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Sample records for detection nuclear explosions

  1. Explosives detection by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroway, Allen N.; Buess, Michael L.; Yesinowski, James P.; Miller, Joel B.; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1994-10-01

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are not relevant. Because NQR frequencies of different compounds are quite distinct, we do not encounter false alarms from the NQR signals of other benign materials. We have constructed a laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector which interrogates a volume of 300 liters (10 ft3). This paper presents abbreviated results from a demonstration of the laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center in May 1994 on RDX-based explosives.

  2. Review of Nuclear Methodologies for Explosive Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip C.; Vourvopoulos, George; Novikov, Ivan; Paschal, Jon

    2001-10-01

    Nuclear techniques show a number of advantages for non-destructive elemental characterization. These include the ability to examine bulk quantities with speed, high elemental specificity, and no memory effects from the previously measured object. These qualities are important for an effective detection system for explosives and drugs. High explosives (TNT, RDX, C-4, etc.) are composed primarily of the chemical elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Many innocuous materials are also primarily composed of these same elements. These elements, however, are found in each material with very different elemental ratios and concentrations. It is thus possible to identify and differentiate e.g. TNT from paraffin. For narcotics, the C/O ratio is at least a factor of two larger than the innocuous materials. Explosives have been shown to be differentiated by the utilization of both C/O ratio and N/O ratios. The problem of identifying explosives is thus reduced to the problem of elemental identification and quantization. We will review the methods of explosive detection with emphasis on nuclear techniques. We will discuss where improvements are desired on current techniques for landmine detection and unexploded ordnance.

  3. Nuclear quadrupole resonance detection of explosives: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joel B.

    2011-06-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a spectroscopic technique closely related to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). These techniques, and NQR in particular, induce signals from the material being interrogated that are very specific to the chemical and physical structure of the material, but are relatively insensitive to the physical form of the material. NQR explosives detection exploits this specificity to detect explosive materials, in contrast to other well known techniques that are designed to detect explosive devices. The past two decades have seen a large research and development effort in NQR explosives detection in the United States aimed at transportation security and military applications. Here, I will briefly describe the physical basis for NQR before discussing NQR developments over the past decade, with particular emphasis on landmine detection and the use of NQR in combating IED's. Potential future directions for NQR research and development are discussed.

  4. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Improving nuclear explosion detection using seismic and geomorphic data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiler, Cleat Philip

    The ability to detect and locate nuclear explosions relies on the collection of seismic data, picking seismic phases, comparing amplitudes of seismic phases, and using velocity models to invert for location. The current monitoring system provides reliable results for large-yield sources detected at regional to teleseismic distances and at known test sites. With the increased availability of local datasets and the possibility of evasion scenarios that mask the yield, we improve the current methods of nuclear explosion detection by understanding local phase phenomena. The first chapter of this dissertation addresses the characterization of local/regional phase phenomena and source discrimination associated with near surface testing. I develop a local source discrimination technique and characterize the phases produced by near-surface explosions. We use the Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE) broadband data set collected across the Colorado Plateau during the summer of 2003, which recorded explosions in hard and soft rock mines. We optimized a local surface wave magnitude scale derived from a stable, regional surface wave magnitude (Russell, 2006) for the explosions in each lithology. Magnitude scales for the local phases (Pg, Lg/Sg and Rg) were also tested and compared. The regional and teleseismic discrimination techniques employed were optimized for local distances to distinguish between source and rock type. We found that the magnitude and amplitude ratios were able to discriminate between small earthquakes and explosions at local distances, with each performing the best in the hardrock lithology. However, we believe that the ratio techniques would perform equally in both lithologies if multiple stations were used to establish the ratio values. We also determine that the source lithology and large-scale geologic features control most of the variability in the amplitude measurements. While several misclassifications are noted in the model, we designed the model

  6. GPS detection and monitoring of underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihye; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota; von Frese, Ralph; Morton, Yu; Gaya-Pique, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies by Park et al. (2011) revealed that an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) induces the acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and generate the traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID). GPS technique allows for the ionospheric disturbance observation with high accuracy, which, in turn, enables detection of the TID induced by the UNE. This study suggests the detection and verification method of the TID using GPS observations. TID waves can be identified from the continuous data span of the total electron content (TEC) along the ray path between the GPS satellites and the observing stations. Since the TID is a high frequency and low amplitude signal, it should be properly isolated from the raw TEC observation. In this study, we applied the numerical derivative method, referred to as the numerical third order horizontal 3-point derivative method. The detected TID-like signals can be verified by its array signature under the assumption that the TID induced from a point source tends to propagate with the constant speed. Moreover, the location of the point source can be computed using the array pattern of TID observations from multiple GPS stations. In this study, two UNEs conducted by the U.S. in 1992 and two UNEs conducted by North Korea in 2006 and 2009 were investigated. The propagation speed of the U.S. UNEs was about 573 m/s and 740 m/s, respectively, while the recent North Korean UNEs propagation speed was less than 300 m/s. This result can be explained by the explosion yields and the depth of the UNEs: the depth of the US UNEs were about 0.3 km with the explosion yield of up to 20 kiloton, while the North Korean UNEs were at about 1 km depth with the yield of less than a few kilotons. In addition, we observed that the TID waves from these four UNE events were highly correlative, and distinguished from waveforms due to other types of events, such as an earthquake. As a case study, we selected the recent Tohoku earthquake of 2011, and

  7. Merging Infrasound and Electromagnetic Signals as a Means for Nuclear Explosion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Joseph; Lipshtat, Azi; Kesar, Amit S.; Pistinner, Shlomo; Ben Horin, Yochai

    2016-04-01

    The infrasound monitoring network of the CTBT consists of 60 stations. These stations are capable of detecting atmospheric events, and may provide approximate location within time scale of a few hours. However, the nature of these events cannot be deduced from the infrasound signal. More than two decades ago it was proposed to use the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as a means of discriminating nuclear explosion from other atmospheric events. An EMP is a unique signature of nuclear explosion and is not detected from chemical ones. Nevertheless, it was decided to exclude the EMP technology from the official CTBT verification regime, mainly because of the risk of high false alarm rate, due to lightning electromagnetic pulses [1]. Here we present a method of integrating the information retrieved from the infrasound system with the EMP signal which enables us to discriminate between lightning discharges and nuclear explosions. Furthermore, we show how spectral and other characteristics of the electromagnetic signal emitted from a nuclear explosion are distinguished from those of lightning discharge. We estimate the false alarm probability of detecting a lightning discharge from a given area of the infrasound event, and identifying it as a signature of a nuclear explosion. We show that this probability is very low and conclude that the combination of infrasound monitoring and EMP spectral analysis may produce a reliable method for identifying nuclear explosions. [1] R. Johnson, Unfinished Business: The Negotiation of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear Testing, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2009.

  8. Nuclear test monitoring system detected meteor explosion over Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Sound waves from the Chelyabinsk meteor, which exploded over Russia on 15 February 2013, were detected by 20 infrasound stations that are part of the international monitoring system operated by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The fireball was the most energetic event observed since the 1908 Tunguska meteorite impact and is the most energetic event detected by the CTBTO network.

  9. Noble Gas Migration Experiment to Support the Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Lowrey, Justin D.; Lukins, Craig D.; Suarez, Reynold; Humble, Paul H.; Ellefson, Mark D.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Zhong, Lirong; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Emer, Dudley; Biegalski, S.

    2016-03-01

    A Noble Gas Migration Experiment (NGME) funded by the National Center for Nuclear Security and conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory and National Security Technology provided critical on-site inspection (OSI) information related to the detection of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) event using noble gas signatures.

  10. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1993-12-01

    A-prototype explosives detection system that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear resonance absorption techniques is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection- alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  11. SERS detection of the nuclear weapons explosive triaminotrinitrobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janni, James A.; Sylvia, James M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Spencer, Kevin M.

    2002-02-01

    The sensitivity demonstrated for other nitro-aromatic explosives through SERS has been applied to triaminotrinitro-benzene (TATB). Gas phase and solution phase in strong acids and bases, as well as organic solvents SERS spectra have been collected. For each method of TATB sample introduction on electrochemically roughened gold substrates or gold colloids, different bands and sensitivities were observed. These bands likely result from the three possible adsorption sites in the molecule and its reaction with the gold surface. In some cases, the SERS spectra closely overlapped the carbonaceous background and indicate TATB degradation. Although the mechanisms of the reaction of TATB with the surface are not understood, important aspects of optimized TATB SERS detection have been observed. Para-nitroaniline (p-NA) was also studied due to its similarity with TATB and its greater solubility in water.

  12. Performance Assessment of the CTBTO Noble Gas Network to Detect Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeppner, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric radioxenon levels are monitored worldwide by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) to detect emissions from nuclear explosions. This paper examines the global network that has been set up to take routine air samples and to determine the atmospheric radioxenon concentrations. It is hypothesised that the monitoring system aims at the detection and localisation of radioxenon releases. Both capabilities are dependent on background levels, explosive yields, leakage rates, transport time, choice of xenon isotope and number and locations of monitoring stations. For each parameter, the global capabilities to detect and localise emissions from nuclear explosions are analysed. Recommendations for the future of the background sources and the development of the monitoring system are derived.

  13. Nuclear explosion seismic wave detection based on the fiber Bragg grating geophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianhui; Yang, Kuntao; Xiang, Qiaolian; Zhang, Nanyang

    2008-12-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) is a basic component in optical communications and optical sensing of strain or pressure or temperature. In this paper, a novel geophone based on FBG is designed and used in the system of nuclear explosion seismic wave detection. The detection principle is analyzed and the mechanical model is established. According to the characteristics of the nuclear explosion seismic wave and the demands of the detection system, the parameters of the novel FBG geophone are calculated, and the results show that the sensitivity coefficient is 0.54pm/ms-2 and the work frequency bands are 0~653Hz and 2830~3266Hz. The prototype detection system is devised and tested through the simulation seismic wave. The experiment indicates that, compared with the traditional electronic sensors, the system has higher sensitivity and stability, the start time of the seismic wave arrived the detection position can be surveyed accurately. Combined with the nuclear explosion detecting sub-system based on the radiation, the distance between the bomb location and the detector can be calculated accurately.

  14. Narcotics and explosives detection by 14N pure nuclear quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroway, Allen N.; Buess, Michael L.; Yesinowski, James P.; Miller, Joel B.

    1994-03-01

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are not relevant. Because NQR frequencies of different compounds are quite distinct, we do not encounter false alarms from the NQR signals of other benign materials. We have constructed a proof-of-concept NQR explosives detector which interrogates a volume of 300 liters (10 ft3). With minimal modification to the existing explosives detector, we can detect operationally relevant quantities of (free base) cocaine within the 300-liter inspection volume in 6 seconds. We are presently extending this approach to the detection of heroin base and also examining 14N and 35,37Cl pure NQR for detection of the hydrochloride forms of both materials. An adaptation of this NQR approach may be suitable for scanning personnel for externally carried contraband and explosives. We first outline the basics of the NQR approach, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, and then present representative results for RDX and cocaine detection. We also present a partial compendium of relevant NQR parameters measured for some materials of interest.

  15. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A.; Peters, C.W.

    1992-07-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by ``electronic collimation`` (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs.

  16. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A. ); Peters, C.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by electronic collimation'' (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs.

  17. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  18. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  19. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  20. Nuclear-Reaction-Based Radiation Source For Explosives-And SNM-Detection In Massive Cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Brandis, Michal; Dangendorf, Volker; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai; Piel, Christian; Vartsky, David; Bar, Doron; Mardor, Israel; Mor, Ilan; Friedman, Eliahu; Goldberg, Mark B.

    2011-06-01

    An automatic, nuclear-reaction-based, few-view transmission radiography method and system concept is presented, that will simultaneously detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of chemical explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM) in objects up to the size of LD-3 aviation containers. Detection of all threat materials is performed via the {sup 11}B(d,n+{gamma}) reaction on thick, isotopically-enriched targets; SNM are primarily detected via Dual Discrete-Energy Radiography (DDER), using 15.11 MeV and 4.43 MeV {sup 12}C{gamma}-rays, whereas explosives are primarily detected via Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), employing the broad-energy neutron spectra produced in a thick {sup 11}B-target. To achieve a reasonable throughput of {approx}20 containers per hour, ns-pulsed deuteron beam of the order of 0.5 mA intensity at energies of 5-7 MeV is required. As a first step towards optimizing parameters and sensitivities of an operational system, the 0 deg. spectra and yields of both {gamma}-rays and neutrons in this reaction have been measured up to E{sub d} = 6.65 MeV.

  1. Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials.

  2. Broadband seismology and the detection and verification of underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, Mark Andrew

    1997-10-01

    On September 24, 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which bans the testing of all nuclear weapons thereby limiting their future development. Seismology is the primary tool used for the detection and identification of underground explosions and thus, will play a key role in monitoring a CTBT. The detection and identification of low yield explosions requires seismic stations at regional distances (<1500 km). However, because the regional wavefield propagates within the extremely heterogeneous crustal waveguide, the seismic waveforms are also very complicated. Therefore, it is necessary to have a solid understanding of how the phases used in regional discriminants develop within different tectonic regimes. Thus, the development of the seismic phases Pn and Lg, which compose the seismic discriminant Pn/Lg, within the western U.S. from the Non-Proliferation Experiment are evaluated. The most fundamental discriminant is event location as 90% of all seismic sources occur too deep within the earth to be unnatural. France resumed its nuclear testing program after a four year moratorium and conducted six tests during a five month period starting in September of 1995. Using teleseismic data, a joint hypocenter determination algorithm was used to determine the hypocenters of these six explosions. One of the most important problems in monitoring a CTBT is the detection and location of small seismic events. Although seismic arrays have become the central tool for event detection, in the context of a global monitoring treaty, there will be some dependence on sparse regional networks of three-component broadband seismic stations to detect low yield explosions. However, the full power of the data has not been utilized, namely using phases other than P and S. Therefore, the information in the surface wavetrain is used to improve the locations of small seismic events recorded on a sparse network in Bolivia. Finally, as a discrimination example in

  3. Detecting the DPRK nuclear test explosion on 25 May 2009 using array-based waveform correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Ringdal, Frode

    2010-05-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) announced on 25 May 2009 that it had conducted its second nuclear test, the first one having taken place on 9 October 2006. As was the case with the first test, the second test was detected and reported by the IDC. We have carried out an experiment taking the 9 October 2006 test as a starting point and running a continuous waveform correlation scheme in order to a) assess the potential for automatically detecting the second nuclear test and b) monitoring the false alarm rate associated with such a detection scheme. Using only data from the Matsushiro array (MJAR), and applying the array-based procedure developed by Gibbons and Ringdal (2006) with a waveform template from the first nuclear test, we found that the second test was readily detected without a single false alarm during the entire three year period. Moreover, by a scaling procedure, we argue that an explosion many times smaller than the second test would have been detected automatically, with no false alarms, had it taken place at the same site as the second test. We note that this remarkable performance is achieved even though the MJAR array is known to be difficult to process using conventional methods, because of signal incoherency. An important element of the detection procedure for the automatic elimination of false alarms is a post-processing system which performs slowness analysis on the single-channel cross-correlation traces. It is well known that successful correlation detection requires the two sources to be closely spaced (i.e. the detector has a narrow "footprint"), but there is evidence that array-based correlation covers a larger footprint than the 1/4 wavelength estimated by Geller and Mueller (1980) for single-station correlation. This could be important for a more general application of the method described here, and needs further study.

  4. Stand-off explosive detection utilizing low power stimulated emission nuclear quadrupole resonance detection and subwavelength focusing wideband super lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolos, John; Mouyos, William; Feng, Judy; Chase, Walter

    2015-05-01

    The need for advanced techniques to detect improvised explosive devices (IED) at stand-off distances greater than ten (10) meters has driven AMI Research and Development (AMI) to develop a solution to detect and identify the threat utilizing a forward looking Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) combined with our CW radar technology Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) detection system. The novel features include a near-field sub-wavelength focusing antenna, a wide band 300 KHz to 300 MHz rapidly scanning CW radar facilitated by a high Q antenna/tuner, and an advanced processor utilizing Rabi transitions where the nucleus oscillates between states under the time dependent incident electromagnetic field and alternately absorbs energy from the incident field while emitting coherent energy via stimulated emission. AMI's Sub-wavelength Focusing Wide Band Super Lens uses a Near-Field SAR, making detection possible at distances greater than ten (10) meters. This super lens is capable of operating on the near-field and focusing electromagnetic waves to resolutions beyond the diffraction limit. When applied to the case of a vehicle approaching an explosive hazard the methodologies of synthetic aperture radar is fused with the array based super resolution and the NQR data processing detecting the explosive hazard.

  5. Scientific Support for NQR Explosive Detection Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 8 March 2004 - 7 March 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scientific Support for NQR Explosive Detection Development...Laboratory (NRL) to improve explosive detection using nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR ) is summarized. The work includes studies of the effects...superconducting coils for explosive detection. Additional studies involving slowly rotating NQR measurements were also pursued. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nuclear

  6. Innovative concept for a major breakthrough in atmospheric radioactive xenon detection for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Le Petit, G; Cagniant, A; Morelle, M; Gross, P; Achim, P; Douysset, G; Taffary, T; Moulin, C

    The verification regime of the comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) is based on a network of three different waveform technologies together with global monitoring of aerosols and noble gas in order to detect, locate and identify a nuclear weapon explosion down to 1 kt TNT equivalent. In case of a low intensity underground or underwater nuclear explosion, it appears that only radioactive gases, especially the noble gas which are difficult to contain, will allow identification of weak yield nuclear tests. Four radioactive xenon isotopes, (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe, are sufficiently produced in fission reactions and exhibit suitable half-lives and radiation emissions to be detected in atmosphere at low level far away from the release site. Four different monitoring CTBT systems, ARIX, ARSA, SAUNA, and SPALAX™ have been developed in order to sample and to measure them with high sensitivity. The latest developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is likely to be drastically improved in detection sensitivity (especially for the metastable isotopes) through a higher sampling rate, when equipped with a new conversion electron (CE)/X-ray coincidence spectrometer. This new spectrometer is based on two combined detectors, both exhibiting very low radioactive background: a well-type NaI(Tl) detector for photon detection surrounding a gas cell equipped with two large passivated implanted planar silicon chips for electron detection. It is characterized by a low electron energy threshold and a much better energy resolution for the CE than those usually measured with the existing CTBT equipments. Furthermore, the compact geometry of the spectrometer provides high efficiency for X-ray and for CE associated to the decay modes of the four relevant radioxenons. The paper focus on the design of this new spectrometer and presents spectroscopic performances of a prototype based on recent results achieved from both radioactive xenon standards and air sample

  7. MCNP Simulation Benchmarks for a Portable Inspection System for Narcotics, Explosives, and Nuclear Material Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Krystal; Elsalim, Mashal; King, Michael; Strellis, Dan; Gozani, Tsahi

    2013-04-01

    MCNPX simulations have been used to guide the development of a portable inspection system for narcotics, explosives, and special nuclear material (SNM) detection. The system seeks to address these threats to national security by utilizing a high-yield, compact neutron source to actively interrogate the threats and produce characteristic signatures that can then be detected by radiation detectors. The portability of the system enables rapid deployment and proximity to threats concealed in small spaces. Both dD and dT electronic neutron generators (ENG) were used to interrogate ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) and cocaine hydrochloride, and the detector response of NaI, CsI, and LaBr3 were compared. The effect of tungsten shielding on the neutron flux in the gamma ray detectors was investigated, while carbon, beryllium, and polyethylene ENG moderator materials were optimized by determining the reaction rate density in the threats. In order to benchmark the modeling results, experimental measurements are compared with MCNPX simulations. In addition, the efficiency and die-away time of a portable differential die-away analysis (DDAA) detector using 3He proportional counters for SNM detection has been determined.

  8. Assessing nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    The all-Union session on the Geophysical and Geochemical Consequences of Nuclear Explosions at the 1983 AGU Fall Meeting attracted a large audience, and many were unable to find a seat or standing room. The speakers and questioners emphasized the complexity of the processes and the need to extend the computer models. In particular, the global-circulation models presented byscientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that smoke/dust clouds should cause major changes in the weather systems with great contrast between the temperature perturbations over oceanic, coastal, and continental regions. Important developments in the models and conclusions can be expected over the next few years as AGU members from many disciplines contribute their skills.

  9. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  10. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  11. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  12. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

    2004-10-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  13. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  14. Nuclear resonance fluorescence and effective Z determination applied to detection and imaging of special nuclear material, explosives, toxic substances and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, William; Korbly, Stephen E.; Ledoux, Robert J.; Park, William

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) provides a signal that is unique and present for almost all nuclei with Z > 2. This uniqueness would enable, for example, the discrimination between 235U from 238U. Explosives can be detected by the characteristic signatures of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen and their respective densities in a common space. Effective Z algorithms (EZ-3D) have been developed for the examination of the non-resonant spectrum of back-scattered photons that yield a signal with very high contrast between materials of moderately different Z. Both the NRF and EZ-3D non-intrusive inspection techniques provide a three dimensional display of the contents of a container; respectively, the isotopic concentrations, and effective Z and mass. NRF combined with EZ-3D provides the possibility for rapid scanning of seagoing containers, trucks and other vehicles. They do so in short times with high detection probabilities for SNM, explosives and other contraband and with low false alarms.

  15. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  16. Explosive detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doremus, Steven; Crownover, Robin

    2017-05-01

    The continuing proliferation of improvised explosive devices is an omnipresent threat to civilians and members of military and law enforcement around the world. The ability to accurately and quickly detect explosive materials from a distance would be an extremely valuable tool for mitigating the risk posed by these devices. A variety of techniques exist that are capable of accurately identifying explosive compounds, but an effective standoff technique is still yet to be realized. Most of the methods being investigated to fill this gap in capabilities are laser based. Raman spectroscopy is one such technique that has been demonstrated to be effective at a distance. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a technique capable of identifying chemical compounds inside of containers, which could be used to detect hidden explosive devices. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) utilized a coherent pair of lasers to excite a sample, greatly increasing the response of sample while decreasing the strength of the lasers being used, which significantly improves the eye safety issue that typically hinders laser-based detection methods. Time-gating techniques are also being developed to improve the data collection from Raman techniques, which are often hindered fluorescence of the test sample in addition to atmospheric, substrate, and contaminant responses. Ultraviolet based techniques have also shown significant promise by greatly improved signal strength from excitation of resonance in many explosive compounds. Raman spectroscopy, which identifies compounds based on their molecular response, can be coupled with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) capable of characterizing the sample's atomic composition using a single laser.

  17. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  18. Evaluating Gas-Phase Transport And Detection Of Noble Gas Signals From Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Chemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Hunter, S. L.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Ruddle, D.; Anderson, G.; Felske, D.; Myers, K.; Zucca, J. J.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.; Chipman, V.; Snelson, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) involved detonating 1 kiloton of chemical explosive in a subsurface cavity which also contained bottles of tracer gases (ref 1). That experiment provided an improved understanding of transport processes relevant to the detection of noble gas signals at the surface emanating from a clandestine underground nuclear explosion (UNE). As an alternative to performing large chemical detonations to simulate gas transport from UNEs, we have developed a test bed for subsurface gas transport, sampling and detection studies using a former UNE cavity. The test bed site allows for the opportunity to evaluate pathways to the surface created by the UNE as well as possible transport mechanisms including barometric pumping and cavity pressurization (ref 2). With the test bed we have monitored long-term chemical tracers as well as newly injected tracers. In order to perform high temporal resolution tracer gas monitoring, we have also developed a Subsurface Gas Smart Sampler (SGSS) which has application during an actual On Site Inspection (OSI) and is available for deployment in OSI field exercises planned for 2014. Deployment of five SGSS at the remote test bed has provided unparalleled detail concerning relationships involving tracer gas transport to the surface, barometric fluctuations and temporal variations in the natural radon concentration. We anticipate that the results of our tracer experiments will continue to support the development of improved noble gas detection technology for both OSI and International Monitoring System applications. 1. C.R. Carrigan et al., 1996, Nature, 382, p. 528. 2. Y. Sun and C.R. Carrigan, 2012, Pure Appl. Geophys., DOI 10.1007/s00024-012-0514-4.

  19. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Roadmaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    environment, a radionuclide event is the release of radioactive atoms. Radionuclide sources include nuclear explosions, normal or anomalous reactor ...isotopes (e.g., potassium, uranium, and thorium and their decay products) and isotopes produced from the interactions of cosmic rays with the...and reactor emissions. For example, the IMS detected a pair of xenon isotopes at a Japanese station shortly after the 2009 DPRK event. The ratio of

  20. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Leslie; Ziagos, John; Rodgers, Arthur; Bell, Randy

    2010-05-01

    This talk reviews research and development highlights and accomplishments (https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/mrr) as well as future research directions of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D (GNEM R&D) program within the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection, NA-222. GNEM R&D's mission is "…to develop, demonstrate, and deliver advanced technologies and systems to operational monitoring agencies to fulfill US monitoring requirements and policies for detecting, locating, and identifying nuclear explosions."* Work sponsored by GNEM R&D and collaborators is conducted by world-class scientists and engineers in national laboratories, universities, and private industry. In the past ten years, significant progress has been made in detection, location and identification with substantial improvements yet possible. There is increasing interest in GNEM R&D technology particularly in light of its relevance to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. GNEM R&D direction is captured in roadmaps: waveform technologies, including seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound and radionuclide monitoring. The roadmaps have the same four areas: source physics, signal propagation, sensors, and signal analysis. Within each area illustrative R&D themes, program metrics, and future R&D directions will be presented. The goals of the R&D program are to: perform innovative scientific research, deliver capability-enhancing technologies to monitoring agencies and to motivate and nurture human capital to meet future monitoring challenges. * Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program Strategic Plan, DOE/NNSA/NA-22-NEMRE-2004, https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/cgi-bin/prod/nemre/index.cgi?Page=Strategic+Plan

  1. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosives. Project Plowshare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-09-01

    ALBUQUERQUE.., NEW MEXICO P E A C E F U L USES OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVES (U) 1. September 1.959 s contents unauthorized p e r s o n is proh...3. DATES COVERED FEB 1957 - SEP 1959 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosives (U) Project Plowshare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This report summarizes the AEC activity in the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives. The

  2. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  3. Advances IN Explosive Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotay, Gavin

    2016-09-01

    Breathtaking results from the Planck satellite mission and Hubble space telescope have highlighted the key role modern Astronomy is playing for our understanding of Big Bang Cosmology. However, not so widely publicized is the similar wealth of observational data now available on explosive stellar phenomena, such as X-ray bursts, novae and Supernovae. These astronomical events are responsible for the synthesis of almost all the chemical elements we find on Earth and observe in our Galaxy, as well as energy generation throughout the cosmos. Regrettably, understanding the latest collection of observational data is severely hindered by the current, large uncertainties in the underlying nuclear physics processes that drive such stellar scenarios. In order to resolve this issue, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a need to explore the unknown properties and reactions of nuclei away from the line of stability. Consequently, state-of-the-art radioactive beam facilities have become terrestrial laboratories for the reproduction of explosive astrophysical events. In this talk, both direct and indirect methods for studying key astrophysical reactions using radioactive beams will be discussed.

  4. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  5. Analysis of Near-Field Seismic Waveforms from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-15

    scaling relations for nuclear explosions in dry tuff and alluvium at Yucca Flats . This is a continuation of the approach we have used for modeling... seismic observations, Nuclear explosions, Dry tuff, I I Alluvium , Seismic detection of Nuclear Explosions ,. ABSTRACT ,Continue on reverse if necesasarv...determined for source strength of nuclear explosions detonated in dry tuff or alluvium , and was used to predict the amplitudes from several other Yucca

  6. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, Sergei M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Victor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), trotyl-hexogen (Comp B), octogen (HMX), and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  7. In-Situ Real Time Detection of Explosive/Chemical Compounds in Mines Using Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-23

    mineflelds in Bosnia, and blind tests on TNT and RDX AP and AT mines were carried out at Ft. Leonard Wood. The system detected 100% of all mines in the...three tests in the fmal year, with a false alarm rate less than 1%. Much of the knowledge gained has been only partly implemented in prototypes to date...16 4.1.2 Test on live Explosives

  8. Application of Dipole-dipole, Induced Polarization, and CSAMT Electrical Methods to Detect Evidence of an Underground Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. J.; Felske, D.

    2013-12-01

    There is little experience with application of electrical methods that can be applied during the continuation period of an on-site inspection (OSI), one of the verification methods of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In order add to such experience, we conducted controlled source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT), dipole-dipole resistivity, and induced polarization electrical measurements along three survey lines over and near to ground zero of an historic nuclear explosion. The presentation will provide details and results of the surveys, an assessment of application of the method toward the purposes of an OSI, and an assessment of the manpower and time requirements for data collection and processing that will impact OSI inspection team operations. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates. PMID:26979288

  10. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    DOE PAGES

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; ...

    2016-03-16

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. Here, we observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be anmore » indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). In conclusion, our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.« less

  11. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-16

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. Here, we observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). In conclusion, our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.

  12. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Phelan, James M.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  13. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  14. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema

    Atkinson, David

    2016-07-12

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  15. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  16. Detecting remotely triggered microseismicity around Changbaishan Volcano following nuclear explosions in North Korea and large distant earthquakes around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoming; Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhigang; Li, Xuemei; Wu, Jing

    2017-05-01

    We conduct a systematic survey on locally triggered earthquakes by large distant earthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano, an active intraplate volcano on the border between China and North Korea. We examine waveforms of distant earthquakes recorded at broadband station Changbaishan (CBS) near the volcano with estimated dynamic stresses over 5 kPa between 2000 and 2016. Out of 26 selected distant earthquakes, three of them show positive evidence of triggering during large-amplitude surface waves. The earthquakes that had positive or possible evidences of triggering generated larger long-period surface waves, indicating that they are more efficient in triggering microseismicity. In addition, since 2006 North Korea has conducted five underground nuclear explosion (UNE) tests only 140 km away from Changbaishan Volcano. By systematically examining waveforms of these UNEs recorded at station CBS, we find that none of them have triggered microearthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano.

  17. Effects of Containment on Radionuclide Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Confirming the occurrence of an underground nuclear explosion can require capturing short-lived noble gas radioisotopes produced by the explosion, sometimes referred to as the "smoking gun" for nuclear explosion detection. It is well known that the radioisotopic distribution resulting from the detonation evolves with time in the explosion cavity. In effect, the explosion cavity or chimney behaves as a chemical reactor. As long as the parent and daughter radionuclides remain in a closed and well-mixed cavity, parameters, such as radioxenon isotopic ratios, can be calculated analytically from a decay-chain network model. When gases from the cavity migrate into the containment regime, consideration of a "leaky reactor" model is more appropriate. We consider several implications of such a leaky reactor model relevant to interpretations of gas samples from the subsurface during an on-site inspection that could potentially be carried out under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Additionally, we have attempted to validate our leaky reactor model against atmospheric observations of radioactive xenon isotopes detected by radionuclide monitoring stations in Japan and Russia following the February 2013 DPRK underground nuclear explosion (Carrigan et al., 2016). While both model uncertainty and observational error are significant, our model of isotopic evolution appears to be in broad agreement with radionuclide observations, and for the first time links atmospheric measurements of radioxenon isotopic ratios to estimates of seismic yield. Carrigan et al., Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23032 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep23032

  18. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Greenfield, Margo T; Scharff, R J; Rabitz, Herschel A; Roslund, J

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  19. Trace explosives detection by photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Menzel, E Roland; Bouldin, Kimberly K; Murdock, Russell H

    2004-02-26

    Some field tests in counter-terrorism efforts to detect explosive traces employ chemistries that yield colored products. We have examined a test kit of this kind, ETK(Plus), based on widely used chemistries and employed extensively by the Israel Police. Our investigation focuses on the prospect of gaining sensitivity by replacing the normal colorimetric modality with photoluminescence detection, which, to our knowledge, has not been explored to date. We find two or more orders of magnitude sensitivity gains for all explosives studied, using field-worthy photoluminescence techniques. We have also investigated a general lanthanide-based photoluminescence approach which shows promise and the ability to photoluminescence-detect trace explosives in the presence of intense background color and/or background fluorescence by time-resolved imaging.

  20. Monitoring of atmospheric nuclear explosions with infrasonic microphone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Charles R.

    2002-11-01

    A review is given of the various United States programs for the infrasonic monitoring of atmospheric nuclear explosions from their inception in 1946 to their termination in 1975. The US Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS) monitored all nuclear weapons tests that were conducted by the Soviet Union, France, China, and the US with arrays of sensitive microbarographs in a worldwide network of infrasonic stations. A discussion of the source mechanism for the creation and subsequent propagation around the globe of long wavelength infrasound from explosions (volcanic and nuclear) is given to show the efficacy of infrasonic monitoring for the detection of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The equipment that was used for infrasound detection, the design of the sensor arrays, and the data processing techniques that were used by USAEDS are all discussed.

  1. Hardening SDI links against nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, J.MA; Wittwer, L.A.

    1987-11-01

    An evaluation is made of the threat posed to the communications network binding the sensor, weapon, and battle management elements of SDI into a cohesive system by nuclear detonations that may be encountered during operation. The interaction among hundreds or thousands of nuclear bursts is not well understood, and calls for a major research effort; the nuclear effects anticipated encompass absorption, increased levels of RF noise, and above all, multipath scintillations. All these effects are caused by the high levels of ionization generated by high altitude nuclear explosions. The mitigation of these various effects by system design measures is discussed.

  2. Liquids and homemade explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbogen, Michael; Bijjani, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Excerpt from the US Transportation Security Agency website: "The ban on liquids, aerosols and gels was implemented on August 10 after a terrorist plot was foiled. Since then, experts from around the government, including the FBI and our national labs have analyzed the information we now have and have conducted extensive explosives testing to get a better understanding of this specific threat." In order to lift the ban and ease the burden on the flying public, Reveal began an extensive effort in close collaboration with the US and several other governments to help identify these threats. This effort resulted in the successful development and testing of an automated explosive detection system capable of resolving these threats with a high probability of detection and a low false alarm rate. We will present here some of the methodology and approach we took to address this problem.

  3. Medusa: Nuclear explosive propulsion for interplanetary travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solem, Johndale C.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the deleterious effects of galactic cosmic radiation, solar flares, zero gravity and psychological stress, there is strong motivation to develop high-specific-impulse and high-thrust spacecraft for rapid transport of astronauts between planets. A novel spacecraft design is presented using a large lightweight sail (spinnaker) driven by pressure pulses from a series of nuclear explosions. The spacecraft appears to be a singularly competent and economical vehicle for high-speed interplanetary travel. The mass of the spinnaker is theoretically independent of the size of its canopy or the length of its tethers. Consequently, the canopy can be made very large to minimize radiation damage from the nuclear explosions and the tethers can be made very long to mitigate radiation hazard to the crew. The pressure from the nuclear explosion imparts a large impulsive acceleration to the lightweight spinnaker, which must be translated to a small smooth acceleration of the space capsule either by using the elasticity of the tethers or a servo winch in the space capsule, or a combination of the two. If elasticity alone is used, the maximum acceleration suffered by the space capsule is inversely propotional to the tether length. The use of very long tethers allows the spacecraft to achieve high velocities without using an exceedingly large number of bombs, a feature unavailable to previous forms of nuclear-explosive propulsion. Should the political questions connected with an unconventional use of nuclear explosives be favorably resolved, the proposal will be a good candidate for propulsion in the Mars mission.

  4. The First Man-Made Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worth Seagondollar, L.

    2004-10-01

    This talk is part Nuclear Physics, part description of the greatest war-time experience possible for a young graduate student, and part eye-witness description of the 1945 plutonium fission devise explosion in the New Mexico desert. Living and working in the secret Manhattan District laboratory was truly unique. Hearing talks by Nobel Laureates (past & future), participating in nuclear experiments that determined the critical masses for U-235 and Pu-239, having near-catastrophic accidents, working with an armed guard watching you, having Enrico Fermi ask you to come to his office--these are unforgettable memories. There will be a description of 3 days in the New Mexico desert and a description of the early morning nuclear explosion at the Trinity Site and a description of that Site 30 days later.

  5. Infrasound signals from the underground nuclear explosions of North Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Park, Junghyun; Kim, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Lee, Hee-Il

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the infrasound signals from seismic ground motions induced by North Korea's underground nuclear explosions, including the recent third explosion on 2013 February 12. For the third explosion, the epicentral infrasound signals were detected not only by three infrasound network stations (KSGAR, ULDAR and YAGAR) in South Korea but also by two nearby International Monitoring System infrasound stations, IS45 and IS30. The detectability of the signals was limited at stations located on the relatively east side of the epicentre, with large azimuth deviations due to very favourable atmospheric conditions for eastward propagation at stratospheric height in 2013. The stratospheric wind direction was the reverse of that when the second explosion was conducted in 2009 May. The source location of the epicentral infrasound with wave parameters determined at the multiple stations has an offset by about 16.6 km from the reference seismic location. It was possible to determine the infrasonic location with moderate accuracy by the correction of the azimuth deviation due to the eastward winds in the stratosphere. In addition to the epicentral infrasonic signals, diffracted infrasound signals were observed from the second underground nuclear explosion in 2009. The exceptional detectability of the diffracted infrasound was a consequence of the temporal formation of a thin atmospheric inversion layer over the ocean surface when the event occurred.

  6. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  7. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  8. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  9. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D B

    1989-12-31

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to as low as 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson{sup 8} provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10{sup {minus}1}.

  10. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements of High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Caggiano, Joseph A.; Warren, Glen A.; Korbly, Steve; Hasty, R.; Klimenko, A.; Park, William H.

    2007-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Passport Systems have collaborated to perform Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence experiments using several high quality high-explosive simulant samples. These measurements were conducted to determine the feasibility of finding and characterizing high explosive material by NRF interrogation. Electron beams of 5.1, 5.3, 8, and 10 MeV were used to produce bremsstrahlung photon beams, which irradiated the samples. The gamma-ray spectra were collected using high-purity germanium detectors. Nitrogen-to-carbon ratios of the high-explosive simulants were extracted from the 5.1 and 5.3 MeV data and compare favorably with accepted values. Analysis of the 8 and 10 MeV data is in progress; preliminary isotopic comparisons within the samples are consistent with the expected results.

  11. Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

    2011-12-01

    On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial

  12. Propulsion of space ships by nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhart, J. G.; Kravárik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the research on deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertially confined microexplosions encourages one to reconsider the nuclear propulsion of spaceships based on the concept originally proposed in the Orion project. We discuss first the acceleration of medium-sized spaceships by D-T explosions whose output is in the range of 0.1 10 t of TNT. The launching of such a ship into an Earth orbit or beyond by a large nuclear explosion in an underground cavity is sketched out in the second section of the paper, and finally we consider a hypothetical Mars mission based on these concepts. In the conclusion it is argued that propulsion based on the Orion concept only is not the best method for interplanetary travel owing to the very large number of nuclear explosion required. A combination of a super gun and subsequent rocket propulsion using advanced chemical fuels appears to be the best solution for space flights of the near future.

  13. Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE) Monitoring Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Section 2 of Part I contains background information concerning the status of the various test ban treaties and a general description of nuclear... generated to a significant extent. The "zero time" signal is of primary importance since it has the highest probability of carrying information about the...NUCLEAR EXPLOSION PROGRAMS 18 2.3.1 General 18 2.3.2 Underground Weapons Tests 18 2.3.3 Weapons Development Programs 20 2.3.4 Weapons Effects Programs 21

  14. Explosives Detection: Exploitation of the Physical Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David

    2010-10-01

    Explosives based terrorism is an ongoing threat that is evolving with respect to implementation, configuration and materials used. There are a variety of devices designed to detect explosive devices, however, each technology has limitations and operational constraints. A full understanding of the signatures available for detection coupled with the array of detection choices can be used to develop a conceptual model of an explosives screening operation. Physics based sensors provide a robust approach to explosives detection, typically through the identification of anomalies, and are currently used for screening in airports around the world. The next generation of detectors for explosives detection will need to be more sensitive and selective, as well as integrate seamlessly with devices focused on chemical signatures. An appreciation for the details of the physical signature exploitation in cluttered environments with time, space, and privacy constraints is necessary for effective explosives screening of people, luggage, cargo, and vehicles.

  15. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-08-13

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m/sup 3/. Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m/sup 3/. By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

  16. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  17. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  18. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  19. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and

  20. Possible ozone depletions following nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Turco, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of depletion of the ozone layer ensuing after delivery of strategic nuclear warheads (5000 and 10,000 Mton) due to production of nitrogen oxides is theoretically assessed. Strong depletions are calculated for 16-km and 26-km altitudes, peaking 1-2 months after detonation and lasting for three years, while a significant depletion at 36 km would peak after one year. Assuming the explosions occur between 30 and 70 deg N, these effects should be much more pronounced in this region than over the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. It is concluded that Hampson's concern on this matter (1974) is well-founded.-

  1. Possible ozone depletions following nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Turco, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of depletion of the ozone layer ensuing after delivery of strategic nuclear warheads (5000 and 10,000 Mton) due to production of nitrogen oxides is theoretically assessed. Strong depletions are calculated for 16-km and 26-km altitudes, peaking 1-2 months after detonation and lasting for three years, while a significant depletion at 36 km would peak after one year. Assuming the explosions occur between 30 and 70 deg N, these effects should be much more pronounced in this region than over the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. It is concluded that Hampson's concern on this matter (1974) is well-founded.-

  2. Detecting explosive substances by the IR spectrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuula, J.; Rinta, Heikki J.; Pölönen, I.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Haukkamäki, Marko; Teräväinen, T.

    2014-05-01

    Fast and safe detection methods of explosive substances are needed both before and after actualized explosions. This article presents an experiment of the detection of three selected explosives by the ATR FTIR spectrometer and by three different IR hyperspectral imaging devices. The IR spectrometers give accurate analyzing results, whereas hyperspectral imagers can detect and analyze desired samples without touching the unidentified target at all. In the controlled explosion experiment TNT, dynamite and PENO were at first analyzed as pure substances with the ATR FTIR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR cameras. After three controlled explosions also the residues of TNT, dynamite and PENO were analyzed with the same IR devices. The experiments were performed in arctic outdoor conditions and the residues were collected on ten different surfaces. In the measurements the spectra of all three explosives were received as pure substances with all four IR devices. Also the explosion residues of TNT were found on cotton with the IR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR hyperspectral imagers. All measurements were made directly on the test materials which had been placed on the explosion site and were collected for the analysis after each blast. Measurements were made with the IR spectrometer also on diluted sample. Although further tests are suggested, the results indicate that the IR spectrography is a potential detection method for explosive subjects, both as pure substances and as post-blast residues.

  3. NQR detection of explosive simulants using RF atomic magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a highly selective spectroscopic method that can be used to detect and identify a number of chemicals of interest to the defense, national security, and law enforcement community. In the past, there have been several documented attempts to utilize NQR to detect nitrogen bearing explosives using induction sensors to detect the NQR RF signatures. We present here our work on the NQR detection of explosive simulants using optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers. RF atomic magnetometers can provide an order of magnitude (or more) improvement in sensitivity versus induction sensors and can enable mitigation of RF interference, which has classically has been a problem for conventional NQR using induction sensors. We present the theory of operation of optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers along with the result of laboratory work on the detection of explosive simulant material. An outline of ongoing work will also be presented along with a path for a fieldable detection system.

