Science.gov

Sample records for detection system reporting

  1. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  2. Autonomous Pathogen Detection System - FY02 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, B; Brown, S; Burris, K; Elkin, C; Hindson, B; Langlois, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Metz, T; Nasarabadi, S; Makarewicz, T; Milznovich, F; Venkateswaran, K S; Visuri, S

    2002-11-11

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a biological agent detection and identification capability, the Autonomous Pathogen Detector System (APDS). Integrating a flow cytometer and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detector with sample collection, sample preparation and fluidics will provide a compact, autonomously operating instrument capable of simultaneously detecting multiple pathogens and/or toxins. The APDS will operate in fixed locations, continuously monitoring air samples and automatically reporting the presence of specific biological agents. The APDS will utilize both multiplex immunoassays and nucleic acid assays to provide ''quasi-orthogonal'' multiple agent detection approaches to minimize false positives and increase the reliability of identification. Technical advances across several fronts must occur, however, to realize the full extent of the APDS. The end goal of a commercially available system for civilian biological weapon defense will be accomplished through three progressive generations of APDS instruments. The APDS is targeted for civilian applications in which the public is at high risk of exposure to covert releases of bioagent, such as major subway systems and other transportation terminals, large office complexes and convention centers. APDS is also designed to be part of a monitoring network of sensors integrated with command and control systems for wide-area monitoring of urban areas and major public gatherings. In this latter application there is potential that a fully developed APDS could add value to DoD monitoring architectures.

  3. NADIR (Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter): A prototype network intrusion detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.A.; DuBois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) is an expert system which is intended to provide real-time security auditing for intrusion and misuse detection at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). It is based on three basic assumptions: that statistical analysis of computer system and user activities may be used to characterize normal system and user behavior, and that given the resulting statistical profiles, behavior which deviates beyond certain bounds can be detected, that expert system techniques can be applied to security auditing and intrusion detection, and that successful intrusion detection may take place while monitoring a limited set of network activities such as user authentication and access control, file movement and storage, and job scheduling. NADIR has been developed to employ these basic concepts while monitoring the audited activities of more than 8000 ICN users.

  4. A computerized system for detecting signals due to drug–drug interactions in spontaneous reporting systems

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yifeng; Ye, Xiaofei; Du, Wenmin; Ren, Jingtian; Sun, Yalin; Wang, Hainan; Luo, Baozhang; Gao, Qingbin; Wu, Meijing; He, Jia

    2010-01-01

    AIMS In spontaneous reporting systems (SRS), there is a growing need for the automated detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) resulting from drug–drug interactions. In addition, special attention is also needed for systems facilitating automated data preprocessing. In our study, we set up a computerized system to signal possible drug–drug interactions by which data acquisition and signal detection could be carried out automatically and the process of data preprocessing could also be facilitated. METHODS This system was developed with Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and Microsoft Access was used as the database. Crude ADR reports submitted to Shanghai SRS from January 2007 to December 2008 were included in this study. The logistic regression method, the Ω shrinkage measure method, an additive model and a multiplicative model were used for automatic detection of drug–drug interactions where two drugs were used concomitantly. RESULTS A total of 33 897 crude ADR reports were acquired from the SRS automatically. The 10 drug combinations most frequently reported were found and the 10 most suspicious drug–drug ADR combinations for each method were detected automatically after the performance of the system. CONCLUSIONS Since the detection of drug–drug interaction depends upon the skills and memory of the professionals involved, is time consuming and the number of reports is increasing, this system might be a promising tool for the automated detection of possible drug–drug interactions in SRS. PMID:20078614

  5. Sulfur gas geochemical detection of hydrothermal systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a system of exploration using sulfur gases was capable of detecting convecting hydrothermal systems. Three surveying techniques were used at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA in Utah. These were (a) a sniffing technique, capable of instantaneous determinations of sulfur gas concentration, (b) an accumulator technique, capable of integrating the sulfur gas emanations over a 30 day interval, and (c) a method of analyzing the soils for vaporous sulfur compounds. Because of limitations in the sniffer technique, only a limited amount of surveying was done with this method. The accumulator and soil sampling techniques were conducted on a 1000 foot grid at Roosevelt Hot Springs, and each sample site was visited three times during the spring of 1980. Thus, three soil samples and two accumulator samples were collected at each site. The results are shown as averages of three soil and two accumulator determinations of sulfur gas concentrations at each site. Soil surveys and accumulator surveys were conducted at two additional KGRA's which were chosen based on the state of knowledge of these hydrothermal systems and upon their differences from Roosevelt Hot Springs in an effort to show that the exploration methods would be effective in detecting geothermal reservoirs in general. The results at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah show that each of the three surveying methods was capable of detecting sulfur gas anomalies which can be interpreted to be related to the source at depth, based on resistivity mapping of that source, and also correlatable with major structural features of the area which are thought to be controlling the geometry of the geothermal reservoir. The results of the surveys at Roosevelt did not indicate that either the soil sampling technique or the accumulator technique was superior to the other.

  6. Foundations for Improvements to Passive Detection Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Labov, S E; Pleasance, L; Sokkappa, P; Craig, W; Chapline, G; Frank, M; Gronberg, J; Jernigan, J G; Johnson, S; Kammeraad, J; Lange, D; Meyer, A; Nelson, K; Pohl, B; Wright, D; Wurtz, R

    2004-10-07

    This project explores the scientific foundation and approach for improving passive detection systems for plutonium and highly enriched uranium in real applications. Sources of gamma-ray radiation of interest were chosen to represent a range of national security threats, naturally occurring radioactive materials, industrial and medical radiation sources, and natural background radiation. The gamma-ray flux emerging from these sources, which include unclassified criticality experiment configurations as surrogates for nuclear weapons, were modeled in detail. The performance of several types of gamma-ray imaging systems using Compton scattering were modeled and compared. A mechanism was created to model the combine sources and background emissions and have the simulated radiation ''scene'' impinge on a model of a detector. These modeling tools are now being used in various projects to optimize detector performance and model detector sensitivity in complex measuring environments. This study also developed several automated algorithms for isotope identification from gamma-ray spectra and compared these to each other and to algorithms already in use. Verification testing indicates that these alternative isotope identification algorithms produced less false positive and false negative results than the ''GADRAS'' algorithms currently in use. In addition to these algorithms that used binned spectra, a new approach to isotope identification using ''event mode'' analysis was developed. Finally, a technique using muons to detect nuclear material was explored.

  7. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  8. Technical Transfer Report on a TNT Enzyluminescent Vapor Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    Cab NoI@w, Sm 1204. * irpa . VA W041=uOt v bO9th aeard Wed ARe-1a bmA?41" 4li. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE j.REPORT TYPE AND DAME...11 Detector Module .................................................................................... 15 Vapor Generator...Luciferase, Oxidoreductase, and Nitroreductase Assays ............... 1- 15 Appendix J Sample Train Drawings .. Appendix K Vapor Generator Draings

  9. Subgenomic reporter RNA system for detection of alphavirus infection in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Steel, J Jordan; Franz, Alexander W E; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Olson, Ken E; Geiss, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for detecting real-time alphavirus (Family Togaviridae) infection in mosquitoes require the use of recombinant viruses engineered to express a visibly detectable reporter protein. These altered viruses expressing fluorescent proteins, usually from a duplicated viral subgenomic reporter, are effective at marking infection but tend to be attenuated due to the modification of the genome. Additionally, field strains of viruses cannot be visualized using this approach unless infectious clones can be developed to insert a reporter protein. To circumvent these issues, we have developed an insect cell-based system for detecting wild-type sindbis virus infection that uses a virus inducible promoter to express a fluorescent reporter gene only upon active virus infection. We have developed an insect expression system that produces sindbis virus minigenomes containing a subgenomic promoter sequence, which produces a translatable RNA species only when infectious virus is present and providing viral replication proteins. This subgenomic reporter RNA system is able to detect wild-type Sindbis infection in cultured mosquito cells. The detection system is relatively species specific and only detects closely related viruses, but can detect low levels of alphavirus specific replication early during infection. A chikungunya virus detection system was also developed that specifically detects chikungunya virus infection. Transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquito families were established that constitutively express the sindbis virus reporter RNA and were found to only express fluorescent proteins during virus infection. This virus inducible reporter system demonstrates a novel approach for detecting non-recombinant virus infection in mosquito cell culture and in live transgenic mosquitoes.

  10. Comparison of 3 Infrared Thermal Detection Systems and Self-Report for Mass Fever Screening

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, An V.; Lipman, Harvey; Brown, Clive M.; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique; Jackson, William L.; Kirking, Hannah; Szymanowski, Paige; Wilson, Todd W.; Salhi, Bisan A.; Roberts, Rebecca R.; Stryker, David W.; Fishbein, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited evidence regarding their utility, infrared thermal detection systems (ITDS) are increasingly being used for mass fever detection. We compared temperature measurements for 3 ITDS (FLIR ThermoVision A20M [FLIR Systems Inc., Boston, MA, USA], OptoTherm Thermoscreen [OptoTherm Thermal Imaging Systems and Infrared Cameras Inc., Sewickley, PA, USA], and Wahl Fever Alert Imager HSI2000S [Wahl Instruments Inc., Asheville, NC, USA]) with oral temperatures (>100°F = confirmed fever) and self-reported fever. Of 2,873 patients enrolled, 476 (16.6%) reported a fever, and 64 (2.2%) had a confirmed fever. Self-reported fever had a sensitivity of 75.0%, specificity 84.7%, and positive predictive value 10.1%. At optimal cutoff values for detecting fever, temperature measurements by OptoTherm and FLIR had greater sensitivity (91.0% and 90.0%, respectively) and specificity (86.0% and 80.0%, respectively) than did self-reports. Correlations between ITDS and oral temperatures were similar for OptoTherm (ρ = 0.43) and FLIR (ρ = 0.42) but significantly lower for Wahl (ρ = 0.14; p<0.001). When compared with oral temperatures, 2 systems (OptoTherm and FLIR) were reasonably accurate for detecting fever and predicted fever better than self-reports. PMID:21029528

  11. Comparison of 3 infrared thermal detection systems and self-report for mass fever screening.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, An V; Cohen, Nicole J; Lipman, Harvey; Brown, Clive M; Molinari, Noelle Angelique; Jackson, William L; Kirking, Hannah; Szymanowski, Paige; Wilson, Todd W; Salhi, Bisan A; Roberts, Rebecca R; Stryker, David W; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2010-11-01

    Despite limited evidence regarding their utility, infrared thermal detection systems (ITDS) are increasingly being used for mass fever detection. We compared temperature measurements for 3 ITDS (FLIR ThermoVision A20M [FLIR Systems Inc., Boston, MA, USA], OptoTherm Thermoscreen [OptoTherm Thermal Imaging Systems and Infrared Cameras Inc., Sewickley, PA, USA], and Wahl Fever Alert Imager HSI2000S [Wahl Instruments Inc., Asheville, NC, USA]) with oral temperatures (≥ 100 °F = confirmed fever) and self-reported fever. Of 2,873 patients enrolled, 476 (16.6%) reported a fever, and 64 (2.2%) had a confirmed fever. Self-reported fever had a sensitivity of 75.0%, specificity 84.7%, and positive predictive value 10.1%. At optimal cutoff values for detecting fever, temperature measurements by OptoTherm and FLIR had greater sensitivity (91.0% and 90.0%, respectively) and specificity (86.0% and 80.0%, respectively) than did self-reports. Correlations between ITDS and oral temperatures were similar for OptoTherm (ρ = 0.43) and FLIR (ρ = 0.42) but significantly lower for Wahl (ρ = 0.14; p < 0.001). When compared with oral temperatures, 2 systems (OptoTherm and FLIR) were reasonably accurate for detecting fever and predicted fever better than self-reports.

  12. Optimization of a Nucleic Acid-Based Reporter System To Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antibiotic Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Margaret; Rotter, Stephanie; Lees, Jonathan; Einck, Leo; Nacy, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the development of a prototype antibiotic sensitivity assay to detect drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis using infection by mycobacteriophage to create a novel nucleic acid transcript, a surrogate marker of mycobacterial viability, detected by reverse transcriptase PCR (M. C. Mulvey et al., mBio 3:e00312-11, 2012). This assay detects antibiotic resistance to all drugs, even drugs for which the resistance mechanism is unknown or complex: it is a phenotypic readout using nucleic acid detection. In this report, we describe development and characteristics of an optimized reporter system that directed expression of the RNA cyclase ribozyme, which generated circular RNA through an intramolecular splicing reaction and led to accumulation of a new nucleic acid sequence in phage-infected bacteria. These modifications simplified the assay, increased the limit of detection from 104 to <102 M. tuberculosis cells, and correctly identified the susceptibility profile of M. tuberculosis strains exposed for 16 h to either first-line or second-line antitubercular drugs. In addition to phenotypic drug resistance or susceptibility, the assay reported streptomycin MICs and clearly detected 10% drug-resistant cells in an otherwise drug-susceptible population. PMID:25367910

  13. Detecting Signals of Disproportionate Reporting from Singapore's Spontaneous Adverse Event Reporting System: An Application of the Sequential Probability Ratio Test.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheng Leng; Rudrappa, Sowmya; Ang, Pei San; Li, Shu Chuen; Evans, Stephen J W

    2017-08-01

    The ability to detect safety concerns from spontaneous adverse drug reaction reports in a timely and efficient manner remains important in public health. This paper explores the behaviour of the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) and ability to detect signals of disproportionate reporting (SDRs) in the Singapore context. We used SPRT with a combination of two hypothesised relative risks (hRRs) of 2 and 4.1 to detect signals of both common and rare adverse events in our small database. We compared SPRT with other methods in terms of number of signals detected and whether labelled adverse drug reactions were detected or the reaction terms were considered serious. The other methods used were reporting odds ratio (ROR), Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network (BCPNN) and Gamma Poisson Shrinker (GPS). The SPRT produced 2187 signals in common with all methods, 268 unique signals, and 70 signals in common with at least one other method, and did not produce signals in 178 cases where two other methods detected them, and there were 403 signals unique to one of the other methods. In terms of sensitivity, ROR performed better than other methods, but the SPRT method found more new signals. The performances of the methods were similar for negative predictive value and specificity. Using a combination of hRRs for SPRT could be a useful screening tool for regulatory agencies, and more detailed investigation of the medical utility of the system is merited.

  14. Signal Detection of Imipenem Compared to Other Drugs from Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyounghoon; Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Kwon, Kyoung Eun; Jin, Xue Mei; Lee, Joongyub; Yang, Bo Ram; Park, Byung Joo

    2017-05-01

    To detect signals of adverse drug events after imipenem treatment using the Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management-Korea adverse event reporting system database (KIDS-KD). We performed data mining using KIDS-KD, which was constructed using spontaneously reported adverse event (AE) reports between December 1988 and June 2014. We detected signals calculated the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component of imipenem. We defined a signal as any AE that satisfied all three indices. The signals were compared with drug labels of nine countries. There were 807582 spontaneous AEs reports in the KIDS-KD. Among those, the number of antibiotics related AEs was 192510; 3382 reports were associated with imipenem. The most common imipenem-associated AE was the drug eruption; 353 times. We calculated the signal by comparing with all other antibiotics and drugs; 58 and 53 signals satisfied the three methods. We compared the drug labelling information of nine countries, including the USA, the UK, Japan, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, France, Canada, and South Korea, and discovered that the following signals were currently not included in drug labels: hypokalemia, cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, Parkinson's syndrome, myocardial infarction, and prostate enlargement. Hypokalemia was an additional signal compared with all other antibiotics, and the other signals were not different compared with all other antibiotics and all other drugs. We detected new signals that were not listed on the drug labels of nine countries. However, further pharmacoepidemiologic research is needed to evaluate the causality of these signals.

  15. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  16. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    PubMed

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability.

  17. Application of quantitative signal detection in the Dutch spontaneous reporting system for adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Diemont, Willem; van Grootheest, Kees

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) is the timely detection of unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs), or signal detection. Generally this is carried out by a systematic manual review of every report sent to an SRS. Statistical analysis of the data sets of an SRS, or quantitative signal detection, can provide additional information concerning a possible relationship between a drug and an ADR. We describe the role of quantitative signal detection and the way it is applied at the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. Results of the statistical analysis are implemented in the traditional case-by-case analysis. In addition, for data-mining purposes, a list of associations of ADRs and suspected drugs that are disproportionally present in the database is periodically generated. Finally, quantitative signal generation can be used to study more complex relationships, such as drug-drug interactions and syndromes. The results of quantitative signal detection should be considered as an additional source of information, complementary to the traditional analysis. Techniques for the detection of drug interactions and syndromes offer a new challenge for pharmacovigilance in the near future.

  18. E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) is a comprehensive, fully-integrated approach to in-situ, real-time detection and monitoring of environmental contaminants. E-SMART will provide new class of smart, highly sensitive, chemically-specific, in-situ, multichannel microsensors utilizing integrated optical interferometry technology, large, commercially viable set of E-SMART-compatible sensors, samplers, and network management components, and user-friendly graphical user interface for data evaluation and visualization.

  19. A monitoring system for detecting aberrations in public health surveillance reports.

    PubMed

    Williamson, G D; Weatherby Hudson, G

    1999-12-15

    Routine analysis of public health surveillance data to detect departures from historical patterns of disease frequency is required to enable timely public health responses to decrease unnecessary morbidity and mortality. We describe a monitoring system incorporating statistical 'flags' identifying unusually large increases (or decreases) in disease reports compared to the number of cases expected. The two-stage monitoring system consists of univariate Box-Jenkins models and subsequent tracking signals from several statistical process control charts. The analyses are illustrated on 1980-1995 national notifiable disease data reported weekly to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by state health departments and published in CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Published in 1999 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the United States.

  20. EU-ADR healthcare database network vs. spontaneous reporting system database: preliminary comparison of signal detection.

    PubMed

    Trifirò, Gianluca; Patadia, Vaishali; Schuemie, Martijn J; Coloma, Preciosa M; Gini, Rosa; Herings, Ron; Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Giaquinto, Carlo; Scotti, Lorenza; Pedersen, Lars; Avillach, Paul; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; van der Lei, Johan; Eu-Adr Group

    2011-01-01

    The EU-ADR project aims to exploit different European electronic healthcare records (EHR) databases for drug safety signal detection. In this paper we report the preliminary results concerning the comparison of signal detection between EU-ADR network and two spontaneous reporting databases, the Food and Drug Administration and World Health Organization databases. EU-ADR data sources consist of eight databases in four countries (Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) that are virtually linked through distributed data network. A custom-built software (Jerboa©) elaborates harmonized input data that are produced locally and generates aggregated data which are then stored in a central repository. Those data are subsequently analyzed through different statistics (i.e. Longitudinal Gamma Poisson Shrinker). As potential signals, all the drugs that are associated to six events of interest (bullous eruptions - BE, acute renal failure - ARF, acute myocardial infarction - AMI, anaphylactic shock - AS, rhabdomyolysis - RHABD, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding - UGIB) have been detected via different data mining techniques in the two systems. Subsequently a comparison concerning the number of drugs that could be investigated and the potential signals detected for each event in the spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) and EU-ADR network was made. SRSs could explore, as potential signals, a larger number of drugs for the six events, in comparison to EU-ADR (range: 630-3,393 vs. 87-856), particularly for those events commonly thought to be potentially drug-induced (i.e. BE: 3,393 vs. 228). The highest proportion of signals detected in SRSs was found for BE, ARF and AS, while for ARF, and UGIB in EU-ADR. In conclusion, it seems that EU-ADR longitudinal database network may complement traditional spontaneous reporting system for signal detection, especially for those adverse events that are frequent in general population and are not commonly thought to be drug

  1. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Category 3 Lesions Detected on Whole-Breast Screening Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang Yu; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Hahn, Soo Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the incidence and cancer rate of probably benign lesions detected on bilateral whole-breast screening ultrasound (US), which corresponded to US Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3, and evaluated the proper management of those lesions. Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board in our institution, which waived informed patient consent. We retrospectively reviewed US images of 1,666 patients who underwent bilateral whole-breast screening US as a supplemental screening test to negative screening mammography or screening US only. The incidence, clinical course, and cancer rate of screening US-detected probably benign lesions corresponding to US BI-RADS category 3 were investigated, and the size and multiplicity of screening US-detected category 3 lesions were evaluated. Results Probably benign lesions corresponding to US BI-RADS category 3 were detected in 689 of 1,666 patients (41.4%) who underwent screening US. Among them, 653 had follow-up US images for at least 24 months, and among these 653, 190 (29.1%) had multiple bilateral category 3 lesions. Moreover, 539 of 1,666 patients (32.4%) had lesions ≤1 cm in size and 114 of 1,666 (6.8%) had lesions >1 cm (median, 0.82 cm; range, 0.3–4.2 cm). Four of the 653 patients (0.6%) showed suspicious interval changes and were categorized into BI-RADS category 4. Biopsy analysis confirmed only one lesion as invasive ductal carcinoma at the 6-month follow-up; another lesion was an intraductal papilloma and the remaining two were fibroadenomas. Overall cancer rate of the screening US-detected BI-RADS category 3 lesions was 0.2%. Conclusion The incidence of category 3 lesions detected on screening US only was very high, but the cancer rate was very low. Therefore, in an average-risk population, routine screening US is preferable over short-term follow-up for BI-RADS category 3 lesions detected on whole-breast screening US. PMID:27721880

  2. Test Report for Cricket Radiation Detection System Used In EPA Port Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Shourbaji, AA

    2004-08-11

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted field radiological measurements at two port locations at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The radiological measurements were performed on five radiation detection systems at the port of Darrow, Louisiana and three systems at the port of Charleston, South Carolina. Darrow was visited on January 20-23, 2004 and Charleston on May 25, 2004. All tested systems are designed to detect radioactive material that might be present in scrap metals as the scrap is being unloaded from ships. All eight systems are commercially known as the Cricket and manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems. Each radiation detection system consists of a detector with two channels and a wireless transmitter, both mounted on the grapple, and a controller located in the crane cab. The cranes at both locations are operated by the Cooper T. Smith Company. The purpose of the radiological measurements was to evaluate the performance of the radiation detection systems in terms of their ability to detect elevated radiation levels, and to develop a routine testing method for all EPA Cricket systems.

