Science.gov

Sample records for detection identification location

  1. Detection, Identification, Location, and Remote Sensing using SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we will consider the problem of simultaneous detection, identification, location estimation, and remote sensing for multiple objects. In particular, we will describe the design and testing of a wireless system capable of simultaneously detecting the presence of multiple objects, identifying each object, and acquiring both a low-resolution estimate of location and a high-resolution estimate of temperature for each object based on wireless interrogation of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) radiofrequency identification (RFID) sensor tags affixed to each object. The system is being studied for application on the lunar surface as well as for terrestrial remote sensing applications such as pre-launch monitoring and testing of spacecraft on the launch pad and monitoring of test facilities. The system utilizes a digitally beam-formed planar receiving antenna array to extend range and provide direction-of-arrival information coupled with an approximate maximum-likelihood signal processing algorithm to provide near-optimal estimation of both range and temperature. The system is capable of forming a large number of beams within the field of view and resolving the information from several tags within each beam. The combination of both spatial and waveform discrimination provides the capability to track and monitor telemetry from a large number of objects appearing simultaneously within the field of view of the receiving array. In the presentation, we will summarize the system design and illustrate several aspects of the operational characteristics and signal structure. We will examine the theoretical performance characteristics of the system and compare the theoretical results with results obtained from experiments in both controlled laboratory environments and in the field.

  2. Detection, Identification, Location, and Remote Sensing Using SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.; Kennedy, Timothy F.; Williams, Robert M.; Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong H.

    2009-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) of the Avionic Systems Division at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is studying the utility of surface acoustic wave (SAW) radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags for multiple wireless applications including detection, identification, tracking, and remote sensing of objects on the lunar surface, monitoring of environmental test facilities, structural shape and health monitoring, and nondestructive test and evaluation of assets. For all of these applications, it is anticipated that the system utilized to interrogate the SAW RFID tags may need to operate at fairly long range and in the presence of considerable multipath and multiple-access interference. Towards that end, EV4 is developing a prototype SAW RFID wireless interrogation system for use in such environments called the Passive Adaptive RFID Sensor Equipment (PARSED) system. The system utilizes a digitally beam-formed planar receiving antenna array to extend range and provide direction-of-arrival information coupled with an approximate maximum-likelihood signal processing algorithm to provide near-optimal estimation of both range and temperature. The system is capable of forming a large number of beams within the field of view and resolving the information from several tags within each beam. The combination of both spatial and waveform discrimination provides the capability to track and monitor telemetry from a large number of objects appearing simultaneously within the field of view of the receiving array. In this paper, we will consider the application of the PARSEQ system to the problem of simultaneous detection, identification, localization, and temperature estimation for multiple objects. We will summarize the overall design of the PARSEQ system and present a detailed description of the design and performance of the signal detection and estimation algorithms incorporated in the system. The system is currently configured only to measure temperature

  3. Feature Identification and Location Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Wilson, R. G.; Bullock, G. F.; Schappell, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE), which was flown on the second Space Shuttle flight to test a technique for real-time, autonomous classification of water, vegetation and bare land as well as clouds, snow and ice, senses earth radiation in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns. The radiance ratio classification algorithm has successfully made automatic data selection decisions. A classification image obtained on the mission is providing data needed to evaluate the FILE algorithm and overall system performance.

  4. Optimal Sensor Locations for System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Element Model . 19 3. A METHODOLOGY FOR OPTIMAL SENSOR LOCATIONS FOR PARAMETRIC IDENTIFICATION ................. 37 3.1. Introduction... parametric identification of structural systems depends on the location at which sensors are placed and data gathered, very little by way of a...picture on optimal sensor locations for parametric identification in a noisy measurement 6 z, -. -" environment. Section IV deals with an important aspect

  5. Source Identification and Location Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Donald; Bridges, James; Agboola, Femi; Dougherty, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Mr. Weir presented source location results obtained from an engine test as part of the Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts program. Two types of microphone arrays were used in this program to determine the jet noise source distribution for the exhaust from a 4.3 bypass ratio turbofan engine. One was a linear array of 16 microphones located on a 25 ft. sideline and the other was a 103 microphone 3-D "cage" array in the near field of the jet. Data were obtained from a baseline nozzle and from numerous nozzle configuration using chevrons and/or tabs to reduce the jet noise. Mr. Weir presented data from two configurations: the baseline nozzle and a nozzle configuration with chevrons on both the core and bypass nozzles. This chevron configuration had achieved a jet noise reduction of 4 EPNdB in small scale tests conducted at the Glenn Research Center. IR imaging showed that the chevrons produced significant improvements in mixing and greatly reduced the length of the jet potential core. Comparison of source location data from the 1-D phased array showed a shift of the noise sources towards the nozzle and clear reductions of the sources due to the noise reduction devices. Data from the 3-D array showed a single source at a frequency of 125 Hz. located several diameters downstream from the nozzle exit. At 250 and 400 Hz., multiple sources, periodically spaced, appeared to exist downstream of the nozzle. The trend of source location moving toward the nozzle exit with increasing frequency was also observed. The 3-D array data also showed a reduction in source strength with the addition of chevrons. The overall trend of source location with frequency was compared for the two arrays and with classical experience. Similar trends were observed. Although overall trends with frequency and addition of suppression devices were consistent between the data from the 1-D and the 3-D arrays, a comparison of the details of the inferred source locations did show differences. A

  6. Automated identification of neurons and their locations.

    PubMed

    Inglis, A; Cruz, L; Roe, D L; Stanley, H E; Rosene, D L; Urbanc, B

    2008-06-01

    Individual locations of many neuronal cell bodies (>10(4)) are needed to enable statistically significant measurements of spatial organization within the brain such as nearest-neighbour and microcolumnarity measurements. In this paper, we introduce an Automated Neuron Recognition Algorithm (ANRA) which obtains the (x, y) location of individual neurons within digitized images of Nissl-stained, 30 microm thick, frozen sections of the cerebral cortex of the Rhesus monkey. Identification of neurons within such Nissl-stained sections is inherently difficult due to the variability in neuron staining, the overlap of neurons, the presence of partial or damaged neurons at tissue surfaces, and the presence of non-neuron objects, such as glial cells, blood vessels, and random artefacts. To overcome these challenges and identify neurons, ANRA applies a combination of image segmentation and machine learning. The steps involve active contour segmentation to find outlines of potential neuron cell bodies followed by artificial neural network training using the segmentation properties (size, optical density, gyration, etc.) to distinguish between neuron and non-neuron segmentations. ANRA positively identifies 86 +/- 5% neurons with 15 +/- 8% error (mean +/- SD) on a wide range of Nissl-stained images, whereas semi-automatic methods obtain 80 +/- 7%/17 +/- 12%. A further advantage of ANRA is that it affords an unlimited increase in speed from semi-automatic methods, and is computationally efficient, with the ability to recognize approximately 100 neurons per minute using a standard personal computer. ANRA is amenable to analysis of huge photo-montages of Nissl-stained tissue, thereby opening the door to fast, efficient and quantitative analysis of vast stores of archival material that exist in laboratories and research collections around the world.

  7. Martian Resource Locations - Identification and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamitoff, G.; James, G.; Barker, D.; Dershowitz, A.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical constituents of the Martian environment can be considered as possible material resources. The identification and utilization of these in-situ Martian natural resources is the key to enabling cost- effective long-duration missions and permanent human settlements on Mars. Also, access to local resources provides an essential safety net for the initial missions. The incident solar radiation, atmosphere, regolith, subsurface materials, polar deposits, and frozen volatiles represent planetary resources that can provide breathable air, water, energy, organic growth media, and building materials. Hence, the characterization and localization of these resources can be viewed as a component of the process of landing/outpost site selection. The locations of early permanent settlements will likely be near the imported and in-situ resources of the initial outposts. Therefore, the initial site selections can have significant long- term ramifications. Although the current information on the location, extent, purity, and ease of extraction of the in-situ resources is limited; this knowledge improves with each electronic bit of information returned from the planet. This paper presents a powerful software tool for the combined organization and analysis of Martian data from all sources. This program, called PROMT (Planetary Resource Optimization and Mapping Tool), is designed to provide a wide range of analysis and display functions that can be applied to raw data or photo- imagery. Thresholds, contours, custom algorithms, and graphical editing are some of the various methods that the user can use to process data. Individual maps can then be created to identify surface regions on Mars that meet specific criteria. For example, regions with possible subsurface ice can be identified and shown graphically by combining and analyzing various gamma ray and neutron emission data sets. Other examples might include regions with high atmospheric pressure, steep slopes, evidence of

  8. Locating bomb factories by detecting hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Connell, Samantha; Ferrari, Carlotta; Suarez, Guillaume; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Hopf, Nancy B

    2016-11-01

    The analytical capability to detect hydrogen peroxide vapour can play a key role in localizing a site where a H2O2 based Improvised Explosive (IE) is manufactured. In security activities it is very important to obtain information in a short time. For this reason, an analytical method to be used in security activity needs portable devices. The authors have developed the first analytical method based on a portable luminometer, specifically designed and validated to locate IE manufacturing sites using quantitative on-site vapour analysis for H2O2. The method was tested both indoor and outdoor. The results demonstrate that the detection of H2O2 vapours could allow police forces to locate the site, while terrorists are preparing an attack. The collected data are also very important in developing new sensors, able to give an early alarm if located at a proper distance from a site where an H2O2 based IE is prepared.

  9. Martian resource locations: Identification and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George; Barker, Donald; Dershowitz, Adam

    2005-04-01

    The identification and utilization of in situ Martian natural resources is the key to enable cost-effective long-duration missions and permanent human settlements on Mars. This paper presents a powerful software tool for analyzing Martian data from all sources, and for optimizing mission site selection based on resource collocation. This program, called Planetary Resource Optimization and Mapping Tool (PROMT), provides a wide range of analysis and display functions that can be applied to raw data or imagery. Thresholds, contours, custom algorithms, and graphical editing are some of the various methods that can be used to process data. Output maps can be created to identify surface regions on Mars that meet any specific criteria. The use of this tool for analyzing data, generating maps, and collocating features is demonstrated using data from the Mars Global Surveyor and the Odyssey spacecraft. The overall mission design objective is to maximize a combination of scientific return and self-sufficiency based on utilization of local materials. Landing site optimization involves maximizing accessibility to collocated science and resource features within a given mission radius. Mission types are categorized according to duration, energy resources, and in situ resource utilization. Preliminary optimization results are shown for a number of mission scenarios.

  10. UXO location and identification using borehole magnetometery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Huang, Yi; Gascoyne, Jon

    2005-06-01

    It is estimated that 10% of war-time bombs did not explode and can be found at the ground surface or buried at a depth of up to 8 meters depending on the formation of the soil. These unexploded bombs or ordnance (UXO) pose a real danger to construction workers and properties. Ground surface based methods become ineffective for objects sinking into deep places due to rapidly diminishing anomalous field and interfering metal debris distributed over ground surface. To overcome the difficulties, a unique inversion algorithm is proposed in this work with advantages of fast convergence and maximization of information extracted from individual hole measurement. It is more reliable than traditional methods by examining the possibilities within a number of estimations. The information from individual hole measurement is fully interpreted hence suggestion can be made for the positioning of next drilling in order to minimize the number of holes required for clearance. Based upon the recovered information, a comparison method is proposed for the identification and discrimination of UXO items from other objects that may be found in the environment, such as steel pipes and steel barrels. It is not sensitive to the interference in the data once the dipole moment is recovered. The results from a test site demonstrates its supreme capability to deal with real-world inversion problems having small number of available data points.

  11. Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J; Ringdal, F; Harris, D B

    2007-02-09

    The principal objective of this two-year study is to develop and test a new advanced, automatic approach to seismic detection/location using array processing. We address a strategy to obtain significantly improved precision in the location of low-magnitude events compared with current fully-automatic approaches, combined with a low false alarm rate. We have developed and evaluated a prototype automatic system which uses as a basis regional array processing with fixed, carefully calibrated, site-specific parameters in conjuction with improved automatic phase onset time estimation. We have in parallel developed tools for Matched Field Processing for optimized detection and source-region identification of seismic signals. This narrow-band procedure aims to mitigate some of the causes of difficulty encountered using the standard array processing system, specifically complicated source-time histories of seismic events and shortcomings in the plane-wave approximation for seismic phase arrivals at regional arrays.

  12. Failure detection and identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massoumnia, Mohammad-Ali; Verghese, George C.; Willsky, Alan S.

    1989-01-01

    Using the geometric concept of an unobservability subspace, a solution is given to the problem of detecting and identifying control system component failures in linear, time-invariant systems. Conditions are developed for the existence of a causal, linear, time-invariant processor that can detect and uniquely identify a component failure, first for the case where components can fail simultaneously, and then for the case where they fail only one at a time. Explicit design algorithms are provided when these conditions are satisfied. In addition to time-domain solvability conditions, frequency-domain interpretations of the results are given, and connections are drawn with results already available in the literature.

  13. Testing of a locating discriminating metal detector for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Nigel; Hawkins, Mark; Beech, Richard

    2006-05-01

    Conventional metal detectors are established and trusted tools for landmine detection, but their inability to precisely locate a target and discriminate mines from clutter leads to a high false alarm rate and slow rate of progress. This paper reports on developments to the Marmot advanced metal detector, which uses an array of coils to precisely locate a metal target in three dimensions and identify it. Recent developments allow the detector to calculate the magnetic polarizability tensor of a metal object. The magnetic polarizability tensor is unique to a particular target, and is a property of the metal's shape, size, conductivity, permeability and orientation. The eigenvalues of the magnetic polarizability tensor are compared to a library of values in the detector's software, representing common types of mine and clutter. In this way, Marmot can often quickly identify a detected object as a type of mine or a piece of clutter. This identification is independent of the target's orientation and, within limits, its position relative to the search head, thus providing the potential for a target recognition facility. This paper presents the results of tests to determine Marmot's ability to detect, precisely locate and identify common landmines. Tests have been conducted in air and in several types of soil. The instrument is a first step in developing the concept for landmine clearance. Issues for further investigation have been identified, including use of the instrument for identifying high metal content landmines, application of the soil rejection function and signal to noise issues.

  14. Boundary-detection algorithm for locating edges in digital imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Russell, M. J.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Initial development of a computer program which implements a boundary detection algorithm to detect edges in digital images is described. An evaluation of the boundary detection algorithm was conducted to locate boundaries of lakes from LANDSAT-1 imagery. The accuracy of the boundary detection algorithm was determined by comparing the area within boundaries of lakes located using digitized LANDSAT imagery with the area of the same lakes planimetered from imagery collected from an aircraft platform.

  15. Leak Detection and Location Technology Assessment for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Coffey, Neil C.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Micro Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) and other impacts can cause leaks in the International Space Station and other aerospace vehicles. The early detection and location of leaks is paramount to astronaut safety. Therefore this document surveys the state of the art in leak detection and location technology for aerospace vehicles.

  16. Automated Detection and Location of Indications in Eddy Current Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Brudnoy, David M.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Levy, Arthur J.

    1998-06-30

    A computer implemented information extraction process that locates and identifies eddy current signal features in digital point-ordered signals, said signals representing data from inspection of test materials, by enhancing the signal features relative to signal noise, detecting features of the signals, verifying the location of the signal features that can be known in advance, and outputting information about the identity and location of all detected signal features.

  17. Automated detection and location of indications in eddy current signals

    DOEpatents

    Brudnoy, David M.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Levy, Arthur J.

    2000-01-01

    A computer implemented information extraction process that locates and identifies eddy current signal features in digital point-ordered signals, signals representing data from inspection of test materials, by enhancing the signal features relative to signal noise, detecting features of the signals, verifying the location of the signal features that can be known in advance, and outputting information about the identity and location of all detected signal features.

  18. Equipment Location Plan, partial basement plan. (Includes identification of each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Equipment Location Plan, partial basement plan. (Includes identification of each separate CPU, tape drive, hard drive, printer, keyboard, etc., within the data processing center in the southeast part of the basement.) March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, 465-L DPC. By International Electric Corporation, Paramus, New Jersey (3/5/62); for Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 100, approved March, 1962; specifications no. OCI-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/100, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-quarter inch to one foot. 28.75x40.5 inches. ink on linen - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  19. Equipment Location Plan, partial first floor plan. (Includes identification of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Equipment Location Plan, partial first floor plan. (Includes identification of each separate CPU, tape drive, hard drive, printer, keyboard, etc., within the data processing center in the southwest part of the first floor.) March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, 465-L EDTCC/EDLCC. By International Electric Corporation, Paramus, New Jersey (3/5/62); for Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 85, approved March, 1962; specifications no. OCI-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/85, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-quarter inch to one foot. 28.75x40.5 inches. ink on linen - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  20. A morphology-based algorithm for label location and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Zhengang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yang, Xinxin

    2005-07-01

    Label location and recognition has become a crucial task for today"s Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. We proposed a morphology-based algorithm to locate and recognize labels. This algorithm is insensitive to scaling and rotation, and able to work at low resolution. The label positioning and recognition strategy we designed is divided into two steps. First, at the altitude of 10m or so, we apply dilation processing and edge detection on the images sent back by UAV. Then combining the current heading information of the vehicle, we are able to give the topology map of all labels. After that the vehicle is lowered to about 5m and we apply erosion processing on the returned image and then recognize each label using image measurement and image analysis methods. The validity of this algorithm is well verified at ARCC 2004.

  1. Using context and similarity for face and location identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Marc; Smith, Michael; Stentiford, Fred; Bamidele, Adetokunbo; Canny, John; Good, Nathan; King, Simon; Janakiraman, Rajkumar

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the automatic detection of human faces and places depicted in photographs taken on cameraphones. Cameraphones offer a unique opportunity to pursue new approaches to media analysis and management: namely to combine the analysis of automatically gathered contextual metadata with media content analysis to fundamentally improve image content recognition and retrieval. Current approaches to content-based image analysis are not sufficient to enable retrieval of cameraphone photos by high-level semantic concepts, such as who is in the photo or what the photo is actually depicting. In this paper, new methods for determining image similarity are combined with analysis of automatically acquired contextual metadata to substantially improve the performance of face and place recognition algorithms. For faces, we apply Sparse-Factor Analysis (SFA) to both the automatically captured contextual metadata and the results of PCA (Principal Components Analysis) of the photo content to achieve a 60% face recognition accuracy of people depicted in our database of photos, which is 40% better than media analysis alone. For location, grouping visually similar photos using a model of Cognitive Visual Attention (CVA) in conjunction with contextual metadata analysis yields a significant improvement over color histogram and CVA methods alone. We achieve an improvement in location retrieval precision from 30% precision for color histogram and CVA image analysis, to 55% precision using contextual metadata alone, to 67% precision achieved by combining contextual metadata with CVA image analysis. The combination of context and content analysis produces results that can indicate the faces and places depicted in cameraphone photos significantly better than image analysis or context analysis alone. We believe these results indicate the possibilities of a new context-aware paradigm for image analysis.

  2. Defining solar park location using shadow over time detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, Ivan; Kauranne, Tuomo

    2016-06-01

    There is nowadays a high demand for research on using renewable sources of energy including solar energy. The availability of stable and efficient solar energy is of paramount importance. Therefore, it is vital to install solar panels in locations which are most of the time not in shadow. To illustrate this idea we have developed a shadow identification method for digital elevation models (DEMs) using the computational means of MATLAB whose environment and tools allow fast and easy image processing. As a source of DEMs we use the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) database since it covers most of the terrain of our planet.

  3. Detection and location of metallic objects imbedded in nonmetallic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Neuschaefer, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Small battery operated eddy current proximity measuring device detects and locates metal objects the size of a dime at distances up to one foot within nonmetallic structures. This device weighs approximately two pounds, occupies approximately 60 cubic inches, and is battery powered.

  4. Study of lip-reading detecting and locating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lirong; Li, Jie; Zhao, Yanyan

    2008-03-01

    With the development of human computer interaction, lip reading technology has become a topic focus in the multimode technologic field. However, detecting and locating lip accurately are very difficult because lip contours of different people, varied illuminant conditions, head movements and other factors. Based on the methods of detecting and locating lip we proposed the methods which are based on the lips color extracted lip contour using the adaptive chromatic filter from the facial images. It is not sensitive to illumination, but appropriate chromatic lip filter is given by analyzing the entire face color and clustering statistics of lip color. It is proposed the combinable method which is preprocessing the face image including rotating the angle of face and improving image contrast in this paper and the lip region is analyzed clustering characteristics for the skin color and lip color, obtained adaptive chromatic filter which can prominent lips from the facial image. This method overcomes the varied illuminate, incline face. The experiments showed that it enhanced detection and location accurately through rough detecting lip region. It lay a good foundation for extraction the lip feature and tracking lip subsequently.

  5. Rapid detection and identification of infectious agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsbury, D.T.; Falkow, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among five sections. Some of the paper titles are: Aspects of Using Nucleic Acid Filter Hybridization to Characterize and Detect Enteroviral RNAs; Rapid Identification of Lesihmania Species using Specific Hybridization of Kinetoplast DNA Sequences; Selection of DNA Probes for use in the Diagnosis of Infectious Disease; and Summary of DNA Probes.

  6. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    DOEpatents

    Roybal, Lyle Gene [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  7. Detection and identification of novel actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Williams, S T; Locci, R; Beswick, A; Kurtböke, D I; Kuznetsov, V D; Le Monnier, F J; Long, P F; Maycroft, K A; Palma, R A; Petrolini, B

    1993-10-01

    The actinomycetes are well known as a group of filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria that produce many useful secondary metabolites, including antibiotics and enzymes. Although they have been intensively studied for both theoretical and practical objectives, there is much scope for developing our basic knowledge of the means of detection and isolation of these microbes. This session concentrated on new methods for the detection and identification of novel actinomycetes from a range of environments. Approaches to the detection of actinomycetes ranged from investigations of neglected habitats and extreme environments (e.g. alkaline soils and oil drills) to the analysis of DNA extracted from the environment and use of specific phages. The continuing problems of the identification of actinomycete isolates were also considered. Topics discussed included use of phage typing, DNA probes, and correlation between phenetic and genotypic species of Streptomyces.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection/identification of mycotoxigenic fungi targeting fumonisin biosynthetic genes: Use of variation in FUM cluster location to distinguish between and quantify

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium is an agricultural problem because it can cause disease on most crop plants and can contaminate crops with mycotoxins. There is considerable variation in the presence/absence and genomic location of gene clusters responsible for synthesis of mycotoxins and other secondary metabol...

  9. Distress detection, location, and communications using advanced space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a concept for low-cost, global, day-night, all-weather disaster warning and assistance. Evolving, advanced space technology with passive radio frequency reflectors in conjunction with an imaging synthetic aperture radar is employed to detect, identify, locate, and provide passive communication with earth users in distress. This concept evolved from a broad NASA research on new global search and rescue techniques. Appropriate airborne radar test results from this research are reviewed and related to potential disaster applications. The analysis indicates the approach has promise for disaster communications relative to floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms.

  10. Sub pixel location identification using super resolved multilooking CHRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahithi, V. S.; Agrawal, S.

    2014-11-01

    CHRIS /Proba is a multiviewing hyperspectral sensor that monitors the earth in five different zenith angles +55°, +36°, nadir, -36° and -55° with a spatial resolution of 17 m and within a spectral range of 400-1050 nm in mode 3. These multiviewing images are suitable for constructing a super resolved high resolution image that can reveal the mixed pixel of the hyperspectral image. In the present work, an attempt is made to find the location of various features constituted within the 17m mixed pixel of the CHRIS image using various super resolution reconstruction techniques. Four different super resolution reconstruction techniques namely interpolation, iterative back projection, projection on to convex sets (POCS) and robust super resolution were tried on the -36, nadir and +36 images to construct a super resolved high resolution 5.6 m image. The results of super resolution reconstruction were compared with the scaled nadir image and bicubic convoluted image for comparision of the spatial and spectral property preservance. A support vector machine classification of the best super resolved high resolution image was performed to analyse the location of the sub pixel features. Validation of the obtained results was performed using the spectral unmixing fraction images and the 5.6 m classified LISS IV image.

  11. Development of an Integrated Robotic Radioisotope Identification and Location System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-05

    1 1.2 GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY TERMINOLOGY AND CONCEPTS ................ 3 1.3 SUMMARY OF THE ORTECK IDM HPGE...which is not closely guarded would be very hard to use in an RDD (Shea 2004). 3 1.2 GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY TERMINOLOGY AND...1 1-2 HPGe Peak Detection Gamma Ray Spectrum (Delikat 2009)………..... ........................... 4 1-3 Comparison of NaI

  12. Analog Binaural Circuits for Detecting and Locating Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    Very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) analog binaural signal-processing circuits have been proposed for use in detecting and locating leaks that emit noise in the ultrasonic frequency range. These circuits would be designed to function even in the presence of intense lower-frequency background noise that could include sounds associated with flow and pumping. Each of the proposed circuits would include the approximate electronic equivalent of a right and a left cochlea plus correlator circuits. A pair of transducers (microphones or accelerometers), corresponding to right and left ears, would provide the inputs to their respective cochleas from different locations (e.g., from different positions along a pipe). The correlation circuits plus some additional external circuits would determine the difference between the times of arrival of a common leak sound at the two transducers. Then the distance along the pipe from either transducer to the leak could be estimated from the time difference and the speed of sound along the pipe. If three or more pairs of transducers and cochlear/correlator circuits were available and could suitably be positioned, it should be possible to locate a leak in three dimensions by use of sound propagating through air.

  13. Detecting and Locating Crosswalks using a Camera Phone.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, Volodymyr; Coughlan, James; Shen, Huiying

    2008-01-01

    Urban intersections are the most dangerous parts of a blind or visually impaired person's travel. To address this problem, this paper describes the novel "Crosswatch" system, which uses computer vision to provide information about the location and orientation of crosswalks to a blind or visually impaired pedestrian holding a camera cell phone. A prototype of the system runs on an off-the-shelf Nokia N95 camera phone in real time, which automatically takes a few images per second, analyzes each image in a fraction of a second and sounds an audio tone when it detects a crosswalk. Real-time performance on the cell phone, whose computational resources are limited compared to the type of desktop platform usually used in computer vision, is made possible by coding in Symbian C++. Tests with blind subjects demonstrate the feasibility of the system.

  14. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-10-31

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  15. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-12-01

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  16. Edge Detection Techniques for Automatic Location of Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate, N.; Labrie, K.

    2012-09-01

    To improve the processing of multi-object or cross-dispersed spectroscopic data, especially for systems resulting in curved 2-D spectra, we have implemented in Python edge detection techniques widely used in the photo processing and remote sensing world. The software uses the discontinuity found in a spectral image to precisely locate each dispersed 2-D spectrum on the pixel array. A valid spectrum image edge is defined as continuous and sharp. To this end the best input data is a well illuminated flat field. The algorithm applies a discontinuity detection filter to the image. We find that a 3 × 3 Sobel kernel reliably produces easily traceable edges on our data. Some instruments produce data with large background noise. In those cases, a mild smoothing filter is first applied to reduce noise spikes that would otherwise confuse the edge tracing algorithm. The edges highlighted by the filtering are traced using the SciPy function label. Each edge is represented by a second degree polynomial that follows each slit edge. Currently the software assumes that the spectra are nearly horizontal or nearly vertical. This constraint can easily be lifted with the choice of a different convolution kernel.

  17. Sequential Optimal Monitoring Network Design using Iterative Kriging for Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, O.; Datta, B.

    2011-12-01

    Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source characteristics, in terms of location, magnitude and activity duration is important for designing an effective pollution remediation strategy. Precise source characterization also becomes very important to ascertain liability, and to recover the cost of remediation from parties responsible for the groundwater pollution. Due to the uncertainties in accurately predicting the aquifer response to source flux injection, generally encountered sparsity of concentration observation data in the field, and the non uniqueness in the aquifer response to the subjected hydraulic and chemical stresses, groundwater pollution source characterization remains a challenging task. A scientifically designed pollutant concentration monitoring network becomes imperative for accurate pollutant source characterization. The efficiency of the unknown source locations identification process is largely determined by locations of monitoring wells where the pollutant concentration is observed. The proposed method combines spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and Simulated Annealing as optimization algorithm to find the optimum locations for monitoring wells. Initially, the observed concentration data at few sparsely and arbitrarily distributed wells are used to interpolate the concentration data for the aquifer study area. The concentration information is passed to the optimization algorithm (decision model) as concentration gradient which in turn finds the optimum locations for implementing the next sequence of monitoring wells. Concentration measurement data from these designed monitoring wells and already implemented monitoring network are iteratively used as feedback information for potential groundwater pollution source locations identification. The potential applicability of the developed methodology is demonstrated for an illustrative study area.

  18. Autonomous system for pathogen detection and identification

    SciTech Connect

    Belgrader, P.; Benett, W.; Bergman, W.; Langlois, R.; Mariella, R.; Milanovich, F.; Miles, R.; Venkateswaran, K.; Long, G.; Nelson, W.

    1998-09-24

    This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world' s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify simulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony-forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 Ymin and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70% processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent-containing particle/liter of air.

  19. Re-Identification Risk versus Data Utility for Aggregated Mobility Research Using Mobile Phone Location Data

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling; Wang, Qian; Shaw, Shih-Lung; Fang, Zhixiang; Hu, Jinxing; Tao, Ye; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone location data is a newly emerging data source of great potential to support human mobility research. However, recent studies have indicated that many users can be easily re-identified based on their unique activity patterns. Privacy protection procedures will usually change the original data and cause a loss of data utility for analysis purposes. Therefore, the need for detailed data for activity analysis while avoiding potential privacy risks presents a challenge. The aim of this study is to reveal the re-identification risks from a Chinese city’s mobile users and to examine the quantitative relationship between re-identification risk and data utility for an aggregated mobility analysis. The first step is to apply two reported attack models, the top N locations and the spatio-temporal points, to evaluate the re-identification risks in Shenzhen City, a metropolis in China. A spatial generalization approach to protecting privacy is then proposed and implemented, and spatially aggregated analysis is used to assess the loss of data utility after privacy protection. The results demonstrate that the re-identification risks in Shenzhen City are clearly different from those in regions reported in Western countries, which prove the spatial heterogeneity of re-identification risks in mobile phone location data. A uniform mathematical relationship has also been found between re-identification risk (x) and data (y) utility for both attack models: y = -axb+c, (a, b, c>0; 0identification risks and a privacy-utility tradeoff benchmark for improving privacy protection when sharing detailed trajectory data. PMID:26469780

  20. Re-Identification Risk versus Data Utility for Aggregated Mobility Research Using Mobile Phone Location Data.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ling; Wang, Qian; Shaw, Shih-Lung; Fang, Zhixiang; Hu, Jinxing; Tao, Ye; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone location data is a newly emerging data source of great potential to support human mobility research. However, recent studies have indicated that many users can be easily re-identified based on their unique activity patterns. Privacy protection procedures will usually change the original data and cause a loss of data utility for analysis purposes. Therefore, the need for detailed data for activity analysis while avoiding potential privacy risks presents a challenge. The aim of this study is to reveal the re-identification risks from a Chinese city's mobile users and to examine the quantitative relationship between re-identification risk and data utility for an aggregated mobility analysis. The first step is to apply two reported attack models, the top N locations and the spatio-temporal points, to evaluate the re-identification risks in Shenzhen City, a metropolis in China. A spatial generalization approach to protecting privacy is then proposed and implemented, and spatially aggregated analysis is used to assess the loss of data utility after privacy protection. The results demonstrate that the re-identification risks in Shenzhen City are clearly different from those in regions reported in Western countries, which prove the spatial heterogeneity of re-identification risks in mobile phone location data. A uniform mathematical relationship has also been found between re-identification risk (x) and data (y) utility for both attack models: y = -axb+c, (a, b, c>0; 0identification risks and a privacy-utility tradeoff benchmark for improving privacy protection when sharing detailed trajectory data.

  1. GIS applied to location of fires detection towers in domain area of tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Rosa Dos Santos, Alexandre; Fiedler, Nilton Cesar; Ribeiro, Guido Assunção; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Juvanhol, Ronie Silva; Schettino, Vitor Roberto; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; Domingues, Getúlio Fonseca; Alves Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino; Pezzopane, José Eduardo Macedo; Pedra, Beatriz Duguy; Banhos, Aureo; Martins, Lima Deleon

    2016-08-15

    In most countries, the loss of biodiversity caused by the fires is worrying. In this sense, the fires detection towers are crucial for rapid identification of fire outbreaks and can also be used in environmental inspection, biodiversity monitoring, telecommunications mechanisms, telemetry and others. Currently the methodologies for allocating fire detection towers over large areas are numerous, complex and non-standardized by government supervisory agencies. Therefore, this study proposes and evaluates different methodologies to best location of points to install fire detection towers considering the topography, risk areas, conservation units and heat spots. Were used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques and unaligned stratified systematic sampling for implementing and evaluating 9 methods for allocating fire detection towers. Among the methods evaluated, the C3 method was chosen, represented by 140 fire detection towers, with coverage of: a) 67% of the study area, b) 73.97% of the areas with high risk, c) 70.41% of the areas with very high risk, d) 70.42% of the conservation units and e) 84.95% of the heat spots in 2014. The proposed methodology can be adapted to areas of other countries.

  2. Pickless event detection and location: The waveform correlation event detection system (WCEDS) revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Arrowsmith, Stephen John; Young, Christopher J.; Ballard, Sanford; ...

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm for seismic event monitoring breaks the event detection problem down into a series of processing stages that can be categorized at the highest level into station-level processing and network-level processing algorithms (e.g., Le Bras and Wuster (2002)). At the station-level, waveforms are typically processed to detect signals and identify phases, which may subsequently be updated based on network processing. At the network-level, phase picks are associated to form events, which are subsequently located. Furthermore, waveforms are typically directly exploited only at the station-level, while network-level operations rely on earth models to associate and locate the events thatmore » generated the phase picks.« less

  3. Pickless event detection and location: The waveform correlation event detection system (WCEDS) revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowsmith, Stephen John; Young, Christopher J.; Ballard, Sanford; Slinkard, Megan Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm for seismic event monitoring breaks the event detection problem down into a series of processing stages that can be categorized at the highest level into station-level processing and network-level processing algorithms (e.g., Le Bras and Wuster (2002)). At the station-level, waveforms are typically processed to detect signals and identify phases, which may subsequently be updated based on network processing. At the network-level, phase picks are associated to form events, which are subsequently located. Furthermore, waveforms are typically directly exploited only at the station-level, while network-level operations rely on earth models to associate and locate the events that generated the phase picks.

  4. Identification of unique repeated patterns, location of mutation in DNA finger printing using artificial intelligence technique.

    PubMed

    Mukunthan, B; Nagaveni, N

    2014-01-01

    In genetic engineering, conventional techniques and algorithms employed by forensic scientists to assist in identification of individuals on the basis of their respective DNA profiles involves more complex computational steps and mathematical formulae, also the identification of location of mutation in a genomic sequence in laboratories is still an exigent task. This novel approach provides ability to solve the problems that do not have an algorithmic solution and the available solutions are also too complex to be found. The perfect blend made of bioinformatics and neural networks technique results in efficient DNA pattern analysis algorithm with utmost prediction accuracy.

  5. Detection, Isolation, and Identification of Vibrio cholerae from the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Huq, Anwar; Haley, Bradd J.; Taviani, Elisa; Chen, Arlene; Hasan, Nur A.; Colwell, Rita R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent molecular advances in microbiology have greatly improved the detection of bacterial pathogens in the environment. Improvement and a downward trend in the cost of molecular detection methods have contributed to increased frequency of detection of pathogenic microorganisms where traditional culture-based detection methods have failed. Culture methods also have been greatly improved and the confluence of the two suites of methods provides a powerful tool for detection, isolation, and characterization of pathogens. While molecular detection provides data on the presence and type of pathogens, culturing methods allow a researcher to preserve the organism of interest for “–omics” studies, such as genomic, metabolomic, secretomic, and transcriptomic analysis, which are rapidly becoming more affordable. This has yielded a clearer understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of microorganisms that cause disease. Specifically, important advances have been made over the past several years on isolation, detection, and identification of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera in humans. In this unit, we present commonly accepted methods for isolation, detection, and characterization of V. cholerae, providing more extensive knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of this organism. This unit has been fully revised and updated from the earlier unit (Huq, Grim et al. 2006) with the latest knowledge and additional information not previously included. We have also taken into account of cost of reagents and equipment that may be prohibitive for many researchers and have, therefore, included protocols for all laboratories, including those with limited resources, likely to be located in regions of cholera endemicity. PMID:22875567

  6. Human ability in identification of location and pulse number for electrocutaneous stimulation applied on the forearm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The need of a sensory feedback system that would improve users’ acceptance in prostheses is generally recognized. Feedback of hand opening and position are among the most important concerns of prosthetic users. To address the two concerns, this study investigated the human capability to identify pulse number and location when electrical stimulation applied on the forearm skin. The pulse number may potentially be used to encode the opening of prosthetic hands and stimulation location to encode finger position. Methods Ten able-bodied subjects participated in the study. Three electrodes were placed transversely across the ventral forearm spatially encoding three fingers (i.e., thumb, index, and middle finger). Five different pulse numbers (1, 4, 8, 12, and 20) encoded five levels of hand opening. The study consisted of three experiments. In the three experiments, each after a training session, the subjects were required to identify among: (a) five stimulation locations, (b) five pulse numbers, or (c) ten paired combinations of location and pulse number, respectively. The subjects’ performance in the three identification tasks was evaluated. Results The main results included: 1) the overall identification rate for stimulation location was 92.2 ± 6.2%, while the success rate in two-site stimulation was lower than one-site stimulation; 2) the overall identification rate for pulse number was 90.8 ± 6.0%, and the subjects showed different performance in identification of the five pulse numbers; 3) the overall identification rate decreased to 80.2 ± 11.7% when the subjects were identifying paired parameters. Conclusions The results indicated that the spatial (location) and temporal (pulse number) identification performance are promising in electrocutaneous stimulation on the forearm. The performance degraded when both parameters had to be identified likely due to increased cognitive load resulting from multiple tasks. Utilizing the proposed

  7. A Theory and Experiments for Detecting Shock Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Johnson, D. K.; Adamovsky, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a simplified one-dimensional theory for predicting locations of normal shocks in a converging diverging nozzle. The theory assumes that the flow is quasi one-dimensional and the flow is accelerated in the throat area. Optical aspects of the model consider propagation of electromagnetic fields transverse to the shock front. The theory consists of an inverse problem in which from the measured intensity it reconstructs an index of refraction profile for the shock. From this profile and the Dale-Gladstone relation, the density in the flow field is determined, thus determining the shock location. Experiments show agreement with the theory. In particular the location is determined within 10 percent of accuracy. Both the theoretical as well as the experimental results are presented to validate the procedures in this work.

  8. An intelligent subtitle detection model for locating television commercials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Hsu, Liang-Wei; Sandnes, Frode-Eika

    2007-04-01

    A strategy for locating television (TV) commercials in TV programs is proposed. Based on the observation that most TV commercials do not have subtitles, the first stage exploits six subtitle constraints and an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system model to determine whether a frame contains a subtitle or not. The second stage involves locating the mark-in/mark-out points using a genetic algorithm. An interactive user interface allows users to efficiently identify and fine-tune the exact boundaries separating the commercials from the program content. Furthermore, erroneous boundaries are manually corrected. Experimental results show that the precision rate and recall rates exceed 90%.

  9. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-30

    primarily the result of spurious identification and incorrect association of phases, and of excessive variability in estimates for the velocity and direction of incoming seismic phases. The mitigation of these causes has led to the development of two complimentary techniques for classifying seismic sources by testing detected signals under mutually exclusive event hypotheses. Both of these techniques require appropriate calibration data from the region to be monitored, and are therefore ideally suited to mining areas or other sites with recurring seismicity. The first such technique is a classification and location algorithm where a template is designed for each site being monitored which defines which phases should be observed, and at which times, for all available regional array stations. For each phase, the variability of measurements (primarily the azimuth and apparent velocity) from previous events is examined and it is determined which processing parameters (array configuration, data window length, frequency band) provide the most stable results. This allows us to define optimal diagnostic tests for subsequent occurrences of the phase in question. The calibration of templates for this project revealed significant results with major implications for seismic processing in both automatic and analyst reviewed contexts: • one or more fixed frequency bands should be chosen for each phase tested for. • the frequency band providing the most stable parameter estimates varies from site to site and a frequency band which provides optimal measurements for one site may give substantially worse measurements for a nearby site. • slowness corrections applied depend strongly on the frequency band chosen. • the frequency band providing the most stable estimates is often neither the band providing the greatest SNR nor the band providing the best array gain. For this reason, the automatic template location estimates provided here are frequently far better than those obtained by

  10. Detection and location of metal fragments in the human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Neuschaefer, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    Portable electronic device, based on the design of an eddy current gage, detects ferrous and nonferrous metal fragments. Device is more easily transported than X-ray equipment and does not present a radiation hazard.

  11. Locating tube blockage that X-ray cannot detect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendron, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Alternate choices to X-ray use in detecting foreign materials in metal assemblies are available, including negative radiography, neutron radiography, liquid-crystal inspection and ultrasonics. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are given. Report is valuable in testings and inspections, including heat exchangers and piping systems.

  12. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John L Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-04-01

    The West Virginia University natural gas transmission line leak detection research is only considering using readily available 1/2 inch pipeline access ports for the detection of leak generated signals. The main problem with leak signals is the low signal to noise ratio. One of the acoustic signals associated with gas escaping through a leak is only temporary and is in the form of a rarefaction wave originating when the leak is formed. Due to pipeline friction, over distance such a step function transitions to a ramp function. The ability to identify a leak by pipeline monitoring and signal processing depends a great deal on the quality and signal to noise ratio of the characteristics of the detectors used. Combinations of sensing devices are being used for the WVU sensor package and are contained in a removable sensor housing. The four sensors currently installed are a 1/2 inch 3 Hz-40 Khz microphone, an audible range moving coil sensor, a piezo-electric pressure transducer, and the WVU designed floating 3 inch diameter diaphragm to detect flow transient induced pressure ramp type signals. The WVU diaphragm sensor, which is currently under development, uses the same diaphragm principle as a high quality capacitance type microphone, but utilizes aerodynamic signal amplification. This type of amplification only amplifies the ramp-signal itself, not the random pipeline noise.

  13. 2D signature for detection and identification of drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei

    2011-06-01

    The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.

  14. Accurate identification of centromere locations in yeast genomes using Hi-C.

    PubMed

    Varoquaux, Nelle; Liachko, Ivan; Ay, Ferhat; Burton, Joshua N; Shendure, Jay; Dunham, Maitreya J; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Noble, William S

    2015-06-23

    Centromeres are essential for proper chromosome segregation. Despite extensive research, centromere locations in yeast genomes remain difficult to infer, and in most species they are still unknown. Recently, the chromatin conformation capture assay, Hi-C, has been re-purposed for diverse applications, including de novo genome assembly, deconvolution of metagenomic samples and inference of centromere locations. We describe a method, Centurion, that jointly infers the locations of all centromeres in a single genome from Hi-C data by exploiting the centromeres' tendency to cluster in three-dimensional space. We first demonstrate the accuracy of Centurion in identifying known centromere locations from high coverage Hi-C data of budding yeast and a human malaria parasite. We then use Centurion to infer centromere locations in 14 yeast species. Across all microbes that we consider, Centurion predicts 89% of centromeres within 5 kb of their known locations. We also demonstrate the robustness of the approach in datasets with low sequencing depth. Finally, we predict centromere coordinates for six yeast species that currently lack centromere annotations. These results show that Centurion can be used for centromere identification for diverse species of yeast and possibly other microorganisms.

  15. Ambient VLF Transmitter Variation Detected at Many Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson-Rollins, M. A.; Cohen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Very Low Frequency (3-30 kHz) and Low Frequency (30-300 kHz) radio transmitters are an important means for naval submarine communications. VLF waves travel through the Earth-ionosphere waveguide with low attenuation and penetrate into conducting seawater. These transmitters also serve as a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the D region of the ionosphere, a region of the ionosphere that is inaccessible to continuous in situ measurement techniques. The temporal variation of these VLF signals are dominated by ionospheric conditions, and their response to localized or global disturbances. However, despite extensive past work on the analysis of these diagnostic signals, little is known about the spatial relationship between ionospheric conditions at multiple locations. We utilize a previously erected global constellation of transmitters and receivers to determine generalized characteristics and trends for ambient daytime conditions of the lower ionosphere. We present the data and analyze them to reveal trends in the amplitude of these transmitters, in an effort to better characterize the ambient ionospheric conditions and their spatial variations on a global scale.

  16. [Application of gene detection technology in food species identification].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Yajun

    2011-07-01

    It is critical to determine the biological identity of all ingredients in food to ensure its safety and quality. Modern gene detection technology makes species identification in food more accurate, sensitive and rapid. A comprehensive review on its current applications in the last decade and the future perspective in food species identification is presented, including a brief introduction of gene detection methods, and their applications in plant-originated food, animal-originated food, high value-added food and highly processed food.

  17. APPARATUS FOR DETECTING AND LOCATING PRESENCE OF FLUIDS

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, R.R.

    1958-09-16

    A system is described fur detecting water leaks in water-cooled neutronic reactors by utilizing an electrical hygrometer having a resistance element variable with the moisture content. The graphite blocks, forming the moderator in many types of reactors, coniain ducts in which helium gas is circulated. When a leak occurs in a coolant tube, the water will seep through the graphite until it oozes into one of the helium ducts, where it will be swept along with the helium into a system of pipes that connect each of the helium ducts. By inserting an electric hygrometer in each of these pipes and connecting it to an alarm system, the moisture content of the helium will cause a change in the electrical resistance of the hygrometer which will initiate a signal alarm indicating the presence and position of the leaky water tube in the reactor.

  18. Identification of Groundwater Contaminant Location and Release History using Simulation-Optimization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. C.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of location and release history of contaminant in groundwater is necessary to improve the remediation accuracy and to decrease the remediation cost. Especially in an industrial complex, groundwater is contaminated by various sources during unknown periods and groundwater remediation turns out complicated problems. A simulation-optimization method is preferred to solve the complicated problems of contaminant source identification because a simulation-optimization method has flexible applicability. For simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport, MODFLOW, MT3DMS and RT3D are used. These models are integrated with a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimization of contaminant location and release history. Because computing time and costs are enormous for a simulation-optimization method, a distributed computing technique is used to reduce computing time and costs. The performance of developed computer programs is evaluated with hypothetical examples with combinations of aquifers and contaminants from simple to complicated levels. The results shows the possibility of developed computer program to solve the problem of contaminant location and release history problems. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The GAIA project".

  19. Location and identification of colloidal gold particles on the cell surface with a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Eskelinen, S.; Peura, R.

    1988-09-01

    The use of colloidal gold particles for locating cell surface components by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been restricted due to difficulties in the identification of these gold particles under SEM. It is shown here how the gold particles bound to cell surfaces can be located and identified under SEM using the secondary electron imaging (SEI) mode with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDS). This enables reliable identification of gold particles and good quality micrographs of the cells to be achieved at the same time. The distribution of receptors for two lectins, concanavalin A (ConA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), on the surface of cultured Raji cells and human erythrocytes is presented as an example. Raji cells and erythrocytes were fixed with glutaraldehyde, post-fixed with a glutaraldehyde-tannic acid mixture and then incubated with ConA- or WGA-coated gold particles. After dehydration and critical point drying, the specimen filters were mounted on copper stubs and coated with carbon. The cells were examined on a JEOL TEMSCAN 100CX II electron microscope. The gold particles could be identified with the EDS analyzer, which was able to detect the Au spectrum when the electron beam was focused on single gold particles using a magnification of 100,000 or more. High-resolution photographs of the same cells were obtained up to the same magnification of 100,000.

  20. Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

  1. Handbook for the identification, location and investigation of pollution sources affecting ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Oudijk, G.; Mujica, K.

    1989-01-01

    Due to environmental pollution associated with increased urbanization and industrial development in wellhead areas, many public and domestic supply wells are becoming polluted at an ever-increasing rate. To prevent continued pollution of underground drinking water supplies, investigations must be conducted to locate and identify the sources of pollution. To conduct such investigations requires a diverse knowledge of hydrogeology, chemistry, urban planning, industrial and commercial processes, environmental law, and many other disciplines. Groundwater pollution investigations can be subdivided into the following five phases: (1) the background investigation (historical land usage, aerial photographs, pollutant characteristics, local hydrogeology); (2) the field pollution survey (site inspections, initial waste characterization); (3) the site-specific groundwater pollution investigation (monitoring wells, groundwater sampling); (4) data analysis (groundwater elevation contour maps, statistical analysis); and (5) source identification. This process may be used by investigators in order to locate pollution sources affecting aquifers, potable wells, and/or well fields.

  2. Medical isotope identification with large mobile detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard

    2012-10-01

    The Remote Sensing laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies Inc. has built an array of large (5.08 - cm x 10.16 - cm x 40.6 - cm) thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI: Tl) scintillators to locate and screen gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes that are of interests to radiological emergency responders [1]. These vehicle mounted detectors provide the operators with rapid, simple, specific information for radiological threat assessment. Applications include large area inspection, customs inspection, border protection, emergency response, and monitoring of radiological facilities. These RSL mobile units are currently being upgraded to meet the Defense Threat Reduction Agency mission requirements for a next-generation system capable of detecting and identifying nuclear threat materials. One of the challenging problems faced by these gamma-ray detectors is the unambiguous identification of medical isotopes like 131I (364.49 keV [81.7%], 636.99 keV [7.17%]), 99Tcm (140.51 keV [89.1%]) and 67Ga (184.6 keV [19.7%], 300.2 [16.0%], 393.5 [4.5%] that are used in radionuclide therapy and often have overlapping gamma-ray energy regions of interest (ROI). The problem is made worse by short (about 5 seconds) acquisition time of the spectral data necessary for dynamic mobile detectors. This article describes attempts to identify medical isotopes from data collected from this mobile detection system in a short period of time (not exceeding 5 secs) and a large standoff distance (typically ~ 10 meters) The mobile units offer identification capabilities that are based on hardware auto stabilization of the amplifier gain. The 1461 keV gamma-energy line from 40K is tracked. It uses gamma-ray energy windowing along with embedded mobile Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) [2] simultaneously to deconvolve any overlapping gamma-energy ROIs. These high sensitivity detectors are capable of resolving complex masking scenarios and exceed all ANSI N42.34 (2006) requirements

  3. The Influence of Attention and Target Identification on Saccadic Eye Movements Depends on Prior Target Location

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, David R.; Cutmore, Timothy R. H.; Hine, Trevor J.

    2014-01-01

    Saccadic latency is reduced by a temporal gap between fixation point and target, by identification of a target feature, and by movement in a new direction (inhibition of saccadic return, ISR). A simple additive model was compared with a shared resources model that predicts a three-way interaction. Twenty naïve participants made horizontal saccades to targets left and right of fixation in a randomised block design. There was a significant three-way interaction among the factors on saccade latency. This was revealed in a two-way interaction between feature identification and the gap versus no gap factor which was only apparent when the saccade was in the same direction as the previous saccade. No interaction was apparent when the saccade was in the opposite direction. This result supports an attentional inhibitory effect that is present during ISR to a previous location which is only partly released by the facilitative effect of feature identification and gap. Together, anticipatory error data and saccade latency interactions suggest a source of ISR at a higher level of attention, possibly localised in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and involving tonic activation. PMID:24719754

  4. A New Position Location System Using DTV Transmitter Identification Watermark Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianbin; Wu, Yiyan; Chouinard, Jean-Yves

    2006-12-01

    A new position location technique using the transmitter identification (TxID) RF watermark in the digital TV (DTV) signals is proposed in this paper. Conventional global positioning system (GPS) usually does not work well inside buildings due to the high frequency and weak field strength of the signal. In contrast to the GPS, the DTV signals are received from transmitters at relatively short distance, while the broadcast transmitters operate at levels up to the megawatts effective radiated power (ERP). Also the RF frequency of the DTV signal is much lower than the GPS, which makes it easier for the signal to penetrate buildings and other objects. The proposed position location system based on DTV TxID signal is presented in this paper. Practical receiver implementation issues including nonideal correlation and synchronization are analyzed and discussed. Performance of the proposed technique is evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations and compared with other existing position location systems. Possible ways to improve the accuracy of the new position location system is discussed.

  5. Mobile location with NLOS identification and mitigation based on modified Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wei; Wu, Lenan

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance accuracy and reliability of wireless location in the mixed line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments, a robust mobile location algorithm is presented to track the position of a mobile node (MN). An extended Kalman filter (EKF) modified in the updating phase is utilized to reduce the NLOS error in rough wireless environments, in which the NLOS bias contained in each measurement range is estimated directly by the constrained optimization method. To identify the change of channel situation between NLOS and LOS, a low complexity identification method based on innovation vectors is proposed. Numerical results illustrate that the location errors of the proposed algorithm are all significantly smaller than those of the iterated NLOS EKF algorithm and the conventional EKF algorithm in different LOS/NLOS conditions. Moreover, this location method does not require any statistical distribution knowledge of the NLOS error. In addition, complexity experiments suggest that this algorithm supports real-time applications.

  6. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of the forensically important family Piophilidae (Diptera) from different European locations.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Barbara Karolina; Martin-Vega, Daniel; Feddern, Nina; Fremdt, Heike; e Castro, Catharina Prado; Szpila, Krzysztof; Reckel, Frank; Schütt, Svenja; Verhoff, Marcel A; Amendt, Jens; Zehner, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Species identification plays an important role in forensic entomology and is mandatory for an accurate calculation of the minimum post-mortem interval. Many important Diptera and Coleoptera taxa of the cadaver community can already be identified by common barcoding approaches, i.e., by sequencing a 658bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coI) gene. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of reference barcodes for species, in particular, that can be found on cadavers at later decomposition stages. Flies of the family Piophilidae illustrate this gap of knowledge perfectly. Due to the fact that a reliable morphological identification key for the immature stages of this flies is still missing and the immature stages of many piophilids cannot be assigned to a certain species, there is need for additional tools to identify forensically relevant taxa. We collected adult piophilid specimens at 10 locations in five European countries: Spain (n=3 locations), Germany (n=3), Portugal (n=2), Poland (n=1) and Switzerland (n=1). Apart from the coI barcoding region, we additionally analyzed a 398bp long region of the nuclear elongation factor 1 alpha (ef1a) and subsequently established the molecular identifier for nine piophilid species. In addition, we present the molecular phylogeny of the examined taxa.

  7. Apparatus for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, W.C. Jr.; Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1984-03-13

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  8. Apparatus for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by squid gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Overton, Jr., William C.; Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  9. Detection and Location of Gamma-Ray Sources with a Modulating Coded Mask

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N.; Stromswold, David C.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Hansen, Randy R.

    2006-01-31

    This paper presents methods of detecting and locating a concelaed nuclear gamma-ray source with a coded aperture mask. Energetic gamma rays readily penetrate moderate amounts of shielding material and can be detected at distances of many meters. The detection of high energy gamma-ray sources is vitally important to national security for several reasons, including nuclear materials smuggling interdiction, monitoring weapon components under treaties, and locating nuclear weapons and materials in the possession terrorist organizations.

  10. Locating Structural Centers: A Density-Based Clustering Method for Community Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gongshen; Li, Jianhua; Nees, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Uncovering underlying community structures in complex networks has received considerable attention because of its importance in understanding structural attributes and group characteristics of networks. The algorithmic identification of such structures is a significant challenge. Local expanding methods have proven to be efficient and effective in community detection, but most methods are sensitive to initial seeds and built-in parameters. In this paper, we present a local expansion method by density-based clustering, which aims to uncover the intrinsic network communities by locating the structural centers of communities based on a proposed structural centrality. The structural centrality takes into account local density of nodes and relative distance between nodes. The proposed algorithm expands a community from the structural center to the border with a single local search procedure. The local expanding procedure follows a heuristic strategy as allowing it to find complete community structures. Moreover, it can identify different node roles (cores and outliers) in communities by defining a border region. The experiments involve both on real-world and artificial networks, and give a comparison view to evaluate the proposed method. The result of these experiments shows that the proposed method performs more efficiently with a comparative clustering performance than current state of the art methods. PMID:28046030

  11. Investigation on location-dependent detectability of a small mass for digital breast tomosynthesis evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changwoo; Baek, Jongduk; Park, Subok

    2016-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality for improved breast cancer detection and diagnosis [1-5]. Numerous efforts have been made to find quantitative metrics associated with mammographic image quality assessment, such as the exponent β of anatomical noise power spectrum, glandularity, contrast noise ratio, etc. [6-8]. In addition, with the use of Fourier-domain detectability for a task-based assessment of DBT, a stationarity assumption on reconstructed image statistics was often made [9-11], resulting in the use of multiple regions-of-interest (ROIs) from different locations in order to increase sample size. While all these metrics provide some information on mammographic image characteristics and signal detection, the relationship between these metrics and detectability in DBT evaluation has not been fully understood. In this work, we investigated spatial-domain detectability trends and levels as a function of the number of slices Ns at three different ROI locations on the same image slice, where background statistics differ in terms of the aforementioned metrics. Detectabilities for the three ROI locations were calculated using multi-slice channelized Hotelling observers with 2D/3D Laguerre-Gauss channels. Our simulation results show that detectability levels and trends as a function of Ns vary across these three ROI locations. They also show that the exponent β, mean glandularity, and mean attenuation coefficient vary across the three ROI locations but they do not necessarily predict the ranking of detectability levels and trends across these ROI locations.

  12. First identification of a chromosomally located penicillinase gene in Kingella kingae species isolated in continental Europe.

    PubMed

    Basmaci, Romain; Bidet, Philippe; Berçot, Béatrice; Jost, Christelle; Kwon, Thérésa; Gaumetou, Elodie; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Kingella kingae is the major pathogen causing osteoarticular infections (OAI) in young children in numerous countries. Plasmid-borne TEM-1 penicillinase production has been sporadically detected in a few countries but not in continental Europe, despite a high prevalence of K. kingae infections. We describe here for the first time a K. kingae β-lactamase-producing strain in continental Europe and demonstrate the novel chromosomal location of the blaTEM-1 gene in K. kingae species.