  4. A Portable System for Nuclear, Chemical Agent and Explosives Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W.E.; Buckley, W.M.; Kreek, S.A.; Caffrey, A.J.; Mauger, G.J.; Lavietes, A.D.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-09-29

    The FRIS/PINS hybrid integrates the LLNL-developed Field Radionuclide Identification System (FRIS) with the INEEL-developed Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) chemical assay system to yield a combined general radioisotope, special nuclear material, and chemical weapons/explosives detection and identification system. The PINS system uses a neutron source and a high-purity germanium {gamma}-ray detector. The FRIS system uses an electrochemically cooled germanium detector and its own analysis software to detect and identify special nuclear material and other radioisotopes. The FRIS/PINS combined system also uses the electromechanically-cooled germanium detector. There is no other currently available integrated technology that can combine an active neutron interrogation and analysis capability for CWE with a passive radioisotope measurement and identification capability for special nuclear material.

  5. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M.; Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J.

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  6. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Moore, David Steven [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  7. Investigating Gravity Anomalies Associated with Underground Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, C. A.; Miller, E.; Musa, D.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Swanson, E.

    2016-12-01

    Detection of subsurface effects from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) is an important aspect of the overall characterization of a site and UNE signatures, which is central to the mission of the National Nuclear Security Admistration's Office of Proliferation Detection, Defense Nuclear Non-Prolifeation Research and Development, Underground Nuclear Explosion Signatures Experiment (UNESE). We are conducting an experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that includes the acquisition of ground-based gravity data to contribute to a multi-disciplinary characterization of two UNEs located on Pahute Mesa. For one of the UNEs, the working point for the detonation was in zeolitic ash-flow tuff 600 m below the surface. For the other UNE, the detonation working point was also at a depth 600m below the surface and was located in flow breccias and lavas. No evidence of chimney collapse has been manifested for either of these UNEs, hence a cavity may still in place and may produce a detectable gravity anomaly. Each of the gravity surveys consist of 150 sites which were precisely located using a Trimble 5700 GPS receiver for lateral precision of 2 cm and vertical control of 3 cm. The readings were arranged in radial lines from Surface Ground Zero (SGZ), with spacing 10-20 m near the center, and increasing intervals for the distal portions of the lines, which extended to as much as 200 m from SGZ. Gravity were collected using a LaCoste-Romberg model G gravity meter at one location and a Scintrex G-5 at the other. We present a preliminary look at the gravity data in conjunction with forward modeling of the anticipated anomaly given a suite of possible post-explosion cavity and chimney features.

  8. Nuclear based techniques for detection of contraband

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, T.

    1993-12-31

    The detection of contraband such as explosives and drugs concealed in luggage or other container can be quite difficult. Nuclear techniques offer capabilities which are essential to having effective detection devices. This report describes the features of various nuclear techniques and instrumentation.

  9. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Strellis, Dan

    2007-08-01

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals.

  10. HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R

    2010-05-02

    Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions exist. Pipe ruptures at nuclear facilities were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, in nuclear facilities, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents an ignition source for hydrogen was questionable, but these accidents, demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein.

  11. Explosive Vapor Detection Using Microcantilever Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A

    2004-01-01

    MEMS-based microcantilever platforms have been used to develop extremely sensitive explosive vapour sensors. Two unique approaches of detecting of explosive vapours are demonstrated. In the first approach a cantilever beam coated with a selective layer undergoes bending and resonance frequency variation due to explosive vapour adsorption. The resonance frequency variation is due to mass loading while adsorption-induced cantilever bending is due to a differential stress due molecular adsorption. In the second approach that does not utilize selective coatings for speciation, detection is achieved by deflagration of adsorbed explosive molecules. Deflagration of adsorbed explosive molecules causes the cantilever to bend due to released heat while its resonance frequency decreases due to mass unloading.

  12. Seismic Signals from Multiple Near-Simultaneous Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. L.; O'Brien, M.

    2016-12-01

    An important open nuclear monitoring question is whether multiple nuclear explosions conducted either simultaneously or very close together in time generate seismic waves that are sufficiently different from a tamped single explosion to cause errors in yield estimation or discrimination. In particular, Novaya Zemlya tests with multiple explosions were observed to have low mb, leading to possible underestimation of the total explosion yield. The Soviet Union conducted many "salvo explosions" which is defined to mean two or more separate explosions where the period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds for each event. Most of these were performed at the Novaya Zemlya test site, and as many as eight near-simultaneous explosions were conducted in a single test. The United States also did some multiple explosion tests. For example, Rio Blanco, a natural gas reservoir stimulation test in Colorado, consisted of three 33 kiloton explosions vertically spaced approximately 100 meters apart. To address this question, we are performing nonlinear calculations of multiple explosions, and modeling a number of known multiple explosions. For each test, we also perform a calculation of a single explosion with the same total yield. We propagate the results of the calculation to distant stations using the representation theorem and compare the results of the single and multiple explosion calculations. An initial calculation of Rio Blanco shows that far-field P-waves from the multiple explosions vary as a function of take-off angle, and are more complex than the single explosion, particularly at higher frequencies. However the P-waves from the single and multiple explosions are identical at frequencies less than about 5 Hz.

  13. Explosive vapor detection payload for small robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimac, Phil J.; Pettit, Michael; Wetzel, John P.; Haas, John W.

    2013-05-01

    Detection of explosive hazards is a critical component of enabling and improving operational mobility and protection of US Forces. The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) developed by the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is addressing this challenge for dismounted soldiers. Under the AMDS program, ARA has developed a vapor sampling system that enhances the detection of explosive residues using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors. The Explosives Hazard Trace Detection (EHTD) payload is designed for plug-and-play installation and operation on small robotic platforms, addressing critical Army needs for more safely detecting concealed or exposed explosives in areas such as culverts, walls and vehicles. In this paper, we describe the development, robotic integration and performance of the explosive vapor sampling system, which consists of a sampling "head," a vapor transport tube and an extendable "boom." The sampling head and transport tube are integrated with the boom, allowing samples to be collected from targeted surfaces up to 7-ft away from the robotic platform. During sample collection, an IR lamp in the sampling head is used to heat a suspected object/surface and the vapors are drawn through the heated vapor transport tube to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for detection. The EHTD payload is capable of quickly (less than 30 seconds) detecting explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX at nanogram levels on common surfaces (brick, concrete, wood, glass, etc.).

  14. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  15. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    The research reported in this volume was funded with DARPA Fiscal Year 1985 money originally intended to pay for the site geology containment studies by LLNL which were required in order to detonate a nuclear test in the Eleana shale at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DARPA's motivation for encouraging such a test was to accumulate experience in testing, and in yield estimation by CORRTEX and by seismic means, in a material that was as similar as possible to that thought to exist at the Shagan test site in the USSR. In light of the Joint Verification Experiments (JVE) which will be carried out as this report is distributed, it does seem unfortunate that such a test was never carried out. As it happened, there was not sufficient interest in the project in 1986 to enable the full funding of the experiment. For this reason the money was diverted to a coordinated set of studies which were designed to improve our understanding of the overall problems of the seismic coupling of nuclear explosions. It is my feeling that there have been a number of important results emerging from this work, and I discuss some of them briefly. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  16. Current trends in explosive detection techniques.

    PubMed

    Caygill, J Sarah; Davis, Frank; Higson, Seamus P J

    2012-01-15

    The detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become a heightened priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. There has been a huge increase in research within this area-through both the development of new, innovative detection approaches and the improvement of existing techniques. Developments for miniaturisation, portability, field-ruggedisation and improvements in stand-off distances, selectivity and sensitivity have been necessary to develop and improve techniques. This review provides a consolidation of information relating to recent advances in explosive detection techniques without being limited to one specific research area or explosive type. The focus of this review will be towards advances in the last 5 years, with the reader being referred to earlier reviews where appropriate. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Nonisotropic radiation of the 2013 North Korean nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavryčuk, Václav; Kim, So Gu

    2014-10-01

    On 12 February 2013, North Korea conducted an underground nuclear test in the northeastern mountainous part of the country. The explosion reached magnitude mb = 5.1 being recorded at most of seismic stations around the world and becoming one of the best ever recorded nuclear explosions in history. Similarly, as other nuclear explosions buried in Nevada, Kazakhstan, or China, the 2013 North Korean explosion is characterized by a significant nonisotropic radiation. This radiation is manifested by distinct SH and Love waves in the wave field and is inconsistent with the model of a spherically symmetric source. We show that the Love waves are not generated by a tectonic earthquake triggered on a nearby fault structures but produced by asymmetry of the explosive source caused by presence of deviatoric stress in the surrounding rock. The retrieved moment tensor of the 2013 explosion is characterized by the isotropic component of 57 ± 5%, the double-couple component of 17 ± 9%, and the compensated linear vector dipole component of 24 ± 7%. The P, T, and N axes of the moment tensor are consistent with the principal axes of the regional tectonic stress in the Korean Peninsula. A comparison of waveforms and particle motions of the 2013 explosion and the previous North Korean nuclear explosion buried in 2009 indicates that the 2013 explosion was slightly more nonisotropic.

  18. Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation

    DOE PAGES

    Pozzi, Sara A.; Hamel, Michael C.; Polack, J. Kyle; ...

    2016-11-13

    The detection and characterization of special nuclear materials is a high priority area for applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. We are developing new instruments based on organic scintillators to detect and characterize the emissions from special nuclear materials. This paper describes some of the gaps and challenges in nuclear safeguards and proposed approaches.

  19. Infrared hyperspectral standoff detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Hugger, S.; Jarvis, J.; Blattmann, V.; Kinzer, M.; Yang, Q. K.; Ostendorf, R.; Bronner, W.; Driad, R.; Aidam, R.; Wagner, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate imaging standoff detection of solid traces of explosives using infrared laser backscattering spectroscopy. Our system relies on active laser illumination in the 7 μm-10 μm spectral range at fully eye-safe power levels. This spectral region comprises many characteristic absorption features of common explosives, and the atmospheric transmission is sufficiently high for stand-off detection. The key component of our system is an external cavity quantum cascade laser with a tuning range of 300 cm-1 that enables us to scan the illumination wavelength over several of the characteristic spectral features of a large number of different explosives using a single source. We employ advanced hyperspectral image analysis to obtain fully automated detection and identification of the target substances even on substrates that interfere with the fingerprint spectrum of the explosive to be detected due to their own wavelength-dependent scattering contributions to the measured backscattering spectrum. Only the pure target spectra of the explosives have to be provided to the detection routine that nevertheless accomplishes reliable background suppression without any a-priory-information about the substrate.

  20. Observations on military exploitation of explosives detection technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Anthony A.; de Ruiter, C. J.; Ehlerding, Anneli; McFee, John E.; Svinsås, Eirik; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate and timely detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds would provide valuable information to military commanders in a wide range of military operations: protection of fast moving convoys from mobile or static IED threats; more deliberate countermine and counter-IED operations during route or area clearance; and static roles such as hasty or deliberate checkpoints, critical infrastructure protection and support to public security. The detection of hidden explosive hazards is an extremely challenging problem, as evidenced by the fact that related research has been ongoing in many countries for at least seven decades and no general purpose solution has yet been found. Technologies investigated have spanned all major scientific fields, with emphasis on the physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, robotics, computer technology and mathematics. This paper will present a limited, operationally-focused overview of the current status of detection technologies. Emphasis will be on those technologies that directly detect the explosive hazard, as opposed to those that detect secondary properties of the threat, such as the casing, associated wires or electronics. Technologies that detect explosives include those based on nuclear radiation and terahertz radiation, as well as trace and biological detection techniques. Current research areas of the authors will be used to illustrate the practical applications.

  1. Comparison of radiation safety and nuclear explosive safety disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Winstanley, J. L.

    1998-10-10

    In August 1945, U.S. Navy Captain William Parsons served as the weaponeer aboard the Enola Gay for the mission to Hiroshima (Shelton 1988). In view of the fact that four B-29s had crashed and burned on takeoff from Tinian the night before, Captain Parsons made the decision to arm the gun-type weapon after takeoff for safety reasons (15 kilotons of TNT equivalent). Although he had no control over the success of the takeoff, he could prevent the possibility of a nuclear detonation on Tinian by controlling what we now call the nuclear explosive. As head of the Ordnance Division at Los Alamos and a former gunnery officer, Captain Parsons clearly understood the role of safety in his work. The advent of the pre-assembled implosion weapon where the high explosive and nuclear materials are always in an intimate configuration meant that nuclear explosive safety became a reality at a certain point in development and production not just at the time of delivery by the military. This is the only industry where nuclear materials are intentionally put in contact with high explosives. The agency of the U.S. Government responsible for development and production of U.S. nuclear weapons is the Department of Energy (DOE) (and its predecessor agencies). This paper will be limited to nuclear explosive safety as it is currently practiced within the DOE nuclear weapons

  2. Investigations into seismic discrimination between earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnichev, Y.F.; Aptikaev, F.F.; Antonova, L.V.

    1995-08-01

    In this report we describe some results of investigations on a problem of discrimination between nuclear explosions, chemical explosions and earthquakes, carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Records of underground nuclear explosions from the Semipalatinsk test site, and from region the Pre-Caspian depression, and also records of nearby chemical explosions and earthquakes were processed. We analysed records of permanent and temporary stations, located mainly in the North Tien Shan, northern Kazakhstan and Urals regions. We studied the influence of regional conditions on the effectiveness of seismic monitoring of nuclear explosions. Various amplitude criteria of the discrimination between explosions and earthquakes are considered. We analyzed possibilities to discriminate different source types using spectral-temporal characteristics of seismograms. The nature of some wave types, recorded at region distances, is investigated. We consider possibilities of discrimination between nuclear and chemical explosions and earthquakes using analysis of characteristics of irregular waves. We outline future investigations, connected with the study of the unique set of seismograms kept in the CSE.

  3. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  4. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  5. Airport testing an explosives detection portal

    SciTech Connect

    Rhykerd, C.; Linker, K.; Hannum, D.; Bouchier, F.; Parmeter, J.

    1998-08-01

    At the direction of the US Congress, following the Pan Am 103 and TWA 800 crashes, the Federal Aviation Administration funded development of non-invasive techniques to screen airline passengers for explosives. Such an explosives detection portal, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was field tested at the Albuquerque International airport in September 1997. During the 2-week field trial, 2,400 passengers were screened and 500 surveyed. Throughput, reliability, maintenance and sensitivity were studied. Follow-up testing at Sandia and at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was conducted. A passenger stands in the portal for five seconds while overhead fans blow air over his body. Any explosive vapors or dislodged particles are collected in vents at the feet. Explosives are removed from the air in a preconcentrator and subsequently directed into an ion mobility spectrometer for detection. Throughput measured 300 passengers per hour. The non-invasive portal can detect subfingerprint levels of explosives residue on clothing. A survey of 500 passengers showed a 97% approval rating, with 99% stating that such portals, if effective, should be installed in airports to improve security. Results of the airport test, as well as operational issues, are discussed.

  6. Gamma detectors in explosives and narcotics detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Zubarev, E. V.; Krasnoperov, A. V.; Porohovoi, S. Yu.; Rapatskii, V. L.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Sadovskii, A. B.; Salamatin, A. V.; Salmin, R. A.; Slepnev, V. M.; Andreev, E. I.

    2013-11-01

    Gamma detectors based on BGO crystals were designed and developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These detectors are used in explosives and narcotics detection systems. Key specifications and design features of the detectors are presented. A software temperature-compensation method that makes it possible to stabilize the gamma detector response and operate the detector in a temperature range from -20 to 50°C is described.

  7. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  8. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  9. Use of Romanian Seismic Network to monitor nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Neagoe, Cristian; Grecu, Bogdan; Popa, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, three underground nuclear tests were conducted by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK): on October 9, 2006, May 25, 2009, and February 12, 2013. The magnitude of the events, estimated by International Data Centre (IDC) as 4.1, 4.5 and 4.9, indicates that the latest was more powerful than its predecessors. We analyze seismic signals generated by the DPRK tests and recorded with Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). The location estimates performed at Romania National Data Centre (NDC) using RSN data, were compared with those obtained at IDC. As a consequence of the global superior coverage with seismic stations included in the International Monitoring System, IDC locations are better constrained. The signals generated by 2006 DPRK nuclear test were observed on 8 RSN stations, the 2009 test on 33, and the 2013 test on 47. This continuous increase is due to the rise in the number of stations installed during last five years, as well as to the larger magnitude of the 2013 test. The recent development of RSN has enabled NDC to locate the events with more accuracy, based on the higher-quality parameters estimated from data processing. For all three events, a high signal coherency is observed for the data recorded by the Romanian seismic array, BURAR, reconfirming the superiority of the arrays to single stations for detecting and characterizing signals from nuclear explosions. Array processing techniques are applied for signal detection and to estimate the slowness vector (back-azimuth and apparent velocity). The comparison of vertical displacement seismograms recorded at RSN stations shows a remarkably similarity of the signals generated by the three events analyzed. The records are nearly identical, except that the amplitude is directly proportional to the event magnitude. Spectrograms of the recorded RSN data were examined, showing that the nuclear explosions produce seismic signals with a high energy in the 0.5 to 2.0 Hz frequency range

  10. There is more to do, in building key datasets on nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul

    2015-04-01

    More than 2000 nuclear test explosions have been conducted in and above the atmosphere, underwater, and underground, from 1945 to 2013. They constitute an extraordinary human activity from several perspectives. The physical and radiochemical signals from such testing provide the basis for training sophisticated modern monitoring systems, both national and international, that are designed to detect future nuclear explosions in the context of international efforts at nuclear arms control. These same signals also have many uses in the study of Earth processes and Earth structures. Of principal interest for monitoring purposes, are regional signals from explosions---conducted in a wide variety of environments---that were too small to be reliably identified via teleseismic recordings. The great majority of stations operated today, even those in networks established for nuclear explosion monitoring, have never recorded explosion signals at regional distances, because most stations were installed long after the period when most underground nuclear explosions were conducted; and the few nuclear explosions that have been conducted since the early 1990s were mostly recorded only at teleseismic distances. Of principal interest for studies of Earth structure and processes, are the larger explosions whose signals were clearly recorded on global scales, with accurate knowledge of source depth, epicenter, and origin time. This presentation will review accomplishments of two substantial projects, each of them conducted over about twenty years, that have emphasized the rescue of regional seismic waveform data from nuclear test explosions conducted in Eurasia. These data are now available in modern digital formats. Because of these two projects, openly available seismogram archives for Eurasian explosions are in several respects now better than those for explosions conducted by the United States, France, and the UK, especially for the era from 1960 to about 1985. The opportunity to

  11. Microfluidic/SERS Detection of Trace Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    1 Microfluidic/SERS Detection of Trace Explosives Carl Meinhart ,a Brian Piorek,a Seung Joon Lee,b Martin Moskovitsb, Craig Cummingsc...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADM002187. Proceedings of the Army Science Conference (26th) Held in Orlando, Florida on 1-4 December 2008, The original

  12. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2004-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.

  13. Novel Methods for Detecting Buried Explosive Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-10

    NQR ), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and...demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be...approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine

  14. Benefits of explosive cutting for nuclear-facility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    The study discussed in this report was a cost/benefit analysis to determine: (1) whether explosive cutting is cost effective in comparison with alternative metal sectioning methods and (2) whether explosive cutting would reduce radiation exposure or provide other benefits. Two separate approaches were pursued. The first was to qualitatively assess cutting methods and factors involved in typical sectioning cases and then compare the results for the cutting methods. The second was to prepare estimates of work schedules and potential radiation exposures for candidate sectioning methods for two hypothetical, but typical, sectioning tasks. The analysis shows that explosive cutting would be cost effective and would also reduce radiation exposure when used for typical nuclear facility sectioning tasks. These results indicate that explosive cutting should be one of the principal cutting methods considered whenever steel or similar metal structures or equipment in a nuclear facility are to be sectioned for repair or decommissioning. 13 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

  15. Digitization of Nuclear Explosion Seismograms from the Former Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    evaluation of seismological methods of discrimination between explosions and earthquakes, and to provide a useful training set for analysts interpreting data...of the Complex Seismological Expedition were at Talgar, near Almaty, Kazakhstan. Under the leadership of Igor L. Nersesov from 1955 to 1989, the...INTRODUCTION Seismology is an observational science. Hence, the effort to understand details of seismic signals from underground nuclear explosions requires

  16. Nitroaromatic explosives detection using electrochemically exfoliated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew, Ying Teng; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Detection of nitroaromatic explosives is of paramount importance from security point of view. Graphene sheets obtained from the electrochemical anodic exfoliation of graphite foil in different electrolytes (LiClO4 and Na2SO4) were compared and tested as electrode material for the electrochemical detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater. Voltammetry analysis demonstrated the superior electrochemical performance of graphene produced in LiClO4, resulting in higher sensitivity and linearity for the explosives detection and lower limit of detection (LOD) compared to the graphene obtained in Na2SO4. We attribute this to the presence of oxygen functionalities onto the graphene material obtained in LiClO4 which enable charge electrostatic interactions with the –NO2 groups of the analyte, in addition to π-π stacking interactions with the aromatic moiety. Research findings obtained from this study would assist in the development of portable devices for the on-site detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

  17. Explosives detection with quadrupole resonance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; Thorson, Benjamin D.; Beevor, Simon; West, Rebecca; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1997-02-01

    The increase in international terrorist activity over the past decade has necessitated the exploration of new technologies for the detection of plastic explosives. Quadrupole resonance analysis (QRA) has proven effective as a technique for detecting the presence of plastic, sheet, and military explosive compounds in small quantities, and can also be used to identify narcotics such as heroin and cocaine base. QRA is similar to the widely used magnetic resonance (MR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, but has the considerable advantage that the item being inspected does not need to be immersed in a steady, homogeneous magnetic field. The target compounds are conclusively identified by their unique quadrupole resonance frequencies. Quantum magnetics has develop and introduced a product line of explosives and narcotics detection devices based upon QRA technology. The work presented here concerns a multi-compound QRA detection system designed to screen checked baggage, cargo, and sacks of mail at airports and other high-security facilities. The design philosophy and performance are discussed and supported by test results from field trials conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. This detection system represents the current state of QRA technology for field use in both commercial and government sectors.

  18. Nitroaromatic explosives detection using electrochemically exfoliated graphene

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Ying Teng; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Detection of nitroaromatic explosives is of paramount importance from security point of view. Graphene sheets obtained from the electrochemical anodic exfoliation of graphite foil in different electrolytes (LiClO4 and Na2SO4) were compared and tested as electrode material for the electrochemical detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater. Voltammetry analysis demonstrated the superior electrochemical performance of graphene produced in LiClO4, resulting in higher sensitivity and linearity for the explosives detection and lower limit of detection (LOD) compared to the graphene obtained in Na2SO4. We attribute this to the presence of oxygen functionalities onto the graphene material obtained in LiClO4 which enable charge electrostatic interactions with the –NO2 groups of the analyte, in addition to π-π stacking interactions with the aromatic moiety. Research findings obtained from this study would assist in the development of portable devices for the on-site detection of nitroaromatic explosives. PMID:27633489

  19. Nitroaromatic explosives detection using electrochemically exfoliated graphene.

    PubMed

    Yew, Ying Teng; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-09-16

    Detection of nitroaromatic explosives is of paramount importance from security point of view. Graphene sheets obtained from the electrochemical anodic exfoliation of graphite foil in different electrolytes (LiClO4 and Na2SO4) were compared and tested as electrode material for the electrochemical detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater. Voltammetry analysis demonstrated the superior electrochemical performance of graphene produced in LiClO4, resulting in higher sensitivity and linearity for the explosives detection and lower limit of detection (LOD) compared to the graphene obtained in Na2SO4. We attribute this to the presence of oxygen functionalities onto the graphene material obtained in LiClO4 which enable charge electrostatic interactions with the -NO2 groups of the analyte, in addition to π-π stacking interactions with the aromatic moiety. Research findings obtained from this study would assist in the development of portable devices for the on-site detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

  20. DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

  1. Explosive Detection in Aviation Applications Using CT

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C R

    2011-02-15

    CT scanners are deployed world-wide to detect explosives in checked and carry-on baggage. Though very similar to single- and dual-energy multi-slice CT scanners used today in medical imaging, some recently developed explosives detection scanners employ multiple sources and detector arrays to eliminate mechanical rotation of a gantry, photon counting detectors for spectral imaging, and limited number of views to reduce cost. For each bag scanned, the resulting reconstructed images are first processed by automated threat recognition algorithms to screen for explosives and other threats. Human operators review the images only when these automated algorithms report the presence of possible threats. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has requirements for future scanners that include dealing with a larger number of threats, higher probability of detection, lower false alarm rates and lower operating costs. One tactic that DHS is pursuing to achieve these requirements is to augment the capabilities of the established security vendors with third-party algorithm developers. A third-party in this context refers to academics and companies other than the established vendors. DHS is particularly interested in exploring the model that has been used very successfully by the medical imaging industry, in which university researchers develop algorithms that are eventually deployed in commercial medical imaging equipment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for third-parties to develop advanced reconstruction and threat detection algorithms.

  2. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  3. Scientists train honeybees to detect explosives

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-21

    Members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Stealthy Insect Sensor Project team have been able to harness the honeybee's exceptional olfactory sense by using the bees' natural reaction to nectar, a proboscis extension reflex (sticking out their tongue) to record an unmistakable response to a scent. Using Pavlovian techniques, researchers were able to train the bees to give a positive detection response via the PER when exposed to vapors from TNT, C4, and TATP explosives. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project was born out of a global threat from the growing use of improvised explosive devices or IEDs, especially those that present a critical vulnerability for American military troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an emerging danger for civilians worldwide. Current strategies to detect explosives are expensive and, in the case of trained detection dogs, too obtrusive to be used very discreetly. With bees however, they are small and discreet, offering the element of surprise. They're also are inexpensive to maintain and even easier to train than dogs. As a result of this need, initial funding for the work was provided by a development grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  4. Scientists train honeybees to detect explosives

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Stealthy Insect Sensor Project team have been able to harness the honeybee's exceptional olfactory sense by using the bees' natural reaction to nectar, a proboscis extension reflex (sticking out their tongue) to record an unmistakable response to a scent. Using Pavlovian techniques, researchers were able to train the bees to give a positive detection response via the PER when exposed to vapors from TNT, C4, and TATP explosives. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project was born out of a global threat from the growing use of improvised explosive devices or IEDs, especially those that present a critical vulnerability for American military troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an emerging danger for civilians worldwide. Current strategies to detect explosives are expensive and, in the case of trained detection dogs, too obtrusive to be used very discreetly. With bees however, they are small and discreet, offering the element of surprise. They're also are inexpensive to maintain and even easier to train than dogs. As a result of this need, initial funding for the work was provided by a development grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  5. Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Raman Spectroscopy, Standoff Detection, High Explosives, Explosive Detection, Inelastic Scattering, Resonance Raman 16. PRICE CODE...absolute Raman cross sections of TATP, PETN, RDX and TNT explosives from 620 to 248 nm at a constant flux of 2.5 1024 quanta s1 cm2 using KNO3

  6. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  7. Liquid explosive detection using near infrared LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Ito, Shiori; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Miyato, Yuji

    2015-10-01

    A bottle scanner to detect liquid explosive has been developed using technologies of near infrared. Its detection rate of liquid explosive is quite high and its false alarm rate of safe liquids quite low. It uses a light source with wide spectrum such as a halogen lamp. Recently a variety of LEDs have been developed and some of them have near infrared spectrum. Here a near infrared LED is tested as a light source of the liquid explosive detector. Three infrared LEDs that have a main peak of spectrum at 901nm, 936nm, and 1028 nm have been used as a light source to scan liquids. Spectrum widths of these LEDs are quite narrow typically less than 100 nm. Ten typical liquids have been evaluated by these LEDs and the correlation coefficients of a spectrum by an LED and a tungsten lamp were more than 0.98. This experiment shows that the infrared LED can be used as a light source for the liquid scanner. An LED has some merits, such as long life of more than some ten thousand hours and small consumption electric power of less than 0.2 W. When the LED is used as a light source for the liquid scanner, it is also more compact and handy.

  8. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  9. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  10. Multi-Phenomenology Explosion Monitoring (Multi-PEM). Signal Detection. Research to target smaller sources for tomorrow’s missions

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Joshua Daniel

    2015-12-12

    This a guide on how to detect and identify explosions from various sources. For example, nuclear explosions produce acoustic, optical, and EMP outputs. Each signal can be buried in noise, but fusing detection statistics from seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic signals results in clear detection otherwise unobtainable.

  11. Seismic Masking of an Underground Nuclear Explosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-31

    the microzone of the masked explosion, but excluded from further study 1. 21 February 1963 CARMEL 2. 12 February 1965 ALPACA Reason for...1965 15:10:29.49 ALPACA 0-20 737 2.44x105 l.52xl03 B. 25 June 1966 17:13:00.07 VULCAN 25 1057 58 23 526x77 9. 10 Aug. 1966 13:16:00.07 ROVENAb 0-20...19 Aug. 19’/) AL.A 4420 2016 2404 2550 1870 6. 9 Oct. 19b4 PAR 4368 1950 2418 2650 1950 7. 1? Feb. 1965 ALPACA 4402 1990 2412 1800 2602 8. 2b June

  12. Projection image enhancement for explosive detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) generate a series of 2-D projections from a series of X-ray scans OF luggage under inspection. 3-D volumetric images can also be generated from the collected data set. Extensive data manipulation of the 2-D and 3-D image sets for detecting the presence of explosives is done automatically by EDS. The results are then forwarded to human screeners for final review. The final determination as to whether the luggage contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed by trained TSA (Transportation Security Administration) screeners following an approved TSA protocol. The TSA protocol has the screeners visually inspect the resulting images and the renderings from the EDS to determine if the luggage is suspicious and consequently should be searched manually. Enhancing those projection images delivers a higher quality screening, reduces screening time and also reduces the amount of luggage that needs to be manually searched otherwise. This paper presents a novel edge detection algorithm that is geared towards, though not exclusive to, automated explosive detection systems. The goal of these enhancements is to provide a higher quality screening process while reducing the overall screening time and luggage search rates. Accurately determining the location of edge pixels within 2-D signals, often the first step in segmentation and recognition systems indicates the boundary between overlapping objects in a luggage. Most of the edge detection algorithms such as Canny, Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, and Laplacian methods are based on the first and second derivatives/difference operators. These operators detect the discontinuities in the differences of pixels. These approaches are sensitive to the presence of noise and could produce false edges in noisy images. Including large scale filters, may avoid errors generated by noise, but often simultaneously eliminating the finer edge details as

  13. Nuclear Detection. Preliminary Observations on the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office’s Efforts to Develop a Global Nuclear Detection Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-16

    materials that could be used to produce a device that uses conventional explosives with radioactive material (known as a “dirty bomb”). Past confirmed...detectors (known as pagers), and radioactive isotope identifiers at U.S. ports of entry. All radiation detection devices have limitations in their...In a report on preventing nuclear smuggling, we found that a cargo container containing a radioactive source was not detected as it passed through

  14. Radionuclide Gas Transport through Nuclear Explosion-Generated Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-12-01

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. Seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.

  15. Radionuclide gas transport through nuclear explosion-generated fracture networks

    DOE PAGES

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gasmore » breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. In conclusion, seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.« less

  16. Radionuclide gas transport through nuclear explosion-generated fracture networks

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-12-17

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. In conclusion, seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.

  17. Radionuclide Gas Transport through Nuclear Explosion-Generated Fracture Networks.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B; Stauffer, Philip H; Knight, Earl E; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N

    2015-12-17

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. Seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.

  18. Radionuclide Gas Transport through Nuclear Explosion-Generated Fracture Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-01-01

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. Seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable. PMID:26676058

  19. Explosives Detection in a Lasing Plasmon Nanocavity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity Ren-Min Ma1†, Sadao Ota1†, Yimin Li1, Sui Yang1 and Xiang Zhang1,2* Perhaps the most successful...application of plasmonics to date has been in sensing, where the interaction of a nanoscale loca- lized field with analytes leads to high-sensitivity... plasmon sensors with active excitation (gain-enhanced) can achieve much higher sensitivities due to the amplification of the surface plasmons10–12. Here

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy standoff detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P

    2009-09-01

    Standoff infrared and Raman spectroscopy (SIRS and SRS) detection systems were designed from commercial instrumentation and successfully tested in remote detection of high explosives (HE). The SIRS system was configured by coupling a Fourier-transform infrared interferometer to a gold mirror and detector. The SRS instrument was built by fiber coupling a spectrograph to a reflective telescope. HE samples were detected on stainless steel surfaces as thin films (2-30 microg/cm(2)) for SIRS experiments and as particles (3-85 mg) for SRS measurements. Nitroaromatic HEs: TNT, DNT, RDX, C4, and Semtex-H and TATP cyclic peroxide homemade explosive were used as targets. For the SIRS experiments, samples were placed at increasing distances and an infrared beam was reflected from the stainless steel surfaces coated with the target chemicals at an angle of approximately 180 degrees from surface normal. Stainless steel plates containing TNT and RDX were first characterized for coverage distribution and surface concentration by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy. Targets were then placed at the standoff distance and SIRS spectra were collected in active reflectance mode. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined for all distances measured for the target HE. LOD values of 18 and 20 microg/cm(2) were obtained for TNT and RDX, respectively, for the SIR longest standoff distance measured. For SRS experiments, as low as 3 mg of TNT and RDX were detected at 7 m source-target distance employing 488 and 514.5 nm excitation wavelengths. The first detection and quantification study of the important formulation C4 is reported. Detection limits as function of laser powers and acquisition times and at a standoff distance of 7 m were obtained.

  1. Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ren-Min; Ota, Sadao; Li, Yimin; Yang, Sui; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Perhaps the most successful application of plasmonics to date has been in sensing, where the interaction of a nanoscale localized field with analytes leads to high-sensitivity detection in real time and in a label-free fashion. However, all previous designs have been based on passively excited surface plasmons, in which sensitivity is intrinsically limited by the low quality factors induced by metal losses. It has recently been proposed theoretically that surface plasmon sensors with active excitation (gain-enhanced) can achieve much higher sensitivities due to the amplification of the surface plasmons. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an active plasmon sensor that is free of metal losses and operating deep below the diffraction limit for visible light. Loss compensation leads to an intense and sharp lasing emission that is ultrasensitive to adsorbed molecules. We validated the efficacy of our sensor to detect explosives in air under normal conditions and have achieved a sub-part-per-billion detection limit, the lowest reported to date for plasmonic sensors with 2,4-dinitrotoluene and ammonium nitrate. The selectivity between 2,4-dinitrotoluene, ammonium nitrate and nitrobenzene is on a par with other state-of-the-art explosives detectors. Our results show that monitoring the change of the lasing intensity is a superior method than monitoring the wavelength shift, as is widely used in passive surface plasmon sensors. We therefore envisage that nanoscopic sensors that make use of plasmonic lasing could become an important tool in security screening and biomolecular diagnostics.

  2. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-09-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide.

  3. Nuclear Explosives in Peacetime, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodine, Virginia, Ed.; Bradford, Albert, Ed.

    Discussed are the commercial uses of nuclear explosives as well as the testing of nuclear weapons. Case histories of the use of nuclear explosives to stimulate oil and natural gas production are examined, and problems associated with nuclear blasting are discussed with special reference to canal construction. Effects of nuclear weapons testing are…

  4. Nuclear Explosives in Peacetime, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodine, Virginia, Ed.; Bradford, Albert, Ed.

    Discussed are the commercial uses of nuclear explosives as well as the testing of nuclear weapons. Case histories of the use of nuclear explosives to stimulate oil and natural gas production are examined, and problems associated with nuclear blasting are discussed with special reference to canal construction. Effects of nuclear weapons testing are…

  5. Portable sensors for drug and explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leginus, Joseph M.

    1994-03-01

    Westinghouse Electric is developing portable, hand-held sensors capable of detecting numerous drugs of abuse (cocaine, heroin, amphetamines) and explosives (trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, nitroglycerin). The easy-to-use system consists of a reusable electronics module and disposable probes. The sensor illuminates and detects light transmitted through optical cells of the probe during an antibody-based latex agglutination reaction. Each probe contains all the necessary reagents to carry out a test in a single step. The probe has the ability to lift minute quantities of samples from a variety of surfaces and deliver the sample to a reaction region within the device. The sensor yields a qualitative answer in 30 to 45 seconds and is able to detect illicit substances at nanogram levels.

  6. Detection of explosives using heated microcantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Ian C.; Banerjee, Debjyoti; Rogers, William J.; Mannan, M. Sam

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a portable micro-sensor platform for real-time detection of energetic materials (e.g., explosives) over a wide range of vapor pressures. The bending response of an electrically heated microcantilever thermal bi-morph array is used for specific detection of combustible substances using their calorimetric properties. Chemical reactions on the surface induce stress on a micro-cantilever which affects the bending and is measured in real-time using an optical apparatus. The threshold value of actuation current is found to provide a unique signature for identifying equilibrium concentration of iso-propyl alcohol, acetone and gasoline vapors at room temperature. The threshold current is found to scale with the vapor pressure of the volatile species and the ignition temperature. This shows that the sensors can be used for specific detection of different types of combustible materials. The sensor array can be used to detect, identify and monitor volatile combustible species in real time (response time in milliseconds) with the capability for redundancy checks and the ability to eliminate false positive/ false-negative results. The sensor is capable of remote monitoring on a continuous basis for indoor and outdoor applications - which protects the operator of the sensor instrument from explosive effects. The sensor design permits detection at a nominal distance away from the source without coming in contact with the contaminated surface. The sensor capability can be enhanced by specifically coating the micro-cantilever surfaces (e.g. using Dip Pen Nanolithography techniques) and can be integrated into a portable detection platform or instrument.

  7. Prediction of fire spread following nuclear explosions

    Treesearch

    Craig C. Chandler; Theodore G. Storey; Charles D. Tangren

    1963-01-01

    Mass fires are likely to follow a nuclear attack. Since it is important to the civil defense program to be able to predict rate, duration, and extent of spread of such fires, the Office of Civil Defense, U.S. Department of Defense, issued a joint contract to the Forest Service and to United Research Services, Inc., to study this field. We surveyed the literature,...

  8. The science case for 37Ar as a monitor for underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hayes, James C.

    2010-06-04

    A new calculation of the production of 37Ar from nuclear explosion neutron interactions on 40Ca in a suite of common sub-surface materials (rock, etc) is presented. Even in mineral structures that are relatively low in Ca, the resulting 37Ar signature is large enough for detection in cases of venting or gaseous diffusion driven by barometric pumping. Field and laboratory detection strategies and projected sensitivities are presented.

  9. The Air Blast Wave from a Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    The sudden, large scale release of energy in the explosion of a nuclear bomb in air gives rise, in addition to nuclear emanations such as neutrons and gamma rays, to an extremely hot, rapidly expanding mass of air.** The rapidly expanding air mass has an initial temperature in the vicinity of a few hundred thousand degrees and for this reason it glows in its early stages with an intensity of many suns. It is important that the energy density in this initial "ball of fire" is of the order of 3 × 103 times that found in a detonating piece of TNT and hence that the initial stages of the large scale air motion produced by a nuclear explosion has no counterpart in an ordinary. H. E. explosion. Further, the relatively low temperatures ˜2,000°C associated with the initial stages of an H. E. detonation implies that the thermal radiation which it emits is a relatively insignificant fraction of the total energy involves. This point is made more striking when it is remembered that the thermal energy emitted by a hot object varies directly with the temperature in the Rayleigh Jeans region appropriate to the present discussion. The expansion of the air mass heated by the nuclear reaction produces, in qualitatively the same manner as in an H.E. explosion or the bursting of a high pressure balloon, an intense sharp pressure pulse, a shock wave, in the atmosphere. As the pressure pulse spreads outward it weakens due to the combined effects of divergence and the thermodynamically irreversible nature of the shock wave. The air comprising such a pressure pulse or blast wave moves first radially outward and then back towards the center as the blast wave passes. Since a permanent outward displacement of an infinite mass of air would require unlimited energy, the net outward displacement of the air distant from an explosion must approach zero with increasing distance. As the distance from the explosion is diminished the net outward displacement due to irreversible shock heating of

  10. Trace Explosive Detection using Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Adam R; Van Neste, Charles W; Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George; Finot, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Satisfying the conditions of high sensitivity and high selectivity using portable sensors that are also reversible is a challenge. Miniature sensors such as microcantilevers offer high sensitivity but suffer from poor selectivity due to the lack of sufficiently selective receptors. Although many of the mass deployable spectroscopic techniques provide high selectivity, they do not have high sensitivity. Here, we show that this challenge can be overcome by combining photothermal spectroscopy on a bimaterial microcantilever with the mass induced change in the cantilever's resonance frequency. Detection using adsorption-induced resonant frequency shift together with photothermal deflection spectroscopy shows extremely high selectivity with a subnanogram limit of detection for vapor phase adsorbed explosives, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  11. Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bethe, H. A.

    1950-01-31

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)

  12. Nuclear Explosives for the Purpose of Deflecting Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Dave

    2001-06-01

    In order to deflect asteroids or comets having a diameter over 1 kilometer, it will be necessary to use nuclear explosives. Nuclear devices which deliver a large fraction of their total yield in the form of neutrons are considerably more effective for producing a velocity change in the target than devices which deliver x-rays or gamma rays. Typical megaton-range nuclear weapons currently deployed are a three-stage design (fission-fusion-fission) which emit most of their energy in the form of x-rays. Certain megaton-range nuclear weapons currently deployed are a two-stage design. These devices are often described as "tactical" or "clean" nuclear weapons. Because of the density of fusion fuel required to give an efficient burn, each neutron produced by the device experiences a large number of collisions before it is able to escape from the device. These collisions remove energy from the neutrons and cause most of the total device energy to be emitted as x-rays. (High-yield devices developed for military purposes have been optimized for maximum yield or for maximum yield subject to some limit on total radioactive isotope emissions. Those devices which have been optimized for radiation, known as "neutron bombs", are in the kiloton range, not the megaton range. If it is necessary to develop megaton-range nuclear explosives which have been optimized for total neutron energy output, then these devices should be developed while experienced bomb designers are still available.)

  13. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration for trace explosives detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin Lane

    2004-05-01

    A trace explosives detection system typically contains three subsystems: sample collection, preconcentration, and detection. Sample collection of trace explosives (vapor and particulate) through large volumes of airflow helps reduce sampling time while increasing the amount of dilute sample collected. Preconcentration of the collected sample before introduction into the detector improves the sensitivity of the detector because of the increase in sample concentration. By combining large-volume sample collection and preconcentration, an improvement in the detection of explosives is possible. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration is presented using a systems level approach. In addition, the engineering of large-volume sampling and preconcentration for the trace detection of explosives is explained.

  14. Crustal structure in Nevada and southern Idaho from nuclear explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pakiser, L.C.; Hill, D.P.

    1962-01-01

    The time of first arrival of seismic waves generated by 4 underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and recorded along a line extending north into southern Idaho is expressed as T0 = 0. 00 + Δ/3.0 (assumed), T1 = 0 .40 + Δ/6.03, and T2 = 6.15 + Δ/7.84, where time is in seconds and the shot-detector distance (Δ) is in km. Assuming constant velocities and horizontal layers, crustal thickness in the vicinity of NTS was determined to be 28 km. Delays in the traveltime segment T2, which represents Pn, indicate that the crust may thicken to 32 km in northern Nevada. A third phase, expressed as T3 = 14.48 + Δ/7.84, was also recognized and has arrival times appropriate for SPS. Amplitudes of Pn were determined at 7 places from recordings of seismic waves from one underground nuclear explosion (ANTLER).

