaluated with strains from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and with 20 corneal scrapings. The DNA extracted from specimens were amplified, detected, and characterized in 1 run using 2 original primers diluted in a solution containing an intercalating dye. Detection and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba infections could be achieved in less than 2.5 h with a dramatic reduction in cost of reactants (postamplification procedures and radioactive or fluorescent-labeled molecular probes were unnecessary). HRM detection limits were 0.1 cyst/μL or less (including genotypes T5 and T11), and its sensitivity and specificity were higher than other molecular tests. For the tested strains from the ATCC, the HRM drafted 4 different profiles: Type I (genotypes T2 and T4), Type II (T5 and T7), Type III (T8), and Type IV (T1, T3, T6, T9, T11, T12, and T13).
Gaudio, P A; Gopinathan, U; Sangwan, V; Hughes, T E
Aims: To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay to detect fungi in scrapings from infected corneas. Methods: A PCR assay was developed to amplify a portion of the fungal 18S ribosome gene. Corneal scrapings from 30 patients with presumed infectious keratitis were evaluated using this assay, as well as by standard microbiological techniques, and the results were compared. Conjunctival swabs from each patient's healthy, fellow eye were also evaluated by PCR. Results: PCR and fungal culture results matched (were both positive or both negative for fungi) in 22 (74%) of 30 scrapings from infected corneas. Three (10%) of 30 samples were PCR positive but fungal culture negative; two of these appeared clinically to represent fungal infections, and the third was clinically indeterminate. Four (13%) scrapings were positive by PCR but also by bacterial and not fungal culture. One specimen (3%) was PCR negative but fungal culture positive. Of the conjunctival swabs from each patient's healthy fellow eye, five (17%) of 30 were positive by PCR, and the opposite, infected eye of all five of these harboured a fungal infection. Conclusions: PCR is promising as a means to diagnose fungal keratitis and offers some advantages over culture methods, including rapid analysis and the ability to analyse specimens far from where they are collected. PMID:12084744
Davison, H. C.; Thrusfield, M. V.; Muharsini, S.; Husein, A.; Partoutomo, S.; Rae, P. F.; Masake, R.; Luckins, A. G.
Two Ag-ELISAs, an IgG-specific antibody detection ELISA (IgG ELISA) and a card agglutination test (CATT) for the detection of Trypanasoma evansi infections in buffaloes in Indonesia, were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates were obtained by testing sera from 139 Indonesian buffaloes which had been found to be infected by parasitological tests. Diagnostic specificity was estimated by testing sera from 263 buffaloes living in Australia. Response-operating characteristic curves were constructed, and optimal ELISA cut-off values, which minimized the number of false-negative and false-positive results, were chosen. The IgG ELISA had the highest sensitivity (89%) and the CATT had the highest specificity (100%). There was a significant difference between the sensitivities (71 and 81%), but not between the specificities (75 and 78%), of the two Ag-ELISAs. The four tests were further compared by calculation of post-test probabilities of infection for positive and negative test results using a range of prevalence values, and likelihood ratios. The results suggested that the CATT was the best test to 'rule-in' infection (i.e. the highest probability of infection in test-positive animals) and the IgG ELISA was the best test to 'rule-out' infection (i.e. the lowest probability of infection in test-negative animals). PMID:10487651
Davison, H C; Thrusfield, M V; Muharsini, S; Husein, A; Partoutomo, S; Rae, P F; Masake, R; Luckins, A G
Two Ag-ELISAs, an IgG-specific antibody detection ELISA (IgG ELISA) and a card agglutination test (CATT) for the detection of Trypanasoma evansi infections in buffaloes in Indonesia, were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates were obtained by testing sera from 139 Indonesian buffaloes which had been found to be infected by parasitological tests. Diagnostic specificity was estimated by testing sera from 263 buffaloes living in Australia. Response-operating characteristic curves were constructed, and optimal ELISA cut-off values, which minimized the number of false-negative and false-positive results, were chosen. The IgG ELISA had the highest sensitivity (89%) and the CATT had the highest specificity (100%). There was a significant difference between the sensitivities (71 and 81%), but not between the specificities (75 and 78%), of the two Ag-ELISAs. The four tests were further compared by calculation of post-test probabilities of infection for positive and negative test results using a range of prevalence values, and likelihood ratios. The results suggested that the CATT was the best test to 'rule-in' infection (i.e. the highest probability of infection in test-positive animals) and the IgG ELISA was the best test to 'rule-out' infection (i.e. the lowest probability of infection in test-negative animals).
Thompson, F J; Cockroft, A C; Wheatley, I; Britton, C; Devaney, E
hsp83 was cloned from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. The mRNA was constitutively expressed at 37 degrees C in life cycle stages that live in the mammalian host (microfilariae and adult worms). Heat shock resulted in only a minimal increase in levels of transcription. A genomic copy of hsp83 was isolated and was shown to contain 11 introns while sequencing of the 5' upstream region revealed several heat shock elements. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene construct the expression of hsp83 from B. pahangi (Bp-hsp83) was studied by transfection of COS-7 cells. Similar to the expression pattern in the parasite, CAT activity was detected at 37 degrees C and was not influenced by heat shock. When the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was transfected with the same construct, CAT activity was not observed at normal growth temperatures (21 degrees C) or under moderate heat shock conditions (28 degrees C). However exposure to more severe heat shock (35 degrees C) resulted in an increase in CAT activity. These results suggest that Bp-hsp83 has a temperature threshold > or = 35 degrees C for expression.
Ghosh, Mallika; Nandi, Srijita; Dutta, Shrinwanti; Saha, Malay Kumar
AIM: To review published methods for detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: A thorough search on Medline database was conducted to find original articles describing different methods or techniques of detection of HBV, which are published in English in last 10 years. Articles outlining methods of detection of mutants or drug resistance were excluded. Full texts and abstracts (if full text not available) were reviewed thoroughly. Manual search of references of retrieved articles were also done. We extracted data on different samples and techniques of detection of HBV, their sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp) and applicability. RESULTS: A total of 72 studies were reviewed. HBV was detected from dried blood/plasma spots, hepatocytes, ovarian tissue, cerumen, saliva, parotid tissue, renal tissue, oocytes and embryos, cholangiocarcinoma tissue, etc. Sensitivity of dried blood spot for detecting HBV was > 90% in all the studies. In case of seronegative patients, HBV DNA or serological markers have been detected from hepatocytes or renal tissue in many instances. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) are most commonly used serological tests for detection. CLIA systems are also used for quantitation. Molecular techniques are used qualitatively as well as for quantitative detection. Among the molecular techniques version 2.0 of the CobasAmpliprep/CobasTaqMan assay and Abbott’s real time polymerase chain reaction kit were found to be most sensitive with a lower detection limit of only 6.25 IU/mL and 1.48 IU/mL respectively. CONCLUSION: Serological and molecular assays are predominant and reliable methods for HBV detection. Automated systems are highly sensitive and quantify HBV DNA and serological markers for monitoring. PMID:26483870
Uttah, Emmanuel; Ibeh, Dominic C
The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species of microfilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations. From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples were collected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one each from the waist and the shoulder) were also taken from these individuals and processed. Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%), double species microfilaraemia (12.2 and 16.9%) and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7%) for endemic and sporadic populations respectively. All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatest tendency towards double and triple species microfilaraemia. The prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loa microfilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstans microfilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M. perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans. It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co- occurrence infections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes of onchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored by the victims.
Siravenha, Layla Gomes; Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão; Madeira, Lucimar Di Paula; Oliveira-Filho, Aldemir B.; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Martins Feitosa, Rosimar Neris; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo
The dental pulp is a sterile highly vascularized tissue and has been commonly used as a biological material to detect the genome of infectious agents that reach the dental tissue. Indeed, the pulp is also used to reveal past and ancient infections in the field of paleomicrobiology. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a small community (approximately 400 inhabitants) in the Amazon region of Brazil (Nossa Senhora do Perpetuo Socorro, Vizeu, Para, Brazil) and standardize a technique for the detection of the virus in the dental pulp. Serum samples were collected from 48 patients whose teeth were clinically recommended for surgical extraction. The group comprised an equal number of males and females, mostly agriculture workers and housewives, respectively. The majority (64.6%) received less than one minimum wage and were ill educated (less than four years of school years). An enzyme immune assay was used to detect antibodies to HCV and the 9 (18.8%) positive samples were submitted to nucleic acid extraction in the blood (using the EXTRAzol) and the pulp (QIAamp DNA Micro Kit e kit RNeasy Plus Micro). The pulp was removed using a modified protocol without the use of liquid nitrogen. Nucleic acid was found in 8 of the dental pulp, but in 7 of the blood samples. Sequencing of one of the samples showed the presence of genotype 1. Conclusions: A novel simplified methodology for the extraction and amplification of HCV nucleic acid was successful to detect the presence of persistent infections of the virus within the dental pulp tissue. The protocol may be helpful to detect past and ancient infections and to better understand the natural history of HCV. PMID:27783693
Bao, Zhen-ying; Lin, Qin; Meng, Yan-hong; He, Chun; Su, Jia-zeng; Peng, Xin
To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria in the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures from 61 specimens of pus from the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School of Stomatology were identified. The culture type was evaluated by API 20A kit and drug resistance test was performed by Etest method. The clinical data and antibacterial agents for the treatment of the 61 cases were collected, and the final outcomes were recorded. The bacteria cultures were isolated from all the specimens, with aerobic bacteria only in 6 cases (9.8%), anaerobic bacteria only in 7 cases (11.5%), and both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 48 cases (78.7%). There were 55 infected cases (90.2%) with anaerobic bacteria, and 81 anaerobic bacteria stains were isolated. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram positive anaerobic bacteria could be found in Peptostreptococcus, Bifidobacterium and Pemphigus propionibacterium. No cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was detected in the above three Gram positive anaerobic bacteria. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram negative anaerobic bacteria could be detected in Porphyromonas and Prevotella. No metronidazole, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was found in the two Gram negative anaerobic bacteria. In the study, 48 patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were treated according to the results of drug resistance testing, and the clinical cure rate was 81.3%. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures are very common in most oral and maxillofacial infection patients. Anaerobic bacteria culture and drug resistance testing play an important role in clinical treatment.
Kumar, R A; Raj, R K
There is currently renewed interest in the biological significance of heme proteins. The most common heme proteins include hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and redox enzymes such as catalase and peroxidase. Setaria digitata is a cattle filarial parasite, which is devoid of typical cytochrome systems. However, studies showed activities of delta Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), delta Aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD), and heme oxygenase in appreciable amounts, suggesting the presence of necessary equipment for the biosynthesis of heme. This is further confirmed by the end product inhibition of ALAS by heme and the observation of the death of the parasite by succinyl acetone, an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of heme. Though typical cytochrome systems are absent, microsomal cytochrome P 450 and elevated levels of heme containing enzymes such as catalase and peroxidase are present in the parasite. A unique hemoglobin is also detected which shows a difference in biological functions from the host system and that of the much-studied nematode parasite Ascaris sum.
Wennmann, Jörg T; Jehle, Johannes A
At least four distinct baculoviruses, namely the Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus A (AgseNPV-A), the A. segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus B (AgseNPV-B), the Agrotis ipsilon nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgipNPV) and the A. segetum granulovirus (AgseGV) have been isolated from larval stages (cutworms) of the species A. segetum and A. ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which are serious soil pests in agriculture. Cutworms can become infected by at least one of these four baculoviruses and also co-infections of A. segetum larvae with AgseNPV-B and AgseGV are observed under laboratory conditions. Because of their adaption to common hosts and the occurrence in mixed infections, these viruses have a considerable potential as biological control agents of cutworms and are suitable objects to decipher the co-evolution and population dynamics of baculoviruses in mixed infections. However, to facilitate studies on these viruses a reliable tool for detection and identification is essential. A method based on highly specific oligonucleotide primers for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that led to the amplification of discriminating fragments of the polyhedrin (polh) and granulin (gran) gene of AgseNPV-A, AgseNPV-B, AgipNPV and AgseGV, was established. Furthermore, the AgseNPV-B and AgseGV specific pairs of primers were applied in real-time PCR (qPCR) for AgseNPV-B/AgseGV ratio determination in samples of mixed infections. It is demonstrated further that for quantifying NPVs and GVs in mixed infections, the method of occlusion body isolation is most crucial and significantly influences the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wisely, Samantha M; Howard, JoGayle; Williams, Steven A; Bain, Odile; Santymire, Rachel M; Bardsley, Katherine D; Williams, Elizabeth S
Disease can threaten the restoration of endangered species directly by substantially decreasing host survival or indirectly via incremental decreases in survival and reproduction. During a biomedical survey of reintroduced populations of the highly endangered black-footed ferret from 2002 to 2005, microfilariae discovered in the blood were putatively identified as Dirofilaria immitis, and widespread screening was initiated using a commercially available antigen-based ELISA test. A subset of animals (n = 16) was screened for D. immitis using a highly sensitive PCR-based assay. Microfilariae were also molecularly and morphologically characterized. Of 198 animals at six reintroduction sites, 12% had positive results using the ELISA test. No antigen-positive animals which were screened via PCR (n = 11) had positive PCR results, and all antigen-positive animals (n = 24) were asymptomatic. No significant differences were found in body mass of antigen-positive (male: 1223 +/- 82 g [mean +/- SD], female: 726 +/- 75 g) vs. antigen-negative (male: 1,198 +/- 119 g, female: 710 +/- 53 g) individuals (P = 0.4). Antigen prevalence was lower in juveniles (3%) than adults (12%; P = 0.03), and higher in in situ, captive-reared individuals (33%) than wild-born individuals (10%; P = 0.005). Morphologic analysis of microfilariae revealed they were neither D. immitis nor any other previously characterized North American species. PCR amplification of the 5S spacer region of rDNA revealed that the filarial sequence shared only 76% identity with D. immitis. This previously unidentified filarial sequence was present in all antigen positive animals (11 of 11 tested). It appears that black-footed ferrets were infected with a previously undescribed species of filaria whose antigen cross-reacted with the ELISA assay, although further analysis is needed to make a conclusive statement. Nonetheless, this previously undescribed filaria does not appear to threaten recovery for this highly
A review of rapid urine screens for detection of bacteriuria and pyuria demonstrates a number of available alternatives to the culture method. Selection of one or more of these systems for routine use is dependent upon the laboratory and the patient population being tested. The laboratory approach to the diagnosis of urinary tract infection should consider the clinical diagnosis of the patient whenever possible. Keeping in mind that quantitative urine cultures alone cannot be used to detect infection in some patient populations unless lower colony counts are considered, a rapid screen may be a more practical approach. It has become accepted that 10(5) CFU/ml can no longer be used as the standard for all patient groups, that pyuria often is important in making the diagnosis of a urinary tract infection, and that most of the rapid screens are more sensitive than the culture method at 10(5) CFU/ml. Presently, no one approach can be recommended for all laboratories and all patient groups. However, each diagnostic laboratory should select one approach which is best for its situation. It is not practical, efficient, or cost effective to define a protocol for each possible clinical condition; however, all should be considered when developing a protocol. This protocol should be compatible with the patient population and communicated to the physicians. Use of a rapid screen should be beneficial to the patient, the physician, and the laboratory. PMID:3058296
de Santana Rocha, D; de Sousa Moura, R L; Maciel, B M; Guimarães, L A; O'dwyer, H N S; Munhoz, A D; Albuquerque, G R
The objective of this study was to verify whether Toxoplasma gondii is excreted in the milk of naturally infected sheep. In order to accomplish this, 275 lactating ewes were used; these were bred extensively in 17 estates distributed across nine cities. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was used to detect T. gondii DNA in milk samples, and the indirect immunofluorescence test was employed for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in the sera, with a cut-off value of 1:64. It was possible to verify the presence of the parasite DNA in 6.5% (18/275) of the studied animals. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in 41.5% of the animals studied (114/275). There was no correlation between parasite excretion in milk and the presence of IgG in 38.9% of the studied animals (7/18). The high seropositivity and the presence of parasite DNA in the milk led to the conclusion that T. gondii infection is present in the sheep population in southern and southwestern Bahia, and that there is a risk of the human population becoming infected due to the consumption of raw, in natura milk.
Quintero-Vásquez, Gabriela Alejandra; Bazán-Tejeda, María Luisa; Martínez-Peñafiel, Eva; Kameyama-Kawabe, Luis; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María
This work was aimed to develop a multiplex PCR assay to detect infectious agents such as Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Fusarium sp, Leveillula taurica, and begomoviruses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Specific primer sets of each pathogen were designed based on intergenic ribosomal RNA sequences for the first three, whereas for begomoviruses, primers were designed based on conserved regions. The design also considered that the length (200-800 bp) of the PCR products was resolvable by electrophoresis; thus 296, 380, 457, and 731 bp fragments for Clavibacter, Fusarium, Leveillula, and begomoviruses, respectively, were considered. PCR conditions were optimized to amplify all the products in a single tube from genomic DNA and circumvent PCR inhibitors from infected plants. Finally, when the multiplex PCR assay was tested with tomato plants infected with any of the four pathogens, specific PCR products confirmed the presence of the pathogens. Optimized PCR multiplex allowed for the accurate and simultaneous detection of Clavibacter, Fusarium, Leveillula, and begomoviruses in infected plants or seeds from tomato.
Gast, R K; Beard, C W
The antibody response of laying hens to experimental Salmonella enteritidis infection was evaluated in microagglutination, tube agglutination, and rapid whole-blood plate agglutination assays. Hens of three different ages were infected by either oral inoculation or horizontal contact transmission. Blood was collected at weekly intervals, and the presence of specific antibodies was assessed by reaction with antigens prepared from strains of S. enteritidis and S. pullorum. The sensitivity of detection of infected hens did not vary significantly between the assays, as all three tests effectively identified most exposed hens as seropositive. Within each test, however, variation was observed in the detection sensitivity when different antigens were used. The microagglutination titers of serum samples were determined by serial dilution. Antibody titers peaked at 1 to 2 weeks postinoculation and declined steadily, although most birds were still identified as seropositive at 10 weeks postinoculation. The mean microtest titers obtained with S. enteritidis antigens were higher than with an S. pullorum antigen, indicating greater test sensitivity. However, use of the S. pullorum antigen resulted in fewer false positives when sera from uninfected control hens were tested. The titers of contact-exposed hens peaked later and at lower values than did those of inoculated hens, but these two groups of hens had similar antibody titers after the third week postinoculation.
ROMERO, Roberto; SCHAUDINN, Christoph; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; GORUR, Amita; GOTSCH, Francesca; WEBSTER, Paul; NHAN-CHANG, Chia-Ling; EREZ, Offer; KIM, Chong Jai; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; GONÇALVES, Luis F.; VAISBUCH, Edi; MAZAKI-TOVI, Shali; HASSAN, Sonia S.; COSTERTON, J. William
Objective Microbial biofilms are communities of sessile microorganisms formed by cells that are attached irreversibly to a substratum or interface or to each other and embedded in a hydrated matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Microbial biofilms have been implicated in >80% of human infections such as periodontitis, urethritis, endocarditis, and device-associated infections. Thus far, intra-amniotic infection has been attributed to planktonic (free-floating) bacteria. A case is presented in which “amniotic fluid sludge” was found to contain microbial biofilms. This represents the first report of a microbial biofilm in the amniotic cavity. Study Design “Amniotic fluid sludge” was detected by transvaginal sonography, and retrieved by transvaginal amniotomy. Bacteria were identified using scanning electron microscope and fluorescence in situ hybridization for conserved regions of the microbial genome; and the exopolymeric matrix was identified by histochemistry using the wheat germ agglutinin lectin method. The structure of the biofilm was imaged with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results “Amniotic fluid sludge” was imaged with scanning electron microscopy, which allowed identification of bacteria embedded in an amorphous material and inflammatory cells. Bacteria were demonstrated using fluorescent in situ hybredization using a eubacteria probe. Extracellular matrix was identified with the wheat germ agglutinin lectin stain. Confocal microscopy allowed three-dimensional visualization of the microbial biofilm. Conclusion Microbial biofilms have been identified in a case of intra-amniotic infection with “amniotic fluid sludge.” PMID:18166328
Pant, Shriya; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Gangwar, Pravin K; Waseem, Mohammad; Gupta, Prashant; Sankhwar, Satya N; Purkait, Bimalesh
Introduction Chyluria which is endemic in many parts of the world is mainly caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. CHIT1 (chitotriosidase) is produced by macrophages and plays an important role in the defense against chitin containing pathogen such as filarial parasite. Variation in the coding region with 24 bp duplication allele results in reduced CHIT1 activity that enhance the survival of parasite which may play a role in the occurrence of disease. Aim To examine the role of 24bp duplication of CHIT1 gene in patients of filarial chyluria (FC). Materials and Methods A case-control study was carried out where 155 confirmed FC patients and equal number of age-, sex- and residence-matched controls without any symptoms or signs of lymphatic filariasis, confirmed by negative immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and IgG/IgM combo rapid antibody test, from a hospital-based population were enrolled. Filarial aetiology was confirmed on the basis of DEC-provocative test (Giemsa staining), ICT and IgG/IgM- antifiarial antibody test. The patients positive by either of these tests were enrolled as FC cases. 24bp duplication in CHIT1 gene in FC was detected by the product size 99bp of amplified gene using polymerase chain reaction. Results The mean ages of patients and controls were 38.25±12.09 and 35.45±12.53 years, respectively while male: female ratio was 2.4:1. The mean duration of illness in chyluria patients was 62.81±60.83 months and mean number of episodes was 2.54±1.11. Homozygous wild type, heterozygous and homozygous mutant frequencies were 10.3%, 81.3% and 8.4% in FC patients and 18.7%, 75.5%, and 5.8% in controls, respectively. The 24bp duplication in CHIT1 gene showed a significant association in Heterozygous (HT) genotype with Odd Ratio (OR) of 1.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.01-3.77); p=0.04. However, the homozygous mutant genotype (TT) was found to be non-significant with OR of 2.61, 95% CI (0.91-7.45); p=0.07. The combination of both HT+TT was also found
Euclid, J M; Copeman, D B
A survey on 87 dogs necropsied in the Townsville region revealed 34 (39%) were infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Infected dogs had an average of 6.1 adult worms in the heart and associated blood vessels. The VetRED assay detected 23 of the 34 infected dogs (sensitivity 65%) and the Og4C3 ELISA detected 27 (sensitivity 80%). Sensitivity of the VetRED and Og4C3 ELISA increased to 88 and 94% respectively in dogs with three or more worms. Both tests detected correctly all uninfected dogs. Despite the higher accuracy of the Og4C3 ELISA, compared to the VetRED assay, it is unlikely to be used widely as a field test for heartworm unless it can be modified from its present plate ELISA format which takes 4 hours, into one which is more rapid and convenient. However, as a reference ELISA, it may well be worthwhile in situations which require considerable accuracy for detecting D. immitis infection.
Roy, Priya; Dhara, Debashis; Parida, Pravat Kumar; Kar, Rajiv Kumar; Bhunia, Anirban; Jana, Kuladip; Sinha Babu, Santi P; Misra, Anup Kumar
A series of C-cinnamoyl glycosides has been synthesized in good yield by the BF3·OEt2 catalyzed aldol condensation of C-glycosylated acetone derivative with a variety of aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their potential as anti-filarial agents against bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi and human filariid Wuchereria bancrofti using a number of biological assays such as relative movability (RM) assessment and MTT reduction assay. Among twenty seven test compounds six compounds were found active in terms of MIC, IC50 and LC50 values. Further biological studies were carried out using three lead compounds because of their significantly low MIC values and IC50 values compared to the standard anti-filarial drug Ivermectin. In addition, structure activity relationship study of the test compounds has been carried out using 3D-QSAR analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hamilton, R.G.; Scott, A.L.
An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was developed, optimized, and validated for detection of parasite-specific antigen in sera from hosts with filarial infections, using Dirofilaria immitis in dogs as a model. The precision, reproducibility, and parallelism of the IRMA were examined, using precision profile analysis. The IRMA had acceptable precision and reproducibility (less than 15% intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV)) over a working range of 10 to 2000 ng of D immitis-antigen (AG)/ml. The IRMA parallelism (agreement between dilutions) was acceptable (less than 10% interdilutional CV) with laboratory-spiked D immitis AG sera containing no D immitis-antibody (AB). However, it was not acceptable (greater than 20% interdilutional CV) for analysis of sera from naturally infected dogs containing D immitis AB, probably due to dissociation of immune-complexed AG with increasing serum dilution. Nonparallelism limited the accuracy of binding data interpolation from the standard curve. Specificity of the IRMA was enhanced by preabsorption of the radiolabeled detection antibody with Toxocara canis AG before use. Varying amounts of D immitis AG (22 to 1000 ng/ml) were detected in 42% (20/48) of microfilaremic dogs. The presence of AG-specific AB at concentrations as low as 1 microgram/ml reduced the ability of the IRMA to detect D immitis AG. Factors that influence the accuracy and sensitivity of immunoassays for circulating filarial antigens are discussed.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus. Worldwide, the most common high-risk (HR)-HPV are -16/18, and approximately 70% of cervical cancers (CC) are due to infection by these genotypes. Persistent infection by HR-HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of this cancer, which develops over a long period through precursor lesions, which can be detected by cytological screening. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of CC, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of women with HPV-related cervical disease, and these biomarkers can also be used to increase the positive predictive value of current screening methods. In addition, they can provide insights into the biology of HPV-induced cancer and thus lead to the development of nonsurgical therapies. Considering the importance of detecting HPV and related biomarkers, a variety of methods are being developed for these purposes. This review summarizes current knowledge of detection methods for HPV, and related biomarkers that can be used to discriminate lesions with a high risk of progression to CC. PMID:23131123
Paily, K P; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K
The efficiency of laboratory colonies of mosquitoes such as Anopheles stephensi Liston, Aedes aegypti (L.) Liverpool strain, Ae. aegypti wild type, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex sitiens Wiedemann, and Armigeres subalbatus Coquillett in supporting the development of Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae to infective larvae was investigated. The mosquitoes were fed on heparinized microfilaremic human blood by using a membrane-feeding unit with Parafilm as membrane. The rate of infection, parasite development, and parasite burden were compared with that in the known vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Cx. quinquefasciatus showed the highest percentage of infection, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The rate of development of the parasite was more or less similar in all the three species, and infective larvae were found on day 13. When the larvae were harvested on day 17, Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded the highest numbers, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The percentage of infection was low, and the development was slow in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus compared with the other susceptible species. The parasite developed to second-stage larvae only by day 22 and to infective larvae by day 28. When 2-wk-old Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were fed on microfilaremic blood, they could develop the parasite to infective larvae by day 13 postfeeding. All other species of mosquitoes tested were found to be refractory to parasite development. It is shown that Cx. quinquefasciatus is the most suitable mosquito host for the production of infective larvae. However, Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain, which is commonly used for Brugia malayi filarial parasite, also can be used for generation of W. bancrofti infective larvae to circumvent the problem of maintaining two mosquito species.
O'Connell, Elise M.; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Steel, Cathy; Dolan, Michael A.; Nutman, Thomas B.
Background. Elimination of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis is targeted for 2020. Given the coincident Loa loa infections in Central Africa and the potential for drug resistance development, the need for new microfilaricides and macrofilaricides has never been greater. With the genomes of L. loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi available, new drug targets have been identified. Methods. The effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib on B. malayi adult males, adult females, L3 larvae, and microfilariae were assessed using a wide dose range (0–100 µM) in vitro. Results. For microfilariae, median inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) on day 6 were 6.06 µM for imatinib, 3.72 µM for dasatinib, and 81.35 µM for nilotinib; for L3 larvae, 11.27 µM, 13.64 µM, and 70.98 µM, respectively; for adult males, 41.6 µM, 3.87 µM, and 68.22 µM, respectively; and for adult females, 42.89 µM, 9.8 µM, and >100 µM, respectively. Three-dimensional modeling suggests how these tyrosine kinase inhibitors bind and inhibit filarial protein activity. Conclusions. Given the safety of imatinib in humans, plans are underway for pilot clinical trials to assess its efficacy in patients with filarial infections. PMID:25657255
Gogia, S. B.; Appavoo, N. C.; Mohan, A.; Kumar, M. Burney
A comparative analysis of different conservative modes of therapy for lymphoedema, largely of Filarial origin, was conducted in a trial therapy unit in Chengalpattu, a Filarial endemic district in Tamil Nadu. Results were compared using a single chambered intermittent pneumatic compression pump, heat therapy, and interferential therapy machines. The results showed improvement of limb size between 20% and 60% of possible reduction (where 100% would mean return of limb circumference to the same as that of the normal side). Pneumatic compression therapy, when used alone, showed the best results, which were significantly better than all others whether alone or in combination. PMID:19881016
Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L
Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden.
de Bruin, Jeroen S; Blacky, Alexander; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter
Central venous catheters (CVCs) play an essential role in the care of the critically ill, but their use comes at the risk of infection. By using fuzzy set theory and logic to model clinical linguistic CVC-related infection criteria, clinical detection systems can detect borderline infections where not all infection parameters have been (fully) met, also called fuzzy results. In this paper we analyzed the clinical use of these results. We used a fuzzy-logic-based computerized infection control system for the monitoring of healthcare-associated infections to uncover fuzzy results and periods, after which we classified them, and used these classifications together with knowledge of prior CVC-related infection episodes in temporal association rule mining. As a result, we uncovered several rules which can help with the early detection of re-occurring CVC-related infections.
van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Rutten, Marijke; Koelewijn, Rob; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Verweij, Jaco J.; Wismans, Pieter J.; Kocken, Clemens H.
We describe a PCR-confirmed case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection with a high parasitemia level and clinical signs of severe malaria in a migrant worker from Malaysian Borneo in the Netherlands. Investigations showed that commercially available rapid antigen tests for detection of human Plasmodium infections can detect P. knowlesi infections in humans. PMID:19788819
Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi
Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.
Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shiba, Takuya; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Ueno, Takanori; Hirae, Masahiro; Sasaya, Takahide
Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen–antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases. PMID:24130554
Wadhawan, Mohit; Singh, Neetu; Rathaur, Sushma
Background Current available antifilarial drug strategies only eliminate the larval stages of filarial parasites. Therefore, there is an urgent need of drugs which are macrofilaricidals. Identification of molecular targets crucial for survival of parasite is a prerequisite for drug designing. Cathepsin B, a cysteine protease family member is known to play crucial role in the normal growth, digestion of nutrients, exsheathment of the helminth parasites. Therefore, we targeted this enzyme in the filarial parasite using its specific inhibitor, E-64. Methods and Findings We have exposed the parasites to E-64 and observed their motility and viability at various time intervals. It caused marked decrease in the motility and viability of the parasites ultimately leading to their death after 8 hours. It is well known that E-64 protects the cell from apoptosis, however, it causes apoptotic effect in carcinoma cell lines. To understand the mechanism of action of E-64 on parasite survival, we have measured levels of different apoptotic markers in the treated parasites. E-64 significantly reduced the level of ced-9 and activity of tyrosine phosphatases, cytochrome c oxidase. It also activated ced-3, homolog of mammalian caspase 3 suggesting initiation of an apoptotic like event in the filarial parasites. Different antioxidant enzymes were also evaluated to further explore the mechanism behind the death of the parasites. There was marked decrease in the level of GSH and activity of Glutathione reductase and glutathione-s-transferase leading to increased generation of reactive oxygen species. This led to the induced oxidation of fatty acids and protein which might alter the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Conclusion This study suggests that inhibition of cathepsin B by E-64 generates oxidative stress followed by mitochondrial mediated apoptotic like event in filarial parasites leading to their death. Hence, suggesting filarial cathepsin B as a potential chemotherapeutic
Qinxue, W; Xinyu, L; Wei, H; Tao, L; Yaoping, Y; Jinping, Z; Xiuling, C; Ganyun, Y
So far, it has not been established a satisfactory method for early diagnosis and studying on epidemiology for leprosy, we want to develop a molecular biological method for solving this point. Based on the M. leprae gene coding groEL, 65 kD and 16S rRNA, three polymerase chain reactions were developed by using Plikaytis', Woods' and Pattyn's procedures. It was optimized that the experimental parameters for each PCR, and a comparative study on practivity among three PCRs was also conducted for practical purpose. For detecting infection with M. leprae, all of PCRs established by us were highly sensitive and specific, but for practical purpose, the Woods' PCR optimized by us ought to be chosen firstly.
Moreno, Albino; Valdés, Raquel; Jiménez, Luis; Vallejo, Enrique; Hernández, Salvador; Soto, Gabriel
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a difficult-to-diagnose pathology, since its manifestation in patients is highly variable. In this work, it was proposed a semiautomatic algorithm based on SPECT images digital processing for the detection of IE using a CT images volume as a spatial reference. The heart/lung rate was calculated using the SPECT images information. There were no statistically significant differences between the heart/lung rates values of a group of patients diagnosed with IE (2.62+/-0.47) and a group of healthy or control subjects (2.84+/-0.68). However, it is necessary to increase the study sample of both the individuals diagnosed with IE and the control group subjects, as well as to improve the images quality.
Dąbrowska, Joanna; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Jędryczko, Roman; Cencek, Tomasz
Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite of cattle reproductive system, has been recently discovered as a cause of disease in cats in many countries. T. foetus infects and colonizes cat's ileum, caecum, colon and can lead to enteritis. This paper presents the first clinical case of cat intestinal trichomonosis caused by T. foetus in Poland. The material for this study was a smear collected from a 6-month-old male British Shorthair cat. The presence of parasitic protozoan was determined via microscopic examination and confirmed by amplification of T. foetus rDNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In the first PCR reaction, a DNA of Trichomonadidae was identified and in the second PCR, T. foetus was detected. The T. foetus positive products from the second PCR reaction were sequenced. Interpretation of the sequencing results of obtained amplicons by comparing them with the GenBank database proved that the causative agent, in this case, was T. foetus.
Høgdall, Dan; Hvolris, Jørgen Jesper; Christensen, Lise
Awareness of the role of bacterial biofilm in the pathogenesis of low-grade or chronic infections diagnosed in hip arthroplasty has been on the rise in recent years. The importance of bacterial biofilm for the development of prosthesis failure is probably underestimated, and terms like aseptic loosening, sterile pus and aseptic necrosis are up for revision. The diagnosis of biofilm has been, and still is, difficult, but new molecular biological techniques, alone or in combination with older established ones, have further helped us to uncover lesions, where biofilm is part of the pathology. This article based on a literature search and own observations is primarily focused on newer methods that help us identify the pathology behind infection-based prosthesis failure. We suggest that the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique on carefully selected biopsy material is used in the future to identify live as well as dead bacteria within their environment. The method is quick and sensitive and provides a reliable result with optimal detection rate.
Gupta, A K; Ahmad, I; Borst, I; Summerbell, R C
Xanthomegnin, a mutagenic mycotoxin best known as an agent of nephropathy and death in farm animals exposed to food-borne Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi, was first isolated about 35 y ago as a diffusing pigment from cultures of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton megninii. This study investigates the production of xanthomegnin by the most common dermatophytic species, Trichophyton rubrum, both in dermatologic nail specimens and in culture. In view of the labile nature of xanthomegnin, a chromatographic procedure was developed to allow high-performance liquid chromatography analysis within 1 h of sample extraction. In cultures, Tricho- phyton rubrum produced xanthomegnin as a major pigment that appears to give the culture its characteristic red colony reverse. Xanthomegnin was also repeatedly extracted from human nail and skin material infected by Trichophyton rubrum. The level of xanthomegnin present, however, varied among the clinical samples studied. Xanthomegnin was not detected in uninfected nails. These results show that patients with Trichophyton rubrum infections may be exposed to xanthomegnin, although the consequences of such an exposure are not currently known.