  13. First Identification of a Chromosomally Located Penicillinase Gene in Kingella kingae Species Isolated in Continental Europe

    PubMed Central

    Basmaci, Romain; Bidet, Philippe; Berçot, Béatrice; Jost, Christelle; Kwon, Thérésa; Gaumetou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    Kingella kingae is the major pathogen causing osteoarticular infections (OAI) in young children in numerous countries. Plasmid-borne TEM-1 penicillinase production has been sporadically detected in a few countries but not in continental Europe, despite a high prevalence of K. kingae infections. We describe here for the first time a K. kingae β-lactamase-producing strain in continental Europe and demonstrate the novel chromosomal location of the blaTEM-1 gene in K. kingae species. PMID:25049250

  14. Bacteriophage Amplification-Coupled Detection and Identification of Bacterial Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Christopher R.; Voorhees, Kent J.

    Current methods of species-specific bacterial detection and identification are complex, time-consuming, and often require expensive specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Numerous biochemical and genotypic identification methods have been applied to bacterial characterization, but all rely on tedious microbiological culturing practices and/or costly sequencing protocols which render them impractical for deployment as rapid, cost-effective point-of-care or field detection and identification methods. With a view towards addressing these shortcomings, we have exploited the evolutionarily conserved interactions between a bacteriophage (phage) and its bacterial host to develop species-specific detection methods. Phage amplification-coupled matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was utilized to rapidly detect phage propagation resulting from species-specific in vitro bacterial infection. This novel signal amplification method allowed for bacterial detection and identification in as little as 2 h, and when combined with disulfide bond reduction methods developed in our laboratory to enhance MALDI-TOF-MS resolution, was observed to lower the limit of detection by several orders of magnitude over conventional spectroscopy and phage typing methods. Phage amplification has been combined with lateral flow immunochromatography (LFI) to develop rapid, easy-to-operate, portable, species-specific point-of-care (POC) detection devices. Prototype LFI detectors have been developed and characterized for Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agents of plague and anthrax, respectively. Comparable sensitivity and rapidity was observed when phage amplification was adapted to a species-specific handheld LFI detector, thus allowing for rapid, simple, POC bacterial detection and identification while eliminating the need for bacterial culturing or DNA isolation and amplification techniques.

  15. An approach for de-identification of point locations of livestock premises for further use in disease spread modeling.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael K; Helm, Julie; Patyk, Kelly A

    2015-06-15

    We describe a method for de-identifying point location data used for disease spread modeling to allow data custodians to share data with modeling experts without disclosing individual farm identities. The approach is implemented in an open-source software program that is described and evaluated here. The program allows a data custodian to select a level of de-identification based on the K-anonymity statistic. The program converts a file of true farm locations and attributes into a file appropriate for use in disease spread modeling with the locations randomly modified to prevent re-identification based on location. Important epidemiological relationships such as clustering are preserved to as much as possible to allow modeling similar to those using true identifiable data. The software implementation was verified by visual inspection and basic descriptive spatial analysis of the output. Performance is sufficient to allow de-identification of even large data sets on desktop computers available to any data custodian.

  16. Detection and identification of concealed weapons using matrix pencil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adve, Raviraj S.; Thayaparan, Thayananthan

    2011-06-01

    The detection and identification of concealed weapons is an extremely hard problem due to the weak signature of the target buried within the much stronger signal from the human body. This paper furthers the automatic detection and identification of concealed weapons by proposing the use of an effective approach to obtain the resonant frequencies in a measurement. The technique, based on Matrix Pencil, a scheme for model based parameter estimation also provides amplitude information, hence providing a level of confidence in the results. Of specific interest is the fact that Matrix Pencil is based on a singular value decomposition, making the scheme robust against noise.

  17. Infectious pancreatic necrosis: its detection and identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.

    1965-01-01

    Ultimate control of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in hatcheries depends largely upon learning where the virus occurs. To detect the presence of virus either susceptible fish or susceptible fish cell cultures may be used as test systems. In modern virology, it is generally agreed that cell cultures are more convenient, are usually a much more sensitive test system, and allow more rapid determinations.

  18. Identification of feces by detection of Bacteroides genes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Shojo, Hideki; Ohmori, Takeshi; Hara, Masaaki; Takada, Aya; Adachi, Noboru; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In forensic science, the identification of feces is very important in a variety of crime investigations. However, no sensitive and simple fecal identification method using molecular biological techniques has been reported. Here, we focused on the fecal bacteria, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and developed a novel fecal identification method by detection of the gene sequences specific to these bacteria in various body (feces, blood, saliva, semen, urine, vaginal fluids and skin surfaces) and forensic (anal adhesions) specimens. Bacterial gene detection was performed by real-time PCR using a minor groove binding probe to amplify the RNA polymerase β-subunit gene of B. uniformis and B. vulgatus, and the α-1-6 mannanase gene of B. thetaiotaomicron. At least one of these bacteria was detected in the feces of 20 donors; the proportions of B. uniformis, B. vulgatus and B. thetaiotaomicron were 95, 85 and 60%, respectively. Bacteroides vulgatus was also detected in one of six vaginal fluid samples, but B. thetaiotaomicron and B. uniformis were not detected in body samples other than feces. Further, we applied this method to forensic specimens from 18 donors. Eighteen anal adhesions also contained at least one of three bacteria; B. uniformis, B. vulgatus and B. thetaiotaomicron were detected in 89, 78 and 56%, respectively, of the specimens. Thus, these bacteria were present at a high frequency in the fecal and forensic specimens, while either B. uniformis or B. vulgatus was detected in all samples. Therefore, B. uniformis and B. vulgatus represent more appropriate target species than B. thetaiotaomicron for the identification of fecal material. If B. vulgatus and/or B. uniformis are detected, it is likely that the sample contains feces. Taken together, our results suggest that the use of molecular biological techniques will aid the detection of feces in forensic practice, although it is possible that the samples contained

  19. Identification of hidden allergens: detection of pistachio traces in mortadella.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, G; Frigeri, G

    2006-12-01

    An analytical method based on the detection of specific DNA was developed and applied to mortadella samples with and without pistachio (Pistacia vera). The method is proposed for the detection of traces of pistachio deriving from previous processes or from accidental contamination, since in predisposed individuals pistachios can cause allergic reactions leading to anaphylactic shock. Three pairs of primers were identified and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on mortadella samples prepared with pistachio. Accidental contamination was also simulated. The optimized PCR was able to detect the presence of pistachio, even at low concentrations. The primers pair PSTC 1-2 is suggested for unambiguous identification of pistachio in mortadella. The limit of detection for this primers pair was 100 mg kg-1. No interference was observed from other spices or ingredients utilized in the formulation of the mortadella. The method enabled the identification of possible traces of pistachio remaining in the production plant after less than thorough washing.

  20. Identification of substorm onset location and preonset sequence using Reimei, THEMIS GBO, PFISR, and Geotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Moldwin, M. B.; Lyons, L. R.; Nishimura, Y.; Hirahara, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Asamura, K.; Nicolls, M. J.; Miyashita, Y.; Mende, S. B.; Heinselman, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    We present state-of-the-art multiple instrument observations of an isolated substorm on October 12, 2007. The auroral breakup was observed simultaneously by Reimei, THEMIS ASI, and PFISR. The footprint of Geotail was also near the breakup. These observations allow for detailed study of the breakup location in terms of large- and small-scale auroral morphology, particle precipitation, and ionospheric convection, which has not previously been achieved. It also allows for detailed identification of the sequence leading to the breakup. We report the first spaceborne high spatial and temporal resolution images of part of a breakup arc and a wave-like auroral enhancement captured by Reimei. Observations suggest a sudden plasma sheet thinning initiated ˜10 min before the onset. Wave-like auroral enhancements were observed twice at the most equatorward arc ˜3 min and ˜1 min before the breakup. These enhancements are likely due to some near-Earth instability, such as ballooning instability. Unlike the usual substorm sequence, this most equatorward arc did not develop into the breakup arc but remained almost stable until being engulfed by the auroral equatorward expansion from higher latitude after onset. The wave-like auroral enhancement was associated with three fine inverted V arcs and embedded within energetic ion precipitation. Following this enhancement, an arc, likely a poleward boundary intensification, formed at higher latitude just adjacent to the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). This arc then extended southwestward and led to the breakup arc, which was located poleward of the wavy structures. Assuming longitudinal homogeneity of ion precipitation over 1°, this breakup arc was located in a region without ion precipitation just poleward of the energetic ion precipitation. These observations suggest the possible existence of a low-entropy flow channel associated with the arc adjacent to the PSBL, which might be associated with instability in the near

  1. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.409 Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire...

  2. Detection, identification, and quantification techniques for spills of hazardous chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, J. F.; Sandness, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    The first 400 chemicals listed in the Coast Guard's Chemical Hazards Response Information System were evaluated with respect to their detectability, identifiability, and quantifiability by 12 generalized remote and in situ sensing techniques. Identification was also attempted for some key areas in water pollution sensing technology.

  3. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  4. Multi-Detection Events, Probability Density Functions, and Reduced Location Area

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Several efforts have been made in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) community to assess the benefits of combining detections of radionuclides to improve the location estimates available from atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) backtrack calculations. We present a Bayesian estimation approach rather than a simple dilution field of regard approach to allow xenon detections and non-detections to be combined mathematically. This system represents one possible probabilistic approach to radionuclide event formation. Application of this method to a recent interesting radionuclide event shows a substantial reduction in the location uncertainty of that event.

  5. Method for tracking the location of mobile agents using stand-off detection technique

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Randal L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann; Rodacy, Philip J.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2006-12-26

    A method for tracking the movement and position of mobile agents using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) as a stand-off optical detection technique. The positions of the agents are tracked by analyzing the time-history of a series of optical measurements made over the field of view of the optical system. This provides a (time+3-D) or (time+2-D) mapping of the location of the mobile agents. Repeated pulses of a laser beam impinge on a mobile agent, such as a bee, and are backscattered from the agent into a LIDAR detection system. Alternatively, the incident laser pulses excite fluorescence or phosphorescence from the agent, which is detected using a LIDAR system. Analysis of the spatial location of signals from the agents produced by repeated pulses generates a multidimensional map of agent location.

  6. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  7. Portable Raman instrument for rapid biological agent detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesaicherre, Marie L.; Paxon, Tracy L.; Mondello, Frank J.; Burrell, Michael C.; Linsebigler, Amy

    2009-05-01

    The rapid and sensitive identification of biological species is a critical need for the 1st responder and military communities. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for substance identification that has gained popularity with the respective communities due to the increasing availability of portable Raman spectrometers. Attempts to use Raman spectroscopy for the direct identification of biological pathogens has been hindered by the complexity of the generated Raman spectrum. We report here the use of a sandwich immunoassay containing antibody modified magnetic beads to capture and concentrate target analytes in solution and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) tags conjugated with these same antibodies for specific detection. Using this approach, the biological complexity of a microorganism can be translated into chemical simplicity and Raman can be used for the identification of biological pathogens. The developed assay has a low limit of detection due to the SERS effect, robust to commonly found white powders interferants, and stable at room temperature over extended period of time. This assay is being implemented into a user-friendly interface to be used in conjunction with the GE Homeland Protection StreetLab MobileTM Raman instrument for rapid, field deployable chemical and biological identification.

  8. Holistic processing improves change detection but impairs change identification.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Katherine M; Kahan, Todd A

    2014-10-01

    It has been just over a century since Gestalt psychologists described the factors that contribute to the holistic processing of visually presented stimuli. Recent research indicates that holistic processing may come at a cost; specifically, the perception of holistic forms may reduce the visibility of constituent parts. In the present experiment, we examined change detection and change identification accuracy with Kanizsa rectangle patterns that were arranged to either form a Gestalt whole or not. Results from an experiment with 62 participants support this trade-off in processing holistic forms. Holistic processing improved the detection of change but obstructed its identification. Results are discussed in terms of both their theoretical significance and their application in areas ranging from baggage screening and the detection of changes in radiological images to the systems that are used to generate composite images of perpetrators on the basis of eyewitness reports.

  9. Detecting and Locating Seismic Events Without Phase Picks or Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.; Young, C. J.; Ballard, S.; Slinkard, M.

    2015-12-01

    The standard paradigm for seismic event monitoring is to scan waveforms from a network of stations and identify the arrival time of various seismic phases. A signal association algorithm then groups the picks to form events, which are subsequently located by minimizing residuals between measured travel times and travel times predicted by an Earth model. Many of these steps are prone to significant errors which can lead to erroneous arrival associations and event locations. Here, we revisit a concept for event detection that does not require phase picks or travel time curves and fuses detection, association and location into a single algorithm. Our pickless event detector exploits existing catalog and waveform data to build an empirical stack of the full regional seismic wavefield, which is subsequently used to detect and locate events at a network level using correlation techniques. Because the technique uses more of the information content of the original waveforms, the concept is particularly powerful for detecting weak events that would be missed by conventional methods. We apply our detector to seismic data from the University of Utah Seismograph Stations network and compare our results with the earthquake catalog published by the University of Utah. We demonstrate that the pickless detector can detect and locate significant numbers of events previously missed by standard data processing techniques.

  10. A new algorithmic approach for fingers detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubashar Khan, Arslan; Umar, Waqas; Choudhary, Taimoor; Hussain, Fawad; Haroon Yousaf, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    Gesture recognition is concerned with the goal of interpreting human gestures through mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Hand gesture detection in a real time environment, where the time and memory are important issues, is a critical operation. Hand gesture recognition largely depends on the accurate detection of the fingers. This paper presents a new algorithmic approach to detect and identify fingers of human hand. The proposed algorithm does not depend upon the prior knowledge of the scene. It detects the active fingers and Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) of the inactive fingers from an already detected hand. Dynamic thresholding technique and connected component labeling scheme are employed for background elimination and hand detection respectively. Algorithm proposed a new approach for finger identification in real time environment keeping the memory and time constraint as low as possible.

  11. Research about the location technologies of forest fire detecting based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, An; Qi, Qingwen; Jiang, Lili; Guo, Chaohui

    2007-06-01

    Forest fire caused damages of property and loss of human life. Detecting a forest fire and get the location is very significant in the fire early warning. More early and more prompt detecting fire and determining fire position as far as possible could avoid and reduce loss of the disaster. At present there are three ways regarding the forest fire early warning and location determining which included: monitoring form Remote Sense Satellite image, manual observation and patrols, and automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video. Overall evaluation regarding the three location technologies in forest fire early warning, the CCD camera detecting method is suitable in the fire rapid Response. An automatic forest fire surveillance system was running to detect the fire by using visible light images from the remote cameras. If a forest fire was detected, an alarm will be activated. The observation point elevation values, vertical offsets, horizontal and vertical scanning angles, and scanning distances will be also be sent to the central control room. The spatial orientation will be computed and showed on the electronic map. Key location technologies based on CCD camera included the image processing technique for automatically detecting forest fire and the visibility analyzes technique for the digital elevation model. Jing gang Mountain which locates in Jiangxi province of China is taken as an example. With the help of this automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video and visibility analyzes, scientists and government administrators can make decision-supporting easily when they know exactly where a forest fire is. At last the shortage of CCD camera detecting method was discussed. We cannot depend on CCD camera detecting equipment and technologies only. With foundation of the automatic video frequency supervisory system, we should also strengthen manual observation and satellite remote sensing monitor.

  12. A comprehensive monitoring system for damage identification and location in large structural and mechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W.; Prime, M.B.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has focused on developing and experimentally verifying a suite of analytical tools for identifying the onset of damage in structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics. A MATLAB-based computer code referred to as Damage Identification And Modal Analysis of Data (DIAMOND) was developed. The code was then extensively exercised on data obtained from a variety of test structures. The most notable structure was an in situ bridge located ten mile north of Truth or Consequences, New Mexico. The suite of tools contained in DIAMOND is now being applied to the nuclear weapons enhanced surveillance program and an industrial partner has asked to enter into a partnership so that they can implement routines from DIAMOND into their commercial damage assessment hardware for large civil engineering structures. Because of the large volume of requests from around the world for DIAMOND, it can now be downloaded from the web site: http://esaea-www.esa.lanl.gov/damage{_}id.

  13. Cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Zhaonian; Deng, Zuhu; Chen, Rukai; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE) Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable sugar yield. Gn02-70 had the lowest cane yield with high stability. Yz06-407 was a high cane yield cultivar with poor stability in sugar yield. Yz05-51 and Lc03-1137 had an unstable cane yield but relatively high sugar yield. Fn39 produced stable high sugar yield with low and unstable cane production. Significantly different sugar and cane yields were observed across seasons due to strong cultivar-environment interactions. Three areas, Guangxi Chongzuo, Guangxi Baise, and Guangxi Hechi, showed better representativeness of cane yield and sugar content than the other four areas. On the other hand, the areas Guangxi Chongzuo, Yunnan Lincang, and Yunnan Baoshan showed strong discrimination ability, while the areas Guangxi Hechi and Guangxi Liuzhou showed poor discrimination ability. This study provides a reference for cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

  14. Full On-Device Stay Points Detection in Smartphones for Location-Based Mobile Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torres, Rafael; Torres-Huitzil, César; Galeana-Zapién, Hiram

    2016-01-01

    The tracking of frequently visited places, also known as stay points, is a critical feature in location-aware mobile applications as a way to adapt the information and services provided to smartphones users according to their moving patterns. Location based applications usually employ the GPS receiver along with Wi-Fi hot-spots and cellular cell tower mechanisms for estimating user location. Typically, fine-grained GPS location data are collected by the smartphone and transferred to dedicated servers for trajectory analysis and stay points detection. Such Mobile Cloud Computing approach has been successfully employed for extending smartphone’s battery lifetime by exchanging computation costs, assuming that on-device stay points detection is prohibitive. In this article, we propose and validate the feasibility of having an alternative event-driven mechanism for stay points detection that is executed fully on-device, and that provides higher energy savings by avoiding communication costs. Our solution is encapsulated in a sensing middleware for Android smartphones, where a stream of GPS location updates is collected in the background, supporting duty cycling schemes, and incrementally analyzed following an event-driven paradigm for stay points detection. To evaluate the performance of the proposed middleware, real world experiments were conducted under different stress levels, validating its power efficiency when compared against a Mobile Cloud Computing oriented solution. PMID:27754388

  15. Full On-Device Stay Points Detection in Smartphones for Location-Based Mobile Applications.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Rafael; Torres-Huitzil, César; Galeana-Zapién, Hiram

    2016-10-13

    The tracking of frequently visited places, also known as stay points, is a critical feature in location-aware mobile applications as a way to adapt the information and services provided to smartphones users according to their moving patterns. Location based applications usually employ the GPS receiver along with Wi-Fi hot-spots and cellular cell tower mechanisms for estimating user location. Typically, fine-grained GPS location data are collected by the smartphone and transferred to dedicated servers for trajectory analysis and stay points detection. Such Mobile Cloud Computing approach has been successfully employed for extending smartphone's battery lifetime by exchanging computation costs, assuming that on-device stay points detection is prohibitive. In this article, we propose and validate the feasibility of having an alternative event-driven mechanism for stay points detection that is executed fully on-device, and that provides higher energy savings by avoiding communication costs. Our solution is encapsulated in a sensing middleware for Android smartphones, where a stream of GPS location updates is collected in the background, supporting duty cycling schemes, and incrementally analyzed following an event-driven paradigm for stay points detection. To evaluate the performance of the proposed middleware, real world experiments were conducted under different stress levels, validating its power efficiency when compared against a Mobile Cloud Computing oriented solution.

  16. Detection and identification of human targets in radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, Sevgi Z.; Melvin, William L.; Williams, Douglas B.

    2007-04-01

    Radar offers unique advantages over other sensors, such as visual or seismic sensors, for human target detection. Many situations, especially military applications, prevent the placement of video cameras or implantment seismic sensors in the area being observed, because of security or other threats. However, radar can operate far away from potential targets, and functions during daytime as well as nighttime, in virtually all weather conditions. In this paper, we examine the problem of human target detection and identification using single-channel, airborne, synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Human targets are differentiated from other detected slow-moving targets by analyzing the spectrogram of each potential target. Human spectrograms are unique, and can be used not just to identify targets as human, but also to determine features about the human target being observed, such as size, gender, action, and speed. A 12-point human model, together with kinematic equations of motion for each body part, is used to calculate the expected target return and spectrogram. A MATLAB simulation environment is developed including ground clutter, human and non-human targets for the testing of spectrogram-based detection and identification algorithms. Simulations show that spectrograms have some ability to detect and identify human targets in low noise. An example gender discrimination system correctly detected 83.97% of males and 91.11% of females. The problems and limitations of spectrogram-based methods in high clutter environments are discussed. The SNR loss inherent to spectrogram-based methods is quantified. An alternate detection and identification method that will be used as a basis for future work is proposed.

  17. Indoor locating and inventory management based on RFID-Radar detecting data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.; Lou, P. C.; Hsieh, Y. G.

    2012-03-01

    The new generation RFID-Radar system provides the function of detecting the targets' locations with the measurements of range and angle using a reader and an antenna array to transmit and receive the RF signals. It enhances the application value for RFID when combined with the geospatial information. In this study, an information system embedded with a plan coordinate detection function was developed using the spatial data provided by the RFID-Radar system, to expand the application of indoor locating and meet the inventory management requirements. The in-house developed management system can work for processing the measurements detected by the RFID-Radar system, calculating the target's location, checking the target's status and analyzing the target's movement occurring between the two detecting epochs through a designed GUI (graphical user interface). The system has been tested to show an internal precision of 0.76 m for locating, based on the stability test of the range and angle measurements, and effectively demonstrates the functions for detecting the target's movement and archiving the inventory's management information with a database.

  18. Event Detection and Location of Earthquakes Using the Cascadia Initiative Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, E.; Bilek, S. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) produces a range of slip behavior along the plate boundary megathrust, from great earthquakes to episodic slow slip and tremor (ETS). Unlike other subduction zones that produce great earthquakes and ETS, the CSZ is notable for the lack of small and moderate magnitude earthquakes recorded. The seismogenic zone extent is currently estimated to be primarily offshore, thus the lack of observed small, interplate earthquakes may be partially due to the use of only land seismometers. The Cascadia Initiative (CI) community seismic experiment seeks to address this issue by including ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed directly over the locked seismogenic zone, in addition to land seismometers. We use these seismic data to explore whether small magnitude earthquakes are occurring on the plate interface, but have gone undetected by the land-based seismic networks. We select a subset of small magnitude (M0.1-3.7) earthquakes from existing earthquake catalogs, based on land seismic data, whose preliminary hypocentral locations suggest they may have occurred on the plate interface. We window the waveforms on CI OBS and land seismometers around the phase arrival times for these earthquakes to generate templates for subspace detection, which allows for additional flexibility over traditional matched filter detection methods. Here we present event detections from the first year of CI deployment and preliminary locations for the detected events. Initial results of scanning the first year of the CI deployment using one cluster of template events, located near a previously identified subducted seamount, include 473 detections on OBS station M08A (~61.6 km offshore) and 710 detections on OBS station J25A (~44.8 km northeast of M08A). Ongoing efforts include detection using additional OBS stations along the margin, as well as determining locations of clusters detected in the first year of deployment.

  19. Testing continuous earthquake detection and location in Alentejo (South Portugal) by waveform coherency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Custódio, Susana

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered Portugal. This extraordinary network coverage enables now the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which in turn will shed light on the seismotectonics of Portugal. The large data volumes available cannot be analyzed by traditional time-consuming manual location procedures. In this presentation we show first results on the automatic detection and location of earthquakes occurred in a selected region in the south of Portugal Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e., lowering the detection threshold). We present a modified version of the automatic seismic event location by waveform coherency analysis developed by Grigoli et al. (2013, 2014), designed to perform earthquake detections and locations in continuous data. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace, while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event detection and location is obtained by performing waveform coherence analysis scanning different hypocentral coordinates. We apply this technique to earthquakes in the Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage from a small aperture seismic network installed in the south of Portugal for two years (2010 - 2011) during the DOCTAR experiment. In addition to the good network coverage, the Alentejo region was chosen for its simple tectonic setting and also because the relationship between seismicity, tectonics and local lithospheric structure is intriguing and still poorly understood. Inside

  20. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L. Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M.; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M. Collins, Leslie; G. Newell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment. PMID:27922592

  1. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L. Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M.; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M. Collins, Leslie; G. Newell, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment.

  2. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M Collins, Leslie; G Newell, Richard

    2016-12-06

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment.

  3. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.409...

  4. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.409...

  5. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.409...

  6. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.409...

  7. Towards Autonomous Modular UAV Missions: The Detection, Geo-Location and Landing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kyristsis, Sarantis; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Chanialakis, Theofilos; Stefanakis, Emmanouel; Linardos, Christos; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, various unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications become increasingly demanding since they require real-time, autonomous and intelligent functions. Towards this end, in the present study, a fully autonomous UAV scenario is implemented, including the tasks of area scanning, target recognition, geo-location, monitoring, following and finally landing on a high speed moving platform. The underlying methodology includes AprilTag target identification through Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) parallelized processing, image processing and several optimized locations and approach algorithms employing gimbal movement, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) readings and UAV navigation. For the experimentation, a commercial and a custom made quad-copter prototype were used, portraying a high and a low-computational embedded platform alternative. Among the successful targeting and follow procedures, it is shown that the landing approach can be successfully performed even under high platform speeds. PMID:27827883

  8. Towards Autonomous Modular UAV Missions: The Detection, Geo-Location and Landing Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kyristsis, Sarantis; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Chanialakis, Theofilos; Stefanakis, Emmanouel; Linardos, Christos; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis

    2016-11-03

    Nowadays, various unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications become increasingly demanding since they require real-time, autonomous and intelligent functions. Towards this end, in the present study, a fully autonomous UAV scenario is implemented, including the tasks of area scanning, target recognition, geo-location, monitoring, following and finally landing on a high speed moving platform. The underlying methodology includes AprilTag target identification through Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) parallelized processing, image processing and several optimized locations and approach algorithms employing gimbal movement, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) readings and UAV navigation. For the experimentation, a commercial and a custom made quad-copter prototype were used, portraying a high and a low-computational embedded platform alternative. Among the successful targeting and follow procedures, it is shown that the landing approach can be successfully performed even under high platform speeds.

  9. Multiband array detection and location of seismic sources recorded by dense seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, Natalia; Satriano, Claudio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-06-01

    We present a new methodology for detection and space-time location of seismic sources based on multiscale, frequency-selective coherence of the wave field recorded by dense large-scale seismic networks and local antennas. The method is designed to enhance coherence of the signal statistical features across the array of sensors and consists of three steps: signal processing, space-time imaging, and detection and location. The first step provides, for each station, a simplified representation of seismic signal by extracting multiscale non-stationary statistical characteristics, through multiband higher-order statistics or envelopes. This signal processing scheme is designed to account for a priori unknown transients, potentially associated with a variety of sources (e.g. earthquakes, tremors), and to prepare data for a better performance in posterior steps. Following space-time imaging is carried through 3-D spatial mapping and summation of station-pair time-delay estimate functions. This step produces time-series of 3-D spatial images representing the likelihood that each pixel makes part of a source. Detection and location is performed in the final step by extracting the local maxima from the 3-D spatial images. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in detecting and locating seismic sources associated with low signal-to-noise ratio on an example of the aftershock earthquake records from local stations of International Maule Aftershock Deployment in Central Chile. The performance and potential of the method to detect, locate and characterize the energy release associated with possibly mixed seismic radiation from earthquakes and low-frequency tectonic tremors is further tested on continuous data from southwestern Japan.

  10. Failure detection and identification: Application to aircraft control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopisetty, Sai Manohar

    A theory to detect and identify multiple, simultaneous failures of actuators and sensors in practical control systems is presented. The type of failures that are addressed include zero output, biases, stuck actuators and sensors, hard-over failures, and reversal of control actuation. Using only the measurements from sensors, operator and computer commands, and the knowledge of the mathematical model of the system, an error metric (residual) is developed that contains all the information about the failures. An important feature of the error metric is that it linearly parameterizes the effect of failures, thus enabling detection and identification of multiple failures through a real-time, recursive identification method. Starting with designs based on the linearization of a nonlinear system, the theory is extended to linear-parameter-varying nonlinear systems. The nonlinear error metric is robust to changes in the operating condition while retaining linear relationship to failure parameters. As control systems with redundancies pose special challenges during failure, a systematic procedure to detect and identify failures in redundant actuators and sensors is presented. When there is insufficient knowledge of the control system dynamics, or when the disturbance dynamics is complicated, a method to generate robust input-output maps that can be used as failure detection metrics is developed. The theory is validated though simulations conducted on linear and nonlinear models of commercial aircraft. Realistic models for atmospheric turbulence and measurement noise are used. Multiple failures in actuators and sensors are identified in their source and magnitude. The results demonstrate that failure detection and identification is possible without altering the existing control system and the methods can be used in a retrofittable arrangement to improve aircraft safety.

  11. A ZigBee-based location-aware fall detection system for improving elderly telecare.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Ning; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2014-04-16

    Falls are the primary cause of accidents among the elderly and frequently cause fatal and non-fatal injuries associated with a large amount of medical costs. Fall detection using wearable wireless sensor nodes has the potential of improving elderly telecare. This investigation proposes a ZigBee-based location-aware fall detection system for elderly telecare that provides an unobstructed communication between the elderly and caregivers when falls happen. The system is based on ZigBee-based sensor networks, and the sensor node consists of a motherboard with a tri-axial accelerometer and a ZigBee module. A wireless sensor node worn on the waist continuously detects fall events and starts an indoor positioning engine as soon as a fall happens. In the fall detection scheme, this study proposes a three-phase threshold-based fall detection algorithm to detect critical and normal falls. The fall alarm can be canceled by pressing and holding the emergency fall button only when a normal fall is detected. On the other hand, there are three phases in the indoor positioning engine: path loss survey phase, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) collection phase and location calculation phase. Finally, the location of the faller will be calculated by a k-nearest neighbor algorithm with weighted RSSI. The experimental results demonstrate that the fall detection algorithm achieves 95.63% sensitivity, 73.5% specificity, 88.62% accuracy and 88.6% precision. Furthermore, the average error distance for indoor positioning is 1.15 ± 0.54 m. The proposed system successfully delivers critical information to remote telecare providers who can then immediately help a fallen person.

  12. A ZigBee-Based Location-Aware Fall Detection System for Improving Elderly Telecare

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Ning; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2014-01-01

    Falls are the primary cause of accidents among the elderly and frequently cause fatal and non-fatal injuries associated with a large amount of medical costs. Fall detection using wearable wireless sensor nodes has the potential of improving elderly telecare. This investigation proposes a ZigBee-based location-aware fall detection system for elderly telecare that provides an unobstructed communication between the elderly and caregivers when falls happen. The system is based on ZigBee-based sensor networks, and the sensor node consists of a motherboard with a tri-axial accelerometer and a ZigBee module. A wireless sensor node worn on the waist continuously detects fall events and starts an indoor positioning engine as soon as a fall happens. In the fall detection scheme, this study proposes a three-phase threshold-based fall detection algorithm to detect critical and normal falls. The fall alarm can be canceled by pressing and holding the emergency fall button only when a normal fall is detected. On the other hand, there are three phases in the indoor positioning engine: path loss survey phase, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) collection phase and location calculation phase. Finally, the location of the faller will be calculated by a k-nearest neighbor algorithm with weighted RSSI. The experimental results demonstrate that the fall detection algorithm achieves 95.63% sensitivity, 73.5% specificity, 88.62% accuracy and 88.6% precision. Furthermore, the average error distance for indoor positioning is 1.15 ± 0.54 m. The proposed system successfully delivers critical information to remote telecare providers who can then immediately help a fallen person. PMID:24743841

  13. Fast detection and identification of bacteria in potable water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, C.; Reidt, U.; Helwig, A.; Müller, G.; Meixner, L.; Neumeier, K.; Lindner, P.; Molz, R.; Wolf, H.; Zullei-Seibert, N.; Preuß, G.; Friedberger, A.

    2009-05-01

    The quality and safety of drinking water is of major importance for human life. Current analytical methods recognizing viable bacteria in potable water are time consuming due to a required cultivation step. Fast and automated detection of water borne pathogenic microorganisms with high sensitivity and selectivity is still a challenging task. We report on a novel biosensor system using micromechanical filters with nano sized pores to capture and enrich bacteria on the filter surface. Thus the accumulated organisms are accessible to different detection methods using fluorescent probes. Depending on the kind of detection - specific (identification of a certain species) or unspecific (total amount of cells) - different assays are applied. For non-specific detection we use fluorescent dyes that bind to or intercalate in the DNA molecules of the bacteria. Upon binding, the fluorescent signal of the dyes increases by a factor of 1000 or more. Additionally, we use enzyme substrates for the detection of active cells. The whole detection process is automated by integrating the microsieves into a fluidic system together with a high performance fluorescence detector. To ensure realistic conditions, real potable water, i.e. including particles, has been spiked with defined amounts of microorganisms. Thus, sampling, enriching and detection of microorganisms - all with a single micromechanical filter - is not only possible with ideal media, e.g. laboratory buffer solutions, but also with tap water. These results show the potential of microfilters for several applications in fast pathogen detection.

  14. Location precision analysis of stereo thermal anti-sniper detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuqing; Lu, Ya; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Weiqi

    2012-06-01

    Anti-sniper detection devices are the urgent requirement in modern warfare. The precision of the anti-sniper detection system is especially important. This paper discusses the location precision analysis of the anti-sniper detection system based on the dual-thermal imaging system. It mainly discusses the following two aspects which produce the error: the digital quantitative effects of the camera; effect of estimating the coordinate of bullet trajectory according to the infrared images in the process of image matching. The formula of the error analysis is deduced according to the method of stereovision model and digital quantitative effects of the camera. From this, we can get the relationship of the detecting accuracy corresponding to the system's parameters. The analysis in this paper provides the theory basis for the error compensation algorithms which are put forward to improve the accuracy of 3D reconstruction of the bullet trajectory in the anti-sniper detection devices.

  15. Automatic Earthquake Detection and Location by Waveform coherency in Alentejo (South Portugal) Using CatchPy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Matos, C.; Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Heimann, S.; Rio, I.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic data processing is currently undergoing a step change, benefitting from high-volume datasets and advanced computer power. In the last decade, a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered mainland Portugal. This outstanding regional coverage currently enables the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which contributes to fitting together the pieces of the regional seismo-tectonic puzzle. Although traditional manual inspections are valuable to refine automatic results they are impracticable with the big data volumes now available. When conducted alone they are also less objective since the criteria is defined by the analyst. In this work we present CatchPy, a scanning algorithm to detect earthquakes in continuous datasets. Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e. lowering the detection threshold). CatchPY is designed to produce an event database that could be easily located using existing location codes (e.g.: Grigoli et al. 2013, 2014). We use CatchPy to perform automatic detection and location of earthquakes that occurred in Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage of a dense seismic network deployed in the region for two years during the DOCTAR experiment. Results show that our automatic procedure is particularly suitable for small aperture networks. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event location is performed by waveform coherence analysis, scanning different hypocentral coordinates

  16. A Compton telescope for remote location and identification of radioactive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, James M.; Baker, Justin; Macri, John R.; McConnell, Mark L.; Carande, Richard

    2008-04-01

    The spare detectors from NASA Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory COMPTEL instrument have been reconfigured to demonstrate the capability at ground level to remotely locate and identify sources of g radiation or the movement of material that might shield γ-ray sources. The Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope Assembly (GRETA) employs two 28 cm diameter scintillation detectors separated by 81 cm: one 8.5 cm thick liquid scintillator detector and one 7.5 cm thick NaI(Tl) detector. The assembly electronics and real-time data acquisition system measures the energy deposits and time-of- flight for each coincident detection and compiles histograms of total energy and incident angle as computed using the kinematics of Compton scattering. The GRETA field of view is a cone with full angle approximately 120°. The sensitive energy range is 0.3 to 2.6 MeV. Energy resolution is ~10% FWHM. The angular resolution, ~19° in the simplified configuration tested, will improve to better than 5° with well-defined enhancements to the data acquisition hardware and data analysis routines. When operated in the mode that was used in space, the instrument is capable of measuring and imaging up to 30 MeV with an angular resolution of 1.5°. The response of the instrument was mapped in the laboratory with 14 Ci 22Na source 3 m from the instrument. Later, we conducted demonstrations under two measurement scenarios. In one, the remotely located instrument observed an increase of background radiation counts at 1.4 MeV when a large amount of lead was removed from a building and a corresponding decrease when the lead was replaced. In the other scenario, the location and isotope-identifying energy spectrum of a 500 μCi 137Cs source 3-5 m from the instrument with two intervening walls was determined in less than one minute. We report details of the instrument design and these measurements.

  17. Detecting activity locations from raw GPS data: a novel kernel-based algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health studies and mHealth applications are increasingly resorting to tracking technologies such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to study the relation between mobility, exposures, and health. GPS tracking generates large sets of geographic data that need to be transformed to be useful for health research. This paper proposes a method to test the performance of activity place detection algorithms, and compares the performance of a novel kernel-based algorithm with a more traditional time-distance cluster detection method. Methods A set of 750 artificial GPS tracks containing three stops each were generated, with various levels of noise.. A total of 9,000 tracks were processed to measure the algorithms’ capacity to detect stop locations and estimate stop durations, with varying GPS noise and algorithm parameters. Results The proposed kernel-based algorithm outperformed the traditional algorithm on most criteria associated to activity place detection, and offered a stronger resilience to GPS noise, managing to detect up to 92.3% of actual stops, and estimating stop duration within 5% error margins at all tested noise levels. Conclusions Capacity to detect activity locations is an important feature in a context of increasing use of GPS devices in health and place research. While further testing with real-life tracks is recommended, testing algorithms’ performance with artificial track sets for which characteristics are controlled is useful. The proposed novel algorithm outperformed the traditional algorithm under these conditions. PMID:23497213

  18. Detection and location of 127 anatomical landmarks in diverse CT datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbah, Mohammad A.; Murphy, Sean; Pello, Hippolyte; Courbon, Romain; Beveridge, Erin; Wiseman, Stewart; Wyeth, Daniel; Poole, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The automatic detection and localization of anatomical landmarks has wide application, including intra and interpatient registration, study location and navigation, and the targeting of specialized algorithms. In this paper, we demonstrate the automatic detection and localization of 127 anatomically defined landmarks distributed throughout the body, excluding arms. Landmarks are defined on the skeleton, vasculature and major organs. Our approach builds on the classification forests method,1 using this classifier with simple image features which can be efficiently computed. For the training and validation of the method we have used 369 CT volumes on which radiographers and anatomists have marked ground truth (GT) - that is the locations of all defined landmarks occurring in that volume. A particular challenge is to deal with the wide diversity of datasets encountered in radiology practice. These include data from all major scanner manufacturers, different extents covering single and multiple body compartments, truncated cardiac acquisitions, with and without contrast. Cases with stents and catheters are also represented. Validation is by a leave-one-out method, which we show can be efficiently implemented in the context of decision forest methods. Mean location accuracy of detected landmarks is 13.45mm overall; execution time averages 7s per volume on a modern server machine. We also present localization ROC analysis to characterize detection accuracy - that is to decide if a landmark is or is not present in a given dataset.

  19. An experiment to detect and locate lightning associated with eruptions of Redoubt Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoblitt, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A commercially-available lightning-detection system was temporarily deployed near Cook Inlet, Alaska in an attempt to remotely monitor volcanogenic lightning associated with eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. The system became operational on February 14, 1990; lightning was detected in 11 and located in 9 of the 13 subsequent eruptions. The lightning was generated by ash clouds rising from pyroclastic density currents produced by collapse of a lava dome emplaced near Redoubt's summit. Lightning discharge (flash) location was controlled by topography, which channeled the density currents, and by wind direction. In individual eruptions, early flashes tended to have a negative polarity (negative charge is lowered to ground) while late flashes tended to have a positive polarity (positive charge is lowered to ground), perhaps because the charge-separation process caused coarse, rapid-settling particles to be negatively charged and fine, slow-settling particles to be positively charged. Results indicate that lightning detection and location is a useful adjunct to seismic volcano monitoring, particularly when poor weather or darkness prevents visual observation. The simultaneity of seismicity and lightning near a volcano provides the virtual certainty that an ash cloud is present. This information is crucial for aircraft safety and to warn threatened communities of impending tephra falls. The Alaska Volcano Observatory has now deployed a permanent lightning-detection network around Cook Inlet. ?? 1994.

  20. Chip-based device for parallel sorting, amplification, detection, and identification of nucleic acid subsequences

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Colston, Jr, Billy W.

    2016-08-09

    An apparatus for chip-based sorting, amplification, detection, and identification of a sample having a planar substrate. The planar substrate is divided into cells. The cells are arranged on the planar substrate in rows and columns. Electrodes are located in the cells. A micro-reactor maker produces micro-reactors containing the sample. The micro-reactor maker is positioned to deliver the micro-reactors to the planar substrate. A microprocessor is connected to the electrodes for manipulating the micro-reactors on the planar substrate. A detector is positioned to interrogate the sample contained in the micro-reactors.

  1. The genetic-algorithm-enhanced blind system identification for water distribution pipeline leak detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2007-07-01

    The conventional leak location is based on the correlation of leak acoustic signals acquired spatially separately. By correlation, the time lag is estimated for localizing the leakage. In these methods, the detection distance is a prerequisite that has to be known beforehand. However, in practice, this prerequisite is not always satisfied. In this case, the correlation-based methods are not feasible. Actually, the acquired signals contain the characteristics related to the acoustic propagation channels; thus the blind system identification strategy is applied to estimate the transmission performances of acoustic channels. Then the times due to the propagation of the leak source signal travelling from the leak point to sensors are determined. In this way, for leak location, the detection distance is no longer a prerequisite. In blind system identification, due to the long impulse responses of the leak acoustic channels, the channels are inevitably ill conditioned and sensitive to the initial values. To overcome the ill conditions, the overlap-save and cross-correlation fitting techniques are utilized to identify the long impulse sequences under a built constraint. In order to avoid converging to the local minima, the genetic algorithm is used to minimize the cost functions. The practical detection results show the validity of the proposed scheme.

  2. Sequential optimal monitoring network design and iterative spatial estimation of pollutant concentration for identification of unknown groundwater pollution source locations.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2013-07-01

    One of the difficulties in accurate characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is the uncertainty regarding the number and the location of such sources. Only when the number of source locations is estimated with some degree of certainty that the characterization of the sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration can be meaningful. A fairly good knowledge of source locations can substantially decrease the degree of nonuniqueness in the set of possible aquifer responses to subjected geochemical stresses. A methodology is developed to use a sequence of dedicated monitoring network design and implementation and to screen and identify the possible source locations. The proposed methodology utilizes a combination of spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and simulated annealing as optimization algorithm for optimal design of the monitoring network. These monitoring networks are to be designed and implemented sequentially. The sequential design is based on iterative pollutant concentration measurement information from the sequentially designed monitoring networks. The optimal monitoring network design utilizes concentration gradient information from the monitoring network at previous iteration to define the objective function. The capability of the feedback information based iterative methodology is shown to be effective in estimating the source locations when no such information is initially available. This unknown pollution source locations identification methodology should be very useful as a screening model for subsequent accurate estimation of the unknown pollution sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration.

  3. Optimal Sensor Location Design for Reliable Fault Detection in Presence of False Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Xiao, Deyun; Shah, Sirish L.

    2009-01-01

    To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is not only related with sensor readings but also affected by fault propagation. This paper introduces the reliability criteria expression based on the missed/false alarm probability of each sensor and system topology or connectivity derived from the directed graph. The algorithm for the optimization problem is presented as a heuristic procedure. Finally, a boiler system is illustrated using the proposed method. PMID:22291524

  4. An up-to-date instrumentation system for detection, location and characterization of AE signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcredi, D.; Sala, A.; Tornelli, C.

    1988-11-01

    An acoustic emission data overseeing system (AEDOS) has been developed for detection, location, and multiparametrical analysis of AE events such as amplitude, rise time, duration, energy, and delay time. The equipment comprises three main sections: the 'in field part' to detect and condition the AE events; the 'front end' that collects all the signals, makes the first screening among the signals, and measures the main parameters of the events; and the 'computer' to set up the system, to store the data, to analyze and display parametric isthograms, graphics, and location maps, and to supply an easy menu driven interface to the operator. A detailed functional description including performance specification of the system is given.

  5. [INVITED] Time reversal optical tomography: Detecting and locating tumors in an ex vivo model human breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Alrubaiee, Mohammad; Gayen, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Time reversal optical tomography (TROT), a recently introduced diffuse optical imaging approach, is used to detect, locate, and obtain cross-section images of tumors inside a "model human breast." The model cancerous breast is assembled as a semi-cylindrical slab of uniform thickness using ex vivo human breast tissues with two pieces of tumors embedded in it. The experimental arrangement used a 750-nm light beam from a Ti:sapphire laser to illuminate an end face (source plane) of the sample in a multi-source probing scheme. A multi-detector signal acquisition scheme measured transmitted light intensity distribution on the other end face (detector plane). The perturbations in light intensity distribution in the detector plane were analyzed using TROT to obtain locations of the tumor pieces in three dimensions and estimate their cross sections. The estimated locations and dimensions of targets are in good agreement with the results of a corroborating magnetic resonance imaging experiment.

  6. Detection and strain identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by nested PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Leys, E J; Griffen, A L; Strong, S J; Fuerst, P A

    1994-01-01

    By using PCR, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains were identified directly from plaque samples without the need to isolate or culture bacteria. DNA fragments were generated by a nested, two-step PCR amplification of the ribosomal spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. For the first amplification, primers homologous to sequences common to all bacterial species were used. This was followed by a second amplification with primers specific to A. actinomycetemcomitans. The ribosomal DNA spacer region was amplified from as few as 10 bacterial cells within a total population of 10(8) cells (0.00001%), and cross-reactivity between species was not observed. DNA fragments specific for Porphyromonas gingivalis were generated from the same samples by using a P. gingivalis-specific primer, and equivalent sensitivity and specificity were observed. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in 60% and P. gingivalis was detected in 79% of 52 subjects tested. Sequence analysis of the spacer region DNA fragment for A. actinomycetemcomitans gave precise strain identification, producing unique sequences for seven reference strains and identification of nine plaque-derived isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on quantitative sequence relationships was constructed. Two-step PCR amplification directly from plaque samples combined with sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA spacer region provides a sensitive assay for detection and strain identification of multiple species directly from a single plaque sample. This simplified approach provides a practical method for large-scale studies on the transmission and pathogenicity of periodontitis-associated bacteria. Images PMID:8051258

  7. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  8. A technique for detecting and locating polarisation nonuniformities in an anisotropic optical fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Burdin, V V; Konstantinov, Yurii A; Pervadchuk, Vladimir P; Smirnov, A S

    2013-06-30

    One of the most important requirements for optical fibres as waveguiding media is uniformity. Polarisation-maintaining anisotropic fibres contain a special type of nonuniformity, which leads to polarisation cross-talk: optical power is transferred from one polarisation mode to the orthogonal mode. In this paper, we report a technique for detecting and locating such nonuniformities in a PANDA anisotropic single-mode fibre using polarised reflectometry. (fiber optics)

  9. Identification of palm print using dermatoglyphics analysis and detection system.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yiaohua; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qing; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Ke

    2005-04-01

    This paper investigated the biological characteristics of palm print. The preprocessing plays an important role in identifying the ridge characteristics of palm due to the complexity and poor quality of the images. As a functional plug-in of the dermatoglyphics analysis and detection system, the template-based image preprocessing was proposed in this study, including histogram redistribution, ridge orientation, and skeletonization. Using this system, the automatic identification of ridges and triradiuses was accomplished with an effective result. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the method and the potential of the system for being applied as an auxiliary diagnostic tool for heredity diseases (e.g. mammary cancer and neurofibromatosis).

  10. Damage detection and locating using tone burst and continuous excitation modulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Li; Qu, Wenzhong

    2014-03-01

    Among structural health monitoring techniques, nonlinear ultrasonic spectroscopy methods are found to be effective diagnostic approach to detecting nonlinear damage such as fatigue crack, due to their sensitivity to incipient structural changes. In this paper, a nonlinear ultrasonic modulation method was developed to detect and locate a fatigue crack on an aluminum plate. The method is different with nonlinear wave modulation method which recognizes the modulation of low-frequency vibration and high-frequency ultrasonic wave; it recognizes the modulation of tone burst and high-frequency ultrasonic wave. In the experiment, a Hanning window modulated sinusoidal tone burst and a continuous sinusoidal excitation were simultaneously imposed on the PZT array which was bonded on the surface of an aluminum plate. The modulations of tone burst and continuous sinusoidal excitation was observed in different actuator-sensor paths, indicating the presence and location of fatigue crack. The results of experiments show that the proposed method is capable of detecting and locating the fatigue crack successfully.

  11. Lamb wave detection and source location using fiber Bragg gratin rosettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Daniel C.; Thursby, Graham; Culshaw, Brian; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.

    2003-07-01

    We describe a novel fiber-optic system that is able to detect both ultrasonic Lamb waves and the location of their source. The aim of the system is to detect damage in structures such as those found in aerospace applications. Our system involves the use of fiber Bragg gratings, which may be either bonded to the surface of the material or embedded within it in order to detect the linear strain component produced by the acoustic waves. Interrogation of the Bragg gratings is carried out using a laser, which is tuned to the wavelength that gives the maximum sensitivity on the grating response curve. An amplitude modulated signal is produced by the interaction of the Lamb wave with the grating. The well defined directional properties of the Bragg grating (compared to the isotropic response of the more commonly used piezoceramic disc transducers) are used to determine the direction of propagation of the acoustic waves by mounting three of the gratings in a rosette configuration. Two suitably spaced rosettes are used to locate the source of the ultrasound by taking the intersection of the directions given by each rosette. This will become important when we extend the technique to include the study of the use of changes in the propagation properties of Lamb waves as a method of damage detection. We will present both theoretical and practical results on the interaction of the Lamb waves with the grating and the extraction of directional information from the response of the rosettes.

  12. Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

  13. Integrating Subcellular Location for Improving Machine Learning Models of Remote Homology Detection in Eukaryotic Organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anuj R.; Oehmen, Chris S.; Harper, Jill K.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2007-02-23

    Motivation: At the center of bioinformatics, genomics, and pro-teomics is the need for highly accurate genome annotations. Producing high-quality reliable annotations depends on identifying sequences which are related evolutionarily (homologs) on which to infer function. Homology detection is one of the oldest tasks in bioinformatics, however most approaches still fail when presented with sequences that have low residue similarity despite a distant evolutionary relationship (remote homology). Recently, discriminative approaches, such as support vector machines (SVMs) have demonstrated a vast improvement in sensitivity for remote homology detection. These methods however have only focused on one aspect of the sequence at a time, e.g., sequence similarity or motif based scores. However, supplementary information, such as the sub-cellular location of a protein within the cell would give further clues as to possible homologous pairs, additionally eliminating false relationships due to simple functional roles that cannot exist due to location. We have developed a method, SVM-SimLoc that integrates sub-cellular location with sequence similarity information into a pro-tein family classifier and compared it to one of the most accurate sequence based SVM approaches, SVM-Pairwise. Results: The SCOP 1.53 benchmark data set was utilized to assess the performance of SVM-SimLoc. As cellular location prediction is dependent upon the type of sequence, eukaryotic or prokaryotic, the analysis is restricted to the 2630 eukaryotic sequences in the benchmark dataset, evaluating a total of 27 protein families. We demonstrate that the integration of sequence similarity and sub-cellular location yields notably more accurate results than using sequence similarity independently at a significance level of 0.006.

  14. Rapid Detection and Identification of Biogenic Aerosol Releases and Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Macher, J.; Ghosal, S.; Ahmed, K.; Hemati, K.; Wall, S.; Kumagai, K.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols can be important contributors to aerosol chemistry, cloud droplet and ice nucleation, absorption and scattering of radiation, human health and comfort, and plant, animal, and microbial ecology. Many types of bioaerosols, e.g., fungal spores, are released into the atmosphere in response to specific climatological and meteorological conditions. The rapid identification of bioaerosol releases is thus important for better characterization of the above phenomena, as well as enabling public officials to respond quickly and appropriately to releases of infectious agents or biological toxins. One approach to rapid and accurate bioaerosol detection is to employ sequential, automated samples that can be fed directly into an image acquisition and data analysis device. Raman spectroscopy-based identification of bioaerosols, automated analysis of microscopy images, and automated detection of near-monodisperse peaks in aerosol size-distribution data were investigated as complementary approaches to traditional, manual methods for the identification and counting of fungal and actinomycete spores. Manual light microscopy is a widely used analytical technique that is compatible with a number of air sample formats and requires minimal sample preparation. However, a major drawback is its dependence on a human analyst's ability to distinguish particles and accurately count, size, and identify them. Therefore, automated methods, such as those evaluated in this study, have the potential to provide cost-effective and rapid alternatives if demonstrated to be accurate and reliable. An exploratory examination of individual spores for several macro- and microfungi (those with and without large fruiting bodies) by Raman microspectroscopy found unique spectral features that were used to identify fungi to the genus level. Automated analyses of digital spore images accurately recognized and counted single fungal spores and clusters. An automated procedure to discriminate near

  15. Jersey number detection in sports video for athlete identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qixiang; Huang, Qingming; Jiang, Shuqiang; Liu, Yang; Gao, Wen

    2005-07-01

    Athlete identification is important for sport video content analysis since users often care about the video clips with their preferred athletes. In this paper, we propose a method for athlete identification by combing the segmentation, tracking and recognition procedures into a coarse-to-fine scheme for jersey number (digital characters on sport shirt) detection. Firstly, image segmentation is employed to separate the jersey number regions with its background. And size/pipe-like attributes of digital characters are used to filter out candidates. Then, a K-NN (K nearest neighbor) classifier is employed to classify a candidate into a digit in "0-9" or negative. In the recognition procedure, we use the Zernike moment features, which are invariant to rotation and scale for digital shape recognition. Synthetic training samples with different fonts are used to represent the pattern of digital characters with non-rigid deformation. Once a character candidate is detected, a SSD (smallest square distance)-based tracking procedure is started. The recognition procedure is performed every several frames in the tracking process. After tracking tens of frames, the overall recognition results are combined to determine if a candidate is a true jersey number or not by a voting procedure. Experiments on several types of sports video shows encouraging result.

  16. Chemical Detection and Identification Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Khromov, Nikolai A.

    2002-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical Instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The minimal resources available onboard for such missions mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight and consumables. Advances in technology may be achieved by increasing the amount of information acquired by a given technique with greater analytical capabilities and miniaturization of proven terrestrial technology. We describe here methods to develop analytical instruments for the detection and identification of a wide range of chemical species using Gas Chromatography. These efforts to expand the analytical capabilities of GC technology are focused on the development of detectors for the GC which provide sample identification independent of the GC retention time data. A novel new approach employs Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES).

  17. Using detection or identification paradigms when assessing visual development: is a shift in paradigm necessary?

    PubMed

    Hanck, Julie; Cornish, Kim; Perreault, Audrey; Kogan, Cary; Bertone, Armando

    2012-06-01

    Given the inherent difference in judgment required to complete visual detection and identification tasks, it is unknown whether task selection differentially affects visual performance as a function of development. The aim of the present study is therefore to systematically assess and contrast visual performance using these two types of paradigms in order to determine whether paradigm-contingent differences in performance exist across different periods of development. To do so, we assessed sensitivity to both luminance- and texture-defined stationary and dynamic gratings using both detection and identification paradigms. Results demonstrated a relatively unchanged pattern of performance from the school ages through adolescence, suggesting that sensitivity was not differentially affected by choice of paradigm as a function of development. However, when averaged across age groups, a paradigm-contingent difference in sensitivity was evidenced for dynamic, texture-defined gratings only; it was easier to detect the spatial location of the gratings compared with identifying the direction of their motion. Paradigm-contingent differences were not evidenced for luminance-defined stimuli (whether stationary or dynamic), or for stationary, texture-defined gratings. In general, visual performance measured using either detection or identification paradigms is comparable across ages, particularly when information is stationary and defined by more simple visual attributes, such as luminance. Therefore, the use of detection paradigms might be advantageous under most circumstances when assessing visual abilities of very young and/or clinical populations in order to minimize potential challenges not related to visual perception (i.e., attentional) in these populations. Finally, paradigm-contingent differences in performance specific to dynamic, texture-defined information will be discussed.

  18. Detection, identification and mapping of iron anomalies in brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.; Toastmann, H.; Channell, J.E.T.; Guyodo, Y.; Batich, C.; Dobson, J.

    2008-06-16

    This work describes a novel method for the detection, identification and mapping of anomalous iron compounds in mammalian brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have located and identified individual iron anomalies in an avian tissue model associated with ferritin, biogenic magnetite and haemoglobin with a pixel resolution of less than 5 {micro}m. This technique represents a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds in brain tissue. The potential for high-resolution iron mapping using microfocused X-ray beams has direct application to investigations of the location and structural form of iron compounds associated with human neurodegenerative disorders - a problem which has vexed researchers for 50 years.

  19. Fast photon detection for particle identification with COMPASS RICH-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbon, P.; Alekseev, M.; Angerer, H.; Apollonio, M.; Birsa, R.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Busso, L.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Colantoni, M. L.; Costa, S.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, H.; Diaz, V.; Dibiase, N.; Duic, V.; Eyrich, W.; Faso, D.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Gerassimov, S.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Hagemann, R.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Horikawa, S.; Joosten, R.; Ketzer, B.; Königsmann, K.; Kolosov, V. N.; Konorov, I.; Kramer, D.; Kunne, F.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Mann, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Mutter, A.; Nähle, O.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rebourgeard, P.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schröder, W.; Silva, L.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Svec, M.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Wollny, H.

    2007-10-01

    Particle identification (PID) at high rates is an important challenge for many current and future high-energy physics experiments. The upgrade of the COMPASS RICH-1 detector requires a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 106 per channel in the central detector region, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors in the central region have been replaced with the detection system described in this paper. In the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photocathode are now read out via a new system employing APV pre-amplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new detection system consists of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMT) and fast read-out electronics based on the MAD4 discriminator and the F1-TDC chip. The RICH-1 is in operation in its upgraded version for the 2006 CERN SPS run. We present the photon detection design, constructive aspects and the first Cherenkov light in the detector.

  20. Defect occurrence, detection, location and characterization; essential variables of the LBB concept application to primary piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crutzen, S.; Koble, T.D.; Lemaitre, P.