  15. Direct calibration of the yield of nuclear explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.; Nikolayev, A.

    1994-06-01

    The determination of the power of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) is of great significance. The seismic method of UNE yield determination allows monitoring at large distances, but is less precise than local monitoring methods. A way is proposed to calibrate UNE based on the idea of the vibroseis method in which powerful vibrators are used to produce seismic waves in the UNE epicenter; UNE calibration is carried out by comparison of the vibroseis record with a UNE seismogram. Results of preliminary work on the problem are presented. It is based on experience with vibrosounding of the Earth as well as earthquakes and chemical and nuclear explosions wave field structure studies. It is concluded that UNE calibration with the aid of seismic vibrators is both possible and expedient.

  16. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar-chang, Julio; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Revelle, Douglas; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A; Patterson, Eileen F

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, N. Jill; Chavez, Francesca C.

    2001-10-02

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Myth of nuclear explosions at waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W.R.

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 25 years ago, an event is said to have occurred in the plains immediately west of the southern Ural mountains of the Soviet Union that is being disputed to this very day. One person says it was an explosion of nuclear wastes buried in a waste disposal site; other people say it was an above-ground test of an atomic weapon; still others suspect that an alleged contaminated area (of unknown size or even existence) is the result of a series of careless procedures. Since the event, a number of articles about the disposal-site explosion hypothesis written by a Soviet exile living in the United Kingdom have been published. Although the Soviet scientist's training and background are in the biological sciences and his knowledge of nuclear physics or chemistry is limited, people who oppose the use of nuclear energy seem to want to believe what he says without question. The work of this Soviet biologist has received wide exposure both in the United Kingdom and the United States. This report presents arguments against the disposal-site explosion hypothesis. Included are discussions of the amounts of plutonium that would be in a disposal site, the amounts of plutonium that would be needed to reach criticality in a soil-water-plutonium mixture, and experiments and theoretical calculations on the behavior of such mixtures. Our quantitative analyses show that the postulated nuclear explosion is so improbable that it is essentially impossible and can be found only in the never-never land of an active imagination. 24 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Standoff detection of explosives: a challenging approach for optical technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désilets, S.; Hô, N.; Mathieu, P.; Simard, J. R.; Puckrin, E.; Thériault, J. M.; Lavoie, H.; Théberge, F.; Babin, F.; Gay, D.; Forest, R.; Maheux, J.; Roy, G.; Châteauneuf, M.

    2011-06-01

    Standoff detection of explosives residues on surfaces at few meters was made using optical technologies based on Raman scattering, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and passive standoff FTIR radiometry. By comparison, detection and analysis of nanogram samples of different explosives was made with a microscope system where Raman scattering from a micron-size single point illuminated crystal of explosive was observed. Results from standoff detection experiments using a telescope were compared to experiments using a microscope to find out important parameters leading to the detection. While detection and spectral identification of the micron-size explosive particles was possible with a microscope, standoff detection of these particles was very challenging due to undesired light reflected and produced by the background surface or light coming from other contaminants. Results illustrated the challenging approach of detecting at a standoff distance the presence of low amount of micron or submicron explosive particles.

  4. Geophysical Models for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Flanagan, M

    2003-07-16

    Geophysical models are increasingly recognized as an important component of regional calibrations for seismic monitoring. The models can be used to predict geophysical measurements, such as body wave travel times, and can be derived from direct regional studies or even by geophysical analogy. While empirical measurements of these geophysical parameters might be preferred, in aseismic regions or regions without seismic stations, this data might not exist. In these cases, models represent a 'best guess' of the seismic properties in a region, which improves on global models such as the PREM (Preliminary Reference Earth Model) or the IASPEI (International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior) models. The model-based predictions can also serve as a useful background for the empirical measurements by removing trends in the data. To this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the WENA model for Western Eurasia and North Africa. This model is constructed using a regionalization of several dozen lithospheric (crust and uppermost mantle) models, combined with the Laske sediment model and 3SMAC upper mantle. We have evaluated this model using a number of data sets, including travel times, surface waves, receiver functions, and waveform analysis. Similarly, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a geophysical model for East Asia, allowing LLNL/LANL to construct a model for all of Eurasia and North Africa. These models continue to evolve as new and updated datasets are used to critically assess the predictive powers of the model. Research results from this meeting and other reports and papers can be used to update and refine the regional boundaries and regional models. A number of other groups involved in monitoring have also developed geophysical models. As these become available, we will be assessing the models and their constitutive components for their suitability for inclusion in the National Nuclear Security

  5. Joint GPS and radio astronomical observations of underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Helmboldt, J.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; von Frese, R. R.; Wilson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Observations from US GPS receivers and the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico recorded traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) from the roughly 20 kiloton Hunters Trophy underground nuclear explosion (UNE), which was detonated at the Nevada Test site (NTS) on 18 September 1992 at 17:00 UTC. GPS data from six stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS) were converted to total electron content (TEC) estimates. The continuous slant TEC (STEC) data spans for all ray paths between the stations and the satellites they observed were processed for numerical third order horizontal 3-point derivatives. The STEC derivatives detailed the propagation of TIDs from the UNE as acoustic-gravity waves with velocities ranging over 562 - 1088 m/s. In the VLA observations, the disturbance lasted until about 18:30 UTC. Two-dimensional TEC fluctuation spectra were generated at time epochs with intervals of about 15 minutes. This spectral analysis detected the TID signature, revealing very little activity that increased slightly at 17:17.4 UTC. However, at 17:27 UTC significant activity was detected with a notable peak in the power spectrum corresponding to a wavelength of about 20 km propagating from the test site. The ionospheric disturbances were diminished by the end of the observing run at 18:17.4 UTC. The TID velocities observed by the VLA ranged over roughly 450 - 500 m/s. These lower velocities were due probably to the much longer 15 minute observation interval of the VLA data relative to the 30 second GPS sampling interval that resulted in higher velocity estimates. However, these results point to the possible utility of joint observations with GPS and radio telescopes like the VLA in monitoring for clandestine UNEs.

  6. Visible Hyperspectral Imaging for Standoff Detection of Explosives on Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Mendoza, Albert; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2010-11-01

    There is an ever-increasing need to be able to detect the presence of explosives, preferably from standoff distances. This paper presents an application of visible hyperspectral imaging using anomaly, polarization and spectral identification approaches for the standoff detection (13 meters) of nitroaromatic explosives on realistic painted surfaces based upon the colorimetric differences between tetryl and TNT which are enhanced by solar irradiation.

  7. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, N. Jill

    2002-09-17

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar - Chang, Julio; Anderson, Dale; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  10. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Francesca C; Benson, Jody; Hanson, Stephanie; Mark, Carol; Wetovsky, Marvin A

    2004-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  11. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Francesca C.; Mendius, E. Louise

    2003-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. Nuclear winter - Global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a computerized simulation of the potential global environmental effects of dust and smoke clouds that would be generated by a nuclear war are presented. Short term effects of blast, fire, and radiation are neglected in the series of physical models that include a nuclear war scenario, a particle microphysics model, and a radiative convective model. Account is taken of the altitude-dependent dust, smoke, radioactivity, and NO(x) injections, the temporal evolution of dust and smoke clouds, land and ocean environments, and temperature contrasts. A nuclear exchange would produce thousands of individual smoke and dust clouds rising up to 30 km altitude in the midlatitudes. The smoke, dust, and radioactive debris would cover the entire midlatitudes within 1-2 weeks. The smoke would arise from conflagrations of forests, suburbs, and urban areas. Obscuration of sunlight would induce subfreezing temperatures for several months, disruption of the global circulation patterns, and the arrival of a nuclear winter, followed and accompanied by radioactive fallout, pyrogenic air pollution, and UV-B flux enhancements. It is estimated that a total of only 100 Mtons would be sufficient to plunge the Northern Hemisphere summer to subfreezing temperatures lasting months. Since the probable exchange in a nuclear war would exceed 5000 Mtons, it is expected that many species, including humans, may not survive the war.

  13. Nuclear winter - Global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a computerized simulation of the potential global environmental effects of dust and smoke clouds that would be generated by a nuclear war are presented. Short term effects of blast, fire, and radiation are neglected in the series of physical models that include a nuclear war scenario, a particle microphysics model, and a radiative convective model. Account is taken of the altitude-dependent dust, smoke, radioactivity, and NO(x) injections, the temporal evolution of dust and smoke clouds, land and ocean environments, and temperature contrasts. A nuclear exchange would produce thousands of individual smoke and dust clouds rising up to 30 km altitude in the midlatitudes. The smoke, dust, and radioactive debris would cover the entire midlatitudes within 1-2 weeks. The smoke would arise from conflagrations of forests, suburbs, and urban areas. Obscuration of sunlight would induce subfreezing temperatures for several months, disruption of the global circulation patterns, and the arrival of a nuclear winter, followed and accompanied by radioactive fallout, pyrogenic air pollution, and UV-B flux enhancements. It is estimated that a total of only 100 Mtons would be sufficient to plunge the Northern Hemisphere summer to subfreezing temperatures lasting months. Since the probable exchange in a nuclear war would exceed 5000 Mtons, it is expected that many species, including humans, may not survive the war.

  14. Relative source comparison of the NPE to underground nuclear explosions at local distances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) provides an opportunity to compare broadband characteristics of chemical to nuclear explosions at a group of local stations (4 to 40 km distant). The locations for these stations were established on bedrock to record a small partially decoupled nuclear explosion and two nearby nuclear experiments, all shots within {open_quotes}N{close_quotes} Tunnel on Rainier Mesa, Area 12. These sites were also occupied to record aftershocks from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and chemical explosions from the USGS Sierra Experiment. To minimize calibration errors during this period, redundant instrumentation were used for each event. THe analysis emphasizes the source characteristics of the different explosions. The 300-lb chemical calibration explosion allows removal of path effects from each explosion. The NPE and nearby experiments produce very similar waveforms. The decoupled nuclear explosion and the 300-lb chemical calibration explosion show higher frequency content consistent with a higher corner frequency for the sources.

  15. Investigation of Wavelet-Based Enhancements to Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Explosives Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, Stephen W.; Dress, William B.; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.

    1998-06-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is effective for the detection and identification of certain types of explosives such as RDX, PETN and TNT. In explosive detection, the NQR response of certain 14N nuclei present in the crystalline material is probed. The 14N nuclei possess a nuclear quadrupole moment which in the presence of an electric field gradient produces an energy level splitting which may be excited by radio-frequency magnetic fields. Pulsing on the sample with a radio signal of the appropriate frequency produces a transient NQR response which may then be detected. Since the resonant frequency is dependent upon both the quadrupole moment of the 14N nucleus and the nature of the local electric field gradients, it is very compound specific. Under DARPA sponsorship, the authors are using multiresolution methods to investigate the enhancement of operation of NQR explosives detectors used for land mine detection. For this application, NQR processing time must be reduced to less than one second. False alarm responses due to acoustic and piezoelectric ringing must be suppressed. Also, as TNT is the most prevalent explosive found in land mines, NQR detection of TNT must be made practical despite unfavorable relaxation tunes. All three issues require improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, and all would benefit from improved feature extraction. This paper reports some of the insights provided by multiresolution methods that can be used to obtain these improvements. It includes results of multiresolution analysis of experimentally observed NQR signatures for RDX responses and various false alarm signatures in the absence of explosive compounds.

  16. Detection of Chemical Precursors of Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Certain selected chemicals associated with terrorist activities are too unstable to be prepared in final form. These chemicals are often prepared as precursor components, to be combined at a time immediately preceding the detonation. One example is a liquid explosive, which usually requires an oxidizer, an energy source, and a chemical or physical mechanism to combine the other components. Detection of the oxidizer (e.g. H2O2) or the energy source (e.g., nitromethane) is often possible, but must be performed in a short time interval (e.g., 5 15 seconds) and in an environment with a very small concentration (e.g.,1 100 ppm), because the target chemical(s) is carried in a sealed container. These needs are met by this invention, which provides a system and associated method for detecting one or more chemical precursors (components) of a multi-component explosive compound. Different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are loaded (by doping, impregnation, coating, or other functionalization process) for detecting of different chemical substances that are the chemical precursors, respectively, if these precursors are present in a gas to which the CNTs are exposed. After exposure to the gas, a measured electrical parameter (e.g. voltage or current that correlate to impedance, conductivity, capacitance, inductance, etc.) changes with time and concentration in a predictable manner if a selected chemical precursor is present, and will approach an asymptotic value promptly after exposure to the precursor. The measured voltage or current are compared with one or more sequences of their reference values for one or more known target precursor molecules, and a most probable concentration value is estimated for each one, two, or more target molecules. An error value is computed, based on differences of voltage or current for the measured and reference values, using the most probable concentration values. Where the error value is less than a threshold, the system concludes that the target

  17. Design of an explosive detection system using Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Adame, Pablo Luis; Medina-Castro, Diego; Rodriguez-Ibarra, Johanna Lizbeth; Salas-Luevano, Miguel Angel; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2016-11-01

    Regardless the motivation terrorism is the most important risk for the national security in many countries. Attacks with explosives are the most common method used by terrorists. Therefore several procedures to detect explosives are utilized; among these methods are the use of neutrons and photons. In this study the Monte Carlo method an explosive detection system using a (241)AmBe neutron source was designed. In the design light water, paraffin, polyethylene, and graphite were used as moderators. In the work the explosive RDX was used and the induced gamma rays due to neutron capture in the explosive was estimated using NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors. When light water is used as moderator and HPGe as the detector the system has the best performance allowing distinguishing between the explosive and urea. For the final design the Ambient dose equivalent for neutrons and photons were estimated along the radial and axial axis.

  18. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  19. The Nuclear Detonation Detection System on the GPS satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Higbie, P.R.; Blocker, N.K.

    1993-07-27

    This article begins with a historical perspective of satellite usage in monitoring nuclear detonations. Current capabilities of the 24 GPS satellites in detecting the light, gamma rays, x-rays and neutrons from a nuclear explosion are described. In particular, an optical radiometer developed at Sandia National Laboratories is characterized. Operational information and calibration procedures are emphasized.

  20. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  1. SCOPE-RADTEST: Radioactivity from nuclear test explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.S.; Tsaturov, Y.

    1993-10-01

    The SCOPE-RADTEST program consists of an international collaborative study involving Russia, the USA, China, and Kazakhstan. It will focus on the releases of radioactivity that resulted from nuclear test explosions that have taken place at various test sites around the world for peaceful and military purposes. RADTEST will focus on these principal tasks: (1) To inventory data on measurements of radionuclide deposition densities, and identify gaps in these data. (2) To compare old and develop new models of radioactive transport to better understand the deposition densities of radionuclides both on and near the nuclear test sites, including areas downwind where potentially significant episodes of fallout have occurred (such as the Altaj Region of Russia). (3) To study the migration of the radionuclides through the biosphere, including all pathways to humans. This will include the study of the effects on other biota that have impacts on humans. The main focus will be to characterize the nature and magnitude of the dose to humans. This will include dose reconstructions from past events, and also an increased capability for dose prediction from possible future accidental or deliberate explosions. (4)To analyze the data on the effects of these doses (including low doses) on human health. The test sites to be studied would include the Nevada Test Site (USA), South Pacific Islands (USA), Novaja Zemla (Russia), Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Luc Bu Pu (Lop Nor) (China). Tests at these sites include most of the total of nuclear explosions that have been conducted. Other sites, (including the sites of the U.K. and France), as appropriate, may also be included where tests were conducted for peaceful or military purposes.

  2. The Use of Nuclear Explosives To Disrupt or Divert Asteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D S; Patenaude, S; Managan, R A

    2007-02-20

    Nuclear explosives are a mature technology with well-characterized effects. Proposed utilizations include a near asteroid burst to ablate surface material and nudge the body to a safer orbit, or a direct sub-surface burst to fragment the body. For this latter method, previous estimates suggest that for times as short as 1000 days, over 99.999% of the material is diverted, and no longer impacts the Earth, a huge mitigation factor. To better understand these possibilities, we have used a multidimensional radiation/hydrodynamics code to simulate sub-surface and above surface bursts on an inhomogeneous, 1 km diameter body with an average density of 2 g/cc. The body, or fragments (up to 750,000) are then tracked along 4 representative orbits to determine the level of mitigation achieved. While our code has been well tested in simulations on terrestrial structures, the greatest uncertainty in these results lies in the input. These results, particularly the effort to nudge a body into a different orbit, are dependant on NEO material properties, like the dissipation of unconsolidated material in a low gravity environment, as well as the details on an individual body's structure. This problem exists in simulating the effect of any mitigation technology. In addition to providing an greater understanding of the results of applying nuclear explosives to NEO-like bodies, these simulations suggest what must be learned about these bodies to improve the predictive capabilities. Finally, we will comment on some of the popular misinformation abounding about the utility of nuclear explosives.

  3. Measurements of Argon-39 at the U20az underground nuclear explosion site.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, J I; Aalseth, C E; Alexander, T R; Back, H O; Bellgraph, B J; Bowyer, T W; Chipman, V; Cooper, M W; Day, A R; Drellack, S; Foxe, M P; Fritz, B G; Hayes, J C; Humble, P; Keillor, M E; Kirkham, R R; Krogstad, E J; Lowrey, J D; Mace, E K; Mayer, M F; Milbrath, B D; Misner, A; Morley, S M; Panisko, M E; Olsen, K B; Ripplinger, M D; Seifert, A; Suarez, R

    2017-07-26

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory reports on the detection of (39)Ar at the location of an underground nuclear explosion on the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. The presence of (39)Ar was not anticipated at the outset of the experimental campaign but results from this work demonstrated that it is present, along with (37)Ar and (85)Kr in the subsurface at the site of an underground nuclear explosion. Our analysis showed that by using state-of-the-art technology optimized for radioargon measurements, it was difficult to distinguish (39)Ar from the fission product (85)Kr. Proportional counters are currently used for high-sensitivity measurement of (37)Ar and (39)Ar. Physical and chemical separation processes are used to separate argon from air or soil gas, yielding pure argon with contaminant gases reduced to the parts-per-million level or below. However, even with purification at these levels, the beta decay signature of (85)Kr can be mistaken for that of (39)Ar, and the presence of either isotope increases the measurement background level for the measurement of (37)Ar. Measured values for the (39)Ar measured at the site ranged from 36,000 milli- Becquerel/standard-cubic-meter-of-air (mBq/SCM) for shallow bore holes to 997,000 mBq/SCM from the rubble chimney from the underground nuclear explosion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    SciTech Connect

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-11-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock.

  5. Nuclear winter: global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.

    1983-12-23

    The potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war are investigated using models previously developed to study the effects of volcanic eruptions. Although the results are necessarily imprecise, the most probable first-order effects are serious. Significant hemispherical attenuation of the solar radiation flux and subfreezing land temperatures may be caused by fine dust raised in high-yield nuclear surface bursts and by smoke from fires. For many simulated exchanges of several thousand megatons, in which dust and smoke are generated and encircle the earth within 1 to 2 weeks, average light levels can be reduced to a few percent of ambient and land temperatures can reach -15/sup 0/ to -25/sup 0/C. The yield threshold for major optical and climatic consequences may be very low: only about 100 megatons detonated over major urban centers can create average hemispheric smoke optical depths greater than 2 for weeks and, subfreezing land temperatures for months. In a 5000-megaton war, at northern mid-latitude sites remote from targets, radioactive fallout on time scales of days to weeks can lead to chronic mean doses of up to 50 rads from external whole-body gamma-ray exposure, with a likely equal or greater internal dose from biologically active radionuclides. Large horizontal and vertical temperature gradients caused by adsorption of sunlight in smoke and dust clouds may greatly accelerate transport of particles and radioactivity from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern Hemisphere. When combined with the prompt destruction from nuclear blast, fires, and fallout and the later enhancement of solar ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion, long-term exposure to cold, dark, and radioactivity could pose a serious threat to human survivors and to other species.

  6. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapon explosive tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to calculate the maximum time available for detection of the OSI-relevant radionuclides. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site - now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 × 10(-11) to 1 × 10(-9) of the atmospheric release (per m(2)), and has been used in this paper to evaluate an OSI and the OSI-relevant radionuclides at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the OSI-relevant radionuclides by 99.7% within 2 years of detonation, such that detection throughout the hypothesized inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.

    2013-09-18

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  8. Universal explosive detection system for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Vincent Y.; Bromberg, Edward E. A.

    2010-04-01

    L-3 Communications CyTerra Corporation has developed a high throughput universal explosive detection system (PassPort) to automatically screen the passengers in airports without requiring them to remove their shoes. The technical approach is based on the patented energetic material detection (EMD) technology. By analyzing the results of sample heating with an infrared camera, one can distinguish the deflagration or decomposition of an energetic material from other clutters such as flammables and general background substances. This becomes the basis of a universal explosive detection system that does not require a library and is capable of detecting trace levels of explosives with a low false alarm rate. The PassPort is a simple turnstile type device and integrates a non-intrusive aerodynamic sampling scheme that has been shown capable of detecting trace levels of explosives on shoes. A detailed description of the detection theory and the automated sampling techniques, as well as the field test results, will be presented.

  9. [Aging explosive detection using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Meng, Kun; Li, Ze-ren; Liu, Qiao

    2011-05-01

    Detecting the aging situation of stock explosive is essentially meaningful to the research on the capability, security and stability of explosive. Existing aging explosive detection techniques, such as scan microscope technique, Fourier transfer infrared spectrum technique, gas chromatogram mass spectrum technique and so on, are either not able to differentiate whether the explosive is aging or not, or not able to image the structure change of the molecule. In the present paper, using the density functional theory (DFT), the absorb spectrum changes after the explosive aging were calculated, from which we can clearly find the difference of spectrum between explosive molecule and aging ones in the terahertz band. The terahertz time-domain spectrum (THz-TDS) system as well as its frequency spectrum resolution and measured range are analyzed. Combined with the existing experimental results and the essential characters of the terahertz wave, the application of THz-TDS technique to the detection of aging explosive was demonstrated from the aspects of feasibility, veracity and practicability. On the base of that, the authors advance the new method of aging explosive detection using the terahertz time-domain spectrum technique.

  10. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I.

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  11. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

  12. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  13. Improved performance comparisons of radioxenon systems for low level releases in nuclear explosion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Haas, Derek A; Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Theodore W; Cameron, Ian M; Hayes, James C; Lowrey, Justin D; Miley, Harry S

    2017-08-14

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear tests and mandates development of verification measures to detect treaty violations. One verification measure is detection of radioactive xenon isotopes produced in the fission of actinides. The International Monitoring System (IMS) currently deploys automated radioxenon systems that can detect four radioxenon isotopes. Radioxenon systems with lower detection limits are currently in development. Historically, the sensitivity of radioxenon systems was measured by the minimum detectable concentration for each isotope. In this paper we analyze the response of radioxenon systems using rigorous metrics in conjunction with hypothetical representative releases indicative of an underground nuclear explosion instead of using only minimum detectable concentrations. Our analyses incorporate the impact of potential spectral interferences on detection limits and the importance of measuring isotopic ratios of the relevant radioxenon isotopes in order to improve discrimination from background sources particularly for low-level releases. To provide a sufficient data set for analysis, hypothetical representative releases are simulated every day from the same location for an entire year. The performance of three types of samplers are evaluated assuming they are located at 15 IMS radionuclide stations in the region of the release point. The performance of two IMS-deployed samplers and a next-generation system is compared with proposed metrics for detection and discrimination using representative releases from the nuclear test site used by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Contributed Review: Quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. S. Yu, B.; Fischer, H.; Chen, W.; Yalin, A. P.

    2015-03-15

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  15. Contributed review: quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Li, J S; Yu, B; Fischer, H; Chen, W; Yalin, A P

    2015-03-01

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  16. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... explosives detection system that uses X-ray technology to inspect checked baggage the aircraft operator must... and advise them to remove all X-ray, scientific, and high-speed film from checked baggage before...

  17. A Safer Nuclear Enterprise - Application to Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)(U)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Tommy J.

    2012-07-05

    Activities and infrastructure that support nuclear weapons are facing significant challenges. Despite an admirable record and firm commitment to make safety a primary criterion in weapons design, production, handling, and deployment - there is growing apprehension about terrorist acquiring weapons or nuclear material. At the NES Workshop in May 2012, Scott Sagan, who is a proponent of the normal accident cycle, presented. Whether a proponent of the normal accident cycle or High Reliability Organizations - we have to be diligent about our safety record. Constant vigilance is necessary to maintain our admirable safety record and commitment to Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  18. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  19. Gamma ray spectroscopy features for detection of small explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, T.; Elsalim, M.; Ingle, M.; Phillips, E.

    2003-06-01

    Thermal neutron capture techniques, as embodied in Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA ®) devices, provide a powerful tool for counter terrorism and environmental demilitarization. The common objective in both applications is the detection of explosives via their unique elemental constituents. In TNA, the primary explosive signature is the nitrogen concentration. Hydrogen is a secondary one. However, useful tertiary signatures exist in the full gamma-spectrum reflecting the explosive material itself and its surrounding. All these signatures, or spectra features, are derived from the analysis of the gamma-ray spectra collected by NaI detectors with a good energy resolution. This approach to the generation of explosive decision algorithms was incorporated in Ancore's Small Parcel Explosive Detection System (SPEDS) and other systems. The application described in this paper was the inspection airline passenger carry-on items such as laptop computers, briefcases, liquid bottles, etc., for the presence of small explosives. The feature analysis and the resulting excellent receiver operator characteristics are shown in the paper. The SPEDS was able to automatically detect less than 100 g of explosives in carry-on items, with a low false alarm rate.

  20. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  1. Modeling of Qr Sensors for Optimized Explosives Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Hector; Bussandri, Alejandro; Derby, Kevin

    Quadrupole Resonance (QR) sensors have the unique capability of detecting explosives with remarkably high detection rates and low number of false alarms. The sensitivity of a QR-based sensor in inductive detection can be assessed in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which determines the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves of the detector and provides a fundamental limitation to the performance of the QR explosive detection system. The main goal of the QR sensor design is, therefore, to maximize the SNR to achieve the highest possible detection performance with the lowest number of nuisances.

  2. The limit of detection for explosives in spectroscopic differential reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Vishwanathan, Karthik; Hummel, Rolf E.

    2011-05-01

    In the wake of recent terrorist attacks, such as the 2008 Mumbai hotel explosion or the December 25th 2009 "underwear bomber", our group has developed a technique (US patent #7368292) to apply differential reflection spectroscopy to detect traces of explosives. Briefly, light (200-500 nm) is shone on a surface such as a piece of luggage at an airport. Upon reflection, the light is collected with a spectrometer combined with a CCD camera. A computer processes the data and produces in turn a differential reflection spectrum involving two adjacent areas of the surface. This differential technique is highly sensitive and provides spectroscopic data of explosives. As an example, 2,4,6, trinitrotoluene (TNT) displays strong and distinct features in differential reflectograms near 420 nm. Similar, but distinctly different features are observed for other explosives. One of the most important criteria for explosive detection techniques is the limit of detection. This limit is defined as the amount of explosive material necessary to produce a signal to noise ratio of three. We present here, a method to evaluate the limit of detection of our technique. Finally, we present our sample preparation method and experimental set-up specifically developed to measure the limit of detection for our technology. This results in a limit ranging from 100 nano-grams to 50 micro-grams depending on the method and the set-up parameters used, such as the detector-sample distance.

  3. Detection of Plastic Explosive Traces in the Human Thermal Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowadia, Huban A.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    Aviation security requires the detection of explosive devices which terrorists, posing as passengers, may conceal beneath their clothing. Our goal is to understand the generation, transport, and collection of trace signals from such concealed explosives, which are found in the natural convective plume produced by the human body. Previous work (APS/DFD96, CG10) has visualized this plume and shown that concealed volatile explosives (e.g. TNT) produce a detectable vapor signal therein. Plastic explosives, on the other hand, have vanishingly low vapor pressures and are thus considered very difficult to detect. Present experiments use a dispersal chamber to collect and sample the plumes of human subjects wearing concealed gauze patches containing milligrams of RDX, the primary component of plastic explosives such as C-4. These experiments address the effects of agitation, clothing, temperature and humidity on trace detectability. Further experiments address the effects of oily vs. dry skin, contaminated clothing vs. gauze patches, and residual contamination left on skin previously in contact with RDX. The key role of airborne contaminated textile fibers is noted. Knowledge thus gained contributes to the design of an explosive detection portal for aviation security screening. (Research supported by FAA Grant 93-G-052.)

  4. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  5. Coda Spectral Peaking for Nevada Nuclear Test Site Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, K R; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R

    2007-09-10

    We have applied the regional S-wave coda calibration technique of Mayeda et al. (2003) to earthquake data in and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) using 4 regional broadband stations from the LLNL seismic network. We applied the same path and site corrections to tamped nuclear explosion data and averaged the source spectra over the four stations. Narrowband coda amplitudes from the spectra were then regressed against inferred yield based on the regional m{sub b}(Pn) magnitude of Denny et al. (1987), along with the yield formulation of Vergino and Mensing (1990). We find the following: (1) The coda-derived spectra show a peak which is dependent upon emplacement depth, not event size; (2) Source size estimates are stable for the coda and show a dependence upon the near-source strength and gas porosity; (3) For explosions with the same m{sub b}(Pn) or inferred yield, those in weaker material have lower coda amplitudes at 1-3 Hz.

  6. Collisional Effects in Simulations of High Altitude Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Tanim

    2013-10-01

    The simulation of the later-time (> 1 second) debris dynamics of a high altitude nuclear explosion (HANE) require, at a minimum, an understanding of the interaction of the ionized blast material with the relatively collisional upper ionosphere and lower exosphere (<= 200 km). At these altitudes, the collisional mean free path of ionized atmospheric particles may become smaller than the length scale of the diamagnetic bubble. Here we report on the local dynamics about the debris/air interface for Starfish Prime like, and lower energy, HANEs at altitudes in which collisionality becomes important. We model the debris dynamics with the hybrid plasma simulation code KIM3D, and use a standard Miller-Combi particle pairing algorithm to model particle collisions. We demonstrate new dynamics associated with finite collisionality in mildly collisional HANEs.

  7. Fluorescence quenching as an indirect detection method for nitrated explosives.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, J V; McGuffin, V L

    2001-05-01

    A novel approach based on fluorescence quenching is presented for the analysis of nitrated explosives. Seventeen common explosives and their degradation products are shown to be potent quenchers of pyrene, having Stern-Volmer constants that generally increase with the degree of nitration. Aromatic explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) are more effective quenchers than aliphatic or nitramine explosives. In addition, nitroaromatic explosives are found to have unique interactions with pyrene that lead to a wavelength dependence of their Stern-Volmer constants. This phenomenon allows for their differentiation from other nitrated explosives. The fluorescence quenching method is then applied to the determination of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine(HMX), 2,4,6-TNT, nitromethane, and ammonium nitrate in various commercial explosive samples. The samples are separated by capillary liquid chromatography with post-column addition of the pyrene solution and detection by laser-induced fluorescence. The indirect fluorescence quenching method shows increased sensitivity and selectivity over traditional UV-visible absorbance as well as the ability to detect a wider range of organic and inorganic nitrated compounds.

  8. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  9. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    SciTech Connect

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than good quality'' granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface.

  10. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    SciTech Connect

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-05-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than ``good quality`` granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface.

  11. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    sparse eucalyptus forest, which provides some shelter from the ambient winds. However, the forest has been cleared around the array elements and this...and c) The extraction of energy from turbulent eddies at all frequencies in the monitoring passband. All tests on the development of new wind

  12. Detection of chemical explosives using multiple photon signatures.

    PubMed

    Loschke, K W; Dunn, W L

    2010-01-01

    A template-matching procedure is being investigated for rapid detection of improvised explosive devices at standoff distances. Photon-scattered and photon-induced positron annihilation radiation responses are being studied as a part of a signature-based radiation scanning approach. Back-streaming radiation responses, called signatures, are compared to templates, which are collections of the same signatures if the interrogated volume contained a significant amount of explosive. Experiments have been conducted that show that explosive surrogates (fertilizers) can be distinguished from several inert materials. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Explosives (and other threats) detection using pulsed neutron interrogation and optimized detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strellis, Dan A.; Elsalim, Mashal; Gozani, Tsahi

    2011-06-01

    We have previously reported results from a human-portable system using neutron interrogation to detect contraband and explosives. We summarized our methodology for distinguishing threat materials such as narcotics, C4, and mustard gas in the myriad of backgrounds present in the maritime environment. We are expanding our mission for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to detect Special Nuclear Material (SNM) through the detection of multiple fission signatures without compromising the conventional threat detection performance. This paper covers our initial investigations into using neutrons from compact pulsed neutron generators via the d(D,n)3He or d(T,n)α reactions with energies of ~2.5 and 14 MeV, respectively, for explosives (and other threats) detection along with a variety of gamma-ray detectors. Fast neutrons and thermal neutrons (after successive collisions) can stimulate the emission of various threat detection signatures. For explosives detection, element-specific gamma-ray signatures via the (n,n'γ) inelastic scattering reaction and the (n,'γ) thermal capture reaction are detected. For SNM, delayed gamma-rays following fission can be measured with the same detector. Our initial trade-off investigations of several gamma-ray detectors types (NaI, CsI, LaBr3, HPGe) for measuring gamma-ray signatures in a pulsed neutron environment for potential application in a human-portable active interrogation system are covered in this paper.

  14. Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

  15. Detection of Explosive Devices using X-ray Backscatter Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Anthony A.

    2002-09-01

    It is our goal to develop a coded aperture based X-ray backscatter imaging detector that will provide sufficient speed, contrast and spatial resolution to detect Antipersonnel Landmines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). While our final objective is to field a hand-held detector, we have currently constrained ourselves to a design that can be fielded on a small robotic platform. Coded aperture imaging has been used by the observational gamma astronomy community for a number of years. However, it has been the recent advances in the field of medical nuclear imaging which has allowed for the application of the technique to a backscatter scenario. In addition, driven by requirements in medical applications, advances in X-ray detection are continually being made, and detectors are now being produced that are faster, cheaper and lighter than those only a decade ago. With these advances, a coded aperture hand-held imaging system has only recently become a possibility. This paper will begin with an introduction to the technique, identify recent advances which have made this approach possible, present a simulated example case, and conclude with a discussion on future work.

  16. Multidimensional detection of explosives and explosive signatures via laser electrospray mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, John J.; Flanigan, Paul M., IV; Perez, Johnny J.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2012-06-01

    Nitro- and inorganic-based energetic material is vaporized at atmospheric pressure using nonresonant, 70 femtosecond laser pulses prior to electrospray post-ionization and transfer into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass analysis. Measurements of a nitro-based energetic molecule, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), adsorbed on metal and dielectric surfaces indicate nonresonant vaporization of intact molecules, demonstrating the universality of laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) technique for explosives. In addition, RDX is analyzed at a distance of 2 meters to demonstrate the remote detection capability of LEMS. Finally, the analysis and multivariate statistical classification of inorganic-based explosives containing ammonium nitrate, chlorate, perchlorate, black powder, and an organic-based explosive is presented, further expanding the capabilities of the LEMS technique for detection of energetic materials.

  17. Regional Seismic Signals from Chemical Explosions, Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: Results from the Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Gok, R; Mayeda, K; Sicherman, A; Bonner, J; Leidig, M

    2005-09-02

    Routine industrial mining explosions play two important roles in seismic nuclear monitoring research: (1) they are a source of background events that need to be discriminated from potential nuclear explosions; (2) as some of the only explosions occurring in the current de facto global moratoria on nuclear testing, their signals should be exploited to improve the calibration of seismic m monitoring systems. A common issue monitoring arising in both of these roles is our limited physical understanding of the causes behind observed differences and similarities in the seismic signals produced by routine industrial mining blasts and small underground nuclear tests. In 2003 a consortium (Weston, SMU, LLNL, LANL and UTEP) carried out a Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE), a series of dedicated explosions designed to improve this physical understanding, particularly as it relates to seismic methods of discriminating between signals from three different source types: earthquakes, industrial blasts, and nuclear tests. Here we very briefly review prior field experimental work that examined the seismic relationships between these source types.

  18. Lidar Detection of Explosive Vapors in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Vorozhtsov, A. B.; Gorlov, E. V.; Zharkov, V. I.; Maksimov, E. M.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Sakovich, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of studying the feasibility of remote detection of explosive vapors in the atmosphere based on the lidar principle using the method of laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence. A project of the mobile, automated, fast-response scanning UV lidar for explosives detection at distances of 10-50 m is presented. Experimental data on the detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), and Composition B (CompB) vapors at a distance of 13 m are given. The threshold sensitivity of the lidar detector of explosive vapors is estimated. For TNT vapors, the threshold sensitivity of the lidar detector is estimated to be 1•10-12 g/cm-3 for the detection probability P = 97%.

  19. Improvement of Ground Truth Classification of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.; Bergman, E.

    2016-12-01

    From the 1960's through the late 1980's, the Soviet Union conducted 122 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions across its territory. These PNEs are now very important to the seismological community as so-called Ground Truth (GT) events. The PNE locations are widely distributed, thus GT0-1 locations, meaning that true location is known to within 1 km or better, are used as calibration events for developing seismic velocity models, model validation, seismic discrimination, etc. The nuclear monitoring/verification community generally utilizes published lists of PNE locations as known or verified GT events, though in reality there are errors and some PNEs are poorly located. We have determined or validated GT0-1 locations for 85 of the Soviet PNEs. Some PNEs published as GT1 or better also have larger errors. Our locations were determined using an integrated approach encompassing published open literature, analysis of satellite imagery and regional seismic data. We have visited and verified 10 PNE sites across Kazakhstan and Ukraine, allowing GPS coordinates to be obtained in the field.

  20. Neutronic investigation of a power plant using peaceful nuclear explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, Suemer,; Moir, R.W.; Uenalan, S.

    1994-12-01

    A neutron physics analysis of the modified PACER concept was conducted to assess the required liquid zone thickness of which the volume fraction is 25% in the form of Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) jets and 75% as void. These liquid jets surround a low-yield nuclear fusion explosive and protect the chamber walls. The neutronic calculations assumed a 30-m-radius underground spherical geometry cavity with a 1-cm-thick stainless steel liner attached to the excavated rock wall. Achievement of tritium breeding ratios of 1.05 and 1.15 requires a Flibe thickness of 1.6 and 2.0 m, respectively, which results in average energy densities of 24900 and 19085 J/g. The authors` calculations show that for a Flibe zone thickness >2.5m, the activation of the steel liner and rock would be low enough after 30 yr of operation that the cavity would satisfy the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s rules for {open_quotes}shallow burial{close_quotes} upon decommissioning, assuming other sources of radioactivity could be removed or qualified as well. This means that upon decommissioning, the site could essentially be abandoned, or the cavity could be used as a shallow burial site for other qualified materials. 25 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Generation of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields during large- scale chemical and nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.V.; Dubinya, V.A.; Karaseva, V.A.; Soloviev, S.P.; Surkov, V.V.

    1995-06-01

    We discuss the main parameters of the electric field in the surface layer of the atmosphere and the results of the investigations of the natural electric field variations. Experimental investigations of the electromagnetic field for explosions in air are presented. Electromagnetic signals generated by underground nuclear and chemical explosions are discussed and explosions for 1976--1991 are listed. Long term anomalies of the earth`s electromagnetic field in the vicinity of underground explosions were also investigated. Study of the phenomenon of the irreversible shock magnetization showed that in the zone nearest to the explosion the quasistatic magnetic field decreases in inverse proportion to the distance.

  2. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Alistair P.; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites. PMID:26252765

  3. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ulaeto, David O; Hutchinson, Alistair P; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites.

  4. Solid state gas sensors for detection of explosives and explosive precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yun

    The increased number of terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) over the past few years has made the trace detection of explosives a priority for the Department of Homeland Security. Considerable advances in early detection of trace explosives employing spectroscopic detection systems and other sensing devices have been made and have demonstrated outstanding performance. However, modern IEDs are not easily detectable by conventional methods and terrorists have adapted to avoid using metallic or nitro groups in the manufacturing of IEDs. Instead, more powerful but smaller compounds, such as TATP are being more frequently used. In addition, conventional detection techniques usually require large capital investment, labor costs and energy input and are incapable of real-time identification, limiting their application. Thus, a low cost detection system which is capable of continuous online monitoring in a passive mode is needed for explosive detection. In this dissertation, a thermodynamic based thin film gas sensor which can reliably detect various explosive compounds was developed and demonstrated. The principle of the sensors is based on measuring the heat effect associated with the catalytic decomposition of explosive compounds present in the vapor phase. The decomposition mechanism is complicated and not well known, but it can be affected by many parameters including catalyst, reaction temperature and humidity. Explosives that have relatively high vapor pressure and readily sublime at room temperature, like TATP and 2, 6-DNT, are ideal candidate for vapor phase detection using the thermodynamic gas sensor. ZnO, W2O 3, V2O5 and SnO2 were employed as catalysts. This sensor exhibited promising sensitivity results for TATP, but poor selectivity among peroxide based compounds. In order to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the thermodynamic sensor, a Pd:SnO2 nanocomposite was fabricated and tested as part of this dissertation. A

  5. Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (<400 nm) on targeted materials is suitable for both sensitive detection and accurate identification of explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

  6. Ultrasensitive optoelectronic sensors for nitrogen oxides and explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, J.; Bielecki, Z.; Stacewicz, T.; Mikolajczyk, J.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes application of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) for detection of nitrogen oxides and vapours of explosives. The oxides are important greenhouse gases that are of large influence on environment, living organisms and human health. These compounds are also markers of some human diseases as well as they are emitted by commonly used explosives. Therefore sensitive nitrogen oxides sensors are of great importance for many applications, e. g. for environment protection (air monitoring), for medicine investigation (analyzing of exhaled air) and finally for explosives detection. In the Institute of Optoelectronics MUT different types of optoelectronic sensors employing CEAS were developed. They were designed to measure trace concentration of nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide. The sensors provide opportunity for simultaneous measurement of these gases concentration at ppb level. Their sensitivity is comparable with sensitivities of instruments based on other methods, e.g. gas chromatography or mass spectrometry. Our sensors were used for some explosives detection as well. The experiment showed that the sensors provide possibility to detect explosive devices consisting of nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, TNT, PETN, RDX and HMX.

  7. Categorisation of nuclear explosions from legitimate radioxenon sources with atmospheric transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeppner, M.; Postelt, F.; Kalinowski, M.; Plastino, W.