Djafsia, B; Ndjonka, D; Dikti, J V; van Hoorn, S; Manchang, K; Brattig, N; Liebau, E
Excretory-secretory (ES) products of nematodes and other helminths are the first molecules to interact with cell surfaces and soluble proteins within the host. In the present study, ES products of the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi were investigated as a model for Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness. These products were collected from adult and larval stages in vitro over a period of 7 days, to compare their immunological recognition in cattle and human sera, infected with species of Onchocerca. From the 156 sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) ES products or extracts, protein bands showed different patterns between female and male products. A comparison of antibody recognition of the different ES products by sera from infected cattle and humans, when analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), revealed a relatively higher reactivity of the female somatic extract to human and cattle sera compared to ES products of both genders. Nevertheless, similar reactivity of the O. ochengi male and female ES products to human and cattle sera was noticed. As a result, the interaction of ES products with the surface of the host and immune system often led to host responses, including the generation of antibodies. The O. ochengi ES products are therefore good sources of potential immunogenic proteins. The identification of these ES products is in progress, with the aim of developing vaccine candidates against human onchocerciasis.
Steel, Cathy; Kubofcik, Joseph; Ottesen, Eric A.; Nutman, Thomas B.
Background Antibody (Ab) to the Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) infective larval (L3) antigen Wb123, using a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS) assay, has been shown to be a species-specific, early marker of infection developed for potential use as a surveillance tool following transmission interruption post mass drug administration. To examine its usefulness in a single filarial-endemic island assessed at two time points with markedly different levels of transmission, Ab to Wb123 was measured in sera collected from subjects from Mauke, Cook Islands in 1975 (no previous treatment) and 1992 (5 years after a one time island-wide treatment with diethylcarbamazine [DEC]). Findings Between 1975 and 1992, Wb transmission decreased dramatically as evidenced by reduced prevalences of microfilariae (31% vs. 5%) and circulating Ag (CAg, 49% vs. 16%). Age specific prevalence analysis showed a dramatic reduction in Wb123 Ab positivity from 54% (25/46) in 1975 to 8% (3/38) in 1992 in children 1–5 years (p<0.0001), reflecting the effects of single-dose treatment five years earlier. By 1992, Wb123 Ab prevalence in children 6–10 years had fallen from 75% (42/56) in 1975 to 42% (33/79) consistent with a lower cumulative transmission potential. In the whole population, Wb123 seropositivity decreased from 86% to 60% between 1975 and 1992. In CAg+ subjects the levels of Wb123 Ab were indistinguishable between the 2 time points but differed in those who were CAg− (p<0.0001). In paired sample analysis, individuals who were CAg+ in 1975 but became CAg− in 1992 had significantly lower Ab levels in 1992 (p<0.0001), with 9/40 (23%) becoming seronegative for Wb123. Conclusions The relationship between reduction in Wb123 Ab prevalence and the reduction of transmission, seen most clearly in young children, strongly advocates for the continuing assessment and rapid development of Wb123 as a surveillance tool to detect potential transmission of bancroftian filariasis in treated
Steel, Cathy; Kubofcik, Joseph; Ottesen, Eric A; Nutman, Thomas B
Antibody (Ab) to the Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) infective larval (L3) antigen Wb123, using a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS) assay, has been shown to be a species-specific, early marker of infection developed for potential use as a surveillance tool following transmission interruption post mass drug administration. To examine its usefulness in a single filarial-endemic island assessed at two time points with markedly different levels of transmission, Ab to Wb123 was measured in sera collected from subjects from Mauke, Cook Islands in 1975 (no previous treatment) and 1992 (5 years after a one time island-wide treatment with diethylcarbamazine [DEC]). Between 1975 and 1992, Wb transmission decreased dramatically as evidenced by reduced prevalences of microfilariae (31% vs. 5%) and circulating Ag (CAg, 49% vs. 16%). Age specific prevalence analysis showed a dramatic reduction in Wb123 Ab positivity from 54% (25/46) in 1975 to 8% (3/38) in 1992 in children 1-5 years (p<0.0001), reflecting the effects of single-dose treatment five years earlier. By 1992, Wb123 Ab prevalence in children 6-10 years had fallen from 75% (42/56) in 1975 to 42% (33/79) consistent with a lower cumulative transmission potential. In the whole population, Wb123 seropositivity decreased from 86% to 60% between 1975 and 1992. In CAg+ subjects the levels of Wb123 Ab were indistinguishable between the 2 time points but differed in those who were CAg- (p<0.0001). In paired sample analysis, individuals who were CAg+ in 1975 but became CAg- in 1992 had significantly lower Ab levels in 1992 (p<0.0001), with 9/40 (23%) becoming seronegative for Wb123. The relationship between reduction in Wb123 Ab prevalence and the reduction of transmission, seen most clearly in young children, strongly advocates for the continuing assessment and rapid development of Wb123 as a surveillance tool to detect potential transmission of bancroftian filariasis in treated endemic areas.
Phelan, Darcy F.; Gange, Stephen J.; Ahdieh-Grant, Linda; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Shah, Keerti; Gravitt, Patti
Background We sought to identify factors associated with newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a high-risk cohort of injection drug using women in Baltimore, MD. Methods We studied 146 HIV-infected and 73 HIV-uninfected female participants in a 5-year prospective HIV natural history study. We examined the association of sexual and nonsexual risk factors and newly detected type-specific HPV infection as determined by consensus PCR between consecutive visits. Results Newly detected HPV was more common among HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women (30% and 6%, respectively; P <0.01). Among the entire cohort, recent crack use (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1−2.6) and HIV infection/CD4 cell count were independent predictors for new HPV detection (HIV-uninfected as reference, OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.3−8.9, OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.8−10.3, and OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 5.5−21.7 for HIV-infected CD4 >500, 200−500, and <200, respectively). Among HIV-uninfected women, recent marijuana use was an independent predictor of newly detected HPV infection (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3−9.5). Conclusions Newly detected HPV clearly increased with greater immunosuppression in HIV-infected injection drug users. Larger studies of HIV-uninfected and infected high-risk individuals are needed to clarify the independent associations of crack and marijuana use with new (or reactivated) HPV infection. PMID:19174735
Li, Ben Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.
Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) are targets for avermectin/milbemycin (A/M) anthelmintics such as ivermectin that cause paralysis of somatic and pharyngeal muscles in gastrointestinal nematodes. Ivermectin is useful for onchocerciasis control programs because of its activity against microfilariae that often cause ocular disease and severe dermatitis. However, mechanisms responsible for reduced microfilaria production by adult worms following ivermectin treatment are poorly understood. We synthesized subunit-specific RNA probes for the Brugia malayi GluCl gene avr-14 (BmAVR-14) to localize expression of this gene in adult filarial worms. Both subunits of BmAVR-14 exhibited very similar expression patterns. In female worms, strong expression signals were detected in the ovary, developing embryos and lateral hypodermal chords, with moderate expression in the uterus wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae. These genes were also highly expressed in adult male worms (in spermatogonia, in the wall of the vas deferens, and in the lateral chords, but not in mature spermatozoa). In addition, avr-14 was highly expressed in somatic muscles adjacent to the terminal end of the vas deferens which contains mature sperm. These results show that avr-14 is highly expressed in B. malayi developing embryos and reproductive tissues, and they provide evidence for the involvement of GluCl in gamete production and embryogenesis in filarial worms. This may explain the observed suppression of microfilaria (Mf) production by female worms following treatment with avermectin/milbemycin anthelmintics. PMID:25057456
Chesnais, Cédric B.; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D.; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J.; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel
The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.001) and with plasma CFA levels (ρ = 0.91; P < 0.001). Thus, qFTS assessment is a convenient method for quantifying W. bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288
Hussein, Omar; El Setouhy, Maged; Ahmed, Ehab S; Kandil, Amr M; Ramzy, Reda M R; Helmy, Hanan; Weil, Gary J
We used duplex Doppler sonography to assess effects of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole therapy (DEC/ALB) on adult Wuchereria bancrofti in vivo. The study was performed in clinically normal Egyptian adults with blood microfilaria counts > 80/mL. Motile adult worms were observed before treatment in dilated scrotal lymphatic vessels in 28 of 36 men (78%) and over the proximal extremities in 5 of 22 women (23%). Most worm nests were inactivated in the months following treatment (90% at 12 months). Circulating filarial antigen levels (a marker for living adult worms) also fell dramatically following treatment. Some men had intrascrotal calcifications and/or non-palpable hydroceles detectable by ultrasound before they were treated. New hydroceles and intrascrotal calcifications appeared after treatment in many cases. However, most of these were transient and of no clinical significance. Prevelance rates for hydrocele and intrascrotal calcifications 24 months after treatment were essentially the same as those prior to treatment. These results show that DEC/ALB is highly active against adult W. bancrofti. They also suggest that host responses to dying adult worms are important in the pathogenesis of filarial hydroceles.
Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Burk, Robert D.; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Morales, Jorge; Rydzak, Greg; Schiffman, Mark
Background. Detailed descriptions of long-term persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the absence of cervical precancer are lacking. Methods. In a large, population-based natural study conducted in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, we studied a subset of 810 initially HPV-positive women with ≥3 years of active follow-up with ≥3 screening visits who had no future evidence of cervical precancer. Cervical specimens were tested for >40 HPV genotypes using a MY09/11 L1-targeted polymerase chain reaction method. Results. Seventy-two prevalently-detected HPV infections (5%) in 58 women (7%) persisted until the end of the follow-up period (median duration of follow-up, 7 years) without evidence of cervical precancer. At enrollment, women with long-term persistence were more likely to have multiple prevalently-detected HPV infections (P <.001) than were women who cleared their baseline HPV infections during follow-up. In a logistic regression model, women with long-term persistence were more likely than women who cleared infections to have another newly-detected HPV infection detectable at ≥3 visits (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–5.6). Conclusions. Women with long-term persistence of HPV infection appear to be generally more susceptible to other HPV infections, especially longer-lasting infections, than are women who cleared their HPV infections. PMID:21343148
de Bruin, Jeroen S; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Blacky, Alexander; Koller, Walter
Many electronic infection detection systems employ dichotomous classification methods, classifying patient data as pathological or normal with respect to one or several types of infection. An electronic monitoring and surveillance system for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) known as Moni-ICU is being operated at the intensive care units (ICUs) of the Vienna General Hospital (VGH) in Austria. Instead of classifying patient data as pathological or normal, Moni-ICU introduces a third borderline class. Patient data classified as borderline with respect to an infection-related clinical concept or HAI surveillance definition signify that the data nearly or partly fulfill the definition for the respective concept or HAI, and are therefore neither fully pathological nor fully normal. Using fuzzy sets and propositional fuzzy rules, we calculated how frequently patient data are classified as normal, borderline, or pathological with respect to infection-related clinical concepts and HAI definitions. In dichotomous classification methods, borderline classification results would be confounded by normal. Therefore, we also assessed whether the constructed fuzzy sets and rules employed by Moni-ICU classified patient data too often or too infrequently as borderline instead of normal. Electronic surveillance data were collected from adult patients (aged 18 years or older) at ten ICUs of the VGH. All adult patients admitted to these ICUs over a two-year period were reviewed. In all 5099 patient stays (4120 patients) comprising 49,394 patient days were evaluated. For classification, a part of Moni-ICU's knowledge base comprising fuzzy sets and rules for ten infection-related clinical concepts and four top-level HAI definitions was employed. Fuzzy sets were used for the classification of concepts directly related to patient data; fuzzy rules were employed for the classification of more abstract clinical concepts, and for top-level HAI surveillance definitions. Data for each
Introduction The precise trigger of podoconiosis — endemic non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs — is unknown. Epidemiological and ecological studies have linked the disease with barefoot exposure to red clay soils of volcanic origin. Histopathology investigations have demonstrated that silicon, aluminium, magnesium and iron are present in the lower limb lymph node macrophages of both patients and non-patients living barefoot on these clays. We studied the spatial variation (variations across an area) in podoconiosis prevalence and the associated environmental factors with a goal to better understanding the pathogenesis of podoconiosis. Methods Fieldwork was conducted from June 2011 to February 2013 in 12 kebeles (administrative units) in northern Ethiopia. Geo-located prevalence data and soil samples were collected and analysed along with secondary geological, topographic, meteorological and elevation data. Soil data were analysed for chemical composition, mineralogy and particle size, and were interpolated to provide spatially continuous information. Exploratory, spatial, univariate and multivariate regression analyses of podoconiosis prevalence were conducted in relation to primary (soil) and secondary (elevation, precipitation, and geology) covariates. Results Podoconiosis distribution showed spatial correlation with variation in elevation and precipitation. Exploratory analysis identified that phyllosilicate minerals, particularly clay (smectite and kaolinite) and mica groups, quartz (crystalline silica), iron oxide, and zirconium were associated with podoconiosis prevalence. The final multivariate model showed that the quantities of smectite (RR = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.35, 5.73; p = 0.007), quartz (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.26; p = 0.001) and mica (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.13; p < 0.001) in the soil had positive associations with podoconiosis prevalence. Conclusions More quantities of smectite, mica and quartz within the soil
Molla, Yordanos B; Wardrop, Nicola A; Le Blond, Jennifer S; Baxter, Peter; Newport, Melanie J; Atkinson, Peter M; Davey, Gail
The precise trigger of podoconiosis - endemic non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs - is unknown. Epidemiological and ecological studies have linked the disease with barefoot exposure to red clay soils of volcanic origin. Histopathology investigations have demonstrated that silicon, aluminium, magnesium and iron are present in the lower limb lymph node macrophages of both patients and non-patients living barefoot on these clays. We studied the spatial variation (variations across an area) in podoconiosis prevalence and the associated environmental factors with a goal to better understanding the pathogenesis of podoconiosis. Fieldwork was conducted from June 2011 to February 2013 in 12 kebeles (administrative units) in northern Ethiopia. Geo-located prevalence data and soil samples were collected and analysed along with secondary geological, topographic, meteorological and elevation data. Soil data were analysed for chemical composition, mineralogy and particle size, and were interpolated to provide spatially continuous information. Exploratory, spatial, univariate and multivariate regression analyses of podoconiosis prevalence were conducted in relation to primary (soil) and secondary (elevation, precipitation, and geology) covariates. Podoconiosis distribution showed spatial correlation with variation in elevation and precipitation. Exploratory analysis identified that phyllosilicate minerals, particularly clay (smectite and kaolinite) and mica groups, quartz (crystalline silica), iron oxide, and zirconium were associated with podoconiosis prevalence. The final multivariate model showed that the quantities of smectite (RR = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.35, 5.73; p = 0.007), quartz (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.26; p = 0.001) and mica (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.13; p < 0.001) in the soil had positive associations with podoconiosis prevalence. More quantities of smectite, mica and quartz within the soil were associated with podoconiosis prevalence. Together with previous
Singh, Yuvraj; Srinivas, Adepu; Gangwar, Mamta; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja; Chourasia, Manish K
Systemic chemotherapeutic targeting of filarial parasites is unfocused due to their deep seated location in lymphatic vessels. This warrants a prolonged dosing regimen in high doses for an anthelmintic like doxycycline hydrochloride (DOX). In order to provide an alternative, we have constructed ultrafine PLGA nanoparticles of DOX (DPNPs), so as to exploit the peculiarity of lymphatic vasculature underneath the subcutaneous layer of skin, which preferentially allows entry of only 10-100 nm sized particles. DPNPs were constructed using a novel solvent diffusion method aided by probe sonication, which resulted in an average size 95.43 ± 0.8 nm as per DLS, PDI 0.168 ± 0.03, zeta potential -7.38 ± 0.32, entrapment efficiency 75.58 ± 1.94%, and refrigerator stability of 7 days with respect to size in the optimized batch. TEM further substantiated the spherical shape of DPNPs along with their actual nonhydrated size as being well below 100 nm. FTIR analysis of DOX, dummy nanoparticles, and freeze-dried DPNPs revealed that the formulation step did not induce prominent changes in the chemical nature of DOX. The drug release was significantly altered (p < 0.05) with 64.6 ± 1.67% release in 48 h from DPNPs and was dictated by Fickian diffusion. Pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats further revealed that DPNPs caused a 16-fold prolongation in attainment of plasma Tmax and a 2-fold extension of elimination half-life (28.569 ± 1.27 h) at a dose of 5 mg/kg when compared to native drug (DOX solution) of the same strength. Contrastingly the trend was reversed in regional lymph nodes where Cmax for DPNPs (820 ± 84 ng/mg) was 4-fold greater, and lymphatic Tmax was attained in one-fourth of what was required for DOX solution. This size based preferential lymphatic targeting resulted in significantly greater in vivo antifilarial activity of DPNPs when compared to DOX solution as gauged by several parameters in Brugia malayi infected Mastomys coucha. Interestingly, the
Nelson, C T; Istas, A S; Wilkerson, M K; Demmler, G J
PCR detected cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the serum of 18 of 18 infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection, 1 of 2 infants with asymptomatic congenital CMV infection, and 0 of 32 controls. Serum CMV PCR provided a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection in infants who were symptomatic at birth. PMID:8586726
Cotton, R N; McDonald-Fleming, R; Boyd, A; Spates, K; Nutman, T B; Tolouei Semnani, R
Filarial infection in humans is initiated when a mosquito deposits third-stage parasite larvae (L3) in the skin. Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) are the first cells that the parasite encounters, and L3s must evade these highly effective antigen-presenting cells to establish infection. To assess LC and DDC responses to L3 in human skin, we employed three models of increasing physiologic relevance: in vitro-generated LCs, epidermal blister explants and full-thickness human skin sections. In vitro-generated LCs expressed TLR1-10 and robustly produced IL-6 and TNF-α in response to PolyI:C, but pre-exposure to L3s did not alter inflammatory cytokine production or TLR expression. L3s did not modulate expression of LC markers CDH1, CD207, or CD1a, or the regulatory products TSLP or IDO in epidermal explants or in vitro-generated LC. LC, CD14+ DDC, CD1c+ DC and CD141+ DC from human skin sections were analysed by flow cytometry. While PolyI:C potently induced CCL22 production in LC, CD1c+ DC, and CD141+ DC, and IL-10 production in LC, L3s did not modulate the numbers of or cytokine production by any skin DC subset. L3s broadly failed to activate or modulate LCs or DDCs, suggesting filarial larvae expertly evade APC detection in human skin.
Schönemeyer, A; Lucius, R; Sonnenburg, B; Brattig, N; Sabat, R; Schilling, K; Bradley, J; Hartmann, S
Immune responses of individuals infected with filarial nematodes are characterized by a marked cellular hyporesponsiveness and a shift of the cytokine balance toward a Th2/Th3 response. This modulation of cellular immune responses is considered as an important mechanism to avoid inflammatory immune responses that could eliminate the parasites. We investigated the immunomodulatory potential of a secreted cysteine protease inhibitor (onchocystatin) of the human pathogenic filaria Onchocerca volvulus. Recombinant onchocystatin (rOv17), a biologically active cysteine protease inhibitor that inhibited among others the human cysteine proteases cathepsins L and S, suppressed the polyclonally stimulated and the Ag-driven proliferation of human PBMC. Stimulated as well as unstimulated PBMC in the presence of rOv17 produced significantly more IL-10, which was paralleled in some situations by a decrease of IL-12p40 and preceded by an increase of TNF-alpha. At the same time, rOv17 reduced the expression of HLA-DR proteins and of the costimulatory molecule CD86 on human monocytes. Neutralization of IL-10 by specific Abs restored the expression of HLA-DR and CD86, whereas the proliferative block remained unaffected. Depletion of monocytes from the PBMC reversed the rOv17-induced cellular hyporeactivity, indicating monocytes to be the target cells of immunomodulation. Therefore, onchocystatin has the potential to contribute to a state of cellular hyporesponsiveness and is a possible pathogenicity factor essential for the persistence of O. volvulus within its human host.
DA Rocha, N O; Lambert, S M; Dias-Lima, A G; Julião, F S; Souza, B M P S
A polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to screen sandflies for infection with Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an intracellular bacterial endosymbiont found in many arthropods and filarial hosts. Positive results were obtained in five of 200 field-collected sandflies and were confirmed by sequencing. All sandflies were Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) captured in a region endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. This is the first study to identify Wolbachia infection in this Lutzomyia species, which is the main vector of leishmaniasis in the study area. The low infection rate found in this study (2.5%), together with the lack of detection of Wolbachia in previous studies and the diversity found in the sequences analysed, suggests horizontal transmission to these sandflies. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.
Mahajan, Rachna Sabharwal; Veerpathran, Anandharaman; Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Sharma, Richa Dwarkaprasad; Reddy, Maryada Venkatarami
WHO-Tropical Disease Research scheme highlighted the need for development of new anti-filarial drugs. Certain antibiotics have recently been found effective against Wolbachia, co-existing symbiotically with filarial parasites. Inflammatory response entails oxidative mechanism to educe direct anti-microbial effect. In the present study microfilariae were maintained in vitro in medium supplemented with varying concentrations of tetracycline, doxycycline (20–100 μg/ml) or ciprofloxacin (50–250 μg/ml) separately to find out any involvement of oxidative mechanism in the anti-filarial effect of these antibiotics. Loss of motility of the microfilariae was measured after 48 h and correlated with the levels of MDA, nitric oxide and protein-carbonylation. Significant loss of microfilarial motility was recorded with increasing concentration of tetracycline and doxycycline but with ciprofloxacin the effect was not marked. Agents with high antifilarial activity revealed significant association with oxidative parameters in a dose dependent manner. The result suggests that oxidative effect might be exploited to design novel antifilarial drug candidate. PMID:21966105
Tandon, Vipul; Singh, Harbans; Dwivedi, U S; Mahmood, Mufti; Singh, P B
Filariasis is an endemic problem in various Indian states. We evaluated the results of long-term follow up (10-20 years) of patients with filarial chyluria. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 160 patients treated for filarial chyluria who presented to the Banaras Hindu University Hospital from 1982 to 1992. Eighty-four patients (52.5%) were treated using diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and a fat restricted diet and 76 patients (47.5%) underwent surgery. To examine the long-term effects of filarial chyluria we analysed data on post-treatment recurrence, weight gain, dietary freedom, chyluria free period and a number of other associated factors. Previous history of filariasis or its complication was documented in 19% of patients. In 71% of cases, cystoscopy showed that chylous efflux was predominant in the left ureteric orifice. The long-term remission rate was 62% in the conservatively managed group (DEC + fat restricted diet), whereas 90% of patients in the operated group were cured. Postoperative recurrence rate was 10%. There was more weight gain and dietary freedom along with a longer chyluria free period in the operated group relative to the conservatively managed group. Definitive surgical ablation of lymphatic urinary fistula is better than conservative medical management because it has a higher success rate, more dietary freedom and, therefore, better patient acceptability.
Beltrame, Anna; Buonfrate, Dora; Staffolani, Silvia; Degani, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Angheben, Andrea; Marocco, Stefania; Bisoffi, Zeno
We report 74 patients in Italy infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes, a poorly described filarial parasite. M. perstans nematodes should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with eosinophilia from disease-endemic countries. Serologic analysis is useful for screening, and testing for microfilaremia in peripheral blood should be performed for parasite-positive patients. PMID:28820369
Yin, Qing; El-Ashram, Saeed; Liu, Hongbin; Sun, Ximeng; Zhao, Xinxin; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun
Early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection before the formation of tissue cysts is vital for treatment, as drugs available for toxoplasmosis cannot kill bradyzoites contained in the cysts. However, current methods, such as antibody-based ELISA, are ineffective for detection of early infection. Here, we developed an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), measuring the IFN-γ released by T lymphocytes stimulated by Toxoplasma antigen peptides in vitro, for the detection of T. gondii infection in mice. Splenocytes isolated from infected mice were stimulated by peptides derived from dense granule proteins GRA4 and GRA6 and rhoptry protein ROP7, and released IFN-γ was measured by ELISA. Results showed that both acute and chronic infection could be detected by IGRA. More importantly, IGRA detected infection as early as the third day post infection; while serum IgM and IgG were detected 9 days and 13 days post infection, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that an IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative sample revealed an early infection, indicating the combination of IGRA and ELISA can be employed for the early diagnosis of T. gondii infection in human beings, cats and livestock.
Mandell, Iris M; Aghamohammadi, Sara; Deakers, Timothy; Khemani, Robinder G
Nonspecific clinical symptoms frequently lead to suspicion of bacterial infection in critically ill children. Clinicians send bacterial cultures for suspected infection and begin an empiric course of antibiotics while microbiology results are pending. We investigated whether the biomarker procalcitonin could be useful to predict confirmed bacterial infection in critically ill children in the PICU, before culture results are available. Prospective, blinded single-center study. Tertiary PICU and cardiothoracic ICU. There were one hundred forty-four patients with suspected bacterial infections that had bacterial cultures sent by clinicians. Procalcitonin samples were obtained at three time intervals: as close to the time of the initial culture as possible (up to 12 hr after) and 24 and 72 hours after the initial culture. Patients were stratified into clinical outcome groups based on microbiology results and clinical symptoms using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. These assignments were blinded to procalcitonin levels. Primary outcome was the presence of culture-proven bacterial infection. There was a statistically significant difference in initial and subsequent median procalcitonin values between patients with confirmed bacterial infections and patients with low suspicion of bacterial infection (p < 0.02). However, there was extremely high variability in procalcitonin values among all groups. Procalcitonin had only a fair ability to predict bacterial infection, with area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic plots ranging between 0.63 and 0.71. When using serial procalcitonin values to predict bacterial infection, positive likelihood ratios were near 1 and negative likelihood ratios were between 0.3 and 0.4. Procalcitonin levels were higher in children with documented confirmed bacterial infection as compared with those with low suspicion of infection. However, neither single nor serial procalcitonin measurements were able to
Stepek, G; Houston, K M; Goodridge, H S; Devaney, E; Harnett, W
Previous studies have shown that the secreted phosphorylcholine-containing glycoprotein of filarial nematodes, ES-62, is only present in the post-infective life-cycle stages, but that the mRNA is transcribed throughout the worm's life-cycle. The aim of this current study was to investigate whether the presence or absence of protein expression simply reflects differences in mRNA abundance. To this end, we investigated the relative abundance of ES-62 using TaqMan real time RT-PCR, in different life-cycle stages of 2 model filarial nematode parasites, Acanthocheilonema viteae and Brugia pahangi. For B. pahangi, microfilariae, infective larvae and adult worms were each found to have approximately similar levels of ES-62 mRNA. However, the corresponding stages of A. viteae differed greatly from each other with a pattern of increased mRNA production with maturation. As a rule A. viteae had higher levels of ES-62 mRNA than B. pahangi, and this was particularly noticeable in the adult stage where the difference was approximately 3500-fold higher. However, this significant difference in mRNA abundance was not reflected in the quantity of ES-62 protein secreted by the adult worms of each species, as A. viteae only secreted approximately 3 times as much ES-62 as B. pahangi. Thus, overall, the results obtained from this study indicate that ES-62 protein production does not solely reflect mRNA levels, and also suggest that the 2 nematodes may employ different mechanisms for regulating protein production.
Oli, Geleta Geshere; Ayele, Fasil Tekola; Petros, Beyene
OBJECTIVE Both podoconiosis (a geochemical non-filarial disease) and chronic filarial disease result in lower limb elephantiasis. The aims of the present study were to determine whether the elephantiasis in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia is filarial or non-filarial (podoconiosis) using serological, parasitological, and clinical examinations, and to estimate its prevalence. METHODS House-to-house visits were made in 330 randomly selected households. All household members that had elephantiasis were interviewed and clinically examined at the nearby health center to confirm presence of elephantiasis, check presence of scrotal swelling, and rule out other causes of lymphoedema. Midnight blood sample was obtained from each participant with elephantiasis for microscopic examination of W. bancrofti microfilaria. Day time blood sample was obtained from half of the participants for serological confirmation using the immuno-chromatographic test card. RESULTS Consistent with features of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis), none of the elephantiasis cases had consistently worn shoes since childhood; 94.3% had bilateral swelling limited below the level of the knees; no individual had thigh or scrotal elephantiasis; parasitological test for microfilariae and serological tests for W. bancrofti antigen turned negative in all samples. The prevalence of the disease was 7.4%. Prevalence peaked in the third decade of life, which also includes the most economically active age groups. CONCLUSIONS This study has shown high prevalence of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) and absence of filarial elephantiasis in Midakegn district. Prevention, treatment, and control of podoconiosis must be among the top priorities of public health programs in the district. PMID:22487446
Lymphatic filariasis, transmitted by mosquitoes is the commonest cause of lymphedema in endemic countries. Among 120 million infected people in 83 countries, up to 16 million have lymphedema. Microfilariae ingested by mosquitoes grow into infective larvae. These larvae entering humans after infected mosquito bites grow in the lymphatics to adult worms that cause damage to lymphatics resulting in dilatation of lymph vessels. This earliest pathology is demonstrated in adults as well as in children, by ultrasonography, lymphoscintigraphy and histopathology studies. Once established, this damage was thought to be irreversible. This lymphatic damage predisposes to bacterial infection that causes recurrent acute attacks of dermato-lymphangio-adenitis in the affected limbs. Bacteria, mainly streptococci gain entry into the lymphatics through 'entry lesions' in skin, like interdigital fungal infections, injuries, eczema or similar causes that disrupt integrity of skin. Attacks of dermato-lymphangio-adenitis aggravates lymphatic damage causing lymphedema, which gets worse with repeated acute attacks. Elephantiasis is a late manifestation of lymphatic filariasis, which apart from limbs may involve genitalia or breasts. Lymphedema management includes use of antifilarial drugs in early stages, treatment and prevention of acute attacks through 'limb-hygiene', antibiotics and antifungals where indicated, and physical measures to reduce the swelling. In selected cases surgery is helpful. PMID:18830049
Wang, Zhe; Su, Xiao-Min; Wen, Juan; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia
Wolbachia are intracellular symbionts that infect a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Aphids are engaged in diverse and complex relationships with their endosymbionts. Four supergroups (A, B, M and N) of Wolbachia were previously detected in aphids and supergroups M and N were only found in aphids. In this study, we detected and described Wolbachia infections in natural populations of aphids in China. Three supergroups (A, B and M) were found in the examined aphid species. Supergroup M was preponderant, whereas supergroups A and B were only detected in certain species. Supergroup N was not found in this study. There were four infection patterns of Wolbachia in aphids, namely, infection with supergroup M alone, co-infection with supergroups A and M, co-infection with supergroups B and M, and co-infection with supergroups A, B and M. The pattern of infection only with supergroup M was universal and was found in all evaluated subfamilies. Only two subfamilies, Aphidinae and Lachninae, manifested to present all four infection patterns. Three patterns were observed in Calaphidinae (M, A&M, B&M) and Eriosomatinae (M, B&M, A&B&M). Two patterns were observed in the Anoeciinae (M, A&M) and Greenideinae (M, B&M), and only one pattern (M) was observed in the remaining families and/or subfamilies of Aphidoidea. These results indicated that Wolbachia infections in Chinese aphids are widespread. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Wolbachia supergroup M spread rapidly and recently among all host species of aphids in China. Reasons for this spread and its mechanisms are discussed along with the possible effects of Wolbachia on their aphid hosts.
Levy, Michael Z.; Kawai, Vivian; Bowman, Natalie M.; Waller, Lance A.; Cabrera, Lilia; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana V.; Seitz, Amy E.; Steurer, Frank J.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn
Background Millions of people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. Anti-trypanosomal drug therapy can cure infected individuals, but treatment efficacy is highest early in infection. Vector control campaigns disrupt transmission of T. cruzi, but without timely diagnosis, children infected prior to vector control often miss the window of opportunity for effective chemotherapy. Methods and Findings We performed a serological survey in children 2–18 years old living in a peri-urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and linked the results to entomologic, spatial and census data gathered during a vector control campaign. 23 of 433 (5.3% [95% CI 3.4–7.9]) children were confirmed seropositive for T. cruzi infection by two methods. Spatial analysis revealed that households with infected children were very tightly clustered within looser clusters of households with parasite-infected vectors. Bayesian hierarchical mixed models, which controlled for clustering of infection, showed that a child's risk of being seropositive increased by 20% per year of age and 4% per vector captured within the child's house. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) plots of best-fit models suggest that more than 83% of infected children could be identified while testing only 22% of eligible children. Conclusions We found evidence of spatially-focal vector-borne T. cruzi transmission in peri-urban Arequipa. Ongoing vector control campaigns, in addition to preventing further parasite transmission, facilitate the collection of data essential to identifying children at high risk of T. cruzi infection. Targeted screening strategies could make integration of diagnosis and treatment of children into Chagas disease control programs feasible in lower-resource settings. PMID:18160979
Steel, J Jordan; Franz, Alexander W E; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Olson, Ken E; Geiss, Brian J
Current methods for detecting real-time alphavirus (Family Togaviridae) infection in mosquitoes require the use of recombinant viruses engineered to express a visibly detectable reporter protein. These altered viruses expressing fluorescent proteins, usually from a duplicated viral subgenomic reporter, are effective at marking infection but tend to be attenuated due to the modification of the genome. Additionally, field strains of viruses cannot be visualized using this approach unless infectious clones can be developed to insert a reporter protein. To circumvent these issues, we have developed an insect cell-based system for detecting wild-type sindbis virus infection that uses a virus inducible promoter to express a fluorescent reporter gene only upon active virus infection. We have developed an insect expression system that produces sindbis virus minigenomes containing a subgenomic promoter sequence, which produces a translatable RNA species only when infectious virus is present and providing viral replication proteins. This subgenomic reporter RNA system is able to detect wild-type Sindbis infection in cultured mosquito cells. The detection system is relatively species specific and only detects closely related viruses, but can detect low levels of alphavirus specific replication early during infection. A chikungunya virus detection system was also developed that specifically detects chikungunya virus infection. Transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquito families were established that constitutively express the sindbis virus reporter RNA and were found to only express fluorescent proteins during virus infection. This virus inducible reporter system demonstrates a novel approach for detecting non-recombinant virus infection in mosquito cell culture and in live transgenic mosquitoes.
Dinh, Thanh; Snyder, Graham; Veves, Aristidis
Diabetic foot infections can be a challenge to diagnose, especially when osteomyelitis is in question. Evaluation of infection should involve a thorough examination of the extremity for clinical signs of infection along with appropriate laboratory and imaging studies. Laboratory markers of inflammation such as peripheral leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin may provide useful information when diagnosing soft tissue and bone infection. However, laboratory markers alone should not be used to diagnose a diabetic foot infection as they are non-specific in nature. Imaging studies may also provide valuable clues regarding the presence of infection. Plain radiographs are a good initial screening tool as they are both inexpensive and easily accessible. However, their sensitivity in diagnosing osteomyelitis is poor. Thus, more advanced imaging such as radionuclide imaging and magnetic resonance imaging are warranted when osteomyelitis is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is presently considered the gold standard in diagnosing osteomyelitis, despite its wide variation in reported sensitivity and specificity. However, the significant cost of magnetic resonance imaging prevents its use as a screening tool. Collection of reliable microbiologic data is critical in making a diagnosis as well as for treatment of infection, especially when osteomyelitis is concerned. Deep swabs and transcutaneous bone biopsy are considered the ideal methods of obtaining the necessary information. Finally, monitoring treatment should also be performed with an eye towards both laboratory data and the clinical exam.