    1997-04-01

    Applications of the Leak Before Break (LBB) concept involve the knowledge of flaw presence and characteristics. In Service Inspection is given the responsibility of detecting flaws of a determined importance to locate them precisely and to classify them in broad families. Often LBB concepts application imply the knowledge of flaw characteristics such as through wall depth; length at the inner diameter (ID) or outer diameter (OD) surface; orientation or tilt and skew angles; branching; surface roughness; opening or width; crack tip aspect. Besides detection and characterization, LBB evaluations consider important the fact that a crack could be in the weld material or in the base material or in the heat affected zone. Cracks in tee junctions, in homogenous simple welds and in elbows are not considered in the same way. Essential variables of a flaw or defect are illustrated, and examples of flaws found in primary piping as reported by plant operators or service vendors are given. If such flaw variables are important in the applications of LBB concepts, essential is then the knowledge of the performance achievable by NDE techniques, during an ISI, in detecting such flaws, in locating them and in correctly evaluating their characteristics.

  1. Location and release time identification of pollution point source in river networks based on the Backward Probability Method.

    PubMed

    Ghane, Alireza; Mazaheri, Mehdi; Mohammad Vali Samani, Jamal

    2016-09-15

    The pollution of rivers due to accidental spills is a major threat to environment and human health. To protect river systems from accidental spills, it is essential to introduce a reliable tool for identification process. Backward Probability Method (BPM) is one of the most recommended tools that is able to introduce information related to the prior location and the release time of the pollution. This method was originally developed and employed in groundwater pollution source identification problems. One of the objectives of this study is to apply this method in identifying the pollution source location and release time in surface waters, mainly in rivers. To accomplish this task, a numerical model is developed based on the adjoint analysis. Then the developed model is verified using analytical solution and some real data. The second objective of this study is to extend the method to pollution source identification in river networks. In this regard, a hypothetical test case is considered. In the later simulations, all of the suspected points are identified, using only one backward simulation. The results demonstrated that all suspected points, determined by the BPM could be a possible pollution source. The proposed approach is accurate and computationally efficient and does not need any simplification in river geometry and flow. Due to this simplicity, it is highly recommended for practical purposes.

  2. Seismicity and detection/location threshold in the southern Great Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    A spatially varying model of the detection/location capabilities of the Southern Great Basin seismic network (SGBSN) has been derived that is based on simple empirical relations and statistics. This permits use of almost all the catalog data gathered; instead of ignoring data that are below the threshold of completeness, a spatially varying threshold model is developed so that subregions having lower completeness levels than the network as a whole can be outlined and the completeness level of each sub-region determined. The predominantly aseismic regions located include the area west of the Death Valley/Furnace Creek fault system and an almost complete absence of events at Yucca Mountain. -from Author

  3. Computerized detection of unruptured aneurysms in MRA images: reduction of false positives using anatomical location features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Gao, Xin; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ando, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Asano, Takahiko; Kato, Hiroki; Iwama, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2008-03-01

    The detection of unruptured aneurysms is a major subject in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). However, their accurate detection is often difficult because of the overlapping between the aneurysm and the adjacent vessels on maximum intensity projection images. The purpose of this study is to develop a computerized method for the detection of unruptured aneurysms in order to assist radiologists in image interpretation. The vessel regions were first segmented using gray-level thresholding and a region growing technique. The gradient concentration (GC) filter was then employed for the enhancement of the aneurysms. The initial candidates were identified in the GC image using a gray-level threshold. For the elimination of false positives (FPs), we determined shape features and an anatomical location feature. Finally, rule-based schemes and quadratic discriminant analysis were employed along with these features for distinguishing between the aneurysms and the FPs. The sensitivity for the detection of unruptured aneurysms was 90.0% with 1.52 FPs per patient. Our computerized scheme can be useful in assisting the radiologists in the detection of unruptured aneurysms in MRA images.

  4. Application of PZT sensors for detection of damage severity and location in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabet Divsholi, Bahador; Yang, Yaowen

    2008-12-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique has been applied for structural health monitoring (SHM) of various engineering systems. However, study on identification of damage severity and location is still in need. In the EMI method, the PZT electromechanical (EM) admittance is used as a damage indicator. Statistical techniques such as root mean square deviation (RMSD) have been employed to associate the damage level with the changes in the EM admittance signature. To achieve high sensitivity to damage, high frequency signatures (>200 kHz) have been used to monitor the region close to the PZT location. It has been reported that the use of RMSD as the damage indicator is difficult to specify the damage location and severity due to the inconsistency in the RMSD results. This paper proposes the use of large frequency (30-400 kHz) range and the RMSD values of sub-frequency intervals to eliminate the inconsistency in the results. An experiment is carried out on a real size concrete structure subjected to artificial damages. The PZT admittance signatures in a frequency range of 30 to 400 kHz for various structural damages have been recorded and the RMSD values of sub-frequency intervals of 10 kHz are calculated. Results show less inconsistency and uncertainties compared to the traditional method using limited high frequency range. It is observed that the damage close to the PZT changes the RMSD at high frequency range significantly; however the damage far away from the PZT changes the RMSD at low frequency range significantly.

  5. Device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhilavyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Laptev, Valery Dmitrievich; Pakhomov, Nikolay Ivanovich; Shvedunov, Vasily Ivanovich; Rykalin, Vladimir Ivanovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2014-03-25

    A device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials is described. In particular, the device performs the detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials by photo-nuclear detection. The device may comprise a race-track microtron, a breaking target, and a water-filled Cherenkov radiation counter.

  6. Can Handheld Plastic Detectors Do Both Gamma and Neutron Isotopic Identification with Directional Source Location?

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-18

    This paper demonstrates, through MCNPX simulations, that a compact hexagonal array of detectors can be utilized to do both gamma isotopic identification (ID) along with neutron identification while simultaneously finding the direction of the source relative to the detector array. The detector array itself is composed of seven borated polyvinyl toluene (PVT) hexagonal light pipes approximately 4 inches long and with a 1.25 inch face-to-face thickness assembled in a tight configuration. The gamma ID capability is realized through judicious windowing algorithms as is the neutron spectral unfolding. By having multiple detectors in different relative positions, directional determination of the source can be realized. By further adding multiplicity counters to the neutron counts, fission events can be measured.

  7. Spatial Pattern and Determinants of the First Detection Locations of Invasive Alien Species in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dingcheng; Zhang, Runzhi; Kim, Ke Chung; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    Background The unintentional transport of species as a result of human activities has reached unprecedented rates. Once established, introduced species can be nearly impossible to eradicate. It is therefore essential to identify and monitor locations where invaders are most likely to establish new populations. Despite the obvious value of early detection, how does an agency identify areas that are most vulnerable to new invaders? Here we propose a novel approach by using the “first detection location” (FDL) of introduced species in China to quantify characteristics of areas where introduced species are first reported. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained FDLs for 166 species (primarily agricultural and forestry pests) that were unintentionally introduced into China prior to 2008 from literature searches. The spatial pattern and determinants of FDLs were examined at the provincial level. The spatial pattern of FDLs varied among provinces with more commerce and trade and economically developed provinces in coastal regions having more FDLs than interior provinces. For example, 74.6% of FDLs were distributed in coastal regions despite that they only cover 15.6% of the total area in China. Variables that may be indicators of “introduction pressure” (e.g. the amount of received commerce) had an overwhelming effect on the number of FDLs in each province (R2 = 0.760). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that “introduction pressure” may be one of the most important factors that determine the locations where newly-introduced species are first detected, and that open and developed provinces in China should be prioritized when developing monitoring programs that focus on locating and managing new introductions. Our study illustrates that FDL approaches can contribute to the study and management of biological invasions not only for China but also for elsewhere. PMID:22363715

  8. Distress detection, location, and communications using advanced space technology. [satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a concept for low-cost, global, day-night, all-weather disaster warning and assistance. Evolving, advanced space technology with passive radio frequency reflectors in conjunction with an imaging synthetic aperture radar is employed to detect, identify, locate, and provide passive communication with earth users in distress. This concept evolved from a broad NASA research on new global search and rescue techniques. Appropriate airborne radar test results from this research are reviewed and related to potential disaster applications. The analysis indicates the approach has promise for disaster communications relative to floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms.

  9. Electrically conductive proppant and methods for detecting, locating and characterizing the electrically conductive proppant

    DOEpatents

    Cannan, Chad; Bartel, Lewis; Palisch, Terrence; Aldridge, David

    2015-01-13

    Electrically conductive proppants and methods for detecting, locating, and characterizing same are provided. The electrically conductive proppant can include a substantially uniform coating of an electrically conductive material having a thickness of at least 500 nm. The method can include injecting a hydraulic fluid into a wellbore extending into a subterranean formation at a rate and pressure sufficient to open a fracture therein, injecting into the fracture a fluid containing the electrically conductive proppant, electrically energizing the earth at or near the fracture, and measuring three dimensional (x, y, and z) components of electric and magnetic field responses at a surface of the earth or in an adjacent wellbore.

  10. Diffuse reflectance optical topography: location of inclusions in 3D and detectability limits

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, N. A.; Baez, G. R.; García, H. A.; Waks Serra, M. V.; Di Rocco, H. O.; Iriarte, D. I.; Pomarico, J. A.; Grosenick, D.; Macdonald, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present contribution we investigate the images of CW diffusely reflected light for a point-like source, registered by a CCD camera imaging a turbid medium containing an absorbing lesion. We show that detection of μa variations (absorption anomalies) is achieved if images are normalized to background intensity. A theoretical analysis based on the diffusion approximation is presented to investigate the sensitivity and the limitations of our proposal and a novel procedure to find the location of the inclusions in 3D is given and tested. An analysis of the noise and its influence on the detection capabilities of our proposal is provided. Experimental results on phantoms are also given, supporting the proposed approach. PMID:24876999

  11. Applying face identification to detecting hijacking of airplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuanwen; Cheng, Qiang

    2004-09-01

    That terrorists hijacked the airplanes and crashed the World Trade Center is disaster to civilization. To avoid the happening of hijack is critical to homeland security. To report the hijacking in time, limit the terrorist to operate the plane if happened and land the plane to the nearest airport could be an efficient way to avoid the misery. Image processing technique in human face recognition or identification could be used for this task. Before the plane take off, the face images of pilots are input into a face identification system installed in the airplane. The camera in front of pilot seat keeps taking the pilot face image during the flight and comparing it with pre-input pilot face images. If a different face is detected, a warning signal is sent to ground automatically. At the same time, the automatic cruise system is started or the plane is controlled by the ground. The terrorists will have no control over the plane. The plane will be landed to a nearest or appropriate airport under the control of the ground or cruise system. This technique could also be used in automobile industry as an image key to avoid car stealth.

  12. Granada medium for detection and identification of group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    De La Rosa, M; Villareal, R; Vega, D; Miranda, C; Martinezbrocal, A

    1983-01-01

    A new starch serum medium, Granada medium, for isolation and identification of group B streptococci (GBS) anaerobically as red colonies is described. The medium contains 3.8% Proteose Peptone no. 3 (Difco), 15% soluble starch 1252 (Merck), 10% coagulated horse serum, 15 micrograms of trimethoprim per ml, and 0.06 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.8; medium pH 7.4). This medium inhibited fecal flora and at the same time supported growth of GBS. A new pigment-enhancing effect of folate inhibitors on GBS is reported and used in the formulation of the medium. The good selective and differential properties of the Granada medium favor quicker and easier detection of GBS in heavily contaminated specimens. Since the medium is convenient to use and requires only 18 h of incubation to detect and identify GBS, it should be useful in any clinical microbiology laboratory and would assist in the early detection of GBS in clinical specimens. PMID:6355158

  13. Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (<400 nm) on targeted materials is suitable for both sensitive detection and accurate identification of explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

  14. Probablilistic evaluation of earthquake detection and location capability for Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Mauk, F.J.; Christensen, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    Probabilistic estimations of earthquake detection and location capabilities for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia are presented in this document. The algorithm used in these epicentrality and minimum-magnitude estimations is a version of the program NETWORTH by Wirth, Blandford, and Husted (DARPA Order No. 2551, 1978) which was modified for local array evaluation at the University of Michigan Seismological Observatory. Estimations of earthquake detection capability for the years 1970 and 1980 are presented in four regional minimum m/sub b/ magnitude contour maps. Regional 90% confidence error ellipsoids are included for m/sub b/ magnitude events from 2.0 through 5.0 at 0.5 m/sub b/ unit increments. The close agreement between these predicted epicentral 90% confidence estimates and the calculated error ellipses associated with actual earthquakes within the studied region suggest that these error determinations can be used to estimate the reliability of epicenter location. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Low-cost impact detection and location for automated inspections of 3D metallic based structures.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Portilla, Marina P; Somolinos, José A; Morales, Rafael

    2015-05-28

    This paper describes a new low-cost means to detect and locate mechanical impacts (collisions) on a 3D metal-based structure. We employ the simple and reasonably hypothesis that the use of a homogeneous material will allow certain details of the impact to be automatically determined by measuring the time delays of acoustic wave propagation throughout the 3D structure. The location of strategic piezoelectric sensors on the structure and an electronic-computerized system has allowed us to determine the instant and position at which the impact is produced. The proposed automatic system allows us to fully integrate impact point detection and the task of inspecting the point or zone at which this impact occurs. What is more, the proposed method can be easily integrated into a robot-based inspection system capable of moving over 3D metallic structures, thus avoiding (or minimizing) the need for direct human intervention. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Low-Cost Impact Detection and Location for Automated Inspections of 3D Metallic Based Structures

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Portilla, Marina P.; Somolinos, José A.; Morales, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new low-cost means to detect and locate mechanical impacts (collisions) on a 3D metal-based structure. We employ the simple and reasonably hypothesis that the use of a homogeneous material will allow certain details of the impact to be automatically determined by measuring the time delays of acoustic wave propagation throughout the 3D structure. The location of strategic piezoelectric sensors on the structure and an electronic-computerized system has allowed us to determine the instant and position at which the impact is produced. The proposed automatic system allows us to fully integrate impact point detection and the task of inspecting the point or zone at which this impact occurs. What is more, the proposed method can be easily integrated into a robot-based inspection system capable of moving over 3D metallic structures, thus avoiding (or minimizing) the need for direct human intervention. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26029951

  17. Detecting location-specific neuronal firing rate increases in the hippocampus of freely-moving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ludvig, Nandor; Tang, Hai M; Gohil, Baiju C; Botero, Juan M

    2004-07-16

    The spatial properties of the firing of hippocampal neurons have mainly been studied in (a) freely moving rodents, (b) non-human primates seated in a moveable primate chair with head fixed, and (c) epileptic patients subjected to virtual navigation. Although these studies have all revealed the ability of hippocampal neurons to generate spatially selective discharges, the detected firing patterns have been found to be considerably different, even conflicting, in many respects. The present cellular electrophysiological study employed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which moved freely on the walls and floor of a large test chamber. This permitted the examination of the spatial firing of hippocampal neurons in nearly ideal conditions, similar to those used in rodents, yet in a species that belongs to the primate Suborder Anthropoidea. The major findings were that: (1) a group of slow-firing complex-spike cells increased their basal, awake firing rate more than 20-fold, often above 30 spikes/s, when the monkey was in a particular location in the chamber, (2) these location-specific discharges occurred consistently, forming 4-25 s action potential volleys, and (3) fast-firing cells displayed no such electrical activity. Thus, during free movement in three dimensions, primate hippocampal complex-spike cells do generate high-frequency, location-specific action potential volleys. Since these cells are components of the medial temporal lobe memory system, their uncovered firing pattern may well be involved in the formation of declarative memories on places.

  18. Detection and Location of Icy Particles Surrounding 103P/Hartley 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Farnham, T. L.; Schultz, P. H.; Kelley, M. S.; Lindler, D.; Thomas, P. C.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Impact Flyby Spacecraft encountered comet 103P/Hartley 2 on November 4th, 2010 at a minimum distance of 694 km [1]. Both the High Resolution (HRI) and Medium Resolution Instruments (MRI) captured images of a field of debris enveloping the comet. Fine grain dust and ice (primarily detected in the HRI) and hundreds of discrete larger particles are apparent during encounter. The larger golf ball to basketball-sized particles are detected primarily near the nucleus (Fig. 1). This swarming of individual grains in the near-nucleus environment of Hartley 2 has not been observed in any other comet to date. The motion of the spacecraft instruments relative to the comet nucleus (including not only spacecraft velocity but pointing adjustments) provides sufficient parallax between successive images around closest approach to stereoscopically reconstruct the distance and displacement of these particles. In this study, we present an analysis of the identification, position, and motion of discrete ejected particles surrounding the comet.

  19. Detection, location, and analysis of earthquakes using seismic surface waves (Beno Gutenberg Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekström, Göran

    2015-04-01

    For shallow sources, Love and Rayleigh waves are the largest seismic phases recorded at teleseismic distances. The utility of these waves for earthquake characterization was traditionally limited to magnitude estimation, since geographically variable dispersion makes it difficult to determine useful travel-time information from the waveforms. Path delays due to heterogeneity of several tens of seconds are typical for waves at 50 sec period, and these delays must be accounted for with precision and accuracy in order to extract propagation-phase and source-phase information. Advances in tomographic mapping of global surface-wave phase velocities, and continuous growth and improvements of seismographic networks around the world, now make possible new applications of surface waves for earthquake monitoring and analysis. Through continuous back propagation of the long-period seismic wave field recorded by globally distributed stations, nearly all shallow earthquakes greater than M=5 can be detected and located with a precision of 25 km. Some of the detected events do not appear in standard earthquake catalogs and correspond to non-tectonic earthquakes, including landslides, glacier calving, and volcanic events. With the improved ability to predict complex propagation effects of surface waves across a heterogeneous Earth, moment-tensor and force representations of seismic sources can be routinely determined for all earthquakes greater than M=5 by waveform fitting of surface waves. A current area of progress in the use of surface waves for earthquake studies is the determination of precise relative locations of remote seismicity by systematic cross correlation and analysis of surface waves generated by neighboring sources. Preliminary results indicate that a location precision of 5 km may be achievable in many areas of the world.

  20. Apparatus and method for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Overton, W.C. Jr.; Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1981-05-22

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  1. Location detection and tracking of moving targets by a 2D IR-UWB radar system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Han; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2015-03-19

    In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF) is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  2. Rapid, Vehicle-Based Identification of Location and Magnitude of Urban Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks.

    PubMed

    von Fischer, Joseph C; Cooley, Daniel; Chamberlain, Sam; Gaylord, Adam; Griebenow, Claire J; Hamburg, Steven P; Salo, Jessica; Schumacher, Russ; Theobald, David; Ham, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Information about the location and magnitudes of natural gas (NG) leaks from urban distribution pipelines is important for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and optimizing investment in pipeline management. To enable rapid collection of such data, we developed a relatively simple method using high-precision methane analyzers in Google Street View cars. Our data indicate that this automated leak survey system can document patterns in leak location and magnitude within and among cities, even without wind data. We found that urban areas with prevalent corrosion-prone distribution lines (Boston, MA, Staten Island, NY, and Syracuse, NY), leaked approximately 25-fold more methane than cities with more modern pipeline materials (Burlington, VT, and Indianapolis, IN). Although this mobile monitoring method produces conservative estimates of leak rates and leak counts, it can still help prioritize both leak repairs and replacement of leak-prone sections of distribution lines, thus minimizing methane emissions over short and long terms.

  3. Radiometric responsivity determination for Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. G.; Davis, R. E.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Bullock, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed to obtain the radiometric (radiance) responsivity of the Feature Identification and Local Experiment (FILE) instrument in preparation for its flight on Space Shuttle Mission 41-G (November 1984). This instrument was designed to obtain Earth feature radiance data in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns, along with corroborative color and color-infrared photographs, and to collect data to evaluate a technique for in-orbit autonomous classification of the Earth's primary features. The calibration process incorporated both solar radiance measurements and radiative transfer model predictions in estimating expected radiance inputs to the FILE on the Shuttle. The measured data are compared with the model predictions, and the differences observed are discussed. Application of the calibration procedure to the FILE over an 18-month period indicated a constant responsivity characteristic. This report documents the calibration procedure and the associated radiometric measurements and predictions that were part of the instrument preparation for flight.

  4. Location Performance and Detection Threshold of the Spanish National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Badal, José; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Baskoutas, Ioannis; Özel, Nurcan M.

    2013-11-01

    Spain is a low-to-moderate seismicity area with relatively low seismic hazard. However, several strong shallow earthquakes have shaken the country causing casualties and extensive damage. Regional seismicity is monitored and surveyed by means of the Spanish National Seismic Network, maintenance and control of which are entrusted to the Instituto Geográfico Nacional. This array currently comprises 120 seismic stations distributed throughout Spanish territory (mainland and islands). Basically, we are interested in checking the noise conditions, reliability, and seismic detection capability of the Spanish network by analyzing the background noise level affecting the array stations, errors in hypocentral location, and detection threshold, which provides knowledge about network performance. It also enables testing of the suitability of the velocity model used in the routine process of earthquake location. To perform this study we use a method that relies on P and S wave travel times, which are computed by simulation of seismic rays from virtual seismic sources placed at the nodes of a regular grid covering the study area. Given the characteristics of the seismicity of Spain, we drew maps for M L magnitudes 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0, at a focal depth of 10 km and a confidence level 95 %. The results relate to the number of stations involved in the hypocentral location process, how these stations are distributed spatially, and the uncertainties of focal data (errors in origin time, longitude, latitude, and depth). To assess the extent to which principal seismogenic areas are well monitored by the network, we estimated the average error in the location of a seismic source from the semiaxes of the ellipsoid of confidence by calculating the radius of the equivalent sphere. Finally, the detection threshold was determined as the magnitude of the smallest seismic event detected at least by four stations. The northwest of the peninsula, the Pyrenees, especially the westernmost segment

  5. Development of an adaptive failure detection and identification system for detecting aircraft control element failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundick, W. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for designing a failure detection and identification (FDI) system to detect and isolate control element failures in aircraft control systems is reviewed. An FDI system design for a modified B-737 aircraft resulting from this methodology is also reviewed, and the results of evaluating this system via simulation are presented. The FDI system performed well in a no-turbulence environment, but it experienced an unacceptable number of false alarms in atmospheric turbulence. An adaptive FDI system, which adjusts thresholds and other system parameters based on the estimated turbulence level, was developed and evaluated. The adaptive system performed well over all turbulence levels simulated, reliably detecting all but the smallest magnitude partially-missing-surface failures.

  6. Hyperspectral Based Skin Detection for Person of Interest Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    other biometric security systems such as facial recognition and fingerprint identification [1]. In the case of surveillance, a real-time skin... fingerprints , voice, or retina [7]. However, these identification techniques require a POI to willingly allow their fingerprints or retina to be...other biometric security systems such as facial recognition and fingerprint identification [1]. Skin identification can act as a validation system to

  7. Infrared detection, recognition and identification of handheld objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomeit, Uwe

    2012-10-01

    A main criterion for comparison and selection of thermal imagers for military applications is their nominal range performance. This nominal range performance is calculated for a defined task and standardized target and environmental conditions. The only standardization available to date is STANAG 4347. The target defined there is based on a main battle tank in front view. Because of modified military requirements, this target is no longer up-to-date. Today, different topics of interest are of interest, especially differentiation between friend and foe and identification of humans. There is no direct way to differentiate between friend and foe in asymmetric scenarios, but one clue can be that someone is carrying a weapon. This clue can be transformed in the observer tasks detection: a person is carrying or is not carrying an object, recognition: the object is a long / medium / short range weapon or civil equipment and identification: the object can be named (e. g. AK-47, M-4, G36, RPG7, Axe, Shovel etc.). These tasks can be assessed experimentally and from the results of such an assessment, a standard target for handheld objects may be derived. For a first assessment, a human carrying 13 different handheld objects in front of his chest was recorded at four different ranges with an IR-dual-band camera. From the recorded data, a perception experiment was prepared. It was conducted with 17 observers in a 13-alternative forced choice, unlimited observation time arrangement. The results of the test together with Minimum Temperature Difference Perceived measurements of the camera and temperature difference and critical dimension derived from the recorded imagery allowed defining a first standard target according to the above tasks. This standard target consist of 2.5 / 3.5 / 5 DRI line pairs on target, 0.24 m critical size and 1 K temperature difference. The values are preliminary and have to be refined in the future. Necessary are different aspect angles, different

  8. Accuracy of three different electronic apex locators in detecting simulated horizontal and vertical root fractures.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Aqeel K; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs): Root ZX, Foramatron D10 and Apex NRG, in the detection of fractures in teeth having simulated horizontal and vertical root fractures. A total of 90 extracted intact, straight, single-rooted teeth were divided into six groups of 15 teeth each. In Groups A, B and C, an incomplete horizontal fracture was simulated by preparing a horizontal incision in the coronal, middle or apical portion of the root until the circumferential half of the canal was exposed in the horizontal plane respectively. In Groups D, E and F, an incomplete vertical root fracture was simulated by preparing a vertical straight incision to expose the canal in the coronal, middle or apical portion of the root all the way in the longitudinal plane respectively. The simulated fractures were 0.25 mm in thickness in all groups. The teeth were embedded in 1% agar and the canals were irrigated with saline solution during electronic measurement. Detection of the simulated root fractures was established with a size 10 K-file when the meter value reached 'APEX' on each EAL. In Groups A, B and C, Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between the three EALs. However, statistically significant differences were found among the EALs in Groups D, E and F (P < 0.0001, one-way anova and Tukey's post-hoc test). In conclusion, the three EALs tested were accurate and acceptable clinical tools in the detection of horizontal root fractures. However, the three EALs were unreliable in detecting the position of vertical root fractures.

  9. Improved Detection and Location of Ocean Microseism Signals using Array Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reading, A. M.; Gal, M.; Koper, K. D.; Tkalcic, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present and evaluate a range of approaches that may be used to investigate ocean microseisms using seismic array data. At amplitudes below the dominant incoming signal, the ambient seismic energy (background noise) associated with microseisms arrives from multiple directions at any one time. Thus we address the challenge of detecting weaker signals from unpredictable directions in the presence of other strong signals. Our aim is to extract the most accurate information possible from such weaker signals in order to expand the capability of ocean storm studies, using seismology, including the ability to extract storm patterns from archive seismic array records. Detection of weaker microseism signals may be improved using algorithms widely used in astronomy. One example is the CLEAN algorithm which has wide usage in radio astronomy. This algorithm operates by finding the position and strength of point sources and iteratively deconvolving their contribution to the image. It may be combined to optimum effect with the previously published (Incoherently Averaged Signal) IAS Capon implementation for an accurate detection of weaker sources. Having detected weaker sources, they may be backprojected using a suitable Earth model, taking into account a correction for the mislocation due to slowness-azimuth station corrections. The microseism generation locations inferred in this manner are strongly frequency dependent, even within relatively restricted frequency ranges (0.325-0.725 Hz) for some arrays. Our advances in seismic array processing, with a focus on methods appropriate to weaker ambient noise signals, have led to insights, for example, regarding the generation of seismic noise. We find that secondary microseisms in the lower frequency band are generated mainly by ocean swell whereas higher frequency bands are generated by local wind conditions. These arrivals are investigated over a two-decade time frame for the Southern Ocean and west Pacific Ocean.

  10. Detection and Identification of Multiple Stationary Human Targets Via Bio-Radar Based on the Cross-Correlation Method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Fuming; Xue, Huijun; Li, Zhao; An, Qiang; Wang, Jianqi; Zhang, Yang

    2016-10-27

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) radar has been widely used for detecting human physiological signals (respiration, movement, etc.) in the fields of rescue, security, and medicine owing to its high penetrability and range resolution. In these applications, especially in rescue after disaster (earthquake, collapse, mine accident, etc.), the presence, number, and location of the trapped victims to be detected and rescued are the key issues of concern. Ample research has been done on the first issue, whereas the identification and localization of multi-targets remains a challenge. False positive and negative identification results are two common problems associated with the detection of multiple stationary human targets. This is mainly because the energy of the signal reflected from the target close to the receiving antenna is considerably stronger than those of the targets at further range, often leading to missing or false recognition if the identification method is based on the energy of the respiratory signal. Therefore, a novel method based on cross-correlation is proposed in this paper that is based on the relativity and periodicity of the signals, rather than on the energy. The validity of this method is confirmed through experiments using different scenarios; the results indicate a discernible improvement in the detection precision and identification of the multiple stationary targets.

  11. Detection and Identification of Multiple Stationary Human Targets Via Bio-Radar Based on the Cross-Correlation Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Fuming; Xue, Huijun; Li, Zhao; An, Qiang; Wang, Jianqi; Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) radar has been widely used for detecting human physiological signals (respiration, movement, etc.) in the fields of rescue, security, and medicine owing to its high penetrability and range resolution. In these applications, especially in rescue after disaster (earthquake, collapse, mine accident, etc.), the presence, number, and location of the trapped victims to be detected and rescued are the key issues of concern. Ample research has been done on the first issue, whereas the identification and localization of multi-targets remains a challenge. False positive and negative identification results are two common problems associated with the detection of multiple stationary human targets. This is mainly because the energy of the signal reflected from the target close to the receiving antenna is considerably stronger than those of the targets at further range, often leading to missing or false recognition if the identification method is based on the energy of the respiratory signal. Therefore, a novel method based on cross-correlation is proposed in this paper that is based on the relativity and periodicity of the signals, rather than on the energy. The validity of this method is confirmed through experiments using different scenarios; the results indicate a discernible improvement in the detection precision and identification of the multiple stationary targets. PMID:27801795

  12. Visual Detection and Identification Are Not the Same: Evidence from Psychophysics and fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straube, Sirko; Fahle, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Sometimes object detection as opposed to identification is sufficient to initiate the appropriate action. To explore the neural origin of behavioural differences between the two tasks, we combine psychophysical measurements and fMRI, specifically contrasting shape detection versus identification of a figure. This figure consisted of Gabor elements…

  13. Study of Electrical Resistivity on the Location and Identification of Contamination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Pertof te fS.bueuAw the wof Master of Science Approvd by: %Z46L1 iKAiz/4f, -"-°. ., .- .% STUDY OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY ON THE LOCATION AND...Education and Research UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science 1985 by Brian D. McCarty...IF . -9- - - ~ V LIST OF FIGURES Figures 11-3 -Relationship of Resistance to Resistivity Diagram 11-5 - Earth Resistivity Diagram 11-7 -Wenner

  14. Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco; Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations.

  15. Unsupervised video-based lane detection using location-enhanced topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2010-10-01

    An unsupervised learning algorithm based on topic models is presented for lane detection in video sequences observed by uncalibrated moving cameras. Our contributions are twofold. First, we introduce the maximally stable extremal region (MSER) detector for lane-marking feature extraction and derive a novel shape descriptor in an affine invariant manner to describe region shapes and a modified scale-invariant feature transform descriptor to capture feature appearance characteristics. MSER features are more stable compared to edge points or line pairs and hence provide robustness to lane-marking variations in scale, lighting, viewpoint, and shadows. Second, we proposed a novel location-enhanced probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) topic model for simultaneous lane recognition and localization. The proposed model overcomes the limitation of a pLSA model for effective topic localization. Experimental results on traffic sequences in various scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  16. Waveform Based Acoustic Emission Detection and Location of Matrix Cracking in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    1995-01-01

    The operation of damage mechanisms in a material or structure under load produces transient acoustic waves. These acoustic waves are known as acoustic emission (AE). In composites they can be caused by a variety of sources including matrix cracking, fiber breakage, and delamination. AE signals can be detected and analyzed to determine the location of the acoustic source by triangulation. Attempts are also made to analyze the signals to determine the type and severity of the damage mechanism. AE monitoring has been widely used for both laboratory studies of materials, and for testing the integrity of structures in the field. In this work, an advanced, waveform based AE system was used in a study of transverse matrix cracking in cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates. This AE system featured broad band, high fidelity sensors, and high capture rate digital acquisition and storage of acoustic signals. In addition, analysis techniques based on plate wave propagation models were employed. These features provided superior source location and noise rejection capabilities.

  17. Evaluating the performance of network screening methods for detecting high collision concentration locations on highways.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Hoon; Park, Min Ju; Yeo, Hwasoo; Chung, Koohong

    2013-03-01

    This paper documents findings from evaluating performances of three different methods for segmenting freeway sites for the purpose of identifying high collision concentration locations: Sliding Moving Window (SMW), Peak Searching (PS) and Continuous Risk Profile (CRP). The traffic collision data from sites segmented in each method under two different roadway definitions were used to estimate excess expected average crash frequency with Empirical Bayes adjustment with respect to two different sets of Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). The estimates from each of the methods were then used to prioritize the detected sites for safety investigation and these lists were compared with previously confirmed high collision concentration locations (or hot spots). The input requirements for each of three methods were identical, yet their performance markedly varied. The findings revealed that CRP method has the lowest false positive (i.e., requiring a site for safety investigation while it is not needed) rate. The performances of SMW and PS significantly varied when different sets of SPFs were used while that of CRP was less affected.

  18. Identification of peroxisomal targeting signals located at the carboxy terminus of four peroxisomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand how proteins are imported into the peroxisome, we have sought to identify the peroxisomal targeting signals in four unrelated peroxisomal proteins: human catalase, rat hydratase:dehydrogenase, pig D-amino acid oxidase, and rat acyl-CoA oxidase. Using gene fusion experiments, we have identified a region of each protein that can direct heterologous proteins to peroxisomes. In each case, the peroxisomal targeting signal is contained at or near the carboxy terminus of the protein. For catalase, the peroxisomal targeting signal is located within the COOH-terminal 27 amino acids of the protein. For hydratase:dehydrogenase, D-amino acid oxidase, and acyl-CoA oxidase, the targeting signals are located within the carboxy- terminal 15, 14, and 15 amino acids, respectively. A tripeptide of the sequence Ser-Lys/His-Leu is present in each of these targeting signals as well as in the peroxisomal targeting signal identified in firefly luciferase (Gould, S.J., G.-A. Keller, and S. Subramani. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:2923-2931). When the peroxisomal targeting signal of the hydratase:dehydrogenase is mutated so that the Ser-Lys-Leu tripeptide is converted to Ser-Asn-Leu, it can no longer direct proteins to peroxisomes. We suggest that this tripeptide is an essential element of at least one class of peroxisomal targeting signals. PMID:2901422

  19. Neural network based system for damage identification and location in structural and mechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W.; Prime, M.B.; Cornwell, P.; Kam, M.; Straser, E.G.; Hoerst, B.C.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Recent advances in wireless, remotely monitored data acquisition systems coupled with the development of vibration-based damage detection algorithms make the possibility of self- or remotely-monitored structures and mechanical systems appear to be within the capabilities of current technology. However, before such a system can be relied upon to perform this monitoring, the variability of the vibration properties that are the basis for the damage detection algorithm must be understood and quantified. This understanding is necessary so that the artificial intelligence/expert system that is employed to discriminate when changes in modal properties are indicative of damage will not yield false indications of damage. To this end, this project has focused on developing statistical methods for quantifying variability in identified vibration proper ties of structural and mechanical systems.

  20. A new self-calibrated procedure for impact detection and location on flat surfaces.

    PubMed

    Somolinos, José A; López, Amable; Morales, Rafael; Morón, Carlos

    2013-05-30

    Many analyses of acoustic signals processing have been proposed for different applications over the last few years. When considering a bar-based structure, if the material through which the sound waves propagate is considered to be acoustically homogeneous and the sound speed is well known, then it is possible to determine the position and time of impact by a simple observation of the arrival times of the signals of all the transducers that are strategically disposed on the structure. This paper presents a generalized method for impact detection and location on a flat plate, together with a calibration procedure with which to obtain the sound speed from only one set of measurements. This propagation speed is not well known as a result of either imprecise material properties or the overlapping of longitudinal and transversal waves with different propagation velocities. The use of only three piezoelectric sensors allows the position and time of impact on the flat plate to be obtained when the sound speed is well known, while the use of additional sensors permits a larger detection area to be covered, helps to estimate the sound speed and/or avoids the wrong timing of difference measurements. Experimental results are presented using a robot with a specially designed knocking tool that produces impacts on a metallic flat plate.

  1. A New Self-Calibrated Procedure for Impact Detection and Location on Flat Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Somolinos, José A.; López, Amable; Morales, Rafael; Morón, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Many analyses of acoustic signals processing have been proposed for different applications over the last few years. When considering a bar-based structure, if the material through which the sound waves propagate is considered to be acoustically homogeneous and the sound speed is well known, then it is possible to determine the position and time of impact by a simple observation of the arrival times of the signals of all the transducers that are strategically disposed on the structure. This paper presents a generalized method for impact detection and location on a flat plate, together with a calibration procedure with which to obtain the sound speed from only one set of measurements. This propagation speed is not well known as a result of either imprecise material properties or the overlapping of longitudinal and transversal waves with different propagation velocities. The use of only three piezoelectric sensors allows the position and time of impact on the flat plate to be obtained when the sound speed is well known, while the use of additional sensors permits a larger detection area to be covered, helps to estimate the sound speed and/or avoids the wrong timing of difference measurements. Experimental results are presented using a robot with a specially designed knocking tool that produces impacts on a metallic flat plate. PMID:23722825

  2. Identification of slip surface location by TLS-GPS datafor landslide mitigation case study: Ciloto-Puncak, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadarviana, Vera; Hasanuddin Z., A.; Joenil, K.; Santoso, Djoko; Irwan, G.; Wijaya, Dudy; Ilman, H.; Agung, N.; R. T., Achmad; Pangeran, C.; S., Martin; Gamal, M.

    2015-04-01

    Landslide can prevented by understanding the direction of movement to the safety evacuation track or slip surface location to hold avalanches. Slip surface is separating between stable soil and unstable soil in the slope. The slip surface location gives information about stable material depth. The information can be utilize to mitigate technical step, such as pile installation to keep construction or settlement safe from avalanches.There are two kinds landslide indicators which are visualization and calculation. By visualization, landslide identified from soil crack or scarp. Scarp is a scar of exposed soil on the landslide. That identification can be done by Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) Image. Shape of scarp shows type of slip surface, translation or rotational. By calculation, kinematic and dynamic mathematic model will give vector, velocity and acceleration of material movement. In this calculation need velocity trend line at GPS point from five GPS data campaign. From intersection of trend lines it will create curves or lines of slip surface location. The number of slip surface can be known from material movement direction in landslide zone.Ciloto landslide zone have complicated phenomenon because that zone have influence from many direction of ground water level pressure. The pressure is causes generating several slip surface in Ciloto zone. Types of Ciloto slip surface have mix between translational and rotational type.

  3. Identification of slip surface location by TLS-GPS datafor landslide mitigation case study: Ciloto-Puncak, West Java

    SciTech Connect

    Sadarviana, Vera Hasanuddin, A. Z.; Joenil, G. K.; Irwan; Wijaya, Dudy; Ilman, H.; Agung, N.; Achmad, R. T.; Pangeran, C.; Martin, S.; Gamal, M.; Santoso, Djoko

    2015-04-24

    Landslide can prevented by understanding the direction of movement to the safety evacuation track or slip surface location to hold avalanches. Slip surface is separating between stable soil and unstable soil in the slope. The slip surface location gives information about stable material depth. The information can be utilize to mitigate technical step, such as pile installation to keep construction or settlement safe from avalanches.There are two kinds landslide indicators which are visualization and calculation. By visualization, landslide identified from soil crack or scarp. Scarp is a scar of exposed soil on the landslide. That identification can be done by Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) Image. Shape of scarp shows type of slip surface, translation or rotational. By calculation, kinematic and dynamic mathematic model will give vector, velocity and acceleration of material movement. In this calculation need velocity trend line at GPS point from five GPS data campaign. From intersection of trend lines it will create curves or lines of slip surface location. The number of slip surface can be known from material movement direction in landslide zone.Ciloto landslide zone have complicated phenomenon because that zone have influence from many direction of ground water level pressure. The pressure is causes generating several slip surface in Ciloto zone. Types of Ciloto slip surface have mix between translational and rotational type.

  4. Robust method to detect and locate local earthquakes by means of amplitude measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Brückl, Ewald

    2016-04-01

    In this study we present a robust new method to detect and locate medium and low magnitude local earthquakes. This method is based on an empirical model of the ground motion obtained from amplitude data of earthquakes in the area of interest, which were located using traditional methods. The first step of our method is the computation of maximum resultant ground velocities in sliding time windows covering the whole period of interest. In the second step, these maximum resultant ground velocities are back-projected to every point of a grid covering the whole area of interest while applying the empirical amplitude - distance relations. We refer to these back-projected ground velocities as pseudo-magnitudes. The number of operating seismic stations in the local network equals the number of pseudo-magnitudes at each grid-point. Our method introduces the new idea of selecting the minimum pseudo-magnitude at each grid-point for further analysis instead of searching for a minimum of the L2 or L1 norm. In case no detectable earthquake occurred, the spatial distribution of the minimum pseudo-magnitudes constrains the magnitude of weak earthquakes hidden in the ambient noise. In the case of a detectable local earthquake, the spatial distribution of the minimum pseudo-magnitudes shows a significant maximum at the grid-point nearest to the actual epicenter. The application of our method is restricted to the area confined by the convex hull of the seismic station network. Additionally, one must ensure that there are no dead traces involved in the processing. Compared to methods based on L2 and even L1 norms, our new method is almost wholly insensitive to outliers (data from locally disturbed seismic stations). A further advantage is the fast determination of the epicenter and magnitude of a seismic event located within a seismic network. This is possible due to the method of obtaining and storing a back-projected matrix, independent of the registered amplitude, for each seismic

  5. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  6. Detection And Identification Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, J. A.; Ouaret, N.; Gardner, J. W.; Nwokolo, C.; Bardhan, K. D.; Arasaradnam, R. P.

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammation of the lining of the human bowel and a major health issue in Europe. IBD carries with it significant morbidity from toxic treatment, surgery and a risk of developing bowel cancer. Thus there is a need for early identification of the disease using non-invasive tests. Present diagnostic techniques are based around invasive tests (i.e. endoscopy) and laboratory culture; the latter is limited as only 50% of the gut bacteria can be identified. Here we explore the use of an e-nose as a tool to detect and identify two IBDs (i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) & Ulcerative Colitis (UC)) based on headspace analysis from urine samples. We believe that the gut bacterial flora is altered by disease (due to fermentation) that in-turn modulates the gas composition within urine samples. 24 samples (9 CD, 6 UC, 9 controls) were analysed with an in-house e-nose and an Owlstone IMS instrument. Data analysis was performed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA and principal components analysis (PCA). Using the e-nose, LDA separates both disease groups and control, whilst PCA shows a small overlap of classes. The IMS data are more complex but shows some disease/control separation. We are presently collecting further samples for a larger study using more advanced data processing methods.

  7. Detecting and locating light atoms from high-resolution STEM images: The quest for a single optimal design.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, J; De Backer, A; den Dekker, A J; Sijbers, J; Van Aert, S

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper, the optimal detector design is investigated for both detecting and locating light atoms from high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR STEM) images. The principles of detection theory are used to quantify the probability of error for the detection of light atoms from HR STEM images. To determine the optimal experiment design for locating light atoms, use is made of the so-called Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). It is investigated if a single optimal design can be found for both the detection and location problem of light atoms. Furthermore, the incoming electron dose is optimised for both research goals and it is shown that picometre range precision is feasible for the estimation of the atom positions when using an appropriate incoming electron dose under the optimal detector settings to detect light atoms.

  8. Identification, expression pattern, cellular location and potential role of the caveolin-1 gene from Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejie; Yao, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Cheng; Chu, Bing; Liu, Yan; Mei, Yanli; Wu, Yang; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Caveolins are integral membrane proteins that serve as scaffolds to recruit numerous signaling molecules. Caveolins play an important role in membrane trafficking, signal transduction, substrate transport and endocytosis in differentiated cells. In this study, a caveolin-1 gene from Artemia sinica (As-cav-1) was successfully cloned for the first time. The full-length cDNA of As-cav-1 comprises 974 bp, with a 675 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a polypeptide of 224 amino acids with a caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD) and two transmembrane domains. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the putative As-CAV-1 protein sequence was relatively conserved across species, especially in the CSD domain. Real-time PCR revealed high levels of the As-cav-1 transcript at 0h of embryo development. Furthermore, As-cav-1 transcripts were highly upregulated under high salinity (200‰) and low temperature stresses (15°C). To further characterize As-cav-1, recombinant pET30a-cav-1 protein was expressed using a prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant protein comprised 290 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 32kDa, and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.6. Western blotting of the expression levels of As-CAV-1 during different embryo development stages revealed that As-CAV-1 levels decreased gradually during development stages from 0 h to 40 h, and increased at 3d. Furthermore, western blotting showed that As-CAV-1 was upregulated to its highest expression level by low temperature stress (15°C) and high salinity. Confocal laser microscopy analysis, using antibodies generated against the recombinant As-CAV-1 protein, showed that As-CAV-1 was mostly located in the cell membrane. Our results suggested that As-cav-1 plays a vital role in protecting embryos from high salt damage and low temperature stress, especially during post-diapause embryonic development.

  9. CFD modelling of sampling locations for early detection of spontaneous combustion in long-wall gob areas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was conducted to optimize gas sampling locations for the early detection of spontaneous heating in longwall gob areas. Initial simulations were carried out to predict carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations at various regulators in the gob using a bleeder ventilation system. Measured CO concentration values at these regulators were then used to calibrate the CFD model. The calibrated CFD model was used to simulate CO concentrations at eight sampling locations in the gob using a bleederless ventilation system to determine the optimal sampling locations for early detection of spontaneous combustion.

  10. Identification and location of the cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the abomasum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, Izabela; Młynek, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) belongs to the group of peptides with anorexigenic properties and is present in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems of numerous mammalian species. Research has suggested an effect on the feeling of appetite and satiety; however, there are no clear clues as to the role of CART in specific organs, including the stomach. Considering the specificity of cattle feeding and digestion, CART may play a highly significant role possibly associated with the option of administering greater amounts of high-volume feeds. Based on the results of immunohistochemical staining of abomasum samples prepared from hybrid bulls, the presence of CART-positive structures and CART distribution were determined in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers of the stomach. Abundant sites of CART were found in the myenteric plexus, nerve fibers innervating the myocytes of the myenteron, neuroendocrine cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and the submucous plexus. The preliminary stage of abomasal CART detection suggests that CART is an agent that strongly affects the regulation of motor activity involved in stomach emptying and in secretory functions of the stomach. However, further research is necessary to explain the relationship.

  11. Detection versus location judgments in a hidden pattern task: functional MRI and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Bolster, R Bruce; D'Arcy, Ryan C N; Song, Xiaowei; Runke, Dwayne S; Ryner, Lawrence

    2011-08-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess cortical involvement in a hidden pattern task. The experimental and control conditions involved judgment of the presence/absence versus the position of a complex pattern. Activation specific to hidden pattern identification was concentrated on frontal, dorsal parietal, and mesolimbic cortex. This was consistent not only across individual subjects, but with hidden figures tasks used in previous fMRI investigations. Results suggest that pattern identification relies on a relatively stable neural network controlling selective attention. In combination with fMRI, hidden pattern tasks may be useful in neuropsychological assessment of visual search and object identification.

  12. Investigation on experimental techniques to detect, locate and quantify gear noise in helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, P. M.; Atherton, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    A robotic system to automate the detection, location, and quantification of gear noise using acoustic intensity measurement techniques has been successfully developed. Major system components fabricated under this grant include an instrumentation robot arm, a robot digital control unit and system software. A commercial, desktop computer, spectrum analyzer and two microphone probe complete the equipment required for the Robotic Acoustic Intensity Measurement System (RAIMS). Large-scale acoustic studies of gear noise in helicopter transmissions cannot be performed accurately and reliably using presently available instrumentation and techniques. Operator safety is a major concern in certain gear noise studies due to the operating environment. The man-hours needed to document a noise field in situ is another shortcoming of present techniques. RAIMS was designed to reduce the labor and hazard in collecting data and to improve the accuracy and repeatability of characterizing the acoustic field by automating the measurement process. Using RAIMS a system operator can remotely control the instrumentation robot to scan surface areas and volumes generating acoustic intensity information using the two microphone technique. Acoustic intensity studies requiring hours of scan time can be performed automatically without operator assistance. During a scan sequence, the acoustic intensity probe is positioned by the robot and acoustic intensity data is collected, processed, and stored.

  13. Human movement detection and identification using pyroelectric infrared sensors.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaeseok; Lee, Sang-Shin

    2014-05-05

    Pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors are widely used as a presence trigger, but the analog output of PIR sensors depends on several other aspects, including the distance of the body from the PIR sensor, the direction and speed of movement, the body shape and gait. In this paper, we present an empirical study of human movement detection and identification using a set of PIR sensors. We have developed a data collection module having two pairs of PIR sensors orthogonally aligned and modified Fresnel lenses. We have placed three PIR-based modules in a hallway for monitoring people; one module on the ceiling; two modules on opposite walls facing each other. We have collected a data set from eight subjects when walking in three different conditions: two directions (back and forth), three distance intervals (close to one wall sensor, in the middle, close to the other wall sensor) and three speed levels (slow, moderate, fast). We have used two types of feature sets: a raw data set and a reduced feature set composed of amplitude and time to peaks; and passage duration extracted from each PIR sensor. We have performed classification analysis with well-known machine learning algorithms, including instance-based learning and support vector machine. Our findings show that with the raw data set captured from a single PIR sensor of each of the three modules, we could achieve more than 92% accuracy in classifying the direction and speed of movement, the distance interval and identifying subjects. We could also achieve more than 94% accuracy in classifying the direction, speed and distance and identifying subjects using the reduced feature set extracted from two pairs of PIR sensors of each of the three modules.

  14. Sex Differences in Object Location Memory: The Female Advantage of Immediate Detection of Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honda, Akio; Nihei, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Object location memory has been considered the only spatial ability in which females display an advantage over males. We examined sex differences in long-term object location memory. After participants studied an array of objects, they were asked to recall the locations of these objects three minutes later or one week later. Results showed a…

  15. Biochemical Detection and Identification False Alarm Rate Dependence on Wavelength Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. F.; Sala, E. C.; Sijapati, K.; Lane, A. L.; Reid, R. D.; Conrad, P. G.

    2006-01-01

    Most organic and many inorganic materials absorb strongly in specific wavelength ranges in the deep UV between about 220nm and 300nm. Excitation within these absorption bands results in native fluorescence emission. Each compound or composite material, such as a bacterial spore, has a unique excitation-emission fingerprint that can be used to provide information about the material. The sensitivity and specificity with which these materials can be detected and identified depends on the excitation wavelength and the number and location of observation wavelengths.We will present data on our deep ultraviolet Targeted Ultraviolet Chemical Sensors that demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the sensors. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability to quantitatively differentiate a wide range of biochemical agent targets against a wide range of background materials. We will describe the relationship between spectral resolution and specificity in target identification, as well as simple, fast, algorithms to identify materials.Hand-held, battery operated instruments using a deep UV laser and multi-band detection have been developed and deployed on missions to the Antarctic, the Arctic, and the deep ocean with the capability of detecting a single bacterial spore and to differentiate a wide range of organic and biological compounds.

  16. DETECT: A MATLAB Toolbox for Event Detection and Identification in Time Series, with Applications to Artifact Detection in EEG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lawhern, Vernon; Hairston, W. David; Robbins, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor and recording technology have allowed scientists to acquire very large time-series datasets. Researchers often analyze these datasets in the context of events, which are intervals of time where the properties of the signal change relative to a baseline signal. We have developed DETECT, a MATLAB toolbox for detecting event time intervals in long, multi-channel time series. Our primary goal is to produce a toolbox that is simple for researchers to use, allowing them to quickly train a model on multiple classes of events, assess the accuracy of the model, and determine how closely the results agree with their own manual identification of events without requiring extensive programming knowledge or machine learning experience. As an illustration, we discuss application of the DETECT toolbox for detecting signal artifacts found in continuous multi-channel EEG recordings and show the functionality of the tools found in the toolbox. We also discuss the application of DETECT for identifying irregular heartbeat waveforms found in electrocardiogram (ECG) data as an additional illustration. PMID:23638169

  17. a Uav Based 3-D Positioning Framework for Detecting Locations of Buried Persons in Collapsed Disaster Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, H.; Kim, C.; Lee, W.

    2016-06-01

    Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle) system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  18. Atmospheric Transport Modelling confining potential source location of East-Asian radionuclide detections in May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, J. Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The radionuclide component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is in place to detect tiny traces of fission products from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. The challenge for the interpretation of IMS radionuclide data is to discriminate radionuclide sources of CTBT relevance against emissions from nuclear facilities. Remarkable activity concentrations of Ba/La-140 occurred at the IMS radionuclide stations RN 37 (Okinawa) and RN 58 (Ussurysk) mid of May 2010. In those days also an elevated Xe-133 level was measured at RN 38 (Takasaki). Additional regional measurements of radioxenon were reported in the press and further analyzed in various publications. The radionuclide analysis gives evidence for the presence of a nuclear fission source between 10 and 12 May 2010. Backward Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) with HYSPLIT driven by 0.2° ECMWF meteorological data for the IMS samples indicates that, assuming a single source, a wide range of source regions is possible including the Korean Peninsula, the Sea of Japan (East Sea), and parts of China and Russia. Further confinement of the possible source location can be provided by atmospheric backtracking for the assumed sampling periods of the reported regional xenon measurements. New studies indicate a very weak seismic event at the DPRK test site on early 12 May 2010. Forward ATM for a pulse release caused by this event shows fairly good agreement with the observed radionuclide signature. Nevertheless, the underlying nuclear fission scenario remains quite unclear and speculative even if assuming a connection between the waveform and the radionuclide event.

  19. Sensitive quantitative detection/identification of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by signature lipid biomarker analysis

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C. |; Alugupalli, S.; Schrum, D.P.

    1997-08-01

    Unique signature lipid biomarkers were found in the acid-fast oocytes of Cryptosporidium parvum. This makes possible the rapid detection/identification and potential infectivity directly from drinking water membrane filtrates.

  20. Modeling and Reconstruction Algorithms for Detection, Location, and Identification of Subsurface Anomalies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    given in this section are summarized below. 1) In Fig. I of [51], the authors consider matching the mode ] to the data through human intervention. Here...the conditional probability density f"iicLion p(bix). The vector b is the data 3 vector, and x is the unknown mode ] vector. If the assumption is made...311 A.Q. Howard, Mode Match Solutions to Electromagnetic Scattering Problems in a Conducting Half-Space Environment, Ph.D. Thesis, University of

  1. Tracking the MSL-SAM methane detection source location Through Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-García, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    1. Introduction: The putative in situ detection of methane by Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on Curiosi-ty at Gale crater has garnered significant attention because of the potential implications for the presence of geological methane sources or indigenous Martian organisms [1, 2]. SAM reported detection of back-ground levels of atmospheric methane of mean value 0.69±0.25 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at the 95% confidence interval (CI). Additionally, in four sequential measurements spanning a 60-sol period, SAM observed elevated levels of methane of 7.2±2.1 ppbv (95% CI), implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source. There are many major unresolved questions regard-ing this detection: 1) What are the potential sources of the methane release? 2) What causes the rapid decrease in concentration? and 3) Where is the re-lease location? 4) How spatially extensive is the re-lease? 5) For how long is CH4 released? Regarding the first question, the source of methane, is so far not identified. It could be related with geo-logical process like methane release from clathrates [3], serpentinisation [4] and volcanism [5]; or due to biological activity from methanogenesis [6]. To answer the second question, the rapid decrease in concentration, it is important to note that the photo-chemical lifetime of methane is of order 100 years, much longer than the atmospheric mixing time scale, and thus the gas should tend to be well mixed except near a source or shortly after an episodic release. The observed spike of 7 ppb from the background of <1 ppb, and then the rapid return to the background lev-el could be due to a sink (destruction) or due to at-mospheric mixing. A wind mediated erosion process of ordinary quartz crystals was proposed to produce activated quartz grains, which sequester methane by forming covalent Si-C bonds. If this process is op-erational on Mars today, which some recent prelimi-nary studies on

  2. Detection of low frequency external electronic identification devices using commercial panel readers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S C; Rapnicki, P; Lewis, J R; Perala, M

    2007-09-01

    The ability of a commercially available panel reader system to read International Standards Organization-compliant electronic identification devices under commercial dairy conditions was examined. Full duplex (FDX-B) and half-duplex (HDX) low frequency radio-frequency identification external ear tags were utilized. The study involved 498 Holstein cows in the final 6 wk of gestation. There were 516 total electronic identification devices (n = 334 HDX and n = 182 FDX-B). Eighteen FDX-B were replaced with HDX during the study due to repeated detection failure. There were 6,679 HDX and 3,401 FDX-B device detection attempts. There were 220 (2.2%) unsuccessful and 9,860 (97.8%) successful identification detection attempts. There were 9 unsuccessful detection attempts for HDX (6,670/6,679 = 99.9% successful detection attempts) and 211 unsuccessful detection attempts for FDX-B (3,190/3,401 = 93.8% successful detection attempts). These results demonstrate that this panel system can achieve high detection rates of HDX devices and meet the needs of the most demanding management applications. The FDX-B detection rate was not sufficient for the most demanding applications, requiring a high degree of detection by panel readers. The lower FDX-B rate may not be inherent in the device technology itself, but could be due to other factors, including the particular panel reader utilized or the tuning of the panel reader.

  3. Radio Frequency Identification Queuing & Geo-Location (RAQGEO): A spatial solution to inventory management at XYZ Logistics, Inc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Bradley Joseph

    New supply chain management methods using radio frequency identification (RFID) and global positioning system (GPS) technology are quickly being adopted by companies as various inventory management benefits are being realized. For example, companies such as Nippon Yusen Kaisha (NYK) Logistics use the technology coupled with geospatial support systems for distributors to quickly find and manage freight containers. Traditional supply chain management methods require pen-to-paper reporting, searching inventory on foot, and human data entry. Some companies that prioritize supply chain management have not adopted the new technology, because they may feel that their traditional methods save the company expenses. This thesis serves as a pilot study that examines how information technology (IT) utilizing RFID and GPS technology can serve to increase workplace productivity, decrease human labor associated with inventorying, plus be used for spatial analysis by management. This pilot study represents the first attempt to couple RFID technology with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in supply chain management efforts to analyze and locate mobile assets by exploring costs and benefits of implementation plus how the technology can be employed. This pilot study identified a candidate to implement a new inventory management method as XYZ Logistics, Inc. XYZ Logistics, Inc. is a fictitious company but represents a factual corporation. The name has been changed to provide the company with anonymity and to not disclose confidential business information. XYZ Logistics, Inc., is a nation-wide company that specializes in providing space solutions for customers including portable offices, storage containers, and customizable buildings.