    2012-04-01

    Radioxenon is produced during nuclear explosions and due to its high fission ratio during the reaction and its noble gas character the isotopes can be detected remote from the location of the explosion. Therefore it is used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO) as an indicator for the nuclear character of an explosion and is monitored with the International Monitoring System (IMS). The concentration of radioxenon in the air is continuously measured by multiple stations worldwide and is in need of an automatic categorization scheme in order to highlight signals of interest and to sort out signals that can be explained by legitimate sources. The dispersion and transport of radioxenon emissions through the atmosphere can be simulated with atmospheric transport modelling. Many legitimate sources of radioxenon exist: Nuclear power plants and isotope production facilities are mainly responsible for the worldwide background. The characterisation of this background is an important prerequisite to discriminate nuclear explosion signals against the background. It has been discovered that the few existing isotope production facilities are the major contributors to the background, each with emission strengths in the order of magnitude or more than all nuclear power plants together. Therefore, especially the characterization of these few, but strong, emitters can improve the quality of the signal prediction. Since the location of such an emitter is usually known the source-receptor sensitivity matrices can be utilized together with measured radioxenon concentrations from IMS stations in order to deduct information about the time dependent emissions from the strong emitter. An automatic method to determine an approximated, time dependent source term of an emitter with known location has been developed and is presented. This is a potentially valid tool for the categorization of radioxenon samples, because it can be used to assess whether the measured

  8. Development of a trace explosives detection portal for personnel screening

    SciTech Connect

    Parmeter, J.E.; Linker, K.L.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr.; Bouchier, F.A.; Hannum, D.W.

    1998-08-01

    The authors discuss the development, design, and operation of a walk-through trace detection portal designed to screen personnel for explosives. Developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with primary funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and additional support from the Department of Energy office of Safeguards and Security, this portal is intended primarily for use in airport terminals and in other localities where a very high throughput of pedestrian traffic is combined with stringent security requirements. The portal is capable of detecting both vapor and particulate contamination, with the collection of explosive material being based upon the entrainment of that material in air flows over the body of the person being screened. This portal is capable of detecting most types of common high explosives of interest to the FAA. The authors discuss the results of field testing of the portal in the Albuquerque International Airport in September, 1997 and more recent steps towards commercialization of the portal.

  9. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  10. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  11. Photoneutron spectroscopy using monoenergetic gamma rays for bulk explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, J. E.; Faust, A. A.; Pastor, K. A.

    2013-03-01

    To date, the most successful nuclear methods to confirm the presence of bulk explosives have been radiative thermal neutron capture (thermal neutron activation) and prompt radiative emission following inelastic fast neutron scattering (fast neutron analysis). This paper proposes an alternative: photoneutron spectroscopy using monoenergetic gamma rays. If monoenergetic gamma rays whose energies exceed the threshold for neutron production are incident on a given isotope, the emitted neutrons have a spectrum consisting of one or more discrete energies and the spectrum can be used as a fingerprint to identify the isotope. A prototype compact gamma-ray generator is proposed as a suitable source and a commercially available 3He ionization chamber is proposed as a suitable spectrometer. Advantages of the method with respect to the previously mentioned ones may include simpler spectra and low inherent natural neutron background. Its drawbacks include a present lack of suitable commercially available photon sources, induced neutron backgrounds and low detection rates. This paper describes the method, including kinematics, sources, detectors and geometries. Simulations using a modified Geant4 Monte Carlo modelling code are described and results are presented to support feasibility. Further experiments are recommended.

  12. A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Harris, D; Pasyanos, M

    2007-03-14

    This report describes research performed under Laboratory Research and Development Project 05-ERD-019, entitled ''A New Capability for Regional High-Frequency Seismic Wave Simulation in Realistic Three-Dimensional Earth Models to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. A more appropriate title for this project is ''A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. This project supported research for a radically new approach to nuclear explosion monitoring as well as allowed the development new capabilities in computational seismology that can contribute to NNSA/NA-22 Programs.

  13. Gamma-Ray Imaging for Explosives Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deNolfo, G. A.; Hunter, S. D.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a gamma-ray imaging camera (GIC) for active interrogation of explosives being developed by NASA/GSFC and NSWCICarderock. The GIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approx.0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of gamma rays, E, > 6 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the electron-positron pair resulting from interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The optimization of the 3-DTI technology for this specific application and the performance of the GIC from laboratory tests is presented.

  14. Standoff detection of explosive residues on unknown surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Neste, C. W.; Liu, Xunchen; Gupta, Manisha; Kim, Seonghwan; Tsui, Ying; Thundat, T.

    2012-06-01

    Standoff identification of explosive residues may offer early warnings to many hazards plaguing present and future military operations. The greatest challenge is posed by the need for molecular recognition of trace explosive compounds on real-world surfaces. Most techniques that offer eye-safe, long-range detection fail when unknown surfaces with no prior knowledge of the surface spectral properties are interrogated. Inhomogeneity in the surface concentration and optical absorption from background molecules can introduce significant reproducibility challenges for reliable detection when surface residue concentrations are below tens of micrograms per square centimeter. Here we present a coupled standoff technique that allows identification of explosive residues concentrations in the sub microgram per square centimeter range on real-world surfaces. Our technique is a variation of standoff photoacoustic spectroscopy merged with ultraviolet chemical photodecomposition for selective identification of explosives. We demonstrate the detection of standard military grade explosives including RDX, PETN, and TNT along with a couple of common compounds such as diesel and sugar. We obtain identification at several hundred nanograms per centimeter square at a distance of four meters.

  15. Standoff trace detection of explosives with infrared hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Hugger, S.; Jarvis, J.-P.; Yang, Q. K.; Zaum, F.; Ostendorf, R.; Schilling, Ch.; Bronner, W.; Driad, R.; Aidam, R.; Wagner, J.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we present a hyperspectral image sensor based on MIR-laser backscattering spectroscopy for contactless detection of explosive substance traces. The spectroscopy system comprises a tunable Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) with a tuning range of 7.5 μm to 9.5 μm as an illumination source and a high performance MCT camera for collecting the backscattered light. The resulting measurement data forms a hyperspectral image, where each pixel vector contains the backscattering spectrum of a specific location in the scene. The hyperspectral image data is analyzed for traces of target substances using a state of the art target detection algorithm (the Adaptive Matched Subspace Detector) together with an appropriate background extraction method. The technique is eye-safe and allows imaging detection of a large variety of explosive substances including PETN, RDX, TNT and Ammonium Nitrate. For short stand-off detection distances (<3 m), residues of explosives at an amount of just a few 10 μg, i.e. traces corresponding to a single fingerprint, could be detected. For larger concentration of explosives, stand-off detection over distances of up to 20 m has already been demonstrated.

  16. Security training symposium: Meeting the challenge: Firearms and explosives recognition and detection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    These conference proceedings have been prepared in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Security Training Symposium on Meeting the Challenge -- Firearms and Explosives Recognition and Detection,'' November 28 through 30, 1989, in Bethesda, Maryland. This document contains the edited transcripts of the guest speakers. It also contains some of the speakers' formal papers that were distributed and some of the slides that were shown at the symposium (Appendix A).

  17. Liquid explosive detection from outside of the bottle by IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Yamauchi, Yuji

    2009-05-01

    Liquid explosives have been used in terrorism recently. Inspection of bottles becomes very important, because these liquid explosive or it raw materials can be carried by bottles easily. Hydrogen peroxide is typical raw materials of liquid explosives. It was difficult to evaluate concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the drink in the bottle, because of similarity of its optical properties to those of water. Using near infrared spectrum and multivariate statistical analysis, concentration of percent order of hydrogen peroxide in the bottle can be evaluated from outside of the bottle instantly. Hydrogen peroxide has been detected in not only a clear PET or glass bottle but also a colored glass bottle. Hydrogen peroxide mixed by soft drink such as coke or orange juice with pulp also detected by this method easily. This technique can be applied to inspection of a bottle at airport security so on.

  18. Liquid explosive detection from outside of the bottle by NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Yamauchi, Yuji

    2009-09-01

    Liquid explosives have recently been used in terrorism. Inspection of bottles has become very important, because these liquid explosives and their raw materials can be easily carried in bottles. Hydrogen peroxide is a typical raw material of liquid explosives. It was difficult to evaluate the concentration of hydrogen peroxide a bottled drink, because of the similarity of its optical properties to those of water. Using the near-infrared spectrum and multivariate statistical analysis, concentrations of a percent order of hydrogen peroxide can be evaluated from outside of the bottle instantly. Hydrogen peroxide has been detected not only in clear PET or glass bottles but also in colored glass bottles. Hydrogen peroxide mixed with soft drink such as coke or orange juice with pulp was also easily detected by this method. This technique can be applied to the inspection of bottles at airport security and so on.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator.

    PubMed

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    An explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma emission (10.82MeV) following radiative neutron capture by (14)N nuclei. The explosive detection system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D-D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF) driven ion source and nominal yield of about 10(10) fast neutrons per second (E=2.5MeV). Polyethylene and paraffin were used as moderators with borated polyethylene and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The shape and the thickness of the moderators and shields are optimized to produce the highest thermal neutron flux at the position of the explosive and the minimum total dose at the outer surfaces of the explosive detection system walls. In addition, simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3-based γ-ray detectors to different explosives is described.

  20. Explosives detection studies using Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Sagalovsky, L.; Smith, D.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) is being investigated for detection of explosives in luggage or air cargo. We present here the principle results of a two-year study of a few-view tomographic FNTS system using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP to simulate neutron transmission through simple luggage phantoms and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to determine system performance. Elemental distributions along projections through the interrogated object are obtained by analyzing MCNP generated neutron transmission data. Transmission data for few (3-5) angles and relatively coarse resolution ({approximately}2 cm) are used to create a tomographic reconstruction of elemental distributions within the object. The elemental unfolding and tomographic reconstruction algorithms and the concept of transmission-derived cross sections for use in elemental analysis have been validated by application to experimental data. Elemental distributions are combined in an explosives detection algorithm to provide an indication of the presence or absence of explosives. The algorithm in current use, termed the ``equivalent explosive`` algorithm, determines the quantity of explosive that can be formed using the measured amount of the constituent elements in each pixel. Reconstruction and explosives detection algorithms have been applied to a series of randomly packed suitcases to generated ROC that describe system performance in terms of the probability of detection and of false alarms. System studies have been performed to study the operational characteristics and limitations of a FNTS system, and to determine the system`s sensitivity to several important parameters such as neutron source reaction and incident particle energy, flight path length, and the position of the interrogated object.

  1. Canine detection odor signatures for mine-related explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, James M.; Williams, Marc; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Dugan, Regina E.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-09-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives used in land mines. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to (1) blank air, (2) a target odor such as an explosive, and (3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like the target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT and C-4. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  2. A New Database of Digitized Regional Seismic Waveforms from Nuclear Explosions in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, I. N.; Richards, P. G.; Kim, W. Y.; Mikhailova, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    Seismology is an observational science. Hence, the effort to understand details of seismic signals from underground nuclear explosions requires analysis of waveforms recorded from past nuclear explosions. Of principal interest, are regional signals from explosions too small to be reliably identified via teleseismic recording. But the great majority of stations operated today, even those in networks for nuclear explosion monitoring, have never recorded explosion signals at regional distances, because most stations were installed long after the period when most underground nuclear explosions were conducted; and the few nuclear explosions since the early 1990s were mostly recorded only at teleseismic distances. We have therefore gathered thousands of nuclear explosion regional seismograms from more than 200 analog stations operated in the former Soviet Union. Most of them lie in a region stretching approximately 6000 km East-West and 2000 km North-South and including much of Central Asia. We have digitized them and created a modern digital database, including significant metadata. Much of this work has been done in Kazakhstan. Most of the explosions were underground, but several were conducted in the atmosphere. This presentation will characterize the content and overall quality of the new database for signals from nuclear explosions in Eurasia, which were conducted across substantial ranges of yield and shot-point depth, and under a great variety of different geological conditions. This work complements a 20-year collaborative effort which made the original digital recordings of the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, openly available in a modern format (see http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Data/). For purposes of characterizing explosive sources, it would be of assistance to have seismogram archives from explosions conducted in all regions including the Pacific, North Africa, and the United States (including the Aleutians). Openly available

  3. Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Detection of Pesticides and Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting OP pesticides and explosives. CNTs and functionalized silica nanoparticles have been chosen for this study. The biosensors were combined with the flow-injection system, providing great advantages for onsite, real-time, and continuous detection of environmental pollutants such as OPs and TNT. The sensors take advantage of the electrocatalytic properties of CNTs, which makes it feasible to achieve a sensitive electrochemical detection of the products from enzymatic reactions at low potential. This approach uses a large aspect ratio of silica nanoparticles, which can be used as a carrier for loading a large amount of electroactive species, such as poly(guanine), for amplified detection of explosives. These methods offer a new environmental monitoring tool for rapid, inexpensive, and highly sensitive detection of OPs or TNT compounds.

  4. Standoff ultraviolet raman scattering detection of trace levels of explosives.

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2011-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) Raman scattering with a 244-nm laser is evaluated for standoff detection of explosive compounds. The measured Raman scattering albedo is incorporated into a performance model that focused on standoff detection of trace levels of explosives. This model shows that detection at {approx}100 m would likely require tens of seconds, discouraging application at such ranges, and prohibiting search-mode detection, while leaving open the possibility of short-range point-and-stare detection. UV Raman spectra are also acquired for a number of anticipated background surfaces: tile, concrete, aluminum, cloth, and two different car paints (black and silver). While these spectra contained features in the same spectral range as those for TNT, we do not observe any spectra similar to that of TNT.

  5. Active spectral imaging for standoff detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Skvortsov, L A

    2011-12-31

    Laser methods of standoff detection of explosive traces on surfaces of objects are considered. These methods are based on active formation of multi- and hyperspectral images of an object examined. The possibilities of these methods and the prospects of their development are discussed. Emphasis is laid on the justification of the most preferred field of application of the technique under consideration.

  6. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... inspection of photographic equipment and film. (1) At locations at which an aircraft operator or TSA uses an... and advise them to remove all X-ray, scientific, and high-speed film from checked baggage before... photographic equipment and film packages without exposure to an explosives detection system. (2) If...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... inspection of photographic equipment and film. (1) At locations at which an aircraft operator or TSA uses an... and advise them to remove all X-ray, scientific, and high-speed film from checked baggage before... photographic equipment and film packages without exposure to an explosives detection system. (2) If...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213 Section 1544.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213 Section 1544.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  10. Analysis of Digitized Seismograms from Russian Geophysical Survey Stations of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    2008 REPRINT 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ANALYSIS OF DIGITIZED SEISMOGRAMS FROM RUSSIAN GEOOPHYSICAL FA8718-08-C-0018 SURVEY STATIONS OF...Technologies ANALYSIS OF DIGITIZED SEISMOGRAMS FROM RUSSIAN GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY STATIONS OF SOVIET PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS Kevin G. Mackey Michigan State...Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs). The analysis seeks to better resolve the crustal and velocity structure of Russia, particularly the Russian

  11. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2015-04-01

    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for

  12. Development of nuclear technique for the detection of landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Din D.; Rosengard, Ulf; Trkov, Andrej

    2003-09-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) for the development of nuclear techniques for landmine detection. Out of the fourteen institutes participating in the CRP, twelve are working on neutron-based techniques. Small isotope neutron sources and D-T neutron generators have been used by the researchers. The techniques used include neutron scattering by explosives as well as gamma spectroscopy following the interaction of neutrons with explosives. Neutrons are readily thermalized by hydrogen in explosives and backscattered. Cape Town University, South Africa, and Delft University, Netherlands, have developed instruments based on this principle. Both are portable units and laboratory tests prove their capability to detect dummy landmines (100 g explosive simulant) buried 3-6 cm below dry soil. Further improvements are in progress. Another device, PELAN, developed by the Western Kentucky University, U.S. is based on pulsed fast and thermal neutron activation and has reached a fairly advanced stage of development. The equipment was tested with real mines in a test field in Croatia. In this first series of tests, PELAN could detect antitank mines (5.6 kg explosive) buried 7.5 cm below soil, and antipersonnel mines (200 g explosive) buried 5 cm below soil. More field tests and methods for improving performance are being pursued. The research groups are investigating different facets of the problem such as detector development, Monte Carlo calculations, spectrum unfolding, detector shielding and data analysis.

  13. Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Hua; Ge, Cong-Hui; Huang, Zhi-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Our recent work on the detection of explosives by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is reviewed in this paper. We have studied the physical mechanism of laser-induced plasma of an organic explosive, TNT. The LIBS spectra of TNT under single-photon excitation are simulated using MATLAB. The variations of the atomic emission lines intensities of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen versus the plasma temperature are simulated too. We also investigate the time-resolved LIBS spectra of a common inorganic explosive, black powder, in two kinds of surrounding atmospheres, air and argon, and find that the maximum value of the O atomic emission line SBR of black powder occurs at a gate delay of 596 ns. Another focus of our work is on using chemometic methods such as principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish the organic explosives from organic materials such as plastics. A PLS-DA model for classification is built. TNT and seven types of plastics are chosen as samples to test the model. The experimental results demonstrate that LIBS coupled with the chemometric techniques has the capacity to discriminate organic explosive from plastics.

  14. Detection of explosive remnants of war by neutron thermalisation.

    PubMed

    Brooks, F D; Drosg, M; Smit, F D; Wikner, C

    2012-01-01

    The HYDAD-D landmine detector (Brooks and Drosg, 2005) has been modified and field-tested for 17 months in a variety of soil conditions. Test objects containing about the same mass of hydrogen (20g) as small explosive remnants of war, such as antipersonnel landmines, were detected with efficiency 100% when buried at cover depths up to 10cm. The false alarm rate under the same conditions was 9%. Plots of detection efficiency versus false alarm rate are presented.

  15. Quantum control for initiation and detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Margo T; Mc Grane, Shawn D; Scharff, R. Jason; Moore, David S

    2010-01-01

    We employ quantum control methods towards detection and quantum controlled initiation (QCI) of energetic materials. Ultrafast pulse shaping of broadband Infrared ({approx}750 nm to 850 run) and ultraviolet (266 nm, 400 nm) light is utilized for control. The underlying principals behind optimal control can be utilized to both detect and initiate explosives. In each case, time dependent phase shaped electric fields drive the chemical systems towards a desired state. For optimal dynamic detection of explosives (ODD-Ex) a phase specific broadband infrared pulse is created which increases not only the sensitivity of detection but also the selectivity of an explosive's spectral signatures in a background of interferents. QCI on the other hand, seeks to initiate explosives by employing shaped ultraviolet light. QCI is ideal for use with explosive detonators as it removes the possibility of unintentional initiation from an electrical source while adding an additional safety feature, initiation only with the proper pulse shape. Quantum control experiments require: (1) the ability to phase and amplitude shape the laser pulse and (2) the ability to effectively search for the pulse shape which controls the reaction. In these adaptive experiments we utilize both global and local optimization search routines such as genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and downhill simplex. Pulse shaping the broadband IR light, produced by focusing 800 nm light through a pressurized tube of Argon, is straightforward as commercial pulse shapers are available at and around 800 nm. Pulse shaping in the UV requires a home built shaper. Our system is an acoustic optical modulator (AOM) pulse shaper in which consists of a fused silica AOM crystal placed in the Fourier plane of a 4-f zero dispersion compressor.

  16. Tagged neutron capabilities for detecting hidden explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Belichenko, S. G.; Bestaev, R. R.; Gavryuchenkov, A. V.; Karetnikov, M. D.

    2015-05-01

    The work is devoted to illegal materials detection via tagged neutron method (TNM). The detection of hazardous substances is based on recording of gamma radiation from a neutron-irradiated object and analysis of its elemental composition. As against other neutron radiation methods the TNM enables to obtain 3D distribution of elements in the inspected area. The results of experimental part of the research show operational capabilities (probabilities of missing and false alarm) of a portable TNM inspection system when inspecting small hand-luggage-type objects.

  17. Neurophysiological Procedures for the Detection of Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    34 behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. The laboratory rat was not initially considered a candidate fcr the bio- detection system, primarily...educational programs, language acquisition in humans and the traditional bar pressing of the laboratory rat . The behaviors emitted in operant conditioning

  18. UTEX modeling of xenon signature sensitivity to geology and explosion cavity characteristics following an underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce anthropogenic isotopes that can potentially be used in the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Several isotopes of radioactive xenon gas have been identified as radionuclides of interest within the International Monitoring System (IMS) and in an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Substantial research has been previously undertaken to characterize the geologic and atmospheric mechanisms that can drive the movement of radionuclide gas from a well-contained UNE, considering both sensitivities on gas arrival time and signature variability of xenon due to the nature of subsurface transport. This work further considers sensitivities of radioxenon gas arrival time and signatures to large variability in geologic stratification and generalized explosion cavity characteristics, as well as compares this influence to variability in the shallow surface.

  19. Tracing airborne particles after Japan's nuclear plant explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Hisashi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2011-11-01

    The powerful Tohoku earthquake and consequent tsunami that occurred off the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 devastated dozens of coastal cities and towns, causing the loss of more than 15,000 lives and leaving close to 4000 people still missing. Although nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, located on the Pacific coast, stopped their operation automatically upon the occurrence of the Mw 9.0 quake [Showstack, 2011], the cooling system for nuclear fuel broke down. From 12 to 16 March, vapor and hydrogen blasts destroyed the buildings that had contained the reactors, resulting in the release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials such as sulfur-35, iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137, which collectively can cause harmful health effects such as tissue damage and increased risk of cancer (particularly in children), depending on dose. Most of those materials emitted from the power plant rained out onto the grounds within its vicinity and forced tens of thousands within a 20-kilometer radius to evacuate (residents to the northwest of the site within about 40 kilometers also were moved from their homes). Some of the radioactive materials were transported and then detected at such distant locations as North America and Europe, although the level of radiation dose was sufficiently low not to affect human health in any significant manner.

  20. Solid state nuclear track detection

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, S.A.; Bull, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a basic work on the technique variously known as 'nuclear track analysis', 'track-etch technique', or 'solid state nuclear tract detection'. This has greatly expanded in range, scope and depth since the early 1960's, soon after its discovery, until there is hardly a field now in which it has not found an actual or potential use. Such applications range from archaeology, geology, space physics, medicine and biology to reactor physics and nuclear physics-to name but a few.

  1. Explosion Seismology: Capabilities and limitations of long-range methods for detecting and recognizing explosions are discussed.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, E W

    1965-01-22

    I have tried to describe some current research trends in seismology which are specifically directed toward solving the problem of detecting, locating, and identifying underground nuclear explosions. Attention has been directed specifically toward problems which arise in efforts to obtain information at distances in excess of 2500 kilometers. The main scientific advantage which accrues from working at such distances is that the seismic signals suffer minimal distortion by the geological complexities of the earth. Extrapolation of the data to the question of an international test ban is not within the scope of this article. Suffice it to note that all of the parameters must, in the final resort, be resolved in terms of probabilities. In some cases the seismological probabilities can be estimated with reasonable degrees of accuracy, but the future of the test ban question depends not only on seismology but on such questions as inspection and what probabilities are acceptable.

  2. Analysis of the Anomalous Surface Wave Magnitudes for the North Korean Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J. L.; Herrmann, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    The surface wave magnitudes (Ms) estimated from Rayleigh waves generated by the 9 October 2006 and 25 May 2009 North Korean nuclear explosions were 2.9 and 3.6, respectively. When these estimates were related to the body-wave magnitudes (mb) reported for these events (e.g., 4.1 and 4.6), the surface wave magnitudes were anomalously large compared to typical nuclear explosions. When using these Ms values to predict the yields of the explosions, the estimates were an order of magnitude larger than yields estimated from body-wave techniques. In this paper, we present our surface wave analysis for these explosions. We provide estimates of the surface wave magnitudes for both the Love and Rayleigh waves generated by these explosions with comparison to other nuclear test sites. For example, the Love-wave Ms for the 25 May 2009 event was 0.6 magnitude units smaller than the Rayleigh-wave magnitude, which is a larger difference than noted for any other historic nuclear test site. This provides qualitative evidence of the largely isotropic nature of these explosions. We further quantify this by providing moment estimates for each explosion based on surface wave modeling. We then use these moments to estimate yields based on velocity structures inferred near the North Korean test site for comparison to body-wave yield estimates. We also compare the moments and magnitudes to numerous earthquakes in the Korean Peninsula for which similar analyses have been completed. We hope to determine the phenomena behind these large explosion-generated Rayleigh waves, with possible explanations including path effects, the largely isotropic components of these explosions, or the test site velocity structure.

  3. Low cost mobile explosive/drug detection devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, T.; Bendahan, J.

    1999-06-10

    Inspection technologies based on Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) and/or Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) are the basis for relatively compact and low-cost, material-sensitive devices for a wide variety of inspection needs. The TNA allows the use of either isotropic neutron sources such as a {sup 252}Cf, or electronic neutron generators such as the d-T sealed neutron generator tubes. The latter could be used in a steady state mode or in slow (>{mu}s) pulsing mode, to separate the thermal neutron capture signatures following the pulse from the combination of the FNA plus TNA signatures during the pulse. Over the years, Ancore Corporation has built and is continuing to develop a variety of inspection devices based on its TNA and FNA technologies: SPEDS--an explosive detection device for small parcels, portable electronics, briefcases and other similar carry-on items; MDS - a system for the detection or confirmation of buried mines; VEDS - a system for the detection of varied amounts of explosives and/or drugs concealed in passenger vehicles, pallets, lightly loaded trucks or containers, etc.; ACD - a device to clear alarms from a primary, non-specific explosive detection system for passenger luggage. The principle and performance of these devices will be shown and discussed.

  4. Parameters of explosives detection through tagged neutron method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdasaryan, Kh. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Belichenko, S. G.; Bestaev, R. R.; Gavryuchenkov, A. V.; Karetnikov, M. D.

    2015-06-01

    The potentialities of tagged neutron method (TNM) for explosives detection are examined on the basis of an idealized geometrical model. The model includes ING-27 14 MeV neutron generator with a built-in α-detector, a LYSO γ-detector and samples of material to be identified of approximately 0.3 kg each: explosives imitators (trinitrotoluene - TNT, tetryl, RDX and ammonium nitrate), legal materials (sugar, water, silk and polyethylene). The samples were unshielded or shielded by a paper layer of various thicknesses. The experimental data were interpreted by numerical simulation using a Poisson distribution of signals with the statistical parameters defined experimentally. The detection parameters were obtained by a pattern classification theory and a Bayes classifier.

  5. Remote Detection of Explosive Molecules by a Microfluidic SERS Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorek, Brian; Lee, Seung Joon; Moskovits, Martin; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Meinhart, Carl

    2007-11-01

    Free-surface microfluidics (FSF) is combined with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect trace explosives vapors at room temperature and pressure. A free surface, with a large surface to volume ratio, is created using an open microchannel. Since surface tension is a dominant force at the microscale, it can be used to confine the fluid in the microchannel and create a pressure gradient to drive the flow with velocities ranging from ˜ 1um/s - 1mm/s. The curvature of the free surface is measured by confocal microscopy in order to determine the local Laplace pressure in the free-surface microchannel flow. The system has been used for the molecular-specific detection of vapor emanated from explosives such as DNT, TNT and picric acid. The system does not show signs of performance degradation from common interferents such as saturated gasoline vapor and perfume.

  6. Coded-aperture Raman imaging for standoff explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCain, Scott T.; Guenther, B. D.; Brady, David J.; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the design of a deep-UV Raman imaging spectrometer operating with an excitation wavelength of 228 nm. The designed system will provide the ability to detect explosives (both traditional military explosives and home-made explosives) from standoff distances of 1-10 meters with an interrogation area of 1 mm x 1 mm to 200 mm x 200 mm. This excitation wavelength provides resonant enhancement of many common explosives, no background fluorescence, and an enhanced cross-section due to the inverse wavelength scaling of Raman scattering. A coded-aperture spectrograph combined with compressive imaging algorithms will allow for wide-area interrogation with fast acquisition rates. Coded-aperture spectral imaging exploits the compressibility of hyperspectral data-cubes to greatly reduce the amount of acquired data needed to interrogate an area. The resultant systems are able to cover wider areas much faster than traditional push-broom and tunable filter systems. The full system design will be presented along with initial data from the instrument. Estimates for area scanning rates and chemical sensitivity will be presented. The system components include a solid-state deep-UV laser operating at 228 nm, a spectrograph consisting of well-corrected refractive imaging optics and a reflective grating, an intensified solar-blind CCD camera, and a high-efficiency collection optic.

  7. Preliminary study of first motion from nuclear explosions recorded on seismograms in the first zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mangan, G.B.

    1963-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recorded more than 300 seismograms from more than 50 underground nuclear explosions. Most were recorded at distances of less than 1,000 km. These seismograms have been studied to obtain travel times and amplitudes which have been presented in reports on crustal structure and in a new series of nuclear shot reports. This report describes preliminary studies of first motion of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions. Visual inspection of all seismograms was made in an attempt to identify the direction of first motion, and to estimate the probability of recording detectable first motion at various distances for various charge sizes and in different geologic environments. In this study, a characteristic pattern of the first phase became apparent on seismograms where first motion was clearly recorded. When an interpreter became familiar with this pattern, he was frequently able to identify the polarity of the first arrival even though the direction of first motion could not be seen clearly on the seismogram. In addition, it was sometimes possible to recognize this pattern for secondary arrivals of larger amplitude. These qualitative visual observations suggest that it might be possible to define a simple criterion that could be used in a digital computer to identify polarity, not only of the first phase, but of secondary phases as well. A short segment of recordings near the first motion on 56 seismograms was digitized on an optical digitizer. Spectral analyses of these digitized recordings were made to determine the range of frequencies present, and studies were made with various simple digital filters to explore the nature of polarity as a function of frequency. These studies have not yet led to conclusive results, partly because of inaccuracies resulting from optical digitization. The work is continuing, using an electronic digitizer that will allow study of a much larger sample of more accurately digitized data.

  8. Detection of explosives traces on documents by attenuated total reflection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreysho, A. S.; Bertseva, E. V.; Korepanov, V. S.; Morosov, A. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The technical devices of explosives trace detection are discussed in this work. The attenuated total reflection method (ATR) is considered for detection of explosives traces on different things (documents, clothes, fingers). The results of experiments with Fourier spectrometer and ATR attachment for explosive trace detection are presented. The optical scheme and design of the compact testing device are discussed. The device includes the document information scanner and at the same time - the trace detector of explosives on the document cover.

  9. Mass spectrometric detection of solid and vapor explosive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, William R.; Green, D.; Mercado, Alvaro G.

    1994-10-01

    The detection by chemical sensors of explosive devices in a terrorist or contraband scenario usually involves the acquisition of material in the vapor or solid form. Whether in the vapor form in ambient air or in solid form in a matrix of innocuous material, the chemical compounds may be present at very low concentrations or may be present in concentrations higher by orders of magnitude. In this study, a characterization of a tandem mass spectrometer detection system has been made to evaluate a variety of parameters as it relates to explosive chemicals in both the vapor and solid phases. In particular, a range of concentrations of standard solutions of RDX, PETN and TNT have been injected in determine the sensitivity, dynamic range, and lower level of detection of the SCIEX contraband tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. Techniques for the introduction of samples include heated nebulization and direct injection/thermal desorption from a real time sampler belt. As well, explosive vapors produced by a special generator were injected in a 1 l/min stream of room air and used to characterize instrumental performance. Solid material was presented in a form simulating fingerprint material and then transferred to the detector using a real time sampling system and then thermally desorbed into the mass spectrometer ionization chamber.

  10. Materials Science for Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, Anthony J.

    2008-03-01

    In response to the elevated importance of nuclear detection technology, a variety of research efforts have sought to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials These efforts have goals such as improving our understanding of how these materials perform, supporting the development of formalized discovery tools, or enabling rapid and effective performance characterization. This article provides an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of these materials.

  11. Radiological investigations at the "Taiga" nuclear explosion site: Site description and in situ measurements.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Repin, V; Medvedev, A; Khramtsov, E; Timofeeva, M; Yakovlev, V

    2011-07-01

    In the summer of 2009, we performed a field survey of the "Taiga" peaceful underground nuclear explosion site, the Perm region, Russia (61.30° N, 56.60° E). The explosion was carried out by the USSR in 1971. This paper provides an extended summary of the available published data on the "Taiga" experiment. A detailed description of the site is illustrated by original aerial and ground-level photos. A large artificial lake (700 m long and 350 m wide) currently occupies the central area of the experimental site. The ground lip surrounding the lake is covered by a newly grown mixed forest. In situ measurements, performed in August 2009, revealed elevated levels of the γ-ray dose rate in air on the banks of the lake "Taiga". Two hot spots were detected on the eastern bank of the lake. The excess of the γ-ray radiation is attributable to the man-made radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs. The current external γ-ray dose rate to a human from the contaminations associated with the "Taiga" experiment was between 9 and 70 μSv per week. Periodic monitoring the site is recommended.

  12. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapons tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables and data quality objectives expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte Underground Nuclear Test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to assess an OSI. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site – now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 x 10-11 to 1 x 10-9 of the atmospheric release (per m2), and has been used to evaluate a hypothetical OSI at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the 17 OSI relevant radionuclides by 99.7%, such that detection throughout the inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest.

  13. Improved thermal neutron activation sensor for detection of bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.; Andrews, H. Robert; Clifford, Edward T. H.; Mosquera, Cristian M.

    2012-06-01

    Defence R&D Canada - Suffield and Bubble Technology Industries have been developing thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensors for detection of buried bulk explosives since 1994. First generation sensors, employing an isotopic source and NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors, were deployed by Canadian Forces in 2002 as confirmation sensors on the ILDS teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor anti-tank landmine detection systems. The first generation TNA could detect anti-tank mines buried 10 cm or less in no more than a minute, but deeper mines and those significantly displaced horizontally required considerably longer times. Mines as deep as 30 cm could be detected with long counting times (1000 s). The second generation TNA detector is being developed with a number of improvements aimed at increasing sensitivity and facilitating ease of operation. Among these are an electronic neutron generator to increase sensitivity for deeper and horizontally displaced explosives; LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, to improve time response and energy resolution; improved thermal and electronic stability; improved sensor head geometry to minimize spatial response nonuniformity; and more robust data processing. This improved sensitivity can translate to either decreased counting times, decreased minimum detectable explosive quantities, increased maximum sensor-to-target displacement, or a trade off among all three. Experiments to characterize the performance of the latest generation TNA in detecting buried landmines and IEDs hidden in culverts were conducted during 2011. This paper describes the second generation system. The experimental setup and methodology are detailed and preliminary comparisons between the performance of first and second generation systems are presented.

  14. Surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy for the detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, Fritjof; Hagemann, Jan; Wellhausen, Mike; Funke, Sebastian; Lenth, Christoph; Rotter, Frank; Gundrum, Lars; Plachetka, Ulrich; Moormann, Christian; Strube, Moritz; Walte, Andreas; Wackerbarth, Hainer

    2013-10-01

    A detector which can detect a broad range of explosives without false alarms is urgently needed. Vibrational spectroscopy provides specific spectral information about molecules enabling the identification of analytes by their "fingerprint" spectra. The low detection limit caused by the inherent weak Raman process can be increased by the Surface Enhanced Raman (SER) effect. This is particularly attractive because it combines low detection limits with high information content for establishing molecular identity. Based on SER spectroscopy we have constructed a modular detection system. Here, we want to show a combination of SER spectroscopy and chemometrics to distinguish between chemically similar substances. Such an approach will finally reduce the false alarm rate. It is still a challenge to determine the limit of detection of the analyte on a SER substrate or its enhancement factor. For physisorbed molecules we have applied a novel approach. By this approach the performance of plasmonic substrates and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) enhancement of explosives can be evaluated. Moreover, novel nanostructured substrates for surface enhanced IR absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy will be presented. The enhancement factor and a limit of detection are estimated.

  15. Mini-fission fusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less desirable. A third category (mini-nukes) are devices where the critical mass of the fission explosive is substantially reduced by its coupling to a DT fusion reaction, with the DT fusion neutrons increasing the fission rate. Whereas in pure fission devices a reduction of the critical mass is achieved by the implosive compression of the fissile core with a chemical high explosive, in the third category the implosion must at the same time heat the DT surrounding the fissile core to a temperature of ⩾107K, at which enough fusion neutrons are generated to increase the fission rate which in turn further increases the temperature and fusion neutron production rate. As has been shown by the author many years ago, such mini-nukes lead to astonishingly small critical masses. In their application to nuclear pulse propulsion the combustion products from the chemical high explosive are further heated by the neutrons and are becoming part of the propellant.

  16. Detection of explosives via photolytic cleavage of nitroesters and nitramines.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Trisha L; Swager, Timothy M

    2011-05-06

    The nitramine-containing explosive RDX and the nitroester-containing explosive PETN are shown to be susceptible to photofragmentation upon exposure to sunlight. Model compounds containing nitroester and nitramine moieties are also shown to fragment upon exposure to UV irradiation. The products of this photofragmentation are reactive, electrophilic NO(x) species, such as nitrous and nitric acid, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide. N,N-Dimethylaniline is capable of being nitrated by the reactive, electrophilic NO(x) photofragmentation products of RDX and PETN. A series of 9,9-disubstituted 9,10-dihydroacridines (DHAs) are synthesized from either N-phenylanthranilic acid methyl ester or a diphenylamine derivative and are similarly shown to be rapidly nitrated by the photofragmentation products of RDX and PETN. A new (turn-on) emission signal at 550 nm is observed upon nitration of DHAs due to the generation of fluorescent donor-acceptor chromophores. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, the presence of ca. 1.2 ng of RDX and 320 pg of PETN can be detected by DHA indicators in the solid state upon exposure to sunlight. The nitration of aromatic amines by the photofragmentation products of RDX and PETN is presented as a unique, highly selective detection mechanism for nitroester- and nitramine-containing explosives and DHAs are presented as inexpensive and impermanent fluorogenic indicators for the selective, standoff/remote identification of RDX and PETN. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry for explosives trace detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersson, Anna; Elfving, Anders; Elfsberg, Mattias; Hurtig, Tomas; Johansson, Niklas; Al-Khalili, Ahmed; Käck, Petra; Wallin, Sara; Östmark, Henric

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the ongoing development of a laser ionization mass spectrometric system to be applied for screening for security related threat substances, specifically explosives. The system will be part of a larger security checkpoint system developed and demonstrated within the FP7 project EFFISEC to aid border police and customs at outer border checks. The laser ionization method of choice is SPI (single photon ionization), but the system also incorporates optional functionalities such as a cold trap and/or a particle concentrator to facilitate detection of minute amounts of explosives. The possibility of using jet-REMPI as a verification means is being scrutinized. Automated functionality and user friendliness is also considered in the demo system development.

  18. Improved method for the detection of TATP after explosion.

    PubMed

    Muller, D; Levy, A; Shelef, R; Abramovich-Bar, S; Sonenfeld, D; Tamiri, T

    2004-09-01

    TATP in post explosion exhibits was reported earlier to be best recovered from vapor phase. A typical procedure includes its adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7, elution with acetonitrile and analysis by GC/MS. In this work, improved recovery of TATP from the vapor phase was achieved by SPME using PDMS/DVB fiber and immediate sampling to GC/MS. The recovery of TATP by SPME was compared with headspace and with adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7 by spiking onto filter paper put in a 100 mL beaker. The limit of detection of TATP was 6.4 ng in these conditions, few orders magnitude more than in the other tested methods. Recovery of TATP in the presence of various solvents was also studied. Acetone, water, and mixtures of water:alcohols (1:1) were found to reduce the recovery of TATP. Using SPME, TATP has been identified in dozens of post-explosion cases.

  19. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  20. Future Detection of Supernova Neutrino Burst and Explosion Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Totani, T.; Sato, K.; Dalhed, H.E.; Wilson, J.R.

    1998-03-01

    Future detection of a supernova neutrino burst by large underground detectors would give important information for the explosion mechanism of collapse-driven supernovae. We studied the statistical analysis for the future detection of a nearby supernova by using a numerical supernova model and realistic Monte Carlo simulations of detection by the Super-Kamiokande detector. We mainly discuss the detectability of the signatures of the delayed explosion mechanism in the time evolution of the {ovr {nu}}{sub e} luminosity and spectrum. For a supernova at 10 kpc away from the Earth, we find not only that the signature is clearly discernible but also that the deviation of the energy spectrum from the Fermi-Dirac (FD) distribution can be observed. The deviation from the FD distribution would, if observed, provide a test for the standard picture of neutrino emission from collapse-driven supernovae. For the {ital D}=50 kpc case, the signature of the delayed explosion is still observable, but statistical fluctuation is too large to detect the deviation from the FD distribution. We also propose a method for statistical reconstruction of the time evolution of {ovr {nu}}{sub e} luminosity and spectrum from data, by which we can get a smoother time evolution and smaller statistical errors than by a simple, time-binning analysis. This method is useful especially when the available number of events is relatively small, e.g., a supernova in the LMC or SMC. A neutronization burst of {nu}{sub {ital e}}`s produces about five scattering events when D=10 kpc, and this signal is difficult to distinguish from {ovr {nu}}{sub e}{ital p} events. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  1. Digital micromirror devices in Raman trace detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Svanqvist, Mattias; Ågren, Matilda; Nordberg, Markus; Östmark, Henric

    2016-05-01

    Imaging Raman spectroscopy based on tunable filters is an established technique for detecting single explosives particles at stand-off distances. However, large light losses are inherent in the design due to sequential imaging at different wavelengths, leading to effective transmission often well below 1 %. The use of digital micromirror devices (DMD) and compressive sensing (CS) in imaging Raman explosives trace detection can improve light throughput and add significant flexibility compared to existing systems. DMDs are based on mature microelectronics technology, and are compact, scalable, and can be customized for specific tasks, including new functions not available with current technologies. This paper has been focusing on investigating how a DMD can be used when applying CS-based imaging Raman spectroscopy on stand-off explosives trace detection, and evaluating the performance in terms of light throughput, image reconstruction ability and potential detection limits. This type of setup also gives the possibility to combine imaging Raman with non-spatially resolved fluorescence suppression techniques, such as Kerr gating. The system used consists of a 2nd harmonics Nd:YAG laser for sample excitation, collection optics, DMD, CMOScamera and a spectrometer with ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. Initial results for compressive sensing imaging Raman shows a stable reconstruction procedure even at low signals and in presence of interfering background signal. It is also shown to give increased effective light transmission without sacrificing molecular specificity or area coverage compared to filter based imaging Raman. At the same time it adds flexibility so the setup can be customized for new functionality.

  2. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  3. Detection and classification of explosive compounds utilizing laser ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmeier, A.; Heep, W.; Oberhuettinger, C.; Oberpriller, H.; Kessler, M.; Goebel, J.; Mueller, G.

    2009-05-01

    Detection of explosives by ion mobility spectroscopy has become common in recent years. We demonstrate explosive detection with a novel Laser Ion Mobility Spectrometer (LIMS) developed at EADS Innovation Works. A Laser operating at 266nm was used for the two-photon ionisation of dopant and calibrant substances. Quantitative measurements of trace residues of explosives have been performed to quantify the sensitivity of the LIMS system. Findings demonstrate the suitability of this technique as a screening tool for explosive compounds.