Singh, Neetu; Yadav, Smita; Rathaur, Sushma
A significant amount of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity was detected in the detergent-soluble membrane-bound fraction of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite. The membrane-bound PTP activity was significantly inhibited when the adult parasites were exposed to compounds having antifilarial activity like aspirin and SK7 as well as phenylarsine oxide, a specific PTP inhibitor suggesting that this activity is stress regulated. Further, this enzyme was purified as a single protein of apparently 21 kDa using two different chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-MS/MS analysis of its peptides showed closest match with protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (Aedes aegypti). This purified enzyme (named as PRL) showed maximum activity at pH 5.5/37 °C and hydrolysed para nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP) at the highest rate followed by O-P-L-tyrosine and O-P-L-threonine. It showed significant inhibition by specific inhibitors of PTP such as sodium orthovanadate, phenylarsine oxide and ammonium molybdate and was activated by dithiothreitol (DTT). The active site modification studies suggested involvement of cysteine, arginine, histidine and aspartic acid in the catalytic activity of PRL. The activity of S. cervi PRL was also found to be resistant towards the external oxidative stress. Thus, S. cervi PRL could be taken as a potential target for the management of human lymphatic filariasis.
Kal'noĭ, S M
A system of new accelerated and rapid methods for the detection of the antigens of the infective agents of plague, cholera, tularemia and brucellosis were developed on the basis of solid phase immunosuspension tests: the passive hemagglutination (PHA) test and the latex agglutination (LA) test. The immunological and physico-chemical properties of suspensions in the PHA and LA tests made it possible to use extraneous sources of energy (centrifugal acceleration and the electric field) to accelerate these tests. The results of the PHA and LA tests were registered with the use of a densitometer, model Ultrascan 2202, and a tester, model C 34014.2. To apply centrifugal acceleration and the electric field, a laboratory centrifuge and an electrophoretic microchamber were designed. Densitometry was carried out on modified plates and conductometry, with the use of modified electrodes. The time of obtaining the results of the PHA and LA tests was 15-30 minutes with the use of centrifugation and 2-5 minutes in the electric field, which made it possible to regard these tests as rapid.
Sayle, B.A.; Fawcett, H.D.; Wilkey, D.J.; Cierny, G. III; Mader, J.T.
Thirty-three patients with painful joint prostheses and a suspicion of infection were imaged with (/sup 111/In)chloride. A final diagnosis was established by culture in 19. Of these, 12 were categorized as true positives and three as true negatives. There were two false-positive studies, occurring in patients with knee prostheses. In both, the culture was obtained by aspiration. The sensitivity was 86%, specificity 60%, and accuracy 79%. Seventeen of the proven cases had bone imaging prior to (/sup 111/In)chloride imaging. All 17 static images were positive and were not helpful in differentiating loosening from infection. Using increased uptake on the blood-pool image as a criteria for infection, the sensitivity was 89%, but the specificity was 0. Adding flow studies made little difference in interpreting the blood-pool images. This study shows that (/sup 111/In)chloride imaging is more accurate in evaluating infection in prosthesis than bone imaging.
Background In a globalized word, prevention of infectious diseases is a major challenge. Rapid detection of viable virus particles in water and other environmental samples is essential to public health risk assessment, homeland security and environmental protection. Current virus detection methods, especially assessing viral infectivity, are complex and time-consuming, making point-of-care detection a challenge. Faster, more sensitive, highly specific methods are needed to quantify potentially hazardous viral pathogens and to determine if suspected materials contain viable viral particles. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with cellular-based sensing, may offer a precise way to detect specific viruses. This approach utilizes infrared light to monitor changes in molecular components of cells by tracking changes in absorbance patterns produced following virus infection. In this work poliovirus (PV1) was used to evaluate the utility of FTIR spectroscopy with cell culture for rapid detection of infective virus particles. Results Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGMK) cells infected with different virus titers were studied at 1 - 12 hours post-infection (h.p.i.). A partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to analyze and model cellular responses to different infection titers and times post-infection. The model performs best at 8 h.p.i., resulting in an estimated root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 17 plaque forming units (PFU)/ml when using low titers of infection of 10 and 100 PFU/ml. Higher titers, from 103 to 106 PFU/ml, could also be reliably detected. Conclusions This approach to poliovirus detection and quantification using FTIR spectroscopy and cell culture could potentially be extended to compare biochemical cell responses to infection with different viruses. This virus detection method could feasibly be adapted to an automated scheme for use in areas such as water safety monitoring and medical diagnostics. PMID
Santa-Ana, Marta; Khadem, Manhaz; Capela, Ruben
Field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether Culex theileri Theobald functions as a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) on Madeira Island, Portugal. CO2-baited light traps (EVS traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between February 2002 and February 2003 in the area of Quebradas (Funchal). Three mosquito species were captured, including 58 Culex pipiens L., 790 Cx. theileri, and three Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). Only C. theileri tested positive for D. immitis. The presence of this filarial worm was detected by direct observation, infectivity assay dissection technique, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Infected mosquitoes were recovered in October and December 2002 and January 2003. These data provide evidence that Cx. theileri could be the main vector of D. immitis in Funchal, Madeira.
Murcia, Laura; Simón, Marina; Carrilero, Bartolomé; Roig, Mercedes; Segovia, Manuel
We evaluated the effectiveness of treating women of childbearing age with benznidazole to prevent congenital Chagas disease (CCD), as well as the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a tool to predict the risk of transmission. Prospective study involving 144 T. cruzi seropositive pregnant women. The parasitological status was studied by PCR in 159 pregnancies, 38 of which involved a cohort of previously treated mothers. One hundred sixty children were examined by PCR and serologically studied at 0-6, 9 and 12 months and annually after treatment. PCR was seen to be useful for predicting the risk of congenital transmission: 18.8% of mothers with a positive PCR result transmitted the infection (16 infected children out of 85 pregnancies). No infected infants were detected among 74 pregnancies when PCR was negative. Of the treated mothers, 92.1% had negative PCR results, compared with 32.2% of untreated mothers. No infected infants were detected from previously treated mothers, compared with 13.2% among untreated mothers (P = .019; χ2). All infants treated before the first year of life were cured. Treating infected women of childbearing age prevents congenital Chagas disease. Polymerase chain reaction screening of T. cruzi-infected pregnant women is a useful tool for predicting the risk of congenital transmission.
Nieves Parisi, M D; Enria, D A; Pini, N C; Sabattini, M S
Hantavirus activity in rodents and human beings in Argentina has been known since the 1980's. In this study, we retrospectively investigated hantavirus infections among Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) cases notified between 1987 and 1994, without virological confirmation. IgG and IgM antibodies to hantavirus were tested by ELISA. Among 1028 patients included in the study, we found 13 recent infections (1.26%) and 13 remote infections (1.26%). IgG antibodies determined in 745 healthy persons living in the same localities of recent infection cases, gave only one positive result (0.13%). Nine of the 13 recent infections had the clinical presentation of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) while the other four were in the form of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). We performed a clinical and epidemiological comparison between the nine patients with FHSR and two paired control groups: one with confirmed AHF and the other with Febrile Syndrome of Undetermined Etiology (FSUE), which were negative for hantavirus, Junin and LCM. There were no differences between clinical signs or symptoms. Nevertheless, normal or high leucocyte counts, with thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, high creatinine levels and proteinuria in HFRS cases resulted useful for differential diagnosis. These results showed the coexistence of Junin virus and hantaviruses in the endemic area of AHF, and indicate the importance of including the infection with these viruses in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic fevers and respiratory distress syndromes of unknown etiology. The clinical variability found could be related to the presence of more than one hantavirus serotype in our country.
Buathong, Rome; Hermann, Laura; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Klungthong, Chonticha; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Nisalak, Ananda; Fernandez, Stefan; Yoon, In-Kyu; Akrasewi, Passakorn; Plipat, Tanarak
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in travelers, provide evidence that ZIKV is widespread throughout Thailand. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Filarial parasites are members of the Phylum Nemata that comprise several species of medical and veterinary importance. Among the human diseases caused by members of this group of nematodes are river blindness and lymphatic filariasis, which afflict millions of people in the tropics. These diseases not only have an impact on the health of the people affected but also bear a great socioeconomic burden. Despite their relevance, the systematics of the filarial parasites is not well understood yet, and additional molecular phylogenetic studies are required to comprehend the evolution of these parasites. Identifying the patterns of evolution of these parasites will be of relevance in preventing emerging zoonoses. The present review examines the information about the molecular systematics of filarial parasites available in the literature and evaluates the relevance of the different directions of future research. Furthermore, it is also intended to highlight the relevance of molecular systematic studies in the molecular epidemiology research area.
Background: Bovine tuberculosis remains one of the most damaging zoonotic diseases. A critical need exists for rapid and inexpensive diagnostics capable of detecting and differentiating M. bovis infection from other pathogenic and environmental mycobacteria at multiple surveillance levels. Method...
Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing has devastated the Florida citrus industry and is threatening citrus in Texas and California. Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infections as early as possible is ...
sensors of bacterial infection, as a means of constructing an early warning system by which a detectable signal could be generated. The project...infection by MCMV (a mouse equivalent of human cytomegalovirus), and eight mutations that create susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes have been
Plazzotta, Giacomo; Cohen, Ted; Colijn, Caroline
High resolution tests for genetic variation reveal that individuals may simultaneously host more than one distinct strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous studies find that this phenomenon, which we will refer to as "mixed infection", may affect the outcomes of treatment for infected individuals and may influence the impact of population-level interventions against tuberculosis. In areas where the incidence of TB is high, mixed infections have been found in nearly 20% of patients; these studies may underestimate the actual prevalence of mixed infection given that tests may not be sufficiently sensitive for detecting minority strains. Specific reasons for failing to detect mixed infections would include low initial numbers of minority strain cells in sputum, stochastic growth in culture and the physical division of initial samples into parts (typically only one of which is genotyped). In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework that models the study designs aimed to detect mixed infections. Using both a deterministic and a stochastic approach, we obtain posterior estimates of the prevalence of mixed infection. We find that the posterior estimate of the prevalence of mixed infection may be substantially higher than the fraction of cases in which it is detected. We characterize this bias in terms of the sensitivity of the genotyping method and the relative growth rates and initial population sizes of the different strains collected in sputum.
Peters, Iain R.; Helps, Chris R.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Day, Michael J.; Tasker, Séverine
The aim of this study was to use fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) to search for the tissues and cell types important in survival and persistence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum” or “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis” in infected cats. A 16S rDNA probe for each species was applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues sections collected from experimentally infected cats. Tissues (n = 12) were collected, at necropsy, from ten cats which had been infected with M. haemofelis, and one each with “Ca. M. haemominutum” and “Ca. M. turicensis”. M. haemofelis specific hybridisation was present on red blood cells (RBCs) in all tissues from acutely infected cats, but not the majority of tissues from chronically infected cats. “Ca. M. haemominutum” specific hybridisation was present on scattered RBCs within the spleen and liver. Specific probe hybridisation was not detected in any of the “Ca. M. turicensis” infected tissues. Haemoplasmas were detected on the surface of RBCs only and not any other cell type. Additionally, FISH was limited by sensitivity and could not detect the lower numbers of organisms present in tissues of cats chronically infected with M. haemofelis. Occasional organisms were detected in cats acutely infected with “Ca. M. haemominutum” but not “Ca. M. turicensis”. PMID:21129480
Peng, Ying; Yang, Chongguang; Li, Xia; Luo, Tao; Li, Fabin; Gao, Qian
By using VNTR genotyping, mixed infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were detected in 11.2% of cases in a prospective study in Heilongjiang China, a setting with a high prevalence (87.5%) of Beijing family strains. If only one sputum sample had been collected, the study would have underestimated the fraction of mixed infections by 50%.
Palau, Montserrat; Kulmann, Marcos; Ramírez-Lázaro, María José; Lario, Sergio; Quilez, María Elisa; Campo, Rafael; Piqué, Núria; Calvet, Xavier; Miñana-Galbis, David
Helicobacter pylori infects human stomachs of over half the world's population, evades the immune response and establishes a chronic infection. Although most people remains asymptomatic, duodenal and gastric ulcers, MALT lymphoma and progression to gastric cancer could be developed. Several virulence factors such as flagella, lipopolysaccharide, adhesins and especially the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA and the oncoprotein CagA have been described for H. pylori. Despite the extensive published data on H. pylori, more research is needed to determine new virulence markers, the exact mode of transmission or the role of multiple infection. Amplification and sequencing of six housekeeping genes (amiA, cgt, cpn60, cpn70, dnaJ, and luxS) related to H. pylori pathogenesis have been performed in order to evaluate their usefulness for the specific detection of H. pylori, the genetic discrimination at strain level and the detection of multiple infection. A total of 52 H. pylori clones, isolated from 14 gastric biopsies from 11 patients, were analyzed for this purpose. All genes were specifically amplified for H. pylori and all clones isolated from different patients were discriminated, with gene distances ranged from 0.9 to 7.8%. Although most clones isolated from the same patient showed identical gene sequences, an event of multiple infection was detected in all the genes and microevolution events were showed for amiA and cpn60 genes. These results suggested that housekeeping genes could be useful for H. pylori detection and to elucidate the mode of transmission and the relevance of the multiple infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
de Oliveira, Tércia Moreira Ludolfo; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Rivetti, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Alves, Pedro Augusto; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Cerqueira, Mônica Maria Oliveira Pinho; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela
Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects lactating cows and milkers. VACV DNA and infectious particles have been detected in milk of naturally infected cows. However, the period and pattern of VACV shedding in milk is unknown, as is whether the presence of VACV in milk is due to a localized or a systemic infection. To address those questions, eight lactating cows were inoculated with VACV in previously scarified teats. The experiment was divided in two phases. In Phase 1, milk samples were collected daily for 33 days, and in Phase 2, four animals from the first phase were immunosuppressed. In both phases, milk was collected with a sterile catheter on even days and by hand milking on odd days. All animals showed typical BV lesions in the inoculated teats. All milk samples were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR to detect VACV DNA. PCR-positive samples were subjected to virus isolation. VACV DNA was intermittently detected in milk in both phases and infectious viral particles could be detected only in phase 2, on the 69th, 73rd, 74th, 77th, 79th, and 81st days postinfection. Despite the possibility of propagation of VACV through milk, it is known that milk continues to be drawn and marketed normally during outbreaks of the disease. The detection of both VACV DNA and infectious particles in milk samples draws attention to the potential public health risk associated with the consumption of milk from BV outbreaks. Detection of VACV in the milk from noninfected teats demonstrated that VACV shedding in milk might be related to a systemic infection. Moreover, it was shown that VACV DNA and viral infectious particles could be detected in milk even after healing of the lesions, demonstrating that VACV may cause a persistent infection in cattle.
Esteban-Redondo, I; Maley, S W; Thomson, K; Nicoll, S; Wright, S; Buxton, D; Innes, E A
It has been reported in the literature that cattle are more resistant to toxoplasmosis than sheep. Congenital disease due to T. gondii infection is rarely reported in cattle whereas the parasite is a major cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in sheep. It is believed that sheep remain chronically infected for life. Undercooked meat from infected sheep is an important source of infection for man. In contrast cattle are thought to harbour fewer parasite tissue cysts which may not persist for the lifetime of the host. Therefore, cattle are believed to pose less of a risk for human infection. In this study we examined the presence of T. gondii within a range of tissues in sheep and cattle at 6 weeks and 6 months following oral infection with 10(3) or 10(5) sporulated oocysts of T. gondii. The presence of parasite was determined by bioassay in mice and using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results from this study show that T. gondii was more frequently and consistently detected in sheep, in particular within brain and heart tissues, whereas parasites were not detected in the samples of tissues taken from cattle. T. gondii was more frequently detected in sheep given the higher dose of T. gondii. Examination of tissues at either 6 weeks or 6 months after infection did not appear to affect the distribution of T. gondii. The polymerase chain reaction has more specificity and sensitivity when detecting the presence of T. gondii in large animals than histological detection.
Ochs, Renee; Wu, Ying; Sammet, Christina L.; Shoukry, Alfred; Epstein, Leon G.
Objective: Brain changes occurring early in HIV infection are not well characterized. The Chicago Early HIV Infection Study aimed to evaluate the presence and extent of structural brain alterations using quantitative MRI. Methods: Forty-three HIV and 21 control subjects were enrolled. Mean length of infection was estimated as less than 1 year based on assay results. High-resolution neuroanatomical images were acquired. Automated image analysis was used to derive measurements for total brain, ventricular volume, and for tissue classes (total and cortical gray matter, white matter, and CSF). A separate image analysis algorithm was used to calculate measurements for individual brain regions. Cognitive function was assessed by neuropsychological evaluation. Results: Reductions were quantified in total (p = 0.0547) and cortical (p = 0.0109) gray matter in the HIV group. Analysis of individual brain regions with a separate image analysis algorithm revealed consistent findings of reductions in cerebral cortex (p = 0.042) and expansion of third ventricle (p = 0.046). The early HIV group also demonstrated weaker performance on several neuropsychological tests, with the most pronounced difference in psychomotor speed (p = 0.001). Conclusions: This cross-sectional brain volumetric study indicates structural alterations early in HIV infection. The findings challenge the prevailing assumption that the brain is spared in this period. Revisiting the question of the brain's vulnerability to processes unfolding in the initial virus-host interaction and the early natural history may yield new insights into neurologic injury in HIV infection and inform neuroprotection strategies. PMID:23197750
Goyal, Neeraj Kumar; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Singh, Vishwajeet; Ali, Wahid; Natu, S M; Singh, Bhupendra Pal; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Dalela, Divakar
Filarial chyluria is a common problem in filarial endemic countries. Its management begins with medical therapy but some patients progress to require surgery. The present study aimed to determine factors affecting response to medical management in patients of filarial chyluria. This prospective study conducted between August 2008 and November 2012, included conservatively managed patients of chyluria. Demographic profile, clinical presentation, treatment history and urinary triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol levels at baseline were compared between the responders and non-responders. Apart from the clinical grade of chyluria, hematuria was evaluated as an independent risk factor. Out of the 222 patients (mean age, 37.99 ± 13.29 years, 129 males), 31 patients failed to respond while 35 had a recurrence after initial response; the overall success rate being 70.3% at a mean follow-up of 25 months. No difference was observed in demographics, clinical presentation, presence of hematuria, disease duration and mean urinary TGs loss between responders and non-responders. On multivariate analysis, patients with treatment failure were found to have a higher-grade disease (14.3% Grade-I, 36.6% Grades-II and 60% Grade-III), higher number of pretreatment courses (1.59 ± 1.08 vs. 1.02 ± 0.79) and heavier cholesterol (26.54 ± 23.46 vs. 8.81 ± 8.55 mg/dl) loss at baseline compared with responders (P < 0.05). Conservative management has a success rate in excess of 70%, not affected by the disease chronicity, previous episodes and recurrent nature. However, higher-grade disease, extensive pre-treatment with drugs and higher urinary cholesterol loss at baseline are the predictors of poor response. Hematuria is not an independent poor risk factor for conservative management.
Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...
Hebert, Colin G; Hart, Sean J; Terray, Alex
The rapid and robust identification of viral infections has broad implications for a number of fields, including medicine, biotechnology and biodefense. Most detection systems rely on specific molecules, such as nucleic acids or proteins, to identify the target(s) of interest. These molecules afford great specificity, but are often expensive, labor-intensive, labile and limited in scope. Label free detection methods seek to overcome these limitations by instead using detection methods that rely on intrinsic properties as a basis for identifying and separating species of interest and thus do not rely on specific prior knowledge of the target. Optical chromatography, one such technique, uses the balance between optical and fluidic drag forces within a microfluidic channel to determine the optical force on cells or particles. Here we present the application of individual optical force measurements as a means of investigating pseudorabies virus infection in Vero cells. Optical force differences are seen between cells from uninfected and infected populations at a multiplicity of infection as low as 0.001 and as soon as 2 hours post infection, demonstrating the potential of this technique as a means of detecting viral infection. Through the application of a pattern recognition neural network, individual cell size data are combined with optical force as a means of classifying cell populations. Potential applications include the early detection of bloodborne pathogens for the prevention of sepsis and other diseases as well as the detection of biological threat agents.
Nayak, Mamita; Meher, Susanta; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar
Amelanotic melanoma arising on chronic lymphoedema has not been reported earlier. We reported a case of amelanotic melanoma of right leg developing in a background of chronic lymphoedema of filarial origin in an elderly male of 60 years, who underwent wide local excision of the lesion followed by skin grafting for the same. A histopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was made. The patient was on follow up when he developed brain metastasis within a period of nine months for which he was operated and is on regular follow up now. We believe this as the first case report of this unusual combination. PMID:28273977
Rosen, David A; Hooton, Thomas M; Stamm, Walter E; Humphrey, Peter A; Hultgren, Scott J
Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). While UTIs are typically considered extracellular infections, it has been recently demonstrated that UPEC bind to, invade, and replicate within the murine bladder urothelium to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). These IBCs dissociate and bacteria flux out of bladder facet cells, some with filamentous morphology, and ultimately establish quiescent intracellular reservoirs that can seed recurrent infection. This IBC pathogenic cycle has not yet been investigated in humans. In this study we sought to determine whether evidence of an IBC pathway could be found in urine specimens from women with acute UTI. Methods and Findings We collected midstream, clean-catch urine specimens from 80 young healthy women with acute uncomplicated cystitis and 20 asymptomatic women with a history of UTI. Investigators were blinded to culture results and clinical history. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy for evidence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria. Evidence of IBCs was found in 14 of 80 (18%) urines from women with UTI. Filamentous bacteria were found in 33 of 80 (41%) urines from women with UTI. None of the 20 urines from the asymptomatic comparative group showed evidence of IBCs or filaments. Filamentous bacteria were present in all 14 of the urines with IBCs compared to 19 (29%) of 66 samples with no evidence of IBCs (p < 0.001). Of 65 urines from patients with E. coli infections, 14 (22%) had evidence of IBCs and 29 (45%) had filamentous bacteria, while none of the gram-positive infections had IBCs or filamentous bacteria. Conclusions The presence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria in the urines of women with acute cystitis suggests that the IBC pathogenic pathway characterized in the murine model may occur in humans. The findings
Corzo, Cesar A; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott A; Gramer, Marie R; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat
Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corzo, Cesar A.; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott; Gramer, Marie; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat
Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. PMID:23164957
Zhang, Xin; He, Chuan-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Fu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhu, Chuan-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping; Tong, Lai-Bao; Zhou, De-Bao; Zha, Li; Hong, Yang; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lin, Jiao-Jiao
Schistosomiasis japonica is a common zoonosis. Domestic animals are the primary source of infection and play an important role in disease transmission. The prevalence and infectivity of this disease in domestic animals in China have significantly decreased and, for this reason, diagnostics with a higher sensitivity have become increasingly necessary. It was reported that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods could be used to detect schistosome infection in humans and animals and presented a high sensitivity and specificity. The present study aimed to develop a PCR-based method for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infection in domestic animals. A specific nested-PCR assay was developed to detect S. japonicum infection in domestic animals via amplification of a 231-bp DNA fragment of retrotransposon SjR2. The developed assay was first used in sera and dry blood filter paper (DBFP) from goats and buffaloes at different time points of infection. Then, 78 DBFPs from 39 artificially-infected bovines at 14 and 28 days post-infection and 42 DBFPs from schistosome-negative bovines from the city of Huangshan in the Anhui province were used to evaluate the diagnostic validity. Furthermore, this assay was used to detect S. japonicum infection in domestic animals in Dongzhi and Wangjiang counties. The expected PCR product was detected in eggs and adult worms of S. japonicum and blood samples from S. japonicum-infected goats and water buffaloes, but not from Fasciola and Haemonchus contortus worms. The nested-PCR assay could detect the target S. japonicum DNA in DBFPs from goats and buffaloes after day 3 post-infection. The sensitivity in buffaloes at 14 and 28 days post-infection was 92.30% (36/39) and 100% (39/39), respectively. The specificity was 97.60% (41/42). The positivity rates in Dongzhi and Wangjiang counties were 6.00% and 8.00% in bovines and 22.00% and 16.67% in goats, respectively. The positivity rates in goats in both counties were higher than those
Choi, Young-Jun; Ghedin, Elodie; Berriman, Matthew; McQuillan, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Nancy; Mayhew, George F.; Christensen, Bruce M.; Michalski, Michelle L.
Background Developing intervention strategies for the control of parasitic nematodes continues to be a significant challenge. Genomic and post-genomic approaches play an increasingly important role for providing fundamental molecular information about these parasites, thus enhancing basic as well as translational research. Here we report a comprehensive genome-wide survey of the developmental transcriptome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Methodology/Principal Findings Using deep sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of eggs and embryos, immature (≤3 days of age) and mature microfilariae (MF), third- and fourth-stage larvae (L3 and L4), and adult male and female worms. Comparative analysis across these stages provided a detailed overview of the molecular repertoires that define and differentiate distinct lifecycle stages of the parasite. Genome-wide assessment of the overall transcriptional variability indicated that the cuticle collagen family and those implicated in molting exhibit noticeably dynamic stage-dependent patterns. Of particular interest was the identification of genes displaying sex-biased or germline-enriched profiles due to their potential involvement in reproductive processes. The study also revealed discrete transcriptional changes during larval development, namely those accompanying the maturation of MF and the L3 to L4 transition that are vital in establishing successful infection in mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Characterization of the transcriptional program of the parasite's lifecycle is an important step toward understanding the developmental processes required for the infectious cycle. We find that the transcriptional program has a number of stage-specific pathways activated during worm development. In addition to advancing our understanding of transcriptome dynamics, these data will aid in the study of genome structure and organization by facilitating the identification of
El Shazly, Yahia; Hemida, Khaled; Rafik, Mona; Al Swaff, Reham; Ali-Eldin, Zainab A; GadAllah, Shaimaa
The criterion standard for the diagnosis of occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is detection of HCV-RNA in liver cells. However, because of the invasive nature of liver biopsy, other methods have been studied. The present study aimed to identify subjects with occult HCV-4 infection among healthy sexual partners of patients with chronic HCV-4 infection by detecting HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifty healthy Egyptian spouses of patients with chronic HCV-4 infection were included in this study. Real-time PCR was used to detect HCV-RNA in PBMCs in all the study subjects. The prevalence of occult HCV-4 infection was 4%, and a statistically significant higher prevalence was found among patients with a history of sexually transmitted infection. The results of the present study indicate the importance of intra-spousal transmission of HCV-4 infection, especially in subjects with a history of sexually transmitted infection.
Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej; Puchalski, Andrzej; Dec, Marta; Stęgierska, Diana; Grooms, Daniel L; Barbu, Nicolas I
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major contributor to bovine respiratory disease complex in dairy and beef calves, especially during the first year of life. There is a lack of comprehensive information about the prevalence of infection in cattle herds in Poland as well as in European countries outside the European Union. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRSV infections in young beef and dairy cattle in southeastern Poland, a region that has direct contact with non-EU countries. Animals & methods: Nasal swabs and sera (n = 120) were obtained from young cattle aged 6-12 months from 45 farms in eastern and southeastern Poland. BRSV antigen detection in the nasal swabs was carried out using a rapid immunomigration assay used in diagnosing human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infections in humans, while antibodies to BRSV were detected in the sera by ELISA antibody detection. The study confirmed the presence of BRSV infections in young cattle under 12 months of age from both dairy and beef herds. BRSV was detected in 27 of the 45 herds (60%) sampled. Findings from this study indicate a high prevalence of BRSV infections in cattle in Poland, which may have a significant influence on health status and animal performance. The prevalence of infection is similar to that in other parts of Poland and other countries in Europe. Development of strategies to reduce BRSV infections is needed to improve health and productivity.
Iwasenko, Jenna M; Howard, Jonathan; Arbuckle, Susan; Graf, Nicole; Hall, Beverley; Craig, Maria E; Rawlinson, William D
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection in developed countries and is a known cause of intrauterine fetal death. We examined CMV infection in stillbirths and the relationship with histopathological findings at autopsy. We collected liver, kidney, and placenta specimens from 130 stillbirths. CMV DNA and protein were detected using polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, along with routine autopsy of stillborn infants. Overall, CMV DNA was detected in 15% of singleton, >20-week stillborn infants. CMV DNA was detected in kidney (9%), liver (11%), and placenta (5%) specimens, with 75% of infections confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy was the only histopathological abnormality associated with CMV infection (in 60% CMV-infected vs 28% uninfected stillbirths P = .010). Stillbirth has multiple etiologies. However, the detection of CMV DNA in 15% of fetal tissues or placentae suggests a strong association between CMV infection in pregnancy and stillbirth. Molecular testing during postmortem investigation has an important role to determine the contribution of CMV infection.
Gan, Mingyu; Liu, Qingyun; Yang, Chongguang; Gao, Qian; Luo, Tao
Mixed infection by multiple Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is associated with poor treatment outcome of tuberculosis (TB). Traditional genotyping methods have been used to detect mixed infections of MTB, however, their sensitivity and resolution are limited. Deep whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been proved highly sensitive and discriminative for studying population heterogeneity of MTB. Here, we developed a phylogenetic-based method to detect MTB mixed infections using WGS data. We collected published WGS data of 782 global MTB strains from public database. We called homogeneous and heterogeneous single nucleotide variations (SNVs) of individual strains by mapping short reads to the ancestral MTB reference genome. We constructed a phylogenomic database based on 68,639 homogeneous SNVs of 652 MTB strains. Mixed infections were determined if multiple evolutionary paths were identified by mapping the SNVs of individual samples to the phylogenomic database. By simulation, our method could specifically detect mixed infections when the sequencing depth of minor strains was as low as 1× coverage, and when the genomic distance of two mixed strains was as small as 16 SNVs. By applying our methods to all 782 samples, we detected 47 mixed infections and 45 of them were caused by locally endemic strains. The results indicate that our method is highly sensitive and discriminative for identifying mixed infections from deep WGS data of MTB isolates. PMID:27391214
Liu, Xiao Lin; Ren, Hua Nan; Shi, Ya Li; Hu, Chen Xi; Song, Yan Yan; Duan, Jiang Yang; Zhang, Hui Ping; Du, Xin Rui; Liu, Ruo Dan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing
The aim of this study was to detect Trichinella spiralis DNA in mouse feces during the early stages of infection using PCR. The target gene fragment, a 1.6kb repetitive sequence of T. spiralis genome, was amplified by PCR from feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae at 3-24h post infection (hpi) and 2-28dpi. The sensitivity of PCR was 0.016 larvae in feces. The primers used were highly specific for T. spiralis. No cross-reactivity was observed with the DNA of other intestinal helminths. T. spiralis DNA was detected in 100% (12/12) of feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae as early as 3hpi, with the peak detection lasting to 12-24hpi, and then fluctuating before declining gradually. By 28dpi, the detection rate of T. spiralis DNA in feces of the two groups of infected mice decreased to 8.33% and 25%, respectively. PCR detection of T. spiralis DNA in feces is simple and specific; it might be useful for the early diagnosis of Trichinella infection.
Sakamoto, Joyce M.; Feinstein, Julie; Rasgon, Jason L.
Wolbachia spp. are obligate maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect diverse arthropods and filarial nematodes. Previous microscopic and molecular studies have identified Wolbachia in several bed bug species (Cimicidae), but little is known about how widespread Wolbachia infections are among the Cimicidae. Because cimicids of non-medical importance are not commonly collected, we hypothesized that preserved museum specimens could be assayed for Wolbachia infections. For the screening of museum specimens, we designed a set of primers that specifically amplify small diagnostic fragments (130 to 240 bp) of the Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene. Using these and other previously published primers, we screened 39 cimicid species (spanning 16 genera and all 6 recognized subfamilies) and 2 species of the sister family Polyctenidae for Wolbachia infections using museum and wild-caught material. Amplified fragments were sequenced to confirm that our primers were amplifying Wolbachia DNA. We identified 10 infections, 8 of which were previously undescribed. Infections in the F supergroup were common in the subfamily Cimicinae, while infections in the A supergroup were identified in the subfamilies Afrocimicinae and Haematosiphoninae. Even though specimens were degraded, we detected infections in over 23% of cimicid species. Our results indicate that Wolbachia infections may be common among cimicids and that archived museum material is a useful untapped resource for invertebrate endosymbiont surveys. The new screening primers listed in this report will be useful for other researchers conducting Wolbachia surveys with specimens with less-than-optimum DNA quality. PMID:16672453
Hanger, Jon; Loader, Joanne; Wan, Charles; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam
The gold standard method for detecting chlamydial infection in domestic and wild animals is PCR, but the technique is not suited to testing animals in the field when a rapid diagnosis is frequently required. The objective of this study was to compare the results of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay test for Chlamydia against a quantitative Chlamydia pecorum-specific PCR performed on swabs collected from the conjunctival sac, nasal cavity and urogenital sinuses of naturally infected koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). The level of agreement for positive results between the two assays was low (43.2%). The immunoassay detection cut-off was determined as approximately 400 C. pecorum copies, indicating that the test was sufficiently sensitive to be used for the rapid diagnosis of active chlamydial infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Otero, Renata A; Nascimento, Flávia N N; Souza, Ivete P R; Silva, Raquel C; Lima, Rodrigo S; Robaina, Tatiana F; Câmara, Fernando P; Santos, Norma; Castro, Gloria F
The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4%) HIV-infected children and 13 (27%) control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%), followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups) and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%). The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104) or healthy control children (p = 0.251), or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447). Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001). These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis.
OTERO, Renata A.; NASCIMENTO, Flávia N.N.; SOUZA, Ivete P.R.; SILVA, Raquel C.; LIMA, Rodrigo S.; ROBAINA, Tatiana F.; CÂMARA, Fernando P.; SANTOS, Norma; CASTRO, Gloria F.
The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4%) HIV-infected children and 13 (27%) control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%), followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups) and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%). The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104) or healthy control children (p = 0.251), or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447). Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001). These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis. PMID:26200962
Krishna, Sri; Bharti, Praveen K.; Chandel, Himashu S.; Ahmad, Amreen; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Puspendra P.; Singh, Mrigendra P.
In 8 malaria-endemic states in India, mixed Plasmodium spp. infections were detected by PCR in 17.4% (265/1,521) of blood samples that microscopy had shown to contain only P. falciparum. The quality of microscopy must be improved because use of PCR for detection of malaria parasites is limited in rural areas. PMID:26401635
Krishna, Sri; Bharti, Praveen K; Chandel, Himashu S; Ahmad, Amreen; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Puspendra P; Singh, Mrigendra P; Singh, Neeru
In 8 malaria-endemic states in India, mixed Plasmodium spp. infections were detected by PCR in 17.4% (265/1,521) of blood samples that microscopy had shown to contain only P. falciparum. The quality of microscopy must be improved because use of PCR for detection of malaria parasites is limited in rural areas.
Cheeks, Miyesha A; Fransua, Mesfin; Stringer, Harold G; Silva, Susan; Relf, Michael
Our quality improvement project evaluated whether testing for syphilis every 3 to 6 months with routine HIV laboratory monitoring had an effect on early detection of asymptomatic syphilis infection/re-infection in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Retrospective analysis of syphilis testing and infections in a sample of this population (N = 245) was conducted after establishing a change-of-practice quality improvement initiative in a not-for-profit, community-based, grant-funded clinic. We compared the clinic's annual rates of syphilis before and after intervention implementation. The detection rate was 6.6% in the preintervention practice change group and 15.5% in the postintervention group. Increased testing identified 27 syphilis cases that would not otherwise have been identified until the annual comprehensive examination. Increased testing frequency led to earlier detection of syphilis, which was clinically significant, showing a potential to decrease the number of new syphilis and HIV infections and to decrease health care expenditures.