  3. ETV Report and Statement for ENDETEC TECTA™ B-16 BY PATHOGEN DETECTION SYSTEMS, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides results for the verification testing of the ENDETEC™ TECTA B-16 by PDS (hereafter referred to as the TECTA™ B-16). The following is a description of the TECTA B-16, based on information provided by the vendor. The TECTA B-16 is a bench top detection and data ...

  4. ETV Report and Statement for ENDETEC TECTA™ B-16 BY PATHOGEN DETECTION SYSTEMS, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides results for the verification testing of the ENDETEC™ TECTA B-16 by PDS (hereafter referred to as the TECTA™ B-16). The following is a description of the TECTA B-16, based on information provided by the vendor. The TECTA B-16 is a bench top detection and data ...

  5. Reporter Proteins in Whole-Cell Optical Bioreporter Detection Systems, Biosensor Integrations, and Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Close, Dan M.; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    Whole-cell, genetically modified bioreporters are designed to emit detectable signals in response to a target analyte or related group of analytes. When integrated with a transducer capable of measuring those signals, a biosensor results that acts as a self-contained analytical system useful in basic and applied environmental, medical, pharmacological, and agricultural sciences. Historically, these devices have focused on signaling proteins such as green fluorescent protein, aequorin, firefly luciferase, and/or bacterial luciferase. The biochemistry and genetic development of these sensor systems as well as the advantages, challenges, and common applications of each one will be discussed. PMID:22291559

  6. Cost and Performance Report - Validation of the Low-Range Differential Pressure (LRDP) Leak Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) Port Hueneme, California, and its industrial partners, Vista Research, Inc., and Vista Engineering Technologies, L.L.C., have demonstrated and validated (DEM/VAL) an innovative mass-based leak detection system for bulk fuel underground storage tanks (USTs). The Low-Range Differential Pressure (LRDP) system is a computer-controlled system that can reliably detect small leaks in bulk USTs ranging in size from 50,000 gal to 12,500,000 gal. As part of this project, it has been evaluated for performance by an independent third party in a l22.5-ft diameter, 2,100,000-gal tank following EPA's standard test procedures. The LRDP meets monthly monitoring and annual precision (tightness) test regulatory compliance requirements using either a 10-h (overnight) or 24-h test. The LRDP has several significant cost advantages over the internal and external technologies. The cost advantages are realized because of the extremely high performance of the LRDP and the probability of false alarm, the on-line monitoring capability of the LRDP when pennanently installed in a tank, the capability of the system to conduct a short test (an overnight test), and the low recurring costs associated with testing. The cost of a tracer method is expensive because of the high recurring cost of testing. The cost of other mass-based methods is high because of lower performance and the inability to meet both the monthly monitoring and annual precision regulatory requirements with an online system. In addition, the LRDP has the potential to save DOD many hundreds of millions of dollars in terms of clean-up and tank replacement cost avoidance.

  7. A multisensor system for detection and characterization of UXO(MM-0437) - Demonstration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J.T.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.

    2006-06-01

    The Berkeley UXO discriminator (BUD) (Figure 1) is a portable Active Electromagnetic (AEM) system for UXO detection and characterization that quickly determines the location, size, and symmetry properties of a suspected UXO. The BUD comprises of three orthogonal transmitters that 'illuminate' a target with fields in three independent directions in order to stimulate the three polarization modes that, in general, characterize the target EM response. In addition, the BUD uses eight pairs of differenced receivers for response recording. Eight receiver coils are placed horizontally along the two diagonals of the upper and lower planes of the two horizontal transmitter loops. These receiver coil pairs are located on symmetry lines through the center of the system and each pair sees identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They are wired in opposition to produce zero output during the on-time of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform over the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and greatly enhances receivers sensitivity to the gradients of the target response. The BUD performs target characterization from a single position of the sensor platform above a target. BUD was designed to detect and characterize UXO in the 20 mm to 155 mm size range for depths between 0 and 1 m. The relationship between the object size and the depth at which it can be detected is illustrated in Figure 2. This curve was calculated for BUD assuming that the receiver plane is 20 cm above the ground. Figure 2 shows that, for example, BUD can detect and characterize an object with 10 cm diameter down to the depth of 90 cm with depth uncertainty of 10%. Any

  8. Antibody/antigen detection system with application to high throughput identification and screening. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the design of an imaging system capable of reading fluorescing activity from individual grid cells contained on a biosensor grid array cartridge. Each cell on the cartridge shall be designed to facilitate covalent binding of antigen/antibody bioreactive components. The imaging system shall include the image capture electronics, the video analog to digital conversion, and the image processing and analysis software. The software shall be sufficient to store the raw data and extract information from the data, such as unique identify recognition from the fluorescing pattern generating on the grid cartridge. The imaging system shall have the ability to distinguish the on/off condition of each grid cell as well as intensity determination with an accuracy of 8-bit gray scale discrimination.

  9. Cost And Performance Report; Advanced Passive Acoustic Leak Location and Detection Verification System for Underground Fuel Pipelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Pressurized Underground Pipelines,” Proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference (March 1993). 4. E. G. Eckert, M. R. Fierro , and J. W...Maresca, Jr., “A Passive-Acoustic Approach to the Detection of Leaking Valves in Pressurized Pipelines,” Technical Report for Martin Marietta Energy...Systems, Inc., Vista Research Project 1050, Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, California (August 1994). 5. E. G. Eckert, M. R. Fierro , and J. W

  10. What are incident reports telling us? A comparative study at two Australian hospitals of medication errors identified at audit, detected by staff and reported to an incident system.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Li, Ling; Lehnbom, Elin C; Baysari, Melissa T; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Burke, Rosemary; Conn, Chris; Day, Richard O

    2015-02-01

    To (i) compare medication errors identified at audit and observation with medication incident reports; (ii) identify differences between two hospitals in incident report frequency and medication error rates; (iii) identify prescribing error detection rates by staff. Audit of 3291 patient records at two hospitals to identify prescribing errors and evidence of their detection by staff. Medication administration errors were identified from a direct observational study of 180 nurses administering 7451 medications. Severity of errors was classified. Those likely to lead to patient harm were categorized as 'clinically important'. Two major academic teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Rates of medication errors identified from audit and from direct observation were compared with reported medication incident reports. A total of 12 567 prescribing errors were identified at audit. Of these 1.2/1000 errors (95% CI: 0.6-1.8) had incident reports. Clinically important prescribing errors (n = 539) were detected by staff at a rate of 218.9/1000 (95% CI: 184.0-253.8), but only 13.0/1000 (95% CI: 3.4-22.5) were reported. 78.1% (n = 421) of clinically important prescribing errors were not detected. A total of 2043 drug administrations (27.4%; 95% CI: 26.4-28.4%) contained ≥ 1 errors; none had an incident report. Hospital A had a higher frequency of incident reports than Hospital B, but a lower rate of errors at audit. Prescribing errors with the potential to cause harm frequently go undetected. Reported incidents do not reflect the profile of medication errors which occur in hospitals or the underlying rates. This demonstrates the inaccuracy of using incident frequency to compare patient risk or quality performance within or across hospitals. New approaches including data mining of electronic clinical information systems are required to support more effective medication error detection and mitigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association

  11. What are incident reports telling us? A comparative study at two Australian hospitals of medication errors identified at audit, detected by staff and reported to an incident system

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Li, Ling; Lehnbom, Elin C.; Baysari, Melissa T.; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Burke, Rosemary; Conn, Chris; Day, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To (i) compare medication errors identified at audit and observation with medication incident reports; (ii) identify differences between two hospitals in incident report frequency and medication error rates; (iii) identify prescribing error detection rates by staff. Design Audit of 3291patient records at two hospitals to identify prescribing errors and evidence of their detection by staff. Medication administration errors were identified from a direct observational study of 180 nurses administering 7451 medications. Severity of errors was classified. Those likely to lead to patient harm were categorized as ‘clinically important’. Setting Two major academic teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Main Outcome Measures Rates of medication errors identified from audit and from direct observation were compared with reported medication incident reports. Results A total of 12 567 prescribing errors were identified at audit. Of these 1.2/1000 errors (95% CI: 0.6–1.8) had incident reports. Clinically important prescribing errors (n = 539) were detected by staff at a rate of 218.9/1000 (95% CI: 184.0–253.8), but only 13.0/1000 (95% CI: 3.4–22.5) were reported. 78.1% (n = 421) of clinically important prescribing errors were not detected. A total of 2043 drug administrations (27.4%; 95% CI: 26.4–28.4%) contained ≥1 errors; none had an incident report. Hospital A had a higher frequency of incident reports than Hospital B, but a lower rate of errors at audit. Conclusions Prescribing errors with the potential to cause harm frequently go undetected. Reported incidents do not reflect the profile of medication errors which occur in hospitals or the underlying rates. This demonstrates the inaccuracy of using incident frequency to compare patient risk or quality performance within or across hospitals. New approaches including data mining of electronic clinical information systems are required to support more effective medication error detection and

  12. Generation of a Novel Nucleic Acid-Based Reporter System To Detect Phenotypic Susceptibility to Antibiotics in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Matthew C.; Sacksteder, Katherine A.; Einck, Leo; Nacy, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We designed, constructed, and evaluated a prototype novel reporter system comprised of two functional cassettes: (i) the SP6 RNA polymerase gene under transcriptional control of a promoter active in mycobacteria and (ii) the consensus SP6 polymerase promoter that directs expression of an otherwise unexpressed sequence. We incorporated the reporter system into a mycobacteriophage for delivery into viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and introduction led to synthesis of an SP6 polymerase-dependent surrogate marker RNA that we detected by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). The reporter confirmed the susceptibility profile of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains exposed to first-line antitubercular drugs and required as little as 16 h of exposure to antibacterial agents targeting bacterial metabolic processes to accurately read the reaction. The reporter system translated the bacterial phenotype into a language interpretable by rapid and sensitive nucleic acid detection. As a phenotypic assay that works only on viable M. tuberculosis, it could be used to rapidly assess resistance to any drug, including drugs for which the mechanism of resistance is unknown or which result from many potential known (and unknown) genetic alterations. PMID:22415006

  13. Portable modular detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  14. Potential effect of CAD systems on the detection of actionable nodules in chest CT scans during routine reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Butzbach, Arnauld; Zierott, Livia; Heindel, Walter

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to determine the impact of two different CAD systems used as concur-rent reader for detection of actionable nodules (>4 mm) on the interpretation of chest CT scans during routine reporting. Fifty consecutive MDCT scans (1 mm or 1.25 mm slice thickness, 0.8 mm reconstruction increment) were se-lected from clinical routine. All cases were read by a resident and a staff radiologist, and a written report was available in the radiology information system (RIS). The RIS report mentioned at least one actionable pulmonary nodule in 18 cases (50%) and did not report any pulmonary nodule in the remaining 32 cases. Two different recent CAD systems were independently applied to the 50 CT scans as concurrent reader with two radiologists: Siemens LungCare NEV and MEDIAN CAD-Lung. Two radiologists independently reviewed the CAD results and determined if a CAD result was a true positive or a false positive finding. Patients were classified into two groups: in group A if at least one actionable nodule was detected and in group B if no actionable nodules were found. The effect of CAD on routine reporting was simulated as set union of the findings of routine reporting and CAD thus applying CAD as concurrent reader. According to the RIS report group A (patients with at least one actionable nodule) contained 18 cases (36% of all 50 cases), and group B contained 32 cases. Application of a CAD system as concurrent reader resulted in detec-tion of additional CT scans with actionable nodules and reclassification into group A in 16 resp. 18 cases (radi-ologist 1 resp. radiologist 2) with Siemens NEV and in 19 resp. 18 cases with MEDIAN CAD-Lung. In seven cases MEDIAN CAD-Lung and in four cases Siemens NEV reclassified a case into group A while the other CAD system missed the relevant finding. Sensitivity on a nodule (>4 mm) base was .45 for Siemens NEV and .55 for MEDIAN CAD-Lung; the difference was not yet significant (p=.077). In our study use of CAD

  15. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. A prototype implementation of a network-level intrusion detection system. Technical report number CS91-11

    SciTech Connect

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.F.; Maccabe, A.B.; Servilla, M.; Sturtevant, J.

    1991-05-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype network level intrusion detection system. The prototype system monitors base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, time, and network protocol), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  17. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.

    PubMed

    Ashbaugh, Hayley R; Kuang, Brandon; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Doshi, Reena H; Hoff, Nicole A; Sinai, Cyrus; Mossoko, Mathias; Kebela, Benoit Ilunga; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting through the IDSR passive surveillance system. Although the active and passive surveillance represent distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008 and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognising EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Reporter system for the detection of in vivo gene conversion: changing colors from blue to green using GFP variants.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Jeffrey R; Alderson, Jon; Laible, Goetz; Petters, Robert M

    2006-06-01

    We have devised a system for the study of in vivo gene correction based on the detection of color variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The intensity and spectra of the fluorescence emitted by the blue (BFP) and red-shifted (EGFP) variants of GFP differ from each other. We modified one nucleotide from an EGFP expression vector that we predicted would yield a blue variant (TAC-CAC, Tyr(66)-His(66)). Cells that were either transiently or stably transfected with the reporter system were used to test the functionality and feasibility of the detection of in vivo gene correction. A thio-protected single-stranded oligonucleotide designed to convert the genotype of the blue variant to that of the EGFP variant by the correction of a single base pair was delivered to the reporter cells using a variety of methodologies and strategies.Conversion events were easily observed using fluorescent microscopy because of the enhanced emission intensity and different spectra of the EGFP variant.

  19. Detection and location of multiple events by MARS. Final report. [Multiple Arrival Recognition System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Masso, J.F.; Archambeau, C.B.; Savino, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    Seismic data from two explosions was processed using the Systems Science and Software MARS (Multiple Arrival Recognition System) seismic event detector in an effort to determine their relative spatial and temporal separation on the basis of seismic data alone. The explosions were less than 1.0 kilometer apart and were separated by less than 0.5 sec in origin times. The seismic data consisted of nine local accelerograms (r < 1.0 km) and four regional (240 through 400 km) seismograms. The MARS processing clearly indicates the presence of multiple explosions, but the restricted frequency range of the data inhibits accurate time picks and hence limits the precision of the event location.

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for Rapid Attack Identification, Detection, and Reporting System - Block 10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-03

    Endangered X Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Endangered Endangered X Leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea Endangered Endangered X...listed sea turtles at night, the RAIDRS Squadron would ensure that system lighting complies with management policies and procedures implemented by the...and best available sea turtle lighting technology. The Environmental Office would then consult with the USFWS for plan approval. As a result, the

  1. Life detection systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitz, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    Some promising newer approaches for detecting microorganisms are discussed, giving particular attention to the integration of different methods into a single instrument. Life detection methods may be divided into biological, chemical, and cytological methods. Biological methods are based on the biological properties of assimilation, metabolism, and growth. Devices for the detection of organic materials are considered, taking into account an instrument which volatilizes, separates, and analyzes a sample sequentially. Other instrumental systems described make use of a microscope and the cytochemical staining principle.

  2. [Shall we report the carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains detected by BD Phoenix system?].

    PubMed

    Oğünç, Dilara; Ongüt, Gözde; Ozen, Nevgün Sepin; Baysan, Betil Ozhak; Günseren, Filiz; Dağlar, Duygu; Demirbakan, Hadiye; Gültekin, Meral

    2010-04-01

    Imipenem and meropenem are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that are especially useful in the treatment of nosocomially acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. infections. Previous reports have noted that susceptibility tests could show false resistance to imipenem. For this reason, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that all carbapenem resistant or intermediate resistant isolates should be tested with an additional method to verify the results. This study was aimed to evaluate the imipenem and meropenem susceptibilities by disk diffusion, E-test and broth microdilution in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains found to be resistant or intermediate to imipenem-meropenem by BD Phoenix automated susceptibility testing system. Between January 2006-January 2007, 85 non-duplicate isolates of A. baumannii and 51 non-duplicate isolates of P. aeruginosa which were determined as resistant or intermediate resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem by BD Phoenix automated identification and susceptibility system (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA) were collected in Akdeniz University Hospital Central Laboratory. All strains were tested by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden), disk diffusion and reference broth microdilution (BMD) method following CLSI recommendations. All 51 isolates of P. aeruginosa determined as imipenem and/or meropenem resistant or intermediate resistant by BD Phoenix, were found to be imipenem and/or meropenem resistant or intermediate resistant by the reference BMD method. Minor error rates were same for all testing systems (1.9%) except for the meropenem results of BD Phoenix system (5.9%). No major errors were produced by any system. For A. baumannii, only one very major error was detected for meropenem by BD Phoenix system. Number of minor errors determined for meropenem by all testing systems compared to the reference test, ranged from 2 (2.4%) to 3 (3.5%). It was concluded that carbapenem susceptibility test

  3. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  4. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  5. Detection of Pancreatic Cancer-induced Cachexia using a Fluorescent Myoblast Reporter System and Analysis of Metabolite Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, Paul T.; Bharti, Santosh; Penet, Marie-France; Marik, Radharani; Mironchik, Yelena; Wildes, Flonne; Maitra, Anirban; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2016-01-01

    The dire effects of cancer-induced cachexia undermine treatment and contribute to decreased survival rates. Therapeutic options for this syndrome are limited, and therefore efforts to identify signs of precachexia in cancer patients are necessary for early intervention. The applications of molecular and functional imaging that would enable a whole-body “holistic” approach to this problem may lead to new insights and advances for diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. Here we have developed a myoblast optical reporter system with the purpose of identifying early cachectic events. We generated a myoblast cell line expressing a dual tdTomato:GFP construct that was grafted onto the muscle of mice bearing human pancreatic cancer xenografts to provide noninvasive live imaging of events associated with cancer-induced cachexia (i.e., weight loss). Real time optical imaging detected a strong tdTomato fluorescent signal from skeletal muscle grafts in mice with weight loses of only 1.2 to 2.7% and tumor burdens of only ~79 to ~170 mm3. Weight loss in cachectic animals was also associated with a depletion of lipid, cholesterol, valine, and alanine levels, which may provide informative biomarkers of cachexia. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the utility of a reporter system that is capable of tracking tumor-induced weight loss, an early marker of cachexia. Future studies incorporating resected tissue from human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) into a reporter-carrying mouse may be able to provide a risk assessment of cachexia with possible implications for therapeutic development. PMID:26719527

  6. Automatic infection detection system.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Ove; Bellika, Johan Gustav; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    An infected person may be contagious already before the first symptoms appear. This person can, in the period of disease evolution, infect several associated citizens before consulting a general practitioner (GP). Early detection of contagion is therefore important to prevent spreading of diseases. The Automatic Infection Detection (AID) System faces this problem through investigating the hypothesis that the blood glucose (BG) level increases when a person is infected. The first objective of the prototyped version of the AID system was to identify possible BG elevations in the incubation time that could be related to the spread of infectious diseases. To do this, we monitored two groups of people, with and without diabetes mellitus. The AID system analyzed the results and we were able to detect two cases of infection during the study period. The time of detection occurred simultaneous or near the time of onset of symptoms. The detection did not occur earlier for a number of reasons. The most likely one is that the evolution process of an infectious disease is both complicated and involves the immune system and several organs in the body. The investigation with regard to isolating the key relations is therefore considered as a very complex study. Nevertheless, the AID system managed to detect the infection much earlier than what is possible with today's early warning systems for infectious diseases.

  7. Underwater laser detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2015-02-01

    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  8. Detection of bacteria with bioluminescent reporter bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Jochen; Loessner, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that exclusively infect bacteria. They are ideally suited for the development of highly specific diagnostic assay systems. Bioluminescent reporter bacteriophages are designed and constructed by integration of a luciferase gene in the virus genome. Relying on the host specificity of the phage, the system enables rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of bacterial pathogens. A bioluminescent reporter phage assay is superior to any other molecular detection method, because gene expression and light emission are dependent on an active metabolism of the bacterial cell, and only viable cells will yield a signal. In this chapter we introduce the concept of creating reporter phages, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and illustrate the advances made in developing such systems for different Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. The application of bioluminescent reporter phages for the detection of foodborne pathogens is emphasized.

  9. Field portable detection of VOCs using a SAW/GC system. Final report, June 21, 1994--September 21, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F.; Staples, E.J.

    1998-06-01

    This report describes research on a fast GC vapor analysis system which uses a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The project was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, whose mission, in addition to other goals, is the development of tools and methods for characterization, remediation, and monitoring of underground environmental conditions. The research tasks were to demonstrate detectability and specificity of a Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Chromatograph (SAW/GC) to a representative number of VOC materials followed by field demonstrations of the new technology at a DOE site. All tasks of the project were successfully carried out and a fast vapor analysis system based upon a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology was developed. The prototype analyzer has the ability to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater at the part per billion level in less than 10 seconds. The detector is unique because it utilized an uncoated quartz crystal, contrary to current developments of using coated crystals.

  10. Intruder detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An intruder detection system is described. The system contains a transmitter which sends a frequency modulated and amplitude modulated signal to a remote receiver in response to a geophone detector which responds to seismic impulses created by the intruder. The signal makes it possible for an operator to determine the number of intruders and the manner of movement.