  4. Effectiveness of quality-control aids in verifying K-9-team explosive detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallowell, Susan F.; Fischer, Douglas S.; Brasher, Jeffrey D.; Malone, Robert L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Rae, Cathy

    1997-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9 team detection performance for explosives used as training aids and QCAs configurations of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCA configuration of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCAs. The configurations were a paper patch impregnated with a solution of the explosive, a cloth pouch filed with small amounts of solid explosive, and the non-hazardous explosive for security training and testing material. The DTE was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, where the K-9 teams undergo initial training. Six FAA certified operational teams participated. All explosives and QCAs were presented to the K-9 teams using a 10 scent box protocol. The results show that K-9 team as are more sensitive to explosives than the candidate QCAs. More importantly, it was discovered that the explosives at Lackland AFB are cross-contaminated, meaning that explosives possessed volatile artifacts from other explosives. There are two potential hypotheses explaining why the dogs did not detect the QCAs. First, the cross-contamination of Lackland training explosives may mean that K-9 teams are only trained to detect the explosives with the most volatile chemical signatures. Alternatively, the QCA configurations may have been below the trained detection threshold of the K-9s. It is recommended that K-9 teams train on uncontaminated odors from properly designed QCAs to ensure that dogs respond to the appropriate explosive components, and not some

  5. Detection of homemade explosives using Raman excitation at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Eric G.; Dentinger, Claire; Robotham, Claude

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for obtaining molecular structure information of a sample. While Raman spectroscopy is a common laboratory based analytical tool, miniaturization of opto-electronic components has allowed handheld Raman analyzers to become commercially available. These handheld systems are utilized by Military and Bomb squad operators tasked with rapidly identifying explosives in the field, sometimes in clandestine laboratories. However, one limitation of many handheld Raman detection systems is strong interference caused by fluorescence of the sample or underlying surface which obscures the characteristic Raman signature of the target analyte. Homemade explosives (HMEs) are produced in clandestine laboratories, and the products under these conditions are typically contaminated with degradation products, contaminants, and unreacted precursors. These contaminations often will have strong fluorescence. In this work, Raman spectra of both commercial explosives and HMEs were collected using a handheld Raman spectrometer with a 1064 nm excitation laser. While Raman scattering generated by a 1064 nm laser is inherently less efficient than excitation at shorter wavelengths, high quality spectra were easily obtained due to significantly reduced fluorescence of HMEs.

  6. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  7. Explosives detection using photoneutrons produced by X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yigang; Li, Yuanjing; Wang, Haidong; Li, Tiezhu; Wu, Bin

    2007-08-01

    The detection of explosives has become a critical issue after recent terrorist attacks. This paper describes research on explosives detection using photoneutrons from a photoneutron convertor that consists of 20 kg heavy water in an aluminum container whose shape was optimized to most effectively convert X-rays to photoneutrons. The X-rays were produced by a 9 MeV electron accelerator with an average electron current of 100 μA, resulted in a photoneutron yield of >10 11 n/s. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the radiation field is composed of X-ray pulses, fast neutron pulses and thermal neutrons. Both the X-ray and fast neutron pulses are 5 μs wide with a 300 Hz repetition frequency. The thermal neutron flux, which is higher than 10 4 n/cm 2/s, is essentially time invariant. A time shielding circuit was developed for the spectrometry system to halt the sampling process during the intense X-ray pulses. Paraffin, boron carbide and lead were used to protect the detector from interference from the X-rays, fast neutrons, thermal neutrons and background γ-rays coming from the system materials induced by photoneutrons. 5″×5″ NaI (Tl) scintillators were chosen as the detectors to detect the photoneutrons induced γ-rays from the inspected explosive simulant. Nitrogen (6.01 cps) 10.828 MeV γ-rays were detected with one detector from a 50 kg carbamide block placed 60 cm in front of the detector. A collimator was used to reduce the number of background 10.828 MeV γ-rays coming from the nitrogen in the air to improve the signal to background ratio from 0.136 to 1.81. A detector array of seven 5″×5″ NaI (Tl) detectors was used to measure the 2-D distributions of N and H in the sample. The combination of photoneutron analysis and X-ray imaging shows promise for enhancing explosives detection capabilities.

  8. Physical Constraints on Seismic Waves from Chemical and Nuclear Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-22

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Qualified requestors may obtain additional copies from the Defense Technical Information Center. All others...should apply to the National Technical Information Service. If your address has changed, or if you wish to be removed from the mailing list, or if...has led to a moderate amount of vised as two- and three-dimensional structural information be- work in characterizing chemical explosions as sources

  9. Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Short Jr., Billy Joe

    2009-06-01

    Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided ~2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and ~800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of ~25-fold at 244 nm and ~190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

  10. Comparison of Mount Saint Helens volcanic eruption to a nuclear explosion. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomena and effects of airblast, ground shock, thermal radiation, cratering and ejecta, and debris cloud and deposition from the eruption of Mt. St. Helens were compared to those that would result from a nuclear explosion to determine if phenomena or effects were analogous and thus might provide useful data for military nuclear weapon effects studies. It is concluded that the phenomena are not analogous. In particular, airblast destruction was caused by clouds of ash driven by subsonic winds, rather than by a supersonic shock wave that would be the damage mechanism of a nuclear explosion. Because of the lack of analogy between the eruption and nuclear explosion phenomena, it appears questionable that any of the effects are analogous; therefore, it is unlikely that anything more of military interest can be gained from studying the effects of the eruption. However, key contacts for further information on the eruption and the associated research studies are given. The comparison of the eruption of Mt. St. Helens to the explosion of a 10- to 20-megaton nuclear weapon is misleading. Such comparisons serve no useful purpose and should be avoided.

  11. Recent development of two new UV Raman standoff explosive detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterbury, Rob; Babnick, Robert; Cooper, Justin L.; Ford, Alan R.; Herrera, Francisco; Hopkins, Adam J.; Pohl, Ken; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Sandoval, Juan; Vunck, Darius

    2016-05-01

    Alakai Defense Systems has created two new short range UV Raman standoff explosive detection sensors. These are called the Critical Infrastructure Protection System (CIPS) and Portable Raman Improvised Explosive Detection System (PRIED) and work at standoff ranges of 10cm and 1-10m respectively. Both these systems are designed to detect neartrace quantities of explosives and Homemade Explosives. A short description of the instruments, design trades, and CONOPS of each design is presented. Data includes a wide variety of explosives, precursors, TIC/TIM's, narcotics, and CWA simulants

  12. A non-imaging polarized terahertz passive system for detecting and identifying concealed explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Meyer, Doug

    2011-06-01

    Existing terahertz THz systems for detecting concealed explosives are not capable of identifying explosive type which leads to higher false alarm rates. Moreover, some of those systems are imaging systems that invade personal privacy, and require more processing and computational resources. Other systems have no polarization preference which makes them incapable of capturing the geometric features of an explosive. In this study a non-imaging polarized THz passive system for detecting and identifying concealed explosives overcoming the forgoing shortcomings is developed. The system employs a polarized passive THz sensor in acquiring emitted data from a scene that may have concealed explosives. The acquired data are decomposed into their natural resonance frequencies, and the number of those frequencies is used as criteria in detecting the explosive presence. If the presence of an explosive is confirmed, a set of physically based retrieval algorithms is used in extracting the explosive dielectric constant/refractive index value from natural resonance frequencies and amplitudes of associated signals. Comparing the refractive index value against a database of refractive indexes of known explosives identifies the explosive type. As an application, a system having a dual polarized radiometer operating within the frequency band of 0.62- 0.82 THz is presented and used in detecting and identifying person borne C-4 explosive concealed under a cotton garment. The system showed higher efficiencies in detecting and identifying the explosive.

  13. PINS Measurements and Simulations for Stand-Off Detection of High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury

    2011-07-01

    There has been some interest in the ability of Idaho National Laboratory's (INL) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System's (PINS) ability to detect high explosives at a distance. In order to assess the system's ability to perform this task, laboratory experiments on simulated or mock explosives and Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP on both mock and real explosives have been performed. The simulations and experiments on mock explosives have essentially identical configurations, allowing the models to be confirmed with experiment. This provides greater confidence in the simulations on real explosives without the need for experiment on live explosives.

  14. Ag-ZnO nanostructure for ANTA explosive molecule detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Gaur, Anshu; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2016-05-23

    Ag/ZnO nanostructure for surface enhanced Raman scattering application in the detection of ANTA explosive molecule is demonstrated. A highly rough ZnO microstructure was achieved by rapid thermal annealing of metallic Zn film. Different thickness Ag nanostructures are decorated over these ZnO microstructures by ion beam sputtering technique. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies carried out over Ag/ZnO substrates have shown three orders higher enhancement compared to bare Ag nanostructure deposited on the same substrate. The reasons behind such huge enhancement are discussed based on the morphology of the sample.

  15. Atmosphere Issues in Detection of Explosives and Organic Residues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Atmosphere Issues in Detection of Explosives and Organic Residues C.G. Brown*1, M. Baudelet1, C. Bridge1, M.K. Fisher1, M. Sigman2, P.J...comparison of LIBS emission from molecular species in plasmas produced from organic residues on a non-metallic substrate by both a 5 ns Nd:YAG laser...1064 nm) and a 40 fs Ti:Sapphire laser (800 nm) in air and argon atmospheres. The organic samples analyzed had varying amounts of carbon, nitrogen

  16. Photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chuanyi; Wei, Heming; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    The detection of explosives and their residues is of great importance in public health, antiterrorism and homeland security applications. The vapor pressures of most explosive compounds are extremely low and attenuation of the available vapor is often great due to diffusion in the environment, making direct vapor detection difficult. In this paper, a photonic-microfluidic integrated sensor for highly sensitive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) detection is described based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). A segment of PCF is inserted between standard single-mode fibers (SMF) via butt coupling to form a modal interferometer, in which the cladding modes are excited and interfere with the fundamental core mode. Due to butt coupling, the small air gap between SMF and PCF forms a coupling region and also serves as an inlet/outlet for the gas. The sensor is fabricated by immobilizing a chemo-recognition coating on the inner surface of the holey region of the PCF, which selectively and reversibly binds TNT molecules on the sensitized surface. The sensing mechanism is based on the determination of the TNT-induced wavelength shift of interference peaks due to the refractive index change of the holey-layer. The sensor device therefore is capable of field operation.

  17. Direct mass spectrometric detection of trace explosives in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lipo; Xin, Bin; Chen, Yi

    2012-04-07

    The detection of explosives in soil is of great significance in public security programmes and environmental science. In the present work, a ppb-level method was established to directly detect the semi-volatile explosives, RDX and TNT, present in complex soil samples. The method used thermal sampling technique and a direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge source mounted with a brass cylinder electrode (9 mm × 4.6 mm i.d./5.6 mm o.d.) to face the samples, requiring no sample pretreatment steps such as soil extraction (about ten hours). It was characterized by the merits of easy operation, high sensitivity and fast speed, and has been validated by real soil samples from various locations around a factory or firecracker releasing fields. It took only 5 min per sample, with the limit of detection down to 0.5 ppb (S/N = 3) trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine in soils heated at 170 °C. It is also extendable to the analysis of other volatile analytes.

  18. Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

    1993-03-01

    Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion.

  19. The Surface Wave Magnitude for the 9 October 2006 North Korean Nuclear Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, J; Herrmann, R; Harkrider, D; Pasyanos, M

    2008-03-11

    Surface waves were generated by the North Korean nuclear explosion of 9 October 2006 and recorded at epicentral distances up to 34 degrees, from which we estimated a surface wave magnitude (M{sub s}) of 2.94 with an interstation standard deviation of 0.17 magnitude units. The International Data Centre estimated a body wave magnitude (m{sub b}) of 4.1. This is the only explosion we have analyzed that was not easily screened as an explosion based on the differences between the M{sub s} and m{sub b} estimates. Additionally, this M{sub s} predicts a yield, based on empirical M{sub s}/Yield relationships, that is almost an order of magnitude larger then the 0.5 to 1 kiloton reported for this explosion. We investigate how emplacement medium effects on surface wave moment and magnitude may have contributed to the yield discrepancy.

  20. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. Final technical report, June 9, 1994--October 9, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Spivak, A.A.

    1995-04-01

    It was found that in the first approximation the mechanical effect of underground nuclear explosion is analogous to the effect of chemical explosion. Really qualitative analysis shows that accompanying mechanical effects of nuclear and chemical explosions are the same: in the both cases explosion consequences are characterized by formation of the camouplet cavity (crater after explosion near free surface), destruction of the rock massif near explosion centre, creation of the stress wave, which forms seismoexplosive effect a long distance from explosion epicentre. Qualitative likeness of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions is the base of modelling the mechanical effects of the underground nuclear explosion. In this paper we`ll compare two explosions: nuclear (15-04-84) and chemical (27.06.95) with large power. These explosions were realized at the same geological conditions at Degelen test area, which is a part of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. In the case of the nuclear explosion, the charge was disposed in the face of the deep horizontal gallery. The charge of the chemical explosion was a semisphere from explosives at the rock massif surface. In the both case rock massif behavior after explosions was investigated at underground conditions (in the case of chemical explosion -- in the long underground excavation from explosion epicentre). Mechanical effects from the nuclear and chemical explosions were investigated with the same methods. The changes in geological medium after a large-scale explosive actions will be analyzed in detail too. Investigations of the influence of tectonic energy on the mechanical effects after underground nuclear, explosions represents the main interest. In this paper we`ll discuss this question on the data from underground nuclear explosion, realized 08.09.89 in the deep well at the Balapan test area, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  1. Production and dissolution of nuclear explosive melt glasses at underground test sites in the Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Smith, D.K.

    1998-11-06

    From 1975 to 1996 the French detonated 140 underground nuclear explosions beneath the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa in the South Pacific; from 1965 to 1971 the United States detonated three high yield nuclear tests beneath Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain. Approximately 800 metric tons of basalt is melted per kiloton of nuclear yield; almost lo7 metric tons of basalt were melted in these tests. Long-lived and toxic radionuclides are partitioned into the melt glass at the time of explosion and are released by dissolution with seawater under saturated conditions. A glass dissolution model predicts that nuclear melt glasses at these sites will dissolve in lo6 to lo7 yea

  2. Wireless system for explosion detection in underground structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhradze, M.; Bochorishvili, N.; Akhvlediani, I.; Kukhalashvili, D.; Kalichava, I.; Mataradze, E.

    2009-06-01

    Considering the growing threat of terrorist or accidental explosions in underground stations, underground highway and railway sections improvement of system for protecting people from explosions appears urgent. Current automatic protective devices with blast identification module and blast damping absorbers of various designs as their basic elements cannot be considered effective. Analysis revealed that low reliability of blast detection and delayed generation of start signal for the activation of an absorber are the major disadvantages of protective devices. Besides the transmission of trigger signal to an energy absorber through cable communication reduces the reliability of the operation of protective device due to a possible damage of electric wiring under blast or mechanical attack. This paper presents the outcomes of the studies conducted to select accurate criteria for blast identification and to design wireless system of activation of defensive device. The results of testing of blast detection methods (seismic, EMP, optical, on overpressure) showed that the proposed method, which implies constant monitoring of overpressure in terms of its reliability and response speed, best meets the requirements. Proposed wireless system for explosions identification and activation of protective device consists of transmitter and receiver modules. Transmitter module contains sensor and microprocessor equipped with blast identification software. Receiver module produces activation signal for operation of absorber. Tests were performed in the underground experimental base of Mining Institute. The time between the moment of receiving signal by the sensor and activation of absorber - 640 microsecond; distance between transmitter and receiver in direct tunnel - at least 150m; in tunnel with 900 bending - 50m. This research is sponsored by NATO's Public Diplomacy Division in the framework of "Science for Peace".

  3. Trace Explosives Detection by Photoluminescence with Applications to Time-Resolved Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, Kimberly

    2003-10-01

    Trace explosive detection field methods based on chemical reactions have until recently utilized only colorimetric products. To increase the sensitivity of such detection, a field explosive test kit which produces a product that is both colorimetric and luminescent is studied. Detection sensitivity can be gained by taking advantage of the luminescence of these products, something that has not been done to date. When the appropriate chemistry is chosen for explosive detection, time-resolved imaging techniques may again be applicable. Thus, in this talk, the possibilities of taking trace explosives detection to this next level will be discussed.

  4. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    PubMed

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  5. A Story Too Good to Kill: The "Nuclear" Explosion in San Francisco Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badash, Lawrence; Hewlett, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an explosion in Port Chicago (California) that a journalist later ascribed to a nuclear weapon, explains how his conclusions can be refuted, discusses the sociology of publishing such spectacular claims, and suggests how historians might better assist journalists in evaluating such claims. (40 references) (LRW)

  6. Fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a Federal Emergency Management Agency-sponsored Conference on fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions (with passing attention to earthquakes and other nonnuclear mishaps). This conference, the fifth of an annual series (formally called Blast/Fire Interaction Conferences), was held during the week of April 25, 1982, again at Asilomar, California.

  7. A Story Too Good to Kill: The "Nuclear" Explosion in San Francisco Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badash, Lawrence; Hewlett, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an explosion in Port Chicago (California) that a journalist later ascribed to a nuclear weapon, explains how his conclusions can be refuted, discusses the sociology of publishing such spectacular claims, and suggests how historians might better assist journalists in evaluating such claims. (40 references) (LRW)

  8. Development of Software to Digitize Historic Hardcopy Seismograms from Nuclear Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    2003) and Teseo2 (Michelini and the Sismos Team, 2005). Nuclear explosions typically have a distinctive character (which is why they can be...Appendix to ICSU report. Michelini, A. and the SISMOS Team (2005). Collection, digitization and distribution of historical seismological data at INGV

  9. Symposium on Engineering With Nuclear Explosives January 14-16, 1970, Las Vegas, Nevada. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-05-01

    Concerning the Two Chief World Systems - Ptolemaic and Copernican, transl. by Stillman Drake, (Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1953). 17. T. R...Chapin vii Thermodynamics of the Silica-Steam RADIOACTIVITY II System ....... ............... .. 481 Studies of Radioactivity from 0. H. Krikorian... System for Nuclear Project Aquarius-Geohydrologic Explosives ..... ... .............. 964 Investigation ....... ............. .1174 W. F. Ragsdale W

  10. Dose prediction in Japan for nuclear test explosions in North Korea.

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2008-11-01

    The impact on Japan of the underground test conducted in North Korea on October 9, 2006 is examined. By the use of the results of modelling assessment and environmental monitoring, it is concluded that there was no radiation impact on Japan. This suggests a safely conducted underground nuclear test or an explosion with a very low output.

  11. Simulation Study of Near-Surface Coupling of Nuclear Devices vs. Equivalent High-Explosive Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Kevin B; Walton, Otis R; Benjamin, Russ; Dunlop, William H

    2014-09-29

    A computational study was performed to examine the differences in near-surface ground-waves and air-blast waves generated by high-explosive energy sources and those generated by much higher energy - density low - yield nuclear sources. The study examined the effect of explosive-source emplacement (i.e., height-of-burst, HOB, or depth-of-burial, DOB) over a range from depths of -35m to heights of 20m, for explosions with an explosive yield of 1-kt . The chemical explosive was modeled by a JWL equation-of-state model for a ~14m diameter sphere of ANFO (~1,200,000kg – 1 k t equivalent yield ), and the high-energy-density source was modeled as a one tonne (1000 kg) plasma of ‘Iron-gas’ (utilizing LLNL’s tabular equation-of-state database, LEOS) in a 2m diameter sphere, with a total internal-energy content equivalent to 1 k t . A consistent equivalent-yield coupling-factor approach was developed to compare the behavior of the two sources. The results indicate that the equivalent-yield coupling-factor for air-blasts from 1 k t ANFO explosions varies monotonically and continuously from a nearly perfec t reflected wave off of the ground surface for a HOB ≈ 20m, to a coupling factor of nearly zero at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear air - blast coupling curve, on the other hand, remained nearly equal to a perfectly reflected wave all the way down to HOB’s very near zero, and then quickly dropped to a value near zero for explosions with a DOB ≈ -10m. The near - surface ground - wave traveling horizontally out from the explosive source region to distances of 100’s of meters exhibited equivalent - yield coupling - factors t hat varied nearly linearly with HOB/DOB for the simulated ANFO explosive source, going from a value near zero at HOB ≈ 5m to nearly one at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear-source generated near-surface ground wave coupling-factor remained near zero for almost all HOB’s greater than zero, and then appeared to vary nearly - linearly with depth

  12. Explosive hazard detection using synthetic aperture acoustic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewster, E.; Keller, J. M.; Stone, K.; Popescu, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to detect explosive hazards designed to attack vehicles from the side of a road, using a side looking synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) sensor. This is done by first processing the raw data using a back-projection algorithm to form images. Next, an RX prescreener creates a list of possible targets, each with a designated confidence. Initial experiments are performed on libraries of the highest confidence hits for both target and false alarm classes generated by the prescreener. Image chips are extracted using pixel locations derived from the target's easting and northing. Several feature types are calculated from each image chip, including: histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and generalized column projection features where the column aggregator takes the form of the minimum, maximum, mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, and the one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT). A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is then utilized to evaluate feature type performance during training and testing in order to determine whether the two classes are separable. This will be used to build an online detection system for road-side explosive hazards.

  13. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the optical emission produced thereby is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  14. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1999-06-15

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

  15. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  16. Seismic and Infrasound Characteristics of North Korean Nuclear Explosions Utilizing Regional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, B. W.; Park, J.; Che, I. Y.; Hayward, C.

    2016-12-01

    This work analyzes seismic and infrasound signals from four underground nuclear tests by North Korea in 2006, 2009, 2013, and 2016. Regional data from eight seismo-acoustic arrays, operated by Southern Methodist University (SMU) and Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) located in the Korean peninsula, a seismic station in China (MDJ), and two nearby International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound arrays in Russia (IS45) and Japan (IS30) are used. Infrasound signals at the arrays are detected using the progressive multi-channel correlation (PMCC; Cansi, 1995) followed by analyst review and compared to model predictions based on the method of Blom and Waxler (2012) using Ground-to-Space (G2S) specifications (Drob et al., 2003). This comparison documents that infrasound detection and event locations are dependent on the atmospheric conditions and local noise levels at the time of each explosion. Based on empirical yield-scaling relation of Whitaker et al. (2003), infrasound source energies are estimated at the closest array (KSGAR) to be 0.6, 23.5, and 8.2 tons of TNT for 2009, 2013, and 2016, respectively (no clear observations from 2006). The relative seismic source scaling of the four explosions is assessed using Mueller and Murphy source model (1971) based upon regional seismic station spectral ratios of Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg. Using a grid search method, we explore the range of acceptable source models in terms of depth of burial and yields for 2009/2006, 2013/2006, 2016/2006, 2013/2009, 2016/2009, and 2013/2016. Using this methodology the 2013/2016-yield ratio is from 1.05-1.30 with an estimated depth range from 0.71-1.15. The small infrasound yield is a reflection of the fact that the infrasound signal is a result of coupling from strong ground motion directly above the explosion and the atmosphere. Differences in relative yield ratios for seismic and infrasound provide constraints on source depth as well as free surface interactions.

  17. Nuclear subsurface explosion modeling and hydrodynamic fragmentation simulation of hazardous asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premaratne, Pavithra Dhanuka

    Disruption and fragmentation of an asteroid using nuclear explosive devices (NEDs) is a highly complex yet a practical solution to mitigating the impact threat of asteroids with short warning time. A Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) concept, developed at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC), consists of a primary vehicle that acts as kinetic impactor and a secondary vehicle that houses NEDs. The kinetic impactor (lead vehicle) strikes the asteroid creating a crater. The secondary vehicle will immediately enter the crater and detonate its nuclear payload creating a blast wave powerful enough to fragment the asteroid. The nuclear subsurface explosion modeling and hydrodynamic simulation has been a challenging research goal that paves the way an array of mission critical information. A mesh-free hydrodynamic simulation method, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) was utilized to obtain both qualitative and quantitative solutions for explosion efficiency. Commercial fluid dynamics packages such as AUTODYN along with the in-house GPU accelerated SPH algorithms were used to validate and optimize high-energy explosion dynamics for a variety of test cases. Energy coupling from the NED to the target body was also examined to determine the effectiveness of nuclear subsurface explosions. Success of a disruption mission also depends on the survivability of the nuclear payload when the secondary vehicle approaches the newly formed crater at a velocity of 10 km/s or higher. The vehicle may come into contact with debris ejecting the crater which required the conceptual development of a Whipple shield. As the vehicle closes on the crater, its skin may also experience extreme temperatures due to heat radiated from the crater bottom. In order to address this thermal problem, a simple metallic thermal shield design was implemented utilizing a radiative heat transfer algorithm and nodal solutions obtained from hydrodynamic simulations.

  18. A range muon tomography performance study for the detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Chung, Andrew; Nicolas, Hengartner W; Morris, Christopher; Schultz, Larry J; Reimus, Nathaniel P; Bacon, Jeffrey D; Vogan - Mc Neil, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Soft cosmic ray tomography has been shown to successfully discriminate materials with various density levels due to their ability to deeply penetrate matter, allowing sensitivity to atomic number, radiation length and density. Because the multiple muon scattering signal from high Z-materials is very strong, the technology is well suited to the detection of the illicit transportation of special and radiological nuclear materials. In addition, a recent detection technique based on measuring the lower energy particles that do not traverse the material (range radiography), allows to discriminate low and medium Z-materials. This is shown in [4] using Monte Carlo simulations. More recently, using a mini muon tracker developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we performed various experiments to try out the radiation length technology. This paper presents the results from real experiments and evaluates the likelihood that soft cosmic ray tomography may be applied to detect high-explosives.

  19. Surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, H.J.

    1980-11-03

    Seismic surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain is studied through a series of synthetic radiation-pattern calculations based on the earthquake-trigger model. From amplitude and phase radiation patterns for 20-s Rayleigh waves, inferences are made about effects on surface-wave magnitude, M/sub s/, and waveform character. The focus of this study is a comparison between two mechanisms of tectonic strain release: strike-slip motion on vertical faults and thrust motion on 45/sup 0/ dipping faults. The results of our calculations show that Rayleigh-wave amplitudes of the dip-slip model at F values between 0.75 and 1.5 are significantly lower than amplitudes of the strike-slip model or of the explosion source alone. This effect translates into M/sub s/ values about 0.5 units lower than M/sub s/ of the explosion alone. Waveform polarity reversals occur in two of four azimuthal quadrants for the strike-slip model and in all azimuths of the dip-slip-thrust model for F values above about 3. A cursory examination of waveforms from presumed explosions in eastern Kazakhstan suggests that releases of tectonic strain are accompanying the detonation of many of these explosions. Qualitatively, the observations seem to favor the dip-slip-thrust model, which, in the case of a few explosions, must have F values above 3.

  20. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  1. Discrimination of Nuclear Explosions against Civilian Sources Based on Atmospheric Xenon Isotopic Activity Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelsson, Anders; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, Xavier; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Brachet, Guy; Hebel, Simon; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, Paul R. J.; Schlosser, Clemens; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, Thomas; Kurt Ungar, R.

    2010-05-01

    A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support the interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions and reactors, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

  2. Extreme Ground Motion Recorded in the Near-Source Region of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W

    2005-01-04

    Free-field recordings of underground nuclear explosions constitute a unique data set within the near-source region of seismic events ranging in magnitude from M3 to M6.5. The term ''free-field'' in this context refers to recordings from instruments emplaced in boreholes or tunnel walls such that the initial portions of the records ({approx}0.1 to 1 second) do not contain effects resulting from reflections at the free surface. In addition to the free-field instruments deployed to record ground motions from selected underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere, surface arrays were routinely deployed to record surface accelerations and velocities from underground nuclear tests conducted at NTS.

  3. Telemetered renal responses in dogs during detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Rader, R D; Stevens, C M

    1975-01-01

    The primary objectove of this work was to develop and test a method of measuring and characterizing renal hemodynamic responses in unrestrained dogs. Recordings of left kidney blood flow and abdominal aortic pressure were obtained from unrestrained dogs through the use of a two-channel implanted telemetry system during episodes of search and detection of simulated explosives. In each of a number of sequences, the dog was first given a start signal, and after locating the hidden device, was rewarded with food. Data were assessed at the start, find, and recovery segments. The dynamic flow and pressure, together with a hydraulic renal model, were used to derive the total preglomerular and postglomerular vascular resistances and the mean level of glomerular hydrostatic pressure. Data from three dogs obtained by telemetry and analyzed through the use of the model have shown that compared to the start of the test, the location of hidden explosives results in a decrease in both the level of mean aortic blood pressure and the preglomerular resistance; whereas, the reward results in an elevation of mean blood pressure and preglomerular resistance. The postglomerular resistance varied less than the preglomerular resistance, and mean flow did not vary significantly. This work has shown that the stimulation of a reward and the successful performance of a task lead to significant renal responses in dogs. It has further shown that telemetry, when employed with improved data analysis techniques, permits renal hemodynamics to be assessed in unrestrained animal subjects.

  4. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kaazik, P.B.; Kostyuchenko, V.N.; Kuznetsov, O.P.; Nedoshivin, N.I.; Rubinshtein, K.D.; Sultanov, D.D.

    1995-04-01

    The report is carried out by the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences under contract NB280344 with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California. The work includes investigation of seismic waves generation and propagation from Soviet peaceful underground nuclear explosions in salt based on the data from temporary and permanent seismic stations. The explosions were conducted at the sites Azgir and Vega within the territory of the Caspian depression of the Russian platform. The data used were obtained in the following conditions of conduction: epicentral distance range from 0 to 60 degrees, yields from 1 to 65 kt and depths of burial from 160 to 1500 m.

  5. REGIONAL SEISMIC CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR EXPLOSION DISCRIMINATION: WESTERN U.S. EXAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Taylor, S R; Matzel, E; Gok, R; Heller, S; Johnson, V

    2006-07-07

    We continue exploring methodologies to improve regional explosion discrimination using the western U.S. as a natural laboratory. The western U.S. has abundant natural seismicity, historic nuclear explosion data, and widespread mine blasts, making it a good testing ground to study the performance of regional explosion discrimination techniques. We have assembled and measured a large set of these events to systematically explore how to best optimize discrimination performance. Nuclear explosions can be discriminated from a background of earthquakes using regional phase (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg) amplitude measures such as high frequency P/S ratios. The discrimination performance is improved if the amplitudes can be corrected for source size and path length effects. We show good results are achieved using earthquakes alone to calibrate for these effects with the MDAC technique (Walter and Taylor, 2001). We show significant further improvement is then possible by combining multiple MDAC amplitude ratios using an optimized weighting technique such as Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). However this requires data or models for both earthquakes and explosions. In many areas of the world regional distance nuclear explosion data is lacking, but mine blast data is available. Mine explosions are often designed to fracture and/or move rock, giving them different frequency and amplitude behavior than contained chemical shots, which seismically look like nuclear tests. Here we explore discrimination performance differences between explosion types, the possible disparity in the optimization parameters that would be chosen if only chemical explosions were available and the corresponding effect of that disparity on nuclear explosion discrimination. Even after correcting for average path and site effects, regional phase ratios contain a large amount of scatter. This scatter appears to be due to variations in source properties such as depth, focal mechanism, stress drop, in the near source

  6. A human reliability analysis of a nuclear explosives dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in a human reliability analysis (HRA) conducted during a quantitative hazard assessment of a nuclear weapon disassembly process performed at the Pantex plant. The probability of human errors during the disassembly process is an extremely important aspect of estimating accident-sequence frequency for nuclear weapons processing. The methods include the systematic identification of potential human-initiated or enabled accident sequences using an accident-sequence fault tree, the extensive use of walkthroughs and videotaping of the disassembly process, and hands-on testing of postulated human errors. THERP modeling of rule-based behavior and operational data analysis of errors in skill-based behavior are described. A simple method for evaluating the approximate likelihood of nonmalevolent violations of procedures was developed and used to examine the process. The HRA occurred concurrently with process design, so considerable interaction between the analysts and designers occurred and resulted in design changes that are discussed in the paper.

  7. A Trends Review of Geophysics Research in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinkard, M.; Maceira, M.; Arrowsmith, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Blom, P. S.; Ford, S. R.; Foxe, M. P.; MacCarthy, J.; Marcillo, O. E.; Merchant, B. J.; Orris, G. J.; Pasyanos, M.; Casey, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    As researchers strive to continuously expand our collective knowledge and capabilities, it is valuable to occasionally pause and observe the arcs of progress. Here we look over the body of research related to improving monitoring capabilities and highlight key trends in thought, approach, and execution. Trends are analyzed for four key research areas: source physics (how an earthquake or explosion transmits energy into seismic and infrasonic form, and how radionuclides are released), signal propagation (how seismic and infrasound waves, and radionuclides, propagate), sensors (how to improve sensing systems), and signal analysis (how to take the observations at sensors and obtain information about the source). In this work we discuss several significant trends, such as moving from 1D to 3D earth models, from pick-based methods to full waveform methods, and from separate analysis of sensor data to integrated analysis. For each trend we discuss the improvements enabled by this trend, key papers that advanced the science, and the benefits we expect this trend will yield in future years.

  8. Biological Effects of Nuclear Explosions (BENE) Domain Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    phantoms as well as study thermal effects on rats and dogs. Flash blindness (time to eyesight recovery after exposure to a nuclear flash) was...studied over a two year period. A large animal model (burro) was also used, and phantom dosimetry reconstructed. Swine, dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs...Project 39.8, Depth-Dose Studies in Phantoms with Initial Bomb Gamma and Neutron Radiation WT- 1508 Human tissue equivalent material tissue

  9. THz-Raman spectroscopy for explosives, chemical, and biological detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriere, James T. A.; Havermeyer, Frank; Heyler, Randy A.

    2013-05-01

    Raman and Terahertz spectroscopy are both widely used for their ability to safely and remotely identify unknown materials. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. Traditional Raman spectroscopy typically measures molecular energy transitions in the 200-5000cm-1 region corresponding to sub-molecular stretching or bending transitions, while Terahertz spectroscopy measures molecular energy transitions in the 1-200cm-1 region (30GHz - 6THz) that correspond to low energy rotational modes or vibrational modes of the entire molecule. Many difficult to detect explosives and other hazardous chemicals are known to have multiple relatively strong transitions in this "Terahertz" (<200cm-1, <6THz) regime, suggesting this method as a powerful complementary approach for identification. However, THz signal generation is often expensive, many THz spectroscopy systems are limited to just a few THz range, and strong water absorption bands in this region can act to mask certain transitions if great care isn't taken during sample preparation. Alternatively, low-frequency or "THz-Raman" spectroscopy, which covers the ~5cm-1 to 200cm-1 (150GHz - 6 THz) regions and beyond, offers a powerful, compact and economical alternative to probe these low energy transitions. We present results from a new approach for extending the range of Raman spectroscopy into the Terahertz regime using an ultra-narrow-band volume holographic grating (VHG) based notch filter system. An integrated, compact Raman system is demonstrated utilizing a single stage spectrometer to show both Stokes and anti-Stokes measurements down to <10cm-1 on traditionally difficult to detect explosives, as well as other chemical and biological samples.

  10. Observations of Nuclear Explosive Melt Glass Textures and Surface Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, A B; Smith, D K

    2006-01-17

    This memo report summarizes our current knowledge of the appearance of melt glass formed and subsequently deposited in the subsurface after an underground nuclear test. We have collected archived pictures and melt glass samples from a variety of underground nuclear tests that were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the U.S. nuclear testing program. The purpose of our work is to better determine the actual variation in texture and surface area of the melt glass material. This study is motivated by our need to better determine the rate at which the radionuclides incorporated in the melt glass are released into the subsurface under saturated and partially saturated conditions. The rate at which radionuclides are released from the glass is controlled by the dissolution rate of the glass. Glass dissolution, in turn, is a strong function of surface area, glass composition, water temperature and water chemistry (Bourcier, 1994). This work feeds into an ongoing experimental effort to measure the change in surface area of analog glasses as a function of dissolution rate. The conclusions drawn from this study help bound the variation in the textures of analog glass samples needed for the experimental studies. The experimental work is a collaboration between Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Earth and Environmental Sciences-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (EES-LLNL). On March 4, 1999 we hosted a meeting at LLNL to present and discuss our findings. The names of the attendees appear at the end of this memo. This memo report further serves to outline and summarize the conclusions drawn from our meeting. The United States detonated over 800 underground nuclear tests at the NTS between 1951 and 1992. In an effort to evaluate the performance of the nuclear tests, drill-back operations were carried out to retrieve samples of rock in the vicinity of the nuclear test. Drill-back samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore

  11. Planning for the worst in Washington State: initial response planning for improvised nuclear device explosions.

    PubMed

    Poeton, Richard W; Glines, Wayne M; McBaugh, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Since 11 September 2001, improvised nuclear devices have become recognized as an important radiological threat requiring emergency response planning. Although Protective Action Guidance is well established for fixed nuclear facilities, correspondingly well-developed guidance does not exist for nuclear explosions. The Washington State Department of Health has developed preplanned Protective Action Recommendations for improvised nuclear device explosions. These recommendations recognize the need for advice to the public soon after such an event, before significant data are available. They can be used before significant outside support is available locally, and reference observable effects so people can use them if communications were disabled. The recommendations focus on early actions (24-48 h) and place priority on actions to avoid deterministic health effects due to residual fallout. Specific emphasis is placed on determining recommendations for evacuation, as well as the extent of the area for sheltering. The key recommendations developed for an initial public response are: (1) if there is ready access to robust shelter such as an underground basement or interior spaces in a multi-story structure, immediate sheltering in these areas is the best action, regardless of location; (2) if robust shelter is not available, and if fallout is observed in the area, then evacuation is the best general recommendation for locations within 16 km (10 miles) of the explosion; and (3) beyond 16 km (10 miles), the generally recommended protective action is to shelter in the best-protected location which is readily available.

  12. The DOE CTBT R&D effort at Livermore: calibrating to enhance international monitoring for clandestine nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Rodgers, A; Schultz, C; Walters, W; Zucca, J

    1999-04-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was signed in 1996 and still needs to be ratified by the US, forbids all nuclear tests and creates an international monitoring system (IMS) to search for evidence of clandestine nuclear explosions. As specified in the treaty, the IMS will consist of 170 seismic stations that record underground elastic waves, 60 infrasound stations to record low-frequency sound waves in the air, 11 hydroacoustic stations to record underwater sound waves, and 80 radionuclide stations to record airborne radionuclide gases or particles. The International Data Center (IDC), located in Vienna, receives data from the IMS system and applies standard event screening criteria to any detected events with the objective of characterizing and highlighting events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or a non-nuclear man made phenomena. The National Data Center (NDC) for each country must go a step further than the IDC and identify events as consistent with natural phenomena, non-nuclear manmade phenomena, or a banned nuclear test using these monitoring technologies.

  13. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for standoff explosives detection : LDRD 138733 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Theisen, Lisa Anne; Linker, Kevin Lane

    2009-09-01

    Continued acts of terrorism using explosive materials throughout the world have led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially technologies that have a potential for remote or standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the benefit of the possible use of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff explosives detection equipment. Standoff detection of explosives is currently one of the most difficult problems facing the explosives detection community. Increased domestic and troop security could be achieved through the remote detection of explosives. An effective remote or standoff explosives detection capability would save lives and prevent losses of mission-critical resources by increasing the distance between the explosives and the intended targets and/or security forces. Many sectors of the US government are urgently attempting to obtain useful equipment to deploy to our troops currently serving in hostile environments. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff detection systems. This report documents the potential opportunities that Sandia National Laboratories can contribute to the field of QCL development. The following is a list of areas where SNL can contribute: (1) Determine optimal wavelengths for standoff explosives detection utilizing QCLs; (2) Optimize the photon collection and detection efficiency of a detection system for optical spectroscopy; (3) Develop QCLs with broader wavelength tunability (current technology is a 10% change in wavelength) while maintaining high efficiency; (4) Perform system engineering in the design of a complete detection system and not just the laser head; and (5) Perform real-world testing with explosive materials with commercial prototype detection systems.

  14. Ionospheric observations of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) using GPS and the Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihye; Helmboldt, Joseph; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; von Frese, Ralph R. B.; Wilson, Thomas L.

    2013-07-01

    Observations from Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope recorded traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs), detonated in September 1992. The slant TEC (STEC) data derived from GPS observations were processed for all ray paths to isolate TIDs. For the TIDs from the Hunters Trophy test on 18 September 1992 and the Divider test on 23 September 1992, the propagated mean velocities of the TIDs were about 573 m/s and 740 m/s with standard deviations of 85 m/s and 135 m/s, respectively. For the VLA observations, the spectral analysis produced three-dimensional fluctuation spectral cubes for the Hunters Trophy event. The arrival time of the TID at the VLA implied a propagation speed of 570-710 m/s. This study suggests the global availability of GNSS tracking networks and new low-frequency (VHF) radio telescopes may offer a method of UNE detection and characterization, which could complement the International Monitoring System (IMS).

  15. A review on several key problems of standoff trace explosives detection by optical-related technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Xiao, Cheng; Xiao, Wenjian; Qin, Mengze; Liu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    To prevent tragic disasters caused by terror acts and warfare threats, security check personnel must be capable of discovering, distinguishing and eliminating the explosives at multiple circumstances. Standoff technology for the remote detection of explosives and their traces on contaminated surfaces is a research field that has become a heightened priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. There has been a huge increase in research within this area, the improvement of standoff trace explosives detection by optical-related technology. This paper provides a consolidation of information relating to recent advances in several key problems of, without being limited to one specific research area or explosive type. Working laser wavelength of detection system is discussed. Generation and collection of explosives spectra signal are summarized. Techniques for analysing explosives spectra signal are summed up.

  16. Refinement of parameters of weak nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site on the basis of historical seismograms study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Many researchers working in the field of monitoring and discriminating of nuclear tests encounter the problem of lacking in seismic catalogues the information about source parameters for weak nuclear explosions. As usual, the information about origin time, coordinates and magnitude is absent, there is information about date, approximate coordinates and information about explosion yield. Huge work conducted on recovery of parameters of small underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site using records of analogue seismic stations of the USSR located at regional distances was conducted by V. Khalturin, T. Rayutian, P. Richards (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2001). However, if underground nuclear explosions are studied and described in literature quite well, then air and contact explosions were small and were not recorded by standard permanent seismic stations. In 1961-1962 maximum number of air and contact explosions was conducted at Opytnoye polye site of the STS. We managed to find and analyze additional seismic data from some temporary and permanent stations. That time IPE AS USSR installed a network of high-sensitive stations along Pamir-Baykal profile to study earth crust structure and upper mantle, the profile length was 3500 km. Epicentral distance from some stations of the profile to Opytnoye polye was 300-400 km. In addition, a permanent seismic station Semipalatinsk (SEM) located 175 km away from the site started its operation. The seismograms from this station became available recently. The digitized historical seismograms allowed to recover and add parameters for more than 36 air and surface explosions. Origin time, coordinates, magnitudes mpv, MLV and energy class K were determined for explosions. A regional travel-time curve for Central Kazakhstan constructed using records of calibration chemical explosions conducted at the STS in 1997-2000 and ground-truth underground nuclear explosions was used to determine kinematic parameters

  17. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  18. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  19. An analysis of spectral differences between Nevada Test Site and Shagan River nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Steven R.; Denny, Marvin D.

    1991-04-01

    Spectral ratio discrimination studies carried out on events located in the western United States and Soviet Union (S.U.) illustrate that pronounced differences in radiated explosion-source spectra relative to nearby earthquakes exist between the two regions. Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions are characterized by the existence of more low-frequency and/or less high-frequency energy (greater low-to high-frequency spectral ratios) than western U.S. earthquakes. The opposite pattern is observed in the S.U. with nuclear explosions appearing to have more high-frequency (and/or less low-frequency) energy than earthquakes. These observations may be caused by at least two principal effects that are probably acting in parallel: (1) variations in depth-dependent effects of attenuation acting between the shallow explosions and deeper earthquakes and (2) differences in the dynamic response of the near-source geology to the passing explosion shock wave. Anelastic synthetic seismogram calculations illustrate that depth-dependent attenuation effects may explain the spectral observations. However, a number of observations using near- and far-field data from NTS explosions suggest that near-source effects are the dominant factor. A quasi-empirical explosion source model is proposed that simultaneously fits the spectral ratio data from both the U.S. and S.U. relative to earthquakes in each of the respective regions. Additionally, the model fits the trends of the spectral ratios observed as a function of magnitude. The key to the model is the shape of the pressure time history acting at the elastic radius. For explosions detonated in weak, porous rock, the radiated shock wave divides into a two-wave system consisting of an elastic precursor followed by a plastic wave. The generation of this two-wave system introduces a rise time into the pressure time history. In the frequency domain a second corner frequency is established in a third-order model (with an ω-3 high-frequency decay

  20. Sensor array and preconcentrator for the detection of explosives in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodka, Marc D.; Shpil, J. Cory; Schnee, Vincent P.; Polcha, J. Michael P.