  4. A dissociation between detection and identification of phobic stimuli: unconscious perception?

    PubMed

    Siegel, Paul; Han, Edward; Cohen, Don; Anderson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A psychophysical paradigm for investigating unconscious perception was used to test the hypothesis of dissociation between detection and identification of phobic stimuli. Spider-phobic and non-phobic participants were presented with masked images of spiders and flowers and an equal number of control stimuli in a random sequence. After each masked stimulus was flashed, participants first reported whether or not an object was presented. Then they identified each stimulus as either a spider or a flower, regardless of their prior detection response. Phobic participants identified both detected and undetected spiders better than chance, as assessed by two measures of response bias. They did not exhibit dissociation between detection and identification for flowers. Non-phobic participants did not exhibit detection-identification dissociation for either spiders or flowers. These results are consistent with the interpretation that phobic individuals unconsciously perceive their feared stimulus, and constitute the first direct demonstration of such for emotional stimuli.

  5. Visual detection and identification are not the same: evidence from psychophysics and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Straube, Sirko; Fahle, Manfred

    2011-02-01

    Sometimes object detection as opposed to identification is sufficient to initiate the appropriate action. To explore the neural origin of behavioural differences between the two tasks, we combine psychophysical measurements and fMRI, specifically contrasting shape detection versus identification of a figure. This figure consisted of Gabor elements being oriented differently from those in the background. We equalized performance levels for detection and identification by adjusting orientation differences accordingly for each observer. Hence, stimulus saliency was constant for both tasks allowing a differentiation between the activations specific for detection versus identification processes. Identification yielded higher psychophysical thresholds, slower reaction times and increased hemodynamic activations in the lateral-occipital complex (LOC) and an adjacent area in the collateral sulcus (CoS). Additional analysis using cortex-based alignment revealed four voxel-clusters differentially activated by the tasks, situated in the inferior parietal lobe, the precuneus, the anterior cingulum and the medial frontal gyrus. Our results indicate partly separated cortical mechanisms for object detection and identification.

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE LEAK DETECTION/LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES COUPLED WITH WALL-THICKNESS SCREENING FOR WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  7. Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  8. Development of a QCL based IR polarimetric system for the stand-off detection and location of IEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Robert J.; Normand, Erwan L.; Carrie, Iain D.; Foulger, Brian; Lewis, Colin

    2009-09-01

    Following the development of point sensing improvised explosive device (IED) technology[1] Cascade Technologies have initial work in the development of equivalent stand-off capability. Stand-off detection of IEDs is a very important technical requirement that would enable the safe identification and quantification of hazardous materials prior to a terrorist attack. This could provide advanced warning of potential danger allowing evacuation and mitigation measures to be implemented. With support from the UK government, Cascade Technologies is currently investigating technology developments aimed at addressing the above stand-off IED detection capability gap. To demonstrate and validate the concept, a novel stand-off platform will target the detection and identification of common high vapor pressure IED precursor compounds, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), emanating from a point source. By actively probing a scene with polarized light, the novel platform will offer both enhanced selectivity and sensitivity as compared to traditional hyperspectral sensors, etc. The presentation will highlight the concept of this novel detection technique as well as illustrating preliminary results.

  9. An automated method for identification and ranking of hyperspectral target detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basener, Bill

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for automated target detection and identification in hyperspectral imagery. The standard paradigm for target detection in hyperspectral imagery is to run a detection algorithm, typically statistical in nature, and visually inspect each high-scoring pixel to decide whether it is a true detection or a false alarm. Detection filters have constant false alarm rates (CFARs) approaching 10-5, but these can still result in a large number of false alarms given multiple images and a large number of target materials. Here we introduce a new methodology for target detection and identification in hyperspectral imagery that shows promise for hard targets. The result is a greatly reduced false alarm rate and a practical methodology for aiding an analyst in quantitatively evaluating detected pixels. We demonstrate the utility of the method with results on data from the HyMap sensor over the Cooke City, MT.

  10. Time-reversal optical tomography: detecting and locating extended targets in a turbid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Xu, M.; Gayen, S. K.

    2012-03-01

    Time Reversal Optical Tomography (TROT) is developed to locate extended target(s) in a highly scattering turbid medium, and estimate their optical strength and size. The approach uses Diffusion Approximation of Radiative Transfer Equation for light propagation along with Time Reversal (TR) Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) scheme for signal and noise subspaces for assessment of target location. A MUSIC pseudo spectrum is calculated using the eigenvectors of the TR matrix T, whose poles provide target locations. Based on the pseudo spectrum contours, retrieval of target size is modeled as an optimization problem, using a "local contour" method. The eigenvalues of T are related to optical strengths of targets. The efficacy of TROT to obtain location, size, and optical strength of one absorptive target, one scattering target, and two absorptive targets, all for different noise levels was tested using simulated data. Target locations were always accurately determined. Error in optical strength estimates was small even at 20% noise level. Target size and shape were more sensitive to noise. Results from simulated data demonstrate high potential for application of TROT in practical biomedical imaging applications.

  11. a Topic Modeling Based Representation to Detect Tweet Locations. Example of the Event "je Suis Charlie"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morchid, M.; Josselin, D.; Portilla, Y.; Dufour, R.; Altman, E.; Linarès, G.

    2015-09-01

    Social Networks became a major actor in information propagation. Using the Twitter popular platform, mobile users post or relay messages from different locations. The tweet content, meaning and location, show how an event-such as the bursty one "JeSuisCharlie", happened in France in January 2015, is comprehended in different countries. This research aims at clustering the tweets according to the co-occurrence of their terms, including the country, and forecasting the probable country of a non-located tweet, knowing its content. First, we present the process of collecting a large quantity of data from the Twitter website. We finally have a set of 2,189 located tweets about "Charlie", from the 7th to the 14th of January. We describe an original method adapted from the Author-Topic (AT) model based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) method. We define an homogeneous space containing both lexical content (words) and spatial information (country). During a training process on a part of the sample, we provide a set of clusters (topics) based on statistical relations between lexical and spatial terms. During a clustering task, we evaluate the method effectiveness on the rest of the sample that reaches up to 95% of good assignment. It shows that our model is pertinent to foresee tweet location after a learning process.

  12. Molecular identification of Ehrlichia species and host bloodmeal source in Amblyomma americanum L. from two locations in Tennessee, United States.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jessica R; Scott, M Cathy; Baker, Ellen M; Jones, Carl J; Hickling, Graham J

    2015-04-01

    The current status of tick-borne diseases in the southeastern United States is challenging to define due to emerging pathogens, uncertain tick/host relationships, and changing disease case definitions. A golf-oriented retirement community on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee experienced an ehrlichiosis outbreak in 1993, prompting efforts to reduce the local tick population using '4-Poster' acaricide devices targeting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). In 2009, the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in questing ticks was surveyed in the area and compared to a Tennessee state park where acaricide had not been applied. The range of wildlife hosts that immature Amblyomma americanum fed upon and the role that these hosts may play in pathogen dynamics were investigated using a reverse line blot (RLB) bloodmeal analysis technique. Amblyomma americanum was by far the most common tick species in both study areas (>99% of ticks collected). Of 303 adult and nymphal A. americanum tested at the retirement community, six were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis (2.0%), 16 were positive for E. ewingii (5.3%), and six were positive for Panola Mountain Ehrlichia (2.0%). This is the first confirmation of Panola Mountain Ehrlichia in A. americanum from the state of Tennessee. The 9.3% prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in ticks from the retirement community was similar to that detected at the state park site (5.5%), suggesting that the 4-Poster treatment had not been sufficient to reduce Ehrlichia spp. cycling in the tick population. At both study sites, A. americanum fed on a wide range of mammal and bird species, with a minority of detectable bloodmeals coming from deer. Of the Ehrlichia-infected nymphs with positive bloodmeal identification, none fed on deer, indicating that multiple vertebrate species are contributing to sylvatic maintenance of Ehrlichia spp. at these sites. This highlights the difficulty of attempting to reduce the risk of tick-borne disease through host

  13. [Identification and quantitative determination of baclofen in human blood by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection].

    PubMed

    Dukova, O A; Kotlovsky, M Yu; Pokrovsky, A A; Suvorova, E V; Shivrina, T G; Krasnov, E A; Efremov, A A

    2016-03-01

    A method of identification and quantitative determination of baclofen in blood by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection has been developed. It is characterized by high sensitivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy, reproducibility, and a low detection for quantitative determination. The method has been used for diagnostics of acute baclofen poisoning in patients.

  14. Exploration of available feature detection and identification systems and their performance on radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wantuch, Andrew C.; Vita, Joshua A.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Bray, Iliana E.

    2016-10-01

    Despite object detection, recognition, and identification being very active areas of computer vision research, many of the available tools to aid in these processes are designed with only photographs in mind. Although some algorithms used specifically for feature detection and identification may not take explicit advantage of the colors available in the image, they still under-perform on radiographs, which are grayscale images. We are especially interested in the robustness of these algorithms, specifically their performance on a preexisting database of X-ray radiographs in compressed JPEG form, with multiple ways of describing pixel information. We will review various aspects of the performance of available feature detection and identification systems, including MATLABs Computer Vision toolbox, VLFeat, and OpenCV on our non-ideal database. In the process, we will explore possible reasons for the algorithms' lessened ability to detect and identify features from the X-ray radiographs.

  15. Location and magnitude of impact detection in composite plates using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard T.; Sirkis, James S.; Friebele, E. J.; Kersey, Alan D.

    1995-04-01

    A method of determining the location and extent of impact induced damage in isotropic plates is investigated numerically and experimentally. A computer simulation of impact to this model plate provided information in the form of frequency response data and strain traces. These data sets were inputs into two different backpropagation neural networks. The first neural network uses FFT of strain data, which is split into real and imaginary parts and integrated over the first ten harmonic natural frequencies for each of four sensors (8 inputs into neural network). This particular network has been trained on a set of 63 simulated impacts, with the network solving for the location of impact sites within an average of 8 millimeters per impact. The second network uses the same FFT of strain data (8 inputs), but additionally uses the impact coordinates as inputs (total of 10 inputs). The network has been trained on a set of 800 simulated impacts, and solves for magnitude of the impact events with an average error of 7.08%. Experimental impact location determination has been accomplished by using a set of four strain gage sensors mounted in the corners of the isotropic aluminum plate. Data from these sensors were post processed as mentioned above, and used to train a backpropagation neural network. A twenty impact subset of a 72 impact grid was trained to locate impacts with an average RMS error of 1.019 radial centimeters.

  16. Line Detection and Texture Analysis for Automatic Nematode Identification

    PubMed Central

    Fdez-Valdivia, J.; Pérez de la Blanca, N.; Castillo, P.; Gómez-Barcina, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series studying procedures for estimating and calibrating features of nematodes from digital images. Two kinds of features were analyzed for recognition: those with a directional component and those with a textural component. Features that have a directional component (lateral field and annules) were preprocessed with classic algorithms and modified by directional filters. Features having texture (esophagus and intestine) were analyzed with vectors of measures to define them and the statistical technique CART (classification and regression trees) to explain the role that each measure plays in the identification and discrimination process. PMID:19283037

  17. GPS location history data mining and anomalous detection: the scenario of bar-headed geese migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Ze; Xiong, Yan; Yan, Baoping; Prosser, Diann J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Lu, W.; Cai, G.; Liu, W.; Xing, W.

    2013-01-01

    It is important to discover common movement sequences and uncommon behaviors during the migration of wild birds. In this paper, we propose a new approach to analyze the GPS location history data of migratory birds. The stopover sites are first extracted from the location history data of birds, and their movement sequences are generated automatically. Then, a consistency calculation method is introduced for calculating the movement sequence consistency degrees among the birds. The common movement sequences and uncommon behaviors can be recognized on the basis of consistency. We conducted experiments on the data collected from bar-headed geese captured in the Qinghai Lake region. The experiment results indicate the correctness of our approach.

  18. Demonstration of the BNL Continuous Dual Trap Analyzer to Detect Perfluorocarbon Tracers for the Tag, Track and Location Program

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser,J.H.; Adams, J.; Dietz, R..; Milian, L.; Watson, T.

    2008-10-07

    The Tag, Track and Location System (TTL) Program is investigating methods of tracking an asset using perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT). The success of any TTL method requires sound detection/location instrumentation. Tracer Detection Technologies Corp (TDT), through a contract with the Office of Naval Research (ONR), is investigating different detection systems. The detections systems generally fall into two categories; proximity detectors and standoff detectors. Proximity detectors, as the name implies, need to be in close proximity (e.g., meter to 10's of meters) to the PFT source. Standoff detection searches for the PFT from a greater distance away from the source (e.g., 100's of meters to kilometers). Gas Chromatographs (GC) are generally considered a proximity detection systems, but in the case of PFTs should be considered for both proximity and standoff detection with the caveat that in standoff use the GC needs to be somewhere in the PFT plume, i.e., generally downwind of the source. With a properly sized PFT source, the right GC can afford fairly large standoff (distance from the source) distances; 100's of meters to kilometers downwind. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has such a GC system and offered to demonstrate the CDTA for TTL as a no cost addition to the TDTTTL project, of which BNL was a participant. BNL is a leading authority on the sampling, collection, release and detection of PFTs. In addition, the BNL team has extensive background in atmospheric dispersion, the application of PFTs to such studies and the development of applications utilizing PFTs such as building infiltration measurements, control room integrity determination, leak location and environmental investigations. This experience and expertise is essential in developing any PFT application were dispersion, dilution and overcoming environmental conditions and interferences are integral to success. BNL has developed sophisticated gas chromatography methods and instruments that allow

  19. Development of a computerized scheme for detection of very subtle lung nodules located in opaque areas on chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-03-01

    The detection of lung nodules located in opaque areas including the mediastinum, retrocardiac lung, and lung projected below or on the diaphragm has been very difficult, because the contrast of these nodules is usually extremely low, and sometimes radiologists may not pay attention to these locations. In this study, we have developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme designed specifically for the detection of these difficult-to-detect lung nodules located in opaque areas. We used 1,000 chest images with 1,076 lung nodules, which included 73 very difficult lung nodules in these opaque areas. In this new computerized scheme, opaque areas within a chest image were segmented by use of an adaptive multi-thresholding method based on edge-gradient values, and then the gray level and contrast of the chest image were adjusted for the opaque areas. Initial candidates were identified by use of the nodule-enhanced image obtained with the average radial-gradient (ARG) filtering technique based on radial gradient values. We employed a total of 35 image features for sequential application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to reduce the number of false-positive candidates. The ANNs were trained and tested by use of a k-fold cross-validation test method (k=100), in which each of 100 different combinations of training and test image data sets included 990 and 10 chest images, respectively. The overall performance determined from the results of 100 test data sets indicated that the average sensitivity in detecting lung nodules was 52.1% with 1.89 false positives per image, which was considered "acceptable", because these nodules were very subtle and difficult to detect. By combination of this advanced CAD scheme with our standard CAD scheme for lung-nodule detection, the clinical usefulness of the CAD scheme would be improved significantly.

  20. Methods for detection, identification and specification of listerias

    DOEpatents

    Bochner, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to differential carbon source metabolism in the genus Listeria, metabolic, biochemical, immunological and genetic procedures to measure said differential carbon source metabolism and the use of these produces to detect, isolate and/or distinguish species of the genus Listeria as well as detect, isolate and/or distinguish strains of species of Listeria. The present invention also contemplates test kits and enrichment media to facilitate these procedures.

  1. CT image quality evaluation for detection of signals with unknown location, size, contrast and shape using unsupervised methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria X.; Popescu, Lucretiu; Sahiner, Berkman

    2015-03-01

    The advent of new image reconstruction and image processing techniques for CT images has increased the need for robust objective image quality assessment methods. One of the most common quality assessment methods is the measurement of signal detectability for a known signal at a known location using supervised classification techniques. However, this method requires a large number of simulations or physical measurements, and its underlying assumptions may be considered clinically unrealistic. In this study we focus on objective assessment of image quality in terms of detection of a signal with unknown location, size, shape, and contrast. We explore several unsupervised saliency detection methods which assume no knowledge about the signal, along with a template matching technique which uses information about the signal's size and shape in the object domain, for simulated phantoms that have been reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction algorithms (IRA). The performance of each of the image reconstruction algorithms is then measured using the area under the localization receiver operating characteristic curve (LROC) and exponential transformation of the free response operating characteristic curve (EFROC). Our results indicate that unsupervised saliency detection methods can be effectively used to determine image quality in terms of signal detectability for unknown signals given only a small number of sample images.

  2. Fault detection in an air-handling unit using residual and recursive parameter identification methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.; Park, C.; Kelly, G.E.

    1996-11-01

    A scheme for detecting faults in an air-handling unit using residual and parameter identification methods is presented. Faults can be detected by comparing the normal or expected operating condition data with the abnormal, measured data using residuals. Faults can also be detected by examining unmeasurable parameter changes in a model of a controlled system using a system parameter identification technique. In this study, autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) and autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX) models with both single-input/single-output (SISO) and multi-input/single-output (MISO) structures are examined. Model parameters are determined using the Kalman filter recursive identification method. This approach is tested using experimental data from a laboratory`s variable-air-volume (VAV) air-handling unit operated with and without faults.

  3. Novel and sensitive qPCR assays for the detection and identification of aspergillosis causing species.

    PubMed

    Paholcsek, Melinda; Leiter, Eva; Markovics, Arnold; Biró, Sándor

    2014-09-01

    Despite concerted efforts, diagnosis of aspergillosis is still a great challenge to clinical microbiology laboratories. Along with the requirement for high sensitivity and specificity, species-specific identification is important. We developed rapid, sensitive and species-specific qPCR assays using the TaqMan technology for the detection and identification of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus. The assays were designed to target orthologs of the Streptomyces factor C gene that are only found in a few species of filamentous fungi. Fungi acquired this gene through horizontal gene transfer and divergence of the gene allows identification of species. The assays have potential as a molecular diagnosis tool for the early detection of fungal infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus, which merits future diagnostic studies. The assays were sensitive enough to detect a few genomic equivalents in blood samples.

  4. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Displays for UAS: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorie, Conrad; Fern, Lisa; Pack, Jessica; Shively, Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The pilot-in-the-loop Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays.

  5. Automated detection and location of microseismicity at Mount St. Helens with a large-N geophone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Steven M.; Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-09-01

    In the summer of 2014 a dense array of 904 geophones was deployed at Mount St. Helens along the road and trail system within 15 km distance of the summit crater. The array recorded continuous data for approximately 2 weeks and presents an unprecedented seismic observation of an active volcano. A reverse-time imaging method is applied to short-term-average over long-term-average time series data to automatically detect and locate microseismicity. These efforts resulted in an order of magnitude increase in earthquake detections over the normal monitoring operations of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. Earthquake locations resolve a narrow, ≤1 km wide, vertical lineament of seismicity which extends from the surface to 4 km depth directly beneath the summit crater. This feature is interpreted as a fracture network that acts as a conduit connecting an underlying magma chamber to the surface.

  6. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  7. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    2001-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner or between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid through the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  8. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Laine, D.L.; Laine, E.F.

    1997-08-26

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution. 6 figs.

  9. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  10. Remote sensing techniques for the detection of soil erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Griffin, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following paper is a summary of a number of techniques initiated under the AgRISTARS (Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing) project for the detection of soil degradation caused by water erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices for resource inventories. Discussed are methods to utilize a geographic information system to determine potential soil erosion through a USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model; application of the Kauth-Thomas Transform to detect present erosional status; and the identification of conservation practices through visual interpretation and a variety of enhancement procedures applied to digital remotely sensed data.

  11. Forgery detection and value identification of Euro banknotes.

    PubMed

    Bruna, Arcangelo; Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Battiato, Sebastiano

    2013-02-18

    This paper describes both hardware and software components to detect counterfeits of Euro banknotes. The proposed system is also able to recognize the banknote values. Differently than other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach makes use of banknote images acquired with a near infrared camera to perform recognition and authentication. This allows one to build a system that can effectively deal with real forgeries, which are usually not detectable with visible light. The hardware does not use any mechanical parts, so the overall system is low-cost. The proposed solution is reliable for ambient light and banknote positioning. Users should simply lean the banknote to be analyzed on a flat glass, and the system detects forgery, as well as recognizes the banknote value. The effectiveness of the proposed solution has been properly tested on a dataset composed by genuine and fake Euro banknotes provided by Italy's central bank. 

  12. Forgery Detection and Value Identification of Euro Banknotes

    PubMed Central

    Bruna, Arcangelo; Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Battiato, Sebastiano

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes both hardware and software components to detect counterfeits of Euro banknotes. The proposed system is also able to recognize the banknote values. Differently than other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach makes use of banknote images acquired with a near infrared camera to perform recognition and authentication. This allows one to build a system that can effectively deal with real forgeries, which are usually not detectable with visible light. The hardware does not use any mechanical parts, so the overall system is low-cost. The proposed solution is reliable for ambient light and banknote positioning. Users should simply lean the banknote to be analyzed on a flat glass, and the system detects forgery, as well as recognizes the banknote value. The effectiveness of the proposed solution has been properly tested on a dataset composed by genuine and fake Euro banknotes provided by Italy's central bank. PMID:23429514

  13. Sensor Technology Assessment for Ordnance and Explosive Waste Detection and Location. Revision B.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Imaging Visible imaging, as the name implies, refers to the capturing of visible light using a camera . The technique is useful for detecting surface...today’s consumer video cameras . CCDs are small, lightweight, and require little power relative to their electronic imaging predecessors. Specialized...corner produces pulses of electromagnetic energy that serve two purposes: (1) they control the bursts of energy from the transmitter, and (2) they trigger

  14. [Fast identification of Salmonella by chemiluminescent photographic detection].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, Y

    1993-09-01

    Salmonella anatis was identified by the chemiluminescent photographic detection technique established in this lab. The horseradish peroxidase labelled antibody was incubated with the bacteria immobilized on nitrocellulose film; after washing, the film was contacted with a filter paper with absorbed chemiluminescence substrate solution. Twenty minutes of exposure of the chemiluminescence produced to X-ray film gave the positive results. As few as one hundred bacteria could be detected in about 2h. The tests showed that the specificity of the method is good.

  15. Ultrasonic detection and identification of fabrication defects in composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Johnston, Patrick H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for deliberate fabrication of porosity into carbon/epoxy composite panels and the influence of three-dimensional stitching on the detection of porosity were investigated. Two methods of introducing porosity were investigated. Porosity was simulated by inclusion of glass microspheres, and a more realistic form of porosity was introduced by using low pressure during consolidation. The panels were ultrasonically scanned and the frequency slope of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was used to evaluate the two forms of porosity. The influence of stitching on the detection of porosity was studied using panels which were resin transfer molded from stitched plies of knitted carbon fabric and epoxy resin.

  16. SeqX: a tool to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Jan C; Fördös, Gergely

    2005-01-01

    Background The interacting residues of protein and nucleic acid sequences are close to each other – they are co-located. Structure databases (like Protein Data Bank, PDB and Nucleic Acid Data Bank, NDB) contain all information about these co-locations; however it is not an easy task to penetrate this complex information. We developed a JAVA tool, called SeqX for this purpose. Results SeqX tool is useful to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. The user a. selects a structure from PDB; b. chooses an atom that is commonly present in every residues of the nucleic acid and/or protein structure(s) c. defines a distance from these atoms (3–15 Å). The SeqX tool detects every residue that is located within the defined distances from the defined "backbone" atom(s); provides a DotPlot-like visualization (Residues Contact Map), and calculates the frequency of every possible residue pairs (Residue Contact Table) in the observed structure. It is possible to exclude +/- 1 to 10 neighbor residues in the same polymeric chain from detection, which greatly improves the specificity of detections (up to 60% when tested on dsDNA). Results obtained on protein structures showed highly significant correlations with results obtained from literature (p < 0.0001, n = 210, four different subsets). The co-location frequency of physico-chemically compatible amino acids is significantly higher than is calculated and expected in random protein sequences (p < 0.0001, n = 80). Conclusion The tool is simple and easy to use and provides a quick and reliable visualization and analyses of residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. Availability and requirements SeqX, Java J2SE Runtime Environment 5.0 (available from [see Additional file 1] ) and at least a 1 GHz processor and with a minimum 256 Mb RAM. Source codes are available from the authors. PMID:16011796

  17. Low-level mixing height detection in coastal locations with a scanning Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakkari, V.; O'Connor, E. J.; Nisantzi, A.; Mamouri, R. E.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the key parameters in describing lower tropospheric dynamics and capturing its diurnal variability is crucial, especially for interpreting surface observations. In this paper we introduce a method for identifying MLH below the minimum range of a scanning Doppler lidar when operated at vertical. The method we propose is based on velocity variance in low-elevation-angle conical scanning and is applied to measurements in two very different coastal environments: Limassol, Cyprus, during summer and Loviisa, Finland, during winter. At both locations, the new method agrees well with MLH derived from turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate profiles obtained from vertically pointing measurements. The low-level scanning routine frequently indicated non-zero MLH less than 100 m above the surface. Such low MLHs were more common in wintertime Loviisa on the Baltic Sea coast than during summertime in Mediterranean Limassol.

  18. A new method for producing automated seismic bulletins: Probabilistic event detection, association, and location

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, Timothy J.; Ballard, Sanford; Young, Christopher J.; Brogan, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    Given a set of observations within a specified time window, a fitness value is calculated at each grid node by summing station-specific conditional fitness values. Assuming each observation was generated by a refracted P wave, these values are proportional to the conditional probabilities that each observation was generated by a seismic event at the grid node. The node with highest fitness value is accepted as a hypothetical event location, subject to some minimal fitness value, and all arrivals within a longer time window consistent with that event are associated with it. During the association step, a variety of different phases are considered. In addition, once associated with an event, an arrival is removed from further consideration. While unassociated arrivals remain, the search for other events is repeated until none are identified.

  19. A new method for producing automated seismic bulletins: Probabilistic event detection, association, and location

    DOE PAGES

    Draelos, Timothy J.; Ballard, Sanford; Young, Christopher J.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Given a set of observations within a specified time window, a fitness value is calculated at each grid node by summing station-specific conditional fitness values. Assuming each observation was generated by a refracted P wave, these values are proportional to the conditional probabilities that each observation was generated by a seismic event at the grid node. The node with highest fitness value is accepted as a hypothetical event location, subject to some minimal fitness value, and all arrivals within a longer time window consistent with that event are associated with it. During the association step, a variety of different phasesmore » are considered. In addition, once associated with an event, an arrival is removed from further consideration. While unassociated arrivals remain, the search for other events is repeated until none are identified.« less

  20. Detecting target velocity and location using a novel optoelectronic sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi Ching

    2004-12-01

    We propose a cost-effective, compact, and robust optoelectronic sensing system for measuring ballistic impact velocity and distribution of the projectile motion. The key elements consisted of this system are four photo-gates hybridized by compound one-dimensional prism array and analog/digital electronic components. The number of light sources and photodetectors used in a photo-gate was reduced to one pair of that. The time interval passing each pair can be measured precisely (~10-8 s). The average velocity and location of projectile are carried out according the measured time intervals. The system can precisely measure the velocity of a bullet as it leaves a gun barrel and the velocity toward the trajectory outside the firearm. Furthermore, the system uses a commonly found low-powered laser pointer as light source. Compared with other optoelectronic sensing systems that use high-powered lasers, our system is both economical and safe.

  1. RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR ALERTING DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and Proteus vulgaris could be detected in growth medium within 2 hours incubation. The use of cometabilizable substrates, halogen substituted acids...examination of the sera of dogs infected with infectious hepatitus, herpes, and distemper viruses showed a specific response to each virus. The use of

  2. Implementation of a novel double-side technique for partial discharge detection and location in covered conductor overhead distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Weisheng; Li, Hongjie; Liang, Deliang; Sun, Haojie; Yang, Chenbo; Wei, Jinqu; Yuan, Zhijian

    2015-12-01

    Partial discharge (PD) detection has proven to be one of the most acceptable techniques for on-line condition monitoring and predictive maintenance of power apparatus. A powerful tool for detecting PD in covered-conductor (CC) lines is urgently needed to improve the asset management of CC overhead distribution lines. In this paper, an appropriate, portable and simple system designed to detect PD activity in CC lines and ultimately pinpoint the PD source is developed and tested. The system is based on a novel double-side synchronised PD measurement technique driven by pulse injection. Emphasis is placed on the proposed PD-location mechanism and hardware structure, with descriptions of the pulse-injection process, detection device, synchronisation principle and PD-location algorithm. The system is simulated using ATP-EMTP, and the simulated results are found to be consistent with the actual simulation layout. For further validation, the capability of the system is tested in a high-voltage laboratory experiment using a 10-kV CC line with cross-linked polyethylene insulation.

  3. Detection and identification of wild yeasts in lager breweries.

    PubMed

    van der Aa Kühle, A; Jespersen, L

    1998-09-08

    Wild yeasts were detected in 41 out of 101 brewery yeast samples investigated using six different selective principles. Malt extract, yeast extract, glucose, peptone (MYGP) agar supplemented with 195 ppm CuSO4 was found to be the most effective selective principle, detecting wild yeasts in 80% of the contaminated samples. Both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces wild yeasts were detected on this medium. Lysine medium, crystal violet medium and incubation of non-selective media at 37 degrees C detected wild yeasts in 46-56% of the contaminated samples. On using actidione medium, only 20% of the wild yeasts were detected. The combined use of MYGP supplemented with 195 ppm CuSO4 and one of the other selective principles did not improve the recovery of the wild yeasts. The wild yeasts found consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (57%), Pichia spp. (28%) and Candida spp. (15%). Using the API ID 32 C kit, 35 different assimilation profiles were obtained for the 124 wild yeast isolates investigated. All isolates were capable of glucose assimilation, whereas only 79% of the isolates assimilated saccharose, 75% maltose, 70% galactose, 65% raffinose and 65% lactate. Lactose, inositol, rhamnose and glucuronate were not assimilated by any of the isolates. The differences in assimilation pattern did not reflect any differences in recovery by the selective principles investigated. The majority of the wild yeast isolates investigated were capable of growth in wort and beer, indicating their possible role as spoilage organisms. The Sacch. cerevisiae isolates were found to be the most hazardous, with some isolates being capable of extensive growth in bottled beer within seventeen days at ambient temperature.

  4. Satellite-Based EMI Detection, Identification, and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, R.; Bowman, C.

    2016-09-01

    Commanding, controlling, and maintaining the health of satellites requires a clear operating spectrum for communications. Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) from other satellites can interfere with these communications. Determining which satellite is at fault improves space situational awareness and can be used to avoid the problem in the future. The Rfi detection And Prediction Tool, Optimizing Resources (RAPTOR) monitors the satellite communication antenna signals to detect EMI (also called RFI for Radio Frequency Interference) using a neural network trained on past cases of both normal communications and EMI events. RAPTOR maintains a database of satellites that have violated the reserved spectrum in the past. When satellite-based EMI is detected, RAPTOR first checks this list to determine if any are angularly close to the satellite being communicated with. Additionally, RAPTOR checks the Space Catalog to see if any of its active satellites are angularly close. RAPTOR also consults on-line databases to determine if the described operating frequencies of the satellites match the detected EMI and recommends candidates to be added to the known offenders database, accordingly. Based on detected EMI and predicted orbits and frequencies, RAPTOR automatically reschedules satellite communications to avoid current and future satellite-based EMI. It also includes an intuitive display for a global network of satellite communications antennas and their statuses including the status of their EM spectrum. RAPTOR has been prototyped and tested with real data (amplitudes versus frequency over time) for both satellite communication signals and is currently undergoing full-scale development. This paper describes the RAPTOR technologies and results of testing.

  5. A PC-based computer package for automatic detection and location of earthquakes: Application to a seismic network in eastern sicity (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patanè, Domenico; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Gresta, Stefano

    Few automated data acquisition and processing systems operate on mainframes, some run on UNIX-based workstations and others on personal computers, equipped with either DOS/WINDOWS or UNIX-derived operating systems. Several large and complex software packages for automatic and interactive analysis of seismic data have been developed in recent years (mainly for UNIX-based systems). Some of these programs use a variety of artificial intelligence techniques. The first operational version of a new software package, named PC-Seism, for analyzing seismic data from a local network is presented in Patanè et al. (1999). This package, composed of three separate modules, provides an example of a new generation of visual object-oriented programs for interactive and automatic seismic data-processing running on a personal computer. In this work, we mainly discuss the automatic procedures implemented in the ASDP (Automatic Seismic Data-Processing) module and real time application to data acquired by a seismic network running in eastern Sicily. This software uses a multi-algorithm approach and a new procedure MSA (multi-station-analysis) for signal detection, phase grouping and event identification and location. It is designed for an efficient and accurate processing of local earthquake records provided by single-site and array stations. Results from ASDP processing of two different data sets recorded at Mt. Etna volcano by a regional network are analyzed to evaluate its performance. By comparing the ASDP pickings with those revised manually, the detection and subsequently the location capabilities of this software are assessed. The first data set is composed of 330 local earthquakes recorded in the Mt. Etna erea during 1997 by the telemetry analog seismic network. The second data set comprises about 970 automatic locations of more than 2600 local events recorded at Mt. Etna during the last eruption (July 2001) at the present network. For the former data set, a comparison of the

  6. Fast Retinal Vessel Detection and Measurement Using Wavelets and Edge Location Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Bankhead, Peter; Scholfield, C. Norman

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between changes in retinal vessel morphology and the onset and progression of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been the subject of several large scale clinical studies. However, the difficulty of quantifying changes in retinal vessels in a sufficiently fast, accurate and repeatable manner has restricted the application of the insights gleaned from these studies to clinical practice. This paper presents a novel algorithm for the efficient detection and measurement of retinal vessels, which is general enough that it can be applied to both low and high resolution fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms upon the adjustment of only a few intuitive parameters. Firstly, we describe the simple vessel segmentation strategy, formulated in the language of wavelets, that is used for fast vessel detection. When validated using a publicly available database of retinal images, this segmentation achieves a true positive rate of 70.27%, false positive rate of 2.83%, and accuracy score of 0.9371. Vessel edges are then more precisely localised using image profiles computed perpendicularly across a spline fit of each detected vessel centreline, so that both local and global changes in vessel diameter can be readily quantified. Using a second image database, we show that the diameters output by our algorithm display good agreement with the manual measurements made by three independent observers. We conclude that the improved speed and generality offered by our algorithm are achieved without sacrificing accuracy. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB along with a graphical user interface, and we have made the source code freely available. PMID:22427837

  7. Location and detection of explosive-contaminated human fingerprints on distant targets using standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucena, P.; Gaona, I.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    Detection of explosive-contaminated human fingerprints constitutes an analytical challenge of high significance in security issues and in forensic sciences. The use of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor working at 31 m distance to the target, fitted with 2D scanning capabilities and designed for capturing spectral information from laser-induced plasmas of fingerprints is presented. Distribution chemical maps based on Na and CN emissions are used to locate and detect chloratite, DNT, TNT, RDX and PETN residues that have been deposited on the surface of aluminum and glass substrates. An effectiveness of 100% on fingerprints detection, regardless the substrate scanned, is reached. Environmental factors that affect the prevalence of the fingerprint LIBS response are discussed.

  8. Improved detection of differentially expressed genes through incorporation of gene locations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guanghua; Reilly, Cavan; Khodursky, Arkady B

    2009-09-01

    In determining differential expression in cDNA microarray experiments, the expression level of an individual gene is usually assumed to be independent of the expression levels of other genes, but many recent studies have shown that a gene's expression level tends to be similar to that of its neighbors on a chromosome, and differentially expressed (DE) genes are likely to form clusters of similar transcriptional activity along the chromosome. When modeled as a one-dimensional spatial series, the expression level of genes on the same chromosome frequently exhibit significant spatial correlation, reflecting spatial patterns in transcription. By modeling these spatial correlations, we can obtain improved estimates of transcript levels. Here, we demonstrate the existence of spatial correlations in transcriptional activity in the Escherichia coli (E. coli) chromosome across more than 50 experimental conditions. Based on this finding, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model that borrows information from neighboring genes to improve the estimation of the expression level of a given gene and hence the detection of DE genes. Furthermore, we extend the model to account for the circular structure of E. coli chromosome and the intergenetic distance between gene neighbors. The simulation studies and analysis of real data examples in E. coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that the proposed method outperforms the commonly used significant analysis of microarray (SAM) t-statistic in detecting DE genes.

  9. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service.

    PubMed

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-02-22

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption.

  10. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption. PMID:26907295

  11. In harbor underwater threat detection/identification using active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidemann, Alan; Fournier, Georges R.; Forand, Luc; Mathieu, Pierre

    2005-05-01

    We present results from trials of the LUCIE 2 (Laser Underwater Camera Image Enhancer) conducted in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, Canada and Esquimalt Harbor, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. LUCIE 2 is a new compact laser range gated camera (10 inches in diameter, 24 inches in length, and neutrally buoyant in water) originally designed to improve search and recovery operations under eye safe restrictions. The flexibility and eye safety of this second generation LUCIE makes it a tool for improved hull searches and force protection operations when divers are in the water attempting to identify bottom lying objects. The camera is equipped with a full image geo-positioning system. To cover various environmental and targets size conditions, the gate-delay, gate width, polarization and viewing and illuminating angles can be varied as well. We present an analysis on the performance of the system in various water conditions using several target types and a comparison with diver and camera identification. Coincident in-situ optical properties of absorption and scattering were taken to help resolve the environmental information contained in the LUCIE image. Several new capabilities are currently being designed and tested, among them a differential polarization imaging system, a stabilized line of sight system with step-stare capability for high resolution mosaic area coverage, a precision dimensioning system and a diver guided and operated version.

  12. Identification and detection of anomalies through SSME data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, Lisa; Ali, Moonis

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the ongoing research described in this paper is to analyze real-time ground test data in order to identify patterns associated with the anomalous engine behavior, and on the basis of this analysis to develop an expert system which detects anomalous engine behavior in the early stages of fault development. A prototype of the expert system has been developed and tested on the high frequency data of two SSME tests, namely Test #901-0516 and Test #904-044. The comparison of our results with the post-test analyses indicates that the expert system detected the presence of the anomalies in a significantly early stage of fault development.

  13. Automatic Identification of Specular Detections in Multistatic Sonar Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    contacts, each with measurements of arrival angle, arrival time, received level ( LVL ), SNR, as well as other feature or classification information. The...region are ignored. Within each segment, the maximum SNR (or, LVL ) of all the detection contacts is extracted and stored (indicated by the red colored...contacts indicating the contact with the maximum SNR/ LVL within each segment. Figure 15. Depiction of a maximal

  14. Rapid Detection and Identification of Respiratory Viruses by Direct Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessio, Donn; Williams, Stanley; Dick, Elliot C.

    1970-01-01

    The use of fluorescein-conjugated antiserum against respiratory syncytial (RS) and parainfluenza 1 and 3 viruses was compared with conventional techniques in the rapid detection of virus in tissue cultures inoculated with pharyngeal specimens known to contain these viruses. Twenty-three specimens were tested: 9 RS, 8 parainfluenza 1, and 6 parainfluenza 3. The fluorescent-antibody technique (FA) detected virus in 52% of the tissue cultures in 24 hr, and, by 72 hr, 22 of the 23 cultures were FA-positive whereas only 5 were positive by conventional techniques. Additionally, conjugated antisera were prepared against herpes simplex, influenza A2, and adenovirus type 5. All conjugates stained only the homologous virus and were 100- to 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional techniques in detecting descending dilutions of virus inocula by 24 hr. With the procedures described, several antisera could be conjugated and ready for use within 24 hr. Serum fractionation was by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and with the procedure outlined virtually complete recovery of the globulin fraction and elimination of all of the albumin were accomplished. Images PMID:4098101

  15. A DEEP LEARNING APPROACH FOR CANCER DETECTION AND RELEVANT GENE IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Ghaeini, Reza; Hendrix, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer detection from gene expression data continues to pose a challenge due to the high dimensionality and complexity of these data. After decades of research there is still uncertainty in the clinical diagnosis of cancer and the identification of tumor-specific markers. Here we present a deep learning approach to cancer detection, and to the identification of genes critical for the diagnosis of breast cancer. First, we used Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDAE) to deeply extract functional features from high dimensional gene expression profiles. Next, we evaluated the performance of the extracted representation through supervised classification models to verify the usefulness of the new features in cancer detection. Lastly, we identified a set of highly interactive genes by analyzing the SDAE connectivity matrices. Our results and analysis illustrate that these highly interactive genes could be useful cancer biomarkers for the detection of breast cancer that deserve further studies. PMID:27896977

  16. Piezoelectric sensing coating for real time impact detection and location on aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capsal, Jean-Fabien; David, Charlotte; Dantras, Eric; Lacabanne, Colette

    2012-05-01

    Flexible, light weight and low cost electroactive coating has been fabricated by the dispersion of inorganic ferroelectric submicron particles in a polyurethane matrix. BaTiO3 particles have a mean diameter of 300 nm. The poling process and the influence of volume fraction of BaTiO3 on the piezoelectric activity of the coating have been reported. This spray coating has been realized on 1.6 × 1.6 m2 poly(epoxy)/carbon fiber reinforced composite. Impact detection has been also performed. A well-known cross correlated algorithm has been successfully employed to localize impact in a 90 × 90 cm2 area of the composite.

  17. Application of higher order SVD to vibration-based system identification and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Shu-Hsien; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Weng, Jian-Huang

    2012-04-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a powerful linear algebra tool. It is widely used in many different signal processing methods, such principal component analysis (PCA), singular spectrum analysis (SSA), frequency domain decomposition (FDD), subspace identification and stochastic subspace identification method ( SI and SSI ). In each case, the data is arranged appropriately in matrix form and SVD is used to extract the feature of the data set. In this study three different algorithms on signal processing and system identification are proposed: SSA, SSI-COV and SSI-DATA. Based on the extracted subspace and null-space from SVD of data matrix, damage detection algorithms can be developed. The proposed algorithm is used to process the shaking table test data of the 6-story steel frame. Features contained in the vibration data are extracted by the proposed method. Damage detection can then be investigated from the test data of the frame structure through subspace-based and nullspace-based damage indices.

  18. Identification of volatiles by headspace gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Tiscione, Nicholas B; Yeatman, Dustin Tate; Shan, Xiaoqin; Kahl, Joseph H

    2013-10-01

    Volatiles are frequently abused as inhalants. The methods used for identification are generally nonspecific if analyzed concurrently with ethanol or require an additional analytical procedure that employs mass spectrometry. A previously published technique utilizing a capillary flow technology splitter to simultaneously quantitate and confirm ethyl alcohol by flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection after headspace sampling and gas chromatographic separation was evaluated for the detection of inhalants. Methanol, isopropanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, isoamyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (Norflurane, HFC-134a), chloroethane, trichlorofluoromethane (Freon®-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon®-12), dichlorofluoromethane (Freon®-21), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon®-22) and 1,2-dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon®-114) were validated for qualitative identification by this method. The validation for qualitative identification included evaluation of matrix effects, sensitivity, carryover, specificity, repeatability and ruggedness/robustness.

  19. Detection of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes for forensic identification of vaginal fluid.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Motani, Hisako; Watanabe, Ken; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi

    2012-05-01

    To preliminarily evaluate the applicability of bacterial DNA as a marker for the forensic identification of vaginal fluid, we developed and performed PCR-based detection of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Lactobacillus spp. dominating the vagina and of bacterial vaginosis-related bacteria from DNA extracted from body fluids and stains. As a result, 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii and Atopobium vaginae were specifically detected in vaginal fluid and female urine samples. Bacterial genes detected in female urine might have originated from contaminated vaginal fluid. In addition, those of Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus gasseri and Gardnerella vaginalis were also detected in non-vaginal body fluids such as semen. Because bacterial genes were successfully amplified in DNA samples extracted by using the general procedure for animal tissues without any optional treatments, DNA samples prepared for the identification of vaginal fluid can also be used for personal identification. In conclusion, 16S ribosomal RNA genes of L. crispatus, L. jensenii and A. vaginae could be effective markers for forensic identification of vaginal fluid.

  20. Colorimetric Detection and Identification of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Musto, Christopher J.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive nanoporous pigments made from indicators immobilized in an organically modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at millimolar concentrations as well as commonly used individual serving sweetener packets. The array has shown excellent reproducibility and long shelf-life and has been optimized to work in the biological pH regime. PMID:20337402

  1. Colorimetric detection and identification of natural and artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Musto, Christopher J; Lim, Sung H; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2009-08-01

    A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive nanoporous pigments that are comprised of indicators immobilized in an organically modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at millimolar concentrations, as well as commonly used individual-serving sweetener packets. The array has shown excellent reproducibility and long shelf life and has been optimized to work in the biological pH regime.

  2. Smart radio-frequency identification tag for diaper moisture detection.

    PubMed

    Ziai, M A; Batchelor, John C

    2015-02-01

    A passive smart tag is described that responds to dampness in diapers once a pre-defined threshold value is reached. A high-frequency (HF) system at 13.56 MHz is used as this allows operation through water or human tissues with less absorption that would occur for an ultra-HF signal. A circular spiral coil and swelling substrate facilitate a reaction to dampness that can be detected without contact to the diaper wearer. A prototype design is simulated and measured results are provided together with a demonstration of a tag integrated into a worn diaper.

  3. Fault Detection and Model Identification in Linear Dynamical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    fault detection and isolation (FDI). One avenue of FDI is via the multi-model approach, in which the parameters of the nominal, unfailed model of the system are known, as well as the parameters of one or more fault models. The design goal is to obtain an indicator for when a fault has occurred, and, when more than one type is possible, which type of fault it is. A choice that must be made in tile system design is how to model noise. One way is as a bounded energy signal. This approach places very few restrictions on the types of noisy systems which

  4. Smart radio-frequency identification tag for diaper moisture detection

    PubMed Central

    Ziai, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    A passive smart tag is described that responds to dampness in diapers once a pre-defined threshold value is reached. A high-frequency (HF) system at 13.56 MHz is used as this allows operation through water or human tissues with less absorption that would occur for an ultra-HF signal. A circular spiral coil and swelling substrate facilitate a reaction to dampness that can be detected without contact to the diaper wearer. A prototype design is simulated and measured results are provided together with a demonstration of a tag integrated into a worn diaper. PMID:26609399

  5. Ability of bed bug-detecting canines to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.

    PubMed

    Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., like other bed bug species, is difficult to visually locate because it is cryptic. Detector dogs are useful for locating bed bugs because they use olfaction rather than vision. Dogs were trained to detect the bed bug (as few as one adult male or female) and viable bed bug eggs (five, collected 5-6 d after feeding) by using a modified food and verbal reward system. Their efficacy was tested with bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs placed in vented polyvinyl chloride containers. Dogs were able to discriminate bed bugs from Camponotus floridanus Buckley, Blattella germanica (L.), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), with a 97.5% positive indication rate (correct indication of bed bugs when present) and 0% false positives (incorrect indication of bed bugs when not present). Dogs also were able to discriminate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs from dead bed bugs, cast skins, and feces, with a 95% positive indication rate and a 3% false positive rate on bed bug feces. In a controlled experiment in hotel rooms, dogs were 98% accurate in locating live bed bugs. A pseudoscent prepared from pentane extraction of bed bugs was recognized by trained dogs as bed bug scent (100% indication). The pseudoscent could be used to facilitate detector dog training and quality assurance programs. If trained properly, dogs can be used effectively to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.

  6. A geometric approach to failure detection and identification in linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massoumnia, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Using concepts of (C,A)-invariant and unobservability (complementary observability) subspaces, a geometric formulation of the failure detection and identification filter problem is stated. Using these geometric concepts, it is shown that it is possible to design a causal linear time-invariant processor that can be used to detect and uniquely identify a component failure in a linear time-invariant system, assuming: (1) The components can fail simultaneously, and (2) The components can fail only one at a time. In addition, a geometric formulation of Beard's failure detection filter problem is stated. This new formulation completely clarifies of output separability and mutual detectability introduced by Beard and also exploits the dual relationship between a restricted version of the failure detection and identification problem and the control decoupling problem. Moreover, the frequency domain interpretation of the results is used to relate the concepts of failure sensitive observers with the generalized parity relations introduced by Chow. This interpretation unifies the various failure detection and identification concepts and design procedures.

  7. Applicability of ELISA detection of statherin for forensic identification of saliva.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Sakurada, Koichi

    2010-09-01

    Statherin is a low molecular-weight phosphoprotein secreted from the parotid gland. Statherin mRNA was previously reported to be a useful marker for mRNA-based saliva identification. In this study, applicability of ELISA detection of statherin for forensic identification of saliva was investigated. The specificity and sensitivity of ELISA for detection of statherin were compared with those of ELISA for α-amylase and the Phadebas® amylase test. Statherin was specifically detected in saliva but not in other body fluids. In addition, statherin was successfully detected in aged saliva stains, mixed body fluids-saliva stains, and simulated casework samples. On the other hand, although ELISA for α-amylase showed higher sensitivity than ELISA for statherin, it was not specific enough to identify saliva. The Phadebas® amylase test also showed positive results in other body fluids that are known to have α-amylase activity; however, it is easy to use for screening forensic casework samples. In conclusion, ELISA for detection of statherin developed in this study could be an effective tool for the forensic identification of saliva because of its specificity for saliva among other body fluids. Forensic casework samples should be tested by ELISA detection or mRNA-based analysis for statherin, depending on the condition of the sample, to supplement presumptive tests for α-amylase, such as the Phadebas® amylase test.

  8. Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM) for prospective detection and identification of emergent pathogen strains and variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, Clark; Lichanska, Agnieszka M.; Borsuk, Lisa A.; Weslowski, Brian; Morris, Leah M.; Lorence, Matthew C.; Schafer, Klaus O.; Campos, Joseph; Sene, Mohamadou; Myers, Christopher A.; Faix, Dennis; Blair, Patrick J.; Brown, Jason; Metzgar, David

    2010-04-01

    High-density resequencing microarrays support simultaneous detection and identification of multiple viral and bacterial pathogens. Because detection and identification using RPM is based upon multiple specimen-specific target pathogen gene sequences generated in the individual test, the test results enable both a differential diagnostic analysis and epidemiological tracking of detected pathogen strains and variants from one specimen to the next. The RPM assay enables detection and identification of pathogen sequences that share as little as 80% sequence similarity to prototype target gene sequences represented as detector tiles on the array. This capability enables the RPM to detect and identify previously unknown strains and variants of a detected pathogen, as in sentinel cases associated with an infectious disease outbreak. We illustrate this capability using assay results from testing influenza A virus vaccines configured with strains that were first defined years after the design of the RPM microarray. Results are also presented from RPM-Flu testing of three specimens independently confirmed to the positive for the 2009 Novel H1N1 outbreak strain of influenza virus.

  9. Synchrosqueezed wavelet transform-fractality model for locating, detecting, and quantifying damage in smart highrise building structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amezquita-Sanchez, Juan P.; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-06-01

    A new methodology is presented for (a) detecting, (b) locating, and (c) quantifying the damage severity in a smart highrise building structure. The methodology consists of three steps: In step 1, the synchrosqueezed wavelet transform is used to eliminate the noise in the signals. In step 2, a nonlinear dynamics measure based on the chaos theory, fractality dimension (FD), is employed to detect features to be used for damage detection. In step 3, a new structural damage index, based on the estimated FD values, is proposed as a measure of the condition of the structure. Further, the damage location is obtained using the changes of the estimated FD values. Three different FD algorithms for computing the fractality of time series signals are investigated. They are Katz’s FD, Higuchi’s FD, and box dimension. The usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are validated using the sensed data obtained experimentally for the 1:20 scaled model of a 38-storey concrete building structure.

  10. Phase coherence adaptive processor for automatic signal detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2006-05-01

    A continuously adapting acoustic signal processor with an automatic detection/decision aid is presented. Its purpose is to preserve the signals of tactical interest, and filter out other signals and noise. It utilizes single sensor or beamformed spectral data and transforms the signal and noise phase angles into "aligned phase angles" (APA). The APA increase the phase temporal coherence of signals and leave the noise incoherent. Coherence thresholds are set, which are representative of the type of source "threat vehicle" and the geographic area or volume in which it is operating. These thresholds separate signals, based on the "quality" of their APA coherence. An example is presented in which signals from a submerged source in the ocean are preserved, while clutter signals from ships and noise are entirely eliminated. Furthermore, the "signals of interest" were identified by the processor's automatic detection aid. Similar performance is expected for air and ground vehicles. The processor's equations are formulated in such a manner that they can be tuned to eliminate noise and exploit signal, based on the "quality" of their APA temporal coherence. The mathematical formulation for this processor is presented, including the method by which the processor continuously self-adapts. Results show nearly complete elimination of noise, with only the selected category of signals remaining, and accompanying enhancements in spectral and spatial resolution. In most cases, the concept of signal-to-noise ratio looses significance, and "adaptive automated /decision aid" is more relevant.

  11. Detection and identification of bacteria by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Henis, Y; Gould, J R; Alexander, M

    1966-07-01

    Ether extracts of cultures of 29 strains representing 6 species of Bacillus, and of individual strains of Escherichia coli, Aerobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined in a gas chromatograph by use of flame ionization and electron capture detectors. Among the products detected were compounds with the chromatographic characteristics of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, ethyl alcohol, diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. The differences in peak areas of the various products formed by the bacteria were determined statistically for the chromatograms obtained with the two detectors, and the peaks were arranged in order of decreasing areas to yield a signature for each bacterial strain. Different signatures were obtained for the various genera and species and for strains of the same species. B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, and A. aerogenes formed significant quantities of a number of volatile compounds, and qualitative and quantitative differences between strains were noted. The electron capture detector was particularly sensitive to diacetyl and acetoin as well as to unknown compounds. By use of this detector, the presence of 5 pg of diacetyl and 20 pg of acetoin could be demonstrated. The quantity of acetoin detected in B. subtilis and B. licheniformis cultures was present in as little as 6.3 x 10(-3) muliters of medium.

  12. Rocket engine failure detection using system identification techiques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Claudia M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical foundation and application of two univariate failure detection algorithms to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) test firing data is presented. Both algorithms were applied to data collected during steady state operation of the engine. One algorithm, the time series algorithm, is based on time series techniques and involves the computation of autoregressive models. Times series techniques have been previously applied to SSME data. The second algorithm is based on standard signal processing techniques. It consists of tracking the variations in the average signal power with time. The average signal power algorithm is a newly proposed SSME failure detection algorithm. Seven nominal test firings were used to develop failure indication thresholds for each algorithm. These thresholds were tested using four anomalous firings and one additional nominal firing. Both algorithms provided significantly earlier failure indication times than did the current redline limit system. Neither algorithm gave false failure indications for the nominal firing. The strengths and weaknesses of the two algorithms are discussed and compared. The average signal algorithm was found to have several advantages over the time series algorithm.

  13. Detection, Location and Grasping Objects Using a Stereo Sensor on UAV in Outdoor Environments.

    PubMed

    Ramon Soria, Pablo; Arrue, Begoña C; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-01-07

    The article presents a vision system for the autonomous grasping of objects with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in real time. Giving UAVs the capability to manipulate objects vastly extends their applications, as they are capable of accessing places that are difficult to reach or even unreachable for human beings. This work is focused on the grasping of known objects based on feature models. The system runs in an on-board computer on a UAV equipped with a stereo camera and a robotic arm. The algorithm learns a feature-based model in an offline stage, then it is used online for detection of the targeted object and estimation of its position. This feature-based model was proved to be robust to both occlusions and the presence of outliers. The use of stereo cameras improves the learning stage, providing 3D information and helping to filter features in the online stage. An experimental system was derived using a rotary-wing UAV and a small manipulator for final proof of concept. The robotic arm is designed with three degrees of freedom and is lightweight due to payload limitations of the UAV. The system has been validated with different objects, both indoors and outdoors.

  14. Computational detection and location of transcription start sites in mammalian genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Down, Thomas A; Hubbard, Tim J P

    2002-03-01

    Transcription, the process whereby RNA copies are made from sections of the DNA genome, is directed by promoter regions. These define the transcription start site, and also the set of cellular conditions under which the promoter is active. At least in more complex species, it appears to be common for genes to have several different transcription start sites, which may be active under different conditions. Eukaryotic promoters are complex and fairly diffuse structures, which have proven hard to detect in silico. We show that a novel hybrid machine-learning method is able to build useful models of promoters for >50% of human transcription start sites. We estimate specificity to be >70%, and demonstrate good positional accuracy. Based on the structure of our learned models, we conclude that a signal resembling the well known TATA box, together with flanking regions of C-G enrichment, are the most important sequence-based signals marking sites of transcriptional initiation at a large class of typical promoters.

  15. Detection, Location and Grasping Objects Using a Stereo Sensor on UAV in Outdoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ramon Soria, Pablo; Arrue, Begoña C.; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a vision system for the autonomous grasping of objects with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in real time. Giving UAVs the capability to manipulate objects vastly extends their applications, as they are capable of accessing places that are difficult to reach or even unreachable for human beings. This work is focused on the grasping of known objects based on feature models. The system runs in an on-board computer on a UAV equipped with a stereo camera and a robotic arm. The algorithm learns a feature-based model in an offline stage, then it is used online for detection of the targeted object and estimation of its position. This feature-based model was proved to be robust to both occlusions and the presence of outliers. The use of stereo cameras improves the learning stage, providing 3D information and helping to filter features in the online stage. An experimental system was derived using a rotary-wing UAV and a small manipulator for final proof of concept. The robotic arm is designed with three degrees of freedom and is lightweight due to payload limitations of the UAV. The system has been validated with different objects, both indoors and outdoors. PMID:28067851

  16. Distributed fiber optic sensor employing phase generate carrier for disturbance detection and location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haiyan; Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Xuewu; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Min

    2015-05-01

    Distributed optic fiber sensor is a new type of system, which could be used in the long-distance and strong-EMI condition for monitoring and inspection. A method of external modulation with a phase modulator is proposed in this paper to improve the positioning accuracy of the disturbance in a distributed optic-fiber sensor. We construct distributed disturbance detecting system based on Michelson interferometer, and a phase modulator has been attached to the fiber sensor in front of the Faraday rotation mirror (FRM), to elevate the signal produced by interfering of the two lights reflected by the Faraday rotation Mirror to a high frequency, while other signals remain in the low frequency. Through a high pass filter and phase retrieve circus, a signal which is proportional to the external disturbance is acquired. The accuracy of disturbance positioning with this signal can be largely improved. The method is quite simple and easy to achieve. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that, this method can effectively improve the positioning accuracy.