  11. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.; Lyons, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  12. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  13. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  14. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  15. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

    2004-10-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  16. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  17. Environmentally Adaptive UXO Detection and Classification Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    data used in this study. 3 Environmentally Adaptive UXO Detection and Classification Systems 1 Abstract This final report addresses the problem of...FINAL REPORT Environmentally Adaptive UXO Detection and Classification Systems SERDP Project MR-2417 APRIL 2016 Dr. Nick Klausner Information...Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The publication of this report does not indicate endorsement by the

  18. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  19. DETECTION OR WARNING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Tillman, J E

    1953-10-20

    This patent application describes a sensitive detection or protective system capable of giving an alarm or warning upon the entrance or intrusion of any body into a defined area or zone protected by a radiation field of suitable direction or extent.

  20. Intruder detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1970-01-01

    Moving coil geophones are utilized to develop a small, rugged, battery operated system capable of detecting seismic disturbances caused by intruders. Seismic disturbances sensed by each geophone are converted into electrical signals, amplified, and transmitted to remote receiver which provides listener with aural signal.

  1. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  2. Prostate Cancer Detection with Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 1 versus Version 2

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhao-Yan; Wang, Liang; Min, Xiang-De; Wang, Shao-Gang; Wang, Guo-Ping; Cai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) is a globally acceptable standardization for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. The American College of Radiology revised the PI-RADS to address the limitations of version 1 in December 2014. This study aimed to determine whether the PI-RADS version 2 (PI-RADS v2) scoring system improves the diagnostic accuracy of mp-MRI of the prostate compared with PI-RADS v1. Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. A total of 401 consecutive patients, with clinically suspicious PCa undergoing 3.0 T mp-MRI (T2-weighted imaging + diffusion-weighted imaging + DCE) before transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy between June 2013 and July 2015, were included in the study. All patients were scored using the 5-point PI-RADS scoring system based on either PI-RADS v1 or v2. Receiver operating characteristics were calculated for statistical analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were compared using McNemar's test. Results: PCa was present in 150 of 401 (37.41%) patients. When we pooled data from both peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ), the areas under the curve were 0.889 for PI-RADS v1 and 0.942 for v2 (P = 0.0001). Maximal accuracy was achieved with a score threshold of 4. At this threshold, in the PZ, similar sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were achieved with v1 and v2 (all P > 0.05). In the TZ, sensitivity was higher for v2 than for v1 (96.36% vs. 76.36%, P = 0.003), specificity was similar for v2 and v1 (90.24% vs. 84.15%, P = 0.227), and accuracy was higher for v2 than for v1 (92.70% vs. 81.02%, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Both v1 and v2 showed good diagnostic performance for the detection of PCa. However, in the TZ, the performance was better with v2 than with v1. PMID:27748338

  3. Activity-Based Detection of Consumption of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Authentic Urine Samples Using a Stable Cannabinoid Reporter System.

    PubMed

    Cannaert, Annelies; Franz, Florian; Auwärter, Volker; Stove, Christophe P

    2017-09-05

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) continue to be the largest group of new psychoactive substances (NPS) monitored by the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drugs of Abuse (EMCDDA). The identification and subsequent prohibition of single SCs has driven clandestine chemists to produce analogues of increasing structural diversity, intended to evade legislation. That structural diversity, combined with the mostly unknown metabolic profiles of these new SCs, poses a big challenge for the conventional targeted analytical assays, as it is difficult to screen for "unknown" compounds. Therefore, an alternative screening method, not directly based on the structure but on the activity of the SC, may offer a solution for this problem. We generated stable CB1 and CB2 receptor activation assays based on functional complementation of a split NanoLuc luciferase and used these to test an expanded set of recent SCs (UR-144, XLR-11, and their thermal degradation products; AB-CHMINACA and ADB-CHMINACA) and their major phase I metabolites. By doing so, we demonstrate that several major metabolites of these SCs retain their activity at the cannabinoid receptors. These active metabolites may prolong the parent compound's psychotropic and physiological effects and may contribute to the toxicity profile. Utility of the generated stable cell systems as a first-line screening tool for SCs in urine was also demonstrated using a relatively large set of authentic urine samples. Our data indicate that the stable CB reporter assays detect CB receptor activation by extracts of urine in which SCs (or their metabolites) are present at low- or subnanomolar (ng/mL) level. Hence, the developed assays do not only allow activity profiling of SCs and their metabolites, it may also serve as a screening tool, complementing targeted and untargeted analytical assays and preceding analytical (mass spectrometry based) confirmation.

  4. Data mining in the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): early detection of intussusception and other events after rotavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Niu, M T; Erwin, D E; Braun, M M

    2001-09-14

    The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is the US passive surveillance system monitoring vaccine safety. A major limitation of VAERS is the lack of denominator data (number of doses of administered vaccine), an element necessary for calculating reporting rates. Empirical Bayesian data mining, a data analysis method, utilizes the number of events reported for each vaccine and statistically screens the database for higher than expected vaccine-event combinations signaling a potential vaccine-associated event. This is the first study of data mining in VAERS designed to test the utility of this method to detect retrospectively a known side effect of vaccination-intussusception following rotavirus (RV) vaccine. From October 1998 to December 1999, 112 cases of intussusception were reported. The data mining method was able to detect a signal for RV-intussusception in February 1999 when only four cases were reported. These results demonstrate the utility of data mining to detect significant vaccine-associated events at early date. Data mining appears to be an efficient and effective computer-based program that may enhance early detection of adverse events in passive surveillance systems.

  5. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  6. Ultrasonic Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for detecting ultrasonic vibrations. such as those generated by a small leak in a pressurized container. vessel. pipe. or the like. comprises an ultrasonic transducer assembly and a processing circuit for converting transducer signals into an audio frequency range signal. The audio frequency range signal can be used to drive a pair of headphones worn by an operator. A diode rectifier based mixing circuit provides a simple, inexpensive way to mix the transducer signal with a square wave signal generated by an oscillator, and thereby generate the audio frequency signal. The sensitivity of the system is greatly increased through proper selection and matching of the system components. and the use of noise rejection filters and elements. In addition, a parabolic collecting horn is preferably employed which is mounted on the transducer assembly housing. The collecting horn increases sensitivity of the system by amplifying the received signals. and provides directionality which facilitates easier location of an ultrasonic vibration source.

  7. Gas Flow Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  8. Robotic perimeter detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Christopher L.; Feddema, John T.; Klarer, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Labs is developing and testing a robotic perimeter detection system for small unit operations (small groups of warfighters). The objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to assist the warfighter in guarding military assets. Eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLERs) have been built at Sandia and are being used as the test platform. A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLERs alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from hidden miniature intrusion detection sensors (MIDS). The MIDS currently deployed include seismic, magnetometer, passive and beam-break infrared sensor. Each RATTLER keeps an internal state representation of each of the MIDS and of the other vehicles' locations. This representation is updated several times per second as the vehicles broadcast their current state and any alarms received. When an alarm is received, each vehicle looks at this state information and decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. This cooperative team concept can significantly reduce the workload and increase the effectiveness of a single warfighter in the battlefield. Using robot vehicles makes the perimeter detection system easily mobilized for redeployment.

  9. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  10. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  11. Passive intrusion detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, E. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detection system is described in which crystal oscillators are used to provide a frequency which varies as a function of fluctuations of a particular environmental property of the atmosphere, e.g., humidity, in the protected volume. The system is based on the discovery that the frequency of an oscillator whose crystal is humidity sensitive, varies at a frequency or rate which is within a known frequency band, due to the entry of an intruder into the protected volume. The variable frequency is converted into a voltage which is then filtered by a filtering arrangement which permits only voltage variations at frequencies within the known frequency band to activate an alarm, while inhibiting the alarm activation when the voltage frequency is below or above the known frequency band.

  12. Glycol leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Paul; Browne, Keith; Brink, Janus; Coetzee, Christiaan J.

    2016-07-01

    MonoEthylene glycol coolant is used extensively on the Southern African Large Telescope to cool components inside the telescope chamber. To prevent coolant leaks from causing serious damage to electronics and optics, a Glycol Leak Detection System was designed to automatically shut off valves in affected areas. After two years of research and development the use of leaf wetness sensors proved to work best and is currently operational. These sensors are placed at various critical points within the instrument payload that would trigger the leak detector controller, which closes the valves, and alerts the building management system. In this paper we describe the research of an initial concept and the final accepted implementation and the test results thereof.

  13. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  14. Evaluation of Epidemic Intelligence Systems Integrated in the Early Alerting and Reporting Project for the Detection of A/H5N1 Influenza Events

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Mawudeku, Abla; Nelson, Noele P.; Hartley, David M.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Linge, Jens P.; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S.; Yangarber, Roman; Astagneau, Pascal; on behalf of the Early Alerting, Reporting Project of the Global Health Security Initiative

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Web-based expert epidemic intelligence systems is to detect health threats. The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project was launched to assess the feasibility and opportunity for pooling epidemic intelligence data from seven expert systems. EAR participants completed a qualitative survey to document epidemic intelligence strategies and to assess perceptions regarding the systems performance. Timeliness and sensitivity were rated highly illustrating the value of the systems for epidemic intelligence. Weaknesses identified included representativeness, completeness and flexibility. These findings were corroborated by the quantitative analysis performed on signals potentially related to influenza A/H5N1 events occurring in March 2010. For the six systems for which this information was available, the detection rate ranged from 31% to 38%, and increased to 72% when considering the virtual combined system. The effective positive predictive values ranged from 3% to 24% and F1-scores ranged from 6% to 27%. System sensitivity ranged from 38% to 72%. An average difference of 23% was observed between the sensitivities calculated for human cases and epizootics, underlining the difficulties in developing an efficient algorithm for a single pathology. However, the sensitivity increased to 93% when the virtual combined system was considered, clearly illustrating complementarities between individual systems. The average delay between the detection of A/H5N1 events by the systems and their official reporting by WHO or OIE was 10.2 days (95% CI: 6.7–13.8). This work illustrates the diversity in implemented epidemic intelligence activities, differences in system's designs, and the potential added values and opportunities for synergy between systems, between users and between systems and users. PMID:23472077

  15. Evaluation of epidemic intelligence systems integrated in the early alerting and reporting project for the detection of A/H5N1 influenza events.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Mawudeku, Abla; Nelson, Noele P; Hartley, David M; Madoff, Lawrence C; Linge, Jens P; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S; Yangarber, Roman; Astagneau, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Web-based expert epidemic intelligence systems is to detect health threats. The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project was launched to assess the feasibility and opportunity for pooling epidemic intelligence data from seven expert systems. EAR participants completed a qualitative survey to document epidemic intelligence strategies and to assess perceptions regarding the systems performance. Timeliness and sensitivity were rated highly illustrating the value of the systems for epidemic intelligence. Weaknesses identified included representativeness, completeness and flexibility. These findings were corroborated by the quantitative analysis performed on signals potentially related to influenza A/H5N1 events occurring in March 2010. For the six systems for which this information was available, the detection rate ranged from 31% to 38%, and increased to 72% when considering the virtual combined system. The effective positive predictive values ranged from 3% to 24% and F1-scores ranged from 6% to 27%. System sensitivity ranged from 38% to 72%. An average difference of 23% was observed between the sensitivities calculated for human cases and epizootics, underlining the difficulties in developing an efficient algorithm for a single pathology. However, the sensitivity increased to 93% when the virtual combined system was considered, clearly illustrating complementarities between individual systems. The average delay between the detection of A/H5N1 events by the systems and their official reporting by WHO or OIE was 10.2 days (95% CI: 6.7-13.8). This work illustrates the diversity in implemented epidemic intelligence activities, differences in system's designs, and the potential added values and opportunities for synergy between systems, between users and between systems and users.

  16. Neonatal Jaundice Detection System.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Mustafa; Hardalaç, Fırat; Ural, Berkan; Karap, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition that occurs in newborn infants in the first week of life. Today, techniques used for detection are required blood samples and other clinical testing with special equipment. The aim of this study is creating a non-invasive system to control and to detect the jaundice periodically and helping doctors for early diagnosis. In this work, first, a patient group which is consisted from jaundiced babies and a control group which is consisted from healthy babies are prepared, then between 24 and 48 h after birth, 40 jaundiced and 40 healthy newborns are chosen. Second, advanced image processing techniques are used on the images which are taken with a standard smartphone and the color calibration card. Segmentation, pixel similarity and white balancing methods are used as image processing techniques and RGB values and pixels' important information are obtained exactly. Third, during feature extraction stage, with using colormap transformations and feature calculation, comparisons are done in RGB plane between color change values and the 8-color calibration card which is specially designed. Finally, in the bilirubin level estimation stage, kNN and SVR machine learning regressions are used on the dataset which are obtained from feature extraction. At the end of the process, when the control group is based on for comparisons, jaundice is succesfully detected for 40 jaundiced infants and the success rate is 85 %. Obtained bilirubin estimation results are consisted with bilirubin results which are obtained from the standard blood test and the compliance rate is 85 %.

  17. Photoelectric detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, J. R.; Schansman, R. R.

    1982-03-01

    A photoelectric beam system for the detection of the arrival of an object at a discrete station wherein artificial light, natural light, or no light may be present is described. A signal generator turns on and off a signal light at a selected frequency. When the object in question arrives on station, ambient light is blocked by the object, and the light from the signal light is reflected onto a photoelectric sensor which has a delayed electrical output but is of the frequency of the signal light. Outputs from both the signal source and the photoelectric sensor are fed to inputs of an exclusively OR detector which provides as an output the difference between them. The difference signal is a small width pulse occurring at the frequency of the signal source. By filter means, this signal is distinguished from those responsive to sunlight, darkness, or 120 Hz artificial light. In this fashion, the presence of an object is positively established.

  18. Halocarbon refrigerant detection methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, R.E.; Sohn, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol and the U.S. Clean Air Act limit the production of ozone-depleting substances, including many refrigerants. Three options for cost-effectively phasing out these refrigerants from Army installations are: (1) refrigerant containment, (2) retrofit conversion to accommodate alternative refrigerant, and (3) replacement with cooling systems using alternative refrigerant. This report contributes to the first option by identifying and assessing methods to detect chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants that leak from air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. As background, the report describes the relevant sections of the Montreal Protocol and the Clean Air Act, and gives an overview of refrigerants. This is followed by a description of the technologies used in refrigerant leak detection, and a survey of detector types available and their price ranges. Appendixes provide an extensive list of detector products and their specifications, plus manufacturer addresses and phone numbers.

  19. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  20. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  1. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  2. FY05 LDRD Final Report A Computational Design Tool for Microdevices and Components in Pathogen Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trebotich, D

    2006-02-07

    We have developed new algorithms to model complex biological flows in integrated biodetection microdevice components. The proposed work is important because the design strategy for the next-generation Autonomous Pathogen Detection System at LLNL is the microfluidic-based Biobriefcase, being developed under the Chemical and Biological Countermeasures Program in the Homeland Security Organization. This miniaturization strategy introduces a new flow regime to systems where biological flow is already complex and not well understood. Also, design and fabrication of MEMS devices is time-consuming and costly due to the current trial-and-error approach. Furthermore, existing devices, in general, are not optimized. There are several MEMS CAD capabilities currently available, but their computational fluid dynamics modeling capabilities are rudimentary at best. Therefore, we proposed a collaboration to develop computational tools at LLNL which will (1) provide critical understanding of the fundamental flow physics involved in bioMEMS devices, (2) shorten the design and fabrication process, and thus reduce costs, (3) optimize current prototypes and (4) provide a prediction capability for the design of new, more advanced microfluidic systems. Computational expertise was provided by Comp-CASC and UC Davis-DAS. The simulation work was supported by key experiments for guidance and validation at UC Berkeley-BioE.

  3. E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    General Atomics (GA) leads a team of industrial, academic, and government organizations in the development of the Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) for the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), by way of this Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP). E-SMART defines a standard by which networks of smart sensing, sampling, and control devices can interoperate. E-SMART{reg_sign} is intended to be an open standard, available to any equipment manufacturer. The user will be provided a standard platform on which a site-specific monitoring plan can be implemented using sensors and actuators from various manufacturers and upgraded as new monitoring devices become commercially available. This project will further develop and advance the E-SMART standardized network protocol to include new sensors, sampling systems, and graphical user interfaces.

  4. E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-30

    General Atomics (GA) leads a team of industrial, academic, and government organizations in the development of the Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) for the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), by way of this Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP). E-SMART defines a standard by which networks of smart sensing, sampling, and control devices can interoperate. E-SMART{reg_sign} is intended to be an open standard, available to any equipment manufacturer. The user will be provided a standard platform on which a site-specific monitoring plan can be implemented using sensors and actuators from various manufacturers and upgraded as new monitoring devices become commercially available. This project will further develop and advance the E-SMART standardized network protocol to include new sensors, sampling systems, and graphical user interfaces.

  5. E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    General Atomics (GA) leads a team of industrial, academic, and government organizations to develop the Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) for the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), by way of this Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP). E-SMART defines a standard by which networks of smart sensing, sampling, and control devices can interoperate. E-SMART is intended to be an open standard, available to any equipment manufacturer. The user will be provided a standard platform on which a site-specific monitoring plan can be implemented using sensors and actuators from various manufacturers and upgraded as new monitoring devices become commercially available. This project will further develop and advance the E-SMART standardized network protocol to include new sensors, sampling systems, and graphical user interfaces.

  6. E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) leads a team of industrial, academic, and government organizations in the development of the Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) for the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), by way of this Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP). E-SMART defines a standard by which networks of smart sensing, sampling, and control devices can interoperate. E-SMART is intended to be an open standard, available to any equipment manufacturer. The user will be provided a standard platform on which a site-specific monitoring plan can be implemented using sensors and actuators from various manufacturers and upgraded as new monitoring devices become commercially available. This project will further develop and advance the E-SMART standardized network protocol to include new sensors, sampling systems, and graphical user interfaces.

  7. E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    General Atomics (GA) leads a team of industrial, academic, and government organizations in the development of the Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) for the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), by way of this Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP). E-SMART defines a standard by which networks of smart sensing, sampling, and control devices can interoperate. E-SMART is intended to be an open standard, available to any equipment manufacturer. The user will be provided a standard platform on which a site-specific monitoring plan can be implemented using sensors and actuators from various manufacturers and upgraded as new monitoring devices become commercially available. This project will further develop and advance the E-SMART standardized network protocol to include new sensors, sampling systems, and graphical user interfaces.

  8. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D.

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise

  9. E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    General Atomics (GA) leads a team of industrial, academic, and government organizations to develop the Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) for the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), by way of this Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP). E-SMART defines a standard by which networks of smart sensing, sampling, and control devices can interoperate. E-SMART is intended to be an open standard, available to any equipment manufacturer. The user will be provided a standard platform on which a site-specific monitoring plan can be implemented using sensors and actuators from various manufacturers and upgraded as new monitoring devices become commercially available. GA`s team members include Isco, Inc., Photonic Sensor Systems (PSS), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Science & Engineering Analysis Corporation (SECOR), and the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory Environics Directorate at Tyndall AFB(AL). Specifically, the E-SMART team will develop the following three system elements: (1) A new class of smart, highly sensitive, chemically-specific, in-situ, multichannel microsensors utilizing integrated optical interferometry technology, (2) A set of additional E-SMART-compatible sensors and samplers adapted from commercial off-the-shelf technologies, and (3) A Data Management and Analysis System (DMAS), including network management components and a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for data evaluation and visualization. In addition, the E-SMART TRP team has signed Articles of Collaboration with another DARPA TRP awardee, Sawtek, to develop an E-SMART-compatible Intelligent Modular Array System (DMAS) for monitoring volatile organic chemicals (VOC`s) in the environment. This collaboration will simplify the network development required to field the IMAS sensor, and will encourage the adoption of the E-SMART standard by increasing the number of commercially available E-SMART sensors.

  10. Prostate cancer detection rates of magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy related to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score.

    PubMed

    Osses, Daniël F; van Asten, Joost J; Kieft, Gerard J; Tijsterman, Jasper D

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy in patients with suspected prostate cancer increase detection rate and clinical significance of diagnosed tumors. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the detection rates of prostate cancer for magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy related to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score. We included all patients with cancer-suspicious lesions on 3-Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-prostate who underwent magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy in Haga Teaching Hospital between January 2013 and January 2015. In total, 155 patients were included. In 100 of 155 (65 %) men, MRI-guided prostate biopsy was positive for prostate cancer. No biopsy of PI-RADS 2-lesions was positive. PI-RADS 3- and 4-lesions were, respectively, in 10 and 77 % prostate cancer positive. Biopsies of PI-RADS 5-lesions were in 89 % of the cases positive. The majority of detected cancers (63 %) were Gleason score ≥ 7, and this number increases to 75 % in positive PI-RADS 5-lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy has a high detection rate of prostate cancer in men with cancer-suspicious lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-prostate, and this rate (65 %) increases with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score (81 % in PI-RADS 4- and 5-lesions).

  11. Incipient fire detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, Jr., William K.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  12. Intrusion detection: systems and models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherif, J. S.; Dearmond, T. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper puts forward a review of state of the art and state of the applicability of intrusion detection systems, and models. The paper also presents a classfication of literature pertaining to intrusion detection.

  13. [Predictive value of breast imaging report and database system (BIRADS) to detect cancer in a reference regional hospital].