Over the last forty years, a small group of commercial radiopharmaceuticals have found their way into routine medical use, for the diagnostic imaging of patients with infection or inflammation. These molecular radiotracers usually participate in the immune response to an antigen, by tagging leukocytes or other molecules/cells that are endogenous to the process. Currently there is an advancing effort by researchers in the preclinical domain to design and develop new agents for this application. This review discusses radiopharmaceuticals used in the nuclear medicine clinic today, as well as those potential radiotracers that exploit an organism's defence mechanisms to an infectious or inflammatory event. PMID:25741532
Rovida, Francesca; Campanini, Giulia; Piralla, Antonio; Adzasehoun, Kodjo Messan Guy; Sarasini, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto
Gastrointestinal viral syndromes are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Etiological agents include a large number of viruses encompassing several orders, families, and genera. During the period April 2011 to April 2012, 689 stool samples from as many patients hospitalized at the Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia exhibiting gastrointestinal syndromes were examined for the presence of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus, parechovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus, sapovirus, cosavirus, and aichi virus using polymerase chain reaction assays. Gastrointestinal viral agents were detected in 246 (36%) patients of the 689 analyzed. Adenovirus and norovirus were the most common viruses in this cohort, while aichi virus was the only gastrointestinal agent not detected. Surprisingly, rhinovirus was one of the most frequently detected viruses. However, a potential association with gastroenteritis remains to be confirmed.
Wang, Shi-ping; He, Xin; Zhou, Yun-fei
Schistosomiasis is a type of zoonotic parasitosis that severely impairs human health. Rapid detection of infection sources is a key to the control of schistosomiasis. With the effective control of schistosomiasis in China, the detection techniques for infection sources have also been developed. The rate and the intensity of infection among humans and livestocks have been significantly decreased in China, as the control program has entered the transmission control stage in most of the endemic areas. Under this situation, the traditional etiological diagnosing techniques and common immunological methods can not afford rapid detection of infection sources of schistosomiasis. Instead, we are calling for detection methods with higher sensitivity, specificity and stability while being less time-consuming, more convenient and less costing. In recent years, many improved or novel detection methods have been applied for the epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis, such as the automatic scanning microscopic image acquisition system, PCR-ELISA, immunosensors, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, etc. The development of new monitoring techniques can facilitate rapid detection of schistosome infection sources in endemic areas.
Korten, Simone; Kaifi, Jussuf T; Büttner, Dietrich W; Hoerauf, Achim
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a key cytokine in immune regulation, cell differentiation, development, wound healing, and tissue remodelling. It mediates immunosuppression in filarial infections facilitating parasite persistence, while attenuating immunopathology, which is induced by migrating microfilariae. Immunosuppression rises with parasite burden, but it remains unknown whether filariae elicit local release of immunosuppressive cytokines. Therefore, using immunohistology, we investigated the expression of stable, released latent TGF-beta1 in subcutaneous nodules from highly infected, hyporeactive onchocerciasis patients, harbouring adult Onchocerca volvulus. Since many cell types produce TGF-beta, we elucidated the cellular source, distribution and dependency on the worms' sex, productivity and vitality. We found TGF-beta1 to be abundantly expressed by T cells, plasma/B cells, macrophages, mast cells, fibrocytes, and vascular endothelial cells, particularly in onchocercomas with productive or previously productive females, damaged, dead and resorbed adult worms or microfilariae. We conclude TGF-beta to be antigen induced by the filariae since expression was scarce around subcutaneous arthropods or cholesterol crystals in onchocercomas. Enhanced expression after ivermectin or endobacteria-depleting doxycycline treatment indicates induction to depend on filariae and not on Wolbachia endobacteria. TGF-beta(+) cells were reduced in HIV co-infection. This finding of local and sustained TGF-beta induction by vital and dead filariae, untreated and after treatment, adds new aspects to immunomodulation by helminths.
Leal-Klevezas, D S; Martínez-Vázquez, I O; López-Merino, A; Martínez-Soriano, J P
A versatile method for the extraction of Brucella DNA and PCR are presented as reliable tools for the detection of Brucella spp. from body fluids of infected animals. Two oligonucleotides homologous to regions of the gene encoding for an outer membrane protein (omp-2) were designed to detect the pathogen from milk and/or blood of infected goats, bovines, and human patients. The sensitivity of our test and its ability to detect the pathogen in samples from the field reveal a promising advance in the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals and humans. PMID:8586678
Denkinger, Claudia M.; Kik, Sandra V.; Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Zwerling, Alice; Oxlade, Olivia; Metcalfe, John Z.; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Dowdy, David W.; Dheda, Keertan; Banaei, Niaz
SUMMARY Identification and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can substantially reduce the risk of developing active disease. However, there is no diagnostic gold standard for LTBI. Two tests are available for identification of LTBI: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA). Evidence suggests that both TST and IGRA are acceptable but imperfect tests. They represent indirect markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure and indicate a cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis. Neither test can accurately differentiate between LTBI and active TB, distinguish reactivation from reinfection, or resolve the various stages within the spectrum of M. tuberculosis infection. Both TST and IGRA have reduced sensitivity in immunocompromised patients and have low predictive value for progression to active TB. To maximize the positive predictive value of existing tests, LTBI screening should be reserved for those who are at sufficiently high risk of progressing to disease. Such high-risk individuals may be identifiable by using multivariable risk prediction models that incorporate test results with risk factors and using serial testing to resolve underlying phenotypes. In the longer term, basic research is necessary to identify highly predictive biomarkers. PMID:24396134
Costa, Juan Gabriel; Duré, Andrea Belén
In this work, two Toxoplasma gondii GRA8 protein sequences were tested by indirect ELISA and measurement of avidity to differentiate between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis infection. Using the antigen called GRA8B, 79.7% sensitivity and 84.1% specificity was achieved detecting IgG concentrations and a 71.2% sensitivity and a 68.3% specificity detecting IgA concentrations. This study is the first to report IgA detection with GRA8 by ELISA to differentiate stages of infection. Unfortunately the indirect ELISA to detect IgM was not effective in distinguishing stages. Also, this work is the first to report that the GRA8 protein can aid the differentiation between acute and chronic phase infection by measuring IgG antibody avidity, a technique in which we obtained 85.71% and 100% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Finally, in silico tools were used to explain the differences in our immunochemistry results.
A genomic library of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) DNA BamH1 fragments was prepared and two cloned fragments were evaluated for their potential as probes for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The virus was purified by a modified sucrose density gradient procedure for the isolation of pure ILTV DNA. A genomic library was constructed using BamH1-digested ILTV DNA and pGEM7 as a vector. A 1.1 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA was tested in a slot or dot blot assay for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The limit of detection for this probe was at least 0.12 ng of pure ILTV DNA. The probe was able to identify both chicken embryo liver (CELi) cells and choriallantoic membranes infected with ILTV. Chicken embryo liver cells infected with several field isolates and a vaccine strain of ILTV were positive by dot blot analysis using this probe. Some qualitative differences in the degree of hybridization to cells infected by different ILTV isolates were observed. Uninfected cells and cells infected with fowlpox virus, turkey herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus or Newcastle disease virus were negative by the same assay. Compared with the 1.1 kb fragment, a larger 6 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA showed a stronger hybridization signal to DNA from ILTV infected cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1316798
Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Murphy, K.; Kercher, J.; Datz, F.; Christian, P.; Taylor, A.
Synthetic vascular graft infection is characterized by late diagnosis due to indolent and nonspecific symptoms. Reported data on accuracy of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging to identify vascular graft infection is sparse and conflicting. The purpose of this animal study was to clarify the accuracy of detection of early graft infection using a mixed population of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Twelve mongrel dogs received dacron aortic interposition grafts. Seven grafts were contaminated at surgery by topical ATCC S. aureus, 10/sup 8/ organisms per ml. Six control animals received no graft contamination Mixed population In-111 homologous leukocyte labeling was performed followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours following intravenous injection of 250 ..mu..Ci In-111 leukocytes. Scans were done on Day 2 post-surgery. Infected dogs were sacrificed following Indium imaging; control dogs were rescanned at 3 weeks postop and sacrificed thereafter. Autopsy results were correlated with scans, yielding sensitivity 71%, specificity 100%, accuracy 85% for In-111 leukocyte imaging to detect early graft infection. False positive leukocyte imaging in the early postop period was not a problem. At autopsy all 5 dogs with infected grafts and positive scans had gross pus. The 2 dogs with false negative scans showed no gross pus at autopsy; cultures were positive for S. aureus in all 7 dogs. Scans at 2 days and 3 weeks post-surgery were true negatives in all 6 control dogs. These data suggest a high level of clinical reliability of leukocyte imaging for early graft infection detection.
Enriquez, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; Orozco, M.M.; Schijman, A.G.; Gürtler, R.E.
Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi- infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, κ = 0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (κ = 0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (κ = 0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally-infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture. PMID:23499860
Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Orozco, M M; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E
Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi-infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, κ=0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (κ=0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (κ=0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture.
Fadilah, Najmiyatul; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Razlan, Hamizah; Wong, Zin Qin; Mohamed Rose, Isa; Rahman, Md Mostafizur
No gold standard has yet been established for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was developed in this study for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of H. pylori from gastric biopsies. H. pylori infections were determined by in-house rapid urease test (iRUT), culture, histology and multiplex PCR. A total of 140 (60.9%) from 230 patients were positive for H. pylori infection. H. pylori were detected in 9.6% (22/230), 17% (39/230), 12.6% (29/230) and 60% (138/230) of biopsy specimens by culture, iRUT, histology and mPCR, respectively. mPCR identified H. pylori infection in 100% of biopsies with positive histology and culture. All biopsies with positive iRUT yielded positive PCR except two cases. mPCR also detected H. pylori in additional 116, 101 and 109 biopsies that were negative by culture, iRUT and histology, respectively. Positive samples by mPCR showed lower average in H. pylori density, activity and inflammation scores. The Indians showed the highest prevalence of H. pylori infection compared to the Chinese and the Malays. In addition, Chinese patients with older age were significantly infected compared to other ethnicities. PCR was able to detect the highest numbers of positive cases although the lowest average scores were recorded in the activity, inflammatory and H. pylori density.
Shepherd, Samantha J; McDonald, Scott A; Palmateer, Norah E; Gunson, Rory N; Aitken, Celia; Dore, Gregory J; Goldberg, David J; Applegate, Tanya L; Lloyd, Andrew R; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Grebely, Jason; Hutchinson, Sharon J
Accurate detection of incident hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is required to target and evaluate public health interventions, but acute infection is largely asymptomatic and difficult to detect using traditional methods. Our aim was to evaluate a previously developed HCV avidity assay to distinguish acute from chronic HCV infection. Plasma samples collected from recent seroconversion subjects in two large Australian cohorts were tested using the avidity assay, and the avidity index (AI) was calculated. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with low/high AI were compared via logistic regression. Sensitivity and specificity of the assay for recent infection and the mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) were estimated stratified by HCV genotype. Avidity was assessed in 567 samples (from 215 participants), including 304 with viraemia (defined as ≥250 IU/mL). An inverse relationship between AI and infection duration was found in viraemic samples only. The adjusted odds of a low AI (<30%) decreased with infection duration (odds ratio [OR] per week of 0.93; 95% CI:0.89-0.97), and were lower for G1 compared with G3 samples (OR = 0.14; 95% CI:0.05-0.39). Defining recent infection as <26 weeks, sensitivity (at AI cut-off of 20%) was estimated at 48% (95% CI:39-56%), 36% (95% CI:20-52%), and 65% (95% CI:54-75%) and MDRI was 116, 83, and 152 days for all genotypes, G1, and G3, respectively. Specificity (≥52 weeks infection duration, all genotypes) was 96% (95% CI:90-98%). HCV avidity testing has utility for detecting recent HCV infection in patients, and for assessing progress in reaching incidence targets for eliminating transmission, but variation in assay performance across genotype should be recognized. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Verma, S. K.; Calero-Bernal, R.; Lovallo, M. J.; Sweeny, A. R.; Grigg, M. E.; Dubey, J. P.
The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000x magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasite. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dayspi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host. PMID:26138150
Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Lovallo, M J; Sweeny, A R; Grigg, M E; Dubey, J P
The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000× magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasites. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dasypi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host.
Fischer, Peter; Schmetz, Christel; Bandi, Claudio; Bonow, Insa; Mand, Sabine; Fischer, Kerstin; Büttner, Dietrich W
In search of Wolbachia in human parasites, Wolbachia were identified in the sand flea Tunga penetrans. PCR and DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S rDNA, the ftsZ cell division protein, the Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) and the Wolbachia aspartate aminotransferase genes revealed a high similarity to the respective sequences of endosymbionts of filarial nematodes. Using these sequences a phylogenetic tree was generated, that indicates a close relationship between Wolbachia from T. penetrans and from filarial parasites, but possibly as a member of a new supergroup. Ultrastructural studies showed that Wolbachia are abundant in the ovaries of neosomic fleas, whereas other, smaller and morphologically distinct, bacteria were observed in the lumen of the intestine. Wolbachia were labeled by immunohistology and immunogold electron microscopy using polyclonal antibodies against wsp of Drosophila, of the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis, or against hsp 60 from Yersinia enterocolitica. These results show that as in filariasis, humans with tungiasis are exposed to Wolbachia. Furthermore, antisera raised against proteins of Wolbachia from arthropods or from filarial parasites can be immunologically cross-reactive.
Truong, Hong-Ha M; Grant, Robert M; McFarland, Willi; Kellogg, Timothy; Kent, Charlotte; Louie, Brian; Wong, Ernest; Klausner, Jeffrey D
To estimate the rate of acute and recent HIV infections and the prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance. A consecutive sample of individuals presenting for HIV testing at the San Francisco municipal sexually transmitted diseased (STD) clinic in 2004 (n = 3789). HIV antibody-positive specimens were screened by BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay to identify recent infections. HIV antibody-negative specimens were screened by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) to detect acute infections. Newly detected infections were genotyped to detect primary antiretroviral resistance. There were 11 acute and 44 recent HIV infections among the total 136 newly detected cases. NAAT increased case identification by 8.08% over standard antibody testing. Acute HIV infections were associated with having a known HIV-positive partner, and a history of hepatitis B, syphilis, and chlamydia. The prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance was 13.2%, with drug-resistant mutations detected in 17 of 129 cases genotyped. Mutations conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) were present in 11 of 17 cases. The integration of HIV nucleic acid amplification, recent infection, and antiretroviral resistance testing enhanced HIV/STD surveillance. The high proportion of NNRTI mutations detected suggests they may be more common in source partners or more fit for transmission than other forms of drug-resistant HIV-1. Primary antiretroviral resistance monitoring in STD clinic patients may guide the selection of treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis regimens active against viruses being transmitted in the community, and provide health departments with surveillance data in a sentinel population at risk of HIV transmission.
Schiffer, Doris; Tegl, Gregor; Vielnascher, Robert; Weber, Hansjoerg; Herrero-Rollett, Alexandra; Sigl, Eva; Heinzle, Andrea; Guebitz, Georg M
There is a strong need for simple and fast diagnostic tools for the detection of wound infection. Immune system-derived enzymes like myeloperoxidase are efficient biomarkers for wound infection that emerge in the early stage infection process. In this study, 5-amino-2-methoxyphenol was functionalized with alkoxysilane to allow visual detection of MPO on carrier materials, for example, in test strips. Indeed, MPO activity was visually detectable in short time in wound background. Oxidation of the substrate was followed spectrophotometrically and proved via HPLC. LC-ESI TOF and NMR analyses unveiled the reaction mechanism and a dimeric reaction product responsible for the visualization of MPO activity. The substrate specificity and sensitivity toward MPO detection was proved and tests with infected wound fluids were successfully performed. The study demonstrates the suitability of the novel MPO substrate for the detection of wound infection and the covalent immobilization on diagnostic carrier materials. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2553-2560. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rubenstein, Richard; Bulgin, Marie S; Chang, Binggong; Sorensen-Melson, Sharon; Petersen, Robert B; LaFauci, Giuseppe
A scrapie-positive ewe was found in a flock that had been scrapie-free for 13 years, but housed adjacent to scrapie-positive animals, separated by a wire fence. Live animal testing of the entire flock of 24 animals revealed seven more subclinical scrapie-positive ewes. We hypothesized that they may have contracted the disease from scrapie-positive rams used for breeding 4 months prior, possibly through the semen. The genotypes of the ewe flock were highly scrapie-susceptible and the rams were infected with the 'Caine' scrapie strain having a short incubation time of 4.3-14.6 months in sheep with 136/171 VQ/VQ and AQ/VQ genotypes. PrP(Sc) accumulates in a variety of tissues in addition to the central nervous system. Although transmission of prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, has been achieved via peripheral organ or tissue homogenates as well as by blood transfusion, neither infectivity nor PrP(Sc) have been found in semen from scrapie-infected animals. Using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification followed by a surround optical fibre immunoassay, we demonstrate that semen from rams infected with a short-incubation-time scrapie strain contains prion disease-associated-seeding activity that generated PrP(Sc) in sPMCA (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification). Injection of the ovinized transgenic mouse line TgSShpPrP with semen from scrapie-infected sheep resulted in PrP(Sc)-seeding activity in clinical and, probably as a result of the low titre, non-clinical mouse brain. These results suggest that the transmissible agent, or at least the seeding activity, for sheep scrapie is present in semen. This may be a strain-specific phenomenon.
Onapa, A W; Simonsen, P E; Baehr, I; Pedersen, E M
To permit improvements in the targeting of control activities, the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Uganda was assessed by using a rapid immunochromatographic card test to check school-aged children for Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigens (CFA). Survey sites were selected to represent the various ecological and topographical diversities in the country. Overall, 17,533 children from 76 sites were examined. CFA-positive cases were detected at 31 of the sites, with prevalences ranging from 0.4% to 30.7%. There appeared to be strikingly more lymphatic filariasis in the north of the country than in the south. The main focus was north of the Victoria Nile, where 27 (66%) of 41 sites had CFA-positive cases, often at high prevalences. Only four (11.4%) of the 35 sites south of the Victoria Nile had CFA-positive cases, and all four were along the western rift valley and had relatively low CFA prevalences. Geostatistical interpolation was used to create a map showing the geographical distribution of CFA prevalences in Uganda (by ordinary kriging), and to assess the population exposed to W. bancrofti transmission. Estimates based on population data from 2002 indicated that approximately 8.7 million people (35.3% of the national population) lived in areas where > 1% of the school-aged children were CFA-positive. CFA prevalences generally decreased with increasing altitude, and no CFA-positive cases were found at sites that were > 1300 m above sea level. Although it gives an under-estimate of the overall community prevalence (a fact that should be taken into account when interpreting the present results and comparing them with the results of other surveys), the screening of schoolchildren for CFA was found to be a simple and useful approach for mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis.
Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Cláudia
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare different control charts to monitor the nosocomial infection rate per 1,000 patient-days. METHODS: The control charts considered in this study were the traditional Shewhart chart and a variation of this, the Cumulative Sum and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average charts. RESULTS: We evaluated 238 nosocomial infections that were registered in the intensive care unit and were detected by the Committee for Nosocomial Infection Control in a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2004 and 2005. The results showed that the traditional Shewhart chart was the most appropriate method for monitoring periods with large deviations, while the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average and Cumulative Sum charts were better for monitoring periods with smaller deviations of the mean infection rate. CONCLUSION: The ability to detect nosocomial outbreaks was improved by using the information provided by all three different control charts. PMID:22012038
Ekström, Jens-Ola; Hultmark, Dan
We have created a transgenic reporter for virus infection, and used it to study Nora virus infection in Drosophila melanogaster. The transgenic construct, Munin, expresses the yeast transcription factor Gal4, tethered to a transmembrane anchor via a linker that can be cleaved by a viral protease. In infected cells, liberated Gal4 will then transcribe any gene that is linked to a promoter with a UAS motif, the target for Gal4 transcription. For instance, infected cells will glow red in the offspring of a cross between the Munin stock and flies with a UAS-RFPnls transgene (expressing a red fluorescent protein). In such flies we show that after natural infection, via the faecal-oral route, 5–15% of the midgut cells are infected, but there is little if any infection elsewhere. By contrast, we can detect infection in many other tissues after injection of virus into the body cavity. The same principle could be applied for other viruses and it could also be used to express or suppress any gene of interest in infected cells. PMID:27189868
Diekema, Daniel J; Pfaller, Michael A
Rapid detection of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) carriers could help reduce MDRO infections by allowing for faster institution of prevention measures. However, improving the turnaround time (TAT) of a test requires attention to more than the analytic TAT, and will only occur if postanalytic processes (test reporting and care interventions) are also rapid and efficient. Obstacles to rapid MDRO test development include complex evolving resistance mechanisms, performance directly on mixed samples (eg, nares, stool), and adaptation of new methods for routine clinical diagnostic use. Existing data to support the clinical utility of rapid detection (vs standard culture methods) are scant. For these reasons, rapid detection of MDRO carriers remains a work in progress. Future efforts should be on developing rapid tests to detect multidrug-resistant gram-negative rods, particularly those harboring β-lactamases, and on performing clinical trials to determine how best to incorporate rapid detection of MDRO carriage into healthcare-associated infection prevention efforts.
Towner, Jonathan S.; Pourrut, Xavier; Albariño, César G.; Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Bird, Brian H.; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T.; Leroy, Eric M.
Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80–90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus. PMID:17712412
Usacheva, Elena A; Jin, Jian-P; Peterson, Lance R
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant healthcare concern worldwide, and C. difficile is recognised as the most frequent aetiological agent of infectious healthcare-associated diarrhoea in hospitalised adult patients. The clinical manifestation of CDI varies from self-limited diarrhoea to life-threatening colitis. Such a broad disease spectrum can be explained by the impact of host factors. Currently, a complex CDI aetiology is widely accepted, acknowledging the interaction between bacteria and the host. C. difficile strains producing clostridial toxins A and B are considered toxigenic and can cause disease; those not producing the toxins are non-pathogenic. A person colonised with a toxigenic strain will not necessarily develop CDI. It is imperative to recognise patients with active disease from those only colonised with this pathogen and to implement appropriate treatment. This can be achieved by diagnostics that rely on host factors specific to CDI. This review will focus on major aspects of CDI pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms, describing host factors in disease progression and assessment of the host response in order to facilitate the development of CDI-specific diagnostics.
Towner, Jonathan S; Pourrut, Xavier; Albariño, César G; Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Bird, Brian H; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T; Leroy, Eric M
Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80-90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus.
Background The haemotropic mycoplasmas Mycoplasma haemofelis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum cause feline infectious anaemia with infection rates in feline populations reflecting widespread subclinical infection. Clinically significant infections are much rarer but can be life-threatening. Current diagnosis is dependent upon visualising organisms in stained blood smears, PCR or quantitative PCR (qPCR). These procedures are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Furthermore, PCR-based approaches offer limited insight into the disease burden of the infected animal. Methods We have developed a novel and rapid flow cytometric system that permits diagnosis of haemotropic mycoplasma infections and quantitation of the percentage of erythrocytes that are parasitized. The method exploits the fact that mature mammalian erythrocytes, the host cell for haemoplasmas, are enucleated and thus lack nucleic acid. DRAQ5 is a synthetic anthrocycline dye which rapidly crosses cell membranes and binds to nucleic acids. The presence of exogenous bacterial DNA in mammalian erythrocytes can, therefore, be detected by DRAQ5 uptake and flow cytometric detection of DRAQ5 fluorescence. Results Here, we show that this system can detect epi-erythrocytic infection of companion felines by haemotropic mycoplasma. Due to their differences in size, and hence the quantity of DNA, the two major feline hemoplasmas M. haemofelis and Candidatus M. haemominutum can be distinguished according to DRAQ5 fluorescence. We have also shown the usefulness of DRAQ5 uptake in monitoring a cat infected with M. haemofelis sequentially during treatment with doxycycline. Conclusions The technique described is the first report of a flow cytometric method for detecting haemotropic mycoplasmas in any species and could be applied to widespread screening of animal populations to assess infection by these epi-erythrocytic parasites. PMID:23725366
Yin, Qing; El-Ashram, Saeed; Liu, Xian-Yong; Suo, Xun
Felines, the only definitive hosts that shed the environmentally-durable oocysts, are the key in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to all warm-blooded animals. They seroconvert as late as the third week and begin to shed oocysts as early as 3-8 days after being fed tissue cysts. Early detection of Toxoplasma-infected cats is crucial to evaluate Toxoplasma-contaminated environment and potential risks to public health. Moreover, it is fundamental for Toxoplasma infection control. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is a blood-based test assessing the presence of IFN-γ released by the T-lymphocytes directed against specific antigens, which is an ideal assay for early detection of Toxoplasma-infected cats. Here, cats were orally infected with the tissue cysts and blood was collected for toxoplasmic antigen stimulation, and the released IFN-γ was measured by ELISA. Results showed that Toxoplasma-infection was detected by IGRA as early as 4 days post-infection (dpi); while serum Toxoplasma IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA at 10 dpi and 14 dpi, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative samples revealed an early Toxoplasma infection in cats, indicating a new strategy for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection by combining IGRA and ELISA. Therefore, IGRA could emerge as a reliable diagnostic tool for the exploration of cat toxoplasmosis prevalence and its potential risks to public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mauritz, Jakob M. A.; Tiffert, Teresa; Seear, Rachel; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Esposito, Alessandro; Lew, Virgilio L.; Guck, Jochen; Kaminski, Clemens F.
We present the application of a microfluidic optical cell stretcher to measure the elasticity of malaria-infected red blood cells. The measurements confirm an increase in host cell rigidity during the maturation of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The device combines the selectivity and sensitivity of single-cell elasticity measurements with a throughput that is higher than conventional single-cell techniques. The method has potential to detect early stages of infection with excellent sensitivity and high speed.
Emanuel, Peter A; Bell, Ryan; Dang, Jessica L; McClanahan, Rebecca; David, John C; Burgess, Robert J; Thompson, Joseph; Collins, Lisa; Hadfield, Ted
The diagnosis of human cases of tularemia often relies upon the demonstration of an antibody response to Francisella tularensis or the direct culturing of the bacteria from the patient. Antibody response is not detectable until 2 weeks or more after infection, and culturing requires special media and suspicion of tularemia. In addition, handling live Francisella poses a risk to laboratory personnel due to the highly infectious nature of this pathogen. In an effort to develop a rapid diagnostic assay for tularemia, we investigated the use of TaqMan 5' hydrolysis fluorogenic PCR to detect the organism in tissues of infected mice. Mice were infected to produce respiratory tularemia. The fopA and tul4 genes of F. tularensis were amplified from infected spleen, lung, liver, and kidney tissues sampled over a 5-day period. The samples were analyzed using the laboratory-based Applied Biosystems International 7900 and the Smiths Detection-Edgewood BioSeeq, a hand-held portable fluorescence thermocycler designed for use in the field. A comparison of culturing and PCR for detection of bacteria in infected tissues shows that culturing was more sensitive than PCR. However, the results for culture take 72 h, whereas PCR results were available within 4 h. PCR was able to detect infection in all the tissues tested. Lung tissue showed the earliest response at 2 days when tested with the ABI 7900 and in 3 days when tested with the BioSeeq. The results were in agreement between the ABI 7900 and the BioSeeq when presented with the same sample. Template preparation may account for the loss of sensitivity compared to culturing techniques. The hand-held BioSeeq thermocycler shows promise as an expedient means of forward diagnosis of infection in the field.
García-Seco, Teresa; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Álvarez, Julio; Santiago-Moreno, Julián; Goyache, Joaquín; Domínguez, Lucas; García, Nerea
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, can infect a wide range of host species, but limited information exists on the occurrence and implications of infection in wild species. This study describes a natural infection in a population of dorcas gazelles ( Gazella dorcas ) from a zoo. A 9-yr-old male Saharawi dorcas gazelle ( Gazella dorcas neglecta) tested positive on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite treatment with oxytetracycline, the animal did not clear the infection after 6 mo, as confirmed by a PCR test on a semen sample. This is the first report of a Saharawi dorcas gazelle infection with C. burnetii and the first time that C. burnetii was detected in semen from a zoo animal, suggesting the possibility of venereal transmission in captive wild species. This may have major implications for management of zoo populations, particularly in endangered species.
Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Reisen, William K.
To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) persistent infection in avian hosts may potentially serve as an overwintering mechanism, House Sparrows and House Finches, experimentally and naturally infected with several strains of WNV, and two naturally infected Western Scrub-Jays were held in mosquito-proof outdoor aviaries from 2007–March 2008. Overall, 94% (n = 36) of House Sparrows, 100% (n = 14) of House Finches and 2 Western Scrub-Jays remained WNV antibody positive. When combined by species, 37% of the House Sparrows, 50% of the House Finches, and 2 Western Scrub-Jays were WNV RNA positive at necropsy, up to 36 weeks post-infection. Infectious WNV was not detected. Our study supports the hypothesis that some avian hosts support the long-term persistence of WNV RNA, but it remains unresolved whether these infections relapse to restart an avian-arthropod transmission cycle and thereby serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. PMID:22826479
Mohd Ali, Mohammad Ridhuan; Mohamad Safiee, Amira Wahida; Thangarajah, Padmaloseni; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi; Muhd Besari, Alwi; Ismail, Nabilah; Yean Yean, Chan
Leptospirosis and melioidosis are important tropical infections caused by Leptospira and Burkholdheria pseudomallei, respectively. As both infections share similar clinical manifestations yet require different managements, complementary laboratory tests are crucial for the diagnosis. We describe a case of Leptospira and B. pseudomallei co-infection in a diabetic 40-year-old woman with history of visit to a freshwater camping site in northern Malaysia. To our knowledge, this is the first case of such double-infection, simultaneously demonstrated by molecular approach. This case highlights the possibility of leptospirosis and melioidosis co-infections and their underlying challenges in the rapid and accurate detection of the etiologic microorganism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Prchal, C.L.; Kahen, H.L.; Blend, M.J.; Barmada, R.
Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scans were performed on 39 patients with suspected musculoskeletal infections to assess the usefulness of this study in detecting bone and joint infections. Results of these scans, as well as results of technetium-99m bone scans, were correlated with the patients' final diagnoses. The indium scan had an overall sensitivity of 77%, a specificity of 69%, and an accuracy of 72%. In 10 patients with a duration of symptoms of six weeks or less, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 75%. In 29 patients with symptoms of greater than six weeks, the sensitivity and specificity were lower at 50% and 71% respectively. Technetium-99m bone scans were performed on 23 patients; sensitivity for infection was 100% while specificity was 60%. Our results suggest that the indium-111 leukocyte scan is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of acute musculoskeletal infections, but may be inconclusive in chronic infections.
Martínez-Avilés, M; Fernández-Carrión, E; López García-Baones, J M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M
Late detection of emergency diseases causes significant economic losses for pig producers and governments. As the first signs of animal infection are usually fever and reduced motion that lead to reduced consumption of water and feed, we developed a novel smart system to monitor body temperature and motion in real time, facilitating the early detection of infectious diseases. In this study, carried out within the framework of the European Union research project Rapidia Field, we tested the smart system on 10 pigs experimentally infected with two doses of an attenuated strain of African swine fever. Biosensors and an accelerometer embedded in an eartag captured data before and after infection, and video cameras were used to monitor the animals 24 h per day. The results showed that in 8 of 9 cases, the monitoring system detected infection onset as an increase in body temperature and decrease in movement before or simultaneously with fever detection based on rectal temperature measurement, observation of clinical signs, the decrease in water consumption or positive qPCR detection of virus. In addition, this decrease in movement was reliably detected using automatic analysis of video images therefore providing an inexpensive alternative to direct motion measurement. The system can be set up to alert staff when high fever, reduced motion or both are detected in one or more animals. This system may be useful for monitoring sentinel herds in real time, considerably reducing the financial and logistical costs of periodic sampling and increasing the chances of early detection of infection. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Rabello, Ana; Pontes, Luís André; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel
As Schistosoma sp. control programs are chiefly based on treatment of infected population, adequate case finding has a crucial role. The available diagnostic methods are far from ideal, since the search for eggs in stools and the detection of circulating antigens lack sensitivity in low prevalence and post-treatment situations and antibody detection lacks specificity. In most endemic foci, repeated treatment of infected people leaves a number of non-diagnosed and consequently non-treated persons, enough to maintain a persistent residue of 5 to 10% prevalence. In an attempt to surpass these diagnostic limitations we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Schistosoma sp. in feces that, in a first population study, has shown to be more sensitive than three-repeated stool Kato-Katz examination. The PCR may constitute a valuable tool for the diagnosis of the Schistosoma sp. infection in special situations, when high sensitivity and specificity are required and infrastructure is available.
Oura, C A; Powell, P P; Parkhouse, R M
The techniques for determining cellular sites of establishment and persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) were established in susceptible domestic pigs and the resistant African reservoir hosts, the warthog and bushpig. Detection, both in vitro and in vivo, was achieved by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry, focusing principally on specific probes for vp73, a major capsid protein. Hybridisation of radio-labelled probes for DNA and RNA was relatively insensitive and time consuming whereas hybridisation of non-radioactive DNA probes was quicker and more sensitive. Detection of vp73 protein by immunocytochemistry was as sensitive as non-radioactive DNA hybridisation, offering in addition improved speed, ease and morphology. Both non-radioactive DNA hybridisation and immunocytochemistry were therefore used to detect ASFV DNA and protein in a range of porcine cells infected in vitro with different ASFV isolates. Malta and Malawi isolates infected both alveolar and bone marrow macrophages, but infected negligible numbers of endothelial (< 1%) and kidney cells (IBRS2 cells). Attenuated Uganda isolate, however, infected a high percentage of endothelial cells and IBRS2 cells as well as alveolar and bone marrow macrophages. When used to investigate the cell tropism of ASFV in tissues from pigs infected with the highly virulent Malawi isolate of ASFV, both techniques identified virus principally in cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system. In the lung, double staining revealed that pulmonary intravascular macrophages, but not alveolar macrophages, were infected.
HASSANAIN, Mohey Abdel-Hafez; ABDEL-RAHMAN, Eman Hussien; TOALEB, Nagwa Ibrahim; SHAAPAN, Raafat Mohamed; ELFADALY, Hasan Ali; HASSANAIN, Nawal Abdel-Hafez
Background Serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection using crude antigens may not be more accurate. To increase the diagnostic potency of antigens, isolation of their immunogenic fractions could be useful. The current research adopted to obtain an affinity isolated fraction from RH strain using CNBr Sepharose 4B column coupled with infected mice sera helping in detection of IgM and IgG of toxoplasmosis due to RH strain and other strains. Methods The isolated fraction was characterized by SDS-PAGE. Moreover, the diagnostic potency of the fraction was assessed by indirect ELISA in mice experimentally infected with RH strain and two other local strains; one of sheep origin and the other of human origin. Results The fraction was found to be consisted of a single band of 116 kDa compared with 17 bands ranged from 116 to 16 kDa associated with crude extract. The fraction proved potent diagnostic potentials of acute and chronic mice toxoplasmosis. Where it was detected both IgM and IgG antibodies as early as two days and as late as 2 months post experimental infection with any of the three strains. The level of detected IgM and IgG by RH fraction was higher in mice infected with RH strain than with local strains except IgM due to sheep strain parasite. Conclusions The 116 kDa fraction of T. gondii tachyzoites can be considered as a candidate in improving of serodiagnosisof Toxoplasma infections. PMID:24454439
Sivaraman, Divya; Yeh, Hsiao-Yun; Mulchandani, Ashok; Yates, Marylynn V.