  17. Change of Detection: To Find the Terrorist within the Identification of the U.S. Army’s Insider Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    A CHANGE OF DETECTION: TO FIND THE TERRORIST WITHIN THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE U.S. ARMY’S INSIDER THREAT A thesis presented......Baker Thesis Title: A Change of Detection: To Find the Terrorist within the Identification of the U.S. Army’s Insider Threat Approved by

  18. Detection and location of earthquakes in the central Aleutian subduction zone using island and ocean bottom seismograph stations

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, C.; Billington, S.; Engdahl, E.R.; Malahoff, A.

    1982-08-10

    A network of eight University of Texas ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) operated for 6 weeks in 1978 about 50 km offshore of Adak Island, Alaska, and nearly islands. In 1979 a similar network of nine instruments was deployed for 7 weeks farther offshore within and up to 100 km seaward of the Aleutian trench. For shallow earthquakes on the outer trench slope, for shallow earthquakes in the thrust zone, and for intermediate-depth events we have analyzed the OBS and island-based network data and evaluated the island network's capabilities for earthquake detection and location and for focal mechanism determination. Our three major conclusions are presented. The first concerns shallow earthquakes on the outer trench slope. In 1979 about 30 earthquakes occurred within the Aleutian trench and up to 60 km seaward of the trench axis. The island network located none of these events and detected P phases for only three of them. Ray tracing shows that the islands lie in a geometric shadow zone for events on the outer trench slope. The best located events are shallower than 20 km and exhibit first motions consistent with normal faulting. Several authors have suggested that these events are caused by bending of the oceanic lithosphere at the outer rise prior to subduction. If so, then the event locations reported here show that the bending stresses exceed the strength of lithosphere only in a narrow zone extending about 10 km landward and 60 km seaward of the trench axis. The second conclusion concerns shallow earthquakes in the thrust zone. Epicenters determined by island stations alone are virtually identical to epicenters determined using data from both island and OBS stations. The third conclusion concerns earthquakes deeper than 70 km. Epicenters determined using island network stations alone lie 10 to 80 km south of those determined using OBS and island stations, with the differences between epicenters depending both on event depth and on the velocity model used.

  19. An Analysis on Sensor Locations of the Human Body for Wearable Fall Detection Devices: Principles and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Ahmet Turan

    2016-01-01

    Wearable devices for fall detection have received attention in academia and industry, because falls are very dangerous, especially for elderly people, and if immediate aid is not provided, it may result in death. However, some predictive devices are not easily worn by elderly people. In this work, a huge dataset, including 2520 tests, is employed to determine the best sensor placement location on the body and to reduce the number of sensor nodes for device ergonomics. During the tests, the volunteer’s movements are recorded with six groups of sensors each with a triaxial (accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer) sensor, which is placed tightly on different parts of the body with special straps: head, chest, waist, right-wrist, right-thigh and right-ankle. The accuracy of individual sensor groups with their location is investigated with six machine learning techniques, namely the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier, Bayesian decision making (BDM), support vector machines (SVM), least squares method (LSM), dynamic time warping (DTW) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Each technique is applied to single, double, triple, quadruple, quintuple and sextuple sensor configurations. These configurations create 63 different combinations, and for six machine learning techniques, a total of 63 × 6 = 378 combinations is investigated. As a result, the waist region is found to be the most suitable location for sensor placement on the body with 99.96% fall detection sensitivity by using the k-NN classifier, whereas the best sensitivity achieved by the wrist sensor is 97.37%, despite this location being highly preferred for today’s wearable applications. PMID:27463719

  20. An Analysis on Sensor Locations of the Human Body for Wearable Fall Detection Devices: Principles and Practice.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Ahmet Turan

    2016-07-25

    Wearable devices for fall detection have received attention in academia and industry, because falls are very dangerous, especially for elderly people, and if immediate aid is not provided, it may result in death. However, some predictive devices are not easily worn by elderly people. In this work, a huge dataset, including 2520 tests, is employed to determine the best sensor placement location on the body and to reduce the number of sensor nodes for device ergonomics. During the tests, the volunteer's movements are recorded with six groups of sensors each with a triaxial (accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer) sensor, which is placed tightly on different parts of the body with special straps: head, chest, waist, right-wrist, right-thigh and right-ankle. The accuracy of individual sensor groups with their location is investigated with six machine learning techniques, namely the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier, Bayesian decision making (BDM), support vector machines (SVM), least squares method (LSM), dynamic time warping (DTW) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Each technique is applied to single, double, triple, quadruple, quintuple and sextuple sensor configurations. These configurations create 63 different combinations, and for six machine learning techniques, a total of 63 × 6 = 378 combinations is investigated. As a result, the waist region is found to be the most suitable location for sensor placement on the body with 99.96% fall detection sensitivity by using the k-NN classifier, whereas the best sensitivity achieved by the wrist sensor is 97.37%, despite this location being highly preferred for today's wearable applications.

  1. Modulation of synaptic input by GABAB receptors improves coincidence detection for computation of sound location

    PubMed Central

    Fischl, Matthew J; Combs, T Dalton; Klug, Achim; Grothe, Benedikt; Burger, R Michael

    2012-01-01

    Interaural time disparities (ITDs) are the primary cues for localisation of low-frequency sound stimuli. ITDs are computed by coincidence-detecting neurones in the medial superior olive (MSO) in mammals. Several previous studies suggest that control of synaptic gain is essential for maintaining ITD selectivity as stimulus intensity increases. Using acute brain slices from postnatal day 7 to 24 (P7–P24) Mongolian gerbils, we confirm that activation of GABAB receptors reduces the amplitude of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents to the MSO and, moreover, show that the decay kinetics of IPSCs are slowed in mature animals. During repetitive stimuli, activation of GABAB receptors reduced the amount of depression observed, while PSC suppression and the slowed kinetics were maintained. Additionally, we used physiological and modelling approaches to test the potential impact of GABAB activation on ITD encoding in MSO neurones. Current clamp recordings from MSO neurones were made while pharmacologically isolated excitatory inputs were bilaterally stimulated using pulse trains that simulate ITDs in vitro. MSO neurones showed strong selectivity for bilateral delays. Application of both GABAB agonists and antagonists demonstrate that GABAB modulation of synaptic input can sharpen ITD selectivity. We confirmed and extended these results in a computational model that allowed for independent manipulation of each GABAB-dependent effect. Modelling suggests that modulation of both amplitude and kinetics of synaptic inputs by GABAB receptors can improve precision of ITD computation. Our studies suggest that in vivo modulation of synaptic input by GABAB receptors may act to preserve ITD selectivity across various stimulus conditions. PMID:22473782

  2. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    SciTech Connect

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  3. Odor detection threshold, but not odor identification, is impaired in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Vodicka, Jan; Havlovicova, Marketa; Sedlacek, Zdenek; Urbanek, Tomas; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2011-07-01

    The aim of our study was to examine odor detection thresholds and odor identification in autistic subjects. Thirty-five patients with Asperger's syndrome and high functioning autism (mean age 10.8 ± 3.6 years; 31 boys) were compared with 35 healthy control subjects (mean age 10.4 ± 2.4 years; 28 boys). There were no significant differences between groups with regard to mean age (p = 0.598) and gender proportion (p = 0.324). Olfactory testing used the Sniffin' Sticks test (threshold and identification parts only). Participants with Asperger's syndrome and high functioning autism, in comparison with healthy controls, were significantly impaired relative to odor detection thresholds (6.3 ± 3.1 vs. 7.9 ± 2.0; p = 0.025). Autistic participants were significantly better in correctly identifying the odor of an orange (94 vs. 63%; p < 0.05) and significantly worse at correctly identifying the odor of cloves (40 vs. 74%; p < 0.05). With regard to identification of fourteen other substances, there were no significant differences. There was no significant difference between autistic and control subjects on the total score of olfactory identification (p = 0.799). Odor identification ability (as expressed by this total score) correlated significantly with age in the control group (p = 0.049), but not in the autism group (p = 0.103). We found impaired odor detection and almost normal odor identification in children with autism. Implications for further research are discussed.

  4. A novel multiplex isothermal amplification method for rapid detection and identification of viruses

    PubMed Central

    Nyan, Dougbeh-Chris; Swinson, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid multiplex isothermal amplification assay has been developed for detection and identification of multiple blood-borne viruses that infect millions of people world-wide. These infections may lead to chronic diseases or death if not diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. Sets of virus-specific oligonucleotides and oligofluorophores were designed and used in a reverse-transcription loop-mediated multiplexed isothermal amplification reaction for detection and gel electrophoretic identification of human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis-B virus (HBV), hepatitis-C virus (HCV), hepatitis-E virus (HEV), dengue virus (DENV), and West Nile (WNV) virus infection in blood plasma. Amplification was catalyzed with two thermostable enzymes for 30–60 minutes under isothermal condition, utilizing a simple digital heat source. Electrophoretic analysis of amplified products demonstrated simultaneous detection of 6 viruses that were distinctly identified by unique ladder-like banding patterns. Naked-eye fluorescent visualization of amplicons revealed intensely fluorescing products that indicated positive detection. The test demonstrated a 97% sensitivity and a 100% specificity, with no cross-reaction with other viruses observed. This portable detection tool may have clinical and field utility in the developing and developed world settings. This may enable rapid diagnosis and identification of viruses for targeted therapeutic intervention and prevention of disease transmission. PMID:26643761

  5. Computational identification of tumor anatomic location associated with survival in two large cohorts of human primary glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiffany T.; Achrol, Achal S.; Mitchell, Lex A.; Du, William A.; Loya, Joshua J.; Rodriguez, Scott A.; Feroze, Abdullah; Westbroek, Erick M.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Chang, Steven D.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tumor location has been shown to be a significant prognostic factor in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). The purpose of this study is to characterize GBM lesions by identifying MRI voxel-based tumor location features that are associated with tumor molecular profiles, patient characteristics and clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods Preoperative T1 anatomic MR images of 384 GBM patients were obtained from two independent cohorts (N=253 from our local (name withheld to preserve anonymity) Medical Center for training and N=131 from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for validation). An automated computational image analysis pipeline was developed to determine the anatomic locations of tumor in each patient. Voxel-based differences in tumor location between good (overall survival (OS) > 17 months) and poor (OS < 11 months) survival groups identified in the training cohort were used to classify patients in the TCGA cohort into two brain location groups, for which clinical features, mRNA expression, and copy number changes were compared to elucidate the biological basis of tumors located in different brain regions. Results Tumors in the right occipito-temporal periventricular white matter were significantly associated with poor survival in both training and test cohorts (both log-rank P < 0.05) and had larger tumor volume compared to tumors in other locations. Tumors in the right peri-atrial location were associated with hypoxia pathway enrichment and PDGFRA amplification, making them potential targets for subgroup-specific therapies. Conclusion Voxel-based location in GBM is associated with patient outcome and may have a potential role for guiding personalized treatment. PMID:26744442

  6. An algorithm for image clusters detection and identification based on color for an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Uy, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    An algorithm for detection and identification of image clusters or {open_quotes}blobs{close_quotes} based on color information for an autonomous mobile robot is developed. The input image data are first processed using a crisp color fuszzyfier, a binary smoothing filter, and a median filter. The processed image data is then inputed to the image clusters detection and identification program. The program employed the concept of {open_quotes}elastic rectangle{close_quotes}that stretches in such a way that the whole blob is finally enclosed in a rectangle. A C-program is develop to test the algorithm. The algorithm is tested only on image data of 8x8 sizes with different number of blobs in them. The algorithm works very in detecting and identifying image clusters.

  7. High effective algorithm of the detection and identification of substance using the noisy reflected THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Tikhomirov, Vasily V.

    2015-08-01

    Principal limitations of the standard THz-TDS method for the detection and identification are demonstrated under real conditions (at long distance of about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) using neutral substances thick paper bag, paper napkins and chocolate. We show also that the THz-TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even if the THz signals were measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); silicon-based semiconductors were used as the samples. However, the integral correlation criteria, based on SDA method, allows us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the neutral substances. The discussed algorithm shows high probability of the substance identification and a reliability of realization in practice, especially for security applications and non-destructive testing.

  8. Effect of attention on the detection and identification of masked spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Põder, Endel

    2005-01-01

    The effect of attention on the detection and identification of vertically and horizontally oriented Gabor patterns in the condition of simultaneous masking with obliquely oriented Gabors was studied. Attention was manipulated by varying the set size in a visual-search experiment. In the first experiment, small target Gabors were presented on the background of larger masking Gabors. In the detection task, the effect of set size was as predicted by unlimited-capacity signal detection theory. In the orientation identification task, increasing the set size from 1 to 8 resulted in a much larger decline in performance. The results of the additional experiments suggest that attention can reduce the crowding effect of maskers.

  9. Confidence in word detection predicts word identification: implications for an unconscious perception paradigm.

    PubMed

    Haase, S J; Fisk, G

    2001-01-01

    The present experiments extend the scope of the independent observation model based on signal detection theory (Macmillan & Creelman, 1991) to complex (word) stimulus sets. In the first experiment, the model predicts the relationship between uncertain detection and subsequent correct identification, thereby providing an alternative interpretation to a phenomenon often described as unconscious perception. Our second experiment used an exclusion task (Jacoby, Toth, & Yonelinas, 1993), which, according to theories of unconscious perception, should show qualitative differences in performance based on stimulus detection accuracy and provide a relative measure of conscious versus unconscious influences (Merikle, Joordens, & Stoltz, 1995). Exclusion performance was also explained by the model, suggesting that undetected words did not unconsciously influence identification responses.

  10. Identification of candidate epigenetic biomarkers for ovarian cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YI-WEN; JANSEN, RACHEL A.; FABBRI, ENRICA; POTTER, DUSTIN; LIYANARACHCHI, SANDYA; CHAN, MICHAEL W.Y.; LIU, JOSEPH C.; CRIJNS, ANNE P.G.; BROWN, ROBERT; NEPHEW, KENNETH P.; VAN DER ZEE, ATE G.J.; COHN, DAVID E.; YAN, PEARLLY S.; HUANG, TIM H.-M.; LIN, HUEY-JEN L.

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ranks the most lethal among gynecologic neoplasms in women. To develop potential bio-markers for diagnosis, we have identified five novel genes (CYP39A1, GTF2A1, FOXD4L4, EBP, and HAAO) that are hypermethylated in ovarian tumors, compared with the non-malignant normal ovarian surface epithelia, using the quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reactions. Interestingly enough, multivariate Cox regression analysis has identified hypermethylation of CYP39A1 correlated with an increase rate of relapsing (P=0.032, hazard ratio >1). Concordant hypermethylation in at least three loci was observed in 50 out of 55 (91%) of ovarian tumors examined. The test sensitivity and specificity were assessed to be 96 and 67% for CYP39A1; 95 and 88% for GTF2A1; 93 and 67% for FOXD4L4; 81 and 67% for EBP; 89 and 82% for HAAO, respectively. Our data have identified, for the first time, GTF2A1 alone, or GTF2A1 plus HAAO are excellent candidate biomarkers for detecting this disease. Moreover, the known functions of these gene products further implicate dys-regulated transcriptional control, cholesterol metabolism, or synthesis of quinolinic acids, may play important roles in attributing to ovarian neoplasm. Molecular therapies, by reversing the aberrant epigenomes using inhibitory agents or by abrogating the upstream signaling pathways that convey the epigenomic perturbations, may be developed into promising treatment regimens. PMID:19724865

  11. A detection system for the identification of heavy residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkum, E. A.; van den Brink, A.; Meijer, R. J.; Kamermans, R.

    1986-03-01

    A detection system for heavy residues at low energies consisting of a time-of-flight (TOF) system and a ΔE-ER telescope is described. The start signal of the TOF system is obtained from a microchannelplate detector of the mirror type. The ΔE-ER telescope consists of an ionization counter as transmission detector and array of silicon surface barrier detectors to stop the heavy ions. The two position coordinates of the trajectory of the heavy ions are both determined with the drift time method. The intrinsic time resolution of the TOF system, measured with 47 MeV63Cu ions, is 175 ps. The energy resolution of the ΔE-ER telescope is 310 keV for 39 MeV 12C ions, which is mainly due to the spread in the energy loss in the entrance window of the ionization chamber. The energy-loss resolution is mainly determined by energy straggling in the gas. The largest contribution to the position resolution is caused by multiple scattering in the counter gas.

  12. Common pharmacophore identification using frequent clique detection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Podolyan, Yevgeniy; Karypis, George

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of a pharmacophore, or the 3D arrangement of features in the biologically active molecule that is responsible for its pharmacological activity, can help in the search and design of a new or better drug acting upon the same or related target. In this paper, we describe two new algorithms based on the frequent clique detection in the molecular graphs. The first algorithm mines all frequent cliques that are present in at least one of the conformers of each (or a portion of all) molecules. The second algorithm exploits the similarities among the different conformers of the same molecule and achieves an order of magnitude performance speedup compared to the first algorithm. Both algorithms are guaranteed to find all common pharmacophores in the data set, which is confirmed by the validation on the set of molecules for which pharmacophores have been determined experimentally. In addition, these algorithms are able to scale to data sets with arbitrarily large number of conformers per molecule and identify multiple ligand binding modes or multiple binding sites of the target.

  13. Common Pharmacophore Identification Using Frequent Clique Detection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Podolyan, Yevgeniy; Karypis, George

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of a pharmacophore, or the 3D arrangement of features in the biologically active molecule that is responsible for its pharmacological activity, can help in the search and design of a new or better drug acting upon the same or related target. In this paper we describe two new algorithms based on the frequent clique detection in the molecular graphs. The first algorithm mines all frequent cliques that are present in at least one of the conformers of each (or a portion of all) molecules. The second algorithm exploits the similarities among the different conformers of the same molecule and achieves an order of magnitude performance speedup compared to the first algorithm. Both algorithms are guaranteed to find all common pharmacophores in the dataset, which is confirmed by the validation on the set of molecules for which pharmacophores have been determined experimentally. In addition, these algorithms are able to scale to datasets with arbitrarily large number of conformers per molecule and identify multiple ligand binding modes or multiple binding sites of the target. PMID:19072298

  14. Peculiarities of the detection and identification of substance at long distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Tikhomirov, Vasily V.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, the detection and identification of dangerous substances at long distance (several meters, for example) by using of THz pulse reflected from the object is an important problem. In this report we demonstrate possibility of THz signal measuring reflected from investigated object that is placed before a flat metallic mirror. A distance between the flat mirror and the parabolic mirror this mirror is equal to 3.5 meters. Therefore, at present time our measurements contain features of both transmission and reflection modes. The reflecting mirror is used because of weak average power of used femtosecond laser. Measurements were provided at room temperature and humidity about 60%. The aim of investigation was the detection of a substance in real condition. Chocolate and Cookies were used as samples for identification. We also discuss modified correlation criteria for the detection and identification of various substances using pulsed THz signal in the transmission and reflection mode at short distances of about 30-40 cm. These criteria are integral criteria in time and they are based on the SDA method. Proposed algorithms show both high probability of the substance identification and a reliability of realization in practice. We compare P-spectrum and SDA- methods in the paper and show that P-spectrum method is a partial case of SDAmethod.

  15. Identification and Detection of Simple 3D Objects with Severely Blurred Vision

    PubMed Central

    Kallie, Christopher S.; Legge, Gordon E.; Yu, Deyue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Detecting and recognizing three-dimensional (3D) objects is an important component of the visual accessibility of public spaces for people with impaired vision. The present study investigated the impact of environmental factors and object properties on the recognition of objects by subjects who viewed physical objects with severely reduced acuity. Methods. The experiment was conducted in an indoor testing space. We examined detection and identification of simple convex objects by normally sighted subjects wearing diffusing goggles that reduced effective acuity to 20/900. We used psychophysical methods to examine the effect on performance of important environmental variables: viewing distance (from 10–24 feet, or 3.05–7.32 m) and illumination (overhead fluorescent and artificial window), and object variables: shape (boxes and cylinders), size (heights from 2–6 feet, or 0.61–1.83 m), and color (gray and white). Results. Object identification was significantly affected by distance, color, height, and shape, as well as interactions between illumination, color, and shape. A stepwise regression analysis showed that 64% of the variability in identification could be explained by object contrast values (58%) and object visual angle (6%). Conclusions. When acuity is severely limited, illumination, distance, color, height, and shape influence the identification and detection of simple 3D objects. These effects can be explained in large part by the impact of these variables on object contrast and visual angle. Basic design principles for improving object visibility are discussed. PMID:23111613

  16. Model-based fault detection and identification with online aerodynamic model structure selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombaerts, T.

    2013-12-01

    This publication describes a recursive algorithm for the approximation of time-varying nonlinear aerodynamic models by means of a joint adaptive selection of the model structure and parameter estimation. This procedure is called adaptive recursive orthogonal least squares (AROLS) and is an extension and modification of the previously developed ROLS procedure. This algorithm is particularly useful for model-based fault detection and identification (FDI) of aerospace systems. After the failure, a completely new aerodynamic model can be elaborated recursively with respect to structure as well as parameter values. The performance of the identification algorithm is demonstrated on a simulation data set.

  17. Polarimetric radars and polarimetric SAR data in tasks of detection and identification of marine oil pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sineva, A. A.; Ivanov, A. Yu.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting and distinguishing different kinds of oil pollution, including spills of crude oil on the sea surface, is one important problem of modern remote sensing. The wide use of imaging radars is not always effective. In this review paper, the main principles and methods of polarization radar imaging and radar data processing are discussed based on present theoretical and experimental approaches and ideas. The efficiency of polarimetric methods for oil-spill detection and accurate identification on the sea surface is demonstrated as well. As is shown, modern methods of multipolarimetric radar-signal processing is a powerful means for improving oil-pollution detection and discrimination algorithms.

  18. Gyro-based Maximum-Likelihood Thruster Fault Detection and Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward; Lages, Chris; Mah, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    When building smaller, less expensive spacecraft, there is a need for intelligent fault tolerance vs. increased hardware redundancy. If fault tolerance can be achieved using existing navigation sensors, cost and vehicle complexity can be reduced. A maximum likelihood-based approach to thruster fault detection and identification (FDI) for spacecraft is developed here and applied in simulation to the X-38 space vehicle. The system uses only gyro signals to detect and identify hard, abrupt, single and multiple jet on- and off-failures. Faults are detected within one second and identified within one to five accords,

  19. Comparison of third generation versus fourth generation electronic apex locators in detecting apical constriction: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Swapna, DV; Krishna, Akash; Patil, Anand C; Rashmi, K; Pai, Veena S; Ranjini, MA

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the accuracy of Root ZX and Raypex 5 in detecting minor diameter in human permanent single-rooted teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients with completely formed single-rooted permanent teeth indicated for extraction were selected for the study. Crown was flattened for stable reference point and access cavity prepared. Working length was determined with both apex locators. A 15 K file adjusted to that reading was placed in the root canal and stabilized with cement. The tooth was then extracted atraumatically. Following extraction apical 4 mm of root was shaved. The position of the minor diameter in relation to the anatomic apex was recorded for each tooth under stereomicroscope at ×10. The efficiency of two electronic apex locators to determine the minor diameter was statistically analyzed using paired sample t-test. Results: The minor diameter was located within the limits of ±0.5 mm in 96.6% of the samples with the Root ZX and 93.2% of the samples with Raypex 5. The paired sample t-test showed no significant difference. Conclusion: On analyzing the results of our study it can be concluded that Raypex 5 was as effective as Root ZX in determining the minor diameter. PMID:26180412

  20. In-flight detection and identification and accommodation of aircraft icing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, Fikret; Hajiyev, Chingiz

    2012-11-01

    The recent improvements and research on aviation have focused on the subject of aircraft safe flight even in the severe weather conditions. As one type of such weather conditions, aircraft icing considerably has negative effects on the aircraft flight performance. The risks of the iced aerodynamic surfaces of the flying aircraft have been known since the beginning of the first flights. Until recent years, as a solution for this event, the icing conditions ahead flight route are estimated from radars or other environmental sensors, hence flight paths are changed, or, if it exists, anti-icing/de-icing systems are used. This work aims at the detection and identification of airframe icing based on statistical properties of aircraft dynamics and reconfigurable control protecting aircraft from hazardous icing conditions. In this paper, aircraft icing identification based on neural networks is investigated. Following icing identification, reconfigurable control is applied for protecting the aircraft from hazardous icing conditions.

  1. The application of visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging for the detection and identification of blood stains.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Beveridge, Peter; O'Hare, William T; Islam, Meez

    2014-12-01

    Current methods of detection and identification of blood stains rely largely on visual examination followed by presumptive tests such as Kastle-Meyer, Leuco-malachite green or luminol. Although these tests are useful, they can produce false positives and can also have a negative impact on subsequent DNA tests. A novel application of visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging has been used for the detection and positive identification of blood stains in a non contact and non destructive manner on a range of coloured substrates. The identification of blood staining was based on the unique visible absorption spectrum of haemoglobin between 400 and 500 nm. Images illustrating successful discrimination of blood stains from nine red substances are included. It has also been possible to distinguish between blood and approximately 40 other reddish stains. The technique was also successfully used to detect latent blood stains deposited on white filter paper at dilutions of up to 1 in 512 folds and on red tissue at dilutions of up to 1 in 32 folds. Finally, in a blind trial, the method successfully detected and identified a total of 9 blood stains on a red T-shirt.

  2. Distinct cortical networks for the detection and identification of human body.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, Amra; Kaas, Amanda; Muckli, Lars; Stirn, Aglaja; Singer, Wolf

    2009-05-01

    In the human brain information about bodies and faces is processed in specialized cortical regions named EBA and FBA (extrastriate and fusiform body area) and OFA and FFA (occipital and fusiform face area), respectively. Here we investigate with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the cortical areas responsible for the identification of individual bodies and the distinction between 'self' and 'others'. To this end we presented subjects with images of unfamiliar and familiar bodies and their own body. We identified separate coactivation networks for body-detection (processing body related information), body-identification (processing of information relating to individual bodies) and self-identification (distinction of self from others). Body detection involves the EBA in both hemispheres, and in the right hemisphere: the FBA and areas in the IPL (inferior parietal lobe). Body identification involves areas in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of both hemispheres and in the right hemisphere areas in the medial frontal gyrus (MFG), in the cingulate gyrus (CG), in the central (CS) and the post-central sulcus (PCS), in the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and the FBA. When the recognition of one's own body is contrasted to the identification of familiar bodies, differential activation is observed in areas of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and inferior parietal sulcus (IPS) of the right hemisphere, and in the posterior orbital gyrus (pOrbG) and in the lateral occipital gyrus (LOG) of the left hemisphere. Thus, identification of individual bodies and self-other distinction involve in addition to the classical occipito-parietal network a parieto-frontal network. Interestingly, the EBA shows no differential activation for distinctions between familiar or unfamiliar bodies or recognition of one's own body.

  3. Utilization of advanced clutter suppression algorithms for improved standoff detection and identification of radionuclide threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Shokhirev, Kirill; Mulhall, Phil; Payne, David; Harris, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Technology development efforts seek to increase the capability of detection systems in low Signal-to-Noise regimes encountered in both portal and urban detection applications. We have recently demonstrated significant performance enhancement in existing Advanced Spectroscopic Portals (ASP), Standoff Radiation Detection Systems (SORDS) and handheld isotope identifiers through the use of new advanced detection and identification algorithms. The Poisson Clutter Split (PCS) algorithm is a novel approach for radiological background estimation that improves the detection and discrimination capability of medium resolution detectors. The algorithm processes energy spectra and performs clutter suppression, yielding de-noised gamma-ray spectra that enable significant enhancements in detection and identification of low activity threats with spectral target recognition algorithms. The performance is achievable at the short integration times (0.5 - 1 second) necessary for operation in a high throughput and dynamic environment. PCS has been integrated with ASP, SORDS and RIID units and evaluated in field trials. We present a quantitative analysis of algorithm performance against data collected by a range of systems in several cluttered environments (urban and containerized) with embedded check sources. We show that the algorithm achieves a high probability of detection/identification with low false alarm rates under low SNR regimes. For example, utilizing only 4 out of 12 NaI detectors currently available within an ASP unit, PCS processing demonstrated Pd,ID > 90% at a CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) of 1 in 1000 occupancies against weak activity (7 - 8μCi) and shielded sources traveling through the portal at 30 mph. This vehicle speed is a factor of 6 higher than was previously possible and results in significant increase in system throughput and overall performance.

  4. Structural equation modeling for estimating the identification accuracy and detection time latency of English monosyllabic words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Sumiko; Bernstein, Lynne E.; Auer, Edward T.

    2003-10-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the statistical structure among sets of experiential (word age of acquisition and subjective familiarity) and lexical similarity (lexical equivalence class size and neighborhood density) variables for word identification and reaction time latency tasks. Stimuli were 240 vocoded monosyllabic English words with reduced intelligibility and altered similarity relationships. Participants detected a target word following a prime and on every trial reported the prime. The identification accuracy was estimated by words and phonemes correct, and detection latency was estimated by trimmed and harmonic mean RTs. A parsimonious SEM was chosen in terms of the chi-square and model fit indices that determine whether the models adequately described the particular associations of variables/interfactor relationships. The variable/factor error variances were constrained to be uncorrelated with each other in order to evaluate effects independently. A bootstrapping technique indicated that the regression weights of the top-down and bottom-up factors were small, but they were significant in the model. The variance accounted for (VAF) by the model was 7.1% for identification accuracy, and 5.2% for RT latency. The model also indicated that RT latency was highly influenced by prime identification accuracy (15% VAF). [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD00695.

  5. Locating Basic Spanish Colour Categories in CIE L*u*v* Space: Identification, Lightness Segregation and Correspondence with English Equivalents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Julio; Moreira, Humberto; Vitini, Isaac; Martin, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Five experiments were performed to identify the basic Spanish colour categories (BCCs) and to locate them in the CIE L*u*v* space. The existence of 11 BCCs was confirmed using an elicited list task and a free monolexemic naming task. From the results provided by a synonymicity estimation task, it was concluded that, in Spanish, 2 synonymous terms…

  6. Gyro and accelerometer failure detection and identification in redundant sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. E.; Deckert, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Algorithms for failure detection and identification for redundant noncolinear arrays of single degree of freedom gyros and accelerometers are described. These algorithms are optimum in the sense that detection occurs as soon as it is no longer possible to account for the instrument outputs as the outputs of good instruments operating within their noise tolerances, and identification occurs as soon as it is true that only a particular instrument failure could account for the actual instrument outputs within the noise tolerance of good instruments. An estimation algorithm is described which minimizes the maximum possible estimation error magnitude for the given set of instrument outputs. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented for the application of the algorithms to an inertial reference unit consisting of six gyros and six accelerometers in two alternate configurations.

  7. Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E; Fergenson, David P

    2007-08-15

    Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used for the real-time detection of liquid nerve agent simulants. A total of 1000 dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles each of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, diethyl ethyl phosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and diethyl phthalate using laser fluences between 0.58 and 7.83 nJ/microm2, and mass spectral variation with laser fluence was studied. The mass spectra obtained allowed identification of single particles of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants at each laser fluence used although lower laser fluences allowed more facile identification. SPAMS is presented as a promising real-time detection system for the presence of CWAs.

  8. Detection and identification of multiple genetically modified events using DNA insert fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Philippe; Gendron, Louis; Khalf, Moustafa; Paul, Sylvianne; Dibley, Kim L; Bhat, Somanath; Xie, Vicki R D; Partis, Lina; Moreau, Marie-Eve; Dollard, Cheryl; Coté, Marie-José; Laberge, Serge; Emslie, Kerry R

    2010-03-01

    Current screening and event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection and identification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in samples of unknown composition or for the detection of non-regulated GMOs have limitations, and alternative approaches are required. A transgenic DNA fingerprinting methodology using restriction enzyme digestion, adaptor ligation, and nested PCR was developed where individual GMOs are distinguished by the characteristic fingerprint pattern of the fragments generated. The inter-laboratory reproducibility of the amplified fragment sizes using different capillary electrophoresis platforms was compared, and reproducible patterns were obtained with an average difference in fragment size of 2.4 bp. DNA insert fingerprints for 12 different maize events, including two maize hybrids and one soy event, were generated that reflected the composition of the transgenic DNA constructs. Once produced, the fingerprint profiles were added to a database which can be readily exchanged and shared between laboratories. This approach should facilitate the process of GMO identification and characterization.

  9. Identification of Barriers to Munitions Detection Technology Transfer: Unexploded Ordnance Wide Area Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Noblis Technical Report Identification of Barriers to Munitions Detection Technology Transfer Unexploded Ordnance Wide Area Assessment...September 2008 Jon Horin Robert S. Wassmann Customer: SERDP/ESTCP Contract No.: FA8903-04-D-8715 Noblis Dept. No.: H300 Project No... Noblis ,3150 Fairview Park Drive South,Falls Church,VA,22042-4504 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  10. Universal Detection and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus by Use of Resequencing Microarrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Universal Detection and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus by Use of Resequencing Microarrays...been, and continue to emerge as, threats to human health. The recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in bird populations and the...appearance of some human infections have increased the concern of a possible new influenza pandemic, which highlights the need for broad-spectrum

  11. Towards a more Complete Survey of Rockfall Activity: Seismic and LiDAR Detection, Location and Volume Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M., VI; Mohadjer, S.; Burtin, A.; Turowski, J. M.; Ehlers, T. A.; Hovius, N.

    2015-12-01

    Rockfall activity in steep alpine landscapes is often difficult to survey due to its infrequent nature. Classical approaches are limited by temporal and spatial resolution. In contrast, seismic monitoring provides access to catchment-wide analysis of activity patterns in rockfall-dominated environments. The deglaciated U-shaped Lauterbrunnen Valley in the Bernese Oberland, Switzerland, is a perfect example of such landscapes. It was instrumented with up to six broadband seismometers (capable of detecting volumes down to individual clasts) and repeatedly surveyed by terrestrial LiDAR (few weeks lapse time) to provide independent validation of the seismic data. During August-October 2014 and April-June 2015 more than 23 (LiDAR) to hundred (seismic) rockfall and icefall events were detected. Their volumes range from 0.1 to 5.80 m3 as detected by LiDAR. At the beginning of April 2015, increased activity was detected with more than 40 ice- or rockfalls in less than two hours. The evolution of these individual events (i.e., precursor activity, detachment, falling phase, impact, talus cone activity) is quantified in terms of location (within less than 200 m uncertainty) and duration. For events that consist of single detachments rather than a series of releases, volume scaling relationships are presented. Rockfall activity is linked to meteorological patterns at different temporal cycles. Seismic monitoring approaches are well-suited for studying not only the rockfall process but also for understanding the geomorphic framework and boundary conditions that control such processes in a comprehensive way. Taken together, the combined LiDAR and seismic monitoring approach provides high fidelity spatial and temporal resolution of individual events.

  12. Application of ARMAV models to the identification and damage detection of mechanical and civil engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, J. B.; Golinval, J. C.

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, the application of auto-regressive moving average vector models to system identification and damage detection is investigated. These parametric models have already been applied for the analysis of multiple input-output systems under ambient excitation. Their main advantage consists in the capability of extracting modal parameters from the recorded time signals, without the requirement of excitation measurement. The excitation is supposed to be a stationary Gaussian white noise. The method also allows the estimation of modal parameter uncertainties. On the basis of these uncertainties, a statistically based damage detection scheme is performed and it becomes possible to assess whether changes of modal parameters are caused by, e.g. some damage or simply by estimation inaccuracies. The paper reports first an example of identification and damage detection applied to a simulated system under random excitation. The `Steel-Quake' benchmark proposed in the framework of COST Action F3 `Structural Dynamics' is also analysed. This structure was defined by the Joint Research Centre in Ispra (Italy) to test steel building performance during earthquakes. The proposed method gives an excellent identification of frequencies and mode shapes, while damping ratios are estimated with less accuracy.

  13. Attentive and pre-attentive processes in change detection and identification.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Howard C; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul; Loucks, Rebecca A; Fendrich, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In studies of change blindness, observers often have the phenomenological impression that the blindness is overcome all at once, so that change detection, localization and identification apparently occur together. Three experiments are described that explore dissociations between these processes using a discrete trial procedure in which 2 visual frames are presented sequentially with no intervening inter-frame-interval. The results reveal that change detection and localization are essentially perfect under these conditions regardless of the number of elements in the display, which is consistent with the idea that change detection and localization are mediated by pre-attentive parallel processes.In contrast, identification accuracy for an item before it changes is generally poor, and is heavily dependent on the number of items displayed. Identification accuracy after a change is substantially better, but depends on the new item's duration. This suggests that the change captures attention, which substantially enhances the likelihood of correctly identifying the new item. However, the results also reveal a limited capacity to identify unattended items. Specifically, we provide evidence that strongly suggests that, at least under these conditions, observers were able to identify two items without focused attention. Our results further suggest that spatial pre-cues that attract attention to an item before the change occurs simply ensure that the cued item is one of the two whose identity is encoded.

  14. Reconstructing the Sky Location of Gravitational-Wave Detected Compact Binary Systems: Methodology for Testing and Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidney, T.; Aylott, B.; Christensen, N.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Feroz, F.; Gair, J.; Grover, K.; Graff, P.; Hanna, C.; Kalogera, V.; Mandel, I.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Pitkin, M.; Price, L.; Raymond, V.; Roever, C.; Singer, L.; vanderSluys, M.; Smith, R. J. E.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Vitale, S.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing the sky position of compact binary coalescences detected via gravitational waves is a central one for future observations with the ground-based network of gravitational-wave laser interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Different techniques for sky localization have been independently developed. They can be divided in two broad categories: fully coherent Bayesian techniques, which are high latency and aimed at in-depth studies of all the parameters of a source, including sky position, and "triangulation-based" techniques, which exploit the data products from the search stage of the analysis to provide an almost real-time approximation of the posterior probability density function of the sky location of a detection candidate. These techniques have previously been applied to data collected during the last science runs of gravitational-wave detectors operating in the so-called initial configuration. Here, we develop and analyze methods for assessing the self consistency of parameter estimation methods and carrying out fair comparisons between different algorithms, addressing issues of efficiency and optimality. These methods are general, and can be applied to parameter estimation problems other than sky localization. We apply these methods to two existing sky localization techniques representing the two above-mentioned categories, using a set of simulated inspiralonly signals from compact binary systems with a total mass of equal to or less than 20M solar mass and nonspinning components. We compare the relative advantages and costs of the two techniques and show that sky location uncertainties are on average a factor approx. equals 20 smaller for fully coherent techniques than for the specific variant of the triangulation-based technique used during the last science runs, at the expense of a factor approx. equals 1000 longer processing time.

  15. Detection and location of SRF bulk niobium cavities quench using second sound sensitive sensors in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouaidy, M.; Longuevergne, D.; Dubois, F.; Pochon, O.; Yaniche, J.-F.

    2017-02-01

    We developed sensors and instrumentation dedicated to detection and location of thermal quenches in SRF cavities via 2nd sound events in HeII. We studied 2 types of Quench Detectors (QD): 1) Oscillating Super leak Transducer (OST), 2) LOw REsponse Time resIstive Thermometers (LORETIT). The QD were characterized in He II bath (Temperature T0 = 1.6 K- Tλ. The SRF cavity quench is experimentally simulated using resistors of different sizes and geometries. High pulsed heat flux qP (qP < 2MW/m2) were applied to these heaters and the dynamic response of QD were investigated as function of several parameters (T0, qP, distance to heater). The OST were used for locating quench on different SRF cavities resonating at 2 frequencies f0 (f0 =88 MHz or f0 =352 MHz). The quench dynamics and critical size of normal resistive area leading to quench were investigated. Furthermore, a Second Sound Resonator (SSR) equipped with a pair of OST at each extremity (2nd sound generator (G) and detector (D)), a low thermal capacity heater (G) and a LORETIT (D), was successfully operated in the resonating and in the pulsed mode. The measured 1st sound and 2nd sound spectra were compared theoretical results and a good agreement is obtained.

  16. Advanced techniques for detection and identification of microbial agents of gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Sherry A; Zhang, Hongwei; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Gastroenteritis persists as a worldwide problem, responsible for approximately 2 million deaths annually. Traditional diagnostic methods used in the clinical microbiology laboratory include a myriad of tests, such as culture, microscopy, and immunodiagnostics, which can be labor intensive and suffer from long turnaround times and, in some cases, poor sensitivity. [corrected]. This article reviews recent advances in genomic and proteomic technologies that have been applied to the detection and identification of gastrointestinal pathogens. These methods simplify and speed up the detection of pathogenic microorganisms, and their implementation in the clinical microbiology laboratory has potential to revolutionize the diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  17. Rapid detection and identification of Clostridium chauvoei by PCR based on flagellin gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Kojima, A; Uchida, I; Sekizaki, T; Sasaki, Y; Ogikubo, Y; Tamura, Y

    2001-02-26

    We developed a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system that specifically detects Clostridium chauvoei. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 516-bp fragment of the structural flagellin gene. The specificity of the PCR was investigated by analyzing 59 strains of clostridia, and seven strain of other genera. A 516-bp fragment could be amplified from all the C. chauvoei strains tested, and no amplification was observed by using DNAs from the other strains tested, including Clostridium septicum. Similarly, this PCR-based method specifically detected C. chauvoei DNA sequences in samples of muscle and exudate of obtained from mice within 12h of inoculation. In tests using samples of muscle or liver, the limit of detection was about 200 organisms per reaction. These results suggest that the one-step PCR system may be useful for direct detection and identification of C. chauvoei in clinical specimens.

  18. Detection and identification of infectious bronchitis virus by RT-PCR in Iran.

    PubMed

    Homayounimehr, Alireza; Pakbin, Ahmad; Momayyez, Reza; Fatemi, Seyyedeh Mahsa Rastegar

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe diseases in poultry with significant economic consequences to the poultry industry in Iran. The aim of this study was the detection and identification of IBV by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR in Iran. Ten IB virus strains were detected by testing trachea, cecal tonsil, and kidney tissues collected from broiler and layer farms in Iran. In order to detect infectious bronchitis virus, an optimized RT-PCR was used. Primers targeting the conserved region of known IBV serotypes were used in the RT-PCR assay. Primers selectively detecting Massachusetts and 793/B type IB viruses were designed to amplify the S1 gene of the virus and used in the nested PCR test. Our findings indicate the circulation of at least three genotypes of IB viruses (Massachusetts, 793/B, and variant 2) among poultry flocks.

  19. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power

  20. Identification of substorm onset location and pre-onset sequence using Reimei, THEMIS GBO, PFISR and Geotail (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Moldwin, M.; Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.; Hirahara, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Asamura, K.; Nicolls, M. J.; Miyashita, Y.; Mende, S. B.; Heinselman, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most important questions puzzling the substorm community is the location of the breakup arc relative to general auroral morphology, ionospheric convection, and particle precipitation, which are ionospheric signatures of dynamic processes in the magnetosphere. We present a state-of-the-art ground and space-based imaging study of a substorm that occurred on 12 October 2007. The auroral breakup was observed simultaneously by the Reimei satellite, THEMIS all-sky imager and PFISR radar. The magnetic field footprint of the Geotail spacecraft was also near the ionospheric location of the substorm onset. We report unique spaceborne high-spatial and temporal resolution images of a portion of a breakup arc and of a wave-like auroral enhancement captured by cameras onboard Reimei. This substorm was isolated and occurred in a thin, only ~1.5° wide, auroral oval. Observations from PFISR and Geotail suggest a sudden plasma sheet thinning initiated ~10 min prior to the onset. Wave-like auroral enhancements were observed twice along the most equatorward preexisting auroral arc about 3 min and 1 min before the auroral expansion. This most equatorward wavy arc did not initiate the auroral spatial expansion, but remained almost stable until being engulfed after onset by auroral equatorward expansion from slightly higher latitudes. The wave-like auroral enhancement was associated with three fine inverted-V structures and fully embedded within energetic ion precipitation and westward flows. Following this enhancement, an arc formed at higher latitude just adjacent to the PSBL, and was likely a poleward boundary intensification (PBI). This arc then extended southwestward and initiated the spatial expansion. The breakup arc, i.e., the arc initiated the spatial expansion, was located poleward of and separated from the wave-like auroral enhancement. Assuming longitudinal homogeneity of proton precipitation over one degree in geographic longitude, this breakup arc was located

  1. A review of in-flight detection and identification of aircraft icing and reconfigurable control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, Fikret; Hajiyev, Chingiz

    2013-07-01

    The recent improvements and research on aviation have focused on the subject of aircraft safe flight even in the severe weather conditions. As one type of such weather conditions, aircraft icing considerably has negative effects on the aircraft flight performance. The risks of the iced aerodynamic surfaces of the flying aircraft have been known since the beginning of the first flights. Until recent years, as a solution for this event, the icing conditions ahead flight route are estimated from radars or other environmental sensors, hence flight paths are changed, or, if it exists, anti-icing/de-icing systems are used. This work aims at the detection and identification of airframe icing based on statistical properties of aircraft dynamics and reconfigurable control protecting aircraft from hazardous icing conditions. In this review paper, aircraft icing identification based on neural network (NN), batch least-squares algorithm, Kalman filtering (KF), combined NN/KF, and H∞ parameter identification techniques are investigated, and compared with each other. Following icing identification, reconfigurable control is applied for protecting the aircraft from hazardous icing conditions.

  2. Word identification and eye fixation locations in visual and visual-plus-auditory presentations of spoken sentences.

    PubMed

    Lansing, Charissa R; McConkie, George W

    2003-05-01

    In this study, we investigated where people look on talkers' faces as they try to understand what is being said. Sixteen young adults with normal hearing and demonstrated average speechreading proficiency were evaluated under two modality presentation conditions: vision only versus vision plus low-intensity sound. They were scored for the number of words correctly identified from 80 unconnected sentences spoken by two talkers. The results showed two competing tendencies: an eye primacy effect that draws the gaze to the talkers eyes during silence and an information source attraction effect that draws the gaze to the talker's mouth during speech periods. Dynamic shifts occur between eyes and mouth prior to speech onset and following the offset of speech, and saccades tend to be suppressed during speech periods. The degree to which the gaze is drawn to the mouth during speech and the degree to which saccadic activity is suppressed depend on the difficulty of the speech identification task. Under the most difficult modality presentation condition, vison only, accuracy was related to average sentence difficulty and individual proficiency in visual speech perception, but not to the proportion of gaze time directed toward the talkers mouth or toward other parts of the talker's face.

  3. Identification of novel craniofacial regulatory domains located far upstream of SOX9 and disrupted in Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher T.; Attanasio, Catia; Bhatia, Shipra; Benko, Sabina; Ansari, Morad; Tan, Tiong Y.; Munnich, Arnold; Pennacchio, Len A.; Abadie, Véronique; Temple, I. Karen; Goldenberg, Alice; van Heyningen, Veronica; Amiel, Jeanne; FitzPatrick, David; Kleinjan, Dirk A.; Visel, Axel; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia (CD), a disorder of skeletal development associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs). Translocations, deletions and duplications within a ~2 Mb region upstream of SOX9 can recapitulate the CD-DSD phenotype fully or partially, suggesting the existence of an unusually large cis-regulatory control region. Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a craniofacial disorder that is frequently an endophenotype of CD and a locus for isolated PRS at ~1.2-1.5 Mb upstream of SOX9 has been previously reported. The craniofacial regulatory potential within this locus, and within the greater genomic domain surrounding SOX9, remains poorly defined. We report two novel deletions upstream of SOX9 in families with PRS, allowing refinement of the regions harbouring candidate craniofacial regulatory elements. In parallel, ChIP-Seq for p300 binding sites in mouse craniofacial tissue led to the identification of several novel craniofacial enhancers at the SOX9 locus, which were validated in transgenic reporter mice and zebrafish. Notably, some of the functionally validated elements fall within the PRS deletions. These studies suggest that multiple non-coding elements contribute to the craniofacial regulation of SOX9 expression, and that their disruption results in PRS. PMID:24934569

  4. A Pulsed Thermographic Imaging System for Detection and Identification of Cotton Foreign Matter.

    PubMed

    Kuzy, Jesse; Li, Changying

    2017-03-04

    Detection of foreign matter in cleaned cotton is instrumental to accurately grading cotton quality, which in turn impacts the marketability of the cotton. Current grading systems return estimates of the amount of foreign matter present, but provide no information about the identity of the contaminants. This paper explores the use of pulsed thermographic analysis to detect and identify cotton foreign matter. The design and implementation of a pulsed thermographic analysis system is described. A sample set of 240 foreign matter and cotton lint samples were collected. Hand-crafted waveform features and frequency-domain features were extracted and analyzed for statistical significance. Classification was performed on these features using linear discriminant analysis and support vector machines. Using waveform features and support vector machine classifiers, detection of cotton foreign matter was performed with 99.17% accuracy. Using frequency-domain features and linear discriminant analysis, identification was performed with 90.00% accuracy. These results demonstrate that pulsed thermographic imaging analysis produces data which is of significant utility for the detection and identification of cotton foreign matter.

  5. A Pulsed Thermographic Imaging System for Detection and Identification of Cotton Foreign Matter

    PubMed Central

    Kuzy, Jesse; Li, Changying

    2017-01-01

    Detection of foreign matter in cleaned cotton is instrumental to accurately grading cotton quality, which in turn impacts the marketability of the cotton. Current grading systems return estimates of the amount of foreign matter present, but provide no information about the identity of the contaminants. This paper explores the use of pulsed thermographic analysis to detect and identify cotton foreign matter. The design and implementation of a pulsed thermographic analysis system is described. A sample set of 240 foreign matter and cotton lint samples were collected. Hand-crafted waveform features and frequency-domain features were extracted and analyzed for statistical significance. Classification was performed on these features using linear discriminant analysis and support vector machines. Using waveform features and support vector machine classifiers, detection of cotton foreign matter was performed with 99.17% accuracy. Using frequency-domain features and linear discriminant analysis, identification was performed with 90.00% accuracy. These results demonstrate that pulsed thermographic imaging analysis produces data which is of significant utility for the detection and identification of cotton foreign matter. PMID:28273848

  6. Generic RT-PCR tests for detection and identification of tospoviruses.

    PubMed

    Hassani-Mehraban, A; Westenberg, M; Verhoeven, J T J; van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Kormelink, R; Roenhorst, J W

    2016-07-01

    A set of tests for generic detection and identification of tospoviruses has been developed. Based on a multiple sequence alignment of the nucleocapsid gene and its 5' upstream untranslated region sequence from 28 different species, primers were designed for RT-PCR detection of tospoviruses from all recognized clades, i.e. the American, Asian and Eurasian clades, and from the small group of distinct and floating species. Pilot experiments on isolates from twenty different species showed that the designed primer sets successfully detected all species by RT-PCR, as confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplicons. In a final optimized design, the primers were applied in a setting of five RT-PCR tests. Seven different tospoviruses were successfully identified from diagnostic samples and in addition a non-described tospovirus species from alstroemeria plants. The results demonstrate that the newly developed generic RT-PCR tests provide a relevant tool for broad detection and identification of tospoviruses in plant quarantine and diagnostic laboratories.

  7. Immunity-based detection, identification, and evaluation of aircraft sub-system failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncayo, Hever Y.

    This thesis describes the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an integrated Artificial Immune System (AIS) for detection, identification, and evaluation of a wide variety of sensor, actuator, propulsion, and structural failures/damages including the prediction of the achievable states and other limitations on performance and handling qualities. The AIS scheme achieves high detection rate and low number of false alarms for all the failure categories considered. Data collected using a motion-based flight simulator are used to define the self for an extended sub-region of the flight envelope. The NASA IFCS F-15 research aircraft model is used and represents a supersonic fighter which include model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The flight simulation tests are designed to analyze and demonstrate the performance of the immunity-based aircraft failure detection, identification and evaluation (FDIE) scheme. A general robustness analysis is also presented by determining the achievable limits for a desired performance in the presence of atmospheric perturbations. For the purpose of this work, the integrated AIS scheme is implemented based on three main components. The first component performs the detection when one of the considered failures is present in the system. The second component consists in the identification of the failure category and the classification according to the failed element. During the third phase a general evaluation of the failure is performed with the estimation of the magnitude/severity of the failure and the prediction of its effect on reducing the flight envelope of the aircraft system. Solutions and alternatives to specific design issues of the AIS scheme, such as data clustering and empty space optimization, data fusion and duplication removal, definition of features, dimensionality reduction, and selection of cluster/detector shape are also

  8. Detection and location of shallow very low frequency earthquakes along the Nankai trough and the Ryukyu trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Y.; Matsuzawa, T.; Obara, K.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated spatiotemporal distribution of shallow very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) along the Nankai trough and the Ryukyu trench. Three component seismograms recorded at broadband stations of the NIED F-net were analyzed by using waveform-correlation and back-projection techniques after processing a band-pass filter (0.02 to 0.05 Hz). Here we used known VLFEs and regular interplate earthquakes near the trench axis as template events. Time series of cross-correlation function (CC) at each station was calculated from continuous waveform data and triggered seismograms of template events with a length of 180 s. Assuming surface wave propagation with a velocity of 3.8 km/s, CCs are back-propagated onto possible origin times and horizontal locations. We obtained VLFE epicenters by performing a grid search in time and space domains with spacing of 1 s and 0.025 degrees, respectively, to maximize the averaged CCs from all stations. At first, we choose grid points with averaged CCs larger than 0.5. If these grid points have similar origin times within 180 s, we assume that these grid points reflect a same event and choose the VLFE candidate having the largest averaged CC. If some grid points are detected in the same time window from different template events, we choose the VLFE candidate with the largest averaged CC from grid points located within 100 km from the template event. VLFEs were finally identified by removing regular earthquakes listed in the JMA catalogue from all candidates. As a result of the analysis for data from October, 2009 to February, 2010, two episodes of VLFE activity were detected. One episode was located east of the M6.8 interplate earthquake which occurred on October 30, 2009 along the Ryukyu trench. The VLFE seismicity was quite active just after the M6.8 earthquake and had been smoothly decreasing with the elapsed time. Such time dependent seismicity may be related to the post-seismic slip following the M6.8 earthquake. Another

  9. Identification of chemical warfare agents using a portable microchip-based detection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic-Duran, K.; Swallow, A.; Sexton, B. A.; Glenn, F.; Zhu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. A portable microchip electrophoresis (ME) device with contactless conductivity (CCD) detection was developed for the in situ identification of CWA and their degradation products. A 10mM MES/His, 0.4mM CTAB - based separation electrolyte accomplished the analysis of Sarin (GB), Tabun( GA) and Soman (GD) in less than 1 min, which is the fastest screening of nerve agents achieved with portable ME and CCD based detection methods to date. Reproducibility of detection was successfully demonstrated on simultaneous detection of GB (200ppm) and GA (278ppm). Reasonable agreement for the four consecutive runs was achieved with the mean peak time for Sarin of 29.15s, and the standard error of 0.58s or 2%. GD and GA were simultaneously detected with their degradation products methylphosphonic acid (MPA), pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) and O-Ethyl Phosphorocyanidate (GAHP and GAHP1) respectively. The detection limit for Sarin was around 35ppb. To the best of our knowledge this is the best result achieved in microchip electrophoresis and contactless conductivity based detection to date.

  10. CME Flux Rope and Shock Identifications and Locations: Comparison of White Light Data, Graduated Cylindrical Shell Model, and MHD Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Xie, Hong; St. Cyr, O. C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are major transient phenomena in the solar corona that are observed with ground-based and spacecraft-based coronagraphs in white light or with in situ measurements by spacecraft. CMEs transport mass and momentum and often drive shocks. In order to derive the CME and shock trajectories with high precision, we apply the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model to fit a flux rope to the CME directed toward STEREO A after about 19:00 UT on 29 November 2013 and check the quality of the heliocentric distance-time evaluations by carrying out a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the same CME with the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. Heliocentric distances of the CME and shock leading edges are determined from the simulated white light images and magnetic field strength data. We find very good agreement between the predicted and observed heliocentric distances, showing that the GCS model and the BATS-R-US simulation approach work very well and are consistent. In order to assess the validity of CME and shock identification criteria in coronagraph images, we also compute synthetic white light images of the CME and shock. We find that the outer edge of a cloud-like illuminated area in the observed and predicted images in fact coincides with the leading edge of the CME flux rope and that the outer edge of a faint illuminated band in front of the CME leading edge coincides with the CME-driven shock front.

  11. Reliable dual-redundant sensor failure detection and identification for the NASA F-8 DFBW aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, J. C.; Desai, M. N.; Deyst, J. J., Jr.; Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    A technique was developed which provides reliable failure detection and identification (FDI) for a dual redundant subset of the flight control sensors onboard the NASA F-8 digital fly by wire (DFBW) aircraft. The technique was successfully applied to simulated sensor failures on the real time F-8 digital simulator and to sensor failures injected on telemetry data from a test flight of the F-8 DFBW aircraft. For failure identification the technique utilized the analytic redundancy which exists as functional and kinematic relationships among the various quantities being measured by the different control sensor types. The technique can be used not only in a dual redundant sensor system, but also in a more highly redundant system after FDI by conventional voting techniques reduced to two the number of unfailed sensors of a particular type. In addition the technique can be easily extended to the case in which only one sensor of a particular type is available.

  12. Adaptive Parameter Identification Based on Morlet Wavelet and Application in Gearbox Fault Feature Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shibin; Zhu, Z. K.; He, Yingping; Huang, Weiguo

    2010-12-01

    Localized defects in rotating mechanical parts tend to result in impulse response in vibration signal, which contain important information about system dynamics being analyzed. Thus, parameter identification of impulse response provides a potential approach for localized fault diagnosis. A method combining the Morlet wavelet and correlation filtering, named Cyclic Morlet Wavelet Correlation Filtering (CMWCF), is proposed for identifying both parameters of impulse response and the cyclic period between adjacent impulses. Simulation study concerning cyclic impulse response signal with different SNR shows that CMWCF is effective in identifying the impulse response parameters and the cyclic period. Applications in parameter identification of gearbox vibration signal for localized fault diagnosis show that CMWCF is effective in identifying the parameters and thus provides a feature detection method for gearbox fault diagnosis.