    PubMed

    Bellolio, Enrique; Pineda, Viviana; Burgos, María Eugenia; Iriarte, M José; Becker, Renato; Araya, Juan Carlos; Villaseca, Miguel; Mardones, Noldy

    2015-12-01

    To validate the BIRADS in mammography, the calculation of its predictive value in each center is required, as recommended by the American College of Radiology. To determine the predictive value of the BIRADS system in our center. All ultrasound guided needle percutaneous biopsies, performed at our center between 2006 and 2010 were reviewed. Predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of BIRADS were calculated, with a confidence interval of 95%. Of 1,313 biopsies available, 1,058 met the inclusion criteria. Fifty eight percent of biopsies were performed to women with mammographies classified as BIRADS 4 or 5. The presence of cancer in mammographies classified as BIRADS 0 was 4%. The prevalence of cancer for mammographies BIRADS 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 0, 3, 2.7, 17.7 and 72.4% respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of BIRADS classification were 55 and 92 % respectively. In our institution BIRADS classification 4 and 5 has a high positive predictive value for detecting cancer as in developed countries.

  14. Planetary system detection by POINTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The final report and semiannual reports 1, 2, and 3 in response to the study of 'Planetary System Detection by POINTS' is presented. The grant covered the period from 15 Jun. 1988 through 31 Dec. 1989. The work during that period comprised the further development and refinement of the POINTS concept. The status of the POINTS development at the end of the Grant period was described by Reasenberg in a paper given at the JPL Workshop on Space Interferometry, 12-13 Mar. 1990, and distributed as CfA Preprint 3138. That paper, 'POINTS: a Small Astrometric Interferometer,' follows as Appendix-A. Our proposal P2276-7-09, dated July 1990, included a more detailed description of the state of the development of POINTS at the end of the tenure of Grant NAGW-1355. That proposal, which resulted in Grant NAGW-2497, is included by reference.

  15. Autonomous pathogen detection system 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Wang, A; Colston, B; Masquelier, D; Jones, L; Venkateswaran, K S; Nasarabadi, S; Brown, S; Ramponi, A; Milanovich, F P

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field-demonstrate a fully Autonomous Pathogen Detector (identifier) System (APDS). This will be accomplished by integrating a proven flow cytometer and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detector with sample collection, sample preparation and fluidics to provide a compact, autonomously operating instrument capable of simultaneously detecting multiple pathogens and/or toxins. The APDS will be designed to operate in fixed locations, where it continuously monitors air samples and automatically reports the presence of specific biological agents. The APDS will utilize both multiplex immuno and nucleic acid assays to provide ''quasi-orthogonal'', multiple agent detection approaches to minimize false positives and increase the reliability of identification. Technical advancements across several fronts must first be made in order to realize the full extent of the APDS. Commercialization will be accomplished through three progressive generations of instruments. The APDS is targeted for domestic applications in which (1) the public is at high risk of exposure to covert releases of bioagent such as in major subway systems and other transportation terminals, large office complexes, and convention centers; and (2) as part of a monitoring network of sensors integrated with command and control systems for wide area monitoring of urban areas and major gatherings (e.g., inaugurations, Olympics, etc.). In this latter application there is potential that a fully developed APDS could add value to Defense Department monitoring architectures.

  16. High-throughput living cell-based optical biosensor for detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a red fluorescent protein reporter system

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Jiang, Donglei; Shao, Jingdong; Sun, Xiulan; Wang, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high toxicity of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resulting in sepsis and septic shock, two major causes of death worldwide, significant effort is directed toward the development of specific trace-level LPS detection systems. Here, we report sensitive, user-friendly, high-throughput LPS detection in a 96-well microplate using a transcriptional biosensor system, based on 293/hTLR4A-MD2-CD14 cells that are transformed by a red fluorescent protein (mCherry) gene under the transcriptional control of an NF-κB response element. The recognition of LPS activates the biosensor cell, TLR4, and the co-receptor-induced NF-κB signaling pathway, which results in the expression of mCherry fluorescent protein. The novel cell-based biosensor detects LPS with specificity at low concentration. The cell-based biosensor was evaluated by testing LPS isolated from 14 bacteria. Of the tested bacteria, 13 isolated Enterobacteraceous LPSs with hexa-acylated structures were found to increase red fluorescence and one penta-acylated LPS from Pseudomonadaceae appeared less potent. The proposed biosensor has potential for use in the LPS detection in foodstuff and biological products, as well as bacteria identification, assisting the control of foodborne diseases. PMID:27841364

  17. ULGeN FY14 Annual Report: Ultra-Low Noise Germanium Neutrino Detection System (ULGeN)

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera-Palmer, Belkis; Reyna, David; Gerling, Mark D.; Barton, Paul

    2014-09-01

    This project aims at the development of advanced low-threshold Ge detection technology and proof of its applicability to reactor monitoring via the as-yet undetected coherent neutrino nucleus scattering (CNNS) process.

  18. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  19. Ferret Workflow Anomaly Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-28

    The Ferret workflow anomaly detection system project 2003-2004 has provided validation and anomaly detection in accredited workflows in secure...completed to accomplish a goal. Anomaly detection is the determination that a condition departs from the expected. The baseline behavior from which the

  20. Antigen detection systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  1. Antigen detection systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissue using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular methodology is chosen ...

  2. A Multi-Layer Phoswich Radioxenon Detection System, Reporting Period 07/01/07 - 09/30/07

    SciTech Connect

    David M. Hamby

    2007-10-25

    During this quarter, the detector manufacturer (Saint-Gobain) delivered one side of the prototype two-channel phoswich detector (XEPHWICH). Once received, our Digital Pulse Processor (DPP1, 12-bit/100 MHz) was employed to capture and digitally process phoswich pulses from laboratory radioactive sources. Our previous pulse shape discrimination algorithm was modified by utilizing three trapezoidal digital filters. This algorithm provides a two-dimensional plot in which the pulse shapes of interest are classified and then can be well identified. The preliminary experimental results will be presented at the 2007 Informal Xenon Monitoring Workshop. The DPP2 (two-channel, 12-bit/ 250 MHz Digital Pulse Processor) is at the prototyping stage. The analog sections have been designed, prototyped and tested. A 6-layer Printed Circuit Board (PCB) was designed, ordered and delivered. The board components were ordered and are now being assembled and examined for proper functionality. In addition, the related FPGA hardware description code (using VHDL) is under development and simulation. Additionally, our researchers have been studying materials regarding wavelet transforms for incorporation into the project. Wavelet transform is an interesting tool for signal processing; one use for our purpose would be to de-noise the detector signal and to express the signal in a few coefficients for signal compression and increased speed. Light capture efficiency modeling and analysis was performed on the XEPHWICH design. Increased understanding of the modeling software was obtained by the discovery of a bug and successful workaround techniques with the DETECT2000 software. Further modeling and plot generation experience was had by the continued use of CERN's ROOT and GEANT4 software packages. Simulations have been performed to compare the output of points versus planes in light capture efficiency. An additional simulation was made with a runtime that was an order-of-magnitude greater than

  3. Extended likelihood ratio test-based methods for signal detection in a drug class with application to FDA's adverse event reporting system database.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueqin; Yi, Min; Tiwari, Ram C

    2016-05-02

    A likelihood ratio test, recently developed for the detection of signals of adverse events for a drug of interest in the FDA Adverse Events Reporting System database, is extended to detect signals of adverse events simultaneously for all the drugs in a drug class. The extended likelihood ratio test methods, based on Poisson model (Ext-LRT) and zero-inflated Poisson model (Ext-ZIP-LRT), are discussed and are analytically shown, like the likelihood ratio test method, to control the type-I error and false discovery rate. Simulation studies are performed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Ext-LRT and Ext-ZIP-LRT. The proposed methods are applied to the Gadolinium drug class in FAERS database. An in-house likelihood ratio test tool, incorporating the Ext-LRT methodology, is being developed in the Food and Drug Administration.

  4. Protein detection system

    DOEpatents

    Fruetel, Julie A [Livermore, CA; Fiechtner, Gregory J [Bethesda, MD; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; McIlroy, Andrew [Livermore, CA

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  5. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  6. Ionic contamination detection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovich, M.G.

    1994-04-01

    The effectiveness of Meter A and B for detecting ionic contamination was evaluated and compared on the following types of samples: (1) copper panels, (2) printed wiring boards with through-hold components (lCs), (3) printed wiring boards with surface-mounted components, and (4) mixed-technology printed wiring boards (both through-hole and surface-mount components). The extraction efficiency of the two meters was calculated

  7. Randomness fault detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting a fault on a power line carrying a line parameter such as a load current. The apparatus monitors and analyzes the load current to obtain an energy value. The energy value is compared to a threshold value stored in a buffer. If the energy value is greater than the threshold value a counter is incremented. If the energy value is greater than a high value threshold or less than a low value threshold then a second counter is incremented. If the difference between two subsequent energy values is greater than a constant then a third counter is incremented. A fault signal is issued if the counter is greater than a counter limit value and either the second counter is greater than a second limit value or the third counter is greater than a third limit value.

  8. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOEpatents

    Peurrung, Anthony J.; Stromswold, David C.

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  9. NORSAR Detection Processing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-31

    systems have been reliable. NTA/Lillestrom and Hamar will take a new initiative medio April regarding 04C. The line will be remeasured and if a certain...estimate of the ambient noise level at the site of the FINESA array, ground motion spectra were calculated for four time intervals. Two intervals were

  10. Remote Voice Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-25

    back to the laser Doppler vibrometer and the digital camera, respectively. Mechanical beam steering mirror modules, such as galvanometer steering...mirror module 43 in accordance with this invention. An appropriate galvanometer -based tracker system has been used for tracking eye motion during laser

  11. Centrifugal unbalance detection system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Reeves, George; Mets, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A system consisting of an accelerometer sensor attached to a centrifuge enclosure for sensing vibrations and outputting a signal in the form of a sine wave with an amplitude and frequency that is passed through a pre-amp to convert it to a voltage signal, a low pass filter for removing extraneous noise, an A/D converter and a processor and algorithm for operating on the signal, whereby the algorithm interprets the amplitude and frequency associated with the signal and once an amplitude threshold has been exceeded the algorithm begins to count cycles during a predetermined time period and if a given number of complete cycles exceeds the frequency threshold during the predetermined time period, the system shuts down the centrifuge.

  12. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  13. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  14. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Whited, R.C.

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in relatively thick semiconductor radiation detectors, such as HgI/sub 2/, which exhibit significant hole trapping. Two amplifiers are used: the first measures the charge collected and the second the contribution of the electrons to the charge collected. The outputs of the two amplifiers are utilized to unfold the total charge generated within the detector in response to a radiation event.

  15. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  16. A Multi-Layer Phoswich Radioxenon Detection System (7th Qtr Report), Reporting Period 10/01/07 - 12/31/07

    SciTech Connect

    David M. Hamby

    2008-01-29

    Description of activities conducted this report period: (1) Electronics Development--To improve the overall performance of the two-channel digital pulse processor (DPP2), the PCB has been redesigned and the new printed board is now under assembly. The system is enhanced with two new fast ADCs from Analog Devices (AD9230-250), each with a sampling rate of 250 MHz and a resolution of 12 bits. The data bus uses a high performance Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) standard. The offset and gain of each channel are separately controlled digitally by the GUI software. (2) GUI Software Development--A GUI is being developed using the Python programming language. All functions from the preceding MATLAB code have been re-implemented including basic waveform readout, pulse shape discrimination, and plotting of energy spectra. In addition, the GUI can be used to control sampling runs based on the number of pulses captured, either in real or live time. Calibration coefficients and pulse shape discrimination boundaries can be changed on the fly so that the detector may be characterized experimentally. Plots generated by the GUI can be exported as graphic data. At present, the software has only been tested using one channel, pending availability of the new DPP board (DPP2). However, the functions have been written to allow easy expansion to two channels. (3) Light Collection Modeling--The XEPHWICH design has been modeled to determine its light capture efficiency. Research in the 7th quarter includes additional simulations representing significant increase in data resolution, well over an order of magnitude greater than previous simulations. The final data set represents approximately 11 billion visible photons divided equally among 110 thousand data points. A laboratory experiment is being designed and executed to experimentally determine light capture efficiency as a function of position within the scintillators. (4) Radioxenon Fission Source--We have designed and

  17. Diversified transmission multichannel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

    1984-07-03

    A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

  18. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J.; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie; May, Iain; Reilly, Sean Douglas

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  19. Critical incident reporting systems.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jag; Marriott, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 10% of all hospital admissions are complicated by critical incidents in which harm is caused to the patient - this amounts to more than 850,000 incidents annually. Critical incident reporting (CIR) systems refer to the structured reporting, collation and analysis of such incidents. This article describes the attributes required for an effective CIR system. Example neonatal trigger events and a management pathway for handling a critical incident report are described. The benefits and limitations of CIR systems, reactive and prospective approaches to the analysis of actual or potential critical incidents and the assessment of risk are also reviewed. Individual human error is but one contributor in the majority of critical incidents. Recognition of this and the fostering of an organisational culture that views critical incident reports as an opportunity to learn and to improve future patient care is vital if CIR systems are to be effective.

  20. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  1. The international experience of bacterial screen testing of platelet components with an automated microbial detection system: a need for consensus testing and reporting guidelines.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Richard J; McDonald, Carl P

    2014-04-01

    The BacT/ALERT microbial detection system (bioMerieux, Inc, Durham, NC) is in routine use in many blood centers as a prerelease test for platelet collections. Published reports document wide variation in practices and outcomes. A systematic review of the English literature was performed to describe publications assessing the use of the BacT/ALERT culture system on platelet collections as a routine screen test of more than 10000 platelet components. Sixteen publications report the use of confirmatory testing to substantiate initial positive culture results but use varying nomenclature to classify the results. Preanalytical and analytical variables that may affect the outcomes differ widely between centers. Incomplete description of protocol details complicates comparison between sites. Initial positive culture results range from 539 to 10606 per million (0.054%-1.061%) and confirmed positive from 127 to 1035 per million (0.013%-0.104%) donations. False-negative results determined by outdate culture range from 662 to 2173 per million (0.066%-0.217%) and by septic reactions from 0 to 66 per million (0%-0.007%) collections. Current culture protocols represent pragmatic compromises between optimizing analytical sensitivity and ensuring the timely availability of platelets for clinical needs. Insights into the effect of protocol variations on outcomes are generally restricted to individual sites that implement limited changes to their protocols over time. Platelet manufacturers should reassess the adequacy of their BacT/ALERT screening protocols in light of the growing international experience and provide detailed documentation of all variables that may affect culture outcomes when reporting results. We propose a framework for a standardized nomenclature for reporting of the results of BacT/ALERT screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality Indicator System Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    This report is a product of the implementation of a quality indicator system for Colorado's public higher education system. In 1999, the Colorado Commission on Higher Education established a core set of nine indicators, for which data were gathered and benchmarks were identified for measuring performance in terms of these benchmarks. The first…

  3. A system for distributed intrusion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Snapp, S.R.; Brentano, J.; Dias, G.V.; Goan, T.L.; Heberlein, L.T.; Ho, Che-Lin; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B. . Div. of Computer Science); Grance, T. ); Mansur, D.L.; Pon, K.L. ); Smaha, S.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The study of providing security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because the network is the medium over which most attacks or intrusions on computer systems are launched. One approach to solving this problem is the intrusion-detection concept, whose basic premise is that not only abandoning the existing and huge infrastructure of possibly-insecure computer and network systems is impossible, but also replacing them by totally-secure systems may not be feasible or cost effective. Previous work on intrusion-detection systems were performed on stand-alone hosts and on a broadcast local area network (LAN) environment. The focus of our present research is to extend our network intrusion-detection concept from the LAN environment to arbitarily wider areas with the network topology being arbitrary as well. The generalized distributed environment is heterogeneous, i.e., the network nodes can be hosts or servers from different vendors, or some of them could be LAN managers, like our previous work, a network security monitor (NSM), as well. The proposed architecture for this distributed intrusion-detection system consists of the following components: a host manager in each host; a LAN manager for monitoring each LAN in the system; and a central manager which is placed at a single secure location and which receives reports from various host and LAN managers to process these reports, correlate them, and detect intrusions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Calibration Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2006-02-01

    The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

  5. Intrusion Detection System Visualization of Network Alerts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Intrusion Detection System Visualization of Network Alerts Dolores M. Zage and Wayne M. Zage Ball State University Final Report July 2010...contracts. Staff Wayne Zage, Director of the S2ERC and Professor, Department of Computer Science, Ball State University Dolores Zage, Research

  6. Detection of antistaphylococcal and toxic compounds by biological assay systems developed with a reporter Staphylococcus aureus strain harboring a heat inducible promoter - lacZ transcriptional fusion.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Palas Kumar; Ganguly, Tridib; Das, Malabika; Lee, Chia Yen; Luong, Thanh T; Sau, Subrata

    2007-11-30

    Previously it was reported that promoter of groES-groEL operon of Staphylococcus aureus is induced by various cell-wall active antibiotics. In order to exploit the above promoter for identifying novel antistaphylococcal drugs, we have cloned the promoter containing region (P(g)) of groES-groEL operon of S. aureus Newman and found that the above promoter is induced by sublethal concentrations of many antibiotics including cell-wall active antibiotics. A reporter S. aureus RN4220 strain (designated SAU006) was constructed by inserting the P(g)-lacZ transcriptional fusion into its chromosome. Agarose-based assay developed with SAU006 shows that P(g) in single-copy is also induced distinctly by different classes of antibiotics. Data indicate that ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, ampicillin, and cephalothin are strong inducers, whereas, tetracycline, streptomycin and vancomycin induce the above promoter weakly. Sublethal concentrations of ciprofloxacin and ampicilin even have induced P(g) efficiently in microtiter plate grown SAU006. Additional studies show for the first time that above promoter is also induced weakly by arsenate salt and hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, we suggest that our simple and sensitive assay systems with SAU006 could be utilized for screening and detecting not only novel antistaphylococcal compounds but also different toxic chemicals.

  7. Performance report cards increase adenoma detection rate.

    PubMed

    Sey, Michael Sai Lai; Liu, Andy; Asfaha, Samuel; Siebring, Victoria; Jairath, Vipul; Yan, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is an important measure of colonoscopy quality, as are polyp, advanced ADR, and adenocarcinoma detection rates. We investigated whether performance report cards improved these outcome measures. Endoscopists were given report cards comparing their detection rates to the institutional mean on an annual basis. Detection rates were evaluated at baseline, 1 year after report cards (Year 1), and 2 years after report cards (Year 2). Endoscopists were unaware of the study and received no other interventions. The primary outcome was ADR and secondary outcomes were polyp detection rate (PDR), advanced ADR, and adenocarcinoma detection rate. Multivariate regression was performed to adjust for temporal trends in patient, endoscopists, and procedural factors.  Seventeen physicians performed 3,118 screening colonoscopies in patients with positive FOBT or family history of colon cancer. The ADR increased from 34.5 % (baseline) to 39.4 % (Year 1) and 41.2 % (Year 2) ( P  = 0.0037). The PDR increased from 45 % (baseline) to 48.8 % (Year 1) and 51.8 % (Year 2) ( P  = 0.011). There was no significant improvement in advanced ADR or adenocarcinoma detection rates. On multivariate analysis, the ADR increased by 22 % in Year 1 ( P  = 0.03) and 30 % in Year 2 ( P  = 0.008). Among physicians with a baseline ADR < 25 %, improvement in ADR was even greater, increasing 2.2 times by the end of the study ( P  = 0.004). Improvements in ADR were not correlated with specialty although gastroenterologists were 52 % more likely to find an adenoma than general surgeons.  Annual performance report cards increased adenoma detection rates, especially among physicians with low ADR < 25 %.

  8. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  9. Portable Microleak-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin; Sikora, Joseph G.; Sankaran, Sankara N.

    2007-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a portable microleak-detection system that has been built especially for use in testing hydrogen tanks made of polymer-matrix composite materials. (As used here, microleak signifies a leak that is too small to be detectable by the simple soap-bubble technique.) The system can also be used to test for microleaks in tanks that are made of other materials and that contain gases other than hydrogen. Results of calibration tests have shown that measurement errors are less than 10 percent for leak rates ranging from 0.3 to 200 cm3/min. Like some other microleak-detection systems, this system includes a vacuum pump and associated plumbing for sampling the leaking gas, and a mass spectrometer for analyzing the molecular constituents of the gas. The system includes a flexible vacuum chamber that can be attached to the outer surface of a tank or other object of interest that is to be tested for leakage (hereafter denoted, simply, the test object). The gas used in a test can be the gas or vapor (e.g., hydrogen in the original application) to be contained by the test object. Alternatively, following common practice in leak testing, helium can be used as a test gas. In either case, the mass spectrometer can be used to verify that the gas measured by the system is the test gas rather than a different gas and, hence, that the leak is indeed from the test object.