Rapid and efficient detection of viral infection is crucial for the prevention of disease spread during an outbreak and for timely clinical management. In this paper, the utility of Tat peptide-modified molecular beacons (MBs) as a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of virus-infected cells was demonstrated. The rapid intracellular delivery mediated by the Tat peptide enabled the detection of infected cells within 30 s, reaching saturation in signal in 30 min. This rapid detection scheme was coupled with flow cytometry (FC), resulting in an automated, high-throughput method for the identification of virus-infected cells. Because of the 2-order-of-magnitude difference in fluorescence intensity between infected and uninfected cells, as few as 1% infected cells could be detected. Because of its speed and sensitivity, this approach may be adapted for the practical diagnosis of multiple viral infections. PMID:23160127
Chen, Qing-yun; Bian, Mei-lu; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Ou, Hua; Ma, Li
To explore the clinical significance of detection of multiple human papillomavirus infection in cervical lesions detected by flow fluorescent hybridization technology with Luminex multi-analytic profiling (xMAP). Cervical exfoliated cell specimens were collected from 301 randomly selected women accepting opportunistic screening for cervical lesions with the cytological results and hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) assay>or=atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASC-US), 48 with the pathological diagnosis>or=cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 (case group) and 253 with normal histological result or only inflammation (control group), aged (34+/-9) (21-59). The samples were tested with xMAP technology with blind method. The coincidence of the xMAP and HC-2 was assessed. The HPV genotype, multiple HPV infection rate, and their relationships to the patients' clinical-pathological features were analyzed. The rates of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of xMAP technology to detect>or=CIN2 cervical lesions were 80.49%, 80.00%, and 80.07% respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 47.06% and 96.30% respectively. The Kappa Index for agreement between xMAP technology and HC-2 was 0.56. The prevalence rate of high-risk HPV infection was 28.24% (85/301). The prevalence rate of multiple HPV infection was 11.30% (34/301), significantly lower than that of single type high-risk HPV infection (16.94%, P<0.05). The proportion of multiple HPV infection in total positive HPV results was 35.05% (34/97). The proportion of duplex and treble HPV infection were 29.90% (29/97) and 5.15% (5/97) respectively. The multiple HPV infection rate of the case group was 37.50% (18/48), significantly higher than that of the control group (6.32%, 16/253, P<0.01). The common duplex HPV infection modes were 16+51/58 (n=4), 51/58+52/59 (n=4), 11+16 (n=3), and 11+52/59 (n=3), 18+52/59 (n=3). The common treble HPV infection modes were 11+16+52/59, 16+18+31, 16+18+52/59, 31
Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Munoz, Marina; Sanchez, Ricardo; Peña-Herrera, Diego; Pineda-Peña, Andrea Clemencia; Sussmann, Otto; Paez, Carol; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso
HIV infection leads to a decreasing immune response, thereby facilitating the appearance of other infections, one of the most important ones being HPV. However, studies are needed for determining associations between immunodeficiency caused by HIV and/or the presence of HPV during the course of cervical lesions and their degree of malignancy. This study describes the cytological findings revealed by the Papanicolaou test, laboratory characteristics and HPV molecular profile in women with and without HIV infection. A total of 216 HIV-positive and 1,159 HIV-negative women were invited to participate in the study; PCR was used for the molecular detection of HPV in cervical samples. Statistical analysis (such as percentages, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test when applicable) determined human papillomavirus (HPV) infection frequency (single and multiple) and the distribution of six types of high-risk-HPV in women with and without HIV infection. Likewise, a logistic regression model was run to evaluate the relationship between HIV-HPV infection and different risk factors. An association was found between the frequency of HPV infection and infection involving 2 or more HPV types (also known as multiple HPV infection) in HIV-positive women (69.0% and 54.2%, respectively); such frequency was greater than that found in HIV-negative women (44.3% and 22.7%, respectively). Statistically significant differences were observed between both groups (p = 0.001) regarding HPV presence (both in infection and multiple HPV infection). HPV-16 was the most prevalent type in the population being studied (p = 0.001); other viral types had variable distribution in both groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative). HPV detection was associated with <500 cell/mm(3) CD4-count (p = 0.004) and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001). HPV-DNA detection, <200 cell/mm(3) CD4-count (p = 0.001), and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001) were associated with abnormal cytological findings. The HIV-1 positive
Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. )
The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.
Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J
Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae.
Tisch, Daniel J.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Dimber, Zachary; Kiniboro, Benson; Tarongka, Nandao; Hazlett, Fred E.; Kastens, Will; Alpers, Michael P.; Kazura, James W.
Laboratory tools to monitor infection burden are important to evaluate progress and determine endpoints in programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. We evaluated changes in Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria, filarial antigen and Bm14 antibody in individuals who participated in a five-year mass drug administration trial in Papua New Guinea. Comparing values before treatment and one year after four annual treatments, the proportion of microfilaria positive individuals declined to the greatest degree, with less marked change in antibody and antigen rates. Considering children as sentinel groups who reflect recent transmission intensity, children surveyed before the trial were more frequently microfilaria and antibody positive than those examined one year after the trial stopped. In contrast, antigen positive rates were similar in the two groups. All infection indicators continued to decline five years after cessation of mass drug administration; Bm14 antibody persisted in the greatest proportion of individuals. These data suggest that Bm14 antibody may be a sensitive test to monitor continuing transmission during and after mass drug administration aimed at eliminating transmission of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:18256431
Casley-Smith, J R; Wang, C T; Casley-Smith, J R; Zi-hai, C
OBJECTIVE--To study efficacy of treatment of filarial lymphoedema and elephantiasis with 5,6-benzo-alpha-pyrone. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study with matching for grade and duration of disease, age, and sex. Treatment was given for 367 days, and subjects were followed up for another year. SETTING--A town in Shandong Province, China. SUBJECTS--104 men and women with chronic unilateral filarial lymphoedema or elephantiasis of the leg: 64 were randomised to benzopyrone and 40 to placebo. By the end of the study 19 patients had dropped out of the treatment group and two out of the placebo group. INTERVENTIONS--Two 200 mg tablets of 5,6-benzo-alpha-pyrone or two placebo tablets given daily. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Volumes of the affected and normal legs estimated every three months, and daily listing of any side effects. RESULTS--Benzopyrone reduced oedema for all grades of lymphoedema during the year of treatment (pW0.001) and the follow up year (p = 0.026). During treatment the mean monthly reductions in leg volume were 0.62% (95% confidence intervals 0.4% to 0.85%), 1.1% (0.71% to 1.6%), and 1.6% (0.89% to 2.3%) of the volume of the normal leg for grades 1, 2, and 3-5 (elephantiasis) of lymphoedema respectively. During follow up the mean monthly reductions were 0.18% (0.01% to 0.35%), 0.54% (0.27% to 0.82%), and 0.87% (0.51% to 1.2%). At the end of the trial the total reduction in oedema was 100%, 95%, and 45% for grades 1, 2, and 3-5. Symptoms and complications were considerably reduced, including attacks of secondary acute inflammation, while side effects were minor and disappeared after one month. In the placebo group there were no changes in the severity of lymphoedema. CONCLUSIONS--5,6-benzo-alpha-pyrone reduces the oedema and many symptoms of filarial lymphoedema and elephantiasis. It has few side effects, and its relatively slow action makes it ideal for use without compression garments. PMID:8251778
Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L
This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection.
Saha, Manjari; Ray, Sayantan; Goswami, Manas; Kundu, Supratip; Saha, Puranjay; Saha, Avishek; Maitra, Subhasis; Talukdar, Arunansu
Chyluria is the passage of chyle into urine, and develops as a result of communication between the lymphatic system and the urinary system. It is an unusual manifestation of lymphatic filariasis reported mainly from South Asian countries. We report the case of a 38-year-old man from an endemic area who presented with passage of milky urine. Physical examination did not reveal any lymphadenopathy or lymph oedema. Urine tests revealed nephrotic range proteinuria. A 99m technetium sulphur colloid lymphoscintigraphy confirmed connection between lymphatic vessels and the urinary tract. Predominant chyluria with no overt lymphatic filariasis remains an enigma. PMID:22669920
Waitumbi, J N; Nantulya, V M
Two herds of 60 camels each, living in Trypanosoma evansi endemic areas, were selected and studied for a period of 18 months. Animals in one herd were treated prophylactically with quinapyramine prosalt (May and Baker, Dagenham, UK), while those in the other herd were treated individually with quinapyramine dimethylsulphate (May and Baker, Dagenham, UK) when proven parasitaemic. The herd on prophylaxis was sampled for antigen and patent infection monthly. The other herd was sampled weekly for patent infection and fortnightly for antigen. The results obtained could be divided into four categories. The first category comprised cases (52 out of 61) in which the presence of trypanosome antigens could be correlated with parasitological diagnosis. In 80% of these animals the antigens disappeared from the circulation within a period of 30 days following chemotherapy. The second category comprised those animals with parasitologically proven infections but which did not have antigens in their sera. This was observed in nine camels, seven of which were from the herd that was being examined weekly for the presence of trypanosomes. These were considered to be animals in early infection, as the subsequent sera were also negative for anti-trypanosome antibodies and immune complexes. The third category comprised camels which were antigen-positive but aparasitaemic. Sera from these animals were also positive for anti-trypanosome antibodies, indicating that antigen-positivity was a true reflection of trypanosome infections in these animals. The last category comprised pre-weaned camel calves which appeared to have some form of protection against trypanosomiasis, as evidenced by the absence of trypanosomes, antigens and antibodies throughout the early period of their lives. Only occasional antigenaemia was found in a few calves. It is concluded that trypanosome antigen detection may give a more accurate idea of the prevalence of T. evansi infections than does whole parasite
Zhang, Hao; Huang, Jing; Li, Tianqi; Svanberg, Sune; Svanberg, Katarina
A noninvasive optical technique, which is based on a combination of reflectance spectroscopy and gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy, is demonstrated. It has the potential to improve diagnostics of middle ear infections. An ear phantom prepared with a tissue cavity, which was covered with scattering material, was used for spectroscopic measurements. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the phantom eardrum were measured with a reflectance probe. The presence of oxygen and water vapor as well as gas exchange in the phantom cavity were studied with a specially designed fiber-optic probe for backscattering detection geometry. The results suggest that this method can be developed for improved clinical detection of middle ear infection.
Zhang, Hao; Huang, Jing; Li, Tianqi; Svanberg, Sune; Svanberg, Katarina
A noninvasive optical technique, which is based on a combination of reflectance spectroscopy and gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy, is demonstrated. It has the potential to improve diagnostics of middle ear infections. An ear phantom prepared with a tissue cavity, which was covered with scattering material, was used for spectroscopic measurements. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the phantom eardrum were measured with a reflectance probe. The presence of oxygen and water vapor as well as gas exchange in the phantom cavity were studied with a specially designed fiber-optic probe for backscattering detection geometry. The results suggest that this method can be developed for improved clinical detection of middle ear infection.
Bouyou Akotet, M K; Owono-Medang, M; Mawili-Mboumba, D P; Moussavou-Boussougou, M N; Nzenze Afène, S; Kendjo, E; Kombila, M
The relationship between the frequency of loiasis objective symptoms and microfilaraemic or amicrofilaraemic infection was assessed in 1148 exposed patients also infected, or not, with Mansonella perstans. Filarial infections were detected by direct microscopy, leucoconcentration and serology, with prevalence values of 39.5% Loa loa, 5.6% M. perstans and 3.4% co-infection with both filarial species. Amicrofilaraemic or occult loiasis (OL) predominated among L. loa-infected individuals, with a prevalence of 58.2%. Hypermicrofilaraemia (>8000 microfilariae (mf)/ml) was found in 18.4% of L. loa microfilaraemic patients, with 25.7% of them harbouring more than 30,000 mf/ml. Up to 34% of patients with OL showed evidence of Calabar swelling, compared with 26.3% of microfilaraemic patients (P= 0.03). Overall 5.3% of patients presented with adult worm migration across the eye, representing 16.3% of microfilaraemic individuals and 11.4% of amicrofilaraemic patients (P= 0.13). This symptom was similarly found in patients with more than 30,000 mf/ml (22%), those with microfilaraemia between 8 and 30,000 mf/ml (15.4%) and also in individuals with low or without microfilaraemia (16.1%) (P= 0.7). Five (14.3%) hypermicrofilaraemic patients did not present any L. loa-specific objective symptoms, as well as all the patients with single M. perstans infection. The presence of adult eye worm migration as a strong predictor of high microfilaraemia density would obscure the real burden of L. loa hypermicrofilaraemia in exposed individuals. For epidemiological purposes and control strategies, the mapping of L. loa in endemic areas should also take into account the group of patients with occult loiasis.
Tang, Yue; Xiang, Wei; Hawkins, Steve A C; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Windl, Otto
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disease of cattle. BSE can be transmitted experimentally between cattle through the oral route, and in this study, brain tissue samples from animals at different time points postinoculation were analyzed for changes in gene expression. The aims of this study were to identify differentially regulated genes during the progression of BSE using microarray-based gene expression profiling and to understand the effect of prion pathogenesis on gene expression. A total of 114 genes were found to be differentially regulated over the time course of the infection, and many of these 114 genes encode proteins involved in immune response, apoptosis, cell adhesion, stress response, and transcription. This study also revealed a broad correlation between gene expression profiles and the progression of BSE in cattle. At 21 months postinoculation, the largest number of differentially regulated genes was detected, suggesting that there are many pathogenic processes in the animal brain even prior to the detection of infectivity in the central nervous systems of these orally infected cattle. Moreover, evidence is presented to suggest that it is possible to predict the infectious status of animals using the expression profiles from this study.
Demontis, Maria Antonietta; Sadiq, Maaz Tahir; Golz, Simon; Taylor, Graham P
Plasma of patients infected with HTLV-1 is considered non-infectious but detection of HTLV-1 genomic RNA in plasma has been recently reported. The aim of this project was to detect and quantify HTLV-1 RNA in plasma and assess its potential value in diagnosis and prognosis. RNA from 1 ml of plasma from 65 subjects infected with HTLV-1 (27 asymptomatic carriers [AC]), 17 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP), 14 with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), two co-infected with HIV, and five with other HTLV-1-associated disease, was extracted and reverse transcribed. HTLV-1 specific nested PCR was performed using primers to amplify the conserved Tax region. All samples were run in quadruplicate, nested PCR products were detected by gel electrophoresis. HTLV-1 RNA was detected in plasma from 18 (28%) patients, always at a very low copy number (3-13 copies viral cDNA per milliliter of plasma). Mean values of HTLV-1 proviral load did not differ between patients in whom HTLV-1 RNA was detected and patients in whom it was not possible to detect HTLV-1 RNA in plasma. HTLV-1 genomic RNA can be detected in the plasma of a minority of patients but not at a level or frequency to be useful clinically or diagnostically. Lack of transmission of HTLV-1 by plasma is due to the rare presence of HTLV-1 virions, regardless of any other factor. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mabbott, Samuel; Thompson, David; Sirimuthu, Narayana; McNay, Graeme; Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan
We report the use of silver hydroxylamine nanoparticles functionalised with single stranded monothiolated DNA for the detection of fungal infections. The four different species of fungi that were targeted were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Aspergillus fumigatus. Rational design of synthetic targets and probes was carried out by carefully analysing the 2-D folding of the DNA and then by global alignment of the sequences to ensure specificity. The effects of varying the concentrations of the DNA and dye surrounding the nanoparticles on the resultant surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal were also investigated to ensure compatibility of the probes in a multiplexed environment. Using principal components analysis (PCA) it was possible to detect the individual presence of each target and group them accordingly. The move to detect the C. krusei single stranded PCR product (ssPCR) was significant to demonstrate that the methodology could be employed for the detection and diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFDs) within a clinical setting. Initially the PCR product was subjected to an alkali shock method in order to separate the strands ready for detection using the nanoparticle probes system. This time 18 base probes were employed to enhance hybridisation efficiency and dextran sulfate was found to have a vital role in ensuring that detection of the C. krusei target was achieved. This demonstrated the use of DNA functionalised silver nanoparticle for the detection of clinically relevant DNA relating to a specific fungal infection and offers significant promise for future diagnostic applications.
Callister, Steven M.; Jobe, Dean A.; Schell, Ronald F.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Onheiber, Keysha L.; Korshus, Jon B.
Detection of borreliacidal antibodies is an accurate serodiagnostic test for confirmation of Lyme disease in humans. In this study, 13 pathogen-free beagles, 12 to 26 weeks old, were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick challenge. Dogs were monitored for clinical signs and symptoms of Lyme disease along with borreliacidal antibody production against B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates 297 and 50772. Ten (77%) dogs developed lameness in one or more legs within 210 days after attachment of Ixodes scapularis ticks. Eight (80%) of the lame animals had concurrent fever of ≥38°C. Spirochetes were also recovered from the skin and joints of 12 (92%) dogs, but rarely from other organs. Borreliacidal antibodies against B. burgdorferi isolate 297 were detected in only four (31%) dogs, and the levels of killing antibodies remained low for the duration of the infection. In contrast, borreliacidal antibodies against B. burgdorferi isolate 50772 were detected in 13 (100%) dogs within 21 days of infection. Furthermore, the borreliacidal antibody levels correlated with the severity of B. burgdorferi infection. Detection of borreliacidal antibodies, especially against B. burgdorferi isolate 50772, is also a reliable serodiagnostic test for detection of Lyme disease in dogs. PMID:11015381
Hodge, S; Hodge, G; Flower, R; Han, P
Diagnosis of perinatal infection in the newborn is difficult; there may be few clinical signs and current tests are slow or non-specific. Detection of organisms, antigen or specific antibody to common pathogens often requires repeat samples and does not give immediate results. Haematological parameters, although relied upon frequently to diagnose infection in the neonate prior to a positive bacterial isolation, are unreliable and insensitive. Indicators such as an increase in neutrophil band cell counts are highly variable between morphologists. Infection induces the expression of a number of T lymphocyte surface markers, including CD45RA/CD45RO and CD45RO. The use of changed expression of surface markers as a laboratory test for detection of infection in neonates was evaluated. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to detect expression of early (CD45RA/CD45RO) and late (CD45RO) activation markers. In the respective groups of 50 full term (including 25 normal vaginal deliveries and 25 caesarean deliveries) and 30 premature, i.e. < 36 weeks gestation (born by either normal vaginal delivery or caesarean delivery) the CD45RA isoform was brightly expressed on newborn ‘naive’ CD4+ T cells, whereas the CD45RO isoform (including both ‘bright’ and ‘dim’ populations) was present on < 19% of CD4+ T cells from these newborn infants. In a group of 37 infants, tested to evaluate possible effects of non-infective parameters such as respiratory distress and iso-immunization, no significant changes in surface marker expression were found and specificity of the test was confirmed. In 14 neonates with documented sepsis, up-regulation of dual staining CD45RA/CD45RO isoforms on CD4+ T cells was detected early in the infection. In addition, we found that CD45RO expression persisted for several weeks after bacterial infection, and up to several months in viral infection. In conclusion, detection of T cell activation by flow cytometry for the early diagnosis of neonatal
Rubin, R.H.; Fischman, A.J.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Keech, F.; Ahmad, M.; Wilkinson, R.; Strauss, H.W. )
We performed radionuclide scanning after the intravenous injection of human IgG labeled with indium-111 in 128 patients with suspected focal sites of inflammation. Localization of 111In-labeled IgG correlated with clinical findings in 51 infected patients (21 with abdominal or pelvic infections, 11 with intravascular infections, 7 with pulmonary infections, and 12 with skeletal infections). Infecting organisms included gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Candida albicans. No focal localization of 111In-labeled IgG was observed in 63 patients without infection. There were five false negative results, and nine results were unusable. Serial scans were carried out in eight patients: continued localization correctly predicted relapse in six, and the absence of localization indicated resolution in two. To determine whether 111In-labeled IgG localization was specific for inflammation, we studied 16 patients with cancer. Focal localization occurred in 13 of these patients (5 with melanomas, 5 with gynecologic cancers, and 1 each with lymphoma, prostate cancer, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma). No localization was seen in patients with renal or colon cancer or metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. We conclude that 111In-labeled IgG imaging is effective for the detection of focal infection and that serial scans may be useful in assessing therapeutic efficacy. This technique may also be helpful in the evaluation of certain cancers.
Garcia-Sherman, Melissa C.; Lysak, Nataliya; Filonenko, Alexandra; Richards, Hazel; Sobonya, Richard E.; Klotz, Stephen A.; Lipke, Peter N.
Many fungal cell adhesion proteins form functional amyloid patches on the surface of adhering cells. The Candida albicans Agglutinin-like sequence (Als) adhesins are exemplars for this phenomenon, and have amyloid forming sequences that are conserved between family members. The Als5p amyloid sequence mediates amyloid fibril formation and is critical for cell adhesion and biofilm formation, and is also present in the related adhesins Als1p and Als3p. We have developed a fluorescent peptide probe containing the conserved Als amyloid-forming sequence. This peptide bound specifically to yeast expressing Als5p, but not to cells lacking the adhesin. The probe bound to both yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans. Δals1/Δals3 single and double deletion strains exhibited reduced fluorescence, indicating that probe binding required expression of these proteins. Additionally, the Als peptide specifically stained fungal cells in abscesses in autopsy sections. Counterstaining with calcofluor white showed colocalization with the amyloid peptide. In addition, fungi in autopsy sections derived from the gastrointestinal tract showed colocalization of the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin T and the fluorescent peptide. Collectively, our data demonstrate that we can exploit amyloid sequence specificity for detection of functional amyloids in situ. PMID:24465872
Gupta, B.; Guan, B.; Reece, P. J.; Gooding, J. J.
In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of modifying porous silicon (PSi) particles with surface chemistry and immobilizing a biopolymer, gelatin for the detection of protease enzymes in solution. A rugate filter, a one-dimensional photonic crystal, is fabricated that exhibits a high-reflectivity optical resonance that is sensitive to small changes in the refractive index. To immobilize gelatin in the pores of the particles, the hydrogen-terminated silicon surface was first modified with an alkyne, 1,8-nonadiyne via hydrosilylation to protect the silicon surfaces from oxidation. This modification allows for further functionality to be added such as the coupling of gelatin. Exposure of the gelatin modified particles to the protease subtilisin in solution causes a change in the refractive index, resulting in a shift of the resonance to shorter wavelengths, indicating cleavage of organic material within the pores. The ability to monitor the spectroscopic properties of microparticles, and shifts in the optical signature due to changes in the refractive index of the material within the pore space, is demonstrated.
Hasmann, Andrea; Wehrschuetz-Sigl, Eva; Kanzler, Gertraud; Gewessler, Ulrike; Hulla, Elisabeth; Schneider, Konstantin P; Binder, Barbara; Schintler, Michael; Guebitz, Georg M
Detection of wound infection is based on evaluation of the well-known signs of inflammation like rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), and dolor (pain) by medical doctors and/or time-consuming procedures requiring special machinery. There is currently no rapid diagnostic device available for the indication of wound infection, which would especially be helpful in home care of chronic ulcer patients. In this study, a new concept for a fast diagnostic tool for wound infection based on lysozyme and elastase triggered release of dye from a peptidoglycan matrix was investigated. The matrix consisted of alginate/agarose and peptidoglycan covalently labeled with Remazol brilliant blue. Lysozyme activity in postoperative wounds and decubitus wound fluids was significantly elevated upon infection (4830 ± 1848 U mL(-1)) compared to noninfected wounds (376 ± 240 U mL(-1)). Consequently, incubation of 8% (w/v) labeled agarose/peptidoglycan blend layers with infected wound fluid samples for 2 h at 37 °C resulted in a 4-fold higher amount of dye released than measured for noninfected wounds. For alginate/peptidoglycan beads, a 7-fold higher amount of dye was released in case of infected wound fluid samples compared to noninfected ones. Apart from lysozyme, proteases [i.e., gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9 and elastase] were detected in wound fluids (e.g., using Western blotting). When dosed in ratios typical for wounds, a slight synergistic effect was measured for peptidoglycan hydrolysis (i.e., dye release) between lysozyme and these proteases. Incubation of a double-layer system consisting of stained and nonstained peptidoglycan with infected wound fluids resulted in a color change from yellow to blue, thus allowing simple visual detection of wound infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weiner, M H; Coats-Stephen, M
A radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects candida mannan was developed so that immunodiagnosis of systemic candidiasis could be improved. The RIA was evaluated in an animal model of disseminated disease and in a panel of patient sera. Mannan antigenemia was detected with the RIA in 52% of 29 rabbits with systemic candidasis, but not in 60 normal rabbits or 31 rabbits with systemic aspergillosis. In an evaluation of human sera, mannan antigenemia was detected in five of 11 patients with systemic candidiasis, one of three patients with invasive gastrointestinal candidiasis, and one patient with a sustained candidemia associated with an infected intravenous catheter. Mannan was not detected in sera from 11 patients with superficial candida infections, seven patients colonized with Candida, three patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, eight patients with other systemic mycoses, or 22 normal donors. This study demonstrates the utility of this RIA for early, specific immunodiagnosis of invasive candidiasis.
Bardon, Jean; Lukaszewicz, Anne-Claire; Faivre, Valérie; Huot, Benjamin; Payen, Didier
Early detection of infection is critical to rapidly starting effective treatment. Diagnosis can be difficult, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU) population. Because the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in tissues is the hallmark of inflammatory processes, the objective of this proof of concept study was to determine whether the measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be an efficient diagnostic tool to rapidly diagnose infections in peritoneal, pleural and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids in ICU patients. We prospectively included all patients hospitalized in the 21-bed surgical ICU of a teaching hospital from June 2010 to February 2014 who presented with systemic inflammatory response syndrome with suspicion of a peritoneal or pleural fluid or pulmonary infection needing a BAL. Instantaneous basal ROS production was measured in fluids and after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation. We compared patients with infected fluids to those with non-infected fluids. The overall ICU mortality rate was 34 %. A majority of patients were sampled following a delay of 5 days (2-12) after ICU admission, with most receiving antibiotics at the time of fluid sampling (71 %). Fluids were infected in 21/65 samples: 6/17 peritoneal fluids, 8/28 pleural fluids and 7/20 BALs. ROS production was significantly higher in the infected than in the non-infected group at baseline and after PMA stimulation in the peritoneal and pleural fluids but not in BAL. Assessing instantaneous ROS production appears as a fast and reliable diagnostic method for detecting peritoneal and pleural fluid infection.
Abels, Susanne; Nadal, David; Stroehle, Angelika; Bossart, Walter
By using a rapid test for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection (Abbott TestPack RSV), a number of patients were observed, showing repeatedly positive results over a period of up to 10 weeks. A prospective study was initiated to compare the rapid test with an antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) protocol for detection of RSV serotypes A and B. Only respiratory samples from children exhibiting the prolonged presence of RSV (≥5 days) as determined by the rapid test were considered. A total of 134 specimens from 24 children was investigated by antigen capture EIA and nested RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR as the reference method, we determined the RSV rapid test to have a specificity of 63% and a sensitivity of 66% and the antigen capture EIA to have a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 69% for acute-phase samples and the homologous virus serotype A. In 7 (29%) of 24 patients, the positive results of the RSV rapid test could not be confirmed by either nested RT-PCR or antigen capture EIA. In these seven patients a variety of other respiratory viruses were detected. For general screening the RSV rapid test was found to be a reasonable tool to get quick results. However, its lack of specificity in some patients requires confirmation by additional tests to rule out false-positive results and/or detection of other respiratory viruses. PMID:11526141
Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; Sakran, Thabet; El-Shahawi, Gamal; El-Fayoumi, Hoda; El-Mallah, Al-Mahy
Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) had a significance in anti-filarial chemotherapy, while excretory-secretory product (ES) is released from adult filarial females. The target of the current study was to examine the immunomodulatory effect of DEC, Setaria equina ES or a combination of them on rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). In vitro effect of combined DEC and ES or ES alone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was tested through IFN-γ assay in culture supernatants. In addition, single or repeated doses of DEC, ES or DEC+ES have been applied in white albino rats to test the effect on HCC. Levels of IFN-γ and anti-ES IgG antibodies in rat serum were assayed using ELISA. Hemolytic complement activity (CH50) was determined in serum while the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was assayed in liver tissue. The infiltration of NK cells as well as the expression of MHC Iproliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), Bcl2 and p53 were determined using immunohistochemistry. There was a dose-dependent increase in IFN-γ after in vitro exposure to DEC+ES. Repeated ES doses increased NO concentration (p<0.05) and expression of iNOS but reduced CH50 (p<0.001), while repeated DEC+ES doses could increase anti-ES IgG (p<0.01), IFN-γ level (p<0.05) and NK cell infiltration. The same treatments could also reduce the expression of MHC I expression, PCNA, Bcl2 and p53. This study has shown immunomodulatory and protective effects of DEC+ES repeated doses on rat HCC.
Bale, J.F. Jr.; O'Neil, M.E. )
The authors used virus assay and in situ hybridization with a cloned fragment of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) genome to study MCMV infection of circulating leukocytes harvested from 3-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H mice infected with MCMV intraperitoneally. Infectious virus or MCMV DNA was detected in leukocytes on days 1 through 21 of infection in BALB/c mice and on days 3 through 7 in C57BL/6 mice. On days 5 and 7, MCMV DNA or infectious virus was detected in the leukocytes of 17 (94%) of 18 BALB/c mice and 10 (59%) of 17 C57BL/6 mice. In both strains infection peaked on days 5 and 7, when as many as 0.01 to 0.1% of the circulating leukocytes contained MCMV DNA. In C3H mice, however, infectious virus was rarely recovered from leukocyte fractions and MCMV DNA was detected in the circulating leukocytes of only one animal. Circulating leukocytes may have an important role in the dissemination of CMV infections in susceptible hosts.
Cevallos, Varsovia; Ponce, Patricio; Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Coloma, Josefina; Quiroga, Cristina; Morales, Diego; Cárdenas, Maria José
The wide and rapid spread of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. The early detection of CHIKV and ZIKV in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. This study was done to detect ZIKV and CHIKV viruses in naturally infected fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes from active epidemic urban areas in Ecuador. Pools (n=193; 22 pools) and individuals (n=22) of field collected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from high-risk arboviruses infection sites in Ecuador were analyzed for the presence of CHIKV and ZIKV using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both ZIKV and CHIKV viruses circulating in Ecuador correspond to the Asian lineages. Minimum infection rate (MIR) of CHIKV for Esmeraldas city was 2.3% and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was 3.3%. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of ZIKV for Portoviejo city was 5.3% and for Manta city was 2.1%. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for Portoviejo city was 6.9% and 2.6% for Manta city. Detection of arboviruses and infection rates in the arthropod vectors may help to predict an outbreak and serve as a warning tool in surveillance programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Custer, Jonathan R.; Kariuki, Michael; Beerntsen, Brenda T.; Viator, John A.
Malaria is a blood borne infection affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide2. The parasites reproduce within the blood cells, eventually causing their death and lysis. This process releases the parasites into the blood, continuing the cycle of infection. Usually, malaria is diagnosed only after a patient presents symptoms, including high fever, nausea, and, in advanced cases, coma and death. While invading the bloodstream of a host, malaria parasites convert hemoglobin into an insoluble crystal, known as hemozoin. These crystals, approximately several hundred nanometers in size, are contained within red blood cells and white blood cells that ingest free hemozoin in the blood. Thus, infected red blood cells and white blood cells contain a unique optical absorber that can be detected in blood samples using static photoacoustic detection methods. We separated the white blood cells from malaria infected blood and tested it in a photoacoustic set up using a tunable laser system consisting of an optical parametric oscillator pumped by an Nd:YAG laser with pulse duration of 5 ns. Our threshold of detection was 10 infected white blood cells per microliter, which is more sensitive than current diagnosis methods using microscopic analysis of blood.
Stanton, Jeffrey J; Nofs, Sally A; Zachariah, Arun; Kalaivannan, N; Ling, Paul D
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Of the seven known EEHV species, EEHV1 is recognized as the most common cause of hemorrhagic disease among Asian elephants in human care worldwide. Recent data collected from ex situ Asian elephants located in multiple North American and European institutions suggest that subclinical EEHV1 infection is common in this population of elephants. Although fatal EEHV1-associated hemorrhagic disease has been reported in range countries, data are lacking regarding the prevalence of subclinical EEHV infections among in situ Asian elephants. We used previously validated EEHV-specific quantitative real-time PCR assays to detect subclinical EEHV infection in three regionally distinct Asian elephant cohorts, totaling 46 in situ elephants in South India, during October and November 2011. Using DNA prepared from trunk washes, we detected EEHV1, EEHV3/4, and EEHV5 at frequencies of 7, 9, and 20% respectively. None of the trunk washes was positive for EEHV2 or 6. At least one EEHV species was detectable in 35% (16/46) of the samples that were screened. These data suggest that subclinical EEHV infection among in situ Asian elephants occurs and that Asian elephants may be natural hosts for EEHV1, EEHV3 or 4, and EEHV5, but not EEHV2 and EEHV6. The methodology described in this study provides a foundation for further studies to determine prevalences of EEHV infection in Asian elephants throughout the world.
Monrroy, Hugo; Angulo, Jenniffer; Pino, Karla; Labbé, Pilar; Miquel, Juan Francisco; López-Lastra, Marcelo; Soza, Alejandro
The life cycle of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is closely associated with lipid metabolism. Recently, NPC1L1 (a cholesterol transporter) has been reported to function as an HCV receptor. This receptor is expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and in the intestine; serving as a key transporter for the cholesterol enterohepatic cycle. We hypothesized that HCV might have a similar cycle, so we aimed to study the presence of HCV in bile and stools of infected patients. Blood, feces, and duodenal bile samples were collected from patients infected with HCV. The biliary viral load was normalized to the bile salt concentration of each sample and the presence of HCV core protein was also evaluated. A total of 12 patients were recruited. HCV RNA was detected in the bile from ten patients. The mean viral load was 2.5log10IU/60mg bile salt. In the stool samples, HCV RNA was detected in ten patients (mean concentration 2.7log10IU/g of feces). HCV RNA is readily detectable and is present at relatively high concentrations in the bile and stool samples of infected patients. This may be relevant as a source of infection in men who have sex with men. Biliary HCV secretion may perhaps play a role in the persistence of viral infection via an enterohepatic cycle of the virus or intrahepatic spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.
O’Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G.
Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical
Wang, Kun; Langevin, Stanley; O'Hern, Corey S; Shattuck, Mark D; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G; Kirby, Michael
Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical
Lau, Y L; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Fong, M Y; Siti, C O S; Siti, F A
Entamoeba histolytica infection is the third-greatest parasitic disease responsible for death in the world. Wild rats harbouring E. histolytica can be the possible reservoir hosts for human amoebiasis. There were numerous studies on prevalence of intestinal parasites among wild rats in Malaysia but none has reported E. histolytica. Rats were captured from Sentul and Chow Kit areas, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The preserved stool samples were used for microscopy examination and molecular analysis. Out of 137 samples collected, 12 were positive for E. histolytica / E. dispar / E. moshkovskii microscopically. Two E. histolytica (1.4%), 1 E. dispar (0.7%) and 6 mixed infections of E. histolytica and E. dispar (4.3%) were detected using PCR. This is the first report of molecular detection of E. histolytica/dispar infection among wild rats in Malaysia. This study provides useful information about the potential risks of zoonotic agents and the importance of developing control measures to prevent zoonotic transmission.