    2012-06-01

    A sensor system has been constructed that is capable of detecting and discriminating between various explosives presented in ocean water with detection limits at the 10-100 parts per trillion level. The sensor discriminates between different compounds using a biologically-inspired fluorescent polymer sensor array, which responds with a unique fluorescence quenching pattern during exposure to different analytes. The sensor array was made from commercially available fluorescent polymers coated onto glass beads, and was demonstrated to discriminate between different electron-withdrawing analytes delivered in salt water solutions, including the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and tetryl, the explosive hydrolysis products 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, as well as other explosive-related compounds and explosive simulants. Sensitivities of 10-100 parts per trillion were achieved by employing a preconcentrator (PC) upstream of the sensor inlet. The PC consists of the porous polymer Tenax, which captures explosives from contaminated water as it passes through the PC. As the concentration of explosives in water decreased, longer loading times were required to concentrate a detectable amount of explosives within the PC. Explosives accumulated within the PC were released to the sensor array by heating the PC to 190 C. This approach yielded preconcentration factors of up to 100-1000x, however this increased sensitivity towards lower concentrations of explosives was achieved at the expense of proportionally longer sampling times. Strategies for decreasing this sampling time are discussed.

  1. Detection of explosives and their degradation products in soil environments.

    PubMed

    Halasz, A; Groom, C; Zhou, E; Paquet, L; Beaulieu, C; Deschamps, S; Corriveau, A; Thiboutot, S; Ampleman, G; Dubois, C; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-07-19

    Polynitro organic explosives [hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)] are typical labile environmental pollutants that can biotransform with soil indigenous microorganisms, photodegrade by sunlight and migrate through subsurface soil to cause groundwater contamination. To be able to determine the type and concentration of explosives and their (bio)transformation products in different soil environments, a comprehensive analytical methodology of sample preparation, separation and detection is thus required. The present paper describes the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), acetonitrile (MeCN) (US Environmental Protection Agency Method 8330) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the extraction of explosives and their degradation products from various water, soil and plant tissue samples for subsequent analysis by either HPLC-UV, capillary electrophoresis (CE-UV) or GC-MS. Contaminated surface and subsurface soil and groundwater were collected from either a TNT manufacturing facility or an anti-tank firing range. Plant tissue samples were taken fromplants grown in anti-tank firing range soil in a greenhouse experiment. All tested soil and groundwater samples from the former TNT manufacturing plant were found to contain TNT and some of its amino reduced and partially denitrated products. Their concentrations as determined by SPME-GC-MS and LC-UV depended on the location of sampling at the site. In the case of plant tissues, SC-CO2 extraction followed by CE-UV analysis showed only the presence of HMX. The concentrations of HMX (<200 mg/kg) as determined by supercritical fluid extraction (SC-CO2)-CE-UV were comparable to those obtained by MeCN extraction, although the latter technique was found to be more efficient at higher concentrations (>300 mg/kg). Modifiers such as MeCN and water enhanced the SC-CO2 extractability of HMX from plant tissues.

  2. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  3. (135)Xe measurements with a two-element CZT-based radioxenon detector for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Lily; Farsoni, Abi T; Becker, Eric M

    2017-04-01

    Measurement of elevated concentrations of xenon radioisotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) in the atmosphere has been shown to be a very powerful method for verifying whether or not a detected explosion is nuclear in nature. These isotopes are among the few with enough mobility and with half-lives long enough to make their detection at long distances realistic. Existing radioxenon detection systems used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) suffer from problems such as complexity, need for high maintenance and memory effect. To study the response of CdZnTe (CZT) detectors to xenon radioisotopes and investigate whether it is capable of mitigating the aforementioned issues with the current radioxenon detection systems, a prototype detector utilizing two coplanar CZT detectors was built and tested at Oregon State University. The detection system measures xenon radioisotopes through beta-gamma coincidence technique by detecting coincidence events between the two detectors. In this paper, we introduce the detector design and report our measurement results with radioactive lab sources and (135)Xe produced in the OSU TRIGA reactor. Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) for (135)Xe was calculated to be 1.47 ± 0.05 mBq/m(3).

  4. Multivariate acoustic detection of small explosions using Fisher's combined probability test.

    PubMed

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J; Taylor, Steven R

    2013-03-01

    A methodology for the combined acoustic detection and discrimination of explosions, which uses three discriminants, is developed for the purpose of identifying weak explosion signals embedded in complex background noise. By utilizing physical models for simple explosions that are formulated as statistical hypothesis tests, the detection/discrimination approach does not require a model for the background noise, which can be highly complex and variable in practice. Fisher's Combined Probability Test is used to combine the p-values from all multivariate discriminants. This framework is applied to acoustic data from a 400 g explosion conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  5. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  6. An Approximate Analytical Model of Shock Waves from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Technical Information Service (NTIS). Qualified requestors may obtain additional copies from the Defense Technical Information Center. All others should...apply to the National Technical Information Service. If your address has changed, or .if you wish to be removed from the mailing list, or if the addressee...NUMBERS An Approximate Analvtlial Model of Shock Waves from Contract Underground Nuclear Explosions F19628-88-K-0040

  7. Progress on detection of liquid explosives using ultra-low field MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle A; Matlashov, Andrei N; Volegov, Petr L; Schuttz, Larry M; Baguisa, Shermiyah; Dunkerley, David; Magnelind, Per; Owens, Tuba; Sandin, Henrik; Urbaitis, Algis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are widely used in medicine, chemistry and industry. Over the past several years there has been increasing interest in performing NMR and MRI in the ultra-low field (ULF) regime, with measurement field strengths of 10-100 microTesla and pre-polarization fields of 30-50 mTesla. The real-time signal-to-noise ratio for such measurements is about 100. Our group at LANL has built and demonstrated the performance of SQUID-based ULF NMR/MRI instrumentation for classification of materials and detection of liquid explosives via their relaxation properties measured at ULF, using T{sub 1}, and T{sub 2}, and T{sub 1} frequency dispersion. We are also beginning to investigate the performance of induction coils as sensors. Here we present recent progress on the applications of ULF MR to the detection of liquid explosives, in imaging and relaxometry.

  8. A preliminary study on the use of (10)Be in forensic radioecology of nuclear explosion sites.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, N E; Endo, S; Tanaka, K; Takatsuji, T; Hoshi, M; Fukutani, S; Ditchburn, R G; Zondervan, A

    2008-02-01

    Cosmogenic (10)Be, known for use in dating studies, unexpectedly is also produced in nuclear explosions with an atom yield almost comparable to (e.g.) (137)Cs. There are major production routes via (13)C(n, alpha)(10)Be, from carbon dioxide in the air and the organic explosives, possibly from other bomb components and to a minor extent from the direct fission reaction. Although the detailed bomb components are speculative, carbon was certainly present in the explosives and an order of magnitude calculation is possible. The (n, alpha) cross-section was determined by irradiating graphite in a nuclear reactor, and the resulting (10)Be estimated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) giving a cross-section of 34.5+/-0.7mb (6-9.3MeV), within error of previous work. (10)Be should have applications in forensic radioecology. Historical environmental samples from Hiroshima, and Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) showed two to threefold (10)Be excesses compared with the background cosmogenic levels. A sample from Lake Chagan (a Soviet nuclear cratering experiment) contained more (10)Be than previously reported soils. (10)Be may be useful for measuring the fast neutron dose near the Hiroshima bomb hypocenter at neutron energies double those previously available.

  9. Comparison of Mount Saint Helens Volcanic Eruption to a Nuclear Explosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    and the associated research studies are given. The comparison of the eruption of Mt . St. Helens to the explosion of a 10- to 20-megaton nuclear weapon...Dist v SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION I’ Eruption of steam and ash from Mt . St. Helens in the state of Washing- ton began on 27 March 1980, following a week of...Analysis Center on nuclear weapons effects operated by General Electric-TEMPO, to conduct a quick-look study on the Mt . St. Helens eruptions and their

  10. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  11. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  12. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  13. A hazards analysis of a nuclear explosives dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in a quantitative hazard assessment of a nuclear weapon disassembly process. Potential accident sequences were identified using an accident-sequence fault tree based on operational history, weapon safety studies, a hazard analysis team composed of weapons experts, and walkthroughs of the process. The experts provided an initial screening of the accident sequences to reduce the number of accident sequences that would be quantified. The accident sequences that survived the screening process were developed further using event trees. Spreadsheets were constructed for each event tree, the accident sequences associated with that event tree were entered as rows on the spreadsheet, and that spreadsheet was linked to spreadsheets with initiating-event frequencies, enabling event probabilities, and weapon response probabilities. The probability and frequency distribution estimates used in these spreadsheets were gathered from weapon process operational data, surrogate industrial data, expert judgment, and probability models. Frequency distributions were calculated for the sequences whose point-value frequency represented 99% of the total point-value frequency using a Monte Carlo simulation. Partial differential importances of events and distributions of accident frequency by weapon configuration, location, process, and other parameters were calculated.

  14. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S [San Ramon, CA; Howard, Douglas E [Livermore, CA; Eckels, Joel D [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  15. Prediction of ground motion and dynamic stress change in Baekdusan (Changbaishan) volcano caused by a North Korean nuclear explosion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Choi, Eunseo; Park, Seongjun; Shin, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Strong ground motions induce large dynamic stress changes that may disturb the magma chamber of a volcano, thus accelerating the volcanic activity. An underground nuclear explosion test near an active volcano constitutes a direct treat to the volcano. This study examined the dynamic stress changes of the magma chamber of Baekdusan (Changbaishan) that can be induced by hypothetical North Korean nuclear explosions. Seismic waveforms for hypothetical underground nuclear explosions at North Korean test site were calculated by using an empirical Green’s function approach based on a source-spectral model of a nuclear explosion; such a technique is efficient for regions containing poorly constrained velocity structures. The peak ground motions around the volcano were estimated from empirical strong-motion attenuation curves. A hypothetical M7.0 North Korean underground nuclear explosion may produce peak ground accelerations of 0.1684 m/s2 in the horizontal direction and 0.0917 m/s2 in the vertical direction around the volcano, inducing peak dynamic stress change of 67 kPa on the volcano surface and ~120 kPa in the spherical magma chamber. North Korean underground nuclear explosions with magnitudes of 5.0–7.6 may induce overpressure in the magma chamber of several tens to hundreds of kilopascals. PMID:26884136

  16. Prediction of ground motion and dynamic stress change in Baekdusan (Changbaishan) volcano caused by a North Korean nuclear explosion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Choi, Eunseo; Park, Seongjun; Shin, Jin Soo

    2016-02-17

    Strong ground motions induce large dynamic stress changes that may disturb the magma chamber of a volcano, thus accelerating the volcanic activity. An underground nuclear explosion test near an active volcano constitutes a direct treat to the volcano. This study examined the dynamic stress changes of the magma chamber of Baekdusan (Changbaishan) that can be induced by hypothetical North Korean nuclear explosions. Seismic waveforms for hypothetical underground nuclear explosions at North Korean test site were calculated by using an empirical Green's function approach based on a source-spectral model of a nuclear explosion; such a technique is efficient for regions containing poorly constrained velocity structures. The peak ground motions around the volcano were estimated from empirical strong-motion attenuation curves. A hypothetical M7.0 North Korean underground nuclear explosion may produce peak ground accelerations of 0.1684 m/s(2) in the horizontal direction and 0.0917 m/s(2) in the vertical direction around the volcano, inducing peak dynamic stress change of 67 kPa on the volcano surface and ~120 kPa in the spherical magma chamber. North Korean underground nuclear explosions with magnitudes of 5.0-7.6 may induce overpressure in the magma chamber of several tens to hundreds of kilopascals.

  17. Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

    2013-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  18. Optimal filtering in multipulse sequences for nuclear quadrupole resonance detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osokin, D. Ya.; Khusnutdinov, R. R.; Mozzhukhin, G. V.; Rameev, B. Z.

    2014-05-01

    The application of the multipulse sequences in nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) detection of explosive and narcotic substances has been studied. Various approaches to increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of signal detection are considered. We discussed two modifications of the phase-alternated multiple-pulse sequence (PAMS): the 180° pulse sequence with a preparatory pulse and the 90° pulse sequence. The advantages of optimal filtering to detect NQR in the case of the coherent steady-state precession have been analyzed. It has been shown that this technique is effective in filtering high-frequency and low-frequency noise and increasing the reliability of NQR detection. Our analysis also shows the PAMS with 180° pulses is more effective than PSL sequence from point of view of the application of optimal filtering procedure to the steady-state NQR signal.

  19. Nuclear Explosions Conducted at Asian Test Sites by Data of Kazakhstan Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna; Mikhailova, Natalya

    2014-05-01

    Since 1994 the IGR RK monitoring network consisted of 4 small aperture, one medium and one large aperture seismic arrays, 7 three-component stations and 2 infrasound arrays has been operating successfully on the territory of Kazakhstan. Owing to good stations location from geological view and characteristics of seismic noise, well considered arrays configuration, most stations positioning in boreholes, integration of broadband and short-period instruments all system stations are high-sensitive to regional and teleseismic events. The Asian Test Sites (Lop Nor, Chagay and Pokharan) are located at regional distances from the stations of Kazakhstan monitoring network. The comparative analysis of the wave pattern of underground nuclear explosions conducted at Lop Nor Test Site in 1994 - 1996, and at Pokharan and Chagay Test Sites in 1998 was conducted. The wave pattern of nuclear explosions records was compared with seismograms of tectonic earthquakes from the Test Sites regions and adjacent territories. Spectral relations of main regional phases of UNE and earthquakes for the IGR network stations were investigated. Despite the fact that all IGR RK stations were located at teleseismic distances from North Korean Test Site Punggyeri (distance range is 3725-5350 km) all 3 North-Korean nuclear tests (10.6.2006, 05.25.2009, 02.12.2013) were recorded by the stations. The stations data were used by different seismological agencies to determine the explosions parameters. Despite large epicentral distances and stations location within narrow azimuth to source range, the Kazakhstan Data Center managed to determine quite accurately the explosions parameters in operative mode. Comparative analysis of waveforms from 3 North Korean tests was conducted by data of Kazakhstan seismic stations.

  20. Chemicapacitive microsensors for detection of explosives and TICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sanjay V.; Hobson, Stephen T.; Cemalovic, Sabina; Mlsna, Todd E.

    2005-10-01

    Seacoast Science develops chemical sensors that use polymer-coated micromachined capacitors to measure the dielectric permittivity of an array of selectively absorbing materials. We present recent results demonstrating the sensor technology's capability to detect components in explosives and toxic industrial chemicals. These target chemicals are detected with functionalized polymers or network materials, chosen for their ability to adsorb chemicals. When exposed to vapors or gases, the permittivity of these sorbent materials changes depending on the strength of the vapor-sorbent interaction. Sensor arrays made of ten microcapacitors on a single chip have been previously shown to detect vapors of organic compounds (chemical warfare agents, industrial solvents, fuels) and inorganic gases (SO2, CO2, NO2). Two silicon microcapacitor structures were used, one with parallel electrode plates and the other with interdigitated "finger-like" electrodes. The parallel-plates were approximately 300 μm wide and separated by 750 nm. The interdigitated electrodes were approximately 400 μm long and were elevated above the substrate to provide faster vapor access. Eight to sixteen of these capacitors are fabricated on chips that are 5 x 2 mm and are packaged in less than 50 cm3 with supporting electronics and batteries, all weighing less than 500 grams. The capacitors can be individually coated with different materials creating a small electronic nose that produces different selectivity patterns in response to different chemicals. The resulting system's compact size, low-power consumption and low manufacturing costs make the technology ideal for integration into various systems for numerous applications.

  1. Neutron Resonance Radiography for Explosives Detection: Technical Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Raas, W L; Blackburn, B; Boyd, E; Hall, J M; Kohse, G; Lanza, R; Rusnak, B; Watterson, J W

    2005-11-09

    Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has recently become a focus of investigation as a supplement to conventional x-ray systems as a non-invasive, non-destructive means of detecting explosive material concealed in checked luggage or cargo containers at airports. Using fast (1-6 MeV) neutrons produced by the D(d,n){sup 3}He reaction, NRR provides both an imaging capability and the ability to determine the chemical composition of materials in baggage or cargo. Elemental discrimination is achieved by exploiting the resonance features of the neutron cross-section for oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen. Simulations have shown the effectiveness of multiple-element NRR through Monte Carlo transport methods; this work is focused on the development of a prototype system that will incorporate an accelerator-based neutron source and a neutron detection and imaging system to demonstrate the realistic capabilities of NRR in distinguishing the elemental components of concealed objects. Preliminary experiments have exposed significant technical difficulties unapparent in simulations, including the presence of image contamination from gamma ray production, the detection of low-fluence fast neutrons in a gamma field, and the mechanical difficulties inherent in the use of thin foil windows for gas cell confinement. To mitigate these concerns, a new gas target has been developed to simultaneously reduce gamma ray production and increase structural integrity in high flux gas targets. Development of a neutron imaging system and neutron counting based on characteristic neutron pulse shapes have been investigated as a means of improving signal to noise ratios, reducing irradiation times, and increasing the accuracy of elemental determination.

  2. Estimation Source Parameters of Large-Scale Chemical Surface Explosions and Recent Underground Nuclear Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Kim, S.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR), Negev desert: 82 tons of strong HE explosives in August 2009, and 10&100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. The main goal was to provide strong controlled sources in different wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations. Numerous dense observations of blast waves were provided by high-pressure, acoustic and seismic sensors at near-source (< 1 km) and close local (1-40 km) distances. The rarely reported Secondary Shock (SS) phenomenon was clearly observed at the all sensors. A novel empirical relationship for the new air-blast parameter - SS time delay - versus distance (both scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charge) was developed and analyzed. The scaled SS delays were found clearly separated for 2009 and 2011 shots, thus demonstrating dependence on the type of explosives with different detonation velocity. Additional acoustic and seismic records from very large (> 2000 tons) ANFO surface shots at White Sands Military Range (WSMR) were analyzed for SS time delay. The Secondary Shocks were revealed on the records in the range 1.5-60 km and showed consistency with the SMR data, thus extending the charge and distance range for the developed SS delay relationship. Obtained results suggest that measured SS delays can provide important information about an explosion source character, and can be used as a new simple cost-effective yield estimator for explosions with known type of explosives. The new results are compared with analogous available data of surface nuclear explosions. Special distinctions in air-blast waves are revealed and analyzed, resulting from the different source phenomenology (energy release). Two underground nuclear explosions conducted by North Korea in 2009 and 2013 were recorded by several stations of Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the

  3. New/Future Approaches to Explosive/Chemicals Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovic, Vlado

    2009-03-01

    Although there has been some reported progress in many systems used for threat material detection and identification a promising one seems to be the use of tagged fast neutrons generated in d+t→α+n nuclear reaction. Among others, EU-FP6 project EURITRACK has been a successful demonstration of the use of tagged neutrons for ship container inspections. It has been shown that the deployment of the same technology under-water is a feasibility to be realized in the near future (i.e. EU-FP7 project UNCOSS).

  4. Flow immunosensor detection of explosives and drugs of abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Judd, Linda L.; Yu, Hao; Myles, June; Ligler, Frances S.

    1994-03-01

    An antibody-based biosensor has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory which is capable of detecting both drugs and explosives present at low levels in an aqueous sample. In the flow immunosensor, antibodies are immobilized onto a solid substrate, allowed to bind a fluorescently labeled signal molecule, placed in a small column and attached to a buffer flow. Upon sample introduction, an amount of the fluorescent signal molecule is released that is proportional to the concentration of applied sample. The response time of the sensor is under a minute, and multiple samples can be analyzed without the need for additional reagents. Quantitative assays are being developed for a variety of compounds, including TNT, DNT, PETN, and cocaine. The laboratory prototype has been used to study how choice of fluorophore, antibody density, and flow rate affect the signal intensity and column lifetime. A self-contained commercial instrument which can analyze up to seven different compounds from a single sample is currently being engineered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement.

  5. Detection of Explosives Under Covering Soap Using THz Spectral Dynamics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.

    The method of THz spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for identification of compound media and detection of their components. We considered the examples simulating the real case of NG and TNB explosives mixed with soap in different ratio - as a sum of two signals, passed through explosive and harmless material. Our investigations showed that spectrograms of the sum of THz pulses widely differ from spectrograms and dynamics of spectral lines for pulse passed through soap. So it is possible to detect the presence of explosive in the mixture with soap even if the amplitude of the pulse from explosive is 20 times less than the amplitude of the signal from soap. Therefore, the method allows detecting and identifying explosive in compound media with high probability and can be very effective for defense and security applications.

  6. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R

    2002-11-13

    In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has been a large effort to develop computer models for the contribution of

  7. Behavioural and genetic evidence for C. elegans' ability to detect volatile chemicals associated with explosives.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

    2010-09-07

    Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles.

  8. Behavioural and Genetic Evidence for C. elegans' Ability to Detect Volatile Chemicals Associated with Explosives

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. Methodology/Principal Findings We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. Conclusions/Significance: The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles. PMID:20830309

  9. Feature Extraction and Selection From the Perspective of Explosive Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S K

    2009-09-01

    Features are extractable measurements from a sample image summarizing the information content in an image and in the process providing an essential tool in image understanding. In particular, they are useful for image classification into pre-defined classes or grouping a set of image samples (also called clustering) into clusters with similar within-cluster characteristics as defined by such features. At the lowest level, features may be the intensity levels of a pixel in an image. The intensity levels of the pixels in an image may be derived from a variety of sources. For example, it can be the temperature measurement (using an infra-red camera) of the area representing the pixel or the X-ray attenuation in a given volume element of a 3-d image or it may even represent the dielectric differential in a given volume element obtained from an MIR image. At a higher level, geometric descriptors of objects of interest in a scene may also be considered as features in the image. Examples of such features are: area, perimeter, aspect ratio and other shape features, or topological features like the number of connected components, the Euler number (the number of connected components less the number of 'holes'), etc. Occupying an intermediate level in the feature hierarchy are texture features which are typically derived from a group of pixels often in a suitably defined neighborhood of a pixel. These texture features are useful not only in classification but also in the segmentation of an image into different objects/regions of interest. At the present state of our investigation, we are engaged in the task of finding a set of features associated with an object under inspection ( typically a piece of luggage or a brief case) that will enable us to detect and characterize an explosive inside, when present. Our tool of inspection is an X-Ray device with provisions for computed tomography (CT) that generate one or more (depending on the number of energy levels used) digitized 3

  10. Compact standoff Raman system for detection of homemade explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Bates, David E.; Acosta, Tayro E.

    2010-04-01

    We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a compact portable standoff Raman system developed at the University of Hawaii. Data presented in this article show that good quality Raman spectra of various organic and inorganic chemicals, including hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, and gasoline, can be easily obtained from remote distances with a compact standoff Raman system utilizing only a regular 85 mm Nikon camera lens as collection optics. Raman spectra of various chemicals showing clear Raman fingerprints obtained from targets placed at 50 m distance in daylight with 1 to 10 second of integration time are presented in this article. A frequency-doubled mini Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 30 mJ/pulse, 20 Hz, pulse width 8 ns) is used in an oblique geometry to excite the target located at 50 m distance. The standoff Raman system uses a compact spectrograph of size 10 cm (length) × 8.2 cm (width) × 5.2 cm (height) with spectral coverage from 100 to 4500 cm-1 Stokes-Raman shifted from 532 nm laser excitation and is equipped with a gated thermo-electrically cooled ICCD detector. The system is capable of detecting both the target as well as the atmospheric gases before the target. Various chemicals could be easily identified through glass, plastic, and water media. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  11. Explosives trace detection in the process of biometrical fingerprint identification for access control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertseva, Elena V.; Savin, Andrey V.

    2007-02-01

    A method for trace detection of explosives on the surface of biometric fingerprint scanner is proposed and its sensitivity explored. The method is based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The detection limit is about several microgram and the detectivity increases with the wavelength used for scanning. The advantages of the proposed method include high selectivity and thus low false alarm level, applicability to low vapor pressure explosives and low cost.

  12. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >10{sup 10} neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the {<=}2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons ({approx_equal}3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low ({gamma},n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low ({gamma},n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D{sub 2}O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated

  13. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >1010 neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the ≤2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons (≈3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low (γ,n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low (γ,n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D2O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated. Conversion efficiency of more than

  14. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  15. Thermally driven advection for radioxenon transport from an underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2016-05-01

    Barometric pumping is a ubiquitous process resulting in migration of gases in the subsurface that has been studied as the primary mechanism for noble gas transport from an underground nuclear explosion (UNE). However, at early times following a UNE, advection driven by explosion residual heat is relevant to noble gas transport. A rigorous measure is needed for demonstrating how, when, and where advection is important. In this paper three physical processes of uncertain magnitude (oscillatory advection, matrix diffusion, and thermally driven advection) are parameterized by using boundary conditions, system properties, and source term strength. Sobol' sensitivity analysis is conducted to evaluate the importance of all physical processes influencing the xenon signals. This study indicates that thermally driven advection plays a more important role in producing xenon signals than oscillatory advection and matrix diffusion at early times following a UNE, and xenon isotopic ratios are observed to have both time and spatial dependence.

  16. Ground motion analyses: OSSY (a high explosive experiment) and MERLIN (a nuclear event)

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, R.P.

    1991-10-01

    We have analyzed recorded data and conducted numerical simulations of the seismic-calibration high explosive experiment OSSY and of the underground nuclear event MERLIN to determine if there is any physical correlation in their ground motion response. Waveforms recorded on OSSY and MERLIN show a distinct similarity in the form of a dual-pulse structure, with the second pulse as large or larger than the first pulse. Results with 1D and 2D simulations show that there is no correlation. The dual-pulse structure for OSSY can best be accounted for by a dilatancy feature resulting from pore recovery during unloading. There is also a notable influence on the pulse shape caused by the large length-to-diameter ratio of the high explosive charge. The dual-pulse structure recorded in MERLIN is most likely due to refraction from a higher-impedance layer about 60 m below the workout. 15 refs., 26 figs.

  17. Chemical sensing system for classification of mine-like objects by explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, W.B.; Rodacy, P.J.; Jones, E.E.; Gomez, B.J.; Woodfin, R.L.

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted research in chemical sensing and analysis of explosives for many years. Recently, that experience has been directed towards detecting mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) by sensing the low-level explosive signatures associated with these objects. The authors focus has been on the classification of UXO in shallow water and anti-personnel/anti tank mines on land. The objective of this work is to develop a field portable chemical sensing system which can be used to examine mine-like objects (MLO) to determine whether there are explosive molecules associated with the MLO. Two sampling subsystems have been designed, one for water collection and one for soil/vapor sampling. The water sampler utilizes a flow-through chemical adsorbent canister to extract and concentrate the explosive molecules. Explosive molecules are thermally desorbed from the concentrator and trapped in a focusing stage for rapid desorption into an ion-mobility spectrometer (IMS). The authors describe a prototype system which consists of a sampler, concentrator-focuser, and detector. The soil sampler employs a light-weight probe for extracting and concentrating explosive vapor from the soil in the vicinity of an MLO. The chemical sensing system is capable of sub-part-per-billion detection of TNT and related explosive munition compounds. They present the results of field and laboratory tests on buried landmines which demonstrate their ability to detect the explosive signatures associated with these objects.

  18. Chemical sensing system for classification of minelike objects by explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Jones, Edwin E.; Gomez, Bernard J.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    1998-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted research in chemical sensing and analysis of explosives for many years. Recently, that experience has been directed towards detecting mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) by sensing the low-level explosive signatures associated with these objects. Our focus has been on the classification of UXO in shallow water and anti-personnel/anti tank mines on land. The objective of this work is to develop a field portable chemical sensing system which can be used to examine mine-like objects (MLO) to determine whether there are explosive molecules associated with the MLO. Two sampling subsystems have been designed, one for water collection and one for soil/vapor sampling. The water sampler utilizes a flow-through chemical adsorbent canister to extract and concentrate the explosive molecules. Explosive molecules are thermally desorbed from the concentrator and trapped in a focusing stage for rapid desorption into an ion-mobility spectrometer (IMS). We will describe a prototype system which consists of a sampler, concentrator-focuser, and detector. The soil sampler employs a light-weight probe for extracting and concentrating explosive vapor from the soil in the vicinity of an MLO. The chemical sensing system is capable of sub-part-per-billion detection of TNT and related explosive munition compounds. We will present the results of field and laboratory tests on buried landmines, which demonstrate our ability to detect the explosive signatures associated with these objects.

  19. Portable thin layer chromatography for field detection of explosives and propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satcher, Joe H.; Maienschein, Jon L.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Racoveanu, Ana; Carman, M. Leslie; Whipple, Richard E.; Reynolds, John G.

    2012-06-01

    A field deployable detection kit for explosives and propellants using thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The chemistry of the kit has been modified to allow for field detection of propellants (through propellant stabilizers), military explosives, peroxide explosives, nitrates and inorganic oxidizer precursors. For many of these target analytes, the detection limit is in the μg to pg range. A new miniaturized, bench prototype, field portable TLC (Micro TLC) kit has also been developed for the detection and identification of common military explosives. It has been demonstrated in a laboratory environment and is ready for field-testing. The kit is comprised of a low cost set of commercially available components specifically assembled for rapid identification needed in the field and identifies the common military explosives: HMX, RDX, Tetryl, Explosive D or picric acid, and TNT all on one plate. Additional modifications of the Micro TLC system have been made with fluorescent organosilicon co-polymer coatings to detect a large suite of explosives.

  20. Detection of explosive substances by tomographic inspection using neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmand, M.; Boston, A. J.; Grint, A. N.; Nolan, P. J.; Joyce, M. J.; Mackin, R. O.; D'Mellow, B.; Aspinall, M.; Peyton, A. J.; van Silfhout, R.

    2007-08-01

    In recent years the detection and identification of hazardous materials has become increasingly important. This work discusses research and development of a technique which is capable of detecting and imaging hidden explosives. It is proposed to utilise neutron interrogation of the substances under investigation facilitating the detection of emitted gamma radiation and scattered neutrons. Pulsed fast neutron techniques are attractive because they can be used to determine the concentrations of the light elements (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) which can be the primary components of explosive materials. Using segmented High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors and digital pulse processing [R.J. Cooper, G. Turk, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, J. Simpson, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Position Sensitive Detectors, Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, in press; I. Lazarus, D.E. Appelbe, A. J. Boston, P.J. Coleman-Smith, J.R. Cresswell, M. Descovich, S.A.A. Gros, M. Lauer, J. Norman, C.J. Pearson, V.F.E. Pucknell, J.A. Sampson, G. Turk, J.J. Valiente-Dobón, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 51 (2004) 1353; R.J. Cooper, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.N. Grint, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, D.P. Scraggs, G. Turk, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Application, 2006. [1-3

  1. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  2. Detecting Weak Explosions at Local Distances by Fusing Multiple Geophysical Phenomenologies

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Nemzek, Robert J.; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Sentz, Kari

    2015-03-23

    Comprehensive explosion monitoring requires the technical capability to identify certain signatures at low signal strengths. For particularly small, evasively conducted explosions, conventional monitoring methods that use single geophysical phenomenologies may produce marginal or absent detections. To address this challenge, we recorded coincident acoustic, seismic and radio-frequency emissions during the above-ground detonation of ~ 2-12 kg solid charges and assessed how waveform data could be fused to increase explosion-screening capability. Our data provided identifiable explosion signatures that we implemented as template-events in multichannel correlation detectors to search for similar, matching waveforms. We thereby observed that these highly sensitive correlation detectors missed explosive events when applied separately to data streams that were heavily contaminated with noise and signal clutter. By then adding the p-values of these statistics through Fisher’s combined probability test, we correctly identified the explosion signals at thresholds consistent with the false alarm rates of the correlation detectors. This resulting Fisher test thereby provided high-probability detections, zero false alarms, and higher theoretical detection capability. We conclude that inclusion of these fusion methods in routine monitoring operations will likely lower both detection thresholds for small explosions, while reducing false attribution rates.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of surrogate nuclear explosion debris: urban glass matrix

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, Keri; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Dirmyer, Matthew R.; ...

    2017-07-26

    Surrogate nuclear explosive debris was synthesized and characterized for major, minor, and trace elemental composition as well as uranium isotopics. The samples consisted of an urban glass matrix, equal masses soda lime and cement, doped with 500 ppm uranium with varying enrichments. The surface and cross section morphology were measured with SEM, and the major elemental composition was determined by XPS. LA-ICP-MS was used to measure the uranium isotopic abundance comparing different sampling techniques. Furthermore, the results provide an example of the utility of LA-ICP-MS for forensics applications.

  4. Shock and thermal metamorphism of basalt by nuclear explosion, nevada test site.

    PubMed

    James, O B

    1969-12-26

    Olivine trachybasalt metamorphosed by nuclear explosion is classified into categories of progressive metamorphism: (i) Weak. Plagioclase is microfracruree, and augite contains twin lamellae. (ii) Moderate. Plagioclase is converted to glass, amd mafic minerals show intragranular deformation (undulatory extinction, twin lamellae, and, possibly, defomation lamellae), but rock texture is preserved. (iii) Moderately strong. Plagioclase glass shows small-scale flow, mafic minerals are fractured and show intragranular deformation, and rocks contain tension fractures. (iv) Strong. Plagioclase glass is vesicular, augite is minutely fractured, and olivine is coarsely fragmented, shows moscaic extinction, distinctive lamellar structures, and is locally recrystallized. (v) Intense. Rocks are converted to inhomogeneous basaltic glass.

  5. Shock and thermal metamorphism of basalt by nuclear explosion, Nevada test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, O.B.

    1969-01-01

    Olivine trachybasalt metamorphosed by nuclear explosion is classified into categories of progressive metamorphism: (i) Weak. Plagioclase is microfractured, and augite cotainis fine twin lamellae. (ii) Moderate. Plagioclase is converted to glass, and mafic minerals show intragranular deformation (undulatory extinction, twin lamellae, and, possibly, deformation lamellae), but rock texture is preserved. (iii) Moderately strong. Plagioclase glass shows small-scale flow, mafic minerals are fractured and show intragranular deformation, and rocks contain tension fractures. (iv) Strong. Plagioclase glass is vesicular, augite is minutely fractured, and olivine is coarsely fragmented, shows mosaic extinction, distinctive lamellar structures, and is locally recrystallized. (v) Intense. Rocks are converted to inhomogeneous basaltic glass.

  6. S-shaped SU-8 optical waveguide immobilized with gold nanoparticles for trace detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Reshma; Tripathi, Rakesh; Prabhakar, Amit; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we report a miniaturized optical sensor for direct detection of vapors of nitro-based explosives using gold nanoparticle (AuNP) coated SU-8 polymer optical waveguides. S-shaped waveguide geometry was chosen due its enhanced evanescent field sensitivity. Light was coupled into the waveguide structure to evanescently excite the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes of the immobilized AuNP. The AuNP were functionalized with 4- mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) which acts as the receptor for nitro-based explosives. The AuNP coated SU-8 optical waveguide sensor demonstrated an ability to detect 10 parts per billion (ppb) concentration of explosive analytes.

  7. Application of laser photothermal spectroscopy for standoff detection of trace explosive residues on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Skvortsov, L A; Maksimov, E M

    2010-09-10

    Laser photothermal methods of standoff detection of trace explosive residues on surfaces are considered. The analysis is restricted to the most promising methods: photoacoustic spectroscopy, deflection spectroscopy, and IR photothermal imaging of objects under resonant irradiation. Particular attention is paid to the choice of radiation sources and detectors. Comparative analysis of the existing standoff detection methods for explosive particles on the object surface is performed. Prospects of laser photothermal spectroscopy in this field are discussed. (review)

  8. Time-domain study of tectonic strain-release effects on seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.; Sherman, N.W.

    1982-09-01

    Tectonic strain release affects both the amplitude and phase of seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions. Surface wave magnitudes are strongly affected by the component of tectonic strain release in the explosion. Amplitudes and radiation patterns of surface waves from explosions with even small tectonic components change magnitudes significantly and show a strong dependence on receiver locations. A thrust-slip source superimposed on an isotropic explosion can explain observed reversals in waveform at different azimuths and phase delays between normal and reversed Rayleigh waves. The mechanism of this reversal is due to the phase relationship between reasonable explosion and tectonic release sources. Spallation or an unusual source time function are not required. The observations of Shagan River events imply thrust-slip motion along faults in a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent with regional tectonics.

  9. Borehole techniques identifying subsurface chimney heights in loose ground-some experiences above underground nuclear explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Lacomb, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The location of the subsurface top of the chimney formed by the collapse of the cavity resulting from an underground nuclear explosion is examined at five sites at the Nevada Test Site. The chimneys were investigated by drilling, coring, geophysical logging (density, gamma-ray, caliper), and seismic velocity surveys. The identification of the top of the chimney can be complicated by chimney termination in friable volcanic rock of relatively high porosity. The presence of an apical void in three of the five cases is confirmed as the chimney horizon by coincidence with anomalies observed in coring, caliper and gamma-ray logging (two cases), seismic velocity, and drilling. In the two cases where an apical void is not present, several of these techniques yield anomalies at identical horizons, however, the exact depth of chimney penetration is subject to some degree of uncertainty. This is due chiefly to the extent to which core recovery and seismic velocity may be affected by perturbations in the tuff above the chimney due to the explosion and collapse. The data suggest, however, that the depth uncertainty may be only of the order of 10 m if several indicators are available. Of all indicators, core recovery and seismic velocity indicate anomalous horizons in every case. Because radiation products associated with the explosion are contained within the immediate vicinity of the cavity, gamma-ray logs are generally not diagnostic of chimney penetration. In no case is the denisty log indicative of the presence of the chimney. ?? 1993.

  10. Photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace vapor detection and standoff detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holthoff, Ellen L.; Marcus, Logan S.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2016-05-01

    The Army is investigating several spectroscopic techniques (e.g., infrared spectroscopy) that could allow for an adaptable sensor platform. Current sensor technologies, although reasonably sized, are geared to more classical chemical threats, and the ability to expand their capabilities to a broader range of emerging threats is uncertain. Recently, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), employed in a sensor format, has shown enormous potential to address these ever-changing threats. PAS is one of the more flexible IR spectroscopy variants, and that flexibility allows for the construction of sensors that are designed for specific tasks. PAS is well suited for trace detection of gaseous and condensed media. Recent research has employed quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in combination with MEMS-scale photoacoustic cell designs. The continuous tuning capability of QCLs over a broad wavelength range in the mid-infrared spectral region greatly expands the number of compounds that can be identified. We will discuss our continuing evaluation of QCL technology as it matures in relation to our ultimate goal of a universal compact chemical sensor platform. Finally, expanding on our previously reported photoacoustic detection of condensed phase samples, we are investigating standoff photoacoustic chemical detection of these materials. We will discuss the evaluation of a PAS sensor that has been designed around increasing operator safety during detection and identification of explosive materials by performing sensing operations at a standoff distance. We investigate a standoff variant of PAS based upon an interferometric sensor by examining the characteristic absorption spectra of explosive hazards collected at 1 m.

  11. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionizataion and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for explosives vapor detection

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Glish, G.L.; Grant, B.C.; Chambers, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    The detection and identification of trace vapors of hidden high explosives is an excellent example of a targeted analysis problem. It is desirable to push to ever lower levels the quantity or concentration of explosives material that provides an analytical signal, while at the same time discriminating against all other uninteresting material. The detection system must therefore combine high sensitivity with high specificity. This report describes the philosophy behind the use of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, which is a sensitive, rugged, and convenient means for forming anions from explosives molecules, with tandem mass spectrometry, which provides unparalleled specificity in the identification of explosives-related ions. Forms of tandem mass spectrometry are compared and contrasted to provide a summary of the characteristics to be expected from an explosives detector employing mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The instrument developed for the FAA, an atmospheric sampling glow discharge/triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, is described in detail with particular emphasis on the ion source/spectrometer interface and on the capabilities of the spectrometer. Performance characteristics of the system are also described as they pertain to explosives of interest including a description of an automated procedure for the detection and identification of specific explosives. A comparison of various tandem mass spectrometers mated with atmospheric sampling glow discharge is then described and preliminary studies with a vapor preconcentration system provided by the FAA will be described.

  12. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples.

  13. Detection of Explosives Using Differential Laser-Induced Perturbation Spectroscopy with a Raman-based Probe.

    PubMed

    Oztekin, Erman K; Burton, Dallas J; Hahn, David W

    2016-04-01

    Explosives detection is carried out with a novel spectral analysis technique referred to as differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS) on thin films of TNT, RDX, HMX, and PETN. The utility of Raman spectroscopy for detection of explosives is enhanced by inducing deep ultraviolet laser perturbation on molecular structures in combination with a differential Raman sensing scheme. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used to quantify the DLIPS method as benchmarked against a traditional Raman scattering probe, and the related photo-induced effects on the molecular structure of the targeted explosives are discussed in detail. Finally, unique detection is observed with TNT samples deposited on commonly available background substrates of nylon and polyester. Overall, the data support DLIPS as a noninvasive method that is promising for screening explosives in real-world environments and backgrounds. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Sources Used in The Detection of Explosives by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Waltman, Melanie J.

    2010-05-01

    Explosives detection is a necessary and wide spread field of research. From large shipping containers to airline luggage, numerous items are tested for explosives every day. In the area of trace explosives detection, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the technique employed most often because it is a quick, simple, and accurate way to test many items in a short amount of time. Detection by IMS is based on the difference in drift times of product ions through the drift region of an IMS instrument. The product ions are created when the explosive compounds, introduced to the instrument, are chemically ionized through interactions with the reactant ions. The identity of the reactant ions determines the outcomes of the ionization process. This research investigated the reactant ions created by various ionization sources and looked into ways to manipulate the chemistry occurring in the sources.