  10. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  11. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  12. Automatic signal extraction, prioritizing and filtering approaches in detecting post-marketing cardiovascular events associated with targeted cancer drugs from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, Quanqiu

    2014-02-01

    Targeted drugs dramatically improve the treatment outcomes in cancer patients; however, these innovative drugs are often associated with unexpectedly high cardiovascular toxicity. Currently, cardiovascular safety represents both a challenging issue for drug developers, regulators, researchers, and clinicians and a concern for patients. While FDA drug labels have captured many of these events, spontaneous reporting systems are a main source for post-marketing drug safety surveillance in 'real-world' (outside of clinical trials) cancer patients. In this study, we present approaches to extracting, prioritizing, filtering, and confirming cardiovascular events associated with targeted cancer drugs from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The dataset includes records of 4,285,097 patients from FAERS. We first extracted drug-cardiovascular event (drug-CV) pairs from FAERS through named entity recognition and mapping processes. We then compared six ranking algorithms in prioritizing true positive signals among extracted pairs using known drug-CV pairs derived from FDA drug labels. We also developed three filtering algorithms to further improve precision. Finally, we manually validated extracted drug-CV pairs using 21 million published MEDLINE records. We extracted a total of 11,173 drug-CV pairs from FAERS. We showed that ranking by frequency is significantly more effective than by the five standard signal detection methods (246% improvement in precision for top-ranked pairs). The filtering algorithm we developed further improved overall precision by 91.3%. By manual curation using literature evidence, we show that about 51.9% of the 617 drug-CV pairs that appeared in both FAERS and MEDLINE sentences are true positives. In addition, 80.6% of these positive pairs have not been captured by FDA drug labeling. The unique drug-CV association dataset that we created based on FAERS could facilitate our understanding and prediction of cardiotoxic events associated with

  13. Tape Cassette Bacteria Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system with a zero-g capability and based on the filter-capsule approach is described. This system is intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in a spacecraft. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins (i.e., catalase, cytochromes, etc.) on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Since viable as well as nonviable organisms initiate this luminescence, viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. Higher signals for the former indicate the presence of viable organisms. System features include disposable sealed sterile capsules, each containing a filter membrane, for processing discrete water samples and a tape transport for moving these capsules through a processing sequence which involves sample concentration, nutrient addition, incubation, a 4 Molar Urea wash and reaction with luminol-hydrogen peroxide in front of a photomultiplier tube. Liquids are introduced by means of a syringe needle which pierces a rubber septum contained in the wall of the capsule. Detection thresholds obtained with this unit towards E. coli and S. marcescens assuming a 400 ml water sample are indicated.

  14. Problem Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Don; Serian, Charles; Sweet, Robert; Sapir, Babak; Gamez, Enrique; Mays, David

    2008-01-01

    The Problem Reporting System (PRS) is a Web application, running on two Web servers (load-balanced) and two database servers (RAID-5), which establishes a system for submission, editing, and sharing of reports to manage risk assessment of anomalies identified in NASA's flight projects. PRS consolidates diverse anomaly-reporting systems, maintains a rich database set, and incorporates a robust engine, which allows tracking of any hardware, software, or paper process by configuring an appropriate life cycle. Global and specific project administration and setup tools allow lifecycle tailoring, along with customizable controls for user, e-mail, notifications, and more. PRS is accessible via the World Wide Web for authorized user at most any location. Upon successful log-in, the user receives a customizable window, which displays time-critical 'To Do' items (anomalies requiring the user s input before the system moves the anomaly to the next phase of the lifecycle), anomalies originated by the user, anomalies the user has addressed, and custom queries that can be saved for future use. Access controls exist depending on a user's role as system administrator, project administrator, user, or developer, and then, further by association with user, project, subsystem, company, or item with provisions for business-to-business exclusions, limitations on access according to the covert or overt nature of a given project, all with multiple layers of filtration, as needed. Reporting of metrics is built in. There is a provision for proxy access (in which the user may choose to grant one or more other users to view screens and perform actions as though they were the user, during any part of a tracking life cycle - especially useful during tight build schedules and vacations to keep things moving). The system also provides users the ability to have an anomaly link to or notify other systems, including QA Inspection Reports, Safety, GIDEP (Government-Industry Data Exchange Program

  15. Large-scale combining signals from both biomedical literature and the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to improve post-marketing drug safety signal detection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Independent data sources can be used to augment post-marketing drug safety signal detection. The vast amount of publicly available biomedical literature contains rich side effect information for drugs at all clinical stages. In this study, we present a large-scale signal boosting approach that combines over 4 million records in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and over 21 million biomedical articles. Results The datasets are comprised of 4,285,097 records from FAERS and 21,354,075 MEDLINE articles. We first extracted all drug-side effect (SE) pairs from FAERS. Our study implemented a total of seven signal ranking algorithms. We then compared these different ranking algorithms before and after they were boosted with signals from MEDLINE sentences or abstracts. Finally, we manually curated all drug-cardiovascular (CV) pairs that appeared in both data sources and investigated whether our approach can detect many true signals that have not been included in FDA drug labels. We extracted a total of 2,787,797 drug-SE pairs from FAERS with a low initial precision of 0.025. The ranking algorithm combined signals from both FAERS and MEDLINE, significantly improving the precision from 0.025 to 0.371 for top-ranked pairs, representing a 13.8 fold elevation in precision. We showed by manual curation that drug-SE pairs that appeared in both data sources were highly enriched with true signals, many of which have not yet been included in FDA drug labels. Conclusions We have developed an efficient and effective drug safety signal ranking and strengthening approach We demonstrate that large-scale combining information from FAERS and biomedical literature can significantly contribute to drug safety surveillance. PMID:24428898

  16. Large-scale combining signals from both biomedical literature and the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to improve post-marketing drug safety signal detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2014-01-15

    Independent data sources can be used to augment post-marketing drug safety signal detection. The vast amount of publicly available biomedical literature contains rich side effect information for drugs at all clinical stages. In this study, we present a large-scale signal boosting approach that combines over 4 million records in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and over 21 million biomedical articles. The datasets are comprised of 4,285,097 records from FAERS and 21,354,075 MEDLINE articles. We first extracted all drug-side effect (SE) pairs from FAERS. Our study implemented a total of seven signal ranking algorithms. We then compared these different ranking algorithms before and after they were boosted with signals from MEDLINE sentences or abstracts. Finally, we manually curated all drug-cardiovascular (CV) pairs that appeared in both data sources and investigated whether our approach can detect many true signals that have not been included in FDA drug labels. We extracted a total of 2,787,797 drug-SE pairs from FAERS with a low initial precision of 0.025. The ranking algorithm combined signals from both FAERS and MEDLINE, significantly improving the precision from 0.025 to 0.371 for top-ranked pairs, representing a 13.8 fold elevation in precision. We showed by manual curation that drug-SE pairs that appeared in both data sources were highly enriched with true signals, many of which have not yet been included in FDA drug labels. We have developed an efficient and effective drug safety signal ranking and strengthening approach We demonstrate that large-scale combining information from FAERS and biomedical literature can significantly contribute to drug safety surveillance.

  17. Benzene Monitor System report

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R.R.

    1992-10-12

    Two systems for monitoring benzene in aqueous streams have been designed and assembled by the Savannah River Technology Center, Analytical Development Section (ADS). These systems were used at TNX to support sampling studies of the full-scale {open_quotes}SRAT/SME/PR{close_quotes} and to provide real-time measurements of benzene in Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) simulant. This report describes the two ADS Benzene Monitor System (BMS) configurations, provides data on system operation, and reviews the results of scoping tests conducted at TNX. These scoping tests will allow comparison with other benzene measurement options being considered for use in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) laboratory. A report detailing the preferred BMS configuration statistical performance during recent tests has been issued under separate title: Statistical Analyses of the At-line Benzene Monitor Study, SCS-ASG-92-066. The current BMS design, called the At-line Benzene Monitor (ALBM), allows remote measurement of benzene in PHA solutions. The authors have demonstrated the ability to calibrate and operate this system using peanut vials from a standard Hydragard{trademark} sampler. The equipment and materials used to construct the ALBM are similar to those already used in other applications by the DWPF lab. The precision of this system ({+-}0.5% Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) at 1 sigma) is better than the purge & trap-gas chromatograpy reference method currently in use. Both BMSs provide a direct measurement of the benzene that can be purged from a solution with no sample pretreatment. Each analysis requires about five minutes per sample, and the system operation requires no special skills or training. The analyzer`s computer software can be tailored to provide desired outputs. Use of this system produces no waste stream other than the samples themselves (i.e. no organic extractants).

  18. Integrated system design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The primary objective of the integrated system test phase is to demonstrate the commercial potential of a coal fueled diesel engine in its actual operating environment. The integrated system in this project is defined as a coal fueled diesel locomotive. This locomotive, shown on drawing 41D715542, is described in the separate Concept Design Report. The test locomotive will be converted from an existing oil fueled diesel locomotive in three stages, until it nearly emulates the concept locomotive. Design drawings of locomotive components (diesel engine, locomotive, flatcar, etc.) are included.

  19. Integrated system design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The primary objective of the integrated system test phase is to demonstrate the commercial potential of a coal fueled diesel engine in its actual operating environment. The integrated system in this project is defined as a coal fueled diesel locomotive. This locomotive, shown on drawing 41D715542, is described in the separate Concept Design Report. The test locomotive will be converted from an existing oil fueled diesel locomotive in three stages, until it nearly emulates the concept locomotive. Design drawings of locomotive components (diesel engine, locomotive, flatcar, etc.) are included.

  20. Ecological Validity and Clinical Utility of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) instruments for detecting premenstrual symptoms of depression, anger, and fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A.; Christodoulou, Christopher; Broderick, Joan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the ecological validity and clinical utility of NIH Patient Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) instruments for anger, depression, and fatigue in women with premenstrual symptoms. Methods One-hundred women completed daily diaries and weekly PROMIS assessments over 4 weeks. Weekly assessments were administered through Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Weekly CATs and corresponding daily scores were compared to evaluate ecological validity. To test clinical utility, we examined if CATs could detect changes in symptom levels, if these changes mirrored those obtained from daily scores, and if CATs could identify clinically meaningful premenstrual symptom change. Results PROMIS CAT scores were higher in the pre-menstrual than the baseline (ps < .0001) and post-menstrual (ps < .0001) weeks. The correlations between CATs and aggregated daily scores ranged from .73 to .88 supporting ecological validity. Mean CAT scores showed systematic changes in accordance with the menstrual cycle and the magnitudes of the changes were similar to those obtained from the daily scores. Finally, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses demonstrated the ability of the CATs to discriminate between women with and without clinically meaningful premenstrual symptom change. Conclusions PROMIS CAT instruments for anger, depression, and fatigue demonstrated validity and utility in premenstrual symptom assessment. The results provide encouraging initial evidence of the utility of PROMIS instruments for the measurement of affective premenstrual symptoms. PMID:24630180

  1. Lightning Protection and Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Woodard, Marie (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor); Wang, Chuantong (Inventor); Mielnik, John J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A lightning protection and detection system includes a non-conductive substrate material of an apparatus; a sensor formed of a conductive material and deposited on the non-conductive substrate material of the apparatus. The sensor includes a conductive trace formed in a continuous spiral winding starting at a first end at a center region of the sensor and ending at a second end at an outer corner region of the sensor, the first and second ends being open and unconnected. An electrical measurement system is in communication with the sensor and receives a resonant response from the sensor, to perform detection, in real-time, of lightning strike occurrences and damage therefrom to the sensor and the non-conductive substrate material.

  2. Gastric Cancer Regional Detection System.

    PubMed

    Ural, Berkan; Hardalaç, Fırat; Serhatlioğlu, Selami; İlhan, Mustafa Necmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel system was created to localize cancerous regions for stomach images which were taken with computed tomography(CT). The aim was to determine the coordinates of cancerous regions which spread in the stomach area in the color space with using this system. Also, to limit these areas with a high accuracy ratio and to feedback to the user of this system were the other objectives. This integration was performed with using energy mapping, analysis methods and multiple image processing methods and the system which was consisted from these advanced algorithms was appeared. For this work, in the range of 25-40 years and when gender discrimination was insignificant, 30 volunteer patients were chosen. During the formation of the system, to exalt the accuracy to the maximum level, 2 main stages were followed up. First, in the system, advanced image processing methods were processed between each other and obtained data were studied. Second, in the system, FFT and Log transformations were used respectively for the first two cases, then these transformations were used together for the third case. For totally three cases, energy distribution and DC energy intensity analysis were done and the performance of this system was investigated. Finally, with using the system's unique algorithms, a non-invasive method was achieved to detect the gastric cancer and when FFT and Log transformation were used together, the maximum success rate was obtained and this rate was calculated as 83,3119 %.

  3. Detection of Medical Errors in Kidney Transplantation: A Pilot Study Comparing Proactive Clinician Debriefings to a Hospital-Wide Incident Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Lisa M.; Daud, Amna; Lapin, Brittany; Ross, Olivia; Woods, Donna M.; Skaro, Anton; Holl, Jane L.; Ladner, Daniela P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of medical errors and adverse events remain high for kidney transplant patients, who are particularly vulnerable due to the complexity of their disease and the kidney transplant procedure. Although institutional incident reporting systems are utilized in hospitals around the country, they often fail to capture a substantial proportion of medical errors. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a proactive, web-based clinician safety debriefing to augment the information about medical errors and adverse events obtained via traditional incident reporting systems. Methods Debriefings were sent to all individuals listed on operating room personnel reports for kidney transplantation surgeries between April 2010 and April 2011 and incident reports were collected for the same time period. The World Health Organization International Classification for Patient Safety was used to classify all issues reported. Results A total of 270 debriefings reported 334 patient safety issues (179 safety incidents, 155 contributing factors), and 57 incident reports reported 92 patient safety issues (56 safety incidents, 36 contributing factors). Compared to incident reports, more attending physicians completed the debriefings (32.0 vs. 3.5%). Discussion The use of a proactive, web-based debriefing to augment an incident reporting system in assessing safety risks in kidney transplantation demonstrated increased information, more perspectives of a single safety issue, and increased breadth of participants. PMID:25444312

  4. Miniature fluorescence detection system for protein chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hoseong; Choi, Jaeho; Lee, Kook-Nyung; Kim, Yongkwon

    2005-01-01

    We report the development of miniature fluorescence detection systems that employ miniature prism, mirrors and low cost CCD camera to detect the fluorescence emitted from 40 fluorescently-labeled protein patterns without scanner. This kind of miniature fluorescence detection systems can be used in point of care. We introduce two systems, one uses prism + mirror block and the other uses prism and two mirrors. A large NA microscope eyepiece and low cost CCD camera are used. We fabricated protein chip containing multi-pattern BSA labeled with Cy5, using MEMS technology and modified the surface chemically to clean and to immobilize proteins. The measurements show that the combination of prism and mirrors can homogenize elliptical excitation light over the sample with higher optical efficiency, and increase the separation between excitation and fluorescence light at the CCD to give higher signal intensity and higher signal to noise ratio. The measurements also show that protein concentrations ranging from 10 ng/ml to 1000 ng/ml can be assayed with very small error. We believe that the proposed fluorescence detection system can be refined to build a commercially valuable hand-held or miniature detection device.

  5. Discrepancy Reporting Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tonja M.; Lin, James C.; Chatillon, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) is a computer program designed for use in the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to help establish the operational history of equipment items; acquire data on the quality of service provided to DSN customers; enable measurement of service performance; provide early insight into the need to improve processes, procedures, and interfaces; and enable the tracing of a data outage to a change in software or hardware. DRMS is a Web-based software system designed to include a distributed database and replication feature to achieve location-specific autonomy while maintaining a consistent high quality of data. DRMS incorporates commercial Web and database software. DRMS collects, processes, replicates, communicates, and manages information on spacecraft data discrepancies, equipment resets, and physical equipment status, and maintains an internal station log. All discrepancy reports (DRs), Master discrepancy reports (MDRs), and Reset data are replicated to a master server at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Master DR data are replicated to all the DSN sites; and Station Logs are internal to each of the DSN sites and are not replicated. Data are validated according to several logical mathematical criteria. Queries can be performed on any combination of data.

  6. Immunity-Based Aircraft Fault Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, D.; KrishnaKumar, K.; Wong, D.; Berry, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the study reported in this paper, we have developed and applied an Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for aircraft fault detection, as an extension to a previous work on intelligent flight control (IFC). Though the prior studies had established the benefits of IFC, one area of weakness that needed to be strengthened was the control dead band induced by commanding a failed surface. Since the IFC approach uses fault accommodation with no detection, the dead band, although it reduces over time due to learning, is present and causes degradation in handling qualities. If the failure can be identified, this dead band can be further A ed to ensure rapid fault accommodation and better handling qualities. The paper describes the application of an immunity-based approach that can detect a broad spectrum of known and unforeseen failures. The approach incorporates the knowledge of the normal operational behavior of the aircraft from sensory data, and probabilistically generates a set of pattern detectors that can detect any abnormalities (including faults) in the behavior pattern indicating unsafe in-flight operation. We developed a tool called MILD (Multi-level Immune Learning Detection) based on a real-valued negative selection algorithm that can generate a small number of specialized detectors (as signatures of known failure conditions) and a larger set of generalized detectors for unknown (or possible) fault conditions. Once the fault is detected and identified, an adaptive control system would use this detection information to stabilize the aircraft by utilizing available resources (control surfaces). We experimented with data sets collected under normal and various simulated failure conditions using a piloted motion-base simulation facility. The reported results are from a collection of test cases that reflect the performance of the proposed immunity-based fault detection algorithm.

  7. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  8. Compensated intruder-detection systems

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, David R.; Miller, William R.

    1984-01-01

    Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

  9. Ultrasonic Imaging and Automated Flaw Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    imager sold by Searle Ultrasound. An LSI-11 microcomputer is interfaced to the imager with custom designed modules. Ultrasonic image data is loaded...phased array ultrasonic imager, an LSI-11 microcomputer , and an assortment of custom-designed electronic modules. There is also a CRT display terminal...AD CONTRACTOR REPORT ARCCB-CR-86011 ULTRASONIC IMAGING AND AUTOMATED FLAW DETECTION SYSTEM L. JONES DTIC3ZLECTE J. F. MC DONALD JUNCTE G.P

  10. An arc fault detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1997-12-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn, opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  11. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  12. Fish detection and classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidd, Richard A.; Wilder, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Marine biologists traditionally determine the presence and quantities of different types of fish by dragging nets across the bottom, and examining their contents. This method, although accurate, kills the collected fish, damages their habitat, and consumes large quantities of resources. This paper presents an alternative, a machine vision system capable of determining the presence of fish species. Illumination presents a unique problem in this environment, and the design of an effective illumination system is discussed. The related issues of object orientation and measurement are also discussed and resolved. Capturing images of fish in murky water also presents challenges. An adaptive thresholding technique is required to appropriately segment the fish from the background in these images. Mode detection, and histogram analysis are useful tools in determining these localized thresholds. It is anticipated that this system, created in conjunction with the Rutgers Institute for Marine and Coastal Science, will effectively classify fish in the estuarine environment.

  13. Integrated system checkout report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-14

    The planning and preparation phase of the Integrated Systems Checkout Program (ISCP) was conducted from October 1989 to July 1991. A copy of the ISCP, DOE-WIPP 90--002, is included in this report as an appendix. The final phase of the Checkout was conducted from July 10, 1991, to July 23, 1991. This phase exercised all the procedures and equipment required to receive, emplace, and retrieve contact handled transuranium (CH TRU) waste filled dry bins. In addition, abnormal events were introduced to simulate various equipment failures, loose surface radioactive contamination events, and personnel injury. This report provides a detailed summary of each days activities during this period. Qualification of personnel to safely conduct the tasks identified in the procedures and the abnormal events were verified by observers familiar with the Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test requirements. These observers were members of the staffs of Westinghouse WID Engineering, QA, Training, Health Physics, Safety, and SNL. Observers representing a number of DOE departments, the state of new Mexico, and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board observed those Checkout activities conducted during the period from July 17, 1991, to July 23, 1991. Observer comments described in this report are those obtained from the staff member observers. 1 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  15. Evaluating Detection and Diagnostic Decision Support Systems for Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vandana; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Smith, Wendy M.; Szeto, Herbert; Schleinitz, Mark D.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. We performed a systematic review by searching relevant databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and Web sites for reports of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems that could be used during bioterrorism responses. We reviewed over 24,000 citations and identified 55 detection systems and 23 diagnostic decision support systems. Only 35 systems have been evaluated: 4 reported both sensitivity and specificity, 13 were compared to a reference standard, and 31 were evaluated for their timeliness. Most evaluations of detection systems and some evaluations of diagnostic systems for bioterrorism responses are critically deficient. Because false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised. We describe a framework for the design of future evaluations of such systems. PMID:15078604

  16. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  17. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  18. Optical fibre gas detections systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Brian

    2016-05-01

    This tutorial review covers the principles of and prospects for fibre optic sensor technology in gas detection. Many of the potential benefits common to fibre sensor technology also apply in the context of gas sensing - notably long distance - many km - access to multiple remote measurement points; invariably intrinsic safety; access to numerous important gas species and often uniquely high levels of selectivity and/or sensitivity. Furthermore, the range of fibre sensor network architectures - single point, multiple point and distributed - enable unprecedented flexibility in system implementation. Additionally, competitive technologies and regulatory issues contribute to final application potential.

  19. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  20. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  1. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  2. Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ulvila, Jacob W.; Gaffney, John E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for evaluating intrusion detection systems (IDSs). It integrates and extends ROC (receiver operating characteristic) and cost analysis methods to provide an expected cost metric. Results are given for determining the optimal operation of an IDS based on this expected cost metric. Results are given for the operation of a single IDS and for a combination of two IDSs. The method is illustrated for: 1) determining the best operating point for a single and double IDS based on the costs of mistakes and the hostility of the operating environment as represented in the prior probability of intrusion and 2) evaluating single and double IDSs on the basis of expected cost. A method is also described for representing a compound IDS as an equivalent single IDS. Results are presented from the point of view of a system administrator, but they apply equally to designers of IDSs. PMID:27413623

  3. Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems.

    PubMed

    Ulvila, Jacob W; Gaffney, John E

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for evaluating intrusion detection systems (IDSs). It integrates and extends ROC (receiver operating characteristic) and cost analysis methods to provide an expected cost metric. Results are given for determining the optimal operation of an IDS based on this expected cost metric. Results are given for the operation of a single IDS and for a combination of two IDSs. The method is illustrated for: 1) determining the best operating point for a single and double IDS based on the costs of mistakes and the hostility of the operating environment as represented in the prior probability of intrusion and 2) evaluating single and double IDSs on the basis of expected cost. A method is also described for representing a compound IDS as an equivalent single IDS. Results are presented from the point of view of a system administrator, but they apply equally to designers of IDSs.