Qvist, P; Aasted, B; Bloch, B; Meyling, A; Rønsholt, L; Houe, H
Flow cytometry was investigated for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of persistently infected cattle. The mononuclear leukocytes were purified by sedimentation in a gradient of Ficoll-Paque, fixed, permeabilized, and then labelled by indirect immunofluorescence using biotinylated immunoglobulins from a porcine antiserum to BVDV. Flow cytometric analysis of blood samples obtained from persistently infected cattle revealed virus in 3.0-21.0% (mean +/- SD, 11.2% +/- 6.4%) of the mononuclear leukocytes. Fluorescent cells were not observed in controls. Flow cytometric detection of BVDV in blood cells of persistently infected bovines is a rapid and objective technique which does not require cell culture facilities. PMID:2174298
Díaz-Badillo, Alvaro; de Lourdes Muñoz, María; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Altuzar, Victor; Burgueño, Juan; Mendoza-Alvarez, Julio G.; Martínez-Muñoz, Jorge P.; Cisneros, Alejandro; Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Sanchez-Sinencio, Feliciano
Here; we have described and tested a microarray based-method for the screening of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. This DNA microarray assay is specific and sensitive and can detect dual infections with two dengue virus serotypes and single-serotype infections. Other methodologies may underestimate samples containing more than one serotype. This technology can be used to discriminate between the four DENV serotypes. Single-stranded DNA targets were covalently attached to glass slides and hybridised with specific labelled probes. DENV isolates and dengue samples were used to evaluate microarray performance. Our results demonstrate that the probes hybridized specifically to DENV serotypes; with no detection of unspecific signals. This finding provides evidence that specific probes can effectively identify single and double infections in DENV samples. PMID:24776933
Gautheret, A; Aubin, J T; Fauveau, V; Rozenbaum, W; Huraux, J M; Agut, H
In a cross-sectional study, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection was analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and saliva from 125 HIV-seropositive subjects and 29 HIV-seronegative controls. HHV-6 was detected in saliva significantly more frequently in HIV-seronegative subjects than in HIV-seropositive subjects (p = 0.023), with no significant difference between HIV-seropositive subgroups. The HIV proviral copy number in PBMCs differed significantly according to HIV subgroup, as expected, but did not differ according to either the presence of HHV-6 or the number of HHV-6 copies in PBMCs. All the HHV-6 identified were variant B except for one variant A strain detected in saliva from a healthy subject. These results do not support the hypothesis that there is synergistic activation of HHV-6 infection in the course of HIV infection.
Díaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Muñoz, María de Lourdes; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Altuzar, Victor; Burgueño, Juan; Mendoza-Alvarez, Julio G; Martínez-Muñoz, Jorge P; Cisneros, Alejandro; Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Sanchez-Sinencio, Feliciano
Here; we have described and tested a microarray based-method for the screening of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. This DNA microarray assay is specific and sensitive and can detect dual infections with two dengue virus serotypes and single-serotype infections. Other methodologies may underestimate samples containing more than one serotype. This technology can be used to discriminate between the four DENV serotypes. Single-stranded DNA targets were covalently attached to glass slides and hybridised with specific labelled probes. DENV isolates and dengue samples were used to evaluate microarray performance. Our results demonstrate that the probes hybridized specifically to DENV serotypes; with no detection of unspecific signals. This finding provides evidence that specific probes can effectively identify single and double infections in DENV samples.
Tietje, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kenneth; Clerk, Christine; Ebels, Kelly; McGray, Sarah; Crudder, Chris; Okell, Lucy; LaBarre, Paul
Recent emphasis on malaria elimination and eradication (E&E) goals is changing the way that experts evaluate malaria diagnostic tools and tactics. As prevalence declines, the focus of malaria management is pivoting toward low-density, subclinical infections and geographically and demographically concentrated reservoirs. These and other changes present challenges and opportunities for innovations in malaria diagnostics aimed at meeting the needs of malaria elimination programs. Developing such technologies requires a review of the operational approaches to detecting malaria infections in areas of declining prevalence. Here we review recent research on epidemiology and biology related to malaria elimination and operational factors that influence E&E strategies. We further propose use-scenarios and a target product profile framework to define and prioritize the required attributes of infection-detection technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contamination of grain products by fungus can lead to economic losses and is deleterious to human and livestock health. Detection and quantification of fungus-infected corn kernels would be adventitious for producers and breeders in evaluating quality and in selecting hybrids with resistance to inf...
Orina, Irene; Manley, Marena; Williams, Paul J
Infection of cereal grains by fungi is a serious problem worldwide. Depending on the environmental conditions, cereal grains may be colonised by different species of fungi. These fungi cause reduction in yield, quality and nutritional value of the grain; and of major concern is their production of mycotoxins which are harmful to both humans and animals. Early detection of fungal contamination is an essential control measure for ensuring storage longevity and food safety. Conventional methods for detection of fungal infection, such as culture and colony techniques or immunological methods are either slow, labour intensive or difficult to automate. In recent years, there has been an increasing need to develop simple, rapid, non-destructive methods for early detection of fungal infection and mycotoxins contamination in cereal grains. Methods such as near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, NIR hyperspectral imaging, and electronic nose were evaluated for these purposes. This paper reviews the different non-destructive techniques that have been considered thus far for detection of fungal infection and mycotoxins in cereal grains, including their principles, application and limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eugenin, Eliseo; Kaplan, Gilla
Detection of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a challenge in the diagnosis of asymptomatic, subclinical tuberculosis. We report the development of an immunofluorescence technique to visualize and enumerate M. tuberculosis in latently infected rabbit lungs where no acid-fast–stained organisms were seen and no cultivable bacilli were obtained by the agar-plating method. PMID:25161200
Lakshmanan, B; Devada, K; Joseph, S; Aravindakshan, T V; Sabu, L
Schistosomosis and amphistomosis are the two economically important and widely prevalent snail-borne trematode infections in grazing cattle of southern India. Acute infections are symptomatically similar and difficult to detect by routine microscopy for eggs. The present study was directed towards the development of a copro-polymerase chain reaction (copro-PCR) for detection of bovine schistosome species, using custom-designed primers targeting 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA as well as mitochondrial DNA. The study demonstrated the enhanced diagnostic specificity of mitochondrial DNA markers over ribosomal RNA genes as genus-specific probes to detect schistosomes. We developed a sensitive PCR assay using primers designed from mitochondrial DNA sequences targeting the partial rrnl (16S rRNA), tCys (transfer RNA for cysteine) and partial rrnS (12S rRNA) genes of Schistosoma spindale to specifically detect schistosome infection from faecal samples of naturally infected bovines. The salient findings of the work also throw light on to the high similarity of the ribosomal RNA gene sequences of schistosomes with those of Gastrothylax crumenifer and Fischoederius elongatus, the most prevalent pouched amphistomes of the region. Further investigation has to be directed towards unravelling the complete gene sequences of 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA as well as mitochondrial DNA sequences of amphistome isolates from India.
Nikoozad, Razieh; Mahzounieh, Mohammad Reza; Ghorani, Mohammad Reza
Background: Parvovirus B19, a member of the Erythrovirus genus of Parvoviridae family, causes various clinical illnesses including infectious erythema, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis or congenital anemia, and transient aplastic crises. The B19 virus can be transmitted through respiratory secretions, blood products, and blood transfusion. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the B19 virus in thalassemia patients in Isfahan, Iran. Patients and Methods: The prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection was compared between thalassemia major patients and healthy subjects. Plasma samples were collected from 30 thalassemia patients from Isfahan, Iran. Thirty patients without any blood complications were considered as the control group. After DNA extraction from the plasma samples, polymerase chain reaction was performed for parvovirus B19 detection. Results: The parvovirus B19-specific nucleotide sequence was detected in 6 patients (20%). None of the samples obtained from the 30 control subjects tested positive for B19. Conclusions: In this study B19-Parvovirus infection were detected in patients with hematologic disorders in comparison with control subjects. Screening of patients with a high risk of parvovirus B19 infection can considerably reduce the incidence and prevalence of B19 infection. PMID:26855745
Wu, Bo; Novelli, Jacopo; Foster, Jeremy; Vaisvila, Romualdas; Conway, Leslie; Ingram, Jessica; Ganatra, Mehul; Rao, Anita U; Hamza, Iqbal; Slatko, Barton
Filarial parasites (e.g., Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, and Wuchereria bancrofti) are causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which are among the most disabling of neglected tropical diseases. There is an urgent need to develop macro-filaricidal drugs, as current anti-filarial chemotherapy (e.g., diethylcarbamazine [DEC], ivermectin and albendazole) can interrupt transmission predominantly by killing microfilariae (mf) larvae, but is less effective on adult worms, which can live for decades in the human host. All medically relevant human filarial parasites appear to contain an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia. This alpha-proteobacterial mutualist has been recognized as a potential target for filarial nematode life cycle intervention, as antibiotic treatments of filarial worms harboring Wolbachia result in the loss of worm fertility and viability upon antibiotic treatments both in vitro and in vivo. Human trials have confirmed this approach, although the length of treatments, high doses required and medical counter-indications for young children and pregnant women warrant the identification of additional anti-Wolbachia drugs. Genome sequence analysis indicated that enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis might constitute a potential anti-Wolbachia target set. We tested different heme biosynthetic pathway inhibitors in ex vivo B. malayi viability assays and report a specific effect of N-methyl mesoporphyrin (NMMP), which targets ferrochelatase (FC, the last step). Our phylogenetic analysis indicates evolutionarily significant divergence between Wolbachia heme genes and their human homologues. We therefore undertook the cloning, overexpression and analysis of several enzymes of this pathway alongside their human homologues, and prepared proteins for drug targeting. In vitro enzyme assays revealed a approximately 600-fold difference in drug sensitivities to succinyl acetone (SA) between Wolbachia and human 5'-aminolevulinic acid
Velusamy, R; Singh, B P; Raina, O K
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Fasciola gigantica infection in the snail intermediate host. Fasciola specific primers amplified a 124 bp fragment in PCR when the genomic DNA isolated from F. gigantica infected Lymnaea auricularia snails was used as template. In addition to the 124 bp amplicon, a ladder of DNA fragments representing amplification of the 124 bp repetitive sequences was observed. Genomic DNA of the parasite was used as a positive control, which also gave an amplification of the 124 bp fragment. DNA isolated from non-infected snails was used as a negative control and no amplification of this sequence was observed. This technique is highly specific and sensitive and possesses fairly good prospects of its utility as an epidemiological tool for ascertaining the infectivity status in ubiquitous snail populations.
Pardo, Ingrid D R; Johnson, Gayle C; Kleiboeker, Steven B
In 2004, six puppies and one adult dog from a total of four premises were subjected to necropsy evaluation. For five of the seven dogs, disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) infection was suspected based on clinical signs. In all of the dogs, a diagnosis of CDV infection was established by the presence of compatible gross and histologic lesions, immunohistochemical labeling for CDV antigen, and detection of CDV RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. To further characterize the CDV strains detected in the four cases, complete gene sequences were determined for the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) protein genes, while partial gene sequencing was performed for the phosphoprotein gene. A total of 4,508 bases were sequenced for the CDV strains detected from each of the four cases. Two cases were found to have identical sequences except for 2 bases in the intergenic region of the F and H genes. Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested an evolutionary relationship between sequences detected in these two cases and those of phocine distemper virus 2 and two other strains of CDV not previously detected in the continental United States. Clear phylogenetic relationships were not established for viruses detected in the two additional cases; however, one strain showed similarity to CDV strains detected in a panda from China. Importantly, the three CDV strains detected were demonstrated to be genetically distinct from known vaccine strains and strains previously reported in the continental United States.
Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N
Propionibacterium propionicus and the recently described species Actinomyces radicidentis have been isolated from infections of endodontic origin; nevertheless, the possibility exists that their actual prevalence may have been underestimated by culture. The purpose of our study was to assess the occurrence of these 2 species in different types of endodontic infections by using the sensitive 16S rDNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction approach. To detect these 2 species, nested polymerase chain reaction was performed directly in samples taken from primary endodontic infections associated with asymptomatic periradicular lesions, acute apical periodontitis, or acute periradicular abscesses and in samples from patients in whom endodontic therapy had failed. DNA was extracted from the samples and initially amplified by using universal 16S rDNA primers. In the second round of amplification, the first polymerase chain reaction products were used to detect a specific 16S rDNA fragment of either P propionicus or A radicidentis. P propionicus was detected in 6/21 (29%) root canal samples from teeth with chronic periradicular lesions, in 5/10 (50%) cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, and in 7/19 (37%) pus samples aspirated from acute periradicular abscesses. Overall, this species was found in 18/50 (36%) samples taken from primary endodontic infections. Of the root canal samples obtained from root-filled teeth with chronic periradicular lesions, P propionicus was detected in 7/12 (58%) cases. A radicidentis was detected in 1/21 (5%) root canal samples from teeth with chronic periradicular lesions and in 1/10 (10%) cases of acute apical periodontitis. No pus sample yielded this species. In general, A radicidentis was detected in 2/50 (4%) samples taken from primary endodontic infections and in 1/12 (8%) root canal samples taken from patients in whom endodontic treatment had failed. P propionicus was found in a relatively large number of patients with primary and
Wu, Zegang; Li, Yan; Gu, Jian; Zheng, Hongyun; Tong, Yongqing; Wu, Qing
Acute respiratory infection is the major cause of disease and death in children, particularly in developing countries. However, the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria that exist in many of these countries remains incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 16. A total of 10 435 serum sera specimens were collected from hospitalized children presenting with acute respiratory infection symptoms. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed to detect immunoglobulin M antibodies against nine common pathogens: mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila, coxiella burnetii and chamydophila pneumonia. Of the 10 435 specimens examined, 7046 tested positive for at least one pathogen. Among all of the tested pathogens, mycoplasma pneumonia had the highest detection rate (56.9%). Influenza virus A and influenza virus B epidemics occurred during both winter and summer. The detection rate of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus was higher in spring. Cases of mixed infection were more complex: 4136 specimens (39.6%) tested positive for ≥2 pathogens. There were statistically significant difference in detection rates of mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila and chamydophila pneumonia among different age groups (P < 0.05). The most common pathogens causing acute respiratory infection among children in Hubei of China were mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B and respiratory syncytial virus. The detection rates for each pathogen displayed specific seasonal and age group variations. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Kremastinou, J; Polymerou, V; Lavranos, D; Aranda Arrufat, A; Harwood, J; Martínez Lorenzo, M J; Ng, K P; Queiros, L; Vereb, I; Cusini, M
Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient populations, at seven independent laboratories. The samples included routine diagnostic samples, blood donation samples, samples from patients with confirmed HIV infections, samples from living organ or bone marrow donors, and banked samples, including samples previously confirmed as syphilis positive. This study also investigated the seroconversion sensitivity of the assay. With a total of 1,965 syphilis-negative routine diagnostic samples and 5,792 syphilis-negative samples collected from blood donations, the Elecsys Syphilis assay had specificity values of 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. With 333 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 100% regardless of disease stage. The assay also showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with samples from 69 patients coinfected with HIV. The Elecsys Syphilis assay detected infection in the same bleed or earlier, compared with comparator assays, in a set of sequential samples from a patient with primary syphilis. In archived serial blood samples collected from 14 patients with direct diagnoses of primary syphilis, the Elecsys Syphilis assay detected T. pallidum antibodies for 3 patients for whom antibodies were not detected with the Architect Syphilis TP assay, indicating a trend for earlier detection of infection, which may have the potential to shorten the time between infection and reactive screening test results. Copyright © 2016 Kremastinou et al.
Kremastinou, J.; Polymerou, V.; Lavranos, D.; Aranda Arrufat, A.; Harwood, J.; Martínez Lorenzo, M. J.; Ng, K. P.; Queiros, L.; Vereb, I.
Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum. The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient populations, at seven independent laboratories. The samples included routine diagnostic samples, blood donation samples, samples from patients with confirmed HIV infections, samples from living organ or bone marrow donors, and banked samples, including samples previously confirmed as syphilis positive. This study also investigated the seroconversion sensitivity of the assay. With a total of 1,965 syphilis-negative routine diagnostic samples and 5,792 syphilis-negative samples collected from blood donations, the Elecsys Syphilis assay had specificity values of 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. With 333 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 100% regardless of disease stage. The assay also showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with samples from 69 patients coinfected with HIV. The Elecsys Syphilis assay detected infection in the same bleed or earlier, compared with comparator assays, in a set of sequential samples from a patient with primary syphilis. In archived serial blood samples collected from 14 patients with direct diagnoses of primary syphilis, the Elecsys Syphilis assay detected T. pallidum antibodies for 3 patients for whom antibodies were not detected with the Architect Syphilis TP assay, indicating a trend for earlier detection of infection, which may have the potential to shorten the time between infection and reactive screening test results. PMID:27358468
Hurtado, Ana; Sanchez, Isbene; Bastida, Felix; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Juste, Ramón A; García-Pérez, Ana L
Background Border disease virus (BDV) causes important reproductive losses, and eradication strategies focus on the identification and removal of persistently infected animals arising after in uterine infection. BDV infection dynamics were studied in 13 ewes experimentally infected with BDV-4 genotype at 3 phases of pregnancy [days 108 (group A), 76 (group B) and 55 (group C)] by quantification of viral RNA in blood collected on days -1 to parturition using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Viral RNA loads were also measured in blood/foetal fluid and tissue samples from their offspring at lambing (3 foetuses, 7 stillborns, 15 lambs). qRT-PCR results were compared with those obtained by conventional RT-PCR and used to predict persistent infections. Results Viral RNA was detected in the ewes between days 2-15 p.i. The viraemia reached its highest peak between days 6-7 p.i. with a second peak at days 11-12 p.i. qRT-PCR was significantly faster to perform (less than 1 h) than conventional RT-PCR and detected BDV RNA in more ewes, being detection more continuous and prolonged in time. The virus was detected in peripheral blood in a higher percentage of lambs than in tissues, where differences in viral genome copies were more marked. Skin and cerebral cortex showed the highest viral RNA loads, and spleen and spinal cord the lowest. High viral RNA loads were observed in several animals in group B and all in group C, infected during middle and early foetal development, respectively, but also in one lamb from group A, infected during late foetal development. Serology and viral genome copy number estimates in blood and tissues were used to establish a quantitative cut-off threshold for transient viraemia. Conclusion Viral RNA quantification showed potential for the discrimination between persistent infections and transient viraemia using single-time point blood sampling and raised questions regarding foetal immune system development and the occurrence of persistent
Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing
To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were "fresh" and in the gallbladder stones were "old." Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma.
Sandoval, Nidia; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Lopez Aban, Julio; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Gárate, Teresa; Muro, Antonio
Schistosomiasis represents an increasing problem in non-endemic areas, due to the growing number of immigrants and to tourists contracting this disease in "off-the-beaten-track" tourism. Acute schistosomiasis is not diagnosed early due to the lack of diagnostic tools that are sufficiently sensitive enough to detect the parasite during the first weeks of infection. We have developed a diagnostic approach based on the detection of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urine, comparing the performance of this new approach with the two currently used schistosomiasis diagnostic tools (Kato-Katz and ELISA) and the PCR in stool samples. This comparison was done in a Schistosoma mansoni murine experimental model, which permits follow up of the parasite from the acute to the chronic stage of infection. Our results suggest that this new PCR-based approach could be useful for the detection of acute schistosomiasis in easy-to-handle clinical samples such the urine.
Thompson, Alex J.; Koziej, Lukasz; Williams, Huw D.; Elson, Daniel S.; Yang, Guang-Zhong
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common post-surgical complications that remain significant clinical problems, as they are associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. As such, there is significant interest in the development of minimally invasive techniques that permit early detection of SSIs. To this end, we are applying a compact, clinically deployable Raman spectrometer coupled to an optical fibre probe to the study of bacteria, with the long term goal of using Raman spectroscopy to detect infection in vivo. Our system comprises a 785 nm laser diode for excitation and a commercial (Ocean Optics, Inc.) Raman spectrometer for detection. Here we discuss the design, optimisation and validation of this system, and describe our first experiences interrogating bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) in vitro.
... Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Oral ... Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Vaginal Yeast Infections Immunizations Do My Kids Need Vaccines Before ...
UESAKA, Karin; MAEZAWA, Masaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi
A serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs was performed in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection in dogs was detected in 2011. A total of 314 serum samples were collected from dogs that visited three animal hospitals in Sapporo from 2012 to 2014. The two-step evaluation method, involving screening ELISA followed by Western blot analysis, was used to detect antibodies against Borrelia species. A total of 34 samples were positive by ELISA. Among those 34 samples, 32 were positive for Borrelia spp. by Western blot. These findings suggest that the 32 dogs (10.2%) generated antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, such as B. garinii or B. afzelii. Antibody positivity was 7.6% and 13.3% for dogs living in urban and rural areas, respectively. Dogs with a history of tick infestation showed a positive rate of 16.7%, which was higher, although not significantly, than the 6.7% among dogs without a history. PMID:26522809
Duthie, Malcolm S; Guderian, Jeffery A; Vallur, Aarthy C; Misquith, Ayesha; Liang, Hong; Mohamath, Raodoh; Luquetti, Alejandro O; Carter, Darrick; Tavares, Suelene N B; Reed, Steven G
We previously reported that tandem repeat (TR) proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi could serve as targets of the antibody response and be useful as diagnostic indicators. To optimize reagents for detecting T. cruzi infection we evaluated individual TR proteins and identified several that were recognized by the majority of Chagas patient's sera collected from individuals form Brazil. We then produced novel, recombinant fusion proteins to combine the reactive TR proteins into a single diagnostic product. Direct comparison of the antibody response of serum samples that were readily detected by the established fusion antigen used in commercial detection of Chagas disease, TcF, revealed strong responses to TcF43 and TcF26 proteins. While the TcF43 and TcF26 antigens enhanced detection and strength of signal, they did not compromise the specificity of detection compared to that obtained with TcF. Finally, it was apparent by testing against a panel of 84 serum samples assembled on the basis of moderate or weak reactivity against TcF (mostly signal:noise <5) that TcF43 and TcF26 could more strongly detected by many of the sera that had low TcF antibody levels. Taken together, these data indicate that TcF43 and TcF26 could be used to enhance the detection of T. cruzi infection as well as supporting a diagnosis of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Touré, F S; Bain, O; Nerrienet, E; Millet, P; Wahl, G; Toure, Y; Doumbo, O; Nicolas, L; Georges, A J; McReynolds, L A; Egwang, T G
Accurate and specific diagnosis of human loiasis is of crucial importance in an endemic area where two-thirds of infected individuals are without circulating microfilariae (occult loiasis). By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and specific primers to the repeat 3 region (15r3) of the gene coding for Loa loa 15-kDa polyprotein antigen, DNA was amplified from total blood lysate of occult-infected subjects. A 396-bp DNA fragment was specifically detected. We tested the specificity of this method by qualitative hybridization to PCR products using blood lysates of the following subjects: (1) from Gabon (80 individuals residing in L. loa endemic area where loiasis exists sympatrically with Mansonella perstans); (2) from Togo (12 individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus and M. perstans); (3) from Tahiti (12 individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti); and (4) from Mali (12 individuals infected with O. volvulus and M. perstans). Samples from Gabon included 60 L. loa amicrofilaremics and 20 L. loa occult-infected subjects. Qualitative hybridization carried out at 50 degrees C on PCR products, using a 15r3-specific oligonucleotide probe, revealed hybridization with L. loa-infected samples from Gabon and four samples from Togo after 2 days exposure to the film. The positive samples from Togo were characterized by the use of nested PCR. Three nested PCR products have been sequenced. No differences were observed between the three sequences and they are 99.72% identical to L. loa 15r3. None of bancroftian-infected individuals from Tahiti, nor O. volvulus- and M. perstans-infected individuals from Mali reacted after 1 week's exposure (overexposure) to the film. This allows us to conclude first that our 15r3 PCR assay is specific for L. loa and secondly that L. loa infections occur in Togo. The sensitivity of this 15r3 PCR assay was further investigated with occult patients and field-collected amicrofilaremic samples. We found that 19 of the 20 occult-infected
Gay, Cynthia; Dibben, Oliver; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Stacey, Andrea; Mayo, Ashley J.; Norris, Philip J.; Kuruc, JoAnn D.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Li, Hui; Keele, Brandon F.; Hicks, Charles; Margolis, David; Ferrari, Guido; Haynes, Barton; Swanstrom, Ronald; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Eron, Joseph J.; Borrow, Persephone; Cohen, Myron S.
Background Acute HIV infection (AHI) is a critical phase of infection when irreparable damage to the immune system occurs and subjects are very infectious. We studied subjects with AHI prospectively to develop better treatment and public health interventions. Methods Cross-sectional screening was employed to detect HIV RNA positive, antibody negative subjects. Date of HIV acquisition was estimated from clinical history and correlated with sequence diversity assessed by single genome amplification (SGA). Twenty-two cytokines/chemokines were measured from enrollment through week 24. Results Thirty-seven AHI subjects were studied. In 7 participants with limited exposure windows, the median exposure to HIV occurred 14 days before symptom onset. Lack of viral sequence diversification confirmed the short duration of infection. Transmission dates estimated by SGA/sequencing using molecular clock models correlated with transmission dates estimated by symptom onset in individuals infected with single HIV variants (mean of 28 versus 33 days). Only 10 of 22 cytokines/chemokines were significantly elevated among AHI participants at enrollment compared to uninfected controls, and only 4 participants remained seronegative at enrollment. Discussion The results emphasize the difficulty in recruiting subjects early in AHI. Viral sequence diversity proved accurate in estimating time of infection. Regardless of aggressive screening, peak viremia and inflammation occurred before enrollment and potential intervention. Given the personal and public health importance, improved AHI detection is urgently needed. PMID:21573003
Espinoza, Jose R; Maco, Vicente; Marcos, Luis; Saez, Sandra; Neyra, Victor; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Chavarry, Elizabeth; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Bargues, M Dolores; Valero, M Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago
The performance of Fas2-ELISA for the diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infection in children living in areas of high endemicity for fascioliasis in the Peruvian Andes is analyzed. Fas2-ELISA is based on the detection of circulating IgG antibodies elicited in infected individuals against a F. hepatica antigen termed Fas2. The study was conducted in three Andean localities, Huertas-Julcan in Junin, Asillo in Puno, and Cajamarca, with a total population of 634 children in an age range 1 to 16 years old. Child fascioliasis prevalence was 21.1% in Huertas-Julcan, 25.4% in Asillo, and 24% in Cajamarca, estimated by coprological inspection. The seroprevalence of F. hepatica infection, determined by Fas2-ELISA, was 27.8% in Huertas-Julcan, 44.6% in Asillo, and 29.1% in Cajamarca. The overall sensitivity of Fas2-ELISA was 92.4%, the specificity 83.6%, and the negative predictive value 97.2%. No association between OD(450) Fas2-ELISA and infection intensity measured by egg counting was observed. Results show that Fas2-ELISA is a highly sensitive immunodiagnostic test for the detection of F. hepatica infection in children living in human fascioliasis endemic areas.
McArdle, Carla; Lagan, Katie M; McDowell, David A
Infections within diabetic foot ulcers are often hard to detect and extremely difficult to treat. The normal signs and symptoms of infection including purulence, erythema, pain, tenderness, warmth and induration are frequently absent in such wounds necessitating exploration of other ways of rapidly and accurately detecting infection. This study considers diabetic wound fluid pH as a possible alternative means of monitoring infection status. CINAHL, Ovid SP and MEDLINE were searched for papers in English published between January 2004 to May 2014. Key search terms included wound fluid, exudate, wound, ulcer, diabetes, pH, healing, infection, bacteria. This paper considers the potential benefits of augmenting and supporting current clinical practice in the early determination of wound healing trajectory and infection status, by monitoring wound fluid pH. The evidence collected highlights the need for further research and suggests the potential of wound fluid analysis as a possible surrogate marker for detecting infection in diabetic foot ulcers.
Houston, K M; Egan, C A; García, P; Harnett, W
Phosphorylcholine (PC) is found attached to N-type glycans of proteins secreted by filarial nematodes, where it appears to act as an immunomodulator. Based on information on the structure and biosynthesis of the PC-glycan of a major secreted protein, ES-62, strategies were designed with potential for preparing PC-free material to better understand the importance of PC in filarial nematode immunomodulation. The strategies involve either enzymatic removal of PC or inhibition of its attachment during ES-62 synthesis. No method tested was found to be 100% effective although approximately 70% removal was obtained by culturing worms in Et18OCH3. Reasons for failure to obtain complete absence of PC moieties are discussed in relation to the structure and synthesis of PC-glycans and in addition PC-glycan biosynthesis is briefly commented on as a target for chemotherapy.
Hong, Bang-Xing; Jiang, Li-Fang; Hu, Yu-Shan; Fang, Dan-Yun; Guo, Hui-Yu
A rapid and accurate method for detection for common pathogenic bacteria in foodborne infections was established by using oligonucleotide array technology. Nylon membrane was used as the array support. A mutation region of the 23S rRNA gene was selected as the discrimination target from 14 species (genera) of bacteria causing foodborne infections and two unrelated bacterial species. A pair of universal primers was designed for PCR amplification of the 23S rRNA gene. Twenty-one species (genera)-specific oligonucleotide detection probes were synthesized and spotted onto the nylon membranes. The 23S rRNA gene amplification products of 14 species of pathogenic bacteria were hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. Hybridization results were analyzed with digoxigenin-linked enzyme reaction. Results indicated that nine species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum) showed high sensitivity and specificity for the oligonucleotide array. Two other species (Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica) gave weak cross-reaction with E. coli, but the reaction did not affect their detection. After redesigning the probes, positive hybridization results were obtained with Staphylococcus aureus, but not with Clostridium perfringens and Streptococcus pyogenes. The oligonucleotide array can also be applied to samples collected in clinical settings of foodborne infections. The superiority of oligonucleotide array over other tests lies on its rapidity, accuracy and efficiency in the diagnosis, treatment and control of foodborne infections.
Borobia, Marta; Ortín, Aurora; Ferrer, Luis M; Ramos, Juán J; Lacasta, Delia; De Las Heras, Marcelo
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a transmissible lung cancer caused by Jaggsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). It is difficult to identify animals infected with JSRV but are clinically healthy. The virus does not induce a specific antibody response and, although proviral DNA sequences of JSRV can be found in mononuclear blood cells, the detection is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of JSRV in the bone marrow of infected sheep and develop a more consistent screening method. Immunohistochemical examination of bone marrow samples from 8 asymptomatic JSRV-infected sheep revealed the presence of positively labelled cells. However, JSRV could not be detected by a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bone marrow aspirates periodically collected from these animals. Results suggest that JSRV-infected cells may be present in the bone marrow of symptomless animals, but the number is below the detectable level for PCR. Therefore, this technique does not seem to be helpful for preclinical diagnosis of OPA.
Smyth, J A; Weston, J; Moffett, D A; Todd, D
Degenerate primers were designed based on known sequence information for the circoviruses psittacine beak and feather disease virus and porcine circovirus and applied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to known virus-infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) from a pigeon. A 548-bp DNA fragment was amplified and shown to be specific to a novel circovirus, named pigeon circovirus (PiCV), and was used to produce sensitive and specific probes for detection of circovirus DNA by in situ hybridization (ISH). Using ISH on BF from 107 pigeons submitted for necropsy, infection was detected in 89%, compared with a histologic detection rate of 66%. Using the ISH technique, infected cells were also found in liver, kidney, trachea, lung, brain, crop, intestine, spleen, bone marrow, and heart of some birds. Large quantities of DNA were present in some of these tissues, and in the absence of BF, liver in particular is identified as a potentially useful organ to examine for presence of PiCV. This high prevalence of infection in diseased birds is noteworthy, emphasizing the need for studies to determine the precise role of this virus as a disease-producing agent.
Nagarajan, M M; Simard, C
A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying a region of the gag gene of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) was developed for the rapid and direct detection of proviral DNA from the peripheral blood of naturally infected horses and was compared with the Coggins test. DNA prepared from white blood cells of 122 field horses from 15 stables with reported cases of EIAV and one seronegative stable were analysed. Amplifications of expected size fragments were obtained by nested PCR for 88 horses using two different sets of primers targeting the gag region. The specificity of the amplified products was confirmed by hybridization using a digoxigenin-labeled probe. Gag-nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis distinguished two different subtypes of gag gene, A and B. Subtype A was found to be the most prevalent among the infected horses that were tested. The PCR-gag amplified sequence of subtype A shared 84.6% nucleotide and 93% deduced amino acid sequence identities with the prototype Wyoming strain whereas subtype B sequence was almost 100% identical to the prototype. Sequence analysis of gag subtype A suggests the presence of a novel EIAV variant among infected horses in Canada. The nested PCR assay developed in the present study detected more EIAV positive animals and was found as specific as the agar gel immunodiffusion (Coggins) assay and offers great potential a diagnostic test for the detection of EIAV infections in field horses.
Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Entrocassi, Carolina; Portu, Ana I.; Castro, Erica; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo
Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Based on sequence variation in the ompA gene encoding the major outer membrane protein, the genotyping scheme distinguishes 17 recognized genotypes, i.e. A, B, Ba, C, D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, Ia, J, K, L1, L2, and L3. Genotyping is an important tool for epidemiological tracking of C. trachomatis infections, including the revelation of transmission pathways and association with tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Moreover, genotyping can be useful for clinicians to establish the correct treatment when LGV strains are detected. Recently a microarray assay was described that offers several advantages, such as rapidity, ease of standardization and detection of mixed infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the DNA microarray-based assay for C. trachomatis genotyping of clinical samples already typed by PCR-RFLP from South America. The agreement between both typing techniques was 90.05% and the overall genotype distribution obtained with both techniques was similar. Detection of mixed-genotype infections was significantly higher using the microarray assay (8.4% of cases) compared to PCR-RFLP (0.5%). Among 178 samples, the microarray assay identified 10 ompA genotypes, i.e. D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L2. The most predominant type was genotype E, followed by D and F. PMID:27082962
Echevarría, J E; Avellón, A; Juste, J; Vera, M; Ibáñez, C
Brain analysis cannot be used for the investigation of active lyssavirus infection in healthy bats because most bat species are protected by conservation directives. Consequently, serology remains the only tool for performing virological studies on natural bat populations; however, the presence of antibodies merely reflects past exposure to the virus and is not a valid marker of active infection. This work describes a new nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technique specifically designed for the detection of the European bat virus 1 on oropharyngeal swabs obtained from bats but also able to amplify RNA from the remaining rabies-related lyssaviruses in brain samples. The technique was successfully used for surveillance of a serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) colony involved in a case of human exposure, in which 15 out of 71 oropharyngeal swabs were positive. Lyssavirus infection was detected on 13 oropharyngeal swabs but in only 5 brains out of the 34 animals from which simultaneous brain and oropharyngeal samples had been taken. The lyssavirus involved could be rapidly identified by automatic sequencing of the RT-PCR products obtained from 14 brains and three bat oropharyngeal swabs. In conclusion, RT-PCR using oropharyngeal swabs will permit screening of wild bat populations for active lyssavirus infection, for research or epidemiological purposes, in line not only with conservation policies but also in a more efficient manner than classical detection techniques used on the brain.