  15. RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David J.; Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

    2005-09-01

    The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

  16. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  17. An Overview of the Los Alamos Program on Asteroid Mitigation by a Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R.; Gisler, G. R.; Plesko, C. S.; Ferguson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is standing up a new program to address the mitigation of a potentially hazardous objects (PHO) by using nuclear explosives. A series of efforts at Los Alamos have been working this problem for the last few years in an informal fashion. We now have a funded program to dedicate time to this important mission. The goal of our project is to study the effectiveness of using a nuclear explosive to mitigate (alter orbit or destroy) an PHO on an Earth crossing path. We are also pursuing studies of impact hazards should the international leadership decide not to organize a mission for active mitigation of a PHO. Such impact hazards are characterized as local, regional or global. Impact hazards include: a direct hit in an urban area (potentially catastrophic but highly unlikely); the generation a significant tsunami from an ocean impact close to a coastline and regional and global effects from medium to large impactors. Previous studies at Los Alamos have looked at 2D and 3D simulations in the deep ocean from large bolides, as well as impacts that have global consequences. More recent work has included radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of momentum transfer (and enhancement) from a low energy (10 kt) stand-off source, as well as surface and subsurface high energy explosions (100 kt - 10 Mt) for example PHOs. The current program will carefully look at two main aspects of using a standoff nuclear source: 1) a computational study for the optimum height-of-burst (HOB) of a stand-off burst using our best energy coupling techniques for both neutrons and x-rays; and 2) as a function of the nuclear energy produced and the HOB what is the optimum energy field: neutrons or x-rays. This team is also working with NNSA and NASA Goddard to compare numerical results for these complicated simulations on a well defined series of test problems involving both kinetic impactors and stand-off nuclear energy sources. Results will be shown by the co-authors on

  18. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  19. Review of a field study of radionuclide migration from an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Thompson, J.L.; Rundberg, R.S.; Fraser, S.L.; Daniels, K.S.

    1983-12-31

    Results from a long-term (9 year) field study of the distribution of radionuclides around an underground nuclear explosion cavity at the Nevada Test Site are reviewed. The goals of this Radionuclide Migration project are to examine the rates of migration underground in various media and to determine the potential for movement, both on and off the Nevada Test Site, of radioactivity from such explosions, with particular interest in possible contamination of water supplies. Initial studies were undertaken near the site of the low-yield test Cambric, which was detonated 73 m beneath the water table in tuffaceous alluvium. Solid samples were obtained from just below ground surface to 50 m below the detonation point, and water was sampled from five different regions in the vicinity of the explosion. Ten years after the test, most of the radioactivity was found to be retained in the fused debris in the cavity region and no activity above background was found 50 m below. Only tritium and {sup 90}Sr were presented in water in the cavity at levels greater than recommended concentration guides for water in uncontrolled areas. A satellite well is being used to remove water 91 m from the detonation point. During seven years (7 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}) of pumping, tritium, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 129}I have been detected in the water. Approximately 40% of the total tritium from the cavity region has been removed by pumping at the satellite well, and the maximum in the tritium concentration is clearly defined. Use of sensitive analytical techniques has permitted measurement of the very low concentrations of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I present in the water. The {sup 36}Cl peak precedes the tritiated water, possibly as a result of anion exclusion. Additional analyses are in progress to better define the shape of the {sup 129}I concentration curve.

  20. Comparison of chemical and nuclear explosions: Numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kamm, J.R.; Bos, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper the authors discuss numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), which was an underground explosion conducted in September 1993 in the volcanic tuff of the Nevada Test Site. The NPE source consisted of 1.29 {times} 10{sup 6} kg of ANFO-emulsion blasting agent, with the approximate energy of 1.1 kt, emplaced 389 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa. The authors compare detailed numerical simulations of the NPE with data collected from that experiment, and with calculations of an equally energetic nuclear explosion in identical geology. Calculated waveforms, at ranges out to approximately 1 km, agree moderately well in the time domain with free-field data, and are in qualitative agreement with free-surface records. Comparison of computed waveforms for equally energetic chemical and nuclear sources reveals relatively minor differences beyond the immediate near-source region, with the chemical source having an {approximately}25% greater seismic moment but otherwise indistinguishable (close-in) seismic source properties. 41 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Disasters and mass casualties: II. explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents.

    PubMed

    Born, Christopher T; Briggs, Susan M; Ciraulo, David L; Frykberg, Eric R; Hammond, Jeffrey S; Hirshberg, Asher; Lhowe, David W; O'Neill, Patricia A; Mead, Joann

    2007-08-01

    Terrorists' use of explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents constitutes the potential for catastrophic events. Understanding the unique aspects of these agents can help in preparing for such disasters with the intent of mitigating injury and loss of life. Explosive agents continue to be the most common weapons of terrorists and the most prevalent cause of injuries and fatalities. Knowledge of blast pathomechanics and patterns of injury allows for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. A practical understanding of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents, their attendant clinical symptoms, and recommended management strategies is an important prerequisite for optimal preparation and response to these less frequently used agents of mass casualty. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the principles of management of catastrophic events. Stress is less an issue when one is adequately prepared. Decontamination is essential both to manage victims and prevent further spread of toxic agents to first responders and medical personnel. It is important to assess the risk of potential threats, thereby allowing disaster planning and preparation to be proportional and aligned with the actual casualty event.

  2. Use of nuclear explosions to create gas condensate storage in the USSR. LLL Treaty Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-08-23

    The Soviet Union has described industrial use of nuclear explosions to produce underground hydrocarbon storage. To examples are in the giant Orenburg gas condensate field. There is good reason to believe that three additional cavities were created in bedded salt in the yet to be fully developed giant Astrakhan gas condensate field in the region of the lower Volga. Although contrary to usual western practice, the cavities are believed to be used to store H/sub 2/S-rich, unstable gas condensate prior to processing in the main gas plants located tens of kilometers from the producing fields. Detonations at Orenburg and Astrakhan preceded plant construction. The use of nuclear explosions at several sites to create underground storage of highly corrosive liquid hydrocarbons suggests that the Soviets consider this time and cost effective. The possible benefits from such a plan include degasification and stabilization of the condensate before final processing, providing storage of condensate during periods of abnormally high natural gas production or during periods when condensate but not gas processing facilities are undergoing maintenance. Judging from information provided by Soviet specialists, the individual cavities have a maximum capacity on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

  3. Earth-Impact Modeling and Analysis of a Near-Earth Object Fragmented and Dispersed by Nuclear Subsurface Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinger, Brian; Wie, Bong; Dearborn, David

    2012-06-01

    Although various technologies, including nuclear explosions, kinetic impactors, and slow- pull gravity tractors, have been proposed for mitigating the impact threat of near-Earth objects (NEOs), there is no consensus on how to reliably deflect or disrupt such hazardous NEOs in a timely manner. This paper describes the orbital dispersion modeling, analysis, and simulation of an NEO fragmented and dispersed by nuclear subsurface explosions. It is shown that various fundamental approaches of Keplerian orbital dynamics can be effectively employed for the orbital dispersion analysis of fragmented NEOs. This paper also shows that, under certain conditions, proper disruption using a nuclear subsurface explosion with shallow burial is a feasible strategy, providing considerable impact damage reduction if all other approaches fail.

  4. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mimy; Fan, Wen; Raeva, Anna; Almirall, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Reported for the first time are receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves constructed to describe the performance of a sorbent-coated disk, planar solid phase microextraction (PSPME) unit for non-contact sampling of a variety of volatiles. The PSPME is coupled to ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs) for the detection of volatile chemical markers associated with the presence of smokeless powders, model systems of explosives containing diphenylamine (DPA), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and nitroglycerin (NG) as the target analytes. The performance of the PSPME-IMS was compared with the widely accepted solid-phase microextraction (SPME), coupled to a GC-MS. A set of optimized sampling conditions for different volume containers (1–45 L) with various sample amounts of explosives, were studied in replicates (n = 30) to determine the true positive rates (TPR) and false positive detection rates (FPR) for the different scenarios. These studies were obtained in order to construct the ROC curves for two IMS instruments (a bench-top and field-portable system) and a bench top GC-MS system in low and high clutter environments. Both static and dynamic PSPME sampling were studied in which 10–500 mg quantities of smokeless powders were detected within 10 min of static sampling and 1 min of dynamic sampling.

  5. Detecting body cavity bombs with nuclear quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Michael London

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a technology with great potential for detecting hidden explosives. Past NQR research has studied the detection of land mines and bombs concealed within luggage and packages. This thesis focuses on an NQR application that has received less attention and little or no publicly available research: detecting body cavity bombs (BCBs). BCBs include explosives that have been ingested, inserted into orifices, or surgically implanted. BCBs present a threat to aviation and secure facilities. They are extremely difficult to detect with the technology currently employed at security checkpoints. To evaluate whether or not NQR can be used to detect BCBs, a computational model is developed to assess how the dielectric properties of biological tissue affect the radio frequency magnetic field employed in NQR (0.5-5MHz). The relative permittivity of some biological tissue is very high (over 1,000 at 1MHz), making it conceivable that there is a significant effect on the electromagnetic field. To study this effect, the low-frequency approximation known as the Darwin model is employed. First, the electromagnetic field of a coil is calculated in free space. Second, a dielectric object or set of objects is introduced, and the free-space electric field is modified to accommodate the dielectric object ensuring that the relevant boundary conditions are obeyed. Finally, the magnetic field associated with the corrected electric field is calculated. This corrected magnetic field is evaluated with an NQR simulation to estimate the impact of dielectric tissue on NQR measurements. The effect of dielectric tissue is shown to be small, thus obviating a potential barrier to BCB detection. The NQR model presented may assist those designing excitation and detection coils for NQR. Some general coil design considerations and strategies are discussed.

  6. Instant detection and identification of concealed explosive-related compounds: Induced Stokes Raman versus infrared.

    PubMed

    Elbasuney, Sherif; El-Sherif, Ashraf F

    2017-01-01

    The instant detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become an urgent priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. Modern techniques should offer enhancement in selectivity, sensitivity, and standoff distances. Miniaturisation, portability, and field-ruggedisation are crucial requirements. This study reports on instant and standoff identification of concealed explosive-related compounds using customized Raman technique. Stokes Raman spectra of common explosive-related compounds were generated and spectrally resolved to create characteristic finger print spectra. The scattered Raman emissions over the band 400:2000cm(-1) were compared to infrared absorption using FTIR. It has been demonstrated that the two vibrational spectroscopic techniques were opposite and completing each other. Molecular vibrations with strong absorption in infrared (those involve strong change in dipole moments) induced weak signals in Raman and vice versa. The tailored Raman offered instant detection, high sensitivity, and standoff detection capabilities. Raman demonstrated characteristic fingerprint spectra with stable baseline and sharp intense peaks. Complete correlations of absorption/scattered signals to certain molecular vibrations were conducted to generate an entire spectroscopic profile of explosive-related compounds. This manuscript shades the light on Raman as one of the prevailing technologies for instantaneous detection of explosive-related compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of oral administration of metronidazole and doxycycline on olfactory capabilities of explosives detection dogs.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Eileen K; Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Angle, T Craig; Behrend, Ellen N; Moore, George E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of oral administration of metronidazole or doxycycline on olfactory function in explosives detection (ED) dogs. ANIMALS 18 ED dogs. PROCEDURES Metronidazole was administered (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days); the day prior to drug administration was designated day 0. Odor detection threshold was measured with a standard scent wheel and 3 explosives (ammonium nitrate, trinitrotoluene, and smokeless powder; weight, 1 to 500 mg) on days 0, 5, and 10. Lowest repeatable weight detected was recorded as the detection threshold. There was a 10-day washout period, and doxycycline was administered (5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days) and the testing protocol repeated. Degradation changes in the detection threshold for dogs were assessed. RESULTS Metronidazole administration resulted in degradation of the detection threshold for 2 of 3 explosives (ammonium nitrate and trinitrotoluene). Nine of 18 dogs had a degradation of performance in response to 1 or more explosives (5 dogs had degradation on day 5 or 10 and 4 dogs had degradation on both days 5 and 10). There was no significant degradation during doxycycline administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Degradation in the ability to detect odors of explosives during metronidazole administration at 25 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours, indicated a potential risk for use of this drug in ED dogs. Additional studies will be needed to determine whether lower doses would have the same effect. Doxycycline administered at the tested dose appeared to be safe for use in ED dogs.

  8. Training Protocols for the Detection of Explosive Vapors in Interior Spaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James M.; Webb, Stephen W.

    2007-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations for dispersal of explosive vapors in interior spaces have been performed including details of typical ventilation systems. The interior spaces investigated include an office area, a single-family house, and a warehouse store. Explosive vapor sources are defined in the various interior spaces, and contours of the vapor concentration in the interior spaces relative to the source concentration are presented for relative concentrations down to 10-5. Training protocols for detection of explosive vapors in interior spaces should include an awareness of the time to equilibrium evident in these simulations as well as the significance of ventilation zones.3

  9. Nuclear Moment Alignment, Relaxation and Detection Mechanisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    of magnetic field gradients and a pair of reverse Helmholtz coils along the y and z axes provide a source of nulcear relaxation (magnetic field...use to detect the noble gas nulcear polarization, was first devised by Cohen-Tannoudji et al12 and first -13 3 used to detect the nuclear polarization

  10. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

  11. Hans A. Bethe Prize Talk: Nuclear Physics, Stellar Explosions and the Abundance Evolution in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielemann, Friedrich-K.

    2008-04-01

    The computational modeling of astrophysical objects requires the combined treatment of different subfields of physics for a complete description: 1. hydrodynamics/hydrostatics for the modeling of mass flows, 2. energy generation and nucleosynthesis for understanding the composition changes due to nuclear reactions and the related energy release, 3. energy transport via conduction, radiation or possibly convection, and finally 4. thermodynamic properties of the matter involved, especially the equation of state which creates a direct relation between energy release and hydrodynamic response via pressure and entropy. Nuclear physics obviously plays an essential role for energy generation and nucleosynthesis, but can also enter radiation transport (e.g. in supernovae) via neutrino-nucleon/ nucleus interaction and clearly determines the equation of state at nuclear densities (e.g. in neutron stars). In this review we want to highlight the role and impact of nuclear physics and its uncertainties on the explosion mechanism and/or the ejected abundances of type Ia and type II supernovae, novae and X-ray bursts, plus their imprint witnessed in the so-called chemical evolution of galaxies. Special emphasis is given to the properties of proton- as well as neutron-rich exotic nuclei far from stability.

  12. Portable flow immunosensor for detecting drugs and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Gauger, Paul R.; Charles, Paul T.

    1997-02-01

    To assist in airport surveillance efforts, a biosensor based on antibody recognition of individual explosives and drugs has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Analysis of samples containing ng/mL levels of the material are completed in under one minute. Immunoassays for the explosives and the five major drugs of abuse are currently available. The intrinsic nature of antigen-antibody binding also provides the unit with an inherently high degree of selectivity. A portable version of the biosensor that can be run by non-technical personnel is also being engineered. The device, including pumps and fluorometer, will be housed on a modified PCMCIA cartridge fitted into a laptop computer. To run assays, a disposable coupon containing the antibody/fluorescent-antigen complex is inserted into the unit and samples are introduced via a sampling port. Results can be viewed in real time or stored on the computer for later data retrieval and analysis.

  13. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R&D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  14. Bomb swab: Can trace explosive particle sampling and detection be improved?

    PubMed

    Fisher, Danny; Zach, Raya; Matana, Yossef; Elia, Paz; Shustack, Shiran; Sharon, Yarden; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2017-11-01

    The marked increase in international terror in recent years requires the development of highly efficient methods to detect trace amounts of explosives at airports, border crossings and check points. The preferred analytical method worldwide is the ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) that is capable of detecting most explosives at the nano-gram level. Sample collection for the IMS analysis is based on swabbing of a passenger's belongings to collect possible explosive residues. The present study examines a wide range of issues related to swab-based particle collection and analysis, in the hope of gaining deeper understanding into this technique that will serve to improve the detection process. The adhesion of explosive particles to three typical materials, plastic, metal and glass, were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that a strong contribution of capillary forces to adhesion on glass and metal surfaces renders these substrates more promising materials upon which to find and collect explosive residues. The adhesion of explosives to different swipe materials was also examined. Here we found that Muslin, Nomex(®) and polyamide membrane surfaces are the most promising materials for use as swipes. Subsequently, the efficiency of multiple swipe use - for collecting explosive residues from a glass surface using Muslin, Nomex(®) and Teflon™ swipes - was examined. The study suggests that swipes used in about 5-10 "sampling and analysis cycles" have higher efficiency as compared to new unused swipes. The reason for this behavior was found to be related to the increased roughness of the swipe surface following a few swab measurements. Lastly, GC-MS analysis was employed to examine the nature of contaminants collected by the three types of swipe. The relative amounts of different contaminants are reported. The existence and interference of these contaminants have to be considered in relation to the detection efficiency of the various explosives by the IMS

  15. Functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs for the detection of nitroaromatic or RDX explosives.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ronit; Finder, Tali; Bahshi, Lily; Gill, Ron; Willner, Itamar

    2012-12-18

    Chemically modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are used as fluorescent probes for the analysis of explosives, and specifically, the detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or trinitrotriazine (RDX). The QDs are functionalized with electron-donating ligands that bind nitro-containing explosives, exhibiting electron-acceptor properties, to the QD surface, via supramolecular donor-acceptor interactions leading to the quenching of the luminescence of the QDs.

  16. Impact Hazard Mitigation: Understanding the Effects of Nuclear Explosive Outputs on Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, R.

    The NASA 2007 white paper "Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives" affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics, reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with analytical models where data

  17. The analysis of high explosives by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: multiplexed detection of negative ion adducts.

    PubMed

    Mathis, John A; McCord, Bruce R

    2005-01-01

    The negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection of adducts of high explosives with chloride, formate, acetate, and nitrate was used to demonstrate the gas-phase interaction of neutral explosives with these anions. The relative intensities of the adduct species were determined to compare the competitive formation of the selected high explosives and anions. The relative stability of the adduct species varies, yielding preferential formation of certain anionic adducts with different high explosives. To exploit this effect, an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/ESI-MS method was developed and used for the simultaneous analysis of high explosives using two different techniques for the addition of the anionic additives; pre- and post-column. The results show that the pre-column approach provides similar results with improved selectivity for specific explosives. By detecting characteristic adduct species for each explosive, this method provides a qualitative and quantitative approach for the analysis and identification of high explosives.

  18. Latent fingerprint and trace explosives detection by photoluminescence and time-resolved imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, Kimberly Kay

    Latent fingerprint detection by photoluminescence is a well-developed field. Many development techniques exist and are currently being employed in forensic laboratories to detect fingerprints by making them luminescent. However, in forensic science, time-resolved imaging techniques, designed to suppress background fluorescence that interferes with fingerprint detectability, are to date not used outside of the research laboratory, and the chemistry necessary to use time-resolved imaging for fingerprint detection is somewhat limited. For this reason, the first section of this dissertation deals with fingerprint detection methods that have direct application to time-resolved imaging techniques. Trace explosive detection field methods based on chemical reactions have until recently utilized only colorimetric products. To increase the sensitivity of such detection, a field explosive test kit which produces a product that is both colorimetric and luminescent is studied. Detection sensitivity can be gained by taking advantage of the luminescence of these products, something that has not been done to date. When the appropriate chemistry is chosen for explosive detection, time-resolved imaging techniques may again be applicable. This dissertation thus looks at possibilities of taking trace explosives detection to this next level.

  19. Trace Detection of RDX, HMX and PETN Explosives Using a Fluorescence Spot Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Huang, Helin; Bunes, Benjamin R; Wu, Na; Xu, Miao; Yang, Xiaomei; Yu, Li; Zang, Ling

    2016-05-05

    1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), the major components in plastic explosives, pose a significant threat to public safety. A quick, sensitive, and low-cost detection method for these non-volatile explosives is eagerly demanded. Here we present a fluo-spot approach, which can be employed for in situ detection of trace amount of explosives. The sensor molecule is a charge-transfer fluorophore, DCM, which is strongly fluorescent in its pristine state, but non-fluorescent after the quick reaction with NO2· (or NO2(+)) generated from the UV photolysis of RDX, HMX (or PETN). When fabricated within silica gel TLC plate, the fluo-spot sensor features high sensitivity owing to the large surface area and porous structure of the substrate. The sensor reaction mechanism was verified by various experimental characterizations, including chromatography, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, MS and (1)H NMR spectrometry. The fluo-spot also demonstrated high selectivity towards RDX, HMX and PETN, as no significant fluorescence quenching was observed for other chemical compounds including common nitro-aromatic explosives and inorganic oxidative compounds. The DCM sensor can also be used as an economical spray kit to directly spot the explosives by naked eyes, implying great potential for quick, low-cost trace explosives detection.

  20. Laser-based standoff detection of surface-bound explosive chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, David L.; Smith, Gregory P.; Oser, Harald

    2010-04-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential damage from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as suicide, roadside, or vehicle bombs requires that the explosive device be detected and neutralized outside its effective blast radius. Only a few seconds may be available to both identify the device as hazardous and implement a response. As discussed in a study by the National Research Council, current technology is still far from capable of meeting these objectives. Conventional nitrocarbon explosive chemicals have very low vapor pressures, and any vapors are easily dispersed in air. Many pointdetection approaches rely on collecting trace solid residues from dust particles or surfaces. Practical approaches for standoff detection are yet to be developed. For the past 5 years, SRI International has been working toward development of a novel scheme for standoff detection of explosive chemicals that uses infrared (IR) laser evaporation of surfacebound explosive followed by ultraviolet (UV) laser photofragmentation of the explosive chemical vapor, and then UV laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of nitric oxide. This method offers the potential of long standoff range (up to 100 m or more), high sensitivity (vaporized solid), simplicity (no spectrometer or library of reference spectra), and selectivity (only nitrocompounds).

  1. Trace Detection of RDX, HMX and PETN Explosives Using a Fluorescence Spot Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Huang, Helin; Bunes, Benjamin R.; Wu, Na; Xu, Miao; Yang, Xiaomei; Yu, Li; Zang, Ling

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), the major components in plastic explosives, pose a significant threat to public safety. A quick, sensitive, and low-cost detection method for these non-volatile explosives is eagerly demanded. Here we present a fluo-spot approach, which can be employed for in situ detection of trace amount of explosives. The sensor molecule is a charge-transfer fluorophore, DCM, which is strongly fluorescent in its pristine state, but non-fluorescent after the quick reaction with NO2· (or NO2+) generated from the UV photolysis of RDX, HMX (or PETN). When fabricated within silica gel TLC plate, the fluo-spot sensor features high sensitivity owing to the large surface area and porous structure of the substrate. The sensor reaction mechanism was verified by various experimental characterizations, including chromatography, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, MS and 1H NMR spectrometry. The fluo-spot also demonstrated high selectivity towards RDX, HMX and PETN, as no significant fluorescence quenching was observed for other chemical compounds including common nitro-aromatic explosives and inorganic oxidative compounds. The DCM sensor can also be used as an economical spray kit to directly spot the explosives by naked eyes, implying great potential for quick, low-cost trace explosives detection.

  2. Trace Detection of RDX, HMX and PETN Explosives Using a Fluorescence Spot Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Huang, Helin; Bunes, Benjamin R.; Wu, Na; Xu, Miao; Yang, Xiaomei; Yu, Li; Zang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), the major components in plastic explosives, pose a significant threat to public safety. A quick, sensitive, and low-cost detection method for these non-volatile explosives is eagerly demanded. Here we present a fluo-spot approach, which can be employed for in situ detection of trace amount of explosives. The sensor molecule is a charge-transfer fluorophore, DCM, which is strongly fluorescent in its pristine state, but non-fluorescent after the quick reaction with NO2· (or NO2+) generated from the UV photolysis of RDX, HMX (or PETN). When fabricated within silica gel TLC plate, the fluo-spot sensor features high sensitivity owing to the large surface area and porous structure of the substrate. The sensor reaction mechanism was verified by various experimental characterizations, including chromatography, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, MS and 1H NMR spectrometry. The fluo-spot also demonstrated high selectivity towards RDX, HMX and PETN, as no significant fluorescence quenching was observed for other chemical compounds including common nitro-aromatic explosives and inorganic oxidative compounds. The DCM sensor can also be used as an economical spray kit to directly spot the explosives by naked eyes, implying great potential for quick, low-cost trace explosives detection. PMID:27146290

  3. Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.C.

    1995-11-11

    Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.

  4. Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J. J.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.

  5. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  6. Unambiguous detection of nitrated explosive vapours by fluorescence quenching of dendrimer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yan; Ali, Mohammad A.; Clulow, Andrew J.; Fan, Shengqiang; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Meredith, Paul; Shaw, Paul E.

    2015-09-01

    Unambiguous and selective standoff (non-contact) infield detection of nitro-containing explosives and taggants is an important goal but difficult to achieve with standard analytical techniques. Oxidative fluorescence quenching is emerging as a high sensitivity method for detecting such materials but is prone to false positives--everyday items such as perfumes elicit similar responses. Here we report thin films of light-emitting dendrimers that detect vapours of explosives and taggants selectively--fluorescence quenching is not observed for a range of common interferents. Using a combination of neutron reflectometry, quartz crystal microbalance and photophysical measurements we show that the origin of the selectivity is primarily electronic and not the diffusion kinetics of the analyte or its distribution in the film. The results are a major advance in the development of sensing materials for the standoff detection of nitro-based explosive vapours, and deliver significant insights into the physical processes that govern the sensing efficacy.

  7. Unambiguous detection of nitrated explosive vapours by fluorescence quenching of dendrimer films

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yan; Ali, Mohammad A.; Clulow, Andrew J.; Fan, Shengqiang; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Meredith, Paul; Shaw, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Unambiguous and selective standoff (non-contact) infield detection of nitro-containing explosives and taggants is an important goal but difficult to achieve with standard analytical techniques. Oxidative fluorescence quenching is emerging as a high sensitivity method for detecting such materials but is prone to false positives—everyday items such as perfumes elicit similar responses. Here we report thin films of light-emitting dendrimers that detect vapours of explosives and taggants selectively—fluorescence quenching is not observed for a range of common interferents. Using a combination of neutron reflectometry, quartz crystal microbalance and photophysical measurements we show that the origin of the selectivity is primarily electronic and not the diffusion kinetics of the analyte or its distribution in the film. The results are a major advance in the development of sensing materials for the standoff detection of nitro-based explosive vapours, and deliver significant insights into the physical processes that govern the sensing efficacy. PMID:26370931

  8. Novel laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy for instantaneous trace detection of explosive materials.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Yasser H; Elbasuney, Sherif

    2017-08-01

    Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) is an attractive technology in terms of simplicity, ruggedness, and overall sensitivity; it detects the time dependent heat generated (thermo-elastic effect) in the target via interaction with pulsed optical radiation. This study reports on novel LPAS technique that offers instant and standoff detection capabilities of trace explosives. Over the current study, light is generated using pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser; the generated photoacoustic response in stimulated explosive material offers signature values that depend on the optical, thermal, and acoustical properties. The generated acoustic waves were captured using piezoelectric transducer as well as novel customized optical sensor with remotely laser interferometer probe. A digital signal processing algorithm was employed to identify explosive material signatures via calculation of characteristic optical properties (absorption coefficient), sound velocity, and frequency response of the generated photoacoustic signal. Customized LPAS technique was employed for instantaneous trace detection of three main different high explosive materials including TNT, RDX, and HMX. The main outcome of this study is that the novel customized optical sensor signals were validated with traditional piezoelectric transducer. Furthermore, the customized optical sensor offered standoff detection capabilities (10cm), fast response, high sensitivity, and enhanced signal to noise ratio. This manuscript shaded the light on the instant detection of trace explosive materials from significant standoffs using novel customized LPAS technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An explosives detection system for airline security using coherent x-ray scattering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Robert W.; Mahdavieh, Jacob; Smith, Richard C.; Subramanian, Ravi

    2008-08-01

    L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems (SDS) has developed a new system for automated alarm resolution in airline baggage Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) based on coherent x-ray scattering spectroscopy. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated in tests with concealed explosives at the Transportation Security Laboratory and airline passenger baggage at Orlando International Airport. The system uses x-ray image information to identify suspicious objects and performs targeted diffraction measurements to classify them. This extra layer of detection capability affords a significant reduction in the rate of false alarm objects that must presently be resolved by opening passenger bags for hand inspection.

  10. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  11. Trace Level Detection of Explosives in Solution Using Leidenfrost Phenomenon Assisted Thermal Desorption Ambient Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Shida, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the detection of explosives in solution using thermal desorption technique at a temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature of the solvent in combination with low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization. Leidenfrost temperature of a solvent is the temperature above which the solvent droplet starts levitation instead of splashing when placed on a hot metallic surface. During this desorption process, slow and gentle solvent evaporation takes place, which leads to the pre-concentration of less-volatile explosive molecules in the droplet and the explosive molecules are released at the last moment of droplet evaporation. The limits of detection for explosives studied by using this thermal desorption LTP ionization method varied in a range of 1 to 10 parts per billion (ppb) using a droplet volume of 20 μL (absolute sample amount 90–630 fmol). As LTP ionization method was applied and ion–molecule reactions took place in ambient atmosphere, various ion–molecule adduct species like [M+NO2]−, [M+NO3]−, [M+HCO3]−, [M+HCO4]− were generated together with [M−H]− peak. Each peak was unambiguously identified using ‘Exactive Orbitrap’ mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode within 3 ppm deviation compared to its exact mass. This newly developed technique was successfully applied to detect four explosives contained in the pond water and soil sample with minor sample pre-treatment and the explosives were detected with ppb levels. The present method is simple, rapid and can detect trace levels of explosives with high specificity from solutions. PMID:24349927

  12. Trace level detection of explosives in solution using leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Shida, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the detection of explosives in solution using thermal desorption technique at a temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature of the solvent in combination with low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization. Leidenfrost temperature of a solvent is the temperature above which the solvent droplet starts levitation instead of splashing when placed on a hot metallic surface. During this desorption process, slow and gentle solvent evaporation takes place, which leads to the pre-concentration of less-volatile explosive molecules in the droplet and the explosive molecules are released at the last moment of droplet evaporation. The limits of detection for explosives studied by using this thermal desorption LTP ionization method varied in a range of 1 to 10 parts per billion (ppb) using a droplet volume of 20 μL (absolute sample amount 90-630 fmol). As LTP ionization method was applied and ion-molecule reactions took place in ambient atmosphere, various ion-molecule adduct species like [M+NO2](-), [M+NO3](-), [M+HCO3](-), [M+HCO4](-) were generated together with [M-H](-) peak. Each peak was unambiguously identified using 'Exactive Orbitrap' mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode within 3 ppm deviation compared to its exact mass. This newly developed technique was successfully applied to detect four explosives contained in the pond water and soil sample with minor sample pre-treatment and the explosives were detected with ppb levels. The present method is simple, rapid and can detect trace levels of explosives with high specificity from solutions.

  13. Impact hazard mitigation: understanding the effects of nuclear explosive outputs on comets and asteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Ralph R C; Plesko, Catherine S; Bradley, Paul A; Conlon, Leann M

    2009-01-01

    The NASA 2007 white paper ''Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives'' affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g ., Ryan (2000) Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with analytical models where

  14. Prompt air fluorescence induced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, H.G.; Collins, D.G.; Holland, R.F.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1990-12-01

    A high-altitude (>100) nuclear explosion emits a large fraction of its energy yield in the form of x rays, approximately half of which are deposited in the atmospheric layers {approximately}50--90 km, exciting prompt fluorescence. This paper examines four of the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative bands that fluorescence strongly: {lambda}{lambda} 3914(0,0), 4278(0,1), 4709(0,2), and 5228(0,3) {Angstrom}. We developed both forward'' and backward'' Monte Carlo procedures and performed calculations using Los Alamos CRAY computers to simulate the physical problem for the variety of situations that are possible. We include the time-dependent treatment of x-ray energy deposition, both local and nonlocal excitation of fluorescence, multiple scattering and transmission of fluorescent photons with the resulting enhancement of the longer wavelength N{sub 2}{sup +} bands, and chemical reactions. A realistic atmospheric model is defined up to 800 km, including the troposphere and a Lambert reflecting ground surface with given albedo. To expedite such computations we use separate spatial meshes in which to carry out the x-ray deposition and fluorescence light scattering. Examples of our calculated results illustrate the effects of explosion yield, geometry, tropospheric scattering, ground albedo, and temperature of the fluorescing layer. 41 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Maximum reasonable radioxenon releases from medical isotope production facilities and their effect on monitoring nuclear explosions.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Theodore W; Kephart, Rosara; Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Miley, Harry S; Saey, Paul R J

    2013-01-01

    Fission gases such as (133)Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of (99)Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Stocki et al., 2005; Saey, 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5 × 10(9) Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Yield ratio estimates using regional Pn and Pg from North Korea's underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Ik-Bum; Kim, Geun-Young

    2009-11-01

    On May 25, 2009 North Korea executed a second nuclear test in the vicinity of P'unggyeri where the first nuclear test was performed on October 9, 2006. Seismic signals from the two underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are recorded at broadband stations in South Korea and China. Seismic signals from fourteen broadband stations operated by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), three broadband stations of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) in South Korea and the Mudanjiang station (MDJ) of GSN in China are used for this study. Clear Pn, Pg, and Lg phases propagated over 800 km. The nearly co-located two UNEs and seismic recordings at the same stations enable us to estimate the ratio of the Pn and Pg displacement amplitude spectra between two events by eliminating the path effect. The 95% confidence interval of the mean yield ratio is constrained as a function of the depth ratio and all the estimates of Pn and Pg spectral ratios. The mean yield ratio ranges from 3.45 to 6.36 in the 95% confidence interval based on the depth range estimates by Bennett (2008, 2009).

  17. Fingerprinting postblast explosive residues by portable capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Kobrin, Eeva-Gerda; Lees, Heidi; Fomitšenko, Maria; Kubáň, Petr; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2014-04-01

    A portable capillary electrophoretic system with contactless conductivity detection was used for fingerprint analysis of postblast explosive residues from commercial organic and improvised inorganic explosives on various surfaces (sand, concrete, metal witness plates). Simple extraction methods were developed for each of the surfaces for subsequent simultaneous capillary electrophoretic analysis of anions and cations. Dual-opposite end injection principle was used for fast (<4 min) separation of 10 common anions and cations from postblast residues using an optimized separation electrolyte composed of 20 mM MES, 20 mM l-histidine, 30 μM CTAB and 2 mM 18-crown-6. The concentrations of all ions obtained from the electropherograms were subjected to principal component analysis to classify the tested explosives on all tested surfaces, resulting in distinct cluster formations that could be used to verify (each) type of the explosive. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-09

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  19. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  20. The effect of friction on simulated containment of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, A.V.

    1990-11-01

    The strength of the residual stress field is used as an important indicator in assessing the containment of underground nuclear explosions. Containment analysis using the COTTAGE geology shows considerable cracking in the hard Paleozoic layer, just below the cavity. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of total shear stress applied to a closed fracture surface to normal applied compressive total stress. Without any friction, the Paleozoic residual stress field is weakest. As the friction coefficient is increased from 0 to 0.5, the Paleozoic residual stress field is strengthened. A further increase of the friction coefficient from 0.5 to 0.8 shows strengthened where cracks are closed and weakening where cracks remain open. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Project: Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cowee, Misa; Gary, S. Peter; Winske, Dan; Liu, Kaijun

    2012-07-17

    We present a summary of the FY12 activities for DTRA-funded project 'Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere'. We briefly review the outstanding scientific questions and discuss the work done in the last year to try to answer these questions. We then discuss the agenda for this Technical Meeting with the DTRA sponsors. In the last year, we have continued our efforts to understand artificial radiation belts from several different perspectives: (1) Continued development of Electron Source Model (ESM) and comparison to HANE test data; (2) Continued studies of relativistic electron scattering by waves in the natural radiation belts; (3) Began study of self-generated waves from the HANE electrons; and (4) Began modeling for the UCLA laser experiment.

  2. Structure of the disturbed region of the atmosphere after the nuclear explosion in Hiroshima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbin, M. D.; Pavlyukov, K. V.; Salo, A. A.; Pertsev, S. F.; Rikunov, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    An attempt is undertaken to describe the development of the disturbed region of the atmosphere caused by the nuclear explosion over Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Numerical simulation of the phenomenon is performed using the dynamic equations for a nonconducting inviscid gas taking into account the combustion of urban buildings, phase changes of water, electrification of ice particles, and removal of soot particles. The results of the numerical calculation of the development of the disturbed region indicate heavy rainfall, the formation of a storm cloud with lightning discharges, removal of soot particles, and the formation of vertical vortices. The temporal sequence of these meteorological phenomena is consistent with the data of observations. Because of the assumptions and approximations used in solving the problem, the results are of qualitative nature. Refinement of the results can be obtained by a more detailed study of the approximate initial and boundary conditions of the problem.

  3. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-07-28

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume germanium detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~ 1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be reliably utilized.

  4. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  5. Real-world particulate explosives test coupons for optical detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Viet; Papantonakis, Michael; Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, Christopher; McGill, R. Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Trace or residue explosives detection typically involves examining explosives found as solid particles on a solid substrate. Different optical spectroscopy techniques are being developed to detect these explosives in situ by probing how light interacts with the surface bound particles of explosives. In order to evaluate these technologies it is important to have available suitable test coupons coated with particles of explosives. When fabricating test coupons to evaluate detection performance or help train a detection algorithm, it is important to use realistic test coupons and consider how the physicochemical properties of the explosives particles, related chemicals, and substrate may affect the spectra produced or signal intensities observed. Specific features of interest include surface fill factor, particle sizes, areal density, degree of particle contact with a substrate and any other chemicals in addition to the explosives and substrate. This level of complexity highlights the need to fabricate test coupons which mimic "real world" particle coated surfaces. With respect to metrics derived from fingerprints, we compare the properties of test coupons fabricated by sieving and inkjetting for ammonium nitrate, TNT, RDX, and sucrose on stainless steel, automotive painted steel, glass and polyethylene substrates. Sieving provides a random distribution of particles, allows fractionation of relevant particle sizes and allows relevant surface fill factors to be achieved. Inkjetting provides precise control of aerial density but because of complications related to solvent-substrate interactions, relevant fill factors and particle sizes are difficult to achieve. In addition, we introduce a custom image analysis technique, NRL ParticleMath, developed to characterize and quantify particle loadings on test coupons.

  6. The Integration Process for Incorporating Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research Results into the National Nuclear Security Administration Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    GALLEGOS, DAVID P.; CARR, DORTHE B.; HERRINGTON, PRESTON B.; HARRIS, JAMES M.; EDWARDS, C.L.; TAYLOR, STEVEN R.; WOGMAN, NED A.; ANDERSON, DALE N.; CASEY, LESLIE A.

    2002-09-01

    The process of developing the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Knowledge Base (KB) must result in high-quality Information Products in order to support activities for monitoring nuclear explosions consistent with United States treaty and testing moratoria monitoring missions. The validation, verification, and management of the Information Products is critical to successful scientific integration, and hence, will enable high-quality deliveries to be made to the United States National Data Center (USNDC) at the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). As an Information Product passes through the steps necessary to become part of a delivery to AFTAC, domain experts (including technical KB Working Groups that comprise NNSA and DOE laboratory staff and the customer) will provide coordination and validation, where validation is the determination of relevance and scientific quality. Verification is the check for completeness and correctness, and will be performed by both the Knowledge Base Integrator and the Scientific Integrator with support from the Contributor providing two levels of testing to assure content integrity and performance. The Information Products and their contained data sets will be systematically tracked through the integration portion of their life cycle. The integration process, based on lessons learned during its initial implementations, is presented in this report.

  7. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  8. [Radioecological situation in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3" in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)].

    PubMed

    Sobakin, P I; Gerasimov, Ya R; Chevychelov, A P; Perk, A A; Goryachenkova, T A; Novikov, A P

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of a ground walking gamma- and gamma-spectrometric survey made in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3". Patterns of migration, 137Cs, 90Sr and Pu distribution in the soil-vegetable cover of the northern taiga on permafrost are considered. Radioeco- logical situation within the territory surveyed is noted as unfavorable.

  9. Detection of explosive mixtures on surfaces using grazing angle probe - FTIR: model for classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Soto-Feliciano, Yadira; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo; De La Torre-Quintana, Luis F.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2006-05-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy coupled to Grazing Angle Probe and operating in Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy mode has been demonstrated that can be used as a potential technique to develop new methodologies for detection of explosives on surfaces in Phase I of this research. The methodology is remote sensed, in situ and can detect nanograms of most target compounds. It is solvent free technique and requires no sample preparation. In this work detection of traces of neat explosives and lab made mixtures equivalent to the important explosive formulation Pentolyte has been addressed. The sample set consisted of TNT, PETN and Pentolyte mixture present in various loading concentrations. The spectral data collected was subjected to a number of statistical pre-treatment methods, including first derivative and normalization transformations to make the data more suitable for analysis. Principal Component Analysis combined with Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to classify and discriminate the target analytes.

  10. Morphologically manipulated Ag/ZnO nanostructures as surface enhanced Raman scattering probes for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Hamad, Syed; Ahamad Mohiddon, Md.; Soma, Venugopal Rao; Ghanashyam Krishna, M.

    2016-03-01

    The detection of secondary explosive molecules (e.g., ANTA, FOX-7, and CL-20) using Ag decorated ZnO nanostructures as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes is demonstrated. ZnO nanostructures were grown on borosilicate glass substrates by rapid thermal oxidation of metallic Zn films at 500 °C. The oxide nanostructures, including nanosheets and nanowires, emerged over the surface of the Zn film leaving behind the metal residue. We demonstrate that SERS measurements with concentrations as low as 10 μM, of the three explosive molecules ANTA, FOX-7, and CL-20 over ZnO/Ag nanostructures, resulted in enhancement factors of ˜107, ˜107, and ˜104, respectively. These measurements validate the high sensitivity of detection of explosive molecules using Ag decorated ZnO nanostructures as SERS substrates. The Zn metal residue and conditions of annealing play an important role in determining the detection sensitivity.