  4. Test report, earth orbiter teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M.; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Malone, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    Work carried out to identify human performance requirements for remotely manned system is reported. Specifically, an evaluation was made of the human visual system. Data cover distance estimation 4, solid target alignment 2, motion detection 1, and motion detection 2.

  5. Recent advances in microfluidic detection systems

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher A; Duong, Cindy T; Grimley, Alix; Roper, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous detection methods available for methods are being put to use for detection on these miniaturized systems, with the analyte of interest driving the choice of detection method. In this article, we summarize microfluidic 2 years. More focus is given to unconventional approaches to detection routes and novel strategies for performing high-sensitivity detection. PMID:20414455

  6. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J

    2004-10-04

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  7. An evaluation of interior video motion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.T.

    1993-02-01

    This report discusses the testing and evaluation of five commercially available interior video emotion detection (VMD) systems. Three digital VMDs and two analog VMDs were tested. The report focuses on nuisance alarm data and on intrusion detection results. Tests were conducted in a high-bay (warehouse) location and in an office.

  8. A Portable Infrasonic Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Lawrenson, Christopher C.; Masterman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During last couple of years, NASA Langley has designed and developed a portable infrasonic detection system which can be used to make useful infrasound measurements at a location where it was not possible previously. The system comprises an electret condenser microphone, having a 3-inch membrane diameter, and a small, compact windscreen. Electret-based technology offers the lowest possible background noise, because Johnson noise generated in the supporting electronics (preamplifier) is minimized. The microphone features a high membrane compliance with a large backchamber volume, a prepolarized backplane and a high impedance preamplifier located inside the backchamber. The windscreen, based on the high transmission coefficient of infrasound through matter, is made of a material having a low acoustic impedance and sufficiently thick wall to insure structural stability. Close-cell polyurethane foam has been found to serve the purpose well. In the proposed test, test parameters will be sensitivity, background noise, signal fidelity (harmonic distortion), and temporal stability. The design and results of the compact system, based upon laboratory and field experiments, will be presented.

  9. RAZOR EX anthrax air detection system.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Usha K; Christensen, Clarissa J; Crisp, Robert J; Vaughn, Michael B; Trauscht, Robert C; Gardner, Jordan R; Thatcher, Stephanie A; Clemens, Kristine M; Teng, David H F; Bird, Abigail; Ota, Irene M; Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System, developed by Idaho Technology, Inc. (ITI), is a qualitative method for the detection of Bacillus anthracis spores collected by air collection devices. This system comprises a DNA extraction kit, a freeze-dried PCR reagent pouch, and the RAZOR EX real-time PCR instrument. Each pouch contains three assays, which distinguish potentially virulent B. anthracis from avirulent B. anthracis and other Bacillus species. These assays target the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids and chromosomal DNA. When all targets are detected, the instrument makes an "anthrax detected" call, meaning that virulence genes of the anthrax bacillus are present. This report describes results from AOAC Method Developer (MD) and Independent Laboratory Validation (ILV) studies, which include matrix, inclusivity/exclusivity, environmental interference, upper and lower LOD of DNA, robustness, product consistency and stability, and instrument variation testing. In the MD studies, the system met the acceptance criteria for sensitivity and specificity, and the performance was consistent, stable, and robust for all components of the system. For the matrix study, the acceptance criteria of 95/96 expected calls was met for three of four matrixes, clean dry filters being the exception. Ninety-four of the 96 clean dry filter samples tested gave the expected calls. The nucleic acid limit of detection was 5-fold lower than AOAC's acceptable minimum detection limit. The system demonstrated no tendency for false positives when tested with Bacillus cereus. Environmental substances did not inhibit accurate detection of B. anthracis. The ILV studies yielded similar results for the matrix and inclusivity/exclusivity studies. The ILV environmental interference study included environmental substances and environmental organisms. Subsoil at a high concentration was found to negatively interfere with the pXO1 reaction. No interference was observed from the environmental organisms. The

  10. Photoelectric detection system. [manufacturing automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.; Schansman, R. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A photoelectric beam system for the detection of the arrival of an object at a discrete station wherein artificial light, natural light, or no light may be present is described. A signal generator turns on and off a signal light at a selected frequency. When the object in question arrives on station, ambient light is blocked by the object, and the light from the signal light is reflected onto a photoelectric sensor which has a delayed electrical output but is of the frequency of the signal light. Outputs from both the signal source and the photoelectric sensor are fed to inputs of an exclusively OR detector which provides as an output the difference between them. The difference signal is a small width pulse occurring at the frequency of the signal source. By filter means, this signal is distinguished from those responsive to sunlight, darkness, or 120 Hz artificial light. In this fashion, the presence of an object is positively established.

  11. [Detection of dynamic expression of microRNAs in vivo using a dual-fluorescence reporter system/miRNA Tracer in zebrafish].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Bo; Liang, Wei; Liu, Xin-Xing; Zhu, Zuo-Yan; Lin, Shuo; Zhang, Bo

    2012-09-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that have been found in a wide variety of organisms and many have been shown to play essential roles by regulating the stability and translation of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in animals and plants. Temporal and spatial expression is critical for the regulatory function of miRNAs. To analyze the dynamic expression of particular miRNA in vivo, we constructed a dual-fluorescence reporter system based on Tol2 transposon, in which two reporter genes, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1), were driven by the heat shock promoter (hsp) from zebrafish hsp70 gene in an opposite orientation. To sense the existence of a particular miRNA, the complementary DNA sequence of the corresponding miRNA was inserted into the 3'-UTR region of one of the two reporter genes. By injecting the corresponding plasmid DNA into zebrafish embryos, we were able to monitor the abundance and dynamics of miRNA miR-206 in live embryos. To further evaluate this method, we made a collection of transgenic zebrafish with stable integration of dual-fluorescence reporter plasmids targeting different miRNAs, including miR-206 and miR-219. Our results showed that this dual-fluorescence reporter system, which is also called miRNA Tracer, could faithfully monitor the appearance and disappearance of target miRNAs in defined cell lineages during zebrafish development in these fish lines. Our dual-fluorescence reporter/Tracer system provides an important tool for further in-depth studies on miRNAs in zebrafish.

  12. Detection of COPD Exacerbations and compliance with patient-reported daily symptom diaries using a smart phone-based information system [corrected].

    PubMed

    Johnston, Neil W; Lambert, Kim; Hussack, Patricia; de Verdier, Maria Gerhardsson; Higenbottam, Tim; Lewis, Jonathan; Newbold, Paul; Jenkins, Martin; Norman, Geoffrey R; Coyle, Peter V; McIvor, R Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Paper-based diaries and self-report of symptom worsening in COPD may lead to underdetection of exacerbations. Epidemiologically, COPD exacerbations exhibit seasonal patterns peaking at year-end. We examined whether the use of a BlackBerry-based daily symptom diary would detect 95% or more of exacerbations and enable characterization of seasonal differences among them. Fifty participants with GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stage I to IV COPD began a community-based study in December 2007. Another 30 began in December 2008. Participants transmitted daily symptom diaries using a BlackBerry. Alerts were triggered when symptom changes, missed diary transmissions, or medical care for a respiratory problem occurred. Participant encounters were initiated if COPD exacerbations were suspected. Participants used their BlackBerrys to report returns to normal breathing. Participants transmitted 99.9% of 28,514 possible daily diaries. All 191 (2.5/participant-year) COPD exacerbations meeting Anthonisen criteria were detected. During 148 of the 191 exacerbations (78%, 1.97/participant-year), patients were hospitalized and/or ordered prednisone, an antibiotic, or both. Respiratory viruses were detected in 78 of the 191 exacerbations (41%). Those coinciding with a respiratory viral infection averaged 12.0 days, and those without averaged 8.9 days (P < .04), with no difference in Anthonisen score. Respiratory symptom scores before exacerbations and after normal breathing return showed no differences. Exacerbations were more frequent during the Christmas period than the rest of the year but were not more frequent than in the rest of winter alone. Smartphone-based collection of COPD symptom diaries enables near-complete identification of exacerbations at inception. Exacerbation rates in the Christmas season do not reach levels that necessitate changes in disease management.

  13. Generalized Detectability for Discrete Event Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Shaolong; Lin, Feng

    2011-01-01

    In our previous work, we investigated detectability of discrete event systems, which is defined as the ability to determine the current and subsequent states of a system based on observation. For different applications, we defined four types of detectabilities: (weak) detectability, strong detectability, (weak) periodic detectability, and strong periodic detectability. In this paper, we extend our results in three aspects. (1) We extend detectability from deterministic systems to nondeterministic systems. Such a generalization is necessary because there are many systems that need to be modeled as nondeterministic discrete event systems. (2) We develop polynomial algorithms to check strong detectability. The previous algorithms are based on observer whose construction is of exponential complexity, while the new algorithms are based on a new automaton called detector. (3) We extend detectability to D-detectability. While detectability requires determining the exact state of a system, D-detectability relaxes this requirement by asking only to distinguish certain pairs of states. With these extensions, the theory on detectability of discrete event systems becomes more applicable in solving many practical problems. PMID:21691432

  14. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    During the second quarter of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) operation, 1,497 reports were received from pilots, controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program to date are presented. Examples of alert bulletins disseminated to the aviation community are presented together with responses to those bulletins. Several reports received by ASRS are also presented to illustrate the diversity of topics covered by reports to the system.

  15. Establishment of a chimeric reporting system for the universal detection and high-throughput screening of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Jen; Hsu, Shih-Han; Hung, Wei-Ting; Luo, Ching-Wei

    2009-03-15

    G proteins, further divided into four subfamilies (G(s), G(q), G(12) and G(i)) based on their Galpha subunits, are the primary components activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Current GPCR assays are limited to the evaluation of selective Galpha signaling and do not allow comprehensive screening for orphan GPCRs without a known coupled Galpha. Therefore, our aim was to design a chimeric reporting system that covers responses from all Galpha subfamilies simultaneously. Because G(s) activates cAMP response element (CRE)-driven genes whereas G(q) and G(12) activate serum response element (SRE)-driven genes, we therefore incorporated 2x CRE and 5x SRE (2CRE5SRE) into a promoter for driving luciferase expression. To further report G(i) signals, a 2CRE5SRE-driven chimeric G(qi), in which the C-terminus of G(q) is replaced by that of G(i), was integrated to switch the responses of G(i)-coupled GPCRs to the G(q) signaling. The novel reporter system showed a strong signal amplification when activated by neuromedin U receptor 1 (mainly activates G(q)), neuromedin U receptor 2 (mainly activates G(i)) or luteinizing hormone receptor (mainly through the G(s) and G(q) pathways). In addition, 293T cells stably carrying our reporter construct showed a similar sensitivity to the radioactive cAMP assay when revealing the constitutive signal from gain-of-function mutants of luteinizing hormone receptor. To our knowledge, this is the first reporting system capable of covering the G(s), G(q), G(12) and G(i) signals and revealing the phenomena of constitutively active GPCRs. Such a universal platform will benefit future high-throughput screening and drug designs for any GPCR.

  16. Detection of Abrupt Changes in Dynamic Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    the detection of abrupt chnages in dynamic systems. These efforts have been motivated by a wide variety of applications includinq the detection of...34Failure Detection in Dynimic Systems," AGARD Lecture Series No. 109 on Fault Tolerance Design and Redundancy Management Technqiues, Athens, Rome, and

  17. Detection and handling of occlusion in an object detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Op het Veld, R. M. G.; Wijnhoven, R. G. J.; Bondarev, Y.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Object detection is an important technique for video surveillance applications. Although different detection algorithms were proposed, they all have problems in detecting occluded objects. In this paper, we propose a novel system for occlusion handling and integrate this in a sliding-window detection framework using HOG features and linear classification. The occlusion handling is obtained by applying multiple classifiers, each covering a different level of occlusion and focusing on the non-occluded object parts. Experiments show that our approach based on 17 classifiers, obtains an increase of 8% in detection performance. To limit computational complexity, we propose a cascaded implementation that only increases the computational cost by 3.4%. Although the paper presents results for pedestrian detection, our approach is not limited to this object class. Finally, our system does not need an additional dataset for training, covering all possible types of occlusions.

  18. System integration report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Korein, J. D.; Meyer, C.; Manoochehri, K.; Rovins, J.; Beale, J.; Barr, B.

    1985-01-01

    Several areas that arise from the system integration issue were examined. Intersystem analysis is discussed as it relates to software development, shared data bases and interfaces between TEMPUS and PLAID, shaded graphics rendering systems, object design (BUILD), the TEMPUS animation system, anthropometric lab integration, ongoing TEMPUS support and maintenance, and the impact of UNIX and local workstations on the OSDS environment.

  19. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1993-01-01

    The System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failures as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient conditions. This task assignment originally specified developing a platform for executing the algorithm during hot fire tests at Technology Test Bed (TTB) and installing the SAFD algorithm on that platform. Two units were built and installed in the Hardware Simulation Lab and at the TTB in December 1991. Since that time, the task primarily entailed improvement and maintenance of the systems, additional testing to prove the feasibility of the algorithm, and support of hot fire testing. This document addresses the work done since the last report of June 1992. The work on the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection during this period included improving the platform and the algorithm, testing the algorithm against previous test data and in the Hardware Simulation Lab, installing other algorithms on the system, providing support for operations at the Technology Test Bed, and providing routine maintenance.

  20. Direct fast neutron detection: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, A.J.; Hansen, R.R.; Craig, R.A.; Hensley, W.K.; Hubbard, C.W.; Keller, P.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the status of efforts to develop direct fast-neutron detection via proton recoil within plastic scintillator. Since recording proton recoil events is of little practical use without a means to discriminate effectively against gamma-ray interactions, the present effort is concentrated on demonstrating a method that distinguishes between pulse types. The proposed method exploits the different pulse shapes that are to be expected primarily on the basis of the slower speed of the recoiling fission neutrons. Should this effort ultimately prove successful, the resulting novel technology will have the potential to significantly lower cost and increase capability for a number of critical neutron-detection applications. Considerable progress has been made toward a clear and compelling demonstration of this new technique. An exhaustive theoretical and numerical investigation of the method has been completed. The authors have been able to better understand the laboratory results and estimate the performance that could ultimately be achieved using the proposed technique. They have assessed the performance of a number of different algorithms for discriminating between neutron and gamma ray events. The results of this assessment will be critical when the construction of low-cost, field-portable neutron detectors becomes necessary. Finally, a laboratory effort to realize effective discrimination is well underway and has resulted in partial success.

  1. Small arm fire acoustic detection and localization systems: gunfire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzier, Alain; Cadavid, Sandra

    2005-05-01

    The Gunfire Detection System (GDS) is an acoustic passive sensor designed to rapidly detect, locate, and report on hostile fire from small arms upon detection of a blast wave from a bullet exiting the gun barrel and/or the supersonic wave of the bullet. Upon the detection of the muzzle blast and/or the acoustic shock wave caused by the moving bullet the GDS notifies the user and displays the azimuth, elevation and range to the gunfire origin (shooter). This information allows the GDS user to swiftly move, return fire or take other appropriate action. The paper presented examines the militarization process of a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) item and provides lessons learned.

  2. Fuels Reporting System Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This asset includes compliance data (registrations and reports), including reports related to reformulated gasoline and conventional gasoline (anti-dumping), gasoline sulfur, mobile source air toxics (including gasoline benzene), sulfur content of on-road and non-road diesel fuel, and renewable fuels under 40 CFR Part 80; and includes registration and compositional information related to fuels and fuel additives under 40 CFR Part 79.

  3. Damage-detection system for LNG carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

    1978-01-01

    System utilizes array of acoustical transducers to detect cracks and leaks in liquefied natural gas (LNG) containers onboard ships. In addition to detecting leaks, device indicates location and leak rate.

  4. GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Liu, Z.; Khachikyan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. The development of the Indo-Pacific GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection (GATED) system will be reported.

  5. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  6. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection.

    PubMed

    Kaliappan, Jayakumar; Thiagarajan, Revathi; Sundararajan, Karpagam

    2015-01-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU), there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  7. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kaliappan, Jayakumar; Thiagarajan, Revathi; Sundararajan, Karpagam

    2015-01-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU), there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate. PMID:26295058

  8. In vivo detection, localization, and measurement of radionuclides in man: a detection system for the localization and measurement of small amounts of photon emitters. Progress report, September 1, 1979-December 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Laurer, G.R.

    1981-01-15

    The objectives of this research involve the design, development, and testing of a new type of photon detection system which can provide, simultaneously, magnitude and positional data regarding a radioactive source, without utilizing a high-Z collimator. This system employs the principle of active collimation, i.e., the geometric configuration of crystal elements results in certain members being shielded from oblique-angle rays, thereby providing spatial resolution characteristics. Inasmuch as events occurring in the promontory shielding crystals can be used to determine activity levels of the emitter, a greater counting efficiency is attainable than that with other currently available systems. Owing to optical and scintillation characteristics, and amplifier parameters, along with masking of the common PM tube, each of the five scintillation crystals in the detector configuration produces a separate, delineable spectral peak.

  9. Automated baseline change detection -- Phases 1 and 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Byler, E.

    1997-10-31

    The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust.

  10. Changes in systemic vascular resistance detected by the arterial resistometer: preliminary report of a new method tested during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Mohr, R; Rath, S; Meir, O; Smolinsky, A; Har-Zahav, Y; Neufeld, H N; Goor, D A

    1986-10-01

    A recently developed apparatus provides on-line continuous monitoring of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) by means of simple computer analysis of the peripheral arterial waveform. The fundamental equation of this method is Ri = P'/(dP/dt), where dP/dt is the peak dP/dt of the peripheral arterial waveform, P' is the pressure at time of peak dP/dt, and Ri is a resistance index that bears a direct relation to SVR. Eleven patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) were studied to evaluate the changes in SVR associated with myocardial ischemia (angina detection). There were 49 balloon inflations, all of which were associated with an increase in Ri (from 38.4 +/- 12 to 81.2 +/- 36 X 10(-3) sec; p less than .01) and a decrease in dP/dt (from 2076 +/- 257 to 1327 +/- 326 mm Hg/sec; p less than .01). In 42 of the balloon inflations these changes were associated with electrocardiographic ST-T changes and in 23 it was also associated with anginal pain. When angina was present, a further increase in Ri (to 97.5 +/- 43 X 10(-3) sec; p less than .01) and a decrease in dP/dt (to 1218 +/- 338 mm Hg/sec; p less than .01) was observed. It was found that myocardial ischemia is associated with an increase in the resistance index and a decrease in dP/dt and can be detected by the resistometer.

  11. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    DOEpatents

    Annala, Wayne C.

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  12. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce Hardison; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  13. Autonomous system for pathogen detection and identification

    SciTech Connect

    Belgrader, P.; Benett, W.; Bergman, W.; Langlois, R.; Mariella, R.; Milanovich, F.; Miles, R.; Venkateswaran, K.; Long, G.; Nelson, W.

    1998-09-24

    This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world' s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify simulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony-forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 Ymin and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70% processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent-containing particle/liter of air.

  14. Flowthrough Bacteria-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Online system allows repetitive cycling of sample intake, bacteria counting and sterilization. System measures bacteria count by using sample/incubate/ measure cycle. Steps in cycle are on/off operations to cycle automated easily.

  15. A progress report on UNICOS misuse detection at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.; Jackson, K.A.; Stallings, C.A.; Simmonds, D.D.; Siciliano, C.L.B.; Pedicini, G.A.

    1995-10-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. During the past year, Los Alamos enhanced its Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) to include analysis of user activity on Los Alamos` UNICOS Crays. In near real-time, NADIR compares user activity to historical profiles and tests activity against expert rules. The expert rules express Los Alamos` security policy and define improper or suspicious behavior. NADIR reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. This paper describes the implementation to date of the UNICOS component of NADIR, along with the operational experiences and future plans for the system.

  16. Expandable coating cocoon leak detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, R. L.; Kochansky, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    Development of system and materials for detecting leaks in cocoon protective coatings are discussed. Method of applying materials for leak determination is presented. Pressurization of system following application of materials will cause formation of bubble if leak exists.

  17. Simple Systems for Detecting Spacecraft Meteoroid Punctures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes proposed systems to be installed in spacecraft to detect punctures by impinging meteoroids or debris. Relative to other systems that have been used for this purpose, the proposed systems would be simpler and more adaptable, and would demand less of astronauts attention and of spacecraft power and computing resources. The proposed systems would include a thin, hollow, hermetically sealed panel containing an inert fluid at a pressure above the spacecraft cabin pressure. A transducer would monitor the pressure in the panel. It is assumed that an impinging object that punctures the cabin at the location of the panel would also puncture the panel. Because the volume of the panel would be much smaller than that of the cabin, the panel would lose its elevated pressure much faster than the cabin would lose its lower pressure. The transducer would convert the rapid pressure drop to an electrical signal that could trigger an alarm. Hence, the system would provide an immediate indication of the approximate location of a small impact leak, possibly in time to take corrective action before a large loss of cabin pressure could occur.