Mirabet, Vicente; Álvarez, Manuel; Luis-Hidalgo, Mar; Galán, Juan; Puig, Nieves; Larrea, Luis; Arbona, Cristina
The implementation of nucleic acid testing in donor screening has improved the safety of tissue allografts. Although infectious disease transmission can be considered a rare event, the detection of occult hepatitis B infection remains challenging. The studies concerning this risk are mainly based on testing blood specimens. This work shows the correlation between results of samples obtained from donor blood and the corresponding tissue washing solution. Hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected both in bone allografts from donors with serological profiles associated to active hepatitis B infection and occult hepatitis B infection. These results suggest that hepatitis B virus seems to concentrate in bone marrow even when a low viral load is present in peripheral blood. Even detection at molecular level is not enough to avoid the risk of hepatitis B virus transmission and a multiparametrical evaluation is required in tissue donor screening. The role of clinicians in recognition and reporting of allograft-associated infections is a major concern for the acquisition of experience to be applied in risk control of disease transmission.
Hauck, R; Lüschow, D; Hafez, H M
Histomonas meleagridis infection of turkeys is usually accompanied by a severe disease with unspecific clinical symptoms but with distinct pathological lesions in the ceca and liver. In the literature some macro- and microscopic evidence of the spread of histomonads to the other organs has been provided. The aim of the present investigations was to use real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to demonstrate the dissemination of H. meleagridis DNA to different organs after natural and experimental infection of meat turkeys. Samples from several organs were collected from a meat-turkey flock, which proved to be naturally infected with histomoniasis, and examined for histomonad DNA by real-time PCR. Histomonad DNA was detected in all investigated ceca, livers, spleens, kidneys, and pooled brain swabs. Additionally it was found in 75% of investigated samples from bursae of Fabricius, in 50% of investigated duodenums, and in 40% of investigated jejunum samples. After experimental intracloacal infection of 3-wk-old turkey poults with 147,500 histomonads, similar samples were collected from all turkeys that died. After a 3-wk observation period the surviving birds, as well as the noninfected control group, were euthanatized and samples were taken. During the entire experimental period, 10 birds out the 20 infected birds died. Histomonad DNA was detected in all investigated ceca, livers, lungs, and hearts (100%) and almost all kidneys (90%) and bursae of Fabricius (80%). On the other hand, only 30% of examined spleens and 10% of brain samples revealed positive results. Surviving infected birds were euthanatized and necropsied; histomonad DNA was found in one out of 10 livers but not in any ceca. Also, histomonad DNA could not be detected in examined cecal and lung samples from the noninfected control group.
Reeves, Dawn M; Nagarajan, Uma; O'Connell, Catherine; Andrews, Charles W; Darville, Toni
Mice treated with antibiotics early or late after active infection had resolved were examined for chlamydial DNA in endocervical swabs. The early eradication of infection limited oviduct pathology, despite the continued detection of chlamydial DNA by nested PCR. Late antibiotic treatment had no effect on the ability to detect DNA or oviduct pathology.
Wood, Britta A; Carver, Scott; Troyer, Ryan M; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue
Microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) allow rapid and accurate evaluation of multiple analytes simultaneously within a biological sample. Here we describe the development and validation of domestic cat-specific MIAs for a) the quantification of total IgG and IgA levels in plasma, and b) the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) capsid (CA) and surface (SU) proteins, and feline CD134 in plasma. These assays were used to examine the temporal antibody response of domestic cats infected with apathogenic and pathogenic FIVs, and domestic cats infected with parental and chimeric FIVs of varying pathogenicity. The results from these studies demonstrated that a) total IgG antibodies increase over time after infection; b) α-CA and α-SU IgG antibodies are detectable between 9 and 28 days post-infection and increase over time, and these antibodies combined represent a fraction (1.8 to 21.8%) of the total IgG increase due to infection; c) measurable α-CD134 IgG antibody levels vary among individuals and over time, and are not strongly correlated with viral load; d) circulating IgA antibodies, in general, do not increase during the early stage of infection; and e) total IgG, and α-CA and α-SU IgG antibody kinetics and levels vary with FIV viral strain/pathogenicity. The MIAs described here could be used to screen domestic cats for FIV infection, and to evaluate the FIV-specific or total antibody response elicited by various FIV strains/other diseases.
Petrini, Stefano; Pierini, Ilaria; Giammarioli, Monica; Feliziani, Francesco; De Mia, Gian Mario
We evaluated the use of oral fluid as an alternative to serum samples for Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) detection. Individual oral fluid and serum samples were collected at different times post-infection from pigs that were experimentally inoculated with CSFV Alfort 187 strain. We found no evidence of CSFV neutralizing antibodies in swine oral fluid samples under our experimental conditions. In contrast, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction could detect CSFV nucleic acid from the oral fluid as early as 8 d postinfection, which also coincided with the time of initial detection in blood samples. The probability of CSFV detection in oral fluid was identical or even higher than in the corresponding blood sample. Our results support the feasibility of using this sampling method for CSFV genome detection, which may represent an additional cost-effective tool for CSF control.
Fu, Kaifei; Li, Jun; Wang, Yuxiao; Liu, Jianfei; Yan, He; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Lijun
Vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common pathogenic marine Vibrio species, and has been found to cause serious seafood-poisoning or fatal extra-intestinal infections in humans, such as necrotizing soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, septic shock, and multiple organ failures. Delayed accurate diagnosis and treatment of most Vibrio infections usually result to high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid diagnostic method to detect and identify the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples, so as to facilitate timely treatment. The widely employed conventional methods for detection of V. alginolyticus include biochemical identification and a variety of PCR methods. The former is of low specificity and time-consuming (2–3 days), while the latter has improved accuracy and processing time. Despite such advancements, these methods are still complicated, time-consuming, expensive, require expertise and advanced laboratory systems, and are not optimal for field use. With the goal of providing a simple and efficient way to detect V. alginolyticus, we established a rapid diagnostic method based on loop-mediated Isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology that is feasible to use in both experimental and field environments. Three primer pairs targeting the toxR gene of V. alginolyticus were designed, and amplification was carried out in an ESE tube scanner and Real-Time PCR device. We successfully identified 93 V. alginolyticus strains from a total of 105 different bacterial isolates and confirmed their identity by 16s rDNA sequencing. We also applied this method on infected mouse blood and contaminated scallop samples, and accurate results were both easily and rapidly (20–60 min) obtained. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay we developed can be conveniently used to detect the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples. Furthermore, this method will also fulfill the gap for real-time screening of V. alginolyticus infections
Mackey, L. J.; McGregor, I. A.; Paounova, N.; Lambert, P. H.
An ELISA method has been developed for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in man. Parasites from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum were used as source of antigen for the solid phase and the source of specific antibody was immune Gambian sera; binding of antibody in antigen-coated wells was registered by means of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG. Parasites were detected on the basis of inhibition of antibody-binding. The test was applied to the detection of parasites in human red blood cells (RBC) from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum and in RBC from infected Gambians; RBC from 100 Geneva blood donors served as normal, uninfected controls. In titration experiments, the degree of antibody-binding inhibition correlated with the number of parasites in the test RBC. Parasites were detected at a level of 8 parasites/106 RBC. Samples of RBC were tested from 126 Gambians with microscopically proven infection; significant antibody-binding inhibition was found in 86% of these cases, where parasitaemia ranged from 10 to 125 000/μl of blood. The presence of high-titre antibody in the test preparations was found to reduce the sensitivity of parasite detection in infected RBC from in vitro cultures mixed with equal volumes of different antibody-containing sera. The sensitivity was restored in most cases by recovering the RBC by centrifugation before testing. In a preliminary experiment, there was no significant difference in antibody-binding inhibition using fresh infected RBC and RBC dried on filter-paper and recovered by elution, although there was greater variation in the latter samples. PMID:7044589
Mackey, L J; McGregor, I A; Paounova, N; Lambert, P H
An ELISA method has been developed for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in man. Parasites from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum were used as source of antigen for the solid phase and the source of specific antibody was immune Gambian sera; binding of antibody in antigen-coated wells was registered by means of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG. Parasites were detected on the basis of inhibition of antibody-binding. The test was applied to the detection of parasites in human red blood cells (RBC) from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum and in RBC from infected Gambians; RBC from 100 Geneva blood donors served as normal, uninfected controls. In titration experiments, the degree of antibody-binding inhibition correlated with the number of parasites in the test RBC. Parasites were detected at a level of 8 parasites/10(6) RBC. Samples of RBC were tested from 126 Gambians with microscopically proven infection; significant antibody-binding inhibition was found in 86% of these cases, where parasitaemia ranged from 10 to 125 000/mul of blood. The presence of high-titre antibody in the test preparations was found to reduce the sensitivity of parasite detection in infected RBC from in vitro cultures mixed with equal volumes of different antibody-containing sera. The sensitivity was restored in most cases by recovering the RBC by centrifugation before testing. In a preliminary experiment, there was no significant difference in antibody-binding inhibition using fresh infected RBC and RBC dried on filter-paper and recovered by elution, although there was greater variation in the latter samples.
Carter, B.L.; Bankoff, M.S.; Fisk, J.D.
Computed tomography (CT) is now used extensively for the evaluation of orbital, facial, and intracranial infections. Nine patients are presented to illustrate the importance of detecting underlying and unsuspected sinusitis. Prompt treatment of the sinusitis is essential to minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with complications such as brain abscess, meningitis, orbital cellulitis, and osteomyelitis. A review of the literature documents the persistence of these complications despite the widespread use of antibiotic therapy. Recognition of the underlying sinusitis is now possible with CT if the region of the sinuses is included and bone-window settings are used during the examination of patients with orbital and intracranial infection.
Wang, Jun-Yun; Ha, Yu; Gao, Chun-Hua; Wang, Yong; Yang, Yue-Tao; Chen, Hai-Tang
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp) fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of maintaining dogs, must be taken against these infected dogs due
Louie, Brian; Wong, Ernest; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Liska, Sally; Hecht, Frederick; Dowling, Terri; Obeso, Martha; Phillips, Susan S.; Pandori, Mark W.
We have evaluated four current Food and Drug Administration-cleared rapid tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibodies with a panel of specimens from recently infected individuals. Recent infection was detected by RNA-based screening coupled with enzyme immunoassay-based testing. We found that the sensitivities of the various rapid tests vary greatly with regard to their ability to detect HIV-specific antibodies in recently infected individuals. PMID:18234875
Sensusiati, A. D.; Priya, T. K. S.; Dachlan, Y. P.
Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (p<0.05). There was also significant correlation between calcium intensity with the evidence of necrosis and Hsp70 expression at 2 hours after infection. Apoptosis and necrosis were simultaneously shown with calcium contribution in this study. Confocal microscopy can be used to measure calcium changes in infected and uninfected neurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively.
De Guglielmo, Z; Avila, M; Veitía, D; Fernández, A; Venegas, C; Correnti de Plata, M
This work evaluated HPV infection in the oral cavity (using oroscopy and exfoliative oral cytology) and its relation to genital infection in women with cytological diagnosis suggestive of HPV infection. The sample consisted of 60 patients who underwent oroscopy, cytology and viral determination in mouth and cervix by PCR using generic primers MY09/MY11 and MPCR. HPV DNA was detected in oral and genital mucosa in 48.33% and 73.3% of patients, respectively, yielding a concordance of 44.2% (k=0.44, moderate agreement). The most common viral types were low risk, especially type 6, found in 86.2% of oral samples and 65.9% of cervical specimens, alone or in combination with other types of low (11) or high oncogenic risk (16, 18, 33), with a concordance of 10.45% (k = 0.1, insignificant agreement). However, in relation to type 6, there was a concordance of 75.86% (k=0.7, high agreement). The cytology of the oral cavity had a sensitivity of 3.5% and a specificity of 93.6%. For oroscopy, sensitivity was 27.6% and specificity was 74.2%. The results indicate that HPV infection in the oral cavity of patients with genital infection could be frequent. The low concordance between HPV types suggests that HPV infection in the mouth and cervix has a different biological behavior.
Choi, Hong Seo; Lee, Hyun Min; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Min Kyu; Chang, Hee Jin; Lee, Hye Ran; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Dae Shick; Ryu, Chun Jeih
Many studies have shown that persistent infections of bacteria promote carcinogenesis and metastasis. Infectious agents and their products can modulate cancer progression through the induction of host inflammatory and immune responses. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is considered as an important indicator in the metastatic cascade. We unintentionally produced a monoclonal antibody (MAb) CA27 against the mycoplasmal p37 protein in mycoplasma-infected cancer cells during the searching process of novel surface markers of CTCs. Mycoplasma-infected cells were enriched by CA27-conjugated magnetic beads in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and analyzed by confocal microscopy with anti-CD45 and CA27 antibodies. CD45-negative and CA27-positive cells were readily detected in three out of seven patients (range 12-30/8.5 ml blood), indicating that they are mycoplasma-infected circulating epithelial cells. CA27-positive cells had larger size than CD45-positive hematological lineage cells, high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios and irregular nuclear morphology, which identified them as CTCs. The results show for the first time the existence of mycoplasma-infected CTCs in patients with HCC and suggest a possible correlation between mycoplasma infection and the development of cancer metastasis.
Background Genetic characterization of HIV-1 in Argentina has shown that BF recombinants predominate among heterosexuals and injecting drug users, while in men who have sex with men the most prevalent form is subtype B. Objectives The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of HIV dual infections in HIV-infected individuals with high probability of reinfection Study design Blood samples were collected from 23 HIV positive patients with the risk of reinfection from Buenos Aires. A fragment of the HIV gene pol was amplified and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Antiretroviral drug resistance patterns of all the sequences were analyzed. Results Five dual infections were detected with four patients coinfected with subtype B and BF recombinants and one patient was coinfected with two BF recombinants presenting different recombination patterns. Prolonged infection with a stable clinical condition was observed in the five individuals. Resistance mutation patterns were different between the predominant and the minority strains. Conclusions Our results show that HIV dual infection can occur with closely related subtypes, and even with different variants of the same recombinant form in certain populations. Clinical observations showed neither aggressive disease progression nor impact on the resistance patterns in the dually-infected patients. PMID:21824422
Takahashi, Tadanobu; Agarikuchi, Takashi; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Shibahara, Nona; Suzuki, Chihiro; Kishikawa, Akiko; Fukushima, Keijo; Takano, Maiko; Suzuki, Fumie; Wada, Hirohisa; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Minami, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi
Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs) of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases) depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac), was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study), even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus. PMID:26629699
Ramsey, B W; Marcuse, E K; Foy, H M; Cooney, M K; Allan, I; Brewer, D; Smith, A L
Two immunochemical methods were used to identify Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular antigens in the urine and serum of 162 children with acute lower respiratory tract infection. These methods were compared with standard bacterial blood culture. Viral and mycoplasma cultures of respiratory secretions were obtained simultaneously to determine the frequency of antigenuria at the time of nonbacterial acute lower respiratory tract infection. Urine from groups of well children and children with acute otitis media was tested for capsular antigens to determine the incidence of antigenuria. Antigenuria was found in 24% of children 2 months to 18 years of age with acute lower respiratory tract infection compared with a 2% incidence of bacteremia. Antigenuria was found in 4% of asymptomatic children and 16% of children with acute otitis media. One third of children with symptoms of acute lower respiratory tract infection and viral isolates from the oropharynx had bacterial antigenuria. The sixfold increase in frequency of bacterial antigenuria in children at the time of lower respiratory symptoms suggests that bacterial acute lower respiratory tract infection may be more common than identified by traditional culture techniques. Because bacterial antigen may come from other sites such as the middle ear, further studies are needed to determine the role of antigen detection in the diagnosis of pediatric acute lower respiratory tract infection.
Uni, Shigehiko; Fukuda, Masako; Ogawa, Kou; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Bunchom, Naruemon; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Otsuka, Yasushi; Bhassu, Subha; Mat Udin, Ahmad Syihan; Zainuri, Nur Afiqah; Omar, Hasmahzaiti; Nakatani, Jun; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Ramli, Rosli; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Takaoka, Hiroyuki
An 11-year-old boy living in Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture, Kansai Region, Western Honshu, Japan had zoonotic onchocercosis. The patient developed a painful swelling on the little finger of his left hand. The worm detected in the excised mass had external transverse ridges but did not have inner striae in the cuticle. On the basis of the parasite's histopathological characteristics, the causative agent was identified as a female Onchocerca dewittei japonica (Spirurida: Onchocercidae). The species of the filarial parasite was confirmed by sequencing the cox1 gene of the parasite. The Japanese wild boar Sus scrofa leucomystax is a definitive host for O. dewittei japonica, which is then transmitted by blackflies as the vector to humans. The current case described occurred in the Kansai Region, Western Honshu, where such infections were previously not reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Murata, Koichi; Yanai, Tokuma; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Uni, Shigehiko
Three dog heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were detected in the lumen of the right cardiac ventriculus and of the pulmonary artery of a captive female snow leopard (Uncia uncia) that died of pancreatic carcinoma at a zoo in Japan. Neither clinical respiratory nor circulatory symptoms caused by the heartworm infection were observed. The filarial worms were identified as D. immitis from the morphologic characteristics of the esophagus, the presence of faint longitudinal ridges on the cuticular surface, the situation of vulva posterior to the esophagus, and the measurements of the body. The heartworms from the snow leopard were identical to that of D. immitis from dogs in the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I region in the mitochondrial DNA. This host record is the first of D. immitis in U. uncia.
Hulbert, Ayaka; Koutsky, Laura A.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Xi, Long Fu
Objective To explore a possibility of single-cell analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Methods Two hundred and twenty cells were isolated by laser-capture microdissection from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical tissue blocks from 8 women who had HPV DNA detected in their cervical swab samples. The number of type-specific HPV copies in individual cells was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with and without a prior reverse transcription. Cells were assayed and counted for more than once if the corresponding swab sample was positive for ≥2 HPV types. Results Infection with HPV16, HPV39, HPV51, HPV52, HPV58, HPV59, and HPV73 was detected in 12 (5.5%) of 220, 3 (9.4%) of 32, 3 (5.8%) of 52, 11 (22.9%) of 48, 9 (18.8%) of 48, 3 (9.4%) of 32 and none of 20 cells, respectively. Numbers of HPV genome copies varied widely from cell to cell. Coexistence of multiple HPV types was detected in 6 (31.6%) of 19 positive cells from one of the 6 women who had 2 or 3 HPV types detected in their swab samples. Conclusion Given the heterogeneity of HPV status in individual cells, further clarification of HPV infection at the single-cell level may refine our understanding of HPV-related carcinogenesis. PMID:26820741
Weiss, J; Mecca, J; da Silva, E; Gassner, D
A sensitive and specific PCR-based assay to detect the Helicobacter pylori 16S rRNA gene present in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens has been developed. A total of 95 patients with dyspepsia were evaluated for the presence of chronic active gastritis and an infection with H. pylori through the use of diagnostic assays based on biopsy specimens and serology. The "gold standard" for the presence of the bacteria was direct detection in histological sections of biopsy specimens by Giemsa stain. The results obtained with the PCR assay performed on the biopsy specimens (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity) were equivalent to the detection of H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies by the commercially available second-generation Cobas Core anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassay (94% sensitivity and 98% specificity) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Urease testing and bacterial culture of the biopsy specimens were inferior (88 and 70% sensitivity and 96% and 98% specificity, respectively). A Western blot (immunoblot) analysis had slightly greater sensitivity (96%), although specificity was reduced to 93%. This research prototype PCR assay was shown to be highly reliable for the detection of infection with H. pylori and the presence of chronic active gastritis in the population studied. PMID:7929755
Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella
The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases.
Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella
The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases. PMID:27335150
Geshere Oli, Geleta; Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Petros, Beyene
To determine whether the elephantiasis in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia, is filarial or non-filarial (podoconiosis) using serological, parasitological and clinical examinations, and to estimate its prevalence. At house-to-house visits in 330 randomly selected households, all household members who had elephantiasis were interviewed and clinically examined at the nearby health centre to confirm the presence of elephantiasis, check the presence of scrotal swelling and rule out the other causes of lymphoedema. A midnight blood sample was obtained from each participant with elephantiasis for microscopic examination of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria. A daytime blood sample was obtained from half of the participants for serological confirmation using the immuno-chromatographic test card. Consistent with the features of podoconiosis, none of the elephantiasis cases had consistently worn shoes since childhood; 94.3% had bilateral swelling limited below the level of the knees; no individual had thigh or scrotal elephantiasis; parasitological test for microfilariae and serological tests for W. bancrofti antigen were negative in all samples. The prevalence of the disease was 7.4% and it peaked in the third decade of life, the most economically active age. Midakegn District has a high prevalence of podoconiosis and no filarial elephantiasis. Prevention, treatment and control of podoconiosis must be among the top priorities of public health programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Keroack, Caroline D; Wurster, Jenna I; Decker, Caroline G; Williams, Kalani M; Slatko, Barton E; Foster, Jeremy M; Williams, Steven A
The symbiotic relationship of Wolbachia spp. was first observed in insects and subsequently in many parasitic filarial nematodes. This bacterium is believed to provide metabolic and developmental assistance to filarial parasitic nematodes, although the exact nature of this relationship remains to be fully elucidated. While Wolbachia is present in most filarial nematodes in the family Onchocercidae, it is absent in several disparate species such as the human parasite Loa loa . All tested members of the genus Acanthocheilonema, such as Acanthocheilonema viteae, have been shown to lack Wolbachia. Consistent with this, we show that Wolbachia is absent from the seal heartworm (Acanthocheilonema spirocauda), but lateral gene transfer (LGT) of DNA sequences between Wolbachia and A. spirocauda has occurred, indicating a past evolutionary association. Seal heartworm is an important pathogen of phocid seals and understanding its basic biology is essential for conservation of the host. The findings presented here may allow for the development of future treatments or diagnostics for the disease and also aid in clarification of the complicated nematode-Wolbachia relationship.
Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Garcelon, Nicolas; Jarno, Pascal; Chapplain, Jean Marc; Cuggia, Marc
The surveillance of Surgical Site Infections (SSI) contributes to the management of risk in French hospitals. Manual identification of infections is costly, time-consuming and limits the promotion of preventive procedures by the dedicated teams. The introduction of alternative methods using automated detection strategies is promising to improve this surveillance. The present study describes an automated detection strategy for SSI in neurosurgery, based on textual analysis of medical reports stored in a clinical data warehouse. The method consists firstly, of enrichment and concept extraction from full-text reports using NOMINDEX, and secondly, text similarity measurement using a vector space model. The text detection was compared to the conventional strategy based on self-declaration and to the automated detection using the diagnosis-related group database. The text-mining approach showed the best detection accuracy, with recall and precision equal to 92% and 40% respectively, and confirmed the interest of reusing full-text medical reports to perform automated detection of SSI.
Prescott, Meagan A; Reed, Aimee N; Jin, Ling; Pastey, Manoj K
Since the emergence of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), outbreaks have been devastating to Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and koi (a variant of Common Carp), leading to high economic losses. Current diagnostics for detecting CyHV-3 are limited in sensitivity and are further complicated by latency. Here we describe the detection of CyHV-3 by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA assay can detect as low as 10 copies of the CyHV-3 genome by an isothermal reaction and yields results in approximately 20 min. Using the RPA assay, the CyHV-3 genome can be detected in the total DNA of white blood cells isolated from koi latently infected with CyHV-3, while less than 10% of the latently infected koi can be detected by a real-time PCR assay in the total DNA of white blood cells. In addition, RPA products can be detected in a lateral flow device that is cheap and fast and can be used outside of the diagnostic lab. The RPA assay and lateral flow device provide for the rapid, sensitive, and specific amplification of CyHV-3 that with future modifications for field use and validation could lead to enhanced surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-3 in the laboratory and field. Received September 14, 2015; accepted April 9, 2016.
Ten Haaf, Andre; Kohl, Johannes; Pscherer, Sibylle; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Eskens, Hans Ulrich; Bastian, Max; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Tur, Mehmet Kemal
Bluetongue is an infectious viral disease which can cause mortality in affected ruminants, and tremendous economic damage via impacts upon fertility, milk production and the quality of wool. The disease is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) which is transmitted by species of Culicoides biting midge. Rapid detection of BTV is required to contain disease outbreaks and reduce economic losses. The purpose of this study was to develop a monoclonal sandwich ELISA for direct detection of BTV in infected animals. Phage display technology was used to isolate BTV specific antibody fragments by applying the human scFv Tomlinson antibody libraries directly on purified BTV-8 particles. Three unique BTV-8 specific human antibody fragments were isolated which were able to detect purified BTV particles and also BTV in serum of an infected sheep. A combination of a human/mouse scFv-Fc chimeric fusion protein and a human Fab fragment in a sandwich ELISA format was able to detect BTV specifically with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10(4) infectious virus particles, as determined by tissue culture titration. This approach provided pilot data towards the development of a novel diagnostic test that might be used for direct detection of BTV-8 particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Papa, Anna; Sambri, Vittorio; Teichmann, Anette; Niedrig, Matthias
Background In recent decades, sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans of West Nile virus (WNV) infection have increased. Serological diagnosis of WNV infection can be performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA) neutralization test (NT) and by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. The aim of this study is to collect updated information regarding the performance accuracy of WNV serological diagnostics. Methodology/Principal findings In 2011, the European Network for the Diagnostics of Imported Viral Diseases-Collaborative Laboratory Response Network (ENIVD-CLRN) organized the second external quality assurance (EQA) study for the serological diagnosis of WNV infection. A serum panel of 13 samples (included sera reactive against WNV, plus specificity and negative controls) was sent to 48 laboratories involved in WNV diagnostics. Forty-seven of 48 laboratories from 30 countries participated in the study. Eight laboratories achieved 100% of concurrent and correct results. The main obstacle in other laboratories to achieving similar performances was the cross-reactivity of antibodies amongst heterologous flaviviruses. No differences were observed in performances of in-house and commercial test used by the laboratories. IFA was significantly more specific compared to ELISA in detecting IgG antibodies. The overall analytical sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for IgM detection were 50% and 95%, respectively. In comparison, the overall sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for IgG detection were 86% and 69%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance This EQA study demonstrates that there is still need to improve serological tests for WNV diagnosis. The low sensitivity of IgM detection suggests that there is a risk of overlooking WNV acute infections, whereas the low specificity for IgG detection demonstrates a high level of cross-reactivity with heterologous flaviviruses. PMID:23638205
Albuquerque, Andreia; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Sofia
Canine leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum vectored by phlebotomine sand flies, is considered a relevant veterinary and public health problem in various countries, namely in the Mediterranean basin and Brazil, where dogs are considered the main reservoir hosts. Not only diseased dogs but also those subclinically infected play a relevant role in the transmission of L. infantum to vectors; therefore, early diagnosis is essential, under both a clinical and an epidemiological perspective. Molecular tools can be a more accurate and sensitive approach for diagnosis, with a wide range of protocols currently in use. The aim of the present report was to compare four PCR based protocols for the diagnosis of canine Leishmania infection in a cohort of dogs from the Douro region, Portugal. A total of 229 bone marrow samples were collected from dogs living in the Douro region, an endemic region for leishmaniasis. Four PCR protocols were evaluated for Leishmania DNA detection in canine samples, three single (ITS1-PCR, MC-PCR and Uni21/Lmj4-PCR) and one nested (nested SSU rRNA-PCR). Two of the protocols were based on nuclear targets and the other two on kinetoplastid targets. The higher overall percentage of infected dogs was detected with the nested SSU rRNA-PCR (37.6%), which also was able to detect Leishmania DNA in a higher number of samples from apparently healthy dogs (25.3%). The ITS1-PCR presented the lowest level of Leishmania detection. Nested SSU rRNA-PCR is an appropriate method to detect Leishmania infection in dogs. Accurate and early diagnosis in clinically suspect as well as apparently healthy dogs is essential, in order to treat and protect animals and public health and contribute to the control and awareness of the disease.
Xing, Yan; Song, Hong-mei; Wu, Xiao-yan; Wang, Wei; Wei, Min
To study the difference in the EBV-DNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the type of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in pediatric patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection, acute EBV infection (AEBV) and healthy children, and to analyze the relationship between the above difference and the clinical manifestation of CAEBV. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the EBV-DNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in 12 normal children, 10 pediatric patients with CAEBV infection and 13 pediatric patients with AEBV infection in our hospital between March 2004 and April 2008. Immunomagnetic bead cell fractionation and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) by EBV encoding RNA-1 ( EBER-1) probe were used in the healthy children, EBV-DNA positive CAEBV patients and AEBV patients to detect the type of EBV-infected cells. The average EBV-DNA level in CAEBV patients' PBMC was (6.8 x 10(7) +/- 1.1 x 10(8)) copies/ml, while the average EBV-DNA level of AEBV patients' PBMC was (1.3 x 10(6) +/- 1.6 x 10(6)) copies/ml. The average EBV-DNA level of CAEBV infected patients' PBMC was significantly higher than that of AEBV infected patients' PBMC (P<0.01). The cell fractionation and FISH in seven CAEBV patients showed that EBV in CAEBV patients infected not only B cells, but NK cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to different degree, and these patients presented recurrent and persistent infectious mononucleosis (IM)-like symptoms. In 6 CAEBV patients infection mainly occurred to T cells, in one case, infection occurred mainly in CD8+ T cells, and the patient died from fulminant and deadly T lymphocytes proliferative syndrome except presenting firstly high fever, enlargment of the liver, spleen, lymphnode and the severe decrease of one or three kinds of blood cells. In 1 CAEBV patient the infection was mainly found in NK cells, who presented with hypersensitivity to mosquito biting and high
Comin, Arianna; Stegeman, Arjan; Marangon, Stefano; Klinkenberg, Don
In recent years, the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in poultry has become increasingly important, given their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic viruses. However, evaluations of LPAI surveillance have mainly focused on prevalence and not on the ability to act as an early warning system. We used a simulation model based on data from Italian LPAI epidemics in turkeys to evaluate different surveillance strategies in terms of their performance as early warning systems. The strategies differed in terms of sample size, sampling frequency, diagnostic tests, and whether or not active surveillance (i.e., routine laboratory testing of farms) was performed, and were also tested under different epidemiological scenarios. We compared surveillance strategies by simulating within-farm outbreaks. The output measures were the proportion of infected farms that are detected and the farm reproduction number (Rh). The first one provides an indication of the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect within-farm infections, whereas Rh reflects the effectiveness of outbreak detection (i.e., if detection occurs soon enough to bring an epidemic under control). Increasing the sampling frequency was the most effective means of improving the timeliness of detection (i.e., it occurs earlier), whereas increasing the sample size increased the likelihood of detection. Surveillance was only effective in preventing an epidemic if actions were taken within two days of sampling. The strategies were not affected by the quality of the diagnostic test, although performing both serological and virological assays increased the sensitivity of active surveillance. Early detection of LPAI outbreaks in turkeys can be achieved by increasing the sampling frequency for active surveillance, though very frequent sampling may not be sustainable in the long term. We suggest that, when no LPAI virus is circulating yet and there is a low risk of virus introduction, a
Okazaki, Sachiko; Yasumoto, Shinya; Koyama, Satoshi; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Naoi, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ono, Shin-Ichi; Mizutani, Tetsuya
Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus (JEECV) has spread in eel farms and caused serious economic loss. In this study, we examined the prevalence of JEECV infection in 100 wild Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) elvers caught from Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, using quantitative PCR and conventional PCR. Total genomic DNA was obtained from the cranial quarter of the body in 70 of 100 eels and from the gill in the remaining. Of 30 gill samples, 20 were analyzed after pooling with other samples, and the remaining 10 were analyzed separately. A single positive result for JEECV was detected following analysis of the 10 separately analyzed samples. This result constitutes the first report of JEECV infection in wild A. japonica elvers.
Gallet, E; Le Coutour, X; Turrou, J; Noyer, V; Lechevalier, B; Charbonneau, P; Bazin, C
If meant to be effective, the detection of nosocomial infections demands considering the means that should be used for a daily gathering of necessary complete information. An experiment led in a medical intensive care unit have suggested the elements of such a gathering work. This must be prospective and aimed to relate the frequency, more that the importance of nosocomial infections. It will be carried by a willing and specialized nurse, and will be limited to the necessary warning signs only. As a rule, the information linked to the infection causes will not be looked for. Finally, a special care will be given to ensure a good feedback to the clinician, which is the main purpose of that work. Yet, such an information gathering protocol has to be flexible, and it is even one of its survival conditions regarding the variety of means and requirements inherent of each department.
The introduction into a naïve herd of animals sub-clinically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is frequently the cause of clinical pleuropneumonia and the identification of such infected herds is a priority in the control of disease. Different serological tests for App have been developed and a number of these are routinely used. Some are species-specific whereas others identify more specifically the serotype/serogroup involved which requires updated information about important serotypes recovered from diseased pigs in a given area/country. Serotyping methods based on molecular techniques have been developed lately and are ready to be used by most diagnostic laboratories. When non-conclusive serological results are obtained, direct detection of App from tonsils is sometimes attempted. This review addresses different techniques and approaches used to monitor herds sub-clinically infected by this important pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khan, M A; Gaur, R L; Dixit, S; Saleemuddin, M; Murthy, P K
The responses of Mastomys coucha to re-exposure to infection with homologous infective larvae (L(3)) of Brugia malayi were investigated, after initial infections with the nematode had been treated subcutaneously for 5 days with diethylcarbamazine (DEC; 150 mg citrate/kg. day) or albendazole (ALB; 50 mg/kg. day). The parasite burdens, serum concentrations of IgG reacting with a soluble somatic extract of adult B. malayi (BmAS), and cytokine and lymphocyte-proliferative responses to filarial antigen (BmAS) or mitogen (concanavilin A or lipopolysaccharide) were studied. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that re-infection with L(3) was only successful in the DEC-treated animals, not the ALB-treated ones. When the ALB-treated animals were re-exposed, interferon-gamma production decreased, lymphocyte-proliferative responses either remained the same (with concanavilin A) or decreased (with BmAS), and concentrations of specific IgG decreased. When the DEC-treated animals were re-exposed, microfilaraemias re-appeared and, although production of interferon-gamma decreased, there were no detectable lymphocyte proliferative responses, and concentrations of specific IgG remained unchanged. Taken together, the results indicate that, at least in the M. coucha model of human filariasis, ALB but not DEC treatment may help to prevent the development of re-infections.
Rodríguez, A V; Goldberg, V; Viotti, H; Ciappesoni, G
Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB). The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC). A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest(®) and Multistix(®)), blood for packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC), and FAMACHA(©) for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC). Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA(©) score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix(®) test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA(©) and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.
Rodríguez, A.V.; Goldberg, V.; Viotti, H.; Ciappesoni, G.
Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB). The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC). A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®), blood for packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC), and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC). Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC. PMID:26623372
Dewals, Benjamin; Myster, Françoise; Palmeira, Leonor; Gillet, Laurent; Ackermann, Mathias; Vanderplasschen, Alain
Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), carried by wildebeest asymptomatically, causes malignant catarrhal fever (WD-MCF) when cross-species transmitted to a variety of susceptible species of the Artiodactyla order. Experimentally, WD-MCF can be reproduced in rabbits. WD-MCF is described as a combination of lymphoproliferation and degenerative lesions in virtually all organs and is caused by unknown mechanisms. Recently, we demonstrated that WD-MCF is associated with the proliferation of CD8+ cells supporting a latent type of infection in lymphoid tissues. Here, we investigated the macroscopic distribution of AlHV-1 infection using ex vivo bioluminescence imaging in rabbit to determine whether it correlates with the distribution of lesions in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. To reach that goal, a recombinant AlHV-1 strain was produced by insertion of a luciferase expression cassette (luc) in an intergenic region. In vitro, the reconstituted AlHV-1 luc+ strain replicated comparably to the parental strain, and luciferase activity was detected by bioluminescence imaging. In vivo, rabbits infected with the AlHV-1 luc+ strain developed WD-MCF comparably to rabbits infected with the parental wild-type strain, with hyperthermia and increases of both CD8+ T cell frequencies and viral genomic charge over time in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in lymph nodes at time of euthanasia. Bioluminescent imaging revealed that AlHV-1 infection could be detected ex vivo in lymphoid organs but also in lung, liver, and kidney during WD-MCF, demonstrating that AlHV-1 infection is prevalent in tissue lesions. Finally, we show that the infiltrating mononuclear leukocytes in nonlymphoid organs are mainly CD8+ T cells and that latency is predominant during WD-MCF. PMID:21593175
Effect of diethylcarbamazine on HIV load, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adult Tanzanians with or without lymphatic filariasis: randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled cross-over trial.