  11. Seismoacoustic Signatures from Chelyabinsk Meteor Observed by the Kazakhstan Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Network (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Mikhailova, N.; Garces, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Infrasound and seismic stations of the Kazakhstan Nuclear Explosion Monitoring network recorded high-fidelity seismoacoustic signatures from the Chelyabinsk meteor. Infrasound array I31KZ in Aktyubinsk was the closest IMS infrasound station to the source. This station is in the Northwest Kazakhstan, approximately 520 km southward from the bolide blast. The propitious station position relative to the entry trajectory, coupled with calm weather during the event, permitted a detailed, broadband record of the bolide explosion. All eight I31KZ infrasound array channels show an extremely strong broadband signal at 03:48 UTC and a duration of ~20 minutes. Array processing of the signal with PMCC4 shows that signal contains unprecedented detail on the source characteristics. Another Kazakhstani infrasound array in Kurchatov, Northeast Kazakhstan, also recorded the explosion signals. This is third closest infrasound array to the source. The second one is Russian array I43RU, Dubna. Epicentral distances are 1090 km for Dubna and 1300 km for Kurchatov. Traveltimes are 26 minutes for I31KZ Aktyubinsk and 66 minutes for the Kurchatov array. In addition to infrasound arrays, Kazakhstani seismic arrays belonging to Institute of Geophysical Research also recorded the signals generated by the bolide. The epicentral seismic source location corresponds to the pressure shock wave ground impact, and is under the meteor hypercenter. The seismic signal was recorded by Akbulak, Borovoe, Karatau and Makanchy arrays and other Kazakhstani seismic stations. Akbulak was the station nearest to epicenter, at a range of 630 km southward. The estimated origin time of the seismic event following the bolide explosion is 03:21:59.64 GMT. The difference between ground truth time 3:20:33 GMT provided by NASA and the seismic origin time is in reasonable agreement with the reported hypercenter altitude range of 25-30 km asl. The seismic event had a body wave magnitude of Mb 3.5, with energy class K 8

  12. Laser based in-situ and standoff detection of chemical warfare agents and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-09-01

    Laser based detection of gaseous, liquid and solid residues and trace amounts has been developed ever since lasers were invented. However, the lack of availability of reasonably high power tunable lasers in the spectral regions where the relevant targets can be interrogated as well as appropriate techniques for high sensitivity, high selectivity detection has hampered the practical exploitation of techniques for the detection of targets important for homeland security and defense applications. Furthermore, emphasis has been on selectivity without particular attention being paid to the impact of interfering species on the quality of detection. Having high sensitivity is necessary but not a sufficient condition. High sensitivity assures a high probability of detection of the target species. However, it is only recently that the sensor community has come to recognize that any measure of probability of detection must be associated with a probability of false alarm, if it is to have any value as a measure of performance. This is especially true when one attempts to compare performance characteristics of different sensors based on different physical principles. In this paper, I will provide a methodology for characterizing the performance of sensors utilizing optical absorption measurement techniques. However, the underlying principles are equally application to all other sensors. While most of the current progress in high sensitivity, high selectivity detection of CWAs, TICs and explosives involve identifying and quantifying the target species in-situ, there is an urgent need for standoff detection of explosives from safe distances. I will describe our results on CO2 and quantum cascade laser (QCL) based photoacoustic sensors for the detection of CWAs, TICs and explosives as well the very new results on stand-off detection of explosives at distances up to 150 meters. The latter results are critically important for assuring safety of military personnel in battlefield

  13. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  14. Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, W H; Bernstein, A; Craig, W W; Johnson, M

    2007-05-29

    Solutions to problems in nuclear non-proliferation and counter-terrorism may be found at the forefront of modern physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments, dark matter searches, and high energy astrophysics, are based on technology advances that have may also have application to nuclear detection. The detection problems share many characteristics, including energy scales, time structures, particle-type, and, of course, the combination of high backgrounds and low signal levels. This convergence of basic and applied physics is realized in non-proliferation and homeland security projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Examples described here include reactor anti-neutrino monitoring, dual-phase noble liquid TPC development, gamma-ray telescopes, and nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  15. Standoff photoacoustic detection of explosives using quantum cascade laser and an ultrasensitive microphone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Guo, Dingkai; Choa, Fow-Sen; Wang, Chen-Chia; Trivedi, Sudhir; Snyder, A Peter; Ru, Guoyun; Fan, Jenyu

    2013-04-20

    Standoff detections of explosives using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and the photoacoustic (PA) technique were studied. In our experiment, a mid-infrared QCL with emission wavelength near 7.35 μm was used as a laser source. Direct standoff PA detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) was achieved using an ultrasensitive microphone. The QCL output light was focused on explosive samples in powder form. PA signals were generated and detected directly by an ultrasensitive low-noise microphone with 1 in. diameter. A detection distance up to 8 in. was obtained using the microphone alone. With increasing detection distance, the measured PA signal not only decayed in amplitude but also presented phase delays, which clearly verified the source location. To further increase the detection distance, a parabolic sound reflector was used for effective sound collection. With the help of the sound reflector, standoff PA detection of TNT with distance of 8 ft was demonstrated.

  16. Nuclear imaging and early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Laura; Cervino, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    The present report discusses about the most important roles of nuclear medicine related to the early detection of breast cancer. We summarily describe the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications and clinical impact for planar and tomographic breast scintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission mammography (PEM).

  17. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    PubMed

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues.

  18. Fluorescent proteins as biosensors by quenching resonance energy transfer from endogenous tryptophan: detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Alexa; Sarette, Joseph; Shawler, Evan; Lee, Taeyoung; Freund, Steve; Holwitt, Eric; Hicks, Barry W

    2013-10-15

    Ensuring domestic safety from terrorist attack is a daunting challenge because of the wide array of chemical agents that must be screened. A panel of purified fluorescent protein isoforms (FPs) was screened for the ability to detect various explosives, explosive simulants, and toxic agents. In addition to their commonly used visible excitation wavelengths, essentially all FPs can be excited by UV light at 280 nm. Ultraviolet illumination excites electrons in endogenous tryptophan (W) residues, which then relax by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to the chromophore of the FP, and thus the FPs emit with their typical visible spectra. Taking advantage of the fact that tryptophan excitation can be quenched by numerous agents, including nitroaromatics like TNT and nitramines like RDX, it is demonstrated that quenching of visible fluorescence from UV illumination of FPs can be used as the basis for detecting these explosives and explosive degradation products. This work provides the foundation for production of an array of genetically-modified FPs for in vitro biosensors capable of rapid, simultaneous, sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of explosive or toxic agents. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Remote detection of nitroaromatic explosives in soil using distributed sensor particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonson, Robert J.; Hance, Bradley G.; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Hargis, Philip J., Jr.

    2001-10-01

    Environmental fate and transport studies of explosives in soil indicate that 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and similar products such as dinitrotoluene (DNT) are major contributors to the trace chemical signature emanating from buried landmines. Chemical analysis methods are under development that have great potential to detect mines, or to rapidly classify electromagnetically detected anomalies as mines vs. 'mine-like objects'. However, these chemical methods are currently confined to point sensors. In contrast, we have developed a method that can remotely determine the presence of nitroaromatic explosives in surface soil. This method utilizes a novel distributed granular sensor approach in combination with uv-visible fluorescence LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology. We have produced prototype sensor particles that combine sample preconcentration, explosives sensing, signal amplification, and optical signal output functions. These particles can be sprayed onto soil areas that are suspected of explosives contamination. By design, the fluorescence emission spectrum of the distributed particles is strongly affected by absorption of nitroaromatic explosives from the surrounding environment. Using ~1mg/cm2 coverage of the sensor particles on natural soil, we have observed significant spectral changes due to TNT concentrations in the ppm range (mg TNT/kg soil) on 2-inch diameter targets at a standoff distance of 0.5 km.

  20. Detection and decontamination of residual energetics from ordnance and explosives scrap.

    PubMed

    Jung, Carina M; Newcombe, David A; Crawford, Don L; Crawford, Ronald L

    2004-02-01

    Extensive manufacturing of explosives in the last century has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and waters. Decommissioning and cleanup of these materials has also led to concerns about the explosive hazards associated with residual energetics still present on the surfaces of ordnance and explosives scrap. Typically, open burning or detonation is used to decontaminate ordinance and explosive scrap. Here the use of an anaerobic microbiological system applied as a bioslurry to decontaminate energetics from the surfaces of metal scrap is described. Decontamination of model metal scrap artificially contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and of decommissioned mortar rounds still containing explosives residue was examined. A portable ion mobility spectrometer was employed for the detection of residual explosives residues on the surfaces of the scrap. The mixed microbial populations of the bioslurries effectively decontaminated both the scrap and the mortar rounds. Use of the ion mobility spectrometer was an extremely sensitive field screening method for assessing decontamination and is a method by which minimally trained personnel can declare scrap clean with a high level of certainty.

  1. Trace detection of explosives using an in-line high-volume sampler, preconcentrator, and Fido explosives detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Russ; Sikes, John

    2010-04-01

    This paper shall demonstrate the results of a prototype system to detect explosive objects and obscured contaminated targets. By combining a high volume sampling nozzle with an inline 2-stage preconcentrator and a Fido, greater standoff is achieved than with the Fido alone. The direct application of this system is on the Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) but could be deployed on a large variety of robotic platforms. It is being developed under the auspices of the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Countermine Division. This device is one of several detection tools and technologies to be used on the AMDS. These systems will have multiple, and at times, overlapping objectives. One objective is trace detection on the surface of an unknown potential target. By increasing the standoff capabilities of the detector, the fine manipulation of the robot deploying the detector is less critical. Current detectors used on robotic systems must either be directly in the vapor plume or make direct contact with the target. By increasing the standoff, detection is more easily and quickly achieved. The end result detector must overcome cross-contamination, sample throughput, and environmental issues. The paper will provide preliminary results of the prototype system to include data, and where feasible, video of testing results.

  2. Detection of buried explosives using portable neutron sources with nanosecond timing.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A V; Evsenin, A V; Gorshkov, I Yu; Osetrov, O I; Vakhtin, D N

    2004-07-01

    Significant reduction of time needed to identify hidden explosives and other hazardous materials by the "neutron in, gamma out" method has been achieved by introducing timed (nanosecond) neutron sources-the so-called nanosecond neutron analysis technique. Prototype mobile device for explosives' detection based on a timed (nanosecond) isotopic (252)Cf neutron source has been created. The prototype is capable of identifying 400 g of hidden explosives in 10 min. Tests have been also made with a prototype device using timed (nanosecond) neutron source based on a portable D-T neutron generator with built-in segmented detector of accompanying alpha-particles. The presently achieved intensity of the neutron generator is 5x10(7)n/s into 4pi, with over 10(6) of these neutrons being correlated with alpha-particles detected by the built-in alpha-particle detector. Results of measurements with an anti-personnel landmine imitator are presented.

  3. Polyfunctional Lewis acids: intriguing solid-state structure and selective detection and discrimination of nitroaromatic explosives.

    PubMed

    Swamy P, Chinna Ayya; Thilagar, Pakkirisamy

    2015-06-08

    Synthesis and crystal structures of three porphyrin-based polyfunctional Lewis acids 1-3 are reported. Intermolecular HgCl⋅⋅⋅HgCl (linear and μ-type) interactions in the solid state of the peripherally ArHgCl-decorated compound 3 lead to a fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture. Compound 3 shows a selective fluorescence quenching response to picric acid and discriminates other nitroaromatic-based explosives. For the first time, an electron-deficient polyfunctional Lewis acid is shown to be useful for the selective detection and discrimination of nitroaromatic explosives. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant and detection limits of compound 3 for picric acid are the best among the reported small-molecular receptors for nitroaromatic explosives. The electronic structure, Lewis acidity, and selective sensing characteristics of 3 are well corroborated by DFT calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A portable fluorescence detector for fast ultra trace detection of explosive vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yunhong; He, Gang; Wang, Qi; Fang, Yu

    2011-10-01

    This paper developed a portable detector based on a specific material-based fluorescent sensing film for an ultra trace detection of explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) or its derivate 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), in ambient air or on objects tainted by explosives. The fluorescent sensing films are based on single-layer chemistry and the signal amplification effect of conjugated polymers, which exhibited higher sensitivity and shorter response time to TNT or DNT at their vapor pressures. Due to application of the light emitting diode and the solid state photomultiplier and the cross-correlation-based circuit design technology, the device has the advantages of low-power, low-cost, small size, and an improved signal to noise ratio. The results of the experiments showed that the detector can real-time detect and identify of explosive vapors at extremely low levels; it is suitable for the identification of suspect luggage, forensic analyses, or battlefields clearing.

  5. Nuclear Power System Architecture and Safety Study- Feasibility of Launch Pad Explosion Simulation using Radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Stefano; Tracino, Emanuele; Giraudo, Martina

    2014-06-01

    During a mission involving a spacecraft using nuclear power sources (NPS), the consequences to the population induced by an accident has to be taken into account carefully.Part of the study (led by AREVA, with TAS-I as one of the involved parties) was devoted to "Worst Case Scenario Consolidation". In particular, one of the activities carried out by TAS-I had the aim of characterizing the accidental environment (explosion on launch pad or during launch) and consolidate the requirements given as input in the study. The resulting requirements became inputs for Nuclear Power Source container design.To do so, TAS-I did first an overview of the available technical literature (mostly developed in the frame of NASA Mercury / Apollo program), to identify the key parameters to be used for analytical assessment (blast pressure wave, fragments size, speed and distribution, TNT equivalent of liquid propellant).Then, a simplified Radioss model was setup, to verify both the cards needed for blast / fragment impact analysis and the consistency between preliminary results and available technical literature (Radioss is commonly used to design mine - resistant vehicles, by simulating the effect of blasts onto structural elements, and it is used in TAS-I for several types of analysis, including land impact, water impact and fluid - structure interaction).The obtained results (albeit produced by a very simplified model) are encouraging, showing that the analytical tool and the selected key parameters represent a step in the right direction.

  6. Millimeter wave detection of nuclear radiation: an alternative detection mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gopalsami, N; Chien, H T; Heifetz, A; Koehl, E R; Raptis, A C

    2009-08-01

    We present a nuclear radiation detection mechanism using millimeter waves as an alternative to conventional detection. It is based on the concept that nuclear radiation causes ionization of air and that if we place a dielectric material near the radiation source, it acts as a charge accumulator of the air ions. We have found that millimeter waves can interrogate the charge cloud on the dielectric material remotely. This concept was tested with a standoff millimeter wave system by monitoring the charge levels on a cardboard tube placed in an x-ray beam.

  7. Porous Chromatographic Materials as Substrates for Preparing Synthetic Nuclear Explosion Debris Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Liezers, Martin; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Garcia, Ben J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Carman, April J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2013-06-13

    In this study, we investigated several porous chromatographic materials as synthetic substrates for preparing surrogate nuclear explosion debris particles. The resulting synthetic debris materials are of interest for use in developing analytical methods. Eighteen metals, including some of forensic interest, were loaded onto materials by immersing them in metal solutions (556 mg/L of each metal) to fill the pores, applying gentle heat (110°C) to drive off water, and then treating them at high temperatures (up to 800°C) in air to form less soluble metal species. High-boiling-point metals were uniformly loaded on spherical controlled-pore glass to emulate early fallout, whereas low-boiling-point metals were loaded on core-shell silica to represent coated particles formed later in the nuclear fallout-formation process. Analytical studies were applied to characterize solubility, material balance, and formation of recalcitrant species. Dissolution experiments indicated loading was 1.5 to 3 times higher than expected from the pore volume alone, a result attributed to surface coating. Analysis of load solutions before and after filling the material pores revealed that most metals were passively loaded; that is, solutions filled the pores without active metal discrimination. However, niobium and tin concentrations were lower in solutions after pore filling, and were found in elevated concentrations in the final products, indicating some metals were selectively loaded. High-temperature treatments caused reduced solubility of several metal species, and loss of some metals (rhenium and tellurium) because volatile species were formed. Sample preparation reproducibility was high (the inter-batch relative standard deviation was 7.8%, and the intra-batch relative standard deviation was 0.84%) indicating that this material is suitable for use as a working standard for analytical methods development. We anticipate future standardized radionuclide-loaded materials will find use in

  8. Post-Detonation Nuclear Forensics: What will we do ``... when the explosions come ...''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahey, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    “What will happen when the explosions come - when a part of New York or Cairo or Adelaide has been hollowed out by a device in the kiloton range? Since even a so called fizzle yield could kill a number of thousands of people, how many nuclear detonations can the world tolerate?” John McPhee, “The Curve of Binding Energy” On the morning of July 16, 1945 the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico. The device was a Pu implosion device like the one that destroyed Nagasaki on August 9 of that year. If we were called upon to conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a non-state actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. Those who perform the roles of forensic-analyst must have knowledge, not only of the possible construction of a nuclear weapon, but have at their disposal the knowledge and investigative skills that are common among geochemists. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the Trinity test (Trinitite) showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. There is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials in the device can be identified and associated with the nuclear material. After a thin section of a piece of Trinitie was made, γ and α-spectrometry, autoradiography, light and, electron microscopy, x-ray analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry were performed. Astonishing correlations exist in the data from these individual techniques. A plot of the correlation between several of the analyses is shown in Figure 1. The most significant feature is that the Pu is localized near the smooth top surface in a Ca-rich layer. This layer also contain U of natural isotopic composition. This is a definitive demonstration that the tamper material is associated with the nuclear material, in this case Pu, and can be identified as coming from a

  9. Mobile TNA system to detect explosives and drugs concealed in cars and trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendahan, Joseph; Gozani, Tsahi

    1998-12-01

    The drug problem in the U.S. is serious and efforts to fight it are constrained by the lack of adequate means to curb the inflow of smuggled narcotics into the country through cargo containers. Also, events such as the disastrous explosion in Oklahoma City, the IRA bombing in London, and the bombing of the U.S. military residence in Dharan make the development of new tools for the detection of explosives and drugs in vehicles imperative. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) technology, developed for the detection of explosives in suitcases, and detection of landmines and unexploded ordnance is presently being applied to the nonintrusive detection of significant amounts of explosives and drugs concealed in cars, trucks and large cargo containers. TNA technology is based on the analysis of characteristic gamma rays emitted following thermal neutron capture. A TNA system can be used in a variety of operational scenarios, such as inspection before an unloaded cargo container from a spit is moved to temporary storage, inspection of trucks unloaded from a ferry, or inspection of vehicles parked close to Federal building or military bases. This paper will discuss the detection process and operational scenarios, and will present results from recent simulations and measurements.

  10. Study of thermal decomposition mechanisms and low-level detection of explosives using pulsed photoacoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehya, F.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Srinivas, D.; Muralidharan, K.

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel time-resolved photoacoustic-based technique for studying the thermal decomposition mechanisms of some secondary explosives such as RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), picric acid, 4,6-dinitro-5-(4-nitro-1 H-imidazol-1-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d] [1-3] triazole, and 5-chloro-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1 H-tetrazole. A comparison of the thermal decomposition mechanisms of these secondary explosives was made by detecting NO2 molecules released under controlled pyrolysis between 25 and 350 °C. The results show excellent agreement with the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) results. A specially designed PA cell made of stainless steel was filled with explosive vapor and pumped using second harmonic, i.e., λ = 532 nm, pulses of duration 7 ns at a 10 Hz repetition rate, obtained using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The use of a combination of PA and TGA-DTA techniques enables the study of NO2 generation, and this method can be used to scale the performance of these explosives as rocket fuels. The minimum detection limits of the four explosives were 38 ppmv to 69 ppbv, depending on their respective vapor pressures.

  11. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided wave guided fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2012-10-16

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  12. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided waveguided fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2011-10-18

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  13. Micro-differential thermal analysis detection of adsorbed explosive molecules using microfabricated bridges.

    PubMed

    Senesac, Larry R; Yi, Dechang; Greve, Anders; Hales, Jan H; Davis, Zachary J; Nicholson, Don M; Boisen, Anja; Thundat, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Although micromechanical sensors enable chemical vapor sensing with unprecedented sensitivity using variations in mass and stress, obtaining chemical selectivity using the micromechanical response still remains as a crucial challenge. Chemoselectivity in vapor detection using immobilized selective layers that rely on weak chemical interactions provides only partial selectivity. Here we show that the very low thermal mass of micromechanical sensors can be used to produce unique responses that can be used for achieving chemical selectivity without losing sensitivity or reversibility. We demonstrate that this method is capable of differentiating explosive vapors from nonexplosives and is additionally capable of differentiating individual explosive vapors such as trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and cyclotrimethylenetrinitromine. This method, based on a microfabricated bridge with a programmable heating rate, produces unique and reproducible thermal response patterns within 50 ms that are characteristic to classes of adsorbed explosive molecules. We demonstrate that this micro-differential thermal analysis technique can selectively detect explosives, providing a method for fast direct detection with a limit of detection of 600x10(-12) g.

  14. Micro differential thermal analysis detection of adsorbed explosive molecules using microfabricated bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Yi, Dechang; Greve, Anders; Hales, Jan; Davis, Zachary; Nicholson, Don M; Boisen, Anja; Thundat, Thomas George

    2009-01-01

    Although micromechanical sensors enable chemical vapor sensing with unprecedented sensitivity using variations in mass and stress, obtaining chemical selectivity using the micromechanical response still remains as a crucial challenge. Chemoselectivity in vapor detection using immobilized selective layers that rely on weak chemical interactions provides only partial selectivity. Here we show that the very low thermal mass of micromechanical sensors can be used to produce unique responses that can be used for achieving chemical selectivity without losing sensitivity or reversibility. We demonstrate that this method is capable of differentiating explosive vapors from nonexplosives and is additionally capable of differentiating individual explosive vapors such as trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and cyclotrimethylenetrinitromine. This method, based on a microfabricated bridge with a programmable heating rate, produces unique and reproducible thermal response patterns within 50 ms that are characteristic to classes of adsorbed explosive molecules. We demonstrate that this micro-differential thermal analysis technique can selectively detect explosives, providing a method for fast direct detection with a limit of detection of 600 x 10{sup -12} g.

  15. Automated detection and cataloging of global explosive volcanism using the International Monitoring System infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Green, David N.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Shearer, Peter M.; Fee, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-04-01

    We experiment with a new method to search systematically through multiyear data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network to identify explosive volcanic eruption signals originating anywhere on Earth. Detecting, quantifying, and cataloging the global occurrence of explosive volcanism helps toward several goals in Earth sciences and has direct applications in volcanic hazard mitigation. We combine infrasound signal association across multiple stations with source location using a brute-force, grid-search, cross-bearings approach. The algorithm corrects for a background prior rate of coherent unwanted infrasound signals (clutter) in a global grid, without needing to screen array processing detection lists from individual stations prior to association. We develop the algorithm using case studies of explosive eruptions: 2008 Kasatochi, Alaska; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kurile Islands; and 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. We apply the method to global IMS infrasound data from 2005-2010 to construct a preliminary acoustic catalog that emphasizes sustained explosive volcanic activity (long-duration signals or sequences of impulsive transients lasting hours to days). This work represents a step toward the goal of integrating IMS infrasound data products into global volcanic eruption early warning and notification systems. Additionally, a better understanding of volcanic signal detection and location with the IMS helps improve operational event detection, discrimination, and association capabilities.

  16. Immobilized Biocatalyst for Detection and Destruction of the Insensitive Explosive, 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Smruthi; Kurt, Zohre; Pandey, Gunjan; Spain, Jim C

    2016-10-18

    Accurate and convenient detection of explosive components is vital for a wide spectrum of applications ranging from national security and demilitarization to environmental monitoring and restoration. With the increasing use of DNAN as a replacement for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in insensitive explosive formulations, there has been a growing interest in strategies to minimize its release and to understand and predict its behavior in the environment. Consequently, a convenient tool for its detection and destruction could enable development of more effective decontamination and demilitarization strategies. Biosensors and biocatalysts have limited applicability to the more traditional explosives because of the inherent limitations of the relevant enzymes. Here, we report a highly specific, convenient and robust biocatalyst based on a novel ether hydrolase enzyme, DNAN demethylase (that requires no cofactors), from a Nocardioides strain that can mineralize DNAN. Biogenic silica encapsulation was used to stabilize the enzyme and enable it to be packed into a model microcolumn for application as a biosensor or as a bioreactor for continuous destruction of DNAN. The immobilized enzyme was stable and not inhibited by other insensitive munitions constituents. An alternative method for DNAN detection involved coating the encapsulated enzyme on cellulose filter paper. The hydrolase based biocatalyst could provide the basis for a wide spectrum of applications including detection, identification, destruction or inertion of explosives containing DNAN (demilitarization operations), and for environmental restorations.

  17. Apparatus and methods for real-time detection of explosives devices

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Brandon W [Idaho Falls, ID; Hunt, Alan W [Pocatello, ID; Chichester, David L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2014-01-07

    The present disclosure relates, according to some embodiments, to apparatus, devices, systems, and/or methods for real-time detection of a concealed or camouflaged explosive device (e.g., EFPs and IEDs) from a safe stand-off distance. Apparatus, system and/or methods of the disclosure may also be operable to identify and/or spatially locate and/or detect an explosive device. An apparatus or system may comprise an x-ray generator that generates high-energy x-rays and/or electrons operable to contact and activate a metal comprised in an explosive device from a stand-off distance; and a detector operable to detect activation of the metal. Identifying an explosive device may comprise detecting characteristic radiation signatures emitted by metals specific to an EFP, an IED or a landmine. Apparatus and systems of the disclosure may be mounted on vehicles and methods of the disclosure may be performed while moving in the vehicle and from a safe stand-off distance.

  18. The apparent explosion moment: Inferences of volumetric moment due to source medium damage by underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Howard J.; Taylor, Steven R.

    2011-03-01

    Classical explosion source theory relates isotropic seismic moment to the steady state level of the reduced displacement potential. The theoretical isotropic moment for an incompressible source region Mt is proportional to cavity volume Vc created by pressurization of materials around the point of energy release. Source medium damage due to nonlinear deformations caused by the explosion will also induce volume change Vd and radiate seismic waves as volumetric, double-couple, and compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) body force systems. A new source model is presented where K is a relative measure of moment MCLVD with respect to the net moment from volumetric sources Vc and Vd. K values from moment tensor inversions steadily decrease from ˜2.5 at lower yields to ˜1.0 for the highest-yield shots on Pahute Mesa. A value of 1.0 implies MCLVD = 0 and, by inference, small Vd. We hypothesize that the extent to which damage adds (or subtracts) volumetric moment is controlled by material properties and dynamics of stress wave rebound, shock wave interactions with the free surface, gravitational unloading, and slapdown of spalled near-surface layers. This hypothesis is tested by comparing measurements of isotropic moment ?I with estimates of Mt based on Vc scaling relationships and velocity-density models. The results support the hypothesis and the conclusion that ?I represents the "apparent explosion moment" since it has contributions from direct effects due to cavity formation and indirect effects due to material damage. Implications for yield estimation using ?I are discussed in general and for the North Korean tests.

  19. Low-power stimulated emission nuclear quadrupole resonance detection system utilizing Rabi transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolos, John; Mouyos, William; Feng, Judy; Chase, Walter

    2013-06-01

    The application of CW radar techniques to Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) detection of nitrogen based explosives and chlorine based narcotics enables the use of low power levels, in the range of 10's of watts, to yield high signal strengths. By utilizing Rabi transitions the nucleus oscillates between states one and two under the time dependent incident electromagnetic field and alternately absorbs energy from the incident field while emitting coherent energy via stimulated emission. Through the application of a cancellation algorithm the incident field is eliminated from the NQR response, allowing the receive signal to be measured while transmitting. The response signal is processed using matched filters of the NQR response which enables the direct detection of explosives. This technology has applicability to the direct detection of explosives and narcotics for security screening, all at safe low power levels, opposed to the current XRay and Millimeter wave screening systems that detect objects that may contain explosives and utilize high power. The quantum mechanics theoretical basis for the approach and an application for a system for security screening are described with empirical results presented to show the effects observed.

  20. Frequency selective detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somasundaram, Samuel D.; Jakobsson, Andreas; Smith, John A. S.; Althoefer, Kaspar A.

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a radio frequency (RF) technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the 14N nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. The technique has been hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and is further aggravated by the presence of RF interference (RFI). To ensure accurate detection, proposed detectors should exploit the rich form of the NQR signal. Furthermore, the detectors should also be robust to any remaining residual interference, left after suitable RFI mitigation has been employed. In this paper, we propose a new NQR data model, particularly for the realistic case where multiple pulse sequences are used to generate trains of spin echoes. Furthermore, we refine two recently proposed approximative maximum likelihood (AML) detectors, enabling the algorithm to optimally exploit the data model of the entire echo train and also incorporate knowledge of the temperature dependent spin-echo decay time. The AML-based detectors ensure accurate detection and robustness against residual RFI, even when the temperature of the sample is not precisely known, by exploiting the dependencies of the NQR resonant lines on temperature. Further robustness against residual interference is gained as the proposed detector is frequency selective; exploiting only those regions of the spectrum where the NQR signal is expected. Extensive numerical evaluations based on both simulated and measured NQR data indicate that the proposed Frequency selective Echo Train AML (FETAML) detector offers a significant improvement as compared to other existing detectors.

  1. Advances in Analysis and Detection of Explosives. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives (4th), Held in Jerusalem, Israel on September 7-10, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Zitrin, S.(1986) ’ Capillary column gas chromatography /mass spectrometry of explosives’. J. Energetic Materials , 4, 215-237. [9jYinon, J. and Zitrin, S...data are being used to form a retention-index data base for the identification of explosives compounds by gas chromatography . 1. Introduction The vapor...detection of concealed explosives requires identification of their characteristic vapors. Capillary gas chromatography is often used to separate and

  2. Time-Domain Source Function (TDSF) for Nuclear and Chemical Explosions - Analysis around Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Chandan K.

    2017-02-01

    Displacement spectra from accelerograms recorded within a few kilometers (< 3.5 km) of nuclear and chemical explosion shot points indicate that the amplitude spectral level is not flat below the source corner frequency (fc), but increases gradually towards zero frequency. During an explosion, the volume in the immediate vicinity of the shot point is inelastic. In this paper, we develop a time-domain expression for the deformation at the elastic boundary limit of this volume, which in the frequency domain supports this observation. We refer to this expression as the time-domain source function (TDSF) of an explosion. The proposed TDSF has two terms, the first term representing a ”static" contribution and the second term a "dynamic" contribution to the total deformation field. The static contribution dominates over the dynamic contribution at frequencies below fc and causes the gradual increase in the spectral level. For the low-yield under/or over-buried explosions (yield < 5 Kt), fc is relatively high and this increase in spectral amplitude is pronouncedly observed. The correct interpretation of the observed spectral amplitudes below fc can, therefore, play a crucial role in estimating source parameters of explosions. For f > fc, the dynamic contributions dominate and decay approximately as f-2. For seismic waves propagating from the boundary Rel (a transition limit of the non-linear to the elastic zone) to large distances, the static and the dynamic wavefields are affected identically by attenuation and spreading. Hence, the attenuation corrected large distance explosion spectra should exhibit these spectral characteristics. An analysis of the regional P-wave spectra from a few low-yield explosions provides evidence for this finding and also for the yield scaling by a factor of 2 between the nuclear and chemical explosions, especially for similar emplacement conditions. We also illustrate that when convolved with a time function [exp (-C/Rel)H(t), where C is the

  3. From Ground Truth to Space: Surface, Subsurface and Remote Observations Associated with Nuclear Test Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Burt, C.; Craven, J.; Kimblin, C.; McKenna, I.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Miller, E.; Yocky, D. A.; Haas, D.

    2016-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) result in numerous signatures that manifest on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Currently, prompt signals, such as the detection of seismic waves provide only generalized locations and the timing and amplitude of non-prompt signals are difficult to predict. As such, research into improving the detection, location, and identification of suspect events has been conducted, resulting in advancement of nuclear test detection science. In this presentation, we demonstrate the scalar variably of surface and subsurface observables, briefly discuss current capabilities to locate, detect and characterize potential nuclear explosion locations, and explain how emergent technologies and amalgamation of disparate data sets will facilitate improved monitoring and verification. At the smaller scales, material and fracture characterization efforts on rock collected from legacy UNE sites and from underground experiments using chemical explosions can be incorporated into predictive modeling efforts. Spatial analyses of digital elevation models and orthoimagery of both modern conventional and legacy nuclear sites show subtle surface topographic changes and damage at nearby outcrops. Additionally, at sites where such technology cannot penetrate vegetative cover, it is possible to use the vegetation itself as both a companion signature reflecting geologic conditions and showing subsurface impacts to water, nutrients, and chemicals. Aerial systems based on RGB imagery, light detection and ranging, and hyperspectral imaging can allow for combined remote sensing modalities to perform pattern recognition and classification tasks. Finally, more remote systems such as satellite based synthetic aperture radar and satellite imagery are other techniques in development for UNE site detection, location and characterization.

  4. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  5. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

  6. Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Ingeborg E Iping; López-López, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Gooijer, Cees; Buijs, Joost B; Ariese, Freek

    2011-11-15

    The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Spectra were obtained through different diffuse scattering white polymer materials: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polyethylene (PE). Common packaging materials of various thicknesses were also selected, including polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). With the demonstration of the ability to detect concealed, explosives-related compounds through an opaque first layer, this study may have important applications in the security and forensic fields.

  7. Miniaturized Explosive Preconcentrator for Use in a Man-Portable Field Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, David W.; Linker, Kevin L.; Parmeter, John E.; Rhykerd, Charles L.; Varley, Nathan R.

    1999-08-02

    We discuss the design and testing of a miniaturized explosives preconcentrator that can be used to enhance the capabilities of man-portable field detection systems, such as those based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The preconcentrator is a smaller version of a similar device that was developed recently at Sandia National Laboratories for use in a trace detection portal that screens personnel for explosives. Like its predecessor, this preconcentrator is basically a filtering device that allows a small amount of explosive residue in a large incoming airflow to be concentrated into a much smaller air volume via adsorption and resorption, prior to delivery into a chemical detector. We discuss laboratory testing of this preconcentrator interfaced to a commercially available IMS-based detection system, with emphasis on the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX). The issues investigated include optimization of the preconcentrator volume and inlet airflow, the use of different types of adsorbing surfaces within the preconcentrator, Wd preconcentrator efficiency and concentration factor. We discuss potential field applications of the preconcentrator, as well as avenues for further investigations and improvements.

  8. On the infrasound detected from the 2013 and 2016 DPRK's underground nuclear tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, J. D.; Averbuch, G.; Smets, P. S. M.; Evers, L. G.

    2016-04-01

    The underground nuclear tests by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) generated atmospheric infrasound both in 2013 and 2016. Clear detections were made in the Russian Federation (I45RU) and Japan (I30JP) in 2013 at stations from the International Monitoring System. Both tropospheric and stratospheric refractions arrived at the stations. In 2016, only a weak return was potentially observed at I45RU. Data analysis and propagation modeling show that the noise level at the stations and the stratospheric circumpolar vortex were different in 2016 compared to 2013. As the seismic magnitude of the 2013 and 2016 nuclear test explosions was comparable, we hypothesize that the 2016 test occurred at least 1.5 times deeper. In such a case, less seismic energy would couple through the lithosphere-atmosphere interface, leading to less observable infrasound. Since explosion depth is difficult to estimate from seismic data alone, this motivates a synergy between seismics and infrasonics.

  9. A digital seismogram archive of nuclear explosion signals, recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, from 1966 to 1996

    DOE PAGES

    An, Vadim A.; Ovtchinnikov, Vladimir M.; Kaazik, Pyotr B.; ...

    2015-03-27

    Seismologists from Kazakhstan, Russia, and the United States have rescued the Soviet-era archive of nuclear explosion seismograms recorded at Borovoye in northern Kazakhstan during the period 1966–1996. The signals had been stored on about 8000 magnetic tapes, which were held at the recording observatory. After hundreds of man-years of work, these digital waveforms together with significant metadata are now available via the project URL, namely http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Data/ as a modern open database, of use to diverse communities. Three different sets of recording systems were operated at Borovoye, each using several different seismometers and different gain levels. For some explosions, more thanmore » twenty different channels of data are available. A first data release, in 2001, contained numerous glitches and lacked many instrument responses, but could still be used for measuring accurate arrival times and for comparison of the strengths of different types of seismic waves. The project URL also links to our second major data release, for nuclear explosions in Eurasia recorded in Borovoye, in which the data have been deglitched, all instrument responses have been included, and recording systems are described in detail. This second dataset consists of more than 3700 waveforms (digital seismograms) from almost 500 nuclear explosions in Eurasia, many of them recorded at regional distances. It is important as a training set for the development and evaluation of seismological methods of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions, and can be used for assessment of three-dimensional models of the Earth’s interior structure.« less

  10. A digital seismogram archive of nuclear explosion signals, recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, from 1966 to 1996

    SciTech Connect

    An, Vadim A.; Ovtchinnikov, Vladimir M.; Kaazik, Pyotr B.; Adushkin, Vitaly V.; Sokolova, Inna N.; Aleschenko, Iraida B.; Mikhailova, Natalya N.; Kim, Won -Young; Richards, Paul G.; Patton, Howard J.; Scott Phillips, W.; Randall, George; Baker, Diane

    2015-03-27

    Seismologists from Kazakhstan, Russia, and the United States have rescued the Soviet-era archive of nuclear explosion seismograms recorded at Borovoye in northern Kazakhstan during the period 1966–1996. The signals had been stored on about 8000 magnetic tapes, which were held at the recording observatory. After hundreds of man-years of work, these digital waveforms together with significant metadata are now available via the project URL, namely http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Data/ as a modern open database, of use to diverse communities. Three different sets of recording systems were operated at Borovoye, each using several different seismometers and different gain levels. For some explosions, more than twenty different channels of data are available. A first data release, in 2001, contained numerous glitches and lacked many instrument responses, but could still be used for measuring accurate arrival times and for comparison of the strengths of different types of seismic waves. The project URL also links to our second major data release, for nuclear explosions in Eurasia recorded in Borovoye, in which the data have been deglitched, all instrument responses have been included, and recording systems are described in detail. This second dataset consists of more than 3700 waveforms (digital seismograms) from almost 500 nuclear explosions in Eurasia, many of them recorded at regional distances. It is important as a training set for the development and evaluation of seismological methods of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions, and can be used for assessment of three-dimensional models of the Earth’s interior structure.

  11. Stand-off detection of traces of explosives and precursors on fabrics by UV Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, Roberto; Almaviva, Salvatore; Botti, Sabina; Cantarini, Luciano; Colao, Francesco; Fiorani, Luca; Nuvoli, Marcello; Palucci, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    At the Diagnostic and Metrology Laboratory (ENEA) is under development a stand-off apparatus for trace detection of explosive compounds. The system is based on the Raman technique due to the high discrimination capabilities. All the optoelectronics components of the apparatus have been carefully designed as well as their optical matching. The main goal will be to detect low trace components within the respect of the eye safe regulation.

  12. Operation Dominic, Shot Sword Fish. Project Officer's report - Project 1. 3b. Effects of an underwater nuclear explosion on hydroacoustic systems

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, T.; La Houssaye, W.P.; Johnson, C.T.

    1985-09-01

    The objectives of Project 1.2 were to determine and evaluate the effects of an underwater nuclear explosion on the operational capabilities of shipboard sonar and other types of hydroacoustic systems. Project 1.3b included all measurements at ranges greater than 10 nautical miles and the results of these measurements constitute the subject of this report. This report concerns the effects of the underwater nuclear explosion, Sword Fish, on: (a) Long-range active detection systems at the first convergence zone (25 to 30 miles); (b) Passive shipboard or submarine sonars at a few hundred miles; and (c) Long-range passive detection and surveillance at Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and Missile Impact Locating System (MILS) stations at several hundred to several thousand miles. A submarine station at the first convergence zone and five shipboard stations at ranges from 200 miles to 5,000 miles recorded signals from hydrophones suspended at various depths to approximately 2,000 feet. Submarines on other assignments recorded signals on standard submarine sonar equipment on a not-to interfere basis. SOSUS and MILS stations operated normally during the period and also made special magnetic-tape and strip-chart recordings of signals from single hydrophones from before burst time to several hours after burst.

  13. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Seismogram Analysis: Constraining the Velocity Structure of Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhard, K. M.; Eriksen, Z. T.; Mackey, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs), detonated by the former Soviet Union, are seismologically significant because they are so-called Ground Truth events, where the depth and geographic coordinates of energy release (detonation) are precisely known. Seismograms from about 20 regional stations for seven PNEs in eastern Siberia (Neva-1, Neva 2-1 and Neva 2-2 in Yakutia, and Rift-3, Batholith-1, Meteorite-5 and Kraton-3 in the Baikal region) were digitized from analog records, allowing modern processing techniques to be applied to the waveforms. Pn (P1 & P2), P*, Pg, Sn, Sg, and eU (unknown) phases were identified to investigate seismic velocities. Regional average velocities, dominated by paths within the Siberian Craton, are: Pn = 8.28 km/s, P* = 7.32 km/s, Pg = 6.20 km/s, Sn = 4.67 km/s, and Sg = 3.55 km/s. Travel paths located within the Siberian Craton are consistent with fast Pn and Sn travel-time residuals observed near the Laptev Sea. Additional PNE seismograms are being digitized to further differentiate path effects and to understand regional phase identification and velocities.

  15. Investigations of Novel Sensor Technology for Explosive Specific Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    considered impractical due to oxidation , however, a zinc analogue was synthesized to improve the photostability. [67] They concluded that AcrH2 is...of 2,4-dinitrotoluene in a γ- CD/metal oxide matrix and its sensitive detection via a cyclic surface polarization impedance (cSPI) method”, Chemistry...sensor ........................................................................................... 40 6.3.13 Nanofibrous membranes

  16. Fluorescence detection and identification of tagging agents and impurities found in explosives.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, Chrystal N; Eastwood, Delyle; Wai, Chien M; Addleman, R Shane

    2008-07-01

    The detection and identification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) vapors have proven to be difficult and challenging due to the low vapor pressures of these high explosives. Detecting higher vapor pressure impurity compounds found in TNT and possible tagging agents mandated to be added to plastic explosives (RDX and PETN) would allow for easier vapor detection. The higher vapor pressure nitro compounds of interest are considered to be non-fluorescent; however, once reduced to their amino analogs, they have relatively high quantum yields. The standard reduction products, the reduction products obtained in solution, and the reduction products obtained in vapor phase were analyzed by conventional fluorescence, synchronous luminescence, and derivative spectroscopy. The nitro analogs of the isomers 1,3-diaminobenzene, 1,2-diaminobenzene, and 1,4-diaminobenzene are found as impurities in TNT. We provide for the first time the synchronous luminescence derivative spectra of these isomers; including their individual spectra and a spectrum of an isomeric mixture of the three. Using the standard reduction products associated with these isomers and other aromatic amines, our data suggest that the vapors of two signature impurities, 1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), minor impurity compounds, and two possible tagging agents, 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT), can be detected and selectively identified using our fluorescence approach. To prove our methodology, we show that we were able to generate, collect, and reduce 2-NT, 4-NT, and 2,4-DNT vapors to their amino analogs. Using our fluorescence approach, these vapors could be detected and selectively identified both individually and in a mixture. Collectively, our data indicate that our method of detecting and identifying higher vapor pressure explosive-like compounds could potentially be used to detect and

  17. Optimizing convergence rates of alternating minimization reconstruction algorithms for real-time explosive detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Carl; Degirmenci, Soysal; Barlow, Jason; Mesika, Assaf; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography reconstruction for medical, security and industrial applications has evolved through 40 years of experience with rotating gantry scanners using analytic reconstruction techniques such as filtered back projection (FBP). In parallel, research into statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms has evolved to apply to sparse view scanners in nuclear medicine, low data rate scanners in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) [5, 7, 10] and more recently to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation in conventional X-ray CT scanners. Multiple approaches to statistical iterative reconstruction have been developed based primarily on variations of expectation maximization (EM) algorithms. The primary benefit of EM algorithms is the guarantee of convergence that is maintained when iterative corrections are made within the limits of convergent algorithms. The primary disadvantage, however is that strict adherence to correction limits of convergent algorithms extends the number of iterations and ultimate timeline to complete a 3D volumetric reconstruction. Researchers have studied methods to accelerate convergence through more aggressive corrections [1], ordered subsets [1, 3, 4, 9] and spatially variant image updates. In this paper we describe the development of an AM reconstruction algorithm with accelerated convergence for use in a real-time explosive detection application for aviation security. By judiciously applying multiple acceleration techniques and advanced GPU processing architectures, we are able to perform 3D reconstruction of scanned passenger baggage at a rate of 75 slices per second. Analysis of the results on stream of commerce passenger bags demonstrates accelerated convergence by factors of 8 to 15, when comparing images from accelerated and strictly convergent algorithms.

  18. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  19. Mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates: a reusable chemsensor for the detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongdong; Yu, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of explosives is in high demand for homeland security and public safety. In this work, electron-rich of anthracene functionalized mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates (En-AlPs) were synthesized by a one-pot condensation process. The mesoporous structure and strong blue emission of En-AlPs were confirmed by the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy images and fluorescence spectra. The materials En-AlPs can serve as sensitive chemosensors for various electron deficient nitroderivatives, with the quenching constant and the detection limit up to 1.5×106 M-1 and 0.3 ppm in water solution. More importantly, the materials can be recycled for many times by simply washed with ethanol, showing potential applications in explosives detection.

  20. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.