  13. Detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ferro, Miguel Duarte; Cavaco, Isabel; Liang, Yizeng

    2013-04-17

    In this study, an analytical method for the detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four types of oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower oils) was proposed. The variables under evaluation included 22 fatty acids and 6 other significant parameters (the ratio of linoleic/linolenic acid, oleic/linoleic acid, total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), MUFAs/PUFAs). Univariate analyses followed by multivariate analyses were applied to the adulteration investigation. As a result, the univariate analyses demonstrated that higher contents of eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid, and SFAs were the peculiarities of peanut adulteration and higher levels of linolenic acid, 11-eicosenoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid the characteristics of rapeseed adulteration. Then, PLS-LDA made the detection of adulteration effective with a 1% detection limit and 90% prediction ability; a Monte Carlo tree identified the type of adulteration with 85% prediction ability.

  14. Rapid Detection and Identification of a Pathogen's DNA Using Phi29 DNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Dunn, J.; Gao, S.; Bruno, J. F.; Luft, B. J.

    2008-10-31

    Zoonotic pathogens including those transmitted by insect vectors are some of the most deadly of all infectious diseases known to mankind. A number of these agents have been further weaponized and are widely recognized as being potentially significant biothreat agents. We describe a novel method based on multiply-primed rolling circle in vitro amplification for profiling genomic DNAs to permit rapid, cultivation-free differential detection and identification of circular plasmids in infectious agents. Using Phi29 DNA polymerase and a two-step priming reaction we could reproducibly detect and characterize by DNA sequencing circular DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi B31 in DNA samples containing as little as 25 pg of Borrelia DNA amongst a vast excess of human DNA. This simple technology can ultimately be adapted as a sensitive method to detect specific DNA from both known and unknown pathogens in a wide variety of complex environments.

  15. Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2011-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical vibrational technology capable of probing biomolecular changes of tissue associated with cancer transformation. This study aimed to characterize in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of tissues belonging to different anatomical regions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and explore the implications for early detection of neoplastic lesions during clinical gastroscopy. A novel fiber-optic Raman endoscopy technique was utilized for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements of normal esophageal (distal, middle, and proximal), gastric (antrum, body, and cardia) as well as cancerous esophagous and gastric tissues from 107 patients who underwent endoscopic examinations. The non-negativity-constrained least squares minimization coupled with a reference database of Raman active biochemicals (i.e., actin, histones, collagen, DNA, and triolein) was employed for semiquantitative biomolecular modeling of tissue constituents in the upper GI. A total of 1189 in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from different locations in the upper GI. The Raman spectra among the distal, middle, and proximal sites of the esophagus showed no significant interanatomical variability. The interanatomical variability of Raman spectra among normal gastric tissue (antrum, body, and cardia) was subtle compared to cancerous tissue transformation, whereas biomolecular modeling revealed significant differences between the two organs, particularly in the gastroesophageal junction associated with proteins, DNA, and lipids. Cancerous tissues can be identified across interanatomical regions with accuracies of 89.3% [sensitivity of 92.6% (162/175) specificity of 88.6% (665/751)], and of 94.7% [sensitivity of 90.9% (30/33) specificity of 93.9% (216/230)] in the gastric and esophagus, respectively, using partial least squares-discriminant analysis together with the leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation. This work demonstrates that Raman endoscopy technique has

  16. Structure-selective hot-spot Raman enhancement for direct identification and detection of trace penicilloic acid allergen in penicillin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Jin, Yang; Mao, Hui; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Jiawei; Peng, Yan; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping

    2014-08-15

    Trace penicilloic acid allergen frequently leads to various fatal immune responses to many patients, but it is still a challenge to directly discriminate and detect its residue in penicillin by a chemosensing way. Here, we report that silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) exhibit a structure-selective hot-spot Raman enhancement capability for direct identification and detection of trace penicilloic acid in penicillin. It has been demonstrated that penicilloic acid can very easily link Au@Ag NPs together by its two carboxyl groups, locating itself spontaneously at the interparticle of Au@Ag NPs to form strong Raman hot-spot. At the critical concentration inducing the nanoparticle aggregation, Raman-enhanced effect of penicilloic acid is ~60,000 folds higher than that of penicillin. In particular, the selective Raman enhancement to the two carboxyl groups makes the peak of carboxyl group at C6 of penicilloic acid appear as a new Raman signal due to the opening of β-lactam ring of penicillin. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticle sensor reaches a sensitive limit lower than the prescribed 1.0‰ penicilloic acid residue in penicillin. The novel strategy to examine allergen is more rapid, convenient and inexpensive than the conventional separation-based assay methods.

  17. Modal Acoustic Emission Used at Elevated Temperatures to Detect Damage and Failure Location in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are being developed for elevated-temperature engine applications. A leading material system in this class of materials is silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites. Unfortunately, the nonoxide fibers, matrix, and interphase (boron nitride in this system) can react with oxygen or water vapor in the atmosphere, leading to strength degradation of the composite at elevated temperatures. For this study, constant-load stress-rupture tests were performed in air at temperatures ranging from 815 to 960 C until failure. From these data, predictions can be made for the useful life of such composites under similar stressed-oxidation conditions. During these experiments, the sounds of failure events (matrix cracking and fiber breaking) were monitored with a modal acoustic emission (AE) analyzer through transducers that were attached at the ends of the tensile bars. Such failure events, which are caused by applied stress and oxidation reactions, cause these composites to fail prematurely. Because of the nature of acoustic waveform propagation in thin tensile bars, the location of individual source events and the eventual failure event could be detected accurately.

  18. Biological material detection identification and monitoring: combining point and standoff sensors technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Rowsell, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Detection, Identification and Monitoring (DIM) of biological material is critical to enhancing Situational Awareness (SA) in a timely manner, supporting decisions, and enabling the endangered force to take the most appropriate actions in a recognized CB environment. An optimum Bio DIM capability would include both point sensors to provide local monitoring and sampling for confirmatory ID of the material, and standoff sensors to provide wide-area monitoring from a distance, increasing available response time and enhancing SA. In June 2015, a Canadian team co-deployed a point (VPBio) and a standoff (BioSense) bio sensor during the international S/K Challenge II event, at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), USA. The co-deployment of the point and standoff sensors allowed the assessment of their respective strengths and limitations with regards to Bio DIM and SA in a realistic CB environment. Moreover, the initial hypothesis stating the existence of valuable leverages between the two sensors in a context of Bio DIM was confirmed. Indeed, the spatial limitation of the point sensor was overcome with the wide area coverage of the standoff technology. In contrast, the sampling capability of the point sensor can allow confirmatory identification of the detected material. Additionally, in most scenarios, the combined results allowed an increase in detection confidence. In conclusion, the demonstration of valuable leverages between point and standoff sensors in a context of Bio DIM was made, confirming the mitigation effect of co-deploying these systems for bio surveillance.

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of the crime scene for detection and identification of blood stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, G. J.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Aalders, M. C. G.

    2013-05-01

    Blood stains are an important source of information in forensic investigations. Extraction of DNA may lead to the identification of victims or suspects, while the blood stain pattern may reveal useful information for the reconstruction of a crime. Consequently, techniques for the detection and identification of blood stains are ideally non-destructive in order not to hamper both DNA and the blood stain pattern analysis. Currently, forensic investigators mainly detect and identify blood stains using chemical or optical methods, which are often either destructive or subject to human interpretation. We demonstrated the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging of the crime scene to detect and identify blood stains remotely. Blood stains outside the human body comprise the main chromophores oxy-hemoglobin, methemoglobin and hemichrome. Consequently, the reflectance spectra of blood stains are influenced by the composite of the optical properties of the individual chromophores and the substrate. Using the coefficient of determination between a non-linear least squares multi-component fit and the measured spectra blood stains were successfully distinguished from other substances visually resembling blood (e.g. ketchup, red wine and lip stick) with a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 85 %. The practical applicability of this technique was demonstrated at a mock crime scene, where blood stains were successfully identified automatically.

  20. Fault detection and identification in missile system guidance and control: a filtering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, Mary Lou; Evers, Johnny; Karplus, Walter J.

    1996-03-01

    Real-world applications of computational intelligence can enhance the fault detection and identification capabilities of a missile guidance and control system. A simulation of a bank-to- turn missile demonstrates that actuator failure may cause the missile to roll and miss the target. Failure of one fin actuator can be detected using a filter and depicting the filter output as fuzzy numbers. The properties and limitations of artificial neural networks fed by these fuzzy numbers are explored. A suite of networks is constructed to (1) detect a fault and (2) determine which fin (if any) failed. Both the zero order moment term and the fin rate term show changes during actuator failure. Simulations address the following questions: (1) How bad does the actuator failure have to be for detection to occur, (2) How bad does the actuator failure have to be for fault detection and isolation to occur, (3) are both zero order moment and fine rate terms needed. A suite of target trajectories are simulated, and properties and limitations of the approach reported. In some cases, detection of the failed actuator occurs within 0.1 second, and isolation of the failure occurs 0.1 after that. Suggestions for further research are offered.

  1. Geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements by terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tsung-Chin; Liu, Yu-Wei; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) terrestrial laser scanning technologies with higher precision and higher capability are developing rapidly. The growing maturity of laser scanning has gradually approached the required precision as those have been provided by traditional structural monitoring technologies. Together with widely available fast computation for massive point cloud data processing, 3D laser scanning can serve as an efficient structural monitoring alternative for civil engineering communities. Currently most research efforts have focused on integrating/calculating the measured multi-station point cloud data, as well as modeling/establishing the 3D meshes of the scanned objects. Very little attention has been spent on extracting the information related to health conditions and mechanical states of structures. In this study, an automated numerical approach that integrates various existing algorithms for geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements were established. Specifically, adaptive meshes were employed for classifying the point cloud data of the structural elements, and detecting the associated damages from the calculated eigenvalues in each area of the structural element. Furthermore, kd-tree was used to enhance the searching efficiency of plane fitting which were later used for identifying the boundaries of structural elements. The results of geometric identification were compared with M3C2 algorithm provided by CloudCompare, as well as validated by LVDT measurements of full-scale reinforced concrete beams tested in laboratory. It shows that 3D laser scanning, through the established processing approaches of the point cloud data, can offer a rapid, nondestructive, remote, and accurate solution for geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements.

  2. Directional detection of Dark Matter with MIMAC: WIMP identification and track reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, J.; Mayet, F.; Grignon, C.; Santos, D.

    2011-08-01

    Directional detection is a promising Dark Matter search strategy. Indeed, WIMP-induced recoils present a direction dependence toward the Cygnus constellation, while background-induced recoils exhibit an isotropic distribution in the galactic rest frame. Taking advantage on these characteristic features and even in the presence of a sizeable background, we show for the first time the possibility to constrain the WIMP properties, both from particle and galactic halo physics, leading to an identification of non-baryonic Dark Matter. However, such results need highly accurate track reconstruction which should be reachable by the MIMAC detector using a dedicated readout combined with a likelihood analysis of recoiling nuclei.

  3. Sound vibration signal processing for detection and identification detonation (knock) to optimize performance Otto engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujono, A.; Santoso, B.; Juwana, W. E.

    2016-03-01

    Problems of detonation (knock) on Otto engine (petrol engine) is completely unresolved problem until now, especially if want to improve the performance. This research did sound vibration signal processing engine with a microphone sensor, for the detection and identification of detonation. A microphone that can be mounted is not attached to the cylinder block, that's high temperature, so that its performance will be more stable, durable and inexpensive. However, the method of analysis is not very easy, because a lot of noise (interference). Therefore the use of new methods of pattern recognition, through filtration, and the regression function normalized envelope. The result is quite good, can achieve a success rate of about 95%.

  4. Electrospray/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for the Detection and Identification of Organisms

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Stephenson, James L., Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Current electrospray ion trap methodology for rapid mixture analysis of proteins used for the identification of microorganisms is described. Development of ion/ion reaction techniques (e.g. reactions of multiply-charged protein cations with singly-charged anions) from both a fundamental and practical approach are presented, detailing the necessary steps and considerations involved in complex mixture analysis. Data describing the reduction of the initial charge states of electrospray ions to arbitrarily low values, the utility of ion/ion reactions for mixture separation on the millisecond time scale, and effects of excess singly-charged reactants on detection and storage efficiency are illustrated.

  5. DETECT: A MATLAB Toolbox for Event Detection and Identification in Time Series, with Applications to Artifact Detection in EEG Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-24

    newborn infants [5] as well as the monitoring of fatigue in prolonged driving simulations [6]. In many of these settings, the experiments may last...Automatic burst detection for the EEG of the preterm infant . Physiol Meas 32: 1623. doi:10.1088/0967–3334/32/10/010. 6. Chin-Teng Lin, Che-Jui Chang, Bor

  6. Identification of migratory bird flyways in North America using community detection on biological networks.

    PubMed

    Buhnerkempe, Michael G; Webb, Colleen T; Merton, Andrew A; Buhnerkempe, John E; Givens, Geof H; Miller, Ryan S; Hoeting, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Migratory behavior of waterfowl populations in North America has traditionally been broadly characterized by four north-south flyways, and these flyways have been central to the management of waterfowl populations for more than 80 yr. However, previous flyway characterizations are not easily updated with current bird movement data and fail to provide assessments of the importance of specific geographical regions to the identification of flyways. Here, we developed a network model of migratory movement for four waterfowl species, Mallard (Anas platyrhnchos), Northern Pintail (A. acuta), American Green-winged Teal (A. carolinensis), and Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), in North America, using bird band and recovery data. We then identified migratory flyways using a community detection algorithm and characterized the importance of smaller geographic regions in identifying flyways using a novel metric, the consolidation factor. We identified four main flyways for Mallards, Northern Pintails, and American Green-winged Teal, with the flyway identification in Canada Geese exhibiting higher complexity. For Mallards, flyways were relatively consistent through time. However, consolidation factors revealed that for Mallards and Green-winged Teal, the presumptive Mississippi flyway was potentially a zone of high mixing between other flyways. Our results demonstrate that the network approach provides a robust method for flyway identification that is widely applicable given the relatively minimal data requirements and is easily updated with future movement data to reflect changes in flyway definitions and management goals.

  7. Radio Frequency Identification Sensor Chips with Anticollision Algorithm for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple DNA Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazawa, Yoshiaki; Oonishi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Nemoto, Ryo; Shiratori, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    A newly developed DNA measurement method for multiple single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing using a radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor chip was demonstrated. The RFID sensor chip monolithically integrates a sensor, amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a passive wireless communication interface for receiving commands and transmitting data on a 2.5×2.5 mm2 silicon chip. For the simultaneous multitarget measurement, anticollision control and peak-power suppression are essential. To assign a unique identification number (UID) for the identification of multiple sensor chips, a reproducible random number generator circuit (RRG) was designed and installed on the chip. Peak-power consumption was reduced to 1018 µW by a clock gating of functional circuit blocks. Multiple SNP typing was carried out by simultaneously operating five RFID sensor chips (four with photosensors and one with a temperature sensor). The target DNA was captured on the sensor chips, and SNPs were detected by observing bioluminescence. Finally, the observed data were wirelessly transmitted to the reader.

  8. Novelty detection technique with SLV for identification of core properties in honeycombs and cellular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Fabrizio; Manson, Graeme; Ruzzene, M.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a Novelty-based detection technique to identify core material properties of honeycombs and cellular structures. A numerical model (FE) representing full scale and/or reduced size of the cellular solid is used to generate transmissibilities between topological points at cells in different locations, with a statistical Gaussian distribution of the core material property target variable. The numerical set of transmissibilities is then used in a Novelty detection framework to find Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances from analogous data from a point excitation experimental test carried out with SLV.

  9. Rapid detection and identification of beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria by microcolony method.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shizuka; Iijima, Kazumaru; Suzuki, Koji; Motoyama, Yasuo; Ogata, Tomoo; Kitagawa, Yasushi

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated a microcolony method for the detection and identification of beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this approach, bacterial cells were trapped on a polycarbonate membrane filter and cultured on ABD medium, a medium that allows highly specific detection of beer-spoilage LAB strains. After short-time incubation, viable cells forming microcolonies were stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and counted with muFinder Inspection System. In our study, we first investigated the growth behavior of various beer-spoilage LAB by traditional culture method, and Lactobacillus lindneri and several L. paracollinoides strains were selected as slow growers on ABD medium. Then the detection speeds were evaluated by microcolony method, using these slowly growing strains. As a result, all of the slowly growing beer-spoilage LAB strains were detected within 3 days of incubation. The specificity of this method was found to be exceptionally high and even discriminated intra-species differences in beer-spoilage ability of LAB strains upon detection. These results indicate that our microcolony approach allows rapid and specific detection of beer-spoilage LAB strains with inexpensive CFDA staining. For further confirmation of species status of detected strains, subsequent treatment with species-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes was shown as effective for identifying the CFDA-detected microcolonies to the species level. In addition, no false-positive results arising from noise signals were recognized for CFDA staining and FISH methods. Taken together, the developed microcolony method was demonstrated as a rapid and highly specific countermeasure against beer-spoilage LAB, and compared favorably with the conventional culture methods.

  10. A novel algorithm for real-time adaptive signal detection and identification

    SciTech Connect

    Sleefe, G.E.; Ladd, M.D.; Gallegos, D.E.; Sicking, C.W.; Erteza, I.A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a novel digital signal processing algorithm for adaptively detecting and identifying signals buried in noise. The algorithm continually computes and updates the long-term statistics and spectral characteristics of the background noise. Using this noise model, a set of adaptive thresholds and matched digital filters are implemented to enhance and detect signals that are buried in the noise. The algorithm furthermore automatically suppresses coherent noise sources and adapts to time-varying signal conditions. Signal detection is performed in both the time-domain and the frequency-domain, thereby permitting the detection of both broad-band transients and narrow-band signals. The detection algorithm also provides for the computation of important signal features such as amplitude, timing, and phase information. Signal identification is achieved through a combination of frequency-domain template matching and spectral peak picking. The algorithm described herein is well suited for real-time implementation on digital signal processing hardware. This paper presents the theory of the adaptive algorithm, provides an algorithmic block diagram, and demonstrate its implementation and performance with real-world data. The computational efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated through benchmarks on specific DSP hardware. The applications for this algorithm, which range from vibration analysis to real-time image processing, are also discussed.

  11. Rapid detection and identification of Bacillus anthracis in food using pyrosequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Kingsley K; Janzen, Timothy W; Shields, Michael J; Hahn, Kristen R; Thomas, Matthew C; Goji, Noriko

    2013-08-01

    The development of advanced methodologies for the detection of Bacillus anthracis has been evolving rapidly since the release of the anthrax spores in the mail in 2001. Recent advances in detection and identification techniques could prove to be an essential component in the defense against biological attacks. Sequence based such as pyrosequencing, which has the capability to determine short DNA stretches in real-time using biotinylated PCR amplicons, has potential biodefense applications. Using markers from the virulence plasmids (pXO1 and pXO2) and chromosomal regions, we have demonstrated the power of this technology in the rapid, specific and sensitive detection of B. anthracis spores in food matrices including milk, juice, bottled water, and processed meat. The combined use of immunomagnetic separation and pyrosequencing showed positive detection when liquid foods (bottled water, milk, juice), and processed meat were experimentally inoculated with 6CFU/mL and 6CFU/g, respectively, without an enrichment step. Pyrosequencing is completed in about 60min (following PCR amplification) and yields accurate and reliable results with an added layer of confidence. The entire assay (from sample preparation to sequencing information) can be completed in about 7.5h. A typical run on food samples yielded 67-80bp reads with 94-100% identity to the expected sequence. This sequence based approach is a novel application for the detection of anthrax spores in food with potential application in foodborne bioterrorism response and biodefense involving the use of anthrax spores.

  12. Active coherent laser spectrometer for remote detection and identification of chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Neil A.; Weidmann, Damien

    2012-10-01

    Currently, there exists a capability gap for the remote detection and identification of threat chemicals. We report here on the development of an Active Coherent Laser Spectrometer (ACLaS) operating in the thermal infrared and capable of multi-species stand-off detection of chemicals at sub ppm.m levels. A bench top prototype of the instrument has been developed using distributed feedback mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers as spectroscopic sources. The instrument provides active eye-safe illumination of a topographic target and subsequent spectroscopic analysis through optical heterodyne detection of the diffuse backscattered field. Chemical selectivity is provided by the combination of the narrow laser spectral bandwidth (typically < 2 MHz) and frequency tunability that allows the recording of the full absorption spectrum of any species within the instrument line of sight. Stand-off detection at distances up to 12 m has been demonstrated on light molecules such as H2O, CH4 and N2O. A physical model of the stand-off detection scenario including ro-vibrational molecular absorption parameters was used in conjunction with a fitting algorithm to retrieve quantitative mixing ratio information on multiple absorbers.

  13. Rapid Detection and Identification of Yersinia pestis from Food Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Kingsley K; Shields, Michael J; Goji, Noriko; Paquet, Chantal; Thomas, Matthew C; Janzen, Timothy W; Bin Kingombe, Cesar I; Kell, Arnold J; Hahn, Kristen R

    2012-01-01

    Interest has recently been renewed in the possible use of Y. pestis, the causative agent of plague, as a biological weapon by terrorists. The vulnerability of food to intentional contamination coupled with reports of humans having acquired plague through eating infected animals that were not adequately cooked or handling of meat from infected animals makes the possible use of Y. pestis in a foodborne bioterrorism attack a reality. Rapid, efficient food sample preparation and detection systems that will help overcome the problem associated with the complexity of the different matrices and also remove any ambiguity in results will enable rapid informed decisions to be made regarding contamination of food with biothreat agents. We have developed a rapid detection assay that combines the use of immunomagnetic separation and pyrosequencing in generating results for the unambiguous identification of Y. pestis from milk (0.9 CFU/mL), bagged salad (1.6 CFU/g), and processed meat (10 CFU/g). The low detection limits demonstrated in this assay provide a novel tool for the rapid detection and confirmation of Y. pestis in food without the need for enrichment. The combined use of the iCropTheBug system and pyrosequencing for efficient capture and detection of Y. pestis is novel and has potential applications in food biodefence.

  14. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks.

  15. A PCR Detection Method for Rapid Identification of Melissococcus pluton in Honeybee Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Govan, V. A.; Brözel, V.; Allsopp, M. H.; Davison, S.

    1998-01-01

    Melissococcus pluton is the causative agent of European foulbrood, a disease of honeybee larvae. This bacterium is particularly difficult to isolate because of its stringent growth requirements and competition from other bacteria. PCR was used selectively to amplify specific rRNA gene sequences of M. pluton from pure culture, from crude cell lysates, and directly from infected bee larvae. The PCR primers were designed from M. pluton 16S rRNA sequence data. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed as originating from M. pluton by sequencing in both directions. Detection was highly specific, and the probes did not hybridize with DNA from other bacterial species tested. This method enabled the rapid and specific detection and identification of M. pluton from pure cultures and infected bee larvae. PMID:9572987

  16. Leishmania species: Detection and identification by nested PCR assay from skin samples of rodent reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mirhendi, Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Rassi, Yavar; Bates, Paul; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdoli, Hamid; Jalali-zand, Niloufar; Jafari, Reza; Shareghi, Niloufar; Ghanei, Maryam; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Many rodent species act as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic areas. In the present study a simple and reliable assay based on nested PCR was developed for the detection and identification of Leishmania parasites from rodent skin samples. We designed Leishmania-specific primers that successfully amplified ITS regions of Leishmania major, Leishmania gerbilli and Leishmania turanica using nested PCR. Out of 95 field collected Rhombomys opimus, 21 were positive by microscopic examination and 48 by nested PCR. The percentage of gerbils infected with L. major, L. gerbilli and L. turanica was 3.2%, 1.1% and 27.4%, respectively. In 15.8% of the rodents, we found mixed natural infections by L. major and L. turanica, 1.1% by L. major and L. gerbilli, and 2.1% by the three species. We concluded that this method is simple and reliable for detecting and identifying Leishmania species circulating in rodent populations. PMID:20566364

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII..., Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor As stated in Tables 1 and 2 of Subpart IIIII, examples of...

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII..., Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor As stated in Tables 1 and 2 of Subpart IIIII, examples of...

  19. Authenticity examination of compressed audio recordings using detection of multiple compression and encoders' identification.

    PubMed

    Korycki, Rafal

    2014-05-01

    Since the appearance of digital audio recordings, audio authentication has been becoming increasingly difficult. The currently available technologies and free editing software allow a forger to cut or paste any single word without audible artifacts. Nowadays, the only method referring to digital audio files commonly approved by forensic experts is the ENF criterion. It consists in fluctuation analysis of the mains frequency induced in electronic circuits of recording devices. Therefore, its effectiveness is strictly dependent on the presence of mains signal in the recording, which is a rare occurrence. Recently, much attention has been paid to authenticity analysis of compressed multimedia files and several solutions were proposed for detection of double compression in both digital video and digital audio. This paper addresses the problem of tampering detection in compressed audio files and discusses new methods that can be used for authenticity analysis of digital recordings. Presented approaches consist in evaluation of statistical features extracted from the MDCT coefficients as well as other parameters that may be obtained from compressed audio files. Calculated feature vectors are used for training selected machine learning algorithms. The detection of multiple compression covers up tampering activities as well as identification of traces of montage in digital audio recordings. To enhance the methods' robustness an encoder identification algorithm was developed and applied based on analysis of inherent parameters of compression. The effectiveness of tampering detection algorithms is tested on a predefined large music database consisting of nearly one million of compressed audio files. The influence of compression algorithms' parameters on the classification performance is discussed, based on the results of the current study.

  20. An evaluation of generalized likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection to identification of seismic events in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.; Hartse, H.E.

    1996-09-24

    The Generalized Likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection Technique for seismic event identification is evaluated using synthetic test data and frequency-dependent P{sub g}/L{sub g} measurements from western China. For most seismic stations that are to be part of the proposed International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, there will be few or no nuclear explosions in the magnitude range of interest (e.g. M{sub b} < 4) on which to base an event-identification system using traditional classification techniques. Outlier detection is a reasonable alternative approach to the seismic discrimination problem when no calibration explosions are available. Distance-corrected P{sub g}/L{sub g} data in seven different frequency bands ranging from 0.5 to 8 Hz from the Chinese Digital Seismic Station WMQ are used to evaluate the technique. The data are collected from 157 known earthquakes, 215 unknown events (presumed earthquakes and possibly some industrial explosions), and 18 known nuclear explosions (1 from the Chinese Lop Nor test site and 17 from the East Kazakh test site). A feature selection technique is used to find the best combination of discriminants to use for outlier detection. Good discrimination performance is found by combining a low-frequency (0.5 to 1 Hz) P{sub g}/L{sub g} ratio with high-frequency ratios (e.g. 2 to 4 and 4 to 8 Hz). Although the low-frequency ratio does not discriminate between earthquakes and nuclear explosions well by itself, it can be effectively combined with the high-frequency discriminants. Based on the tests with real and synthetic data, the outlier detection technique appears to be an effective approach to seismic monitoring in uncalibrated regions.

  1. Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar orientation medium for detection and presumptive identification of urinary tract pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Hengstler, K A; Hammann, R; Fahr, A M

    1997-01-01

    The microbiological performance of BBL CHROMagar Orientation medium and CPS ID2 agar was compared to that of Columbia agar with 5% sheep blood and MacConkey agar without crystal violet for the enumeration and presumptive identification of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections. Of a total of 658 clinical urine specimens, 118 specimens yielded no growth, 402 specimens yielded growth with cell counts of > or = 10(5) CFU/ml, and 138 specimens yielded growth with cell counts of < 10(5) CFU/ml. Of the specimens with cell counts of > or = 10(5) CFU/ml, 163 were pure cultures and 239 were mixed cultures. A total of 266 Escherichia coli organisms were isolated on both chromogenic media, 260 were isolated on blood agar, and 248 were isolated on MacConkey agar. One strain (0.4%) failed to develop the expected pink color on CHROMagar Orientation medium, and 23 strains (8.7%) failed to develop the expected pink color on CPS ID2 agar. Enterococci (CHROMagar Orientation medium, n = 266; CPS ID2 agar, n = 265) produced small blue-green colonies on both chromogenic media. Fifty of the mixed cultures contained enterococci that were detected only on the chromogenic media. The Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia (KES) and the Proteus-Morganella-Providencia (PMP) groups could be identified on both chromogenic media. Of 66 isolates of the KES group, 63 grew with the expected color on CHROMagar Orientation medium and 58 of 64 isolates grew with the expected color on CPS ID2 agar. Other microorganisms required further identification. The use of chromogenic medium formulations offers a time-saving method for the reliable detection, enumeration, and presumptive identification of urinary tract pathogens. One of the greatest advantages of these media is the easy recognition of mixed cultures. PMID:9350731

  2. Detection, recognition, identification, and tracking of military vehicles using biomimetic intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Paul W.; Sutherland, John

    2001-10-01

    This project is aimed at analyzing EO/IR images to provide automatic target detection/recognition/identification (ATR/D/I) of militarily relevant land targets. An increase in performance was accomplished using a biomimetic intelligence system functioning on low-cost, commercially available processing chips. Biomimetic intelligence has demonstrated advanced capabilities in the areas of hand- printed character recognition, real-time detection/identification of multiple faces in full 3D perspectives in cluttered environments, advanced capabilities in classification of ground-based military vehicles from SAR, and real-time ATR/D/I of ground-based military vehicles from EO/IR/HRR data in cluttered environments. The investigation applied these tools to real data sets and examined the parameters such as the minimum resolution for target recognition, the effect of target size, rotation, line-of-sight changes, contrast, partial obscuring, background clutter etc. The results demonstrated a real-time ATR/D/I capability against a subset of militarily relevant land targets operating in a realistic scenario. Typical results on the initial EO/IR data indicate probabilities of correct classification of resolved targets to be greater than 95 percent.

  3. Possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance at using broad THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2014-10-01

    The spectral properties of THz pulses containing a few cycles reflected from a flat metallic mirror placed at long distance about 3.5 meters from the parabolic mirror are investigated. The samples for analysis were placed before this mirror. Measurements were provided at room temperature of about 18-20° C and humidity of about 70%. The aim of investigation was the detection of a substance under real conditions. At the present time our measurements contain features of both transmission and reflection modes. This leads to a strong modulation of the spectrum and makes difficulties for identification. As samples for our current research we used several neutral substances: paper layers, a thick paper bag, chocolate and cookies. The first problem deals with the detection of common and mismatched spectral properties of samples with paper layers, a thick paper bag and explosives. HMX, PETN and RDX were used as explosive samples. The dependence of the accuracy of identification of samples with paper layers and a thick bag is studied when using short transmitted THz signals with opposite absolute phases as calibration signals. Common and mismatched spectral features of neutral substances: chocolate, cookies and drugs MA, MDMA were investigated by modified integral criteria as well.

  4. Identification of Upper Respiratory Tract Pathogens Using Electrochemical Detection on an Oligonucleotide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Lodes, Michael J.; Suciu, Dominic; Wilmoth, Jodi L.; Ross, Marty; Munro, Sandra; Dix, Kim; Bernards, Karen; Stöver, Axel G.; Quintana, Miguel; Iihoshi, Naomi; Lyon, Wanda J.; Danley, David L.; McShea, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial and viral upper respiratory infections (URI) produce highly variable clinical symptoms that cannot be used to identify the etiologic agent. Proper treatment, however, depends on correct identification of the pathogen involved as antibiotics provide little or no benefit with viral infections. Here we describe a rapid and sensitive genotyping assay and microarray for URI identification using standard amplification and hybridization techniques, with electrochemical detection (ECD) on a semiconductor-based oligonucleotide microarray. The assay was developed to detect four bacterial pathogens (Bordetella pertussis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae) and 9 viral pathogens (adenovirus 4, coronavirus OC43, 229E and HK, influenza A and B, parainfluinza types 1, 2, and 3 and respiratory syncytial virus. This new platform forms the basis for a fully automated diagnostics system that is very flexible and can be customized to suit different or additional pathogens. Multiple probes on a flexible platform allow one to test probes empirically and then select highly reactive probes for further iterative evaluation. Because ECD uses an enzymatic reaction to create electrical signals that can be read directly from the array, there is no need for image analysis or for expensive and delicate optical scanning equipment. We show assay sensitivity and specificity that are excellent for a multiplexed format. PMID:17895966

  5. Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic animals and aquatic birds by PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Zia, M; Mirhendi, H; Toghyani, M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on modified Leeming and Notman agar medium. DNA extracted from the yeast colonies was amplified by PCR using primers specific for 26S rDNA. RFLP of the PCR products was performed using Hin6I enzyme, and PCR and RFLP products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Malassezia yeasts were detected at the following frequencies: 15.46% in horses, 12.74% in cattle, 12.38% in sheep, 28.33% in dogs, 26.66% in cats and 26% in aquatic birds. Eighty colonies of 6 species were isolated: Malassezia globosa 41.25%, Malassezia furfur 22.5%, Malassezia restricta 15%, Malassezia sympodialis 15%, Malassezia pachydermatis 5% and Malassezia slooffiae 1.25%. Therefore different lipophilic Malassezia species are found in a wide diversity of animals and aquatic birds. PCR-RFLP is a suitable technique for identification of different Malassezia species.

  6. Detection and identification of seismic signals recorded at Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibs-von Seht, M.

    2008-10-01

    The Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) has been monitored by a multi-parametric system since 2005. A variety of signal types can be observed in the records of the seismic stations installed on the island volcano. These include volcano-induced signals such as LP, VT, and tremor-type events as well as signals not originating from the volcano such as regional tectonic earthquakes and transient noise signals. The work presented here aims at the realization of a system that automatically detects and identifies the signals in order to estimate and monitor current activity states of the volcano. An artificial neural network approach was chosen for the identification task. A set of parameters was defined, describing waveform and spectrogram properties of events detected by an amplitude-ratio-based (STA/LTA) algorithm. The parameters are fed into a neural network which is, after a training phase, able to generalize input data and identify corresponding event types. The success of the identification depends on the network architecture and training strategy. Several tests have been performed in order to determine appropriate network layout and training for the given problem. The performance of the final system is found to be well suited to get an overview of the seismic activity recorded at the volcano. The reliability of the network classifier, as well as general drawbacks of the methods used, are discussed.

  7. Automatic Detection and Identification of Seismic Signals Recorded at Krakatau Volcano (Indonesia) Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibs-von Seht, M.; Kniess, R.

    2006-12-01

    A number of different event types can be observed in the records of seismic stations operated on Krakatau volcano (Indonesia). These include volcano-induced signals such as LP, VT, and hybrid-type events as well as signals not originating from the volcano such as local and regional tectonic earthquakes and transient noise signals. The work presented here aims at the realization of a system that automatically detects and identifies the signals in order to estimate and monitor current activity states of the volcano. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was chosen for the identification task. A set of parameters were defined, describing waveform and spectrogram properties of events detected by an STA/LTA algorithm. The parameters are fed into an ANN which is, after a training phase, able to generalize input data and identify corresponding event types. The success of the identification depends on the network architecture and training strategy. Several tests have been performed in order to determine an appropriate network layout and training intensity for the given problem. The resulting network shows a good performance. A practical implementation of the system for the volcano observatory routine is sketched.

  8. Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic animals and aquatic birds by PCR-RFLP

    PubMed Central

    Zia, M.; Mirhendi, H.; Toghyani, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on modified Leeming and Notman agar medium. DNA extracted from the yeast colonies was amplified by PCR using primers specific for 26S rDNA. RFLP of the PCR products was performed using Hin6I enzyme, and PCR and RFLP products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Malassezia yeasts were detected at the following frequencies: 15.46% in horses, 12.74% in cattle, 12.38% in sheep, 28.33% in dogs, 26.66% in cats and 26% in aquatic birds. Eighty colonies of 6 species were isolated: Malassezia globosa 41.25%, Malassezia furfur 22.5%, Malassezia restricta 15%, Malassezia sympodialis 15%, Malassezia pachydermatis 5% and Malassezia slooffiae 1.25%. Therefore different lipophilic Malassezia species are found in a wide diversity of animals and aquatic birds. PCR-RFLP is a suitable technique for identification of different Malassezia species. PMID:27175148

  9. Fluorescence detection and identification of tagging agents and impurities found in explosives.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, Chrystal N; Eastwood, Delyle; Wai, Chien M; Addleman, R Shane

    2008-07-01

    The detection and identification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) vapors have proven to be difficult and challenging due to the low vapor pressures of these high explosives. Detecting higher vapor pressure impurity compounds found in TNT and possible tagging agents mandated to be added to plastic explosives (RDX and PETN) would allow for easier vapor detection. The higher vapor pressure nitro compounds of interest are considered to be non-fluorescent; however, once reduced to their amino analogs, they have relatively high quantum yields. The standard reduction products, the reduction products obtained in solution, and the reduction products obtained in vapor phase were analyzed by conventional fluorescence, synchronous luminescence, and derivative spectroscopy. The nitro analogs of the isomers 1,3-diaminobenzene, 1,2-diaminobenzene, and 1,4-diaminobenzene are found as impurities in TNT. We provide for the first time the synchronous luminescence derivative spectra of these isomers; including their individual spectra and a spectrum of an isomeric mixture of the three. Using the standard reduction products associated with these isomers and other aromatic amines, our data suggest that the vapors of two signature impurities, 1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), minor impurity compounds, and two possible tagging agents, 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT), can be detected and selectively identified using our fluorescence approach. To prove our methodology, we show that we were able to generate, collect, and reduce 2-NT, 4-NT, and 2,4-DNT vapors to their amino analogs. Using our fluorescence approach, these vapors could be detected and selectively identified both individually and in a mixture. Collectively, our data indicate that our method of detecting and identifying higher vapor pressure explosive-like compounds could potentially be used to detect and

  10. Identification and quantitation of Bacillus globigii using metal enhanced electrochemical detection and capillary biosensor.

    PubMed

    Mwilu, Samuel K; Aluoch, Austin O; Miller, Seth; Wong, Paula; Sadik, Omowunmi A; Fatah, Alim A; Arcilesi, Richard D

    2009-09-15

    Presented herein are two detection strategies for the identification and quantification of Bacillus globigii, a spore forming nonpathogenic simulant of Bacillus anthracis. The first strategy involves a label-free, metal-enhanced electrochemical immunosensor for the quantitative detection of Bacillus globigii (atrophaeus). The immunosensor comprises of antibacillus globigii (BG) antibody self-assembled onto a gold quartz crystal electrode via cystamine bond. A solid-phase monolayer of silver underpotentially deposited onto the cystamine modified-Au-electrode surface is used as the redox probe. The monolayer was also generated by adsorbing silver nanoparticles on the gold electrode. When the antibody-modified electrode is exposed to BG spores, the antibody-antigen (Ab-Ag) complex formed insulated the electrode surface toward the silver redox probe. The variation of redox current was found to be proportional to the concentration of the BG spores between 1 x 10(2)-3.5 x 10(4) spores/mL. A detection limit of 602 spores/mL was obtained, which is well-below the infectious dose of anthrax spores at 2.5 x 10(5) spores/mL. The second approach involves the use of ultrasensitive portable capillary biosensor (UPAC) to detect the spores. The capillary is an enclosed system that acts as the flow cell, the waveguide, and the solid support for immobilized bimolecular probes. An evanescent excitation generates a signal from an antigen-antibody-fluorophore complex, which propagates along the capillary and is guided to the detector. A limit of detection of 112 spores/mL was reported using the UPAC sensor. Both methods showed lower detection limits compared to the conventional ELISA. The effect of potential interferants tested using Bacillus pumilus confirmed the selectivity for the analyte. This work should allow the first responders to rapidly detect and quantify Bacillus globigii spores at concentrations that are well-below the infectious dose.

  11. Corn plant locating by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jiancheng; Krutz, Gary W.; Gibson, Harry W.

    1991-02-01

    The feasibility investigation of using machine vision technology to locate corn plants is an important issue for field production automation in the agricultural industry. This paper presents an approach which was developed to locate the center of a corn plant using image processing techniques. Corn plants were first identified using a main vein detection algorithm by detecting a local feature of corn leaves leaf main veins based on the spectral difference between mains and leaves then the center of the plant could be located using a center locating algorithm by tracing and extending each detected vein line and evaluating the center of the plant from intersection points of those lines. The experimental results show the usefulness of the algorithm for machine vision applications related to corn plant identification. Such a technique can be used for pre. cisc spraying of pesticides or biotech chemicals. 1.

  12. Dual redundant sensor FDI techniques applied to the NASA F8C DFBW aircraft. [Failure Detection and Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, M. N.; Deckert, J. C.; Deyst, J. J.; Willsky, A. S.; Chow, E. Y.

    1976-01-01

    An onboard failure detection and identification (FDI) technique for dual redundant sensors on the NASA F8C digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) aircraft is presented. The failure of one of a pair of sensors of the same type is detected by a direct redundancy trigger which observes the difference between the outputs of these two sensors. Identification of the failed sensor is accomplished utilizing the analytic redundancy that exists as kinematic and functional relationships among the variables being measured by dissimilar instruments. In addition, identification of generic failures, common to both instruments of a given type, is accomplished by using a time trigger to periodically initiate analytic redundancy failure identification tests for individual sensors. The basic form of these tests is the comparison of the measurement of a variable using the suspect instrument with another measurement of the same variable obtained using other instrument types.

  13. Instant detection and identification of concealed explosive-related compounds: Induced Stokes Raman versus infrared.

    PubMed

    Elbasuney, Sherif; El-Sherif, Ashraf F

    2017-01-01

    The instant detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become an urgent priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. Modern techniques should offer enhancement in selectivity, sensitivity, and standoff distances. Miniaturisation, portability, and field-ruggedisation are crucial requirements. This study reports on instant and standoff identification of concealed explosive-related compounds using customized Raman technique. Stokes Raman spectra of common explosive-related compounds were generated and spectrally resolved to create characteristic finger print spectra. The scattered Raman emissions over the band 400:2000cm(-1) were compared to infrared absorption using FTIR. It has been demonstrated that the two vibrational spectroscopic techniques were opposite and completing each other. Molecular vibrations with strong absorption in infrared (those involve strong change in dipole moments) induced weak signals in Raman and vice versa. The tailored Raman offered instant detection, high sensitivity, and standoff detection capabilities. Raman demonstrated characteristic fingerprint spectra with stable baseline and sharp intense peaks. Complete correlations of absorption/scattered signals to certain molecular vibrations were conducted to generate an entire spectroscopic profile of explosive-related compounds. This manuscript shades the light on Raman as one of the prevailing technologies for instantaneous detection of explosive-related compounds.

  14. Seismic Event Identification Using Scanning Detection: A Comparison of Denoising and Classification Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, C. A.; MacCarthy, J. K.; Giudicepietro, F.

    2005-12-01

    Automatic detection and classification methods are increasingly important in observatory operations, as the volume and rate of incoming data exceed the capacity of human analysis staff to process the data in near-real-time. We explore the success of scanning detection for similar event identification in a variety of seismic waveform catalogs. Several waveform pre-processing methods are applied to previously recorded events which are scanned through triggered and continuous waveform catalogs to determine the success and false alarm rate for detections of repeating signals. Pre-processing approaches include adaptive, cross-coherency filtering, adaptive, auto-associative neural network filtering, discrete wavelet package decomposition and linear predictive coding as well as suites of standard bandpass filters. Classification / detection methods for the various pre-processed signals are applied to investigate the robustness of the individual and combined approaches. The classifiers as applied to the processed waveforms include dendrogram-based clustering and neural network classifiers. We will present findings for the various combinations of methods as applied to tectonic earthquakes, mine blasts and volcanic seismicity.

  15. Multi-laboratory evaluation of an automated microbial detection/identification system.

    PubMed

    Smith, P B; Gavan, T L; Isenberg, H D; Sonnenwirth, A; Taylor, W I; Washington, J A; Balows, A

    1978-12-01

    An automated and computerized system (Automicrobic System [AMS]) for the detection of frequently encountered bacteria in clinical urine specimens was tested in a collaborative study among six laboratories. The sensitivity, specificity, reliability, and reproducibility of the AMS were determined, and the system was compared with conventional detection and identification systems. In this study, pure cultures and mixtures of pure cultures were used to simulate clinical urine specimens. With pure cultures, the sensitivity of the AMS in identifying the nine groups of organisms most commonly found in urine averaged 92.8%. The specificity averaged 99.4%, and the reliability of a positive result averaged 92.1%. The latter value was strongly influenced by a relatively high occurrence of false positive Escherichia coli results. The AMS was capable of detecting growth of most organisms, including those which it was not designed to identify. However, it identified some of these incorrectly as common urinary tract flora. Reproducibility of results, both within laboratories and among different laboratories, was high. Fast-growing organisms, such as E. coli and Klebsiella/Enterobacter species, were detected often at cell populations well below the AMS enumeration threshold of 70,000/ml. In mixed culture studies, high levels of sensitivity and specificity were maintained but when Serratia species were present in mixtures with other organisms, there was often a false positive report of E. coli. The overall performance of the AMS was considered satisfactory under the test conditions used.

  16. Autonomous Component Health Management with Failed Component Detection, Identification, and Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert N.; Polites, Michael E.; Trevino, Luis C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper details a novel scheme for autonomous component health management (ACHM) with failed actuator detection and failed sensor detection, identification, and avoidance. This new scheme has features that far exceed the performance of systems with triple-redundant sensing and voting, yet requires fewer sensors and could be applied to any system with redundant sensing. Relevant background to the ACHM scheme is provided, and the simulation results for the application of that scheme to a single-axis spacecraft attitude control system with a 3rd order plant and dual-redundant measurement of system states are presented. ACHM fulfills key functions needed by an integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) system. It is: autonomous; adaptive; works in realtime; provides optimal state estimation; identifies failed components; avoids failed components; reconfigures for multiple failures; reconfigures for intermittent failures; works for hard-over, soft, and zero-output failures; and works for both open- and closed-loop systems. The ACHM scheme combines a prefilter that generates preliminary state estimates, detects and identifies failed sensors and actuators, and avoids the use of failed sensors in state estimation with a fixed-gain Kalman filter that generates optimal state estimates and provides model-based state estimates that comprise an integral part of the failure detection logic. The results show that ACHM successfully isolates multiple persistent and intermittent hard-over, soft, and zero-output failures. It is now ready to be tested on a computer model of an actual system.

  17. Ultrasensitive detection and rapid identification of multiple foodborne pathogens with the naked eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Yali; Lin, Yankui; Liang, Tongwen; Chen, Zhihua; Li, Jinfeng; Yue, Zhenfeng; Lv, Jingzhang; Jiang, Qing; Yi, Changqing

    2015-09-15

    In this study, a novel approach for ultrasensitive detection and rapid high-throughput identification of a panel of common foodborne pathogens with the naked eyes is presented. As a proof-of-concept application, a multiple pathogen analysis array is fabricated through immobilizing three specific polyT-capture probes which can respectively recognize rfbE gene (Escherichia coli O157:H7), invA gene (Salmonella enterica), inlA gene (Listeria monocytogenes) on the plastic substrates. PCR has been developed for amplification and labeling target genes of rfbE, invA, inlA with biotin. The biotinated target DNA is then captured onto the surface of plastic strips through specific DNA hybridization. The succeeding staining of biotinated DNA duplexes with avidin-horseradish peroxidise (AV-HRP) and biotinated anti-HRP antibody greatly amplifies the detectable signal through the multiple cycle signal amplification strategy, and thus realizing ultrasensitive and specific detection of the above three pathogens in food samples with the naked eyes. Results showed approximately 5 copies target pathogenic DNA could be detected with the naked eyes. This simple but very efficient colorimetric assay also show excellent anti-interference capability and good stability, and can be readily applied to point-of-care diagnosis.

  18. Rapid detection and identification of four major Schistosoma species by high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Lin, RuiQing; Blair, David; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by blood flukes belonging to several species of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious and widespread parasitic disease. Accurate and rapid differentiation of these etiological agents of animal and human schistosomiasis to species level can be difficult. We report a real-time PCR assay coupled with a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay targeting a portion of the nuclear 18S rDNA to detect, identify, and distinguish between four major blood fluke species (Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma mekongi). Using this system, the Schistosoma spp. was accurately identified and could also be distinguished from all other trematode species with which they were compared. As little as 10(-5) ng genomic DNA from a Schistosoma sp. could be detected. This process is inexpensive, easy, and can be completed within 3 h. Examination of 21 representative Schistosoma samples from 15 geographical localities in seven endemic countries validated the value of the HRM detection assay and proved its reliability. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 83.65 °C for S. japonicum and S. mekongi, 85.65 °C for S. mansoni, and 85.85 °C for S. haematobium. The present study developed a real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis assay for detection and differential identification of S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mekongi. This method is rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive. It has important implications for epidemiological studies of Schistosoma.

  19. Automated feature detection and identification in digital point-ordered signals

    DOEpatents

    Oppenlander, Jane E.; Loomis, Kent C.; Brudnoy, David M.; Levy, Arthur J.

    1998-01-01

    A computer-based automated method to detect and identify features in digital point-ordered signals. The method is used for processing of non-destructive test signals, such as eddy current signals obtained from calibration standards. The signals are first automatically processed to remove noise and to determine a baseline. Next, features are detected in the signals using mathematical morphology filters. Finally, verification of the features is made using an expert system of pattern recognition methods and geometric criteria. The method has the advantage that standard features can be, located without prior knowledge of the number or sequence of the features. Further advantages are that standard features can be differentiated from irrelevant signal features such as noise, and detected features are automatically verified by parameters extracted from the signals. The method proceeds fully automatically without initial operator set-up and without subjective operator feature judgement.

  20. eDNA Barcoding: Using Next-Generation Sequencing of Environmental DNA for Detection and Identification of Cetacean Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Environmental DNA for Detection and Identification of Cetacean Species Scott Baker Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center Newport...identification of cetaceans using environmental (e) DNA collected from seawater. Referred to here as ‘(e) DNA barcoding’, this new methodology can be used...the first year, we have conducted a series of (e) DNA sampling experiments in the vicinity of killer whales Orcinus orca near San Juan Island in Puget

  1. Diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by detection and identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bölske, G; Mattsson, J G; Bascuñana, C R; Bergström, K; Wesonga, H; Johansson, K E

    1996-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), one of the most serious and dramatic diseases of goats, is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae). This organism is very difficult to isolate and to correctly identify. In a previous report we described a method for the rapid detection and identification of M. capripneumoniae. This method is based on a PCR system by which a segment of the 16S rRNA gene from all mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster can be amplified. The PCR product is then analyzed by restriction enzyme cleavage for the identification of M. capripneumoniae DNA. This system has now been further evaluated with respect to specificity and diagnostic efficacy for the identification and direct detection of the organism in clinical material. Identification by restriction enzyme analysis of amplified DNA from mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster was verified for 55 strains, among which were 15 strains of M. capripneumoniae. The PCR was applied to clinical samples from the nose, ear, pharynx, pleural fluid, and lung tissue containing M. capripneumoniae or other mycoplasmas. As expected, mycoplasmas belonging to the M. mycoides cluster could be detected by the PCR. Restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products could then be applied for the identification of M. capripneumoniae. Clinical samples and cultures containing M. capripneumoniae were dried on filter paper, to try an easier sample transport method, and were tested by PCR. M. capripneumoniae DNA could be detected in the dried specimens, but the sensitivity of the PCR test was reduced. PMID:8815084

  2. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  3. Detection, identification and typing of Acidithiobacillus species and strains: a review.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Harold; Covarrubias, Paulo C; Moya-Beltrán, Ana; Issotta, Francisco; Atavales, Joaquín; Acuña, Lillian G; Johnson, D Barrie; Quatrini, Raquel

    2016-09-01

    The genus Acidithiobacillus comprises several species of Gram-negative acidophilic bacteria that thrive in natural and man-made low pH environments in a variety of geo-climatic contexts. Beyond their fundamental interest as model extreme acidophiles, these bacteria are involved in the processing of minerals and the desulfurization of coal and natural gas, and are also sources of environmental pollution due to their generation of acid mine drainage and corrosion of cement and concrete structures. Acidithiobacillus spp. are therefore considered a biotechnologically relevant group of bacteria, and their identification and screening in natural and industrial environments is of great concern. Several molecular typing methodologies have been instrumental in improving knowledge of the inherent diversity of acidithiobacilli by providing information on the genetic subtypes sampled in public and private culture collections; more recently, they have provided specific insight into the diversity of acidithiobacilli present in industrial and natural environments. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of techniques used in molecular detection, identification and typing of Acidithiobacillus spp. These methods will be discussed in the context of their contribution to the general and specific understanding of the role of the acidithiobacilli in microbial ecology and industrial biotechnology. Emerging opportunities for industrial and environmental surveillance of acidithiobacilli using next-generation molecular typing methodologies are also reviewed.

  4. Neutron Detection With Ultra-Fast Digitizer and Pulse Identification Techniques on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. B.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Piglowski, D. A.

    2013-10-01

    A prototype system for neutron detection with an ultra-fast digitizer and pulse identification techniques has been implemented on the DIII-D tokamak. The system consists of a cylindrical neutron fission chamber, a charge sensitive amplifier, and a GaGe Octopus 12-bit CompuScope digitizer card installed in a Linux computer. Digital pulse identification techniques have been successfully performed at maximum data acquisition rate of 50 MSPS with on-board memory of 2 GS. Compared to the traditional approach with fast nuclear electronics for pulse counting, this straightforward digital solution has many advantages, including reduced expense, improved accuracy, higher counting rate, and easier maintenance. The system also provides the capability of neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination and pulse height analysis. Plans for the upgrade of the old DIII-D neutron counting system with these techniques will be presented. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under SC-G903402, and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  5. Structural damage identification using multifunctional Bragg grating sensors: II. Damage detection results and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Daniel C.; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Thursby, Graham; Culshaw, Brian

    2006-10-01

    Damage detection is an important issue in structural health monitoring. Lamb waves are the most widely used acousto-ultrasonic guided waves for damage detection. This paper gives the results of experiments carried out to study the identification of damage using Bragg grating sensors as ultrasonic receivers of Lamb waves. The experiments involve a rectangular aluminium plate. Damage was introduced into the plate by drilling a hole into the centre of the plate. In order to obtain different severity of damage, the hole diameter was increased step by step. Several signal processing tools are presented and then applied to the Lamb wave signals in order to find a parameter that corresponds to the severity of damage. The parameter that serves as the damage index has to have small cross-sensitivity to other physical parameters, e.g. temperature. Therefore, additional experiments have been carried out to study the temperature dependence of the Lamb wave signals. In order to determine the influence of the temperature on the damage detection results, the cross-sensitivity is studied within this paper.

  6. Nucleic acid approaches for detection and identification of biological warfare and infectious disease agents.

    PubMed

    Ivnitski, Dmitri; O'Neil, Daniel J; Gattuso, Anthony; Schlicht, Roger; Calidonna, Michael; Fisher, Rodney

    2003-10-01

    Biological warfare agents are the most problematic of the weapons of mass destruction and terror. Both civilian and military sources predict that over the next decade the threat from proliferation of these agents will increase significantly. In this review we summarize the state of the art in detection and identification of biological threat agents based on PCR technology with emphasis on the new technology of microarrays. The advantages and limitations of real-time PCR technology and a review of the literature as it applies to pathogen and virus detection are presented. The paper covers a number of issues related to the challenges facing biological threat agent detection technologies and identifies critical components that must be overcome for the emergence of reliable PCR-based DNA technologies as bioterrorism countermeasures and for environmental applications. The review evaluates various system components developed for an integrated DNA microchip and the potential applications of the next generation of fully automated DNA analyzers with integrated sample preparation and biosensing elements. The article also reviews promising devices and technologies that are near to being, or have been, commercialized.

  7. Incipient fault detection and identification in process systems using accelerating neural network learning

    SciTech Connect

    Parlos, A.G.; Muthusami, J.; Atiya, A.F. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the development and numerical testing of a robust fault detection and identification (FDI) system using artificial neural networks (ANNs), for incipient (slowly developing) faults occurring in process systems. The challenge in using ANNs in FDI systems arises because of one's desire to detect faults of varying severity, faults from noisy sensors, and multiple simultaneous faults. To address these issues, it becomes essential to have a learning algorithm that ensures quick convergence to a high level of accuracy. A recently developed accelerated learning algorithm, namely a form of an adaptive back propagation (ABP) algorithm, is used for this purpose. The ABP algorithm is used for the development of an FDI system for a process composed of a direct current motor, a centrifugal pump, and the associated piping system. Simulation studies indicate that the FDI system has significantly high sensitivity to incipient fault severity, while exhibiting insensitivity to sensor noise. For multiple simultaneous faults, the FDI system detects the fault with the predominant signature. The major limitation of the developed FDI system is encountered when it is subjected to simultaneous faults with similar signatures. During such faults, the inherent limitation of pattern-recognition-based FDI methods becomes apparent. Thus, alternate, more sophisticated FDI methods become necessary to address such problems. Even though the effectiveness of pattern-recognition-based FDI methods using ANNs has been demonstrated, further testing using real-world data is necessary.

  8. Development of a fractionation method for the detection and identification of oak ellagitannins in red wines.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina

    2010-02-15

    During maturation and ageing in oak barrels wines improve their organoleptic properties. Ellagitannins can be released from wood to the wine and be involved in oxidation reactions and seem to influence the astringency and colour properties of the wine. Nevertheless, the ellagitannins levels are lower than those of other wine constituents and, consequently, they are not easily detected. This study has developed a two-step fractionation method consisting of a solid phase extraction in C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges followed by size exclusion chromatography in hand-packed Sephadex LH-20 minicolumn for the detection of oak ellagitannins in different types of wines. An HPLC method has also been developed which allows the separation of compounds with the same m/z ratios, facilitating the ellagitannin identification by means of the mass spectrometric analyses. The main oak ellagitannins (grandinin, vescalagin, roburin E and castalagin) were isolated, detected separately and identified in a spiked wine and in three real ones, proving the usefulness of the fractionation method.

  9. Inertial aided cycle slip detection and identification for integrated PPP GPS and INS.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuang; Gao, Yang

    2012-10-25

    The recently developed integrated Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS/INS system can be useful to many applications, such as UAV navigation systems, land vehicle/machine automation and mobile mapping systems. Since carrier phase measurements are the primary observables in PPP GPS, cycle slips, which often occur due to high dynamics, signal obstructions and low satellite elevation, must be detected and repaired in order to ensure the navigation performance. In this research, a new algorithm of cycle slip detection and identification has been developed. With the aiding from INS, the proposed method jointly uses WL and EWL phase combinations to uniquely determine cycle slips in the L1 and L2 frequencies. To verify the efficiency of the algorithm, both tactical-grade and consumer-grade IMUs are tested by using a real dataset collected from two field tests. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can efficiently detect and identify the cycle slips and subsequently improve the navigation performance of the integrated system.