Nielsen, Nina O; Simonsen, Paul E; Dalgaard, Peter; Krarup, Henrik; Magnussen, Pascal; Magesa, Stephen; Friis, Henrik
We assessed the effect of anti-filarial treatment (diethylcarbamazine, DEC) on HIV load, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-positive individuals with and without infection with the filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The study was conducted in Tanga Region, Tanzania, in 2002 and involved 27 adults. A significant decrease in HIV load (54%) and an insignificant increase in CD4% were observed in the HIV-positive individuals with filarial co-infection at 12 weeks after treatment. HIV load and CD4% both increased, although not statistically significantly, in the HIV-positive individuals without filarial infection. The findings suggest that DEC affected HIV load through its effect on the filarial infection rather than through a direct (pharmacodynamic) effect on HIV. Global efforts to control lymphatic filariasis by annual mass treatment with DEC may have a beneficial effect on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in areas where HIV and lymphatic filariasis co-exist.
Adam, Kindi; Pangesti, Krisna Nur Andriana; Setiawaty, Vivi
Influenza is one of the common etiologies of the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). However, influenza virus only contributes about 20 percent of influenza-like illness patients. The aim of the study is to investigate the other viral etiologies from ILI cases in Indonesia. Of the 334 samples, 266 samples (78%) were positive at least for one virus, including 107 (42%) cases of multiple infections. Influenza virus is the most detected virus. The most frequent combination of viruses identified was adenovirus and human rhinovirus. This recent study demonstrated high detection rate of several respiratory viruses from ILI cases in Indonesia. Further studies to determine the relationship between viruses and clinical features are needed to improve respiratory disease control program.
Iqbal, Kashif; Hashmi, Abu Saeed; Idrees, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sadeem; Fatima, Zareen
Over the years, dengue fever has become a significant infectious disease in different parts of the world. Medical and public health services have been unable to deal with infection as there is no vaccine available for the prevention of this infection. With dengue, effective treatments are not available due to which severe symptoms may develop. To deal with this challenge, a sensitive and specific technique is required for its early diagnosis along with the knowledge of dengue serotype to increase the specificity of diagnosis and treatment. This study was designed to check the usefulness of immunological and nucleic acid-based molecular determination of dengue virus. The study recommends polymerase chain reaction as a suitable method for the rapid detection of dengue virus as it was found more sensitive than other utilized techniques, including antibodies detection. Nucleic acid analysis may also help to define the common serotypes/genotypes of dengue virus circulating in any region.
Influenza is one of the common etiologies of the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). However, influenza virus only contributes about 20 percent of influenza-like illness patients. The aim of the study is to investigate the other viral etiologies from ILI cases in Indonesia. Of the 334 samples, 266 samples (78%) were positive at least for one virus, including 107 (42%) cases of multiple infections. Influenza virus is the most detected virus. The most frequent combination of viruses identified was adenovirus and human rhinovirus. This recent study demonstrated high detection rate of several respiratory viruses from ILI cases in Indonesia. Further studies to determine the relationship between viruses and clinical features are needed to improve respiratory disease control program. PMID:28232948
Shimura, Hanako; Furuta, Kazuyoshi; Masuta, Chikara
The protocol for a simple, sensitive, and specific method using a cDNA macroarray to detect multiple viruses is provided. The method can be used even at the production sites for crops, which need a reliable routine diagnosis for mixed infection of plant viruses. The method consists of three steps: RNA extraction, duplex RT-PCR, and "microtube hybridization" (MTH). Biotinylated cDNA probes are prepared using RT-PCR and used to hybridize a nylon membrane containing target viral cDNAs by MTH. Positive signals can be visualized by colorimetric reaction and judged by eyes. We here demonstrate this method to detect asparagus viruses (Asparagus virus 1 and Asparagus virus 2) from latently infected asparagus plants.
Norões, Joaquim; Dreyer, Gerusa
Background Chronic hydrocele is the most common manifestation of bancroftian filariasis, an endemic disease in 80 countries. In a prospective study, we evaluated the occurrence of intrascrotal lymphangiectasia, gross appearance/consistency of the testis, and the efficacy of complete excision of hydrocele sac in patients living in a bancroftian filariasis endemic area who underwent hydrocelectomy at the Center for Teaching, Research and Tertiary Referral for Bancroftian Filariasis (NEPAF). Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 968 patients with uni- or bilateral filarial hydrocele (Group-1) and a Comparison Group (CG) of 218 patients from the same area who already had undergone hydrocele-sac-sparing hydrocelectomy elsewhere were enrolled at NEPAF. Twenty-eight patients from the Comparison Group with hydrocele recurrence were re-operated on at NEPAF and constitute Group-2. In Group-1 a total of 1,128 hydrocelectomies were performed (mean patient age of 30.3yr and mean follow-up of 8.6yr [range 5.3–12]). The hydrocele recurrence rates in Group-1 and in the Comparison Group (mean age of 31.5 yr) were 0.3%, and 19.3%, respectively (p<0,001). There was no hydrocele recurrence in Group-2 (mean patient age of 25.1yr and mean follow-up of 6yr [range 5–6.9]). Per surgically leaking or leak-prone dilated lymphatic vessels were seen in the inner or outer surface of the hydrocele sac wall or in surrounding tissue, particularly in the retrotesticular area, in 30.9% and in 46.3% of patients in Group-1 and Group-2, respectively (p = 0.081). The testicles were abnormal in shape, volume, and consistency in 203/1,128 (18%) and 10/28 (35.7%) of patients from Group-1 and Group-2, respectively (p = 0,025). Conclusions/Significance Lymph fluid from ruptured dilated lymphatic vessels is an important component of chronic filarial hydrocele fluid that threatens the integrity of the testis in an adult population living in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas. To avoid
Bikandi, Joseba; San Millán, Rosario; Regúlez, Pilar; Moragues, María D.; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José
Identification and characterization of Candida albicans germ tube-specific antigens may be of relevance for the serodiagnosis of invasive candidiasis since they could be the basis for the development of new diagnostic tests. In this study, we have identified two antigens of 180 and >200 kDa in the cell wall of C. albicans germ tubes which are responsible for the induction of antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes. Antigens of similar molecular masses have been demonstrated in the cell walls of the Candida species C. stellatoidea, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei, but not C. glabrata. The kinetics of the antibody responses to C. albicans germ tubes were studied in rabbits infected with different Candida species. Although these antibodies were detected in rabbits infected with all Candida species except C. glabrata, the kinetics of the antibody responses to C. albicans germ tubes induced by the Candida species studied were different. Both the highest titer and the earliest response of antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes were observed in rabbits infected with either of the two serotypes of C. albicans used. However, the time needed to elicit the antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes can be reduced as the result of an anamnestic antibody response. The results presented in this study show that a test designed to detect antibodies against C. albicans germ tube antigens may be suitable for the diagnosis of infections caused by most of the medically important Candida species. PMID:9605993
Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Koury, Matilde Cota
A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers from the LipL32 sequence of Leptospira spp. was used to detect shedding of pathogenic leptospires in urine from naturally infected cattle. Amplicons (497bp) were obtained from 21 pathogenic reference serovars belonging to four species (L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. santarosai, L. kirschneri). DNA was amplified from 26/30 urine samples taken from cattle with suspected leptospirosis and from leptospires cultivated from 10 of these samples. The limit of detection of DNA in the clinical samples was 200pg and the nested PCR detected all pathogenic reference serovars of Leptospira spp. tested. No PCR products were amplified using DNA from other common bacterial species from the bovine urogenital tract or urine, or from the non-pathogenic L. biflexa Andamana serovar. The nested PCR exhibited high specificity and sensitivity for detection of pathogenic serovars in urine from cattle.
Fan, J; Zhang, W H; Wu, Y Y; Jing, X Y; Claas, E C
The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic feasibility of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in eye swabs from patients with conjunctivitis, and to establish the basic technique of the PCR for epidemiological survey. The results of the PCR were compared with the Mikro Trak immunofluorescence assay (IFA). From 49 specimens of patients with conjunctivitis, 31 were found positive by PCR (63%) and 23 by IFA (47%). On the other hand, in 10 normal eye specimens and 10 non-Chlamydia trachoma conjunctivitis specimens no Chlamydia trachomatis was detected.
Brody, J P; Binkley, J H; Harding, S A
Two commercially available rapid screening tests, Rubacell (Abbott Laboratories; passive hemagglutination) and FIAX (International Diagnostic Technology; indirect immunofluorescence) were compared with a standard hemagglutination inhibition assay for detection of immunity to rubella infection. In tests of approximately 300 sera, both rapid assays were specific and sensitive and showed a high predictive value of a positive result. Within-run reproducibility studies were excellent for both tests; however, Rubacell was superior to FIAX with respect to time-cost analysis. PMID:397225
Moghaddassani, H; Mirhendi, H; Hosseini, M; Rokni, MB; Mowlavi, Gh; Kia, Eb
Background Strongyloidiasis is mostly an asymptomatic infection and diagnosis of latent infections is difficult due to limitations of current parasitological and serological methods. This study was conducted to set up a PCR-based method for molecular diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection by detection of copro-DNA in stool samples. Methods A total of 782 fresh stool samples were collected and examined by agar plate culture. Among those sixteen stool samples, which confirmed to be infected with S. stercoralis were examined as positive control to set up each single and nested PCR, using two primer sets designing to amplify partial ribosomal DNA of S. stercoralis genome. Since, single PCR method yielded higher efficacy in detecting positive samples, in the second step, 30 stool samples, which found negative for S. stercoralis by agar plate culture of single stool sample, were examined by single PCR. Data analysis was performed using McNemar's χ2 test, with consideration of a P-value of <0.05 as indication of significant difference. Results In amplification of DNA extracted from stool samples, single PCR detected S. stercoralis DNA target in all 16 positive samples, while nested PCR amplified DNA in only 75% of samples. In the second step, single PCR amplified S. stercoralis extracted DNA in 5 out of 30 samples which were negative by coproculture. Conclusion Single PCR method amplifying a short (100bp) target represented more efficacies for detection of S. stercoralis in faecal examination compared to agar plate culture and nested PCR, which amplified longer target. PMID:22347284
spotted fever ( Rickettsia group-specific primers and probes for the diagnosis of rick- rickettsii ), epidemic typhus ( Rickettsia prowazekii), murine...Polymerase chain reaction, Xenops.yl~j.Lopsis;" Rickettsia typhi,- Enz me-linked immunosorbent assay ’ A amplificatin6 fProu)t 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...olymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of CDNA was used to detect the etiologic agent of murine typhus, Rickettsia typhi, in experimentally infected
Muniroh, M S; Sariah, M; Zainal Abidin, M A; Lima, N; Paterson, R R M
Detection of basal stem rot (BSR) by Ganoderma of oil palms was based on foliar symptoms and production of basidiomata. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays-Polyclonal Antibody (ELISA-PAB) and PCR have been proposed as early detection methods for the disease. These techniques are complex, time consuming and have accuracy limitations. An ergosterol method was developed which correlated well with the degree of infection in oil palms, including samples growing in plantations. However, the method was capable of being optimised. This current study was designed to develop a simpler, more rapid and efficient ergosterol method with utility in the field that involved the use of microwave extraction. The optimised procedure involved extracting a small amount of Ganoderma, or Ganoderma-infected oil palm suspended in low volumes of solvent followed by irradiation in a conventional microwave oven at 70°C and medium high power for 30s, resulting in simultaneous extraction and saponification. Ergosterol was detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The TLC method was novel and provided a simple, inexpensive method with utility in the field. The new method was particularly effective at extracting high yields of ergosterol from infected oil palm and enables rapid analysis of field samples on site, allowing infected oil palms to be treated or culled very rapidly. Some limitations of the method are discussed herein. The procedures lend themselves to controlling the disease more effectively and allowing more effective use of land currently employed to grow oil palms, thereby reducing pressure to develop new plantations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fawkner-Corbett, DW; Khoo, SK; Duarte, MC; Bezerra, PGM; Bochkov, YA; Gern, JE; Le Souef, PN; McNamara, PS
Introduction Human rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children. We aimed to characterise the clinical and demographic features associated with different RV species detected in children attending hospital with ARI, from low-income families in North-east Brazil. Methods Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 630 children <5years with ARI. Clinical diagnosis and disease severity were also recorded. Samples were analysed by multiplex PCR for 18 viral and atypical bacterial pathogens; RV positive samples underwent partial sequencing to determine species and type. Results RV was the fourth commonest pathogen accounting for 18.7% of pathogens detected. RV was commonly detected in children with bronchiolitis, pneumonia and asthma/episodic viral wheeze (EVW). Species and type were assigned in 112 cases (73% RV-A; 27% RV-C; 0% RV-B). Generally, there were no differences in clinical or demographic characteristics between those infected with RV-A and RV-C. However, in children with asthma/EVW, RV-C was detected relatively more frequently than RV-A (23% vs 5%; p=0.04). Conclusions Our findings highlight RV as a potentially important pathogen in this setting. Generally, clinical and demographic features were similar in children in whom RV A and C species were detected. However, RV-C was more frequently found in children with asthma/EVW than RV-A. PMID:26100591
Segarra, Amélie; Baillon, Laury; Faury, Nicole; Tourbiez, Delphine; Renault, Tristan
High mortality rates are reported in spat and larvae of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and associated with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) detection in France. Although the viral infection has been experimentally reproduced in oyster larvae and spat, little knowledge is currently available concerning the viral entry and its distribution in organs and tissues. This study compares OsHV-1 DNA and RNA detection and localization in experimentally infected oysters using two virus doses: a low dose that did not induce any mortality and a high dose inducing high mortality. Real time PCR demonstrated significant differences in terms of viral DNA amounts between the two virus doses. RNA transcripts were detected in oysters receiving the highest dose of viral suspension whereas no transcript was observed in oysters injected with the low dose. This study also allowed observing kinetics of viral DNA and RNA detection in different tissues of oyster spat. Finally, viral detection was significantly different in function of tissues (p<0.005), time (p<0.005) with an interaction between tissues and time (p<0.005) for each probe.
Fawkner-Corbett, David W; Khoo, Siew Kim; Duarte, Carminha M; Bezerra, Patricia G M; Bochkov, Yury A; Gern, James E; Le Souef, Peter N; McNamara, Paul S
Human rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children. We aimed to characterize the clinical and demographic features associated with different RV species detected in children attending hospital with ARI, from low-income families in North-east Brazil. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 630 children <5 years with ARI. Clinical diagnosis and disease severity were also recorded. Samples were analyzed by multiplex PCR for 18 viral and atypical bacterial pathogens; RV positive samples underwent partial sequencing to determine species and type. RV was the fourth commonest pathogen accounting for 18.7% of pathogens detected. RV was commonly detected in children with bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and asthma/episodic viral wheeze (EVW). Species and type were assigned in 112 cases (73% RV-A; 27% RV-C; 0% RV-B). Generally, there were no differences in clinical or demographic characteristics between those infected with RV-A and RV-C. However, in children with asthma/EVW, RV-C was detected relatively more frequently than RV-A (23% vs. 5%; P = 0.04). Our findings highlight RV as a potentially important pathogen in this setting. Generally, clinical and demographic features were similar in children in whom RV-A and C species were detected. However, RV-C was more frequently found in children with asthma/EVW than RV-A.
Kemp, Elizabeth M; Woodward, David T; Cory, Jenny S
We surveyed for covert baculovirus infections in the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) and compared the prevalence of virus detected in a laboratory and a field population. DNA was extracted from budworm adults and then PCR with degenerate primers was used to identify individuals carrying baculovirus DNA. Multiplex PCR was then applied to the positive samples to distinguish between the multiple baculovirus types that could potentially be found in C. fumiferana populations. Covert infections were found in both the laboratory and the field population of C. fumiferana, although the frequency of infection and the composition of viruses found were very different. Overall 28% of insects from the laboratory population were positive for baculovirus DNA. Individual adults supported both single and mixed covert infections with CfMNPV plus CfDEFNPV, CfDEFNPV plus a GV and mixtures of all three viruses together. However, the majority of insects supported single virus infections, and surprisingly this virus was CfDEFNPV, a virus that is reported not to have per os activity in C. fumiferana larvae. Insects from field populations showed a very different pattern; 70.5% of individuals were baculovirus positive and all of these were positive for CfDEFNPV only.
Gold, Benjamin D.; Gilger, Mark A.; Czinn, Steven J.
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common chronic bacterial infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastroduodenal disease in children. H pylori is also associated with extragastric manifestations, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current guidelines recommend endoscopy with biopsy for the definitive demonstration of H pylori infection. In contrast to serology, the fecal antigen test and the urea breath test provide reliable, sensitive, and specific results for detecting active H pylori infection in children before and after treatment. The first-line treatment option for pediatric patients is triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and 2 antibiotics, which include amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. Decreasing eradication rates and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H pylori have led to the use of other treatments, such as sequential therapy or triple therapy with newer antibiotics, particularly in geographic areas with high rates of antibiotic resistance. Patients should be tested after treatment to confirm eradication, as the absence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that H pylori is no longer present. This clinical roundtable monograph provides an overview of H pylori infection, as well as expert insight into the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children. PMID:26491414
Yip, A W; Yuen, K Y; Seto, W H; Choi, T K
A semiquantitative culture technique for early detection of surgical wound infection was done by rolling a segment of a plastic intravenous catheter across a blood agar plate after insertion into the most inflamed part of the wound on postoperative day 3. Patients were monitored daily for purulent discharge until healing. Of the 53 wounds studied, 44 (83%) had no growth or low-density superficial colonization on the blood agar (generally less than 15 colony-forming units and within the upper 1.5 cm of the catheter). None of these 44 wounds was subsequently infected; therefore, these colonies represented colonization. Of the 9 wounds (17%) that yielded greater than 15 colony-forming units and a diffuse subcutaneous pattern (colonies below the upper 1.5 cm of the catheter), all developed purulent discharge with a positive culture of the same organisms found by semiquantitative culture. This result differed significantly (P less than .01) from the 44 wounds without subsequent infection. This semiquantitative technique has the potential to distinguish infection from colonization and may be useful in diagnosing surgical wound infection.
Rolle, Anna-Maria; Hasenberg, Mike; Thornton, Christopher R.; Solouk-Saran, Djamschid; Männ, Linda; Weski, Juliane; Maurer, Andreas; Fischer, Eliane; Spycher, Philipp R.; Schibli, Roger; Boschetti, Frederic; Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine; Bruder, Dunja; Severin, Gregory W.; Autenrieth, Stella E.; Krappmann, Sven; Davies, Genna; Pichler, Bernd J.; Gunzer, Matthias; Wiehr, Stefan
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, and is a leading cause of invasive fungal infection-related mortality and morbidity in patients with hematological malignancies and bone marrow transplants. We developed and tested a novel probe for noninvasive detection of A. fumigatus lung infection based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (immunoPET/MR) imaging. Administration of a [64Cu]DOTA-labeled A. fumigatus-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), JF5, to neutrophil-depleted A. fumigatus-infected mice allowed specific localization of lung infection when combined with PET. Optical imaging with a fluorochrome-labeled version of the mAb showed colocalization with invasive hyphae. The mAb-based newly developed PET tracer [64Cu]DOTA-JF5 distinguished IPA from bacterial lung infections and, in contrast to [18F]FDG-PET, discriminated IPA from a general increase in metabolic activity associated with lung inflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that antibody-guided in vivo imaging has been used for noninvasive diagnosis of a fungal lung disease (IPA) of humans, an approach with enormous potential for diagnosis of infectious diseases and with potential for clinical translation. PMID:26787852
Jalali, Seyedeh Missagh; Jolodar, Abbas; Rasooli, Aria; Darabifard, Ameneh
Theileriosis caused by Theileria lestoquardi (malignant ovine theileriosis) in sheep and Theileria annulata (tropical theileriosis) in cattle is an important hemoprotozoal tick-borne disease in Iran. Due to major biologic and phylogenic similarities of these two species, this study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of natural infections with T.lestoquardi and T.annulata in cattle with clinical theileriosis in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. Fifty one cattle were selected based on clinical signs of theileriosis and confirmation by microscopic examination of blood smears. Blood samples were collected from each animal and hematologic and microscopic examinations were performed. Theileria piroplasmic forms were detected in all affected cattle. Pale mucous membranes (43.14%), icterus (11.76%) and fever (70.6%) were also observed. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed T. annulata infection in all tested cattle while coinfections with T. lestoquardi were found in two samples (3.92%). All sampled cattle including the two with mixed species Theileria infection were anemic. This is the first report of Theileria species cross infections in cattle with clinical theileriosis in Iran. It can be concluded that cattle can be infected with both pathogenic Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. annulata which can be an important issue in the epidemiology and spread of ovine malignant theileriosis.
Mahmoudi, Shima; Mamishi, Setareh; Suo, Xun; Keshavarz, Hossein
Antibody-based serological tests are currently the most common diagnostic methods for detection of Toxoplasma gondii; however, these tests bear several limitations. Recently, Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), a T-cell-based test, was introduced as an in vitro test for detection of T. gondii infection. Few studies have investigated the potential role of cell immunity in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. IGRA accurately distinguished infected from uninfected individuals, showing strong lymphocyte activation after in vitro stimulation with T. gondii antigens, even during the first days of life. IGRA is an easy-operation and low-cost method to measure cell mediated immunity against T. gondii. The results of this review underline the importance of evaluating cellular immunity to establish an early diagnosis particularly for congenital toxoplasmosis. Therefore, ELISA-based IGRA holds the potential to become a useful diagnostic tool for early detection of T. gondii infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bacteroides forsythus in primary endodontic infections using a species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Samples were collected from 50 teeth having carious lesions, necrotic pulps, and different forms of periradicular diseases. DNA extracted from the samples was initially amplified using universal 16S rDNA primers. A second round of amplification used the first polymerase chain reaction products to detect a specific fragment of B. forsythus 16S rDNA. B. forsythus was detected in 13 of 22 asymptomatic cases (59.1%), 4 of 10 root canals associated with acute apical periodontitis (40%), and 9 of 18 cases diagnosed as acute periradicular abscesses (50%). There was no relationship between the presence of B. forsythus and the occurrence of symptoms. In general, this bacterial species was detected in 26 of 50 samples of endodontic infections (52%). The findings of this study support the assertion that this bacterial species is associated with infections of endodontic origin and suggest that B. forsythus may be involved in the pathogenesis of different forms of periradicular lesions.
Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N
Spirochetes have been frequently observed in root canal infections, but they were rarely identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Treponema socranskii in primary endodontic infections using a species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Samples were collected from 60 teeth having carious lesions, necrotic pulps, and different forms of periradicular diseases. DNA extracted from the samples was initially amplified using universal 16S rDNA primers. A second round of amplification used the first polymerase chain reaction products to detect a specific fragment of T. socranskii 16S rDNA. T. socranskii was detected in 11 of 28 asymptomatic cases (39.3%), five of 12 root canals associated with acute apical periodontitis (41.7%), and five of 20 cases diagnosed as acute periradicular abscesses (25%). There was no relationship between the presence of T. socranskii and the occurrence of symptoms. In general, this spirochete was detected in 21 of 60 samples of endodontic infections (35%). Findings suggest that T. socranskii can be involved in the pathogenesis of different forms of periradicular lesions.
Choi, Hong Seo; Lee, Hyun Min; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Min Kyu; Chang, Hee Jin; Lee, Hye Ran; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Dae Shick; Ryu, Chun Jeih
Highlights: • This study generates a monoclonal antibody CA27 against the mycoplasmal p37 protein. • CA27 isolates circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of liver cancer patients. • Results show the first evidence for mycoplasma infected-CTCs in cancer patients. - Abstract: Many studies have shown that persistent infections of bacteria promote carcinogenesis and metastasis. Infectious agents and their products can modulate cancer progression through the induction of host inflammatory and immune responses. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is considered as an important indicator in the metastatic cascade. We unintentionally produced a monoclonal antibody (MAb) CA27 against the mycoplasmal p37 protein in mycoplasma-infected cancer cells during the searching process of novel surface markers of CTCs. Mycoplasma-infected cells were enriched by CA27-conjugated magnetic beads in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and analyzed by confocal microscopy with anti-CD45 and CA27 antibodies. CD45-negative and CA27-positive cells were readily detected in three out of seven patients (range 12–30/8.5 ml blood), indicating that they are mycoplasma-infected circulating epithelial cells. CA27-positive cells had larger size than CD45-positive hematological lineage cells, high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios and irregular nuclear morphology, which identified them as CTCs. The results show for the first time the existence of mycoplasma-infected CTCs in patients with HCC and suggest a possible correlation between mycoplasma infection and the development of cancer metastasis.
Tambuyzer, T; Guiza, F; Boonen, E; Meersseman, P; Vervenne, H; Hansen, T K; Bjerre, M; Van den Berghe, G; Berckmans, D; Aerts, J M; Meyfroidt, G
It is difficult to make a distinction between inflammation and infection. Therefore, new strategies are required to allow accurate detection of infection. Here, we hypothesize that we can distinguish infected from non-infected ICU patients based on dynamic features of serum cytokine concentrations and heart rate time series. Serum cytokine profiles and heart rate time series of 39 patients were available for this study. The serum concentration of ten cytokines were measured using blood sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 hours. Heart rate was recorded every minute. Ten metrics were used to extract features from these time series to obtain an accurate classification of infected patients. The predictive power of the metrics derived from the heart rate time series was investigated using decision tree analysis. Finally, logistic regression methods were used to examine whether classification performance improved with inclusion of features derived from the cytokine time series. The AUC of a decision tree based on two heart rate features was 0.88. The model had good calibration with 0.09 Hosmer-Lemeshow p value. There was no significant additional value of adding static cytokine levels or cytokine time series information to the generated decision tree model. The results suggest that heart rate is a better marker for infection than information captured by cytokine time series when the exact stage of infection is not known. The predictive value of (expensive) biomarkers should always be weighed against the routinely monitored data, and such biomarkers have to demonstrate added value.
Mancianti, F; Nardoni, S; Corazza, M; D'Achille, P; Ponticelli, C
Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most frequently recovered from canine and feline ringworm cases. The household environment can be contaminated both by symptomatic animals and through asymptomatic M canis carriage, resulting in a potential human health risk. The load of M canis arthrospores was determined in households harbouring infected pets, in order to evaluate the infectivity of the animals versus the environment. The environments inhabited by 30 symptomatic animals (21 cats and 9 dogs) infected by M canis were examined by sampling both surfaces and indoor air. The surfaces were examined by means of contact plates; the air sampling was performed with a Sas super-100 AIR SAMPLER (PBI, Italy). Environmental contamination was detected in all households with cats, while only four out of nine houses harbouring dogs were found positive. The frequence of isolation in each sampling, and the results in terms of colony forming units per plate in the different houses appeared to be quite homogeneous. Heavily infected environments harboured kittens only. Infected owners were observed in eight households, in all of which at least one infected cat was present. No history of human dermatophytosis in households harbouring dogs was found. On the basis of our results, infected cats appear to cause substantial environmental contamination, and provoke a substantial presence of viable airborne fungal elements. Dogs seem to be of lower importance in the spread of M CANIS: they contaminated surfaces, but they never contaminated the air. The results of this study confirm the potential leading role of the feline species in the environmental spread of M canis.
Paredes, J; Alonso-Arce, M; Schmidt, C; Valderas, D; Sedano, B; Legarda, J; Arizti, F; Gómez, E; Aguinaga, A; Del Pozo, J L; Arana, S
Central venous catheters (CVC) are commonly used in clinical practice to improve a patient's quality of life. Unfortunately, there is an intrinsic risk of acquiring an infection related to microbial biofilm formation inside the catheter lumen. It has been estimated that 80 % of all human bacterial infections are biofilm-associated. Additionally, 50 % of all nosocomial infections are associated with indwelling devices. Bloodstream infections account for 30-40 % of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock, and are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of bloodstream infections must be performed promptly so that adequate antimicrobial therapy can be started and patient outcome improved. An ideal diagnostic technology would identify the infecting organism(s) in a timely manner, so that appropriate pathogen-driven therapy could begin promptly. Unfortunately, despite the essential information it provides, blood culture, the gold standard, largely fails in this purpose because time is lost waiting for bacterial or fungal growth. This work presents a new design of a venous access port that allows the monitoring of the inner reservoir surface by means of an impedimetric biosensor. An ad-hoc electronic system was designed to manage the sensor and to allow communication with the external receiver. Historic data recorded and stored in the device was used as the reference value for the detection of bacterial biofilm. The RF communication system sends an alarm signal to the external receiver when a microbial colonization of the port occurs. The successful in vitro analysis of the biosensor, the electronics and the antenna of the new indwelling device prototype are shown. The experimental conditions were selected in each case as the closest to the clinical working conditions for the smart central venous catheter (SCVC) testing. The results of this work allow a new generation of this kind of device that could potentially provide more efficient treatments for
Suligoi, Barbara; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Rodella, Anna; Terlenghi, Luigina; Caruso, Arnaldo; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Zanchetta, Nadia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Galli, Claudio
Detecting recent HIV infections is important to evaluate incidence and monitor epidemic trends. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance and accuracy of the avidity index (AI) for discriminating for recent HIV infections. We collected serum samples from HIV-1 positive individuals: A) with known date of infection (midpoint in time between last HIV-negative and first HIV-positive test); B) infected for >1 year. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one diluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the other with 1 M guanidine. Both aliquots were assayed by the Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo 4th generation assay (Abbott). We compared AI found in recent (RI=<6 months from seroconversion) and established (EI) infections. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The proportion of samples misclassified as recent (FRR) was calculated. In total, 647 samples were collected: 455 in group A (51.6% RI and 48.4% EI) and 192 in group B. Among these, sixteen samples were from elite controllers, 294 from treated patients, 328 from patients infected with non-B subtypes. Samples before antiretroviral initiation showed a mean AI significantly lower among RI compared to EI (0.66+0.28 vs. 1.00±0.12; p<0.000). The FRR was 0% using a cut-off of ≤0.70. An extremely low FRR was observed among elite controllers, samples with low VL or CD4. HIV subtype had no impact on AI misclassifications. All individuals in group A reached the AI threshold of 0.80 within 24 months after seroconversion. The AI is an accurate serological marker for discriminating recent from established HIV infections and meets WHO requirements for HIV incidence assays.
Balagon, Marivic F.; Maghanoy, Armi; Orcullo, Florenda M.; Cang, Marjorie; Dias, Ronaldo Ferreira; Collovati, Marco; Reed, Steven G.
Leprosy remains an important health problem in a number of regions. Early detection of infection, followed by effective treatment, is critical to reduce disease progression. New sensitive and specific tools for early detection of infection will be a critical component of an effective leprosy elimination campaign. Diagnosis is made by recognizing clinical signs and symptoms, but few clinicians are able to confidently identify these. Simple tests to facilitate referral to leprosy experts are not widely available, and the correct diagnosis of leprosy is often delayed. In this report, we evaluate the performance of a new leprosy serological test (NDO-LID). As expected, the test readily detected clinically confirmed samples from patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy, and the rate of positive results declined with bacterial burden. NDO-LID detected larger proportions of MB and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy than the alternative, the Standard Diagnostics leprosy test (87.0% versus 81.7% and 32.3% versus 6.5%, respectively), while also demonstrating improved specificity (97.4% versus 90.4%). Coupled with a new cell phone-based test reader platform (Smart Reader), the NDO-LID test provided consistent, objective test interpretation that could facilitate wider use in nonspecialized settings. In addition, results obtained from sera at the time of diagnosis, versus at the end of treatment, indicated that the quantifiable nature of this system can also be used to monitor treatment efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that the NDO-LID/Smart Reader system can assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of MB leprosy and can detect a significant number of earlier-stage infections. PMID:24478496
Duthie, Malcolm S; Balagon, Marivic F; Maghanoy, Armi; Orcullo, Florenda M; Cang, Marjorie; Dias, Ronaldo Ferreira; Collovati, Marco; Reed, Steven G
Leprosy remains an important health problem in a number of regions. Early detection of infection, followed by effective treatment, is critical to reduce disease progression. New sensitive and specific tools for early detection of infection will be a critical component of an effective leprosy elimination campaign. Diagnosis is made by recognizing clinical signs and symptoms, but few clinicians are able to confidently identify these. Simple tests to facilitate referral to leprosy experts are not widely available, and the correct diagnosis of leprosy is often delayed. In this report, we evaluate the performance of a new leprosy serological test (NDO-LID). As expected, the test readily detected clinically confirmed samples from patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy, and the rate of positive results declined with bacterial burden. NDO-LID detected larger proportions of MB and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy than the alternative, the Standard Diagnostics leprosy test (87.0% versus 81.7% and 32.3% versus 6.5%, respectively), while also demonstrating improved specificity (97.4% versus 90.4%). Coupled with a new cell phone-based test reader platform (Smart Reader), the NDO-LID test provided consistent, objective test interpretation that could facilitate wider use in nonspecialized settings. In addition, results obtained from sera at the time of diagnosis, versus at the end of treatment, indicated that the quantifiable nature of this system can also be used to monitor treatment efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that the NDO-LID/Smart Reader system can assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of MB leprosy and can detect a significant number of earlier-stage infections.
Legoff, Jérôme; Guérot, Emmanuel; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Matta, Mathieu; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Gutmann, Laurent; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Bélec, Laurent
Forty-seven bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were obtained from 41 patients with acute pneumonia attending an intensive care unit. By molecular diagnosis, 30% of total BAL and 63% of bacteria-negative BAL were positive for respiratory viruses. Molecular detection allows for high-rate detection of respiratory viral infections in adult patients suffering from severe pneumonia.
Legoff, Jérôme; Guérot, Emmanuel; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Matta, Mathieu; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Gutmann, Laurent; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Bélec, Laurent
Forty-seven bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were obtained from 41 patients with acute pneumonia attending an intensive care unit. By molecular diagnosis, 30% of total BAL and 63% of bacteria-negative BAL were positive for respiratory viruses. Molecular detection allows for high-rate detection of respiratory viral infections in adult patients suffering from severe pneumonia. PMID:15635014
Hübner, Marc P; Torrero, Marina N; McCall, John W; Mitre, Edward
Litomosoides sigmodontis is a filarial nematode that is used as a mouse model for human filarial infections. The life cycle of L. sigmodontis comprises rodents as definitive hosts and tropical rat mites as alternate hosts. Here, we describe a method of infecting mice with third stage larvae (L3) extracted from the pleural space of recently infected jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). This method enables infection of mice with a known number of L3 larvae without the time-consuming dissection of L3 larvae from mites and results in higher worm recovery and patency rates than conventional methods. Additionally, this method allows for geographical separation of the facility maintaining the L. sigmodontis life cycle from the institution at which mice are infected.