  18. A polarization system for persistent chemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Appelhans, Leah; Couphos, Eric; Embree, Todd; Finnegan, Patrick; Goldstein, Dennis; Karelitz, David; LaCasse, Charles; Luk, Ting S.; Mahamat, Adoum; Massey, Lee; Tanbakuchi, Anthony; Washburn, Cody; Vigil, Steven

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development of a prototype polarization tag based system for detecting chemical vapors. The system primarily consists of two components, a chemically sensitive tag that experiences a change in its optical polarization properties when exposed to a specific chemical of interest, and an optical imaging polarimeter that is used to measure the polarization properties of the tags. Although the system concept could be extended to other chemicals, for the initial system prototype presented here the tags were developed to be sensitive to hydrogen fluoride (HF) vapors. HF is used in many industrial processes but is highly toxic and thus monitoring for its presence and concentration is often of interest for personnel and environmental safety. The tags are periodic multilayer structures that are produced using standard photolithographic processes. The polarimetric imager has been designed to measure the degree of linear polarization reflected from the tags in the short wave infrared. By monitoring the change in the reflected polarization signature from the tags, the polarimeter can be used to determine if the tag was exposed to HF gas. In this paper, a review of the system development effort and preliminary test results are presented and discussed, as well as our plan for future work.

  19. Airborne change detection system for the detection of route mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, Thomas P.; Jackson, Larry; Yeshnik, Mark; Petty, Thomas E.

    2003-09-01

    The US Army is interested in technologies that will enable it to maintain the free flow of traffic along routes such as Main Supply Routes (MSRs). Mines emplaced in the road by enemy forces under cover of darkness represent a major threat to maintaining a rapid Operational Tempo (OPTEMPO) along such routes. One technique that shows promise for detecting enemy mining activity is Airborne Change Detection, which allows an operator to detect suspicious day-to-day changes in and around the road that may be indicative of enemy mining. This paper presents an Airborne Change Detection that is currently under development at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The system has been tested using a longwave infrared (LWIR) sensor on a vertical take-off and landing unmanned aerial vehicle (VTOL UAV) and a midwave infrared (MWIR) sensor on a fixed wing aircraft. The system is described and results of the various tests conducted to date are presented.

  20. An automatically tuning intrusion detection system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenwei; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Weigert, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a security layer used to detect ongoing intrusive activities in information systems. Traditionally, intrusion detection relies on extensive knowledge of security experts, in particular, on their familiarity with the computer system to be protected. To reduce this dependence, various data-mining and machine learning techniques have been deployed for intrusion detection. An IDS is usually working in a dynamically changing environment, which forces continuous tuning of the intrusion detection model, in order to maintain sufficient performance. The manual tuning process required by current systems depends on the system operators in working out the tuning solution and in integrating it into the detection model. In this paper, an automatically tuning IDS (ATIDS) is presented. The proposed system will automatically tune the detection model on-the-fly according to the feedback provided by the system operator when false predictions are encountered. The system is evaluated using the KDDCup'99 intrusion detection dataset. Experimental results show that the system achieves up to 35% improvement in terms of misclassification cost when compared with a system lacking the tuning feature. If only 10% false predictions are used to tune the model, the system still achieves about 30% improvement. Moreover, when tuning is not delayed too long, the system can achieve about 20% improvement, with only 1.3% of the false predictions used to tune the model. The results of the experiments show that a practical system can be built based on ATIDS: system operators can focus on verification of predictions with low confidence, as only those predictions determined to be false will be used to tune the detection model.

  1. Toward detecting deception in intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Johnson, Gregory, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Contemporary decision makers often must choose a course of action using knowledge from several sources. Knowledge may be provided from many diverse sources including electronic sources such as knowledge-based diagnostic or decision support systems or through data mining techniques. As the decision maker becomes more dependent on these electronic information sources, detecting deceptive information from these sources becomes vital to making a correct, or at least more informed, decision. This applies to unintentional disinformation as well as intentional misinformation. Our ongoing research focuses on employing models of deception and deception detection from the fields of psychology and cognitive science to these systems as well as implementing deception detection algorithms for probabilistic intelligent systems. The deception detection algorithms are used to detect, classify and correct attempts at deception. Algorithms for detecting unexpected information rely upon a prediction algorithm from the collaborative filtering domain to predict agent responses in a multi-agent system.

  2. Forward Obstacle Detection System by Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Saneyoshi, Keiji

    Forward obstacle detection is needed to prevent car accidents. We have developed forward obstacle detection system which has good detectability and the accuracy of distance only by using stereo vision. The system runs in real time by using a stereo processing system based on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Road surfaces are detected and the space to drive can be limited. A smoothing filter is also used. Owing to these, the accuracy of distance is improved. In the experiments, this system could detect forward obstacles 100 m away. Its error of distance up to 80 m was less than 1.5 m. It could immediately detect cutting-in objects.

  3. Association rule mining in intrusion detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dong; Lu, Yan-sheng

    2004-04-01

    In a modern computer system, intrusion detection has become an essential and critical component. Data mining generally refers to the process of extracting models from large stores of data. The intrusion detection system first apply data mining programs to audit data to compute frequent patterns, extract features, and then use classification algorithms to compute detection models. The most important step of this process is to determine relations between fields in the database records to construct features. The standard association rules have not enough expressiveness. Intrusion detection system can extract the association rule with negations and with varying support thresholds to get better performance rather than extract the standard association rule.

  4. Hydrogen Fire Detection System Features Sharp Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, C. S.

    1966-01-01

    Hydrogen fire detection system discovers fires by detecting the flickering ultraviolet radiation emitted by the OH molecule, a short-lived intermediate combustion product found in hydrogen-air flames. In a space application, the system discriminates against false signals from sunlight and rocket engine exhaust plume radiation.

  5. Direct Fast-Neutron Detection: A Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Peurrung; DC Stromswold; PL Reeder; RR Hansen

    1998-10-18

    It is widely acknowledged that Mure neutron-detection technologies will need to offer increased performance at lower cost. One clear route toward these goals is rapid and direct detection of fast neutrons prior to moderation. This report describes progress to date in an effort to achieve such neutron detection via proton recoil within plastic scintillator. Since recording proton-recoil events is of little practical use without a means to discriminate effectively against gamma-ray interactions, the present effort is concentrated on demonstrating a method that distinguishes between pulse types. The proposed method exploits the substantial difference in the speed of fission neutrons and gamma-ray photons. Should this effort ultimately prove successful, the resulting. technology would make a valuable contribution toward meeting the neutron-detection needs of the next century. This report describes the detailed investigations that have been part of Pacific Northwest National Laborato@s efforts to demonstrate direct fast-neutron detection in the laboratory. Our initial approach used a single, solid piece of scintillator along with the electronics needed for pulse-type differentiation. Work to date has led to the conclusion that faster scintillator and/or faster electronics will be necessary before satisfactory gamma-ray discrimination is achieved with this approach. Acquisition and testing of both faster scintillator and faster electronics are currently in progress. The "advanced" approach to direct fast-neutron detection uses a scintillating assembly with an overall density that is lower than that of ordinary plastic scintillator. The lower average density leads to longer interaction times for both neutrons and gamma rays, allowing easier discrimination. The modeling, optimization, and design of detection systems using this approach are described in detail.

  6. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  7. Conference Report: Biosignature Preservation and Detection in Mars Analog Environments.

    PubMed

    Hays, Lindsay; Beaty, David

    2017-01-01

    The Conference on Biosignature Preservation and Detection in Mars Analog Environments held in May 2016 brought together scientists to discuss microbial biosignatures in Mars analog habitable environments. Five analog environments were discussed: (1) hydrothermal spring systems, (2) subaqueous environments, (3) subaerial environments, (4) subsurface environments, and (5) iron-rich systems. This paper details the major messages that resulted from the discussions and will be followed by a review paper that adds significant detail from the published literature and interpretations from the writing committee of the workshop for future research and application to astrobiological exploration missions. Key Words: Biosignature preservation-Biosignature detection-Mars analog environments-Conference report-Astrobiological exploration. Astrobiology 17, 1-2.

  8. Personnel Detection Technology Assessment Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-16

    wall radar for detecting the motion of people in real time ,� Proc. SPIE, Radar Sensor Technology VII, Orlando, FL, 2002. Barnes, M. A.; Nag, S...ultimately bounded by the reciprocal of the dwell time on target, which implies that increasing the scan rate will reduce target detectability . The...phenomena detectable by an olfactory sensor are personnel-generated molecular gases (for example, CO2 generated by respiration) and bioaerosols , i.e, the

  9. LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S

    2006-04-12

    The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  10. An automated computer misuse detection system for UNICOS

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1994-09-27

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in the system audit record, in the system vulnerability posture, and in other evidence found through active testing of the system. During the last several years we have implemented an automatic misuse detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR). We are currently expanding NADIR to include processing of the Cray UNICOS operating system. This new component is called the UNICOS Realtime NADIR, or UNICORN. UNICORN summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. The first phase of UNICORN development is nearing completion, and will be operational in late 1994.

  11. Deep Water Munitions Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    UXO unexploded ordnance GPS global positioning system MTA marine towed array TG towed gradiometer Mag magnetic nT nanotesla rms root mean square...other sites were used which had been surveyed with Geometrics Towed Gradiometer (TG) systems. In both of the gradiometer based surveys the data from...the individual magnetometers that made up the gradiometer were available. Magnetic anomalies from each site were reanalyzed to produce uniform target

  12. Accountability Reporting and Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Jeffery

    1992-07-02

    ARTS is a micro based prototype of the data elements, screens, and information processing rules that apply to the Accountability Reporting Program. The system focuses on the Accountability Event. The Accountability Event is an occurrence of incurring avoidable costs. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Accountability Event. Additionally, the system must provide for a review committee to update the ''event record'' with findings and determination information. Lastly, the system must provide for financial representatives to perform a cost reporting process.

  13. An expert system application for network intrusion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.A.; Dubois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a prototype intrusion detection system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) differs in one respect from most intrusion detection systems. It tries to address the intrusion detection problem on a network, as opposed to a single operating system. NADIR design intent was to copy and improve the audit record review activities normally done by security auditors. We wished to replace the manual review of audit logs with a near realtime expert system. NADIR compares network activity, as summarized in user profiles, against expert rules that define network security policy, improper or suspicious network activities, and normal network and user activity. When it detects deviant (anomalous) behavior, NADIR alerts operators in near realtime, and provides tools to aid in the investigation of the anomalous event. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  14. In vivo-detection, localization and measurement of radionuclides in man: a detection system for the localization amd measurement of small amounts of photon emitters. Progress report, March 1, 1981-October 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Laurer, G. R.

    1981-11-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a photon detection system which will yield, simultaneously, information proportional to both the magnitude and location of sources of radioactivity are under investigation. The operating principle of the detector system, active collimation, allows spatial resolution by utilizing the crystal elements themselves as the collimating device; hence a greater counting efficiency is attainable. Two approaches have been tested thus far: in the first, the differences in characteristics of various crystals are utilized as the means of separating events occurring in each of five crystals viewed by a single phototube; in the second, smaller, single crystal/phototube elements are used in the array. Mathematical processing of the counts from the individual crystal elements is then employed in conjunction with their geometric relationship to develop both positional data and to quantify the amount of radioactivity. By utilizing crystal elements in an active collimation configuration and incorporating them in an array which permits these crystals to be alternately advanced and retracted in a programmed, ordered manner, a high degree of spatial resolution is achievable without compromising system sensitivity. The experiments include development of the optimal crystal configuration and the evolving of data processing techniques to translate detector response into precise source position information for localization or imaging purposes. Such a system could add another dimension in studies involving uptake, distribution, and retention of radionuclide labeled compounds because of its ability to actively track, in vivo, the distribution of these compounds. In addition, it should be possible to study, dynamically, the motion of organs, such as the heart or lungs, through which these compounds move. (ERB)

  15. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A decline in reports concerning small aircraft was noted; more reports involved transport aircraft, professional pilots, instrument meteorological conditions, and weather problems. A study of 136 reports of operational problems in terminal radar service areas was made. Pilot, controller, and system factors were found to be associated with these occurrences. Information transfer difficulties were prominent. Misunderstandings by pilots, and in some cases by controllers, of the policies and limitations of terminal radar programs were observed.

  16. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  17. SPECTR System Operational Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    W.H. Landman Jr.

    2011-08-01

    This report overviews installation of the Small Pressure Cycling Test Rig (SPECTR) and documents the system operational testing performed to demonstrate that it meets the requirements for operations. The system operational testing involved operation of the furnace system to the design conditions and demonstration of the test article gas supply system using a simulated test article. The furnace and test article systems were demonstrated to meet the design requirements for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Therefore, the system is deemed acceptable and is ready for actual test article testing.

  18. Inertial navigation sensor integrated obstacle detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhanu, Bir (Inventor); Roberts, Barry A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system that incorporates inertial sensor information into optical flow computations to detect obstacles and to provide alternative navigational paths free from obstacles. The system is a maximally passive obstacle detection system that makes selective use of an active sensor. The active detection typically utilizes a laser. Passive sensor suite includes binocular stereo, motion stereo and variable fields-of-view. Optical flow computations involve extraction, derotation and matching of interest points from sequential frames of imagery, for range interpolation of the sensed scene, which in turn provides obstacle information for purposes of safe navigation.

  19. A hypermedia radiological reporting system.

    PubMed

    De Simone, M; Drudi, F M; Lalle, C; Poggi, R; Ricci, F L

    1997-01-01

    Report is the main phase of a diagnostic process by images. The product of the process is the diagnostic report. We are proposing an hypermedia structure of diagnostic report in radiology, in order to facilitate exchange between radiologist and clinician (specialist in internal medicine or surgeon) on a clinical case, without anymore charge on the side of the radiologist but with an 'off-line' consultation. An hypermedia radiological report software will produce further advantages in many aspects: radiologist and clinician could access patient's data directly from DB on patients; radiologist could check DB on exemplary cases real-time; clinician could read preliminary and final reports available in network and make requests online. The proposed hyper-report system is modular. Starting from the 'report text' writing, edited by the radiologist on the basis of most significative images, it is possible to insert comments in text, drawing and 'external' images form.

  20. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During the third quarter of operation of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 1429 reports concerning aviation safety were received from pilots, air traffic controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program are discussed. The design and construction of the ASRS data base are briefly presented. Altitude deviations and potential aircraft conflicts associated with misunderstood clearances were studied and the results are discussed. Summary data regarding alert bulletins, examples of alert bulletins and responses to them, and a sample of deidentified ASRS reports are provided.

  1. Automated detection of ambiguity in BI-RADS assessment categories in mammography reports.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Selen; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An unsolved challenge in biomedical natural language processing (NLP) is detecting ambiguities in the reports that can help physicians to improve report clarity. Our goal was to develop NLP methods to tackle the challenges of identifying ambiguous descriptions of the laterality of BI-RADS Final Assessment Categories in mammography radiology reports. We developed a text processing system that uses a BI-RADS ontology we built as a knowledge source for automatic annotation of the entities in mammography reports relevant to this problem. We used the GATE NLP toolkit and developed customized processing resources for report segmentation, named entity recognition, and detection of mismatches between BI-RADS Final Assessment Categories and mammogram laterality. Our system detected 55 mismatched cases in 190 reports and the accuracy rate was 81%. We conclude that such NLP techniques can detect ambiguities in mammography reports and may reduce discrepancy and variability in reporting.

  2. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Benítez, Néstor; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, José; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-04-28

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO₂ and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  3. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The origins and development of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the aviation system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national aviation system.

  4. On Deadlock Detection in Distributed Computing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    With the advent of distributed computing systems, the problem of deadlock, which has been essentially solved for centralized computing systems, has...reappeared. Existing centralized deadlock detection techniques are either too expensive or they do not work correctly in distributed computing systems

  5. AINIDS: an immune-based network intrusion detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiao; Yu, Jianping

    2006-04-01

    Intrusion detection can be looked as a problem of pattern classification. Since intrusion detection has some intrinsic characteristic such as high dimensional feature spaces, linearity non-differentiation, severe unevenness of normal pattern and anomaly pattern, it is very difficult to detection intrusions directly by use of classical pattern recognition method. Nature immune system is a self-adaptive and self-learning classifier, which can accomplish recognition and classification by learning, remembrance and association. First we use four-tuple to define nature immune system and intrusion detection system, then we give the mathematic formalization description of performance index of intrusion detection system. Finally we design and develop an immune-based network intrusion detection system-- AINIDS, which includes a data collector component, a packet head parser and feature extraction component, antibody generation and antigen detection component, co-stimulation and report component and rule optimization component. The antibody generation and antigen detection component is the key module of AINIDS. In the component the passive immune antibodies and the automatic immune antibodies that include memory automatic immune antibodies and fuzzy automatic immune antibodies are proposed by analogy with natural immune system. The passive immune antibodies inherit available rules and can detect known intrusion rapidly. The automatic immune antibodies integrate statistic method with fuzzy reasoning system to improve the detection performance and can discover novel attacks. AINIDS is tested by the data that we collect from our LANs and by the data from 1999 DARPA intrusion detection evaluation data sets. Both experiments prove AINIDS has good detection rate for old and novel attacks.

  6. Multisensor cargo bay fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Brian L.; Anderson, Kaare J.; Renken, Christopher H.; Socha, David M.; Miller, Mark S.

    2004-08-01

    Current aircraft cargo bay fire detection systems are generally based on smoke detection. Smoke detectors in modern aircraft are predominately photoelectric particle detectors that reliably detect smoke, but also detect dust, fog, and most other small particles. False alarms caused by these contaminants can be very costly to the airlines because they can cause flights to be diverted needlessly. To minimize these expenses, a new approach to cargo bay fire detection is needed. This paper describes a novel fire detection system developed by the Goodrich Advanced Sensors Technical Center. The system uses multiple sensors of different technologies to provide a way of discriminating between real fire events and false triggers. The system uses infrared imaging along with multiple, distributed chemical sensors and smoke detectors, all feeding data to a digital signal processor. The processor merges data from the chemical sensors, smoke detectors, and processed images to determine if a fire (or potential fire) is present. Decision algorithms look at all this data in real-time and make the final decision about whether a fire is present. In the paper, we present a short background of the problem we are solving, the reasons for choosing the technologies used, the design of the system, the signal processing methods and results from extensive system testing. We will also show that multiple sensing technologies are crucial to reducing false alarms in such systems.

  7. RADIATION DETECTING AND TELEMETERING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Richards, H.K.

    1959-12-15

    A system is presented for measuring ionizing radiation at several remote stations and transmitting the measured information by radio to a central station. At each remote station a signal proportioned to the counting rate is applied across an electrical condenser made of ferroelectric material. The voltage across the condenser will vary as a function of the incident radiation and the capacitance of the condenser will vary accordingly. This change in capacitance is used to change the frequency of a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The output of the oscillator is coupled to an antenna for transmitting a signal proportional to the incident radiation.

  8. The waveform correlation event detection system global prototype software design

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.I.; Moore, S.G.; Trujillo, J.R.; Young, C.J.

    1997-12-01

    The WCEDS prototype software system was developed to investigate the usefulness of waveform correlation methods for CTBT monitoring. The WCEDS prototype performs global seismic event detection and has been used in numerous experiments. This report documents the software system design, presenting an overview of the system operation, describing the system functions, tracing the information flow through the system, discussing the software structures, and describing the subsystem services and interactions. The effectiveness of the software design in meeting project objectives is considered, as well as opportunities for code refuse and lessons learned from the development process. The report concludes with recommendations for modifications and additions envisioned for regional waveform-correlation-based detector.

  9. Detection of Prosodics by Using a Speech Recognition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    AD-A242 43211111 liil ll ilH1 11 l1111 l il 11 Technical Report 1446 July 1991 Detection of Prosodics by Using a Speech Recognition System N. A. Hupp...Grammatical Structure in Temporarily Ambiguous Spoken Sentences, doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. Klatt , D. 1976. "Linguistic Uses...USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3 REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED July 1991 Final: Oct 89 - Sep 90 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING NUMBERS

  10. Fail-safe fire detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloam, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    Fire detection control system continually monitors its own integrity, automatically signals any malfunction, and separately signals fire in any zone being monitored. Should be of interest in fields of chemical and petroleum processing, power generation, equipment testing, and building protection.

  11. Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mei R; Axelrod, Deborah; Cleland, Charles M; Qiu, Zeyuan; Guth, Amber A; Kleinman, Robin; Scagliola, Joan; Haber, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a syndrome of abnormal swelling coupled with multiple symptoms resulting from obstruction or disruption of the lymphatic system associated with cancer treatment. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors’ limb volume increased. Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may exist months or years before overt swelling occurs. Symptom report may play an important role in detecting lymphedema in clinical practice. The purposes of this study were to: 1) examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of symptoms for detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema and 2) determine the best clinical cutoff point for the count of symptoms that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Data were collected from 250 women, including healthy female adults, breast cancer survivors with lymphedema, and those at risk for lymphedema. Lymphedema symptoms were assessed using a reliable and valid instrument. Validity, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using logistic regression, analysis of variance, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Count of lymphedema symptoms was able to differentiate healthy adults from breast cancer survivors with lymphedema and those at risk for lymphedema. A diagnostic cutoff of three symptoms discriminated breast cancer survivors with lymphedema from healthy women with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 97% (area under the curve =0.98). A diagnostic cutoff of nine symptoms discriminated at-risk survivors from survivors with lymphedema with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 80% (area under the curve =0.72). In the absence of objective measurements capable of detecting latent stages of lymphedema, count of symptoms may be a cost-effective initial screening tool for detecting lymphedema

  12. Heartbeat detection system using piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamonangan, Yosua; Purnamaningsih, Wigajatri

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a simple piezoelectric based heartbeat detection system. The signal produced by the piezoelectric will undergo signal conditioning and then converted into digital data by Arduino Nano. Using serial communication, the data will be sent to a computer for display and further analysis. The detection of heartbeat is carried out on three locations; wrist, chest, and diaphragm. From the measurement results, it is shown that the system work best when the piezoelectric is placed on wrist.

  13. Probabilistic Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Padhraic

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes probabilistic methods for novelty detection when using pattern recognition methods for fault monitoring of dynamic systems. The problem of novelty detection is particularly acute when prior knowledge and data only allow one to construct an incomplete prior model of the system. Hence, some allowance must be made in model design so that a classifier will be robust to data generated by classes not included in the training phase.