  10. Method for rapid detection and identification of chaetomium and evaluation of resistance to peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Hosoya, Kouichi; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Tsugukuni, Takashi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Imanishi, Yumi; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    In the beverage industry, peracetic acid has been increasingly used as a disinfectant for the filling machinery and environment due to merits of leaving no residue, it is safe for humans, and its antiseptic effect against fungi and endospores of bacteria. Recently, Chaetomium globosum and Chaetomium funicola were reported resistant to peracetic acid; however, little is known concerning the detail of peracetic acid resistance. Therefore, we assessed the peracetic acid resistance of the species of Chaetomium and related genera under identical conditions and made a thorough observation of the microstructure of their ascospores by transmission electron microscopy. The results of analyses revealed that C. globosum and C. funicola showed the high resistance to peracetic acid (a 1-D antiseptic effect after 900 s and 3-D antiseptic effect after 900 s) and had thick cell walls of ascospores that can impede the action mechanism of peracetic acid. We also developed specific primers to detect the C. globosum clade and identify C. funicola by using PCR to amplify the β-tubulin gene. PCR with the primer sets designed for C. globosum (Chae 4F/4R) and C. funicola (Cfu 2F/2R) amplified PCR products specific for the C. globosum clade and C. funicola, respectively. PCR with these two primer sets did not detect other fungi involved in food spoilage and environmental contamination. This detection and identification method is rapid and simple, with extremely high specificity.

  11. OPCW Proficiency Test: A Practical Approach Also for Interlaboratory Test on Detection and Identification of Pesticides in Environmental Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Śliwakowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    An overview of general strategy, standard procedures, and critical points, which may be found during carrying out an OPCW Proficiency Test concerning detection and identification of scheduled compounds relevant to Chemical Weapon Convention, has been presented. The observations have been illustrated following the case of the Eight OPCW Designated Laboratories Proficiency Test, which was performed in the OPCW Laboratory in Rijswijk in November and December 2000. Various useful hints, comments, and practical observations concerning the case study have been included as well. The same methodology and procedures may be also applied for detection, identification, and environmental analyses of pesticides and biocides, especially organophosphorus compounds. PMID:24578644

  12. Virtual sensor for failure detection, identification and recovery in the transition phase of a morphing aircraft.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Guillermo; Ollero, Aníbal

    2010-01-01

    The Helicopter Adaptive Aircraft (HADA) is a morphing aircraft which is able to take-off as a helicopter and, when in forward flight, unfold the wings that are hidden under the fuselage, and transfer the power from the main rotor to a propeller, thus morphing from a helicopter to an airplane. In this process, the reliable folding and unfolding of the wings is critical, since a failure may determine the ability to perform a mission, and may even be catastrophic. This paper proposes a virtual sensor based Fault Detection, Identification and Recovery (FDIR) system to increase the reliability of the HADA aircraft. The virtual sensor is able to capture the nonlinear interaction between the folding/unfolding wings aerodynamics and the HADA airframe using the navigation sensor measurements. The proposed FDIR system has been validated using a simulation model of the HADA aircraft, which includes real phenomena as sensor noise and sampling characteristics and turbulence and wind perturbations.

  13. Virtual Sensor for Failure Detection, Identification and Recovery in the Transition Phase of a Morphing Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Guillermo; Ollero, Aníbal

    2010-01-01

    The Helicopter Adaptive Aircraft (HADA) is a morphing aircraft which is able to take-off as a helicopter and, when in forward flight, unfold the wings that are hidden under the fuselage, and transfer the power from the main rotor to a propeller, thus morphing from a helicopter to an airplane. In this process, the reliable folding and unfolding of the wings is critical, since a failure may determine the ability to perform a mission, and may even be catastrophic. This paper proposes a virtual sensor based Fault Detection, Identification and Recovery (FDIR) system to increase the reliability of the HADA aircraft. The virtual sensor is able to capture the nonlinear interaction between the folding/unfolding wings aerodynamics and the HADA airframe using the navigation sensor measurements. The proposed FDIR system has been validated using a simulation model of the HADA aircraft, which includes real phenomena as sensor noise and sampling characteristics and turbulence and wind perturbations. PMID:22294922

  14. Preliminary input to the space shuttle reaction control subsystem failure detection and identification software requirements (uncontrolled)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergmann, E.

    1976-01-01

    The current baseline method and software implementation of the space shuttle reaction control subsystem failure detection and identification (RCS FDI) system is presented. This algorithm is recommended for conclusion in the redundancy management (RM) module of the space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control system. Supporting software is presented, and recommended for inclusion in the system management (SM) and display and control (D&C) systems. RCS FDI uses data from sensors in the jets, in the manifold isolation valves, and in the RCS fuel and oxidizer storage tanks. A list of jet failures and fuel imbalance warnings is generated for use by the jet selection algorithm of the on-orbit and entry flight control systems, and to inform the crew and ground controllers of RCS failure status. Manifold isolation valve close commands are generated in the event of failed on or leaking jets to prevent loss of large quantities of RCS fuel.

  15. A Large Scale Automatic Earthquake Location Catalog in the San Jacinto Fault Zone Area Using An Improved Shear-Wave Detection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. C. A.; Ross, Z.; Vernon, F.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    UC San Diego's ANZA network began archiving event-triggered data in 1982. As a result of improved recording technology, continuous waveform data archives are available starting in 1998. This continuous dataset, from 1998-present, represents a wealth of potential insight into spatio-temporal seismicity patterns, earthquake physics and mechanics of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. However, the volume of data renders manual analysis costly. In order to investigate the characteristics of the data in space and time, an automatic earthquake location catalog is needed. To this end, we apply standard earthquake signal processing techniques to the continuous data to detect first-arriving P-waves in combination with a recently developed S-wave detection algorithm. The resulting dataset of arrival time observations are processed using a grid association algorithm to produce initial absolute locations which are refined using a location inversion method that accounts for 3-D velocity heterogeneities. Precise relative locations are then derived from the refined absolute locations using the HypoDD double-difference algorithm. Moment magnitudes for the events are estimated from multi-taper spectral analysis. A >650% increase in the S:P pick ratio is achieved using the updated S-wave detection algorithm, when compared to the currently available catalog for the ANZA network. The increased number of S-wave observations leads to improved earthquake location accuracy and reliability (ie. less false event detections). Various aspects of spatio-temporal seismicity patterns and size distributions are investigated. Updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  16. Molecular identification of nematode larvae different from those of the Trichinella genus detected by muscle digestion.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Gianluca; Interisano, Maria; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Pozio, Edoardo

    2013-05-20

    Although larvae of the genus Trichinella are the most common parasite species detected in vertebrate muscles using artificial digestion, nematode larvae belonging to other genera are sometimes detected and incorrectly identified as Trichinella. However, it is often very difficult to identify these larvae at the species, genus or family level using microscopy because of the absence of specific morphological characters or cuticle damage, and the only means of identification is PCR and sequencing of specific molecular markers (12S mtDNA; COI; 18S rDNA; and ITS1). From 2008 to 2011, 18 nematode isolates not belonging to the genus Trichinella were collected from different host species. Eleven of these isolates were successfully identified at the species, genus or superfamily level: larvae from two common kestrels, three hooded crows, a hen harrier and a domestic pig were identified as Toxocara cati; larvae from a badger were identified as Toxocara canis; larvae from a domestic pig were identified as a free-living nematode of the genus Panagrolaimus; larvae from a wild boar were identified as belonging to the Metastrongylus genus; and larvae from a rough-legged buzzard were identified as belonging to the superfamily Filarioidea. The recovery of nematodes belonging to genera other than Trichinella during routine meat inspection suggests that the persons performing the analyses need to be informed of the possibility of false positives and that a molecular-based identification system that allows for a rapid and reliable response must be adopted (i.e., a DNA barcoding-like system).

  17. Comparison and Evaluation of Ship Detection and Identification Algorithms Using Small Boats and ALOS-PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong-In; Wang, Haipeng; Ouchi, Kazuo

    The final goal of the present project is to develop a ship detection and identification system by integrating spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ground-based maritime radar and automatic identification system (AIS); and this article presents the results of the first phase experiments and current status toward achieving this goal. The data acquired by the Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR) on board of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) were used as SAR data, and X-band maritime radar including AIS were used as a ground-based system. The work is divided into two experimental phases. The first phase is to examine the ability of PALSAR to detect ships whose sizes are comparable with the SAR resolution cells, and the second is to incorporate the PALSAR data with those acquired by the ground-based radar with AIS. For the experiments in the first phase, we deployed three small fishing boats whose lengths ranged from approximately 8 m to 15m in the Tosa Bay in Kochi, Japan in 2006. The experiments were carried out for four observation PALSAR modes: FBS (Fine Beam Single) 34.3, FBS 21.5, FBD (Fine Beam Double) 41.5, and PLR (PoLaRimetric) 20.5, where the numbers in each modes represent the off-nadir angles. For extracting the boats from the PALSAR images, five algorithms were considered, including amplitude-based, CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate), MLCC (Multi-Look Cross-Correlation), CCF (Cross-Correlation Function) of HH- and HV-polarization amplitudes, and polarimetric analyses. This paper summarizes the results of the first phase experiments; the summary of the integrated system in the second phase will be reported in the near future.

  18. A novel multi-functional chloroplast protein: identification of a 40 kDa immunophilin-like protein located in the thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed Central

    Fulgosi, H; Vener, A V; Altschmied, L; Herrmann, R G; Andersson, B

    1998-01-01

    We describe the identification of the first immunophilin associated with the photosynthetic membrane of chloroplasts. This complex 40 kDa immunophilin, designated TLP40 (thylakoid lumen PPIase), located in the lumen of the thylakoids, was found to play a dual role in photosynthesis involving both biogenesis and intraorganelle signalling. It originates in a single-copy nuclear gene, is made as a precursor of 49.2 kDa with a bipartite lumenal targeting transit peptide, and is characterized by a structure including a cyclophilin-like C-terminal segment of 20 kDa, a predicted N-terminal leucine zipper and a potential phosphatase-binding domain. It can exist in different oligomeric conformations and attach to the inner membrane surface. It is confined predominantly to the non-appressed thylakoid regions, the site of protein integration into the photosynthetic membrane. The isolated protein possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase protein folding activity characteristic of immunophilins, but is not inhibited by cyclosporin A. TLP40 also exerts an effect on dephosphorylation of several key proteins of photosystem II, probably as a constituent of a transmembrane signal transduction chain. This first evidence for a direct role of immunophilins in a photoautotrophic process suggests that light-mediated protein phosphorylation in photosynthetic membranes and the role of the thylakoid lumen are substantially more complex than anticipated. PMID:9501079

  19. Multiplexed identification of different fish species by detection of parvalbumin, a common fish allergen gene: a DNA application of multi-analyte profiling (xMAP) technology.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2010-07-01

    Fish are a common cause of allergic reactions associated with food consumption, with parvalbumin being the major allergenic protein. Some fish-hypersensitive patients tolerate some fish species while being allergic to others. Reliable detection methods for allergenic fish species in foods are necessary to ensure compliance with food allergen labeling guidelines to protect fish-allergic consumers. The objective of this project was to develop a multi-analyte detection method for the presence of fish in food. Therefore, conserved parvalbumin exon sequences were utilized for the design of universal PCR primers amplifying intron DNA and small regions of exons flanking the enclosed intron from even very distantly related fish species. An assay for the identification of eight fish species was developed using xMAP technology with probes targeting species-specific parvalbumin intron regions. Additionally, a universal fish probe was designed targeting a highly conserved exon region located between the intron and the reverse primer region. The universal fish assay showed no cross-reactivity with other species, such as beef, pork, lamb, chicken, turkey, and shrimp. Importantly, with the exception of one notable case with fish in the same subfamily, species-specific detection showed no cross-reactivity with other fish species. Limits of detection for these eight species were experimentally estimated to range from 0.01% to 0.04%, with potential to increase the detection sensitivity. This report introduces a newly developed method for the multiplex identification of at least eight allergenic fish species in food, which could conceivably be extended to detect up to 100 species simultaneously in one sample.

  20. Intraoperative MRI electrical noise and monitor ECG filters affect arrhythmia detection and identification.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Melissa; Kirchen, Gwynne; Bonaventura, Bridget; Rosborough, Kelly; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Dzwonczyk, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Most electrical equipment in the modern operating room (OR) radiates electrical noise (EN) that can interfere with patient monitors. We have described the EN that an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) system emits and have shown that this high-energy EN diminishes the quality of the ECG waveform during iMRI scans in our neurosurgical OR. We have also shown that the ECG signal filters in our iMRI-compatible patient monitor reduce this interference but, in the process, disturb the true morphology of the displayed waveform. This simulation study evaluates how iMRI-generated EN affects the ability of the anesthetist to detect and identify ECG arrhythmias and whether the patient monitor's ECG signal filters can improve arrhythmia recognition. Using an ECG simulator, we generated Lead II and V5 ECG signal segments that contained either no arrhythmia or one of four common cardiac arrhythmias. We filtered the ECG segments with four filters available on our iMRI-compatible monitor (Veris MR, MEDRAD Inc., Indianola, PA USA). We then digitized the segments and mixed simulated iMRI EN into the resultant tracings. With institutional approval and written informed consent, board-certified anesthesiologists reviewed the tracings, determined if an arrhythmia was present and identified the arrhythmia. We conducted the study anonymously. We reported the data as percent correct arrhythmia detection and correct arrhythmia identification. Thirty-one anesthesiologists completed the study. Overall, the participants correctly detected 79.5% (95% CI: 77.2, 81.7%) of the arrhythmias and correctly identified 62.5% (95% CI: 59.8, 65.3%) of the arrhythmias, regardless of EN presence. Although the proportions among monitor noise filters studied were not significant, the manufacturer-designated MR5 Veris MR filter optimized arrhythmia detection and arrhythmia identification for our participants, regardless if EN was present in the ECG tracings. In the neurosurgical OR, the

  1. Surface-enhanced raman detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines.

    PubMed

    Sylvia, J M; Janni, J A; Klein, J D; Spencer, K M

    2000-12-01

    Time, cost, and casualties associated with demining efforts underscore the need for improved detection techniques. Reduction in the number of false positives by directly detecting the explosive material, rather than casing material, is desirable. The desired field sensor must, at a minimum, demonstrate reproducibility, the necessary level of sensitivity, portability, instrumental stability, and fast system response times. Ideally, vibrational spectroscopic techniques have the potential to remove false positives, since every chemical has a unique bond structure. Herein, we demonstrate the capabilities of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to detect the chemical vapor signature emanating from buried TNT-based landmines. We present reproducible results obtained from blind tests controlled by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that demonstrate vapor detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene at concentration levels of 5 ppb or less. The results presented used acquisition times of 30 s on a fieldable system and showed that SERS can be a significant improvement over current landmine detection methods.

  2. Possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance using the noisy reflected THz pulse under real conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    We show possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance (several metres, for example) using the THz pulse reflected from the object under the real conditions: at room temperature and humidity of about 70%. The main feature of this report consists in a demonstration of the detection and identification of substance using the computer processing of the noisy THz pulse. Amplitude of the useful signal is less than the amplitude of a noise. Nevertheless, it is possible to detect "fingerprint" frequencies of substance if these frequencies are known and the SDA method is used together with new assessments for probability estimation for presence of detected frequencies. Essential restrictions of the commonly used THz TDS method for the detection and identification under real conditions (at long distance about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) are demonstrated using the physical experiment with chocolate bar and thick paper bag. We show also that the THz TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even in the THz signals measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); the n-Si and p-Si semiconductors were used as neutral substances. However, the integral correlation and likeness criteria, based on SDA method, allow us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the samples. Current results show feasibility of using the discussed method of the THz pulsed spectroscopy for the counter-terrorism problem.

  3. Molecular detection and species identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi isolated from immunocompetent Orang Asli in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ashikin, Azah; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Moktar, Norhayati; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of opportunistic infections focus on immunocompromised patients. However, there is a lack of information on microsporidiosis in healthy people (immunocompetent) worldwide. This study aimed to detect and identify microsporidia species in immunocompetent Orang Asli living in Pahang, Malaysia. Orang Asli is a collective term for a group of indigenous people that usually reside in the interior regions of Peninsular Malaysia. They comprise about 0.7% of the total population in Malaysia and 76% of them lived below the poverty line i.e., poor housing conditions with the lack of access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, contaminated environment, high illiteracy rate and unhygienic practices by these people. Stool samples were collected from 209 Orang Asli and analyzed for detecting the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis by polymerase chain reaction assay targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. E. bieneusi was detected in 8 individuals (3.83%). This infection was commonly found in males than females (5.2% vs. 2.7%). All infected Orang Asli were adults, with a mean age of 44years. Diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in one case (12.5%) among individuals infected with this species. These findings clearly show that exposure to E. bieneusi may actually be common than reported. The accurate detection and identification of microsporidian species by molecular technique will improve therapy, clinical manifestations and prognosis of this infection, as no antiparasitic therapy has been approved for E. bieneusi. It is hoped that these findings will allow the formulation of better health management and disease prevention advisories, and improvement in the standards of health in similar communities.

  4. An Innovative Method for Rapid Identification and Detection of Vibrio alginolyticus in Different Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kaifei; Li, Jun; Wang, Yuxiao; Liu, Jianfei; Yan, He; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common pathogenic marine Vibrio species, and has been found to cause serious seafood-poisoning or fatal extra-intestinal infections in humans, such as necrotizing soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, septic shock, and multiple organ failures. Delayed accurate diagnosis and treatment of most Vibrio infections usually result to high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid diagnostic method to detect and identify the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples, so as to facilitate timely treatment. The widely employed conventional methods for detection of V. alginolyticus include biochemical identification and a variety of PCR methods. The former is of low specificity and time-consuming (2–3 days), while the latter has improved accuracy and processing time. Despite such advancements, these methods are still complicated, time-consuming, expensive, require expertise and advanced laboratory systems, and are not optimal for field use. With the goal of providing a simple and efficient way to detect V. alginolyticus, we established a rapid diagnostic method based on loop-mediated Isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology that is feasible to use in both experimental and field environments. Three primer pairs targeting the toxR gene of V. alginolyticus were designed, and amplification was carried out in an ESE tube scanner and Real-Time PCR device. We successfully identified 93 V. alginolyticus strains from a total of 105 different bacterial isolates and confirmed their identity by 16s rDNA sequencing. We also applied this method on infected mouse blood and contaminated scallop samples, and accurate results were both easily and rapidly (20–60 min) obtained. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay we developed can be conveniently used to detect the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples. Furthermore, this method will also fulfill the gap for real-time screening of V. alginolyticus infections

  5. Rapid detection and identification of bacterial pathogens by using an ATP bioluminescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Dawn M; Lim, Daniel V

    2010-04-01

    Rapid identification of viable bacterial contaminants in food products is important because of their potential to cause disease. This study examined a method for microbial detection by using a combined ATP bioluminescence immunoassay. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were selected as target organisms because of their implication in foodborne illness. Various matrices containing the target cells were examined, including ground beef homogenate, apple juice, milk, and phosphate-buffered saline. Specific antibodies were immobilized on the surface of 96-well plates, and then the sample matrices containing target cells in the wells were incubated. Sample matrix (no cells) was used to establish background. The plates were washed, and the wells were incubated with BacTiter-Glo reagent in Mueller-Hinton II broth. Bioluminescent output was measured with the GloMax 96 luminometer. Signal-to-noise ratios were calculated, resulting in a limit of detection of 10(4) CFU/ml for both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. The limit of detection for both species was not affected by the presence of nontarget cells. The various sample matrices did not affect signal-to-noise ratios when E. coli O157:H7 was the target. A weak matrix effect was observed when Salmonella Typhimurium was the target. A strong linear correlation was observed between the number of cells and luminescent output over 4 orders of magnitude for both species. This method provides a means of simultaneously detecting and identifying viable pathogens in complex matrices, and could have wider application in food microbiology.

  6. CATSI EDM: a new sensor for the real-time passive stand-off detection and identification of chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault, Jean-Marc; Lacasse, Paul; Lavoie, Hugo; Bouffard, François; Montembeault, Yan; Farley, Vincent; Belhumeur, Louis; Lagueux, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    DRDC Valcartier recently completed the development of the CATSI EDM (Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer Engineering Development Model) for the Canadian Forces (CF). It is a militarized sensor designed to meet the needs of the CF in the development of area surveillance capabilities for the detection and identification of chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). CATSI EDM is a passive infrared double-beam Fourier spectrometer system designed for real-time stand-off detection and identification of chemical vapours at distances up to 5 km. It is based on the successful passive differential detection technology. This technique known as optical subtraction, results in a target gas spectrum which is almost free of background, thus making possible detection of weak infrared emission in strong background emission. This paper summarizes the system requirements, achievements, hardware and software characteristics and test results.

  7. Detection and Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains by Multiplex PCR Using RAPD-Derived Primers.

    PubMed

    Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2015-10-22

    Lactobacillus plantarum 2035 and Lactobacillus plantarum ACA-DC 2640 are two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that have been isolated from Feta cheese. Both display significant potential for the production of novel probiotic food products. The aim of the present study was the development of an accurate and efficient method for the molecular detection and identification of the above strains in a single reaction. A multiplex PCR assay was designed for each strain, based on specific primers derived from Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) analysis. The specificity of the assay was tested with a total of 23 different LAB strains, for L. plantarum 2035 and L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640. The multiplex PCR assay was also successfully applied for the detection of the above cultures in yogurt samples prepared in our lab. The proposed methodology may be applied for monitoring the presence of these strains in food products, thus evaluating their probiotic character. Moreover, our strategy may be adapted for other novel LAB strains with probiotic potential, thus providing a powerful tool for molecular discrimination that could be invaluable to the food industry.

  8. A novel microbial source tracking microarray for pathogen detection and fecal source identification in environmental systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J; Nayak, Bina; Staley, Christopher; Sadowsky, Michael J; Weidhaas, Jennifer

    2015-06-16

    Pathogen detection and the identification of fecal contamination sources are challenging in environmental waters. Factors including pathogen diversity and ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria hamper risk assessment and remediation of contamination sources. A custom microarray targeting pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa), microbial source tracking (MST) markers, and antibiotic resistance genes was tested against DNA obtained from whole genome amplification (WGA) of RNA and DNA from sewage and animal (avian, cattle, poultry, and swine) feces. Perfect and mismatch probes established the specificity of the microarray in sewage, and fluorescence decrease of positive probes over a 1:10 dilution series demonstrated semiquantitative measurement. Pathogens, including norovirus, Campylobacter fetus, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella enterica, and Giardia lamblia were detected in sewage, as well as MST markers and resistance genes to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and tetracycline. Sensitivity (percentage true positives) of MST results in sewage and animal waste samples (21-33%) was lower than specificity (83-90%, percentage of true negatives). Next generation DNA sequencing revealed two dominant bacterial families that were common to all sample types: Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Five dominant phyla and 15 dominant families comprised 97% and 74%, respectively, of sequences from all fecal sources. Phyla and families not represented on the microarray are possible candidates for inclusion in subsequent array designs.

  9. Detection and Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains by Multiplex PCR Using RAPD-Derived Primers

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum 2035 and Lactobacillus plantarum ACA-DC 2640 are two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that have been isolated from Feta cheese. Both display significant potential for the production of novel probiotic food products. The aim of the present study was the development of an accurate and efficient method for the molecular detection and identification of the above strains in a single reaction. A multiplex PCR assay was designed for each strain, based on specific primers derived from Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) analysis. The specificity of the assay was tested with a total of 23 different LAB strains, for L. plantarum 2035 and L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640. The multiplex PCR assay was also successfully applied for the detection of the above cultures in yogurt samples prepared in our lab. The proposed methodology may be applied for monitoring the presence of these strains in food products, thus evaluating their probiotic character. Moreover, our strategy may be adapted for other novel LAB strains with probiotic potential, thus providing a powerful tool for molecular discrimination that could be invaluable to the food industry. PMID:26506345

  10. Network of wireless gamma ray sensors for radiological detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilov, A.; Womble, P.; Novikov, I.; Paschal, J.; Board, J.; Moss, K.

    2007-04-01

    The paper describes the design and development of a network of wireless gamma-ray sensors based on cell phone or WiFi technology. The system is intended for gamma-ray detection and automatic identification of radioactive isotopes and nuclear materials. The sensor is a gamma-ray spectrometer that uses wireless technology to distribute the results. A small-size sensor module contains a scintillation detector along with a small size data acquisition system, PDA, battery, and WiFi radio or a cell phone modem. The PDA with data acquisition and analysis software analyzes the accumulated spectrum on real-time basis and returns results to the screen reporting the isotopic composition and intensity of detected radiation source. The system has been programmed to mitigate false alarms from medical isotopes and naturally occurring radioactive materials. The decision-making software can be "trained" to indicate specific signatures of radiation sources like special nuclear materials. The sensor is supplied with GPS tracker coupling radiological information with geographical coordinates. The sensor is designed for easy use and rapid deployment in common wireless networks.

  11. Pattern recognition analysis of in vivo enzyme-substrate fluorescence velocities in microorganism detection and identification.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, A P; Wang, T T; Greenberg, D B

    1986-01-01

    A spectrometric technique is presented that combines most of the important criteria necessary for efficient detection and identification of microorganisms. These criteria include simplicity of experimental design, various degrees of sensitivity and selectivity, convenience, and total reaction times of less than 15 min. The study takes advantage of the inherent extracellular enzymes present in living as opposed to dead, non-enzyme-producing organisms. Sequentially these are harnessed in in vivo reactions with a substrate containing a select organic functional group that is known to be cleaved or hydrolyzed by a certain enzyme. The substrate is tailored so that one of the products can be induced to fluoresce, and by using a conventional spectrofluorimeter the rate at which the fluorescence appears can be recorded. By subjecting the same bacterial sample to a number of different enzyme substrates, a pattern of fluorescence response rates emerges from a 7 by 7 microorganism-substrate matrix. Detection limits ranged from 3.6 X 10(2) to 3.5 X 10(8) cells per ml for the Bacillus globigii-indoxyl acetate and Escherichia coli-diacetylfluorescein pairs, respectively. The specificity and versatility of the method for bacterial determination is demonstrated in probing different bacterial enzymes through their spectrally active metabolic products. PMID:3089149

  12. Use of a DNA microarray for detection and identification of bacterial pathogens associated with fishery products.

    PubMed

    Cao, Boyang; Li, Rongrong; Xiong, Songjin; Yao, Fangfang; Liu, Xiangqian; Wang, Min; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2011-12-01

    We established a microarray for the simultaneous detection and identification of diverse putative pathogens often associated with fishery products by targeting specific genes of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Yersinia enterocolitica and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. The microarray contained 26 specific probes and was tested against a total of 123 target bacterial strains that included 55 representative strains, 68 clinical isolates, and 45 strains of other bacterial species that belonged to 8 genera and 34 species, and it was shown to be specific and reproducible. A detection sensitivity of 10 ng DNA or 10 CFU/ml for pure cultures of each target organism demonstrated that the assay was highly sensitive and reproducible. Mock and real fishery product samples were tested by the microarray, and the accuracy was 100%. The DNA microarray method described in this communication is specific, sensitive, and reliable and has several advantages over traditional methods of bacterial culture and antiserum agglutination assays.

  13. Flow-cytometric identification of vinegars using a multi-parameter analysis optical detection module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschooten, T.; Ottevaere, H.; Vervaeke, M.; Van Erps, J.; Callewaert, M.; De Malsche, W.; Thienpont, H.

    2015-09-01

    We show a proof-of-concept demonstration of a multi-parameter analysis low-cost optical detection system for the flowcytometric identification of vinegars. This multi-parameter analysis system can simultaneously measure laser induced fluorescence, absorption and scattering excited by two time-multiplexed lasers of different wavelengths. To our knowledge no other polymer optofluidic chip based system offers more simultaneous measurements. The design of the optofluidic channels is aimed at countering the effects that viscous fingering, air bubbles, and emulsion samples can have on the correct operation of such a detection system. Unpredictable variations in viscosity and refractive index of the channel content can be turned into a source of information. The sample is excited by two laser diodes that are driven by custom made low-cost laser drivers. The optofluidic chip is built to be robust and easy to handle and is reproducible using hot embossing. We show a custom optomechanical holder for the optofluidic chip that ensures correct alignment and automatic connection to the external fluidic system. We show an experiment in which 92 samples of vinegar are measured. We are able to identify 9 different kinds of vinegar with an accuracy of 94%. Thus we show an alternative approach to the classic optical spectroscopy solution at a lowered. Furthermore, we have shown the possibility of predicting the viscosity and turbidity of vinegars with a goodness-of-fit R2 over 0.947.

  14. Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

  15. Development of bacteria identification array to detect lactobacilli in Thai fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Tosukhowong, Amonlaya; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2012-12-01

    showed a higher positive signal level on day 2 than the natural and L. brevis-inoculated samples, and the positive signal level remained high on days 3 and 7. The bacteria identification array was proven to be useful as an alternative method to detect and monitor target bacteria populations during food fermentation.

  16. Frontal Affinity Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection for Probing Molecular Interactions. A New Mechanistic Approach for the Development of Detection & Identification and Medical Countermeasures Against CB Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    prot~ines ayant caus6 l’Ptat de maladie , de l’Ntude des mfcanismes des maladies ou encore de ]a s6lection A haut rendement pour l’identification et...m6canismes des maladies pour identifier les prot6ines cibles et la s6lection A haut rendement pour l’identification et l’optimisation de composants les...to reports on using glycosphingolipids as receptor molecules for detection of cholera toxin, ricin, diphtheria toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB

  17. Detection of Neisseria meningitidis from negative blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid with the FilmArray blood culture identification panel.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Joe; Klinker, Kenneth P; Borgert, Samuel J; Butler, Brittany M; Rand, Kenneth H; Iovine, Nicole M

    2014-06-01

    The FilmArray blood culture identification (BCID) panel is a rapid molecular diagnostic test approved for use with positive blood culture material. We describe a fatal case of meningococcemia with central nervous system (CNS) involvement detected using the BCID test with culture-negative blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

  18. Multiplex PCR assay for identification of six different Staphylococcus spp. and simultaneous detection of methicillin and mupirocin resistance.

    PubMed

    Campos-Peña, E; Martín-Nuñez, E; Pulido-Reyes, G; Martín-Padrón, J; Caro-Carrillo, E; Donate-Correa, J; Lorenzo-Castrillejo, I; Alcoba-Flórez, J; Machín, F; Méndez-Alvarez, S

    2014-07-01

    We describe a new, efficient, sensitive, and fast single-tube multiple-PCR protocol for the identification of the most clinically significant Staphylococcus spp. and the simultaneous detection of the methicillin and mupirocin resistance loci. The protocol identifies at the species level isolates belonging to S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, and S. saprophyticus.

  19. Automated detection of retinal landmarks for the identification of clinically relevant regions in fundus photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ometto, Giovanni; Calivá, Francesco; Al-Diri, Bashir; Bek, Toke; Hunter, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Automatic, quick and reliable identification of retinal landmarks from fundus photography is key for measurements used in research, diagnosis, screening and treating of common diseases affecting the eyes. This study presents a fast method for the detection of the centre of mass of the vascular arcades, optic nerve head (ONH) and fovea, used in the definition of five clinically relevant areas in use for screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Thirty-eight fundus photographs showing 7203 DR lesions were analysed to find the landmarks manually by two retina-experts and automatically by the proposed method. The automatic identification of the ONH and fovea were performed using template matching based on normalised cross correlation. The centre of mass of the arcades was obtained by fitting an ellipse on sample coordinates of the main vessels. The coordinates were obtained by processing the image with hessian filtering followed by shape analyses and finally sampling the results. The regions obtained manually and automatically were used to count the retinal lesions falling within, and to evaluate the method. 92.7% of the lesions were falling within the same regions based on the landmarks selected by the two experts. 91.7% and 89.0% were counted in the same areas identified by the method and the first and second expert respectively. The inter-repeatability of the proposed method and the experts is comparable, while the 100% intra-repeatability makes the algorithm a valuable tool in tasks like analyses in real-time, of large datasets and of intra-patient variability.

  20. Detection and boundary identification of phonocardiogram sounds using an expert frequency-energy based metric.

    PubMed

    Naseri, H; Homaeinezhad, M R

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a new method to detect and to delineate phonocardiogram (PCG) sounds. Toward this objective, after preprocessing the PCG signal, two windows were moved on the preprocessed signal, and in each analysis window, two frequency-and amplitude-based features were calculated from the excerpted segment. Then, a synthetic decision making basis was devised by combining these two features for being used as an efficient detection-delineation decision statistic, (DS). Next, local extremums and locations of minimum slopes of the DS were determined by conducting forward-backward local investigations with the purpose of detecting sound incidences and their boundaries. In order to recognize the delineated PCG sounds, first, S1 and S2 were detected. Then, a new DS was regenerated from the signal whose S1 and S2 were eliminated to detect occasional S3 and S4 sounds. Finally, probable murmurs and souffles were spotted. The proposed algorithm was applied to 52 min PCG signals gathered from patients with different valve diseases. The provided database was annotated by some cardiology experts equipped by echocardiography and appropriate computer interfaces. The acquisition landmarks were in 2R (aortic), 2L (pulmonic), 4R (apex) and 4L (tricuspid) positions. The acquisition sensor was an electronic stethoscope (3 M Littmann® 3200, 4 kHz sampling frequency). The operating characteristics of the proposed method have an average sensitivity Se = 99.00% and positive predictive value PPV = 98.60% for sound type recognition (i.e., S1, S2, S3 or S4).

  1. Lidar and Dial application for detection and identification: a proposal to improve safety and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Malizia, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Parracino, S.; Poggi, L. A.; Lungaroni, M.; Ciparisse, J. F.; Di Giovanni, D.; Cenciarelli, O.; Carestia, M.; Peluso, E.; Gabbarini, V.; Talebzadeh, S.; Bellecci, C.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the intentional diffusion in air (both in open and confined environments) of chemical contaminants is a dramatic source of risk for the public health worldwide. The needs of a high-tech networks composed by software, diagnostics, decision support systems and cyber security tools are urging all the stakeholders (military, public, research & academic entities) to create innovative solutions to face this problem and improve both safety and security. The Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics (QEP) Research Group of the University of Rome Tor Vergata is working since the 1960s on the development of laser-based technologies for the stand-off detection of contaminants in the air. Up to now, four demonstrators have been developed (two LIDAR-based and two DIAL-based) and have been used in experimental campaigns during all 2015. These systems and technologies can be used together to create an innovative solution to the problem of public safety and security: the creation of a network composed by detection systems: A low cost LIDAR based system has been tested in an urban area to detect pollutants coming from urban traffic, in this paper the authors show the results obtained in the city of Crotone (south of Italy). This system can be used as a first alarm and can be coupled with an identification system to investigate the nature of the threat. A laboratory dial based system has been used in order to create a database of absorption spectra of chemical substances that could be release in atmosphere, these spectra can be considered as the fingerprints of the substances that have to be identified. In order to create the database absorption measurements in cell, at different conditions, are in progress and the first results are presented in this paper.

  2. An online outlier identification and removal scheme for improving fault detection performance.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsi, Hasan; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Zawodniok, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    Measured data or states for a nonlinear dynamic system is usually contaminated by outliers. Identifying and removing outliers will make the data (or system states) more trustworthy and reliable since outliers in the measured data (or states) can cause missed or false alarms during fault diagnosis. In addition, faults can make the system states nonstationary needing a novel analytical model-based fault detection (FD) framework. In this paper, an online outlier identification and removal (OIR) scheme is proposed for a nonlinear dynamic system. Since the dynamics of the system can experience unknown changes due to faults, traditional observer-based techniques cannot be used to remove the outliers. The OIR scheme uses a neural network (NN) to estimate the actual system states from measured system states involving outliers. With this method, the outlier detection is performed online at each time instant by finding the difference between the estimated and the measured states and comparing its median with its standard deviation over a moving time window. The NN weight update law in OIR is designed such that the detected outliers will have no effect on the state estimation, which is subsequently used for model-based fault diagnosis. In addition, since the OIR estimator cannot distinguish between the faulty or healthy operating conditions, a separate model-based observer is designed for fault diagnosis, which uses the OIR scheme as a preprocessing unit to improve the FD performance. The stability analysis of both OIR and fault diagnosis schemes are introduced. Finally, a three-tank benchmarking system and a simple linear system are used to verify the proposed scheme in simulations, and then the scheme is applied on an axial piston pump testbed. The scheme can be applied to nonlinear systems whose dynamics and underlying distribution of states are subjected to change due to both unknown faults and operating conditions.

  3. Detection of infarct lesions from single MRI modality using inconsistency between voxel intensity and spatial location--a 3-D automatic approach.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shan; Szameitat, André J; Sterr, Annette

    2008-07-01

    Detection of infarct lesions using traditional segmentation methods is always problematic due to intensity similarity between lesions and normal tissues, so that multispectral MRI modalities were often employed for this purpose. However, the high costs of MRI scan and the severity of patient conditions restrict the collection of multiple images. Therefore, in this paper, a new 3-D automatic lesion detection approach was proposed, which required only a single type of anatomical MRI scan. It was developed on a theory that, when lesions were present, the voxel-intensity-based segmentation and the spatial-location-based tissue distribution should be inconsistent in the regions of lesions. The degree of this inconsistency was calculated, which indicated the likelihood of tissue abnormality. Lesions were identified when the inconsistency exceeded a defined threshold. In this approach, the intensity-based segmentation was implemented by the conventional fuzzy c-mean (FCM) algorithm, while the spatial location of tissues was provided by prior tissue probability maps. The use of simulated MRI lesions allowed us to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the proposed method, as the size and location of lesions were prespecified. The results showed that our method effectively detected lesions with 40-80% signal reduction compared to normal tissues (similarity index > 0.7). The capability of the proposed method in practice was also demonstrated on real infarct lesions from 15 stroke patients, where the lesions detected were in broad agreement with true lesions. Furthermore, a comparison to a statistical segmentation approach presented in the literature suggested that our 3-D lesion detection approach was more reliable. Future work will focus on adapting the current method to multiple sclerosis lesion detection.

  4. On the Use of the Polynomial Annihilation Edge Detection for Locating Cracks in Beam-Like Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Rishu; Surace, Cecilia; Archibald, Richard K

    2013-01-01

    A crack in a structure causes a discontinuity in the first derivative of the mode shapes: On this basis, a numerical method for detecting discontinuities in smooth piecewise functions and their derivatives, based on a polynomial annihilation technique, has been applied to the problem of crack detection and localisation in beam-like structures for which only post-damage mode shapes are available. Using a finite-element model of a cracked beam, the performance of this methodology has been analysed for different crack depths and increasing amounts of noise. Given the crack position, a procedure to estimate its depth is also proposed and corresponding results shown.

  5. Model application for rapid detection of the exact location when calling an ambulance using OGC Open GeoSMS Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukic, Enes; Stoimenov, Leonid

    2016-02-01

    The web has penetrated just about every sphere of human interest and using information from the web has become ubiquitous among different categories of users. Medicine has long being using the benefits of modern technologies and without them it cannot function. This paper offers a proposal of use and mutual collaboration of several modern technologies within facilitating the location and communication between persons in need of emergency medical assistance and the emergency head offices, i.e., the ambulance. The main advantage of the proposed model is the technical possibility of implementation and use of these technologies in developing countries and low implementation cost.

  6. An anomaly detection approach for the identification of DME patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images.

    PubMed

    Sidibé, Désiré; Sankar, Shrinivasan; Lemaître, Guillaume; Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Massich, Joan; Cheung, Carol Y; Tan, Gavin S W; Milea, Dan; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Wong, Tien Y; Mériaudeau, Fabrice

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a method for automatic classification of spectral domain OCT data for the identification of patients with retinal diseases such as Diabetic Macular Edema (DME). We address this issue as an anomaly detection problem and propose a method that not only allows the classification of the OCT volume, but also allows the identification of the individual diseased B-scans inside the volume. Our approach is based on modeling the appearance of normal OCT images with a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and detecting abnormal OCT images as outliers. The classification of an OCT volume is based on the number of detected outliers. Experimental results with two different datasets show that the proposed method achieves a sensitivity and a specificity of 80% and 93% on the first dataset, and 100% and 80% on the second one. Moreover, the experiments show that the proposed method achieves better classification performance than other recently published works.

  7. A technique for real-time detection, location and quantification of damage in large polymer composite structures made of electrically non-conductive fibers and carbon nanotube networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghashpour, Ali; Van Hoa, Suong

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we have developed a novel, practical and real-time structural health monitoring (SHM) technique to detect, locate and quantify damage that occurs at one or more locations in large polymer composite structures (LPCSs) made of electrically non-conductive fibers and carbon nanotube networks. Our technique exploits the piezoresistive effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in epoxy resin. The electrically conductive epoxy resin was used to prepare glass fiber reinforced composite plates. The plates were marked with grid points where electrically conductive silver-epoxy pastes were deposited. The electrical resistances between the grid points were measured and used as a reference set. Two new concepts are introduced. One is uniformity of MWCNT distribution which gives rise to uniformity in electrical conductivity. The second is maximum sensitivity to change in electrical resistance due to the occurrence of damage. These issues are demonstrated as criteria to determine the optimal quantity of MWCNTs. This optimal quantity is used to assure damage detectability at any region in the large plates. Drilled holes and impact testing were conducted to simulate damage. The damage causes the electrical resistance between the contact points surrounding the damage to increase. This increase is used to detect, locate and quantify damage.

  8. Fiber optic sensor employing successively destroyed coupled points or reflectors for detecting shock wave speed and damage location

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    A shock velocity and damage location sensor providing a means of measuring shock speed and damage location. The sensor consists of a long series of time-of-arrival "points" constructed with fiber optics. The fiber optic sensor apparatus measures shock velocity as the fiber sensor is progressively crushed as a shock wave proceeds in a direction along the fiber. The light received by a receiving means changes as time-of-arrival points are destroyed as the sensor is disturbed by the shock. The sensor may comprise a transmitting fiber bent into a series of loops and fused to a receiving fiber at various places, time-of-arrival points, along the receiving fibers length. At the "points" of contact, where a portion of the light leaves the transmitting fiber and enters the receiving fiber, the loops would be required to allow the light to travel backwards through the receiving fiber toward a receiving means. The sensor may also comprise a single optical fiber wherein the time-of-arrival points are comprised of reflection planes distributed along the fibers length. In this configuration, as the shock front proceeds along the fiber it destroys one reflector after another. The output received by a receiving means from this sensor may be a series of downward steps produced as the shock wave destroys one time-of-arrival point after another, or a nonsequential pattern of steps in the event time-of-arrival points are destroyed at any point along the sensor.

  9. Fiber optic sensor employing successively destroyed coupled points or reflectors for detecting shock wave speed and damage location

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-08-29

    A shock velocity and damage location sensor providing a means of measuring shock speed and damage location is disclosed. The sensor consists of a long series of time-of-arrival ``points`` constructed with fiber optics. The fiber optic sensor apparatus measures shock velocity as the fiber sensor is progressively crushed as a shock wave proceeds in a direction along the fiber. The light received by a receiving means changes as time-of-arrival points are destroyed as the sensor is disturbed by the shock. The sensor may comprise a transmitting fiber bent into a series of loops and fused to a receiving fiber at various places, time-of-arrival points, along the receiving fibers length. At the ``points`` of contact, where a portion of the light leaves the transmitting fiber and enters the receiving fiber, the loops would be required to allow the light to travel backwards through the receiving fiber toward a receiving means. The sensor may also comprise a single optical fiber wherein the time-of-arrival points are comprised of reflection planes distributed along the fibers length. In this configuration, as the shock front proceeds along the fiber it destroys one reflector after another. The output received by a receiving means from this sensor may be a series of downward steps produced as the shock wave destroys one time-of-arrival point after another, or a nonsequential pattern of steps in the event time-of-arrival points are destroyed at any point along the sensor. 6 figs.

  10. Detection and Location of Transverse Matrix Cracks in Cross-Ply Gr/Ep Composites Using Acoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Jackson, K. E.; Kellas, S.; Smith, B. T.; McKeon, J.; Friedman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Transverse matrix cracking in cross-ply gr/ep laminates was studied with advanced acoustic emission (AE) techniques. The primary goal of this research was to measure the load required to initiate the first transverse matrix crack in cross-ply laminates of different thicknesses. Other methods had been previously used for these measurements including penetrant enhanced radiography, optical microscopy, and audible acoustic microphone measurements. The former methods required that the mechanical test be paused for measurements at load intervals. This slowed the test procedure and did not provide the required resolution in load. With acoustic microphones, acoustic signals from cracks could not be clearly differentiated from other noise sources such as grip damage, specimen slippage, or test machine noise. A second goal for this work was to use the high resolution source location accuracy of the advanced acoustic emission techniques to determine whether the crack initiation site was at the specimen edge or in the interior of the specimen.In this research, advanced AE techniques using broad band sensors, high capture rate digital waveform acquisition, and plate wave propagation based analysis were applied to cross-ply composite coupons with different numbers of 0 and 90 degree plies. Noise signals, believed to be caused by grip damage or specimen slipping, were eliminated based on their plate wave characteristics. Such signals were always located outside the sensor gage length in the gripped region of the specimen. Cracks were confirmed post-test by microscopic analysis of a polished specimen edge, backscatter ultrasonic scans, and in limited cases, by penetrant enhanced radiography. For specimens with three or more 90 degree plies together, there was an exact 1-1 correlation between AE crack signals and observed cracks. The ultrasonic scans and some destructive sectioning analysis showed that the cracks extended across the full width of the specimen. Furthermore, the

  11. Robust detection and identification of multiple oomycetes and fungi in environmental samples by using a novel cleavable padlock probe-based ligation detection assay.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, R; Slawiak, M; Szemes, M; Dullemans, A M; Bonants, P; Kowalchuk, G A; Schoen, C D

    2009-06-01

    Simultaneous detection and identification of multiple pathogenic microorganisms in complex environmental samples are required in numerous diagnostic fields. Here, we describe the development of a novel, background-free ligation detection (LD) system using a single compound detector probe per target. The detector probes used, referred to as padlock probes (PLPs), are long oligonucleotides containing asymmetric target complementary regions at both their 5' and 3' ends which confer extremely specific target detection. Probes also incorporate a desthiobiotin moiety and an internal endonuclease IV cleavage site. DNA samples are PCR amplified, and the resulting products serve as potential targets for PLP ligation. Upon perfect target hybridization, the PLPs are circularized via enzymatic ligation, captured, and cleaved, allowing only the originally ligated PLPs to be visualized on a universal microarray. Unlike previous procedures, the probes themselves are not amplified, thereby allowing a simple PLP cleavage to yield a background-free assay. We designed and tested nine PLPs targeting several oomycetes and fungi. All of the probes specifically detected their corresponding targets and provided perfect discrimination against closely related nontarget organisms, yielding an assay sensitivity of 1 pg genomic DNA and a dynamic detection range of 10(4). A practical demonstration with samples collected from horticultural water circulation systems was performed to test the robustness of the newly developed multiplex assay. This novel LD system enables highly specific detection and identification of multiple pathogens over a wide range of target concentrations and should be easily adaptable to a variety of applications in environmental microbiology.

  12. Detection and identification of free-living amoeba from aquatic environment in different seasons in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, K.; Hsu, B.; Tsai, H.; Huang, P.; Tsai, J.; Kao, P.; Huang, K.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Free-living amoeba includes Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, which are widely distributed in water and soil. Human infection with free-living amoeba leads to serious illness, even lethal. For example, central nervous system infection will cause amoebic meningoencephalitis, and infections will cause amoebic keratitis. The presence of free-living amoeba in environment water can be used as a water quality indicator in ecosystem assessment. In Taiwan, reservoirs are indispensable because of the water source are limited by the steep terrain and the short river flow. Therefore, we need to pay more attention in the quality control of reservoirs water. The aims of this study are to investigate the presence of free-living amoeba in Taiwan reservoirs, and to compare the differences among seasons. At last, the identification and genotyping of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are investigated. In this study, we use polymerase chain reaction with specific primers to analyze the presence of free-living amoeba in aquatic environment. We collected total 60 samples from reservoirs in Taiwan. The water samples are divided into two parts for both direct concentration method and culture method. The results show the different detection rates among seasons. For Acanthamoeba, the detection rates were 28.3% (17 of 60 water samples), 21.7% (13 of 60 water samples) and 8.3% (5 of 60 water samples) in autumn, winter and spring, respectively. For Naegleria, the detection rates were 6.7% (4 of 60 water samples), 0% (0 of 60 water samples) and 0% (0 of 60 water samples) were detected positive in autumn, winter and spring, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the major genotypes in Acanthamoeba were T3, T4, T10 and T11 in autumn, T2, T4 and T10 in winter, T4 in spring. Due to the presences of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in reservoirs, we should pay more attention in water quality monitoring to prevent the potential risks of diseases. Keywords: free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, polymerase

  13. 1HNMR-Based Discriminatory Analysis of Eurycoma longifolia from Different Locations and Establishing a Profile for Primary Metabolites Identification and Quassinoids Quantification.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Forough; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Teh, Chin Hoe; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Lam, Chan Kit

    2017-01-01

    Quassinoids, the major secondary metabolites of Eurycoma longifolia roots, improve male fertility. Hence, it is crucial to investigate their quantitative level in E. longifolia extracts. A profile was established to identify the primary metabolites and major quassinoids, and quantify quassinoids using external calibration curves. Furthermore, the metabolic discrimination of E. longifolia roots from different regions was investigated. The (1)H-NMR spectra of the quassinoids, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside were obtained. The (1)H-NMR profiles of E. longifolia root aqueous extracts from Perak (n = 30) were obtained and used to identify primary metabolites and the quassinoids. Selangor, Kedah, Terengganu (n = 5 for each), and Perak samples were checked for metabolic discrimination. Hotelling's T(2) plot was used to check for outliers. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis was run to reveal the discriminatory metabolites. Perak samples contained formic, succinic, methylsuccinic, fumaric, lactic, acetic and syringic acids as well as choline, alanine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, α-glucose, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside. The extracts from other locations contained the same metabolites. The limit of quantification values were 1.96 (eurycomanone), 15.62 (eurycomanol), 3.91 (13,21-dihydroeurycomanone), and 31.25 (eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside) ppm. The Hotelling's T(2) plot revealed no outlier. The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis model showed that choline, eurycomanol, eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, and lactic and succinic acid levels were different among regions. Terengganu and Perak samples contained higher amounts of eurycomanol and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, respectively. The current approach efficiently detected E. longifolia root metabolites, quantified the quassinoids, and

  14. Detection of erosion/deposition depth using a low frequency passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakidis, Iordanis Vlasios

    This thesis presents an experimental study both in the laboratory and field to develop and test a method for continuously measuring and monitoring scour using an automated identification technology known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). RFID systems consist of three main components, namely (a) the reader which controls the system, (b) the transponder (derived from transmitter/responder) that transmits data to the reader and (c) the excitation antenna that allows the communication between the reader and the transponder. The study provides an insight into the RFID technology and develops the framework for using this technology to eventually address two central themes in river mechanics and sediment transport; (a) the determination of the active layer thickness and (b) the scour/deposition depth around a hydraulic structure. In particular, this study develops the methodology for relating the signal strength of a radio frequency (RF) device with the distance between an excitation antenna and the RF device. The experiments presented herein are classified into two main groups, (1) the laboratory and (2) the RF signal vs. the detection distance experiments (field experiments). The laboratory experiments were designed to understand the effect of key RFID parameters (e.g., transponder orientation with respect to the excitation antenna plane, maximum antenna-transponder detection distance), measured in terms of the transponder return RF signal strength for various antenna-transponder distances, transponder orientations with respect to the excitation antenna plane and different mediums in between the excitation antenna and the transponder, on the overall performance of the RFID system. On the other hand, the RF signal vs. the detection distance experiments were based on the results obtained during the laboratory experiments and focused on developing calibration curves by relating the transponder return RF signal strength with the distance between the excitation

  15. Helicopter Based Magnetic Detection Of Wells At The Teapot Dome (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Oilfield: Rapid And Accurate Geophysical Algorithms For Locating Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Veloski, G.; Hodge, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this study Airborne magnetic data was collected by Fugro Airborne Surveys from a helicopter platform (Figure 1) using the Midas II system over the 39 km2 NPR3 (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3) oilfield in east-central Wyoming. The Midas II system employs two Scintrex CS-2 cesium vapor magnetometers on opposite ends of a transversely mounted, 13.4-m long horizontal boom located amidships (Fig. 1). Each magnetic sensor had an in-flight sensitivity of 0.01 nT. Real time compensation of the magnetic data for magnetic noise induced by maneuvering of the aircraft was accomplished using two fluxgate magnetometers mounted just inboard of the cesium sensors. The total area surveyed was 40.5 km2 (NPR3) near Casper, Wyoming. The purpose of the survey was to accurately locate wells that had been drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood to enhance oil recovery, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells that are missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The well location method used combined an input dataset (for example, leveled total magnetic field reduced to the pole), combined with first and second horizontal spatial derivatives of this input dataset, which were then analyzed using focal statistics and finally combined using a fuzzy combination operation. Analytic signal and the Shi and Butt (2004) ZS attribute were also analyzed using this algorithm. A parameter could be adjusted to determine sensitivity. Depending on the input dataset 88% to 100% of the wells were located, with typical values being 95% to 99% for the NPR3 field site.

  16. Detection of frequently-burn locations using multi-temporal Terra/Aqua MODIS fire product (MOD14) in Oudomxay province, Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phonekeo, V.; Samarakoon, L.; Saphangthong, T.

    2014-02-01

    Wildfire is natural and man-made disaster that relates to global warming and climate change. Wildfire is prominent disaster that destroys natural resources, and causes enormous danger to human life and property. The study on the spatial and temporal distribution of wildfire is significant to understand wildfire occurrence and behavior. In the past, people usually study on the pattern of wildfire and open-space burning according to the daily number of active fire detected by MODIS sensor onboard of Terra and Aqua satellites for a particular area at the time of satellite over pass. However, there is no study that focused on the active fire that frequently occurred at the same location for a given period of time. Therefore, in this paper, the authors has focused on the study of frequently-burn locations in Oudomxay province of Laos, which has the 3rd highest active fire number in burning season of year 2007-2009 using spatial and statistical analysis of the active fire distribution and occurrence by time and space. The results of the study show that the highest number of burning frequency is 6 and 7 times within the study period and these numbers are located at 3 districts. One is Xai district which has the highest frequently-burn location for 7 times during the study period at the coordinate of N20.72° and E101.88°. The second districts are Beng and Nga districts which has the 2nd highest frequently-burn location for 6 times during the study period at the coordinate of N 20.28°, E101.68°, and N20.17°, E102.02°, respectively. The obtained information on frequently-burn locations in the province would be useful to identify the repeat burning activity by the local people occurred in the same location and allows the forestry and agricultural officers understand the wildfire distribution pattern.

  17. Raft and floating radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna systems for detecting and estimating abundance of PIT-tagged fish in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Avila, Brian W.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Portable radio frequency identification (RFID) PIT tag antenna systems are increasingly being used in studies examining aquatic animal movement, survival, and habitat use, and their design flexibility permits application in a wide variety of settings. We describe the construction, use, and performance of two portable floating RFID PIT tag antenna systems designed to detect fish that were unavailable for recapture using stationary antennas or electrofishing. A raft antenna system was designed to detect and locate PIT-tagged fish in relatively long (i.e., ≥10 km) river reaches, and consisted of two antennas: (1) a horizontal antenna (4 × 1.2 m) installed on the bottom of the raft and used to detect fish in shallower river reaches (<1 m), and (2) a vertical antenna (2.7 × 1.2 m) for detecting fish in deeper pools (≥1 m). Detection distances of the horizontal antenna were between 0.7 and 1.0 m, and detection probability was 0.32 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) in a field test using rocks marked with 32-mm PIT tags. Detection probability of PIT-tagged fish in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado, using the raft antenna system, which covered 21% of the wetted area, was 0.14 ± 0.14. A shore-deployed floating antenna (14.6 × 0.6 m), which covered 100% of the wetted area, was designed for use by two operators for detecting and locating PIT-tagged fish in shorter (i.e., <2 km) river reaches. Detection distances of the shore-deployed floating antenna were between 0.7 and 0.8 m, and detection probabilities during field deployment in the St. Vrain River exceeded 0.52. The shore-deployed floating antenna was also used to estimate abundance of PIT-tagged fish. Results suggest that the shore-deployed floating antenna could be used as an alternative to estimating abundance using traditional sampling methods such as electrofishing.

  18. Active layer identification of photonic crystal waveguide biosensor chip for the detection of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painam, Balveer; Kaler, Rajinder S.; Kumar, Mukesh

    2016-07-01

    This work represents experimental and simulation analysis of photonic crystal waveguide (PCW)-based biosensor structures, which is used for detection of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell. A method is adopted for E. coli culture to measure length, diameter, and refractive index to finalize the structural design and to verify the suitability of PCW as a biosensor. This method is tested using DH5α strains of E. coli. The typical precisions of measurements are varied in ranges from 1.132 to 1.825 μm and from 0.447 to 0.66 μm for pathogen's length and diameter, respectively. The measured distribution of samples over length and diameter are in correlation with the measurements performed by scanning electron microscope. After obtaining average length and diameter of cylindrical shaped E. coli cell, we consider these values for simulation analysis of designed PCW biosensor. E. coli cell is trapped in the middle of the PCW biosensor having three different types of waveguides, i.e., gallium arsenide/silicon dioxide (GaAs/SiO2), silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2), or silicon nitride/silicon dioxide (Si3N4/SiO2) to observe the maximum resonance shift and sensitivity. It is observed from the simulation data analysis that GaAs/SiO2 is the preferred PCW biosensor for the identification of E. coli.

  19. Drag detection and identification by whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Experimental data on optical resonance spectra of whispering gallery modes of dielectric microspheres in antibiotic solutions under varied in wide range concentration are represented. Optical resonance was demonstrated could be detected at a laser power of less than 1 microwatt. Several antibiotics of different generations: Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, Cephazolin, Chloramphenicol, Levofloxacin, Lincomicin Benzylpenicillin, Riphampicon both in deionized water and physiological solution had been used for measurements. Both spectral shift and the structure of resonance spectra were of specific interest in this investigation. Drag identification has been performed by developed multilayer perceptron network. The network topology was designed included: a number of the hidden layers of multilayered perceptron, a number of neurons in each of layers, a method of training of a neural network, activation functions of layers, type and size of a deviation of the received values from required values. For a network training the method of the back propagation error in various modifications has been used. Input vectors correspond to 6 classes of biological substances under investigation. The result of classification was considered as positive when each of the region, representing a certain substance in a space: relative spectral shift of an optical resonance maxima - relative efficiency of excitation of WGM, was singly connected. It was demonstrated that the approach described in the paper can be a promising platform for the development of sensitive, lab-on-chip type sensors that can be used as an express diagnostic tools for different drugs and instrumentation for proteomics, genomics, drug discovery, and membrane studies.

  20. Detection of dispersed radio pulses: a machine learning approach to candidate identification and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, Thomas Ryan; Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina; McLaughlin, Maura

    2016-06-01

    Searching for extraterrestrial, transient signals in astronomical data sets is an active area of current research. However, machine learning techniques are lacking in the literature concerning single-pulse detection. This paper presents a new, two-stage approach for identifying and classifying dispersed pulse groups (DPGs) in single-pulse search output. The first stage identified DPGs and extracted features to characterize them using a new peak identification algorithm which tracks sloping tendencies around local maxima in plots of signal-to-noise ratio versus dispersion measure. The second stage used supervised machine learning to classify DPGs. We created four benchmark data sets: one unbalanced and three balanced versions using three different imbalance treatments. We empirically evaluated 48 classifiers by training and testing binary and multiclass versions of six machine learning algorithms on each of the four benchmark versions. While each classifier had advantages and disadvantages, all classifiers with imbalance treatments had higher recall values than those with unbalanced data, regardless of the machine learning algorithm used. Based on the benchmarking results, we selected a subset of classifiers to classify the full, unlabelled data set of over 1.5 million DPGs identified in 42 405 observations made by the Green Bank Telescope. Overall, the classifiers using a multiclass ensemble tree learner in combination with two oversampling imbalance treatments were the most efficient; they identified additional known pulsars not in the benchmark data set and provided six potential discoveries, with significantly less false positives than the other classifiers.

  1. UXO detection and identification based on intrinsic target polarizabilities: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, E.; Smith, J.T.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.; Kappler, K.

    2008-07-15

    Electromagnetic induction data parameterized in time dependent object intrinsic polarizabilities allow discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO) from false targets (scrap metal). Data from a cart-mounted system designed for discrimination of UXO with 20 mm to 155 mm diameters are used. Discrimination of UXO from irregular scrap metal is based on the principal dipole polarizabilities of a target. A near-intact UXO displays a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal smaller transverse polarizabilities, whereas metal scraps have distinct polarizability signatures that rarely mimic those of elongated symmetric bodies. Based on a training data set of known targets, object identification was made by estimating the probability that an object is a single UXO. Our test survey took place on a military base where both 4.2-inch mortar shells and scrap metal were present. The results show that we detected and discriminated correctly all 4.2-inch mortars, and in that process we added 7%, and 17%, respectively, of dry holes (digging scrap) to the total number of excavations in two different survey modes. We also demonstrated a mode of operation that might be more cost effective than the current practice.

  2. Rapid identification of Candida glabrata by using a dipstick to detect trehalase-generated glucose.

    PubMed

    Peltroche-Llacsahuanga, H; Schnitzler, N; Lütticken, R; Haase, G

    1999-01-01

    Candida glabrata is a yeast frequently isolated from human specimens. Based upon its well-known ability to rapidly hydrolyze trehalose, we have developed a novel and cost-effective test incubating one yeast colony emulsified in 50 microl of citrate buffer (0.1 M [pH 5. 0]) containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37 degrees C. Trehalase-generated glucose is detected with a commercially available dipstick (range, 1.0 to 50 g/liter). For evaluation, consecutive clinical isolates and several reference strains of C. glabrata (n = 160), C. albicans (n = 120), and other yeast species with potential ability for utilization of trehalose (C. dubliniensis, n = 11; C. famata, n = 15; C. guilliermondii, n = 5; C. lusitaniae, n = 16; C. parapsilosis, n = 20; C. tropicalis, n = 34; C. viswanathii, n = 5; Pichia angusta, n = 2; C. zeylanoides, n = 2; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, n = 16; C. neoformans, n = 7) were tested. Identification of C. glabrata is achieved within 3 h, with a specificity of 99.1% and a sensitivity of 98.8% when grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 4% glucose.

  3. Detection, identification, and typing of Listeria species from baled silages fed to dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nucera, D M; Grassi, M A; Morra, P; Piano, S; Tabacco, E; Borreani, G

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobiosis, critical for successful ensilage, constitutes a challenge in baled silages. The loss of complete anaerobiosis causes aerobic deterioration and silages undergo dry matter and nutrient losses, pathogen growth, and mycotoxin production. Silage may represent an ideal substrate for Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogen of primary concern in several cheeses. The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria in baled silage fed to cows producing milk for a protected designation of origin cheese, and to characterize isolates by repetitive sequence-based PCR. Listeria spp. were detected in 21 silages and L. monocytogenes in 6 out of 80 of the analyzed silages; 67% of positives were found in molded zones. Results of the PCR typing showed genotypic homogeneity: 72.9 and 78.8% similarity between strains of Listeria spp. (n=56) and L. monocytogenes (n=24), respectively. Identical profiles were recovered in molded and nonmolded areas, indicating that contamination may have occurred during production. The application of PCR allowed the unambiguous identification of Listeria isolated from baled silages, and repetitive sequence-based PCR allowed a rapid and effective typing of isolates. Results disclose the potential of the systematic typing of Listeria in primary production, which is needed for the understanding of its transmission pathways.

  4. Motion-Based System Identification and Fault Detection and Isolation Technologies for Thruster Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward; Sutter, David W.; Berkovitz, Dustin; Betts, Bradley J.; Kong, Edmund; delMundo, Rommel; Lages, Christopher R.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing the motions of a thruster-controlled spacecraft, it is possible to provide on-line (1) thruster fault detection and isolation (FDI), and (2) vehicle mass- and thruster-property identification (ID). Technologies developed recently at NASA Ames have significantly improved the speed and accuracy of these ID and FDI capabilities, making them feasible for application to a broad class of spacecraft. Since these technologies use existing sensors, the improved system robustness and performance that comes with the thruster fault tolerance and system ID can be achieved through a software-only implementation. This contrasts with the added cost, mass, and hardware complexity commonly required by FDI. Originally developed in partnership with NASA - Johnson Space Center to provide thruster FDI capability for the X-38 during re-entry, these technologies are most recently being applied to the MIT SPHERES experimental spacecraft to fly on the International Space Station in 2004. The model-based FDI uses a maximum-likelihood calculation at its core, while the ID is based upon recursive least squares estimation. Flight test results from the SPHERES implementation, as flown aboard the NASA KC-1 35A 0-g simulator aircraft in November 2003 are presented.

  5. In situ detection and identification of hair dyes using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2015-03-03

    Hair is one of the most common types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. Forensic examination may suggest a connection between a suspect and a crime scene or victim, or it may demonstrate an absence of such associations. Therefore, forensic analysis of hair evidence is invaluable to criminal investigations. Current hair forensic examinations are primarily based on a subjective microscopic comparison of hair found at the crime scene with a sample of suspect's hair. Since this is often inconclusive, the development of alternative and more-accurate hair analysis techniques is critical. In this study, we utilized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to demonstrate that artificial dyes can be directly detected on hair. This spectroscopic technique is capable of a confirmatory identification of analytes with single molecule resolution, requires minimal sample, and has the advantage of fluorescence quenching. Our study reveals that SERS can (1) identify whether hair was artificially dyed or not, (2) determine if a permanent or semipermanent colorants were used, and (3) distinguish the commercial brands that are utilized to dye hair. Such analysis is rapid, minimally destructive, and can be performed directly at the crime scene. This study provides a novel perspective of forensic investigations of hair evidence.

  6. Hyperspectral materials detection/identification/quantification using the residual correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgins, Lonnie H.; Hayashi, Joan; Blake, Pamela L.; Tran, Luong V.; Kilday, Elizabeth

    2001-08-01

    Remote detection, identification, and quantification of materials is an important problem in earth resource assessment. Satellite-based hyperspectral imaging sensors currently being developed by government and industry partnerships (e.g. the Coastal Ocean Imaging Spectrometer aboard the Naval EarthMap Observer) appear to be uniquely qualified for this purpose. Obtaining accurate estimates of material abundance on a pixel-by-pixel basis poses many challenging algorithmic and computational difficulties. A significant issue that must be addressed is how to efficiently select endmembers from a library when that library is spectrally redundant. In this paper, we demonstrate how an improved version of the Residual Correlation Method (RCM+) can provide a flexible solution to this problem. The RCM+ offers a robust treatment for selecting endmembers from spectrally redundant libraries in a one-at-a-time fashion. We discuss alternative methods such as two-at-a-time, or more generally, N-at-a-time methods within a unified mathematical framework for analysis. Certain theorems apply to all such methods, and help to define a trade space for endmember selection methods in general. We demonstrate our results using synthetic test cases, and discuss how all endmember selection methods may be affected by redundancy within the library as well as specific properties of the data.

  7. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia.

  8. An Analysis of Air-Soil Temperature Differences at Five Locations: Application to Passive Standoff Chemical Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    good detection probabilities 86% of the time. Résumé Pour un capteur spectral passif comme CATSI (Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer...détection des capteurs de type CATSI pour divers scénarios et environnements. À cette fin, on présente une analyse des différences de température...chimiques de combat (CW), tels le gaz moutarde et les agents neurotoxiques représentent une menace très sérieuse pour les forces militaires et les

  9. Use of Hopfield Networks for System Identification and Failure Detection in Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    AD-A245 875 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California SSTATV’s DTIC$ ELECT THESIS USE OF HOPFIELD NETWORKS FOR SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION AND...Iqu(t) (19) The goal of successful system identification is to minimize the error between the estimated and actual system parameters. A convenient...because this approach to system identification requires measurement of x, L, and 2. For this, a Runga-Kutta second- and third-order numerical

  10. Reactive and multiphase modelling for the identification of monitoring parameters to detect CO2 intrusion into freshwater aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrner, S.; Schaefer, D.; Wiegers, C.; Köber, R.; Dahmke, A.

    2011-12-01

    A monitoring at geological CO2 storage sites has to meet environmental, regulative, financial and public demands and thus has to enable the detection of CO2 leakages. Current monitoring concepts for the detection of CO2 intrusion into freshwater aquifers located above saline storage formations in course of leakage events lack the identification of monitoring parameters. Their response to CO2 intrusion still has to be enlightened. Scenario simulations of CO2 intrusion in virtual synthetic aquifers are performed using the simulators PhreeqC and TOUGH2 to reveal relevant CO2-water-mineral interactions and multiphase behaviour on potential monitoring parameters. The focus is set on pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TIC) and the hydroelectric conductivity (EC). The study aims at identifying at which conditions the parameters react rapidly, durable and in a measurable degree. The depth of the aquifer, the mineralogy, the intrusion rates, the sorption specification and capacities, and groundwater flow velocities are varied in the course of the scenario modelling. All three parameters have been found suited in most scenarios. However, in case of a lack of calcite combined with low saturation of the water with respect to CO2 and shallow conditions, changes are close to the measurement resolution. Predicted changes in EC result from the interplay between carbonic acid production and its dissociation, and pH buffering by mineral dissolution. The formation of a discrete gas phase in cases of full saturation of the groundwater in confined aquifers illustrates the potential bipartite resistivity response: An increased hydroelectric conductivity at locations with dissolved CO2, and a high resistivity where the gas phase dominates the pore volume occupation. Increased hydrostatic pressure with depth and enhanced groundwater flow velocities enforce gas dissolution and diminish the formation of a discrete gas phase. Based on the results, a monitoring strategy is proposed which

  11. Identification of polymorphisms and transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene KIT located on both autosomal and B chromosomes of the Chinese raccoon dog.

    PubMed

    Li, Y M; Zhang, Y; Zhu, W J; Yan, S Q; Sun, J H

    2016-02-05

    B chromosomes are dispensable and co-exist with autosomal and sex chromosomes. The karyotype of the Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides) comprises 0-4 B chromosomes. The proto-oncogene KIT is found on all B chromosomes of the Chinese raccoon dog. In the present study, partial DNA and mRNA sequences of KIT were amplified and sequenced from four individuals containing B chromosomes. Sequence analyses revealed that polymorphisms including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and inserts/deletions were rich in the KIT gene of Chinese raccoon dog at the genomic level. However, no polymorphism was detected at the mRNA level. A comparison of mRNA sequences from Chinese raccoon dogs with the corresponding sequences derived from arctic fox and dog, which do not contain B chromosomes, revealed the mRNA sequences of the 10 SNPs to be identical between these three species. Therefore, these findings suggest that KIT located on the B chromosomes in Chinese raccoon dog lacks transcriptional activity.

  12. Radio System for Locating Emergency Workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William; Medelius, Pedro; Starr, Stan; Bedette, Guy; Taylor, John; Moerk, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A system based on low-power radio transponders and associated analog and digital electronic circuitry has been developed for locating firefighters and other emergency workers deployed in a building or other structure. The system has obvious potential for saving lives and reducing the risk of injuries. The system includes (1) a central station equipped with a computer and a transceiver; (2) active radio-frequency (RF) identification tags, each placed in a different room or region of the structure; and (3) transponder units worn by the emergency workers. The RF identification tags can be installed in a new building as built-in components of standard fire-detection devices or ground-fault electrical outlets or can be attached to such devices in a previously constructed building, without need for rewiring the building. Each RF identification tag contains information that uniquely identifies it. When each tag is installed, information on its location and identity are reported to, and stored at, the central station. In an emergency, if a building has not been prewired with RF identification tags, leading emergency workers could drop sequentially numbered portable tags in the rooms of the building, reporting the tag numbers and locations by radio to the central station as they proceed.

  13. Detection and Identification of Salmonella spp. in Surface Water by Molecular Technology in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, S. F.; Hsu, B. M.; Huang, K. H.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Kao, P. M.; Shen, S. M.; Tsai, H. F.; Chen, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella spp. is classified to gram-negative bacterium and is one of the most important causal agents of waterborne diseases. The genus of Salmonella comprises more than 2,500 serotypes and its taxonomy is also very complicated. In tradition, the detection of Salmonella in environmental water samples by routines culture methods using selective media and characterization of suspicious colonies based on biochemical tests and serological assay are generally time and labor consuming. To overcome this disadvantage, it is desirable to use effective method which provides a higher discrimination and more rapid identification about Salmonella in environmental water. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella using novel procedures of detection method and to identify the serovars of Salmonella isolates from 157 surface water samples in Taiwan. The procedures include membrane filtration, non-selective pre-enrichment, selective enrichment of Salmonella, and then isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates. The selective enrichment and culture plates were both detected by PCR. Finally, we used biochemical tests and serological assay to confirm the serovars of Salmonella and also used Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify their sarovar catagories by the genetic pattern. In this study, 44 water samples (28%) were indentified as Salmonella. The 44 positive water samples by culture method were further identified as S. Agona(1/44), S. Albany (10/44), S. Bareilly (13/44),S. Choleraesuis (2/44),S. Derby (4/44),S. Isangi (3/44),S.Kedougou(3/44),S. Mbandaka(1/44),S.Newport (3/44), S. Oranienburg(1/44), S. Potsdam (1/44),S. Typhimurium (1/44), andS. Weltevreden(1/44) by PFGE. The presence of Salmonella in surface water indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission in drinking watershed if water is not adequately treated. Therefore, the authorities need to have operating systems that currently provide adequate source

  14. Using Multiple Barometers to Detect the Floor Location of Smart Phones with Built-in Barometric Sensors for Indoor Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Qiao, Yanyou; Jian, Jun; Chang, Yuanfei

    2015-01-01

    Following the popularity of smart phones and the development of mobile Internet, the demands for accurate indoor positioning have grown rapidly in recent years. Previous indoor positioning methods focused on plane locations on a floor and did not provide accurate floor positioning. In this paper, we propose a method that uses multiple barometers as references for the floor positioning of smart phones with built-in barometric sensors. Some related studies used barometric formula to investigate the altitude of mobile devices and compared the altitude with the height of the floors in a building to obtain the floor number. These studies assume that the accurate height of each floor is known, which is not always the case. They also did not consider the difference in the barometric-pressure pattern at different floors, which may lead to errors in the altitude computation. Our method does not require knowledge of the accurate heights of buildings and stories. It is robust and less sensitive to factors such as temperature and humidity and considers the difference in the barometric-pressure change trends at different floors. We performed a series of experiments to validate the effectiveness of this method. The results are encouraging. PMID:25835189

  15. Using multiple barometers to detect the floor location of smart phones with built-in barometric sensors for indoor positioning.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Qiao, Yanyou; Jian, Jun; Chang, Yuanfei

    2015-03-31

    Following the popularity of smart phones and the development of mobile Internet, the demands for accurate indoor positioning have grown rapidly in recent years. Previous indoor positioning methods focused on plane locations on a floor and did not provide accurate floor positioning. In this paper, we propose a method that uses multiple barometers as references for the floor positioning of smart phones with built-in barometric sensors. Some related studies used barometric formula to investigate the altitude of mobile devices and compared the altitude with the height of the floors in a building to obtain the floor number. These studies assume that the accurate height of each floor is known, which is not always the case. They also did not consider the difference in the barometric-pressure pattern at different floors, which may lead to errors in the altitude computation. Our method does not require knowledge of the accurate heights of buildings and stories. It is robust and less sensitive to factors such as temperature and humidity and considers the difference in the barometric-pressure change trends at different floors. We performed a series of experiments to validate the effectiveness of this method. The results are encouraging.

  16. Combining CrIS double CO2 bands for detecting clouds located in different layers of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Zou, Xiaolei; Weng, Fuzhong

    2017-02-01

    Detection of clouds within certain vertical layers of the atmosphere from satellite infrared instruments is challenging, especially of those optically thin clouds due to their small thermal contrasts to the background. This study develops a new method for cloud detection by using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) hyperspectral radiances at shortwave ( 4.3 µm) and longwave ( 15 µm) CO2 bands. Specifically, CrIS longwave channels are first paired with shortwave channels based on weighting function altitudes and sensitivity to clouds. A linear relationship of brightness temperatures between each paired channel is then derived for predicting the shortwave channel from the longwave channel in clear-sky conditions. A cloud emission and scattering index (CESI) can finally be defined as the difference of the paired shortwave channel between the clear-sky, regression model predicted and the observed brightness temperatures. Spatial distributions of such derived CESI for several paired channels in the troposphere are examined for a winter storm that occurred in the eastern part of the United States during 22-24 January 2016. It is shown that the CESI values over the storm regions with optically thin cirrus, fog, and supercooled water clouds are positively larger than those over optically thick opaque ice and overshooting clouds or in clear-sky conditions. Of particular interest is that an area of fog and water clouds over Gulf of Mexico, which are indicated by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite day and night band observations, is identified by the CESI. The global distribution of CESIs derived from CrIS double CO2 bands with weighting functions peak around 321 hPa agrees well with the distribution of ice cloud optical thickness from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder version 6 cloud product data set in both daytime and nighttime.

  17. Location Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    With rapid development of sensor and wireless mobile devices, it is easy to access mobile users' location information anytime and anywhere. On one hand, LBS is becoming more and more valuable and important. On the other hand, location privacy issues raised by such applications have also gained more attention. However, due to the specificity of location information, traditional privacy-preserving techniques in data publishing cannot be used. In this chapter, we will introduce location privacy, and analyze the challenges of location privacy-preserving, and give a survey of existing work including the system architecture, location anonymity and query processing.

  18. Identification of "insoluble" red dyewoods by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, Izabella; Nowik, Witold; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2004-02-01

    The paper describes a high performance liquid chromatography-UV/Vis spectrometry detection analytical approach to the identification of some redwood species of historical importance in textile dyeing. The group of extracted dyestuffs considered as "insoluble" because of their non-aqueous or alkaline extraction conditions is present in the wood of the Pterocarpus family and Baphia nitida species. First, the crude extracts of tinctorial and related species and their chromatographic fingerprints were studied. This part of work shows that some species not yet mentioned in the literature have potential dyeing properties. Subsequent experiments performed on the redwood cargo of a 200-year-old archaeological shipwreck allowed identification of the water-logged wood species. Furthermore, the different methods of dyestuff extraction used for dyeing according to traditional recipes and their impact on analytical results were studied. They show that standard recovery obtained by acid hydrolysis of dyestuff from dyed yarns is inadequate. Hence, alternative solvent-based procedures were proposed. The identification of species in textile threads then becomes possible. The applied approach was validated by analysis of dyed reference yarns with some indications of crude material extraction mode. The employed method of analysis seems to be useful for "insoluble" wood species identification in cultural heritage artifacts as well as for phytochemical purposes, despite the fact that very few detected color compounds were chemically identified.

  19. Metabolite profiling of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different locations using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Montero, Lidia; Ibáñez, Elena; Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Rastrelli, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel

    2016-03-24

    Profiling of the main metabolites from several licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) samples collected at different locations is carried out in this work by using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. The optimized method was based on the application of a HILIC-based separation in the first dimension combined with fast RP-based second dimension separation. This set-up was shown to possess powerful separation capabilities allowing separating as much as 89 different metabolites in a single sample. Identification and grouping of metabolites according to their chemical class were achieved using the DAD, MS and MS/MS data. Triterpene saponins were the most abundant metabolites followed by glycosylated flavanones and chalcones, whereas glycyrrhizic acid, as expected, was confirmed as the main component in all the studied samples. LC × LC-DAD-MS/MS was able to resolve these complex licorice samples providing with specific metabolite profiles to the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin. Namely, from 19 to 50 specific compounds were exclusively determined in the 2D-chromatograms from the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin, which can be used as a typical pattern that could potentially be related to their geographical location and authentication.

  20. Flash detection/identification of pathogens, bacterial spores and bioterrorism agent biomarkers from clinical and environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    White, David C; Lytle, Cory A; Gan, Ying-Dong M; Piceno, Yvette M; Wimpee, Michael H; Peacock, Aaron D; Smith, Carol A

    2002-02-01

    We propose to develop an integrated rapid, semiportable, prototype point microbial detection/identification system for clinical specimens that is also capable of differentiating microbial bioterrorism attacks from threats or hoaxes by defining the pathogen. The system utilizes "flash" extraction/analytical system capable of detection/identification of microbes from environmental and clinical matrices. The system couples demonstrated technologies to provide quantitative analysis of lipid biomarkers of microbes including spores in a system with near-single cell (amol/microl) sensitivity. Tandem mass spectrometry increases specificity by providing the molecular structure of neutral lipids, phospholipids, and derivatized spore-specific bacterial biomarker, 2,6-dipicolinic acid (DPA) as well as the lipopolysaccharide-amide-linked hydroxy-fatty acids (LPS-ALHFA) of Gram-negative bacteria. The extraction should take about an hour for each sample but multiple samples can be processed simultaneously.

  1. Detection and genotype analysis of Giardia duodenalis from asymptomatic Hungarian inhabitants and comparative findings in three distinct locations.

    PubMed

    Plutzer, Judit; Törökné, Andrea; Szénási, Zsuzsanna; Kucsera, István; Farkas, Kata; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    The transmission route of giardiasis not yet understood and why some infected individuals remain asymptomatic while others become quite ill. The drinking water quality is supposedly responsible for the prevalence of asymptomatic Giardia duodenalis infections in different areas, therefore asymptomatic giardiasis has been investigated in three water supply areas of Hungary: three hundred stool samples from inhabitants of Budapest, Füzér and Mátrafüred were examined by immunological and molecular methods for the presence of G. duodenalis infections. Individuals were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire at the time of stool collection and the interview covered demographic data, family life, education and travel history.In Budapest and in Mátrafüred in one stool sample G. duodenalis Assemblage A, whereas in Füzér once G. duodenalis Assemblage A, once Assemblage B and twice mixed infection were detected. We found higher prevalence rate of 4% of G. duodenalis infections of asymptomatic people in the village Füzér, where the removal of the Giardia cysts of the drinking water treatment plant was not effective. This study throws a light the need to look into the possibility of other risks of Giardia infections such as water transmission routes. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the prevalence of G. duodenalis infections in asymptomatic persons in Hungary.

  2. Geophysical techniques in detection to river embankments - A case study: To locate sites of potential leaks using surface-wave and electrical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Xu, S.; Xia, J.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Geophysical technologies are very effective in environmental, engineering and groundwater applications. Parameters of delineating nature of near-surface materials such as compressional-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity can be obtained using shallow seismic methods. Electric methods are primary approaches for investigating groundwater and detecting leakage. Both of methods are applied to detect embankment in hope of obtaining evidences of the strength and moisture inside the body. A technological experiment has done for detecting and discovering the hidden troubles in the embankment of Yangtze River, Songzi, Hubei, China in 2003. Surface-wave and DC multi-channel array resistivity sounding techniques were used to detect hidden trouble inside and under dike like pipe-seeps. This paper discusses the exploration strategy and the effect of geological characteristics. A practical approach of combining seismic and electric resistivity measurements was applied to locate potential pipe-seeps in embankment in the experiment. The method presents a potential leak factor based on the shear-wave velocity and the resistivity of the medium to evaluate anomalies. An anomaly found in a segment of embankment detected was verified, where occurred a pipe-seep during the 98' flooding.

  3. Array analysis methods for detection, classification and location of seismic sources: a first evaluation for aftershock analysis using dense temporary post-seismic array network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, N.; Satriano, C.; Vilotte, J.; Bernard, P.

    2012-12-01

    Detection, separation, classification and location of distributed non stationary seismic sources in broadband noisy environment is an important problem in seismology, in particular for monitoring the high-level post-seismic activity following large subduction earthquakes, like the off-shore Maule (Mw 8.8, 2010) earthquake in Central Chile. Multiple seismic arrays, and local antenna, distributed over a region allow exploiting frequency selective coherence of the signals that arrive at widely-separated array stations, leading to improved detection, convolution blind source separation, and location of distributed non stationary sources. We present here first results on the investigation of time-frequency adaptive array analysis techniques for detection and location of broadband distributed seismic events recorded by the dense temporary seismic network (International Maule Aftershock Deployment, IMAD) installed for monitoring the high-level seismic activity following the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake (Mw 8.8). This seismic network is characterized by a large aperture, with variable inter-station distances, corroborated with a high level of distributed near and far field seismic source activity and noise. For this study, we first extract from the post-seismic network a number of seismic arrays distributed over the region covered by this network. A first aspect is devoted to passive distributed seismic sources detection, classification and separation. We investigate a number of narrow and wide band signal analysis methods both in time and time-frequency domains for energy arrival detection and tracking, including time adaptive higher order statistics, e.g. like kurtosis, and multiband band-pass filtering, together with adaptive time-frequency transformation and extraction techniques. We demonstrate that these techniques provide superior resolution and robustness than classical STA/LTA techniques in particular in the case of distributed sources with potential signal

  4. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, M Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-06-01

    As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed 'tick-only' viruses inhabiting tick cell lines.

  5. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation.

    PubMed Central

    Amann, R I; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H

    1995-01-01

    The frequent discrepancy between direct microscopic counts and numbers of culturable bacteria from environmental samples is just one of several indications that we currently know only a minor part of the diversity of microorganisms in nature. A combination of direct retrieval of rRNA sequences and whole-cell oligonucleotide probing can be used to detect specific rRNA sequences of uncultured bacteria in natural samples and to microscopically identify individual cells. Studies have been performed with microbial assemblages of various complexities ranging from simple two-component bacterial endosymbiotic associations to multispecies enrichments containing magnetotactic bacteria to highly complex marine and soil communities. Phylogenetic analysis of the retrieved rRNA sequence of an uncultured microorganism reveals its closest culturable relatives and may, together with information on the physicochemical conditions of its natural habitat, facilitate more directed cultivation attempts. For the analysis of complex communities such as multispecies biofilms and activated-sludge flocs, a different approach has proven advantageous. Sets of probes specific to different taxonomic levels are applied consecutively beginning with the more general and ending with the more specific (a hierarchical top-to-bottom approach), thereby generating increasingly precise information on the structure of the community. Not only do rRNA-targeted whole-cell hybridizations yield data on cell morphology, specific cell counts, and in situ distributions of defined phylogenetic groups, but also the strength of the hybridization signal reflects the cellular rRNA content of individual cells. From the signal strength conferred by a specific probe, in situ growth rates and activities of individual cells might be estimated for known species. In many ecosystems, low cellular rRNA content and/or limited cell permeability, combined with background fluorescence, hinders in situ identification of autochthonous

  6. SU-E-J-149: Secondary Emission Detection for Improved Proton Relative Stopping Power Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, J; Musall, B; Erickson, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This research investigates application of secondary prompt gamma (PG) emission spectra, resulting from nuclear reactions induced by protons, to characterize tissue composition along the particle path. The objective of utilizing the intensity of discrete high-energy peaks of PG is to improve the accuracy of relative stopping power (RSP) values available for proton therapy treatment planning on a patient specific basis and to reduce uncertainty in dose depth calculations. Methods: In this research, MCNP6 was used to simulate PG emission spectra generated from proton induced nuclear reactions in medium of varying composition of carbon, oxygen, calcium and nitrogen, the predominant elements found in human tissue. The relative peak intensities at discrete energies predicted by MCNP6 were compared to the corresponding atomic composition of the medium. Results: The results have shown a good general agreement with experimentally measured values reported by other investigators. Unexpected divergence from experimental spectra was noted in the peak intensities for some cases depending on the source of the cross-section data when using compiled proton table libraries vs. physics models built into MCNP6. While the use of proton cross-section libraries is generally recommended when available, these libraries lack data for several less abundant isotopes. This limits the range of their applicability and forces the simulations to rely on physics models for reactions with natural atomic compositions. Conclusion: Current end-of-range proton imaging provides an average RSP for the total estimated track length. The accurate identification of tissue composition along the incident particle path using PG detection and characterization allows for improved determination of the tissue RSP on the local level. While this would allow for more accurate depth calculations resulting in tighter treatment margins, precise understanding of proton beam behavior in tissue of various

  7. Identification of putative sequence specific PCR primers for detection of the toxigenic fungal species Stachybotrys chartarum.

    PubMed

    Haugland, R A; Heckman, J L

    1998-12-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a c 936 bp segment of the nuclear rRNA gene operon was determined for the toxigenic fungal species Stachybotrys chartarum and for other species of Stachybotrys and the related genus Memnoniella. This information was used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of these organisms and to search for sequence specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for S. chartarum in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Searches for candidate primers were performed both by computer using the commercially available Oligo(R) v5.0 primer analysis software package and by manual inspection of the aligned sequences. Primers identified in both types of searches were evaluated for their specificities using a priming efficiency analysis algorithm available in the Oligo(R) 5.0 software. The automated computer searches were unsuccessful in finding S. chartarum-specific primers but did identify a group-specific reverse primer (designated as StacR4) for a phylogenetically related cluster of species that included S. chartarum. Manual searches led to the identification of a reverse primer (designated as StacR3) that was predicted to be specific for only S. chartarum and one other species of Stachybotrys. Experimental PCR analyses using these primers in conjunction with a universal forward primer indicated that the computer-generated amplification efficiency predictions were correct in most instances. A notable exception was the finding that StacR3 was specific only for S. chartarum. The relative merits of different PCR strategies for the detection of S. chartarum employing either one or both of the primers identified in this study are discussed.

  8. Rapid identification of mycobacteria and rapid detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cultured isolates and in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Yam, Wing-Cheong; Siu, Kit-Hang Gilman

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology and better understanding of the genetic basis of drug resistance have allowed rapid identification of mycobacteria and rapid detection of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in cultured isolates or in respiratory specimens. In this chapter, several simple nucleic acid amplification-based techniques are introduced as molecular approach for clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis. A one-tube nested IS6110-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used for M. tuberculosis complex identification; the use of a multiplex allele-specific PCR is demonstrated to detect the isoniazid resistance; PCR-sequencing assays are applied for rifampicin and ofloxacin resistance detection and 16S rDNA sequencing is utilized for identification of mycobacterial species from cultures of acid fast bacilli (AFB). Despite the high specificity and sensitivity of the molecular techniques, mycobacterial culture remains the "Gold Standard" for tuberculosis diagnosis. Negative results of molecular tests never preclude the infection or the presence of drug resistance. These technological advancements are, therefore, not intended to replace the conventional tests, but rather have major complementary roles in tuberculosis diagnosis.

  9. Shell thickness-dependent Raman enhancement for rapid identification and detection of pesticide residues at fruit peels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bianhua; Han, Guangmei; Zhang, Zhongping; Liu, Renyong; Jiang, Changlong; Wang, Suhua; Han, Ming-Yong

    2012-01-03

    Here, we report the shell thickness-dependent Raman enhancement of silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) for the identification and detection of pesticide residues at various fruit peels. The Raman enhancement of Au@Ag NPs to a large family of sulfur-containing pesticides is ~2 orders of magnitude stronger than those of bare Au and Ag NPs, and there is a strong dependence of the Raman enhancement on the Ag shell thickness. It has been shown for the first time that the huge Raman enhancement is contributed by individual Au@Ag NPs rather than aggregated Au@Ag NPs with "hot spots" among the neighboring NPs. Therefore, the Au@Ag NPs with excellent individual-particle enhancement can be exploited as stand-alone-particle Raman amplifiers for the surface identification and detection of pesticide residues at various peels of fruits, such as apple, grape, mango, pear, and peach. By casting the particle sensors onto fruit peels, several types of pesticide residues (e.g., thiocarbamate and organophosphorous compounds) have been reliably/rapidly detected, for example, 1.5 nanograms of thiram per square centimeter at apple peel under the current unoptimized condition. The surface-lifting spectroscopic technique offers great practical potentials for the on-site assessment and identification of pesticide residues in agricultural products.

  10. ViriChip: a solid phase assay for detection and identification of viruses by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettikadan, Saju R.; Johnson, James C.; Vengasandra, Srikanth G.; Muys, James; Henderson, Eric

    2004-03-01

    Bionanotechnology can be viewed as the integration of tools and concepts in nanotechnology with the attributes of biomolecules. We report here on an atomic force microscopy-immunosensor assay (AFMIA) that couples AFM with solid phase affinity capture of biological entities for the rapid detection and identification of group B coxsackievirus particles. Virus identification is based on type-specific immunocapture and the morphological properties of the captured viruses as obtained by the AFM. Representatives of the six group B coxsackieviruses have been specifically captured from 1 µl volumes of clarified cell lysates, body fluids and environmental samples. Concentration and kinetic profiles for capture indicate that detection is possible at 103 TCID50 µl-1 and the dynamic range of the assay spans three logs. The results demonstrate that the melding of a nanotechnological tool (AFM) with biotechnology (solid phase immunocapture of virus particles) can create a clinically relevant platform, useful for the detection and identification of enterovirus particles in a variety of samples.

  11. Microbial agent detection using near-IR electrophoretic and spectral signatures (MADNESS) for rapid identification in detect-to-warn applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Anthony Lee; Bambha, Ray P.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Fruetel, Julia A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Krafcik, Karen Lee

    2009-10-01

    Rapid identification of aerosolized biological agents following an alarm by particle triggering systems is needed to enable response actions that save lives and protect assets. Rapid identifiers must achieve species level specificity, as this is required to distinguish disease-causing organisms (e.g., Bacillus anthracis) from benign neighbors (e.g., Bacillus subtilis). We have developed a rapid (1-5 minute), novel identification methodology that sorts intact organisms from each other and particulates using capillary electrophoresis (CE), and detects using near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and scattering. We have successfully demonstrated CE resolution of Bacillus spores and vegetative bacteria at the species level. To achieve sufficient sensitivity for detection needs ({approx}10{sup 4} cfu/mL for bacteria), we have developed fiber-coupled cavity-enhanced absorbance techniques. Using this method, we have demonstrated {approx}two orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than published results for absorbing dyes, and single particle (spore) detection through primarily scattering effects. Results of the integrated CE-NIR system for spore detection are presented.

  12. Sink detection on tilted terrain for automated identification of glacial cirques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasicek, Günther; Robl, Jörg; Lang, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Glacial cirques are morphologically distinct but complex landforms and represent a vital part of high mountain topography. Their distribution, elevation and relief are expected to hold information on (1) the extent of glacial occupation, (2) the mechanism of glacial cirque erosion, and (3) how glacial in concert with periglacial processes can limit peak altitude and mountain range height. While easily detectably for the expert's eye both in nature and on various representations of topography, their complicated nature makes them a nemesis for computer algorithms. Consequently, manual mapping of glacial cirques is commonplace in many mountain landscapes worldwide, but consistent datasets of cirque distribution and objectively mapped cirques and their morphometrical attributes are lacking. Among the biggest problems for algorithm development are the complexity in shape and the great variability of cirque size. For example, glacial cirques can be rather circular or longitudinal in extent, exist as individual and composite landforms, show prominent topographic depressions or can entirely be filled with water or sediment. For these reasons, attributes like circularity, size, drainage area and topology of landform elements (e.g. a flat floor surrounded by steep walls) have only a limited potential for automated cirque detection. Here we present a novel, geomorphometric method for automated identification of glacial cirques on digital elevation models that exploits their genetic bowl-like shape. First, we differentiate between glacial and fluvial terrain employing an algorithm based on a moving window approach and multi-scale curvature, which is also capable of fitting the analysis window to valley width. We then fit a plane to the valley stretch clipped by the analysis window and rotate the terrain around the center cell until the plane is level. Doing so, we produce sinks of considerable size if the clipped terrain represents a cirque, while no or only very small sinks

  13. Seminested PCR for Diagnosis of Candidemia: Comparison with Culture, Antigen Detection, and Biochemical Methods for Species Identification

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Suhail; Khan, Zaiba; Mustafa, Abu S.; Khan, Zia U.

    2002-01-01

    The rapid detection and identification of Candida species in clinical laboratories are extremely important for the management of patients with hematogenous candidiasis. The presently available culture and biochemical methods for detection and species identification of Candida are time-consuming and lack the required sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we have established a seminested PCR (snPCR) using universal and species-specific primers for detection of Candida species in serum specimens. The universal outer primers amplified the 3′ end of 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the 5′ end of 28S rDNA, including the internally transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), generating 350- to 410-bp fragments from the four commonly encountered Candida species, viz., C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. The species-specific primers, complementary to unique sequences within the ITS2 of each test species, amplified species-specific DNA in the reamplification step of the snPCR. The sensitivity of Candida detection by snPCR in spiked serum specimens was close to 1 organism/ml. Evaluation of snPCR for specific identification of Candida species with 76 clinical Candida isolates showed 99% concordant results with the Vitek and/or ID32C yeast identification system. Further evaluation of snPCR for detection of Candida species in sera from culture-proven (n = 12), suspected (n = 16), and superficially colonized (n = 10) patients and healthy subjects (n = 12) showed that snPCR results were consistently negative with sera from healthy individuals and colonized patients. In culture-proven candidemia patients, the snPCR results were in full agreement with blood culture results with respect to both positivity and species identity. In addition, snPCR detected candidemia due to two Candida species in five patients, compared to three by blood culture. In the category of suspected candidemia with negative blood cultures for Candida, nine patients (56%) were positive by sn

  14. On Identifiability of Bias-Type Actuator-Sensor Faults in Multiple-Model-Based Fault Detection and Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a class of multiple-model-based fault detection and identification (FDI) methods for bias-type faults in actuators and sensors. These methods employ banks of Kalman-Bucy filters to detect the faults, determine the fault pattern, and estimate the fault values, wherein each Kalman-Bucy filter is tuned to a different failure pattern. Necessary and sufficient conditions are presented for identifiability of actuator faults, sensor faults, and simultaneous actuator and sensor faults. It is shown that FDI of simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is not possible using these methods when all sensors have biases.

  15. ERTS-1 data in support of the national program of inspection of dams. [computer-aided detection and location of surface waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybeal, G. E.; Hall, F. G.; Moore, B. H.; Schlosser, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-aided procedure, for use in the detection and location of areas of surface water, has been developed. The procedure was developed in support of the National Program of Inspection of Dams established by Public Law 92-367. The procedure utilizes data acquired by the unmanned Earth Resources Technology Satellite in conjunction with ancillary data in the form of topographic and highway maps, and meteorological data summaries. The procedure is divided into several distinct phases. A five-volume manual has been prepared to instruct potential users of the procedure.

  16. Knowledge guided object detection and identification in 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmacharya, A.; Boochs, F.; Tietz, B.

    2015-05-01

    Modern instruments like laser scanner and 3D cameras or image based techniques like structure from motion produce huge point clouds as base for further object analysis. This has considerably changed the way of data compilation away from selective manually guided processes towards automatic and computer supported strategies. However it's still a long way to achieve the quality and robustness of manual processes as data sets are mostly very complex. Looking at existing strategies 3D data processing for object detections and reconstruction rely heavily on either data driven or model driven approaches. These approaches come with their limitation on depending highly on the nature of data and inability to handle any deviation. Furthermore, the lack of capabilities to integrate other data or information in between the processing steps further exposes their limitations. This restricts the approaches to be executed with strict predefined strategy and does not allow deviations when and if new unexpected situations arise. We propose a solution that induces intelligence in the processing activities through the usage of semantics. The solution binds the objects along with other related knowledge domains to the numerical processing to facilitate the detection of geometries and then uses experts' inference rules to annotate them. The solution was tested within the prototypical application of the research project "Wissensbasierte Detektion von Objekten in Punktwolken für Anwendungen im Ingenieurbereich (WiDOP)". The flexibility of the solution is demonstrated through two entirely different USE Case scenarios: Deutsche Bahn (German Railway System) for the outdoor scenarios and Fraport (Frankfort Airport) for the indoor scenarios. Apart from the difference in their environments, they provide different conditions, which the solution needs to consider. While locations of the objects in Fraport were previously known, that of DB were not known at the beginning.

  17. Integrative Approach for the Reliable Detection and Specific Identification of the Microsporidium Loma morhua in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Frenette, Aaron P; Eydal, Matthías; Hansen, Haakon; Burt, Michael D B; Duffy, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Microsporidia are fungal parasites that infect diverse invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Finfish aquaculture supports epizootics due to high host density and the high biotic potential of these parasites. Reliable methods for parasite detection and identification are a necessary precursor to empirical assessment of strategies to mitigate the effects of these pathogens during aquaculture. We developed an integrative approach to detect and identify Loma morhua infecting Atlantic cod. We show that the spleen is more reliable than the commonly presumed gills as best organ for parasite detection in spite of substantial morphological plasticity in xenoma complexes. We developed rDNA primers with 100% sensitivity in detecting L. morhua and with utility in distinguishing some congeneric Loma species. ITS sequencing is necessary to distinguish L. morhua from other congeneric microsporidia due to intraspecific nucleotide variation. 64% of L. morhua ITS variants from Atlantic cod have a 9-nucleotide motif that distinguishes it from Loma spp. infecting non-Gadus hosts. The remaining 36% of ITS variants from Atlantic cod are distinguished from currently represented Loma spp., particularly those infecting Gadus hosts, based on a 14-nucleotide motif. This research approach is amenable to developing templates in support of reliable detection and identification of other microsporidian parasites in fishes.

  18. Development and in silico evaluation of large-scale metabolite identification methods using functional group detection for metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Joshua M.; Fan, Teresa W.-M.; Lane, Andrew N.; Moseley, Hunter N. B.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale identification of metabolites is key to elucidating and modeling metabolism at the systems level. Advances in metabolomics technologies, particularly ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) enable comprehensive and rapid analysis of metabolites. However, a significant barrier to meaningful data interpretation is the identification of a wide range of metabolites including unknowns and the determination of their role(s) in various metabolic networks. Chemoselective (CS) probes to tag metabolite functional groups combined with high mass accuracy provide additional structural constraints for metabolite identification and quantification. We have developed a novel algorithm, Chemically Aware Substructure Search (CASS) that efficiently detects functional groups within existing metabolite databases, allowing for combined molecular formula and functional group (from CS tagging) queries to aid in metabolite identification without a priori knowledge. Analysis of the isomeric compounds in both Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and KEGG Ligand demonstrated a high percentage of isomeric molecular formulae (43 and 28%, respectively), indicating the necessity for techniques such as CS-tagging. Furthermore, these two databases have only moderate overlap in molecular formulae. Thus, it is prudent to use multiple databases in metabolite assignment, since each major metabolite database represents different portions of metabolism within the biosphere. In silico analysis of various CS-tagging strategies under different conditions for adduct formation demonstrate that combined FT-MS derived molecular formulae and CS-tagging can uniquely identify up to 71% of KEGG and 37% of the combined KEGG/HMDB database vs. 41 and 17%, respectively without adduct formation. This difference between database isomer disambiguation highlights the strength of CS-tagging for non-lipid metabolite identification. However, unique identification of complex lipids still needs additional

  19. Development and in silico evaluation of large-scale metabolite identification methods using functional group detection for metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Joshua M; Fan, Teresa W-M; Lane, Andrew N; Moseley, Hunter N B

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale identification of metabolites is key to elucidating and modeling metabolism at the systems level. Advances in metabolomics technologies, particularly ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) enable comprehensive and rapid analysis of metabolites. However, a significant barrier to meaningful data interpretation is the identification of a wide range of metabolites including unknowns and the determination of their role(s) in various metabolic networks. Chemoselective (CS) probes to tag metabolite functional groups combined with high mass accuracy provide additional structural constraints for metabolite identification and quantification. We have developed a novel algorithm, Chemically Aware Substructure Search (CASS) that efficiently detects functional groups within existing metabolite databases, allowing for combined molecular formula and functional group (from CS tagging) queries to aid in metabolite identification without a priori knowledge. Analysis of the isomeric compounds in both Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and KEGG Ligand demonstrated a high percentage of isomeric molecular formulae (43 and 28%, respectively), indicating the necessity for techniques such as CS-tagging. Furthermore, these two databases have only moderate overlap in molecular formulae. Thus, it is prudent to use multiple databases in metabolite assignment, since each major metabolite database represents different portions of metabolism within the biosphere. In silico analysis of various CS-tagging strategies under different conditions for adduct formation demonstrate that combined FT-MS derived molecular formulae and CS-tagging can uniquely identify up to 71% of KEGG and 37% of the combined KEGG/HMDB database vs. 41 and 17%, respectively without adduct formation. This difference between database isomer disambiguation highlights the strength of CS-tagging for non-lipid metabolite identification. However, unique identification of complex lipids still needs additional

  20. Echolocation characteristics of free-swimming bottlenose dolphins during object detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian; Martin, Stephen W.; Bauer, Eric J.; Phillips, Michael; Herrin, Tim; Cross, Matt; Vidal, Andrea; Moore, Patrick W.

    2005-04-01

    A biosonar measurement tool (BMT) was created to investigate dolphin echolocation search strategies by recording echolocation clicks, returning echoes, and three-dimensional angular motion, velocity, and depth of free-swimming dolphins performing open-water target detections. Trial start and stop times, locations determined from a differential global positioning system (DGPS), and BMT motion and acoustic data were used to produce spatial and acoustic representations of the searches. Two dolphins (LUT, FLP) searched for targets lying on the seafloor of a bay environment while carrying the BMT. LUT searched rapidly (<10 s), produced few clicks, and varied click-peak frequency (20-120 kHz); FLP searched relatively slowly (tens of seconds) and produced many hundreds of clicks with stereotypical frequency-dependent energy distributions dominating from 30-60 kHz. Dolphins amplified target echo returns by either increasing the click source level or reducing distance to the target but without reducing source level. The distribution of echolocation click-peak frequencies suggested a bias in the dominant frequency components of clicks, possibly due to mechanical constraints of the click generator. Prior training and hearing loss accommodation potentially explain differences in the search strategies of the two dolphins. .

  1. Identification of relevant properties for epitopes detection using a regression model.

    PubMed

    Ambroise, Jérôme; Giard, Joachim; Gala, Jean-Luc; Macq, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    A B-cell epitope is a part of an antigen that is recognized by a specific antibody or B-cell receptor. Detecting the immunogenic region of the antigen is useful in numerous immunodetection and immunotherapeutics applications. The aim of this paper is to find relevant properties to discriminate the location of potential epitopes from the rest of the protein surface. The most relevant properties, identified using two evaluation approaches, are the geometric properties, followed by the conservation score and some chemical properties, such as the proportion of glycine. The selected properties are used in a patch-based epitope localization method including a Single-Layer Perceptron for regression. The output of this Single-Layer Perceptron is used to construct a probability map on the antigen surface. The predictive performances of the method are assessed by computing the AUC using cross validation on two benchmark data sets and by computing the AUC and the precision for a third independent test set.

  2. Rapid Detection & Identification of Bacillus Species using MALDI-TOF/TOF and Biomarker Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Identification of Selected Bacillus Species (excerpt from [42]) S0 0 00 two IL - ZZO al 0 > W Z 0 . 0j~ COLN SPECIESIL B. megaterium v + + + v + + - v...identification for genus (eg. Bacillus vs. Escherichia) and species ( Bacillus anthracis vs. Bacillus megaterium ), but not strains (B. anthracis Ames... Bacillus Species using MALDI-TOF/TOF and Biomarker Database A Strategic Plan Nora W.C. Chan and William E. Lee Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Zoltan Mester

  3. Passive Acoustic Monitoring for the Detection and Identification of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    species in a species detection task,” Intl. Workshop on the Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy...the Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy, September 2009.

  4. Colorimetric Sensor Array Allows Fast Detection and Simultaneous Identification of Sepsis-Causing Bacteria in Spiked Blood Culture

    PubMed Central

    Mix, Samantha; Xu, Zeyu; Taba, Brian; Budvytiene, Indre; Berliner, Anders N.; Queralto, Nuria; Churi, Yair S.; Huang, Richard S.; Eiden, Michael; Martino, Raymond A.; Rhodes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a medical emergency demanding early diagnosis and tailored antimicrobial therapy. Every hour of delay in initiating effective therapy measurably increases patient mortality. Blood culture is currently the reference standard for detecting bloodstream infection, a multistep process which may take one to several days. Here, we report a novel paradigm for earlier detection and the simultaneous identification of pathogens in spiked blood cultures by means of a metabolomic “fingerprint” of the volatile mixture outgassed by the organisms. The colorimetric sensor array provided significantly faster detection of positive blood cultures than a conventional blood culture system (12.1 h versus 14.9 h, P < 0.001) while allowing for the identification of 18 bacterial species with 91.9% overall accuracy within 2 h of growth detection. The colorimetric sensor array also allowed for discrimination between unrelated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that the metabolomic fingerprint has the potential to track nosocomial transmissions. Altogether, the colorimetric sensor array is a promising tool that offers a new paradigm for diagnosing bloodstream infections. PMID:24478493

  5. Colorimetric sensor array allows fast detection and simultaneous identification of sepsis-causing bacteria in spiked blood culture.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung H; Mix, Samantha; Xu, Zeyu; Taba, Brian; Budvytiene, Indre; Berliner, Anders N; Queralto, Nuria; Churi, Yair S; Huang, Richard S; Eiden, Michael; Martino, Raymond A; Rhodes, Paul; Banaei, Niaz

    2014-02-01

    Sepsis is a medical emergency demanding early diagnosis and tailored antimicrobial therapy. Every hour of delay in initiating effective therapy measurably increases patient mortality. Blood culture is currently the reference standard for detecting bloodstream infection, a multistep process which may take one to several days. Here, we report a novel paradigm for earlier detection and the simultaneous identification of pathogens in spiked blood cultures by means of a metabolomic "fingerprint" of the volatile mixture outgassed by the organisms. The colorimetric sensor array provided significantly faster detection of positive blood cultures than a conventional blood culture system (12.1 h versus 14.9 h, P < 0.001) while allowing for the identification of 18 bacterial species with 91.9% overall accuracy within 2 h of growth detection. The colorimetric sensor array also allowed for discrimination between unrelated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that the metabolomic fingerprint has the potential to track nosocomial transmissions. Altogether, the colorimetric sensor array is a promising tool that offers a new paradigm for diagnosing bloodstream infections.

  6. The non-contact detection and identification of blood stained fingerprints using visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Cadd, Samuel; Li, Bo; Beveridge, Peter; O'Hare, William T; Campbell, Andrew; Islam, Meez

    2016-05-01

    Blood is one of the most commonly encountered types of biological evidence found at scenes of violent crime and one of the most commonly observed fingerprint contaminants. Current visualisation methods rely on presumptive tests or chemical enhancement methods. Although these can successfully visualise ridge detail, they are destructive, do not confirm the presence of blood and can have a negative impact on DNA sampling. A novel application of visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been used for the detection and positive identification of blood stained fingerprints in a non-contact and non-destructive manner on white ceramic tiles. The identification of blood was based on the unique visible absorption spectrum of haemoglobin between 400 and 500 nm. HSI has been used to successfully visualise ridge detail in blood stained fingerprints to the ninth depletion. Ridge detail was still detectable with diluted blood to 20-fold dilutions. Latent blood stains were detectable to 15,000-fold dilutions. Ridge detail was detectable for fingerprints up to 6 months old. HSI was also able to conclusively distinguish blood stained fingerprints from fingerprints in six paints and eleven other red/brown media with zero false positives.

  7. Identification of minute damage in composite bridge structures equipped with fiber optic sensors using the location of neutral axis and finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi; Glisic, Branko

    2016-04-01

    By definition, the neutral axis of a loaded composite beam structure is the curve along which the section experiences zero bending strain. When no axial loading is present, the location of the neutral axis passes through the centroid of stiffness of the beam cross-section. In the presence of damage, the centroid of stiffness, as well as the neutral axis, shift from the healthy position. The concept of neutral axis can be widely applied to all beam-like structures. According to literature, a change in location of the neutral axis can be associated with damage in the corresponding cross-section. In this paper, the movement of neutral axis near locations of minute damage in a composite bridge structure was studied using finite element analysis and experimental results. The finite element model was developed based on a physical scale model of a composite simply-supported structure with controlled minute damage in the reinforced concrete deck. The structure was equipped with long-gauge fiber optic strain and temperature sensors at a healthy reference location as well as two locations of damage. A total of 12 strain sensors were installed during construction and used to monitor the structure during various loading events. This paper aims to explain previous experimental results which showed that the observed positions of neutral axis near damage locations were higher than the predicted healthy locations in some loading events. Analysis has shown that finite element analysis has potential to simulate and explain the physical behavior of the test structure.

  8. A multi-station matched filter and coherent network processing approach to the automatic detection and relative location of seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Kværna, Tormod

    2014-05-01

    Correlation detectors facilitate seismic monitoring in the near vicinity of previously observed events at far lower detection thresholds than are possible using the methods applied in most existing processing pipelines. The use of seismic arrays has been demonstrated to be highly beneficial in pressing down the detection threshold, due to superior noise suppression, and also in eliminating vast numbers of false alarms by performing array processing on the multi-channel output of the correlation detectors. This last property means that it is highly desirable to run continuous detectors for sites of repeating seismic events on a single-array basis for many arrays across a global network. Spurious detections for a given signal template on a single array can however still occur when an unrelated wavefront crosses the array from a very similar direction to that of the master event wavefront. We present an algorithm which scans automatically the output from multiple stations - both array and 3-component - for coherence between the individual station correlator outputs that is consistent with a disturbance in the vicinity of the master event. The procedure results in a categorical rejection of an event hypothesis in the absence of support from stations other than the one generating the trigger and provides a fully automatic relative event location estimate when patterns in the correlation detector outputs are found to be consistent with a common event. This coherence-based approach removes the need to make explicit measurements of the time-differences for single stations and this eliminates a potential source of error. The method is demonstrated for the North Korea nuclear test site and the relative event location estimates obtained for the 2006, 2009, and 2013 events are compared with previous estimates from different station configurations.

  9. Detection and identification by PCR of Clostridium chauvoei in clinical isolates, bovine faeces and substrates from biogas plant

    PubMed Central

    Bagge, E; Lewerin, S Sternberg; Johansson, K-E

    2009-01-01

    Background Clostridium chauvoei causes blackleg, an acute disease associated with high mortality in ruminants. The apparent primary port of entry is oral, during grazing on pasture contaminated by spores. Cases of blackleg can occur year after year on contaminated pastures. A method to determine the prevalence of C. chauvoei spores on pasture would be useful. The standard method for C. chauvoei detection is culture and biochemical identification, which requires a pure culture. In most muscle samples from cattle dead from blackleg the amount of C. chauvoei in samples is high and the bacterium can easily be cultured, although some samples may be contaminated. Detection by PCR would be faster and independent of contaminating flora. Digested residues from biogas plants provide an excellent fertiliser, but it is known that spore-forming baeria such as Clostridium spp. are not reduced by pasteurisation. The use of digested residues as fertiliser may contribute to the spread of C. chauvoei. Soil, manure and substrate from biogas plants are contaminated with other anaerobic bacteria which outgrow C. chauvoei. Therefore, detection by PCR is would be useful. This study applied a PCR-based method to detect of C. chauvoei in 25 muscle and blood samples, 114 manure samples, 84 soil samples and 33 samples from the biogas process. Methods Muscle tissues from suspected cases of blackleg were analysed both by the standard culture method followed by biochemical identification and by PCR, with and without preculture. To investigate whether muscle tissue samples are necessary, samples taken by swabs were also investigated. Samples from a biogas plant and manure and soil from farms were analysed by culture followed by PCR. The farms had proven cases of blackleg. For detection of C. chauvoei in the samples, a specific PCR primer pair complementary to the spacer region of the 16S-23S rRNA gene was used. Results Clostridium chauvoei was detected in 32% of muscle samples analysed by

  10. A PCR Based Microbial Monitoring Alternative Method of Detection and Identification of Microbes Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadad, Christina; Oubre, Cherie; Castro, Victoria; Flint, Stephanie; Ott, Mark; Roman, Monserrate; Wheeler, Ray; Melendez, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that microorganisms and potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS) with additional introduction of new microflora occurring with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment and supplies. These microbes are readily transferred between crew and subsystems (i.e. ECLSS, environmental control and life support systems). As this can be detrimental to astronaut health and optimal performance of ISS systems, monitoring of systems such as ECLSS to include identification of microbial contaminants could prevent adverse effects on human health and life support systems. Current monitoring on ISS is laborious and utilizes culture based methods followed by sample return to Earth for complete analysis. Future, long-distance spaceflight missions will require real-time monitoring capabilities that enable efficient and rap