  14. A Radiating Cable Intrusion Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    RtADC-Th40O1"ř June 1930 A RADIATING CABLE INTRUSION 0 DETECTION SYSTEM Northeastern University Spencer d. Rochefort Raimundas Sukys Norman C...J.7[ochefortF168R. Raimundas/ Sukys SADDROSSAMfELEMENT,.PROJECT. TASK Electronics Research Labe.*&tory 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Hanscom...stable threshold levels. -a- -22- REFERENCES 1. Rochefort, J.S., Sukys , R. and Poirier, N.C. (1978), "An Area Intrusion Detection and Alarm System

  15. Status tracking system for reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The program DGR03 Status of Langley Formal Reports was developed to aid the Research Information and Application Division (RIAD) in tracking the progress of NASA formal reports through the review cycle. This review cycle was established by Langley Management as a control for Langley's final product: its research reports. The cycle is divided into 5 main stages with substages in each. The cycle can be completed in 165 days. This program has been an aid to RIAD in eliminating manual calculation, providing visible data for everyone concerned with report processing, eliminating the need to telephone divisions when reports are delinquent. The program can also provide information on the number of reports in any stage of the system at any period.

  16. Selective detection of gold using genetically engineered bacterial reporters.

    PubMed

    Cerminati, Sebastián; Soncini, Fernando C; Checa, Susana K

    2011-11-01

    Salmonella typhimurium harbours a Au-resistance system whose expression is controlled by GolS, a transcriptional regulator of the MerR family that selectively detects Au with high sensitivity. We developed both Salmonella and genetically engineered Escherichia coli strains as Au-selective whole-cell biosensors by coupling the strictly regulated GolS-dependent golB promoter to the gfp reporter gene. The bio-reporters were evaluated under different laboratory conditions and calibrated for their use as selective Au detectors. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of the regulatory protein, the transgenic E. coli sensor exhibits low background, high signal-to-noise ratio, and improved sensitivity for detection of Au ions in a wide range of concentrations (up to 470 nM) with a calculated detection limit of ∼33 nM (6 µg L(-1) or parts per billion) Au(I). The fluorescent Au-sensing bacteria exhibit also minimal interference by chemically related metals such as Cu or Ag that are commonly found in Au deposits. These highly specific and sensitive Au detectors might allow the development of rapid and robust screening tools to improve discovery and extraction procedures.

  17. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  18. 2014 Runtime Systems Summit. Runtime Systems Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Vivek; Budimlic, Zoran; Kulkani, Milind

    2016-09-19

    This report summarizes runtime system challenges for exascale computing, that follow from the fundamental challenges for exascale systems that have been well studied in past reports, e.g., [6, 33, 34, 32, 24]. Some of the key exascale challenges that pertain to runtime systems include parallelism, energy efficiency, memory hierarchies, data movement, heterogeneous processors and memories, resilience, performance variability, dynamic resource allocation, performance portability, and interoperability with legacy code. In addition to summarizing these challenges, the report also outlines different approaches to addressing these significant challenges that have been pursued by research projects in the DOE-sponsored X-Stack and OS/R programs. Since there is often confusion as to what exactly the term “runtime system” refers to in the software stack, we include a section on taxonomy to clarify the terminology used by participants in these research projects. In addition, we include a section on deployment opportunities for vendors and government labs to build on the research results from these projects. Finally, this report is also intended to provide a framework for discussing future research and development investments for exascale runtime systems, and for clarifying the role of runtime systems in exascale software.

  19. Detecting ground moving objects using panoramic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuyuan; Gu, Guohua; Wang, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The moving objects detection is an essential issue in many computer vision and video processing tasks. In this paper, a detecting moving objects method using a panoramic system is proposed. It can detect ground moving objects when the camera is rotated, so it can be called the moving objects detection in rotation (MODIR). The detection area and flexible of the panoramic system are be enhanced by MODIR. The background and moving objects are moving in image when the camera is rotated. Compare with the traditional methods, the aim of MODIR is to segment the isolated entities out according to the motions in the video whether imaging platform is moving or not. Firstly, the corresponding relations between the images captured from two different views is deduced from the multi-view geometric. The moving objects and stationary background in the images are distinguished by this corresponding relations. Secondly, the moving object detection framework base on multi-frame is established. This detection framework can reduce the impacts of the image matching error and cumulative error on the moving objects detection. In the experiment, an evaluation metrics method is used to compare the performance of MODIR with the traditional methods. And a lot of videos captured by the panoramic system are processed by MODIR to demonstrate its good performance in practice.

  20. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  1. Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Gencorp Aerojet Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System was developed through the cooperation of industry, academia, and the Government. Although the original purpose of the system was to detect leaks in the main engine of the space shuttle while on the launch pad, it also has significant commercial potential in applications for which there are no existing commercial systems. With high sensitivity, the system can detect hydrogen leaks at low concentrations in inert environments. The sensors are integrated with hardware and software to form a complete system. Several of these systems have already been purchased for use on the Ford Motor Company assembly line for natural gas vehicles. This system to detect trace hydrogen gas leaks from pressurized systems consists of a microprocessor-based control unit that operates a network of sensors. The sensors can be deployed around pipes, connectors, flanges, and tanks of pressurized systems where leaks may occur. The control unit monitors the sensors and provides the operator with a visual representation of the magnitude and locations of the leak as a function of time. The system can be customized to fit the user's needs; for example, it can monitor and display the condition of the flanges and fittings associated with the tank of a natural gas vehicle.

  2. Airborne Turbulence Detection System Certification Tool Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology and a corresponding set of simulation tools for testing and evaluating turbulence detection sensors has been presented. The tool set is available to industry and the FAA for certification of radar based airborne turbulence detection systems. The tool set consists of simulated data sets representing convectively induced turbulence, an airborne radar simulation system, hazard tables to convert the radar observable to an aircraft load, documentation, a hazard metric "truth" algorithm, and criteria for scoring the predictions. Analysis indicates that flight test data supports spatial buffers for scoring detections. Also, flight data and demonstrations with the tool set suggest the need for a magnitude buffer.

  3. Early Detection | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Dzenitis, J

    2004-09-22

    Shaped like a mailbox on wheels, it's been called a bioterrorism ''smoke detector.'' It can be found in transportation hubs such as airports and subways, and it may be coming to a location near you. Formally known as the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, or APDS, this latest tool in the war on bioterrorism was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to continuously sniff the air for airborne pathogens and toxins such as anthrax or plague. The APDS is the modern day equivalent of the canaries miners took underground with them to test for deadly carbon dioxide gas. But this canary can test for numerous bacteria, viruses, and toxins simultaneously, report results every hour, and confirm positive samples and guard against false positive results by using two different tests. The fully automated system collects and prepares air samples around the clock, does the analysis, and interprets the results. It requires no servicing or human intervention for an entire week. Unlike its feathered counterpart, when an APDS unit encounters something deadly in the air, that's when it begins singing, quietly. The APDS unit transmits a silent alert and sends detailed data to public health authorities, who can order evacuation and begin treatment of anyone exposed to toxic or biological agents. It is the latest in a series of biodefense detectors developed at DOE/NNSA national laboratories. The manual predecessor to APDS, called BASIS (for Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System), was developed jointly by Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. That system was modified to become BioWatch, the Department of Homeland Security's biological urban monitoring program. A related laboratory instrument, the Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA), was first tested successfully at LLNL in September 1997. Successful partnering with private industry has been a key factor in the rapid advancement and deployment of biodefense instruments such as these

  5. Autonomous microfluidic system for phosphate detection.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Christina M; Stitzel, Shannon E; Cleary, John; Slater, Conor; Diamond, Dermot

    2007-02-28

    Miniaturization of analytical devices through the advent of microfluidics and micro total analysis systems is an important step forward for applications such as medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring. The development of field-deployable instruments requires that the entire system, including all necessary peripheral components, be miniaturized and packaged in a portable device. A sensor for long-term monitoring of phosphate levels has been developed that incorporates sampling, reagent and waste storage, detection, and wireless communication into a complete, miniaturized system. The device employs a low-power detection and communication system, so the entire instrument can operate autonomously for 7 days on a single rechargeable, 12V battery. In addition, integration of a wireless communication device allows the instrument to be controlled and results to be downloaded remotely. This autonomous system has a limit of detection of 0.3mg/L and a linear dynamic range between 0 and 20mg/L.

  6. Detecting Careless Responses to Self-Reported Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kountur, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…

  7. Reporter cell lines for the detection of herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Kung, Szu-Hao

    2005-01-01

    Virus culture has played significant roles in basic and clinical virology, with a number of advantages that cannot be attainable by modern molecular techniques. However, virus culture is generally a slower process, as it inevitably takes the period of a full replication cycle of a given virus. A genetically modified cell culture with a virus-inducible marker is described here, using a frequently isolated DNA virus (herpes simplex virus) as a model. The assay system relies on expression of the reporter gene driven by a specific viral promoter that is triggered early in the course of viral infection. The reporter gene employed was green fluorescent protein (GFP) or secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), whose assays offer real-time detection or quantification, respectively. This cell-based assay is simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, and quantitative and serves as a phenotypic method for determination of antiviral susceptibilities.

  8. Deadlock Detection in Distributed Computing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    With the advent of distributed computing systems, the problem of deadlock, which has been essentially solved for centralized computing systems, has...reappeared. Existing centralized deadlock detection techniques are either too expensive or they do not work correctly in distributed computing systems...incorrect. Additionally, although fault-tolerance is usually listed as an advantage of distributed computing systems, little has been done to analyze

  9. The detection of significant prostate cancer is correlated with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) in MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy.

    PubMed

    Cash, Hannes; Maxeiner, Andreas; Stephan, Carsten; Fischer, Thomas; Durmus, Tahir; Holzmann, Josephine; Asbach, Patrick; Haas, Matthias; Hinz, Stefan; Neymeyer, Jörg; Miller, Kurt; Günzel, Karsten; Kempkensteffen, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of real-time MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided targeted biopsy (TB) in men with primary and repeat biopsies and correlate the prostate cancer detection rate (CDR) with the PI-RADS score. Analysis included 408 consecutive men with primary and prior negative biopsies who underwent TB and 10-core random biopsy (RB) between January 2012 and January 2015. TB was performed with a real-time MRI/US fusion platform with sensor-based registration. Clinically significant PCa was defined as Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7 or GS 6 with maximal cancer core length ≥ 4 mm for TB and according to Epstein criteria for RB. The overall CDR was 56 % (227/408). The CDR for primary biopsy was 74 % (60/81) and 57 % (67/117), 49 % (62/126), 45 % (38/84) for patients with 1, 2 and ≥ 3 prior negative biopsies. CDRs correlated with PI-RADS 2/3/4/5 were 16 % (5/32), 26 % (29/113), 62 % (94/152) and 89 % (99/111), respectively. The rates of significant tumors in relation to PI-RADS 2/3/4/5 were 60 % (3/5), 66 % (19/29), 74 % (70/94), 95 % (94/99). In 139 (61 %) cases with radical prostatectomy (RP), the rates of ≥ pT3 tumors in correlation with PI-RADS 4 and 5 were 20 % (11/56) and 49 % (32/65). PI-RADS constituted the strongest predictor of significant PCa detection (p < 0.007). Real-time MRI/US fusion-guided TB combined with RB improved PCa detection in patients with primary and repeat biopsies. The CDR was strongly correlated with a rising PI-RADS score, values of 4 and 5 increasing the detection of clinically significant tumors and leading to a higher histological stage after RP.

  10. Adaptation of a Gaussia princeps Luciferase reporter system in Candida albicans for in vivo detection in the Galleria mellonella infection model.

    PubMed

    Delarze, Eric; Ischer, Françoise; Sanglard, Dominique; Coste, Alix T

    2015-01-01

    For the past 10 years, mini-host models and in particular the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella have tended to become a surrogate for murine models of fungal infection mainly due to cost, ethical constraints and ease of use. Thus, methods to better assess the fungal pathogenesis in G. mellonella need to be developed. In this study, we implemented the detection of Candida albicans cells expressing the Gaussia princeps luciferase in its cell wall in infected larvae of G. mellonella. We demonstrated that detection and quantification of luminescence in the pulp of infected larvae is a reliable method to perform drug efficacy and C. albicans virulence assays as compared to fungal burden assay. Since the linearity of the bioluminescent signal, as compared to the CFU counts, has a correlation of R(2) = 0.62 and that this method is twice faster and less labor intensive than classical fungal burden assays, it could be applied to large scale studies. We next visualized and followed C. albicans infection in living G. mellonella larvae using a non-toxic and water-soluble coelenterazine formulation and a CCD camera that is commonly used for chemoluminescence signal detection. This work allowed us to follow for the first time C. albicans course of infection in G. mellonella during 4 days.

  11. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of limitations of the Air Traffic Control system in conflict avoidance capabilities is discussed. Assumptions and expectations held by by airmen regarding the capabilities of the system are presented. Limitations related to communication are described and problems associated with visual approaches, airspace configurations, and airport layouts are discussed. A number of pilot and controller reports illustrative of three typical problem types: occurrences involving pilots who have limited experience; reports describing inflight calls for assistance; and flights in which pilots have declined to use available radar services are presented. Examples of Alert Bulletins and the FAA responses to them are included.

  12. Force protection demining system (FPDS) detection subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachery, Karen N.; Schultz, Gregory M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2005-06-01

    This study describes the U.S. Army Force Protection Demining System (FPDS); a remotely-operated, multisensor platform developed for reliable detection and neutralization of both anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines. The ongoing development of the prototype multisensor detection subsystem is presented, which integrates an advanced electromagnetic pulsed-induction array and ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar array on a single standoff platform. The FPDS detection subsystem is mounted on a robotic rubber-tracked vehicle and incorporates an accurate and precise navigation/positioning module making it well suited for operation in varied and irregular terrains. Detection sensors are optimally configured to minimize interference without loss in sensitivity or performance. Mine lane test data acquired from the prototype sensors are processed to extract signal- and image-based features for automatic target recognition. Preliminary results using optimal feature and classifier selection indicate the potential of the system to achieve high probabilities of detection while minimizing false alarms. The FPDS detection software system also exploits modern multi-sensor data fusion algorithms to provide real-time detection and discrimination information to the user.

  13. Expert System Detects Power-Distribution Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1994-01-01

    Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.

  14. Development of an Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Langlosi, S.; Brown, S.; Colston, B.; Jones, L.; Masquelier, D.; Meyer, P.; McBride, M.; Nasarabad, S.; Ramponi, A.J.; Venkatseswarm, K.; Milanovich, F.

    2000-10-12

    An Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) is being designed and evaluated for use in domestic counter-terrorism. The goal is a fully automated system that utilizes both flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to continuously monitor the air for BW pathogens in major buildings or high profile events. A version 1 APDS system consisting of an aerosol collector, a sample preparation subsystem, and a flow cytometer for detecting the antibody-labeled target organisms has been completed and evaluated. Improved modules are under development for a version 2 APDS including a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-designed aerosol preconcentrator, a multiplex flow cytometer, and a flow-through PCR detector.

  15. Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

  16. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  17. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  18. Subscriber Response System. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callais, Richard T.

    Results of preliminary tests made prior and subsequent to the installation of a two-way interactive communication system which involves a computer complex termed the Local Processing Center and subscriber terminals located in the home or business location are reported. This first phase of the overall test plan includes tests made at Theta-Com…

  19. Fault detection and isolation for complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chan Shi; Bayuaji, Luhur; Samad, R.; Mustafa, M.; Abdullah, N. R. H.; Zain, Z. M.; Pebrianti, Dwi

    2017-07-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) is a method to monitor, identify, and pinpoint the type and location of system fault in a complex multiple input multiple output (MIMO) non-linear system. A two wheel robot is used as a complex system in this study. The aim of the research is to construct and design a Fault Detection and Isolation algorithm. The proposed method for the fault identification is using hybrid technique that combines Kalman filter and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The Kalman filter is able to recognize the data from the sensors of the system and indicate the fault of the system in the sensor reading. Error prediction is based on the fault magnitude and the time occurrence of fault. Additionally, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is another algorithm used to determine the type of fault and isolate the fault in the system.

  20. The NSTX Trouble Reporting System

    SciTech Connect

    S. Sengupta; G. Oliaro

    2002-01-28

    An online Trouble Reporting System (TRS) has been introduced at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The TRS is used by NSTX operators to report problems that affect NSTX operations. The purpose of the TRS is to enhance NSTX reliability and maintainability by identifying components, occurrences, and trends that contribute to machine downtime. All NSTX personnel have access to the TRS. The user interface is via a web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. This web-based feature permits any X-terminal, PC, or MAC access to the TRS. The TRS is based upon a trouble reporting system developed at the DIII-D Tokamak, at General Atomics Technologies. This paper will provide a detailed description of the TRS software architecture, user interface, MS SQL server interface and operational experiences. In addition, sample data from the TRS database will be summarized and presented.

  1. Boomerang mobile counter shooter detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, Jeffrey A.; Barger, James E.; Brinn, Marshall; Mullen, Richard J.; Price, David; Ritter, Scott E.; Schmitt, Dave

    2005-05-01

    Boomerang is an acoustic system installed on military vehicles that is designed to detect relative shooter azimuth/range/elevation from incoming small arms fire. It performs passive acoustic detection and computer-based signal processing. Aural and visual alerts are used to 1) inform vehicle occupants that a bullet has passed within close proximity to the vehicle and 2) indicate the position of the shooter relative to the vehicle"s direction of travel. Boomerang operates when the vehicle is stationary or moving (no motion compensation) using a single, compact, mast-mounted array of microphones. The system is calibrated to detect infantry small arms. This calibration, however, does not preclude the system from detecting larger and smaller supersonic rounds. In this paper, we discuss the design, development, testing and production of 50 Boomerang I systems over a 65-day period in late 2003/early 2004. These systems were deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom II with Marine and Army units. Feedback from operational units identified specific deficiencies and desired improvements that were incorporated into a system re-design effort, Boomerang II. The Boomerang II system has been extensively tested for performance and environmental fitness regarding RF compatibility with tactical radios (SINCGARS), heat, cold, shock and vibration. The US Army Aberdeen Proving Grounds conducted successful RF compatibility tests, road tests and 'live fire' testing. Summary results of open field 'live fire' static tests are presented as well as performance results on a remote-controlled HMMWV operating at 45 MPH.

  2. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Wegerich, Stephan

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.

  3. Laser Obstacle Detection System Flight Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    without hazardous effect or adverse biological changes in the eye for a repetitively pulsed laser is the more restrictive of several MPE calculations...crossed above them. The LODS system detection ranges appeared not to be effected by sunlight from behind the aircraft. - Raw Data and Safety Line ...obstacles - Raw data and safety line detection ranges were similar to those at wire set 1 (900-1000 meters) and did not appear to be effected by the

  4. Coal-shale interface detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Zimmerman, J. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detection system for use with coal cutting equipment consists of a reciprocating hammer on which an accelerometer is mounted to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. A pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface. The outputs of the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  5. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study of reports relating to cockpit altitude alert systems was performed. A recent change in the Federal Air Regulation permits the system to be modified so that the alerting signal approaching altitude has only a visual component; the auditory signal would continue to be heard if a deviation from an assigned altitude occurred. Failure to observe altitude alert signals and failure to reset the system were the commonest cause of altitude deviations related to this system. Cockpit crew distraction was the most frequent reason for these failures. It was noted by numerous reporters that the presence of altitude alert system made them less aware of altitude; this lack of altitude awareness is discussed. Failures of crew coordination were also noted. It is suggested that although modification of the altitude alert system may be highly desirable in short-haul aircraft, it may not be desirable for long-haul aircraft in which cockpit workloads are much lower for long periods of time. In these cockpits, the aural alert approaching altitudes is perceived as useful and helpful. If the systems are to be modified, it appears that additional emphasis on altitude awareness during recurrent training will be necessary; it is also possible that flight crew operating procedures during climb and descent may need examination with respect to monitoring responsibilities. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  6. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    SciTech Connect

    Follum, James D.

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  7. A universal DNA-based protein detection system.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thua N N; Cui, Jinhui; Hartman, Mark R; Peng, Songming; Funabashi, Hisakage; Duan, Faping; Yang, Dayong; March, John C; Lis, John T; Cui, Haixin; Luo, Dan

    2013-09-25

    Protein immune detection requires secondary antibodies which must be carefully selected in order to avoid interspecies cross-reactivity, and is therefore restricted by the limited availability of primary/secondary antibody pairs. Here we present a versatile DNA-based protein detection system using a universal adapter to interface between IgG antibodies and DNA-modified reporter molecules. As a demonstration of this capability, we successfully used DNA nano-barcodes, quantum dots, and horseradish peroxidase enzyme to detect multiple proteins using our DNA-based labeling system. Our system not only eliminates secondary antibodies but also serves as a novel method platform for protein detection with modularity, high capacity, and multiplexed capability.

  8. Automated macromolecular crystal detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Segelke, Brent; Rupp, Bernard; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-06-05

    An automated macromolecular method and system for detecting crystals in two-dimensional images, such as light microscopy images obtained from an array of crystallization screens. Edges are detected from the images by identifying local maxima of a phase congruency-based function associated with each image. The detected edges are segmented into discrete line segments, which are subsequently geometrically evaluated with respect to each other to identify any crystal-like qualities such as, for example, parallel lines, facing each other, similarity in length, and relative proximity. And from the evaluation a determination is made as to whether crystals are present in each image.

  9. Fingertips detection for human computer interaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md. Jahangir; Nasierding, Gulisong; Sajjanhar, Atul; Chowdhury, Morshed

    2014-01-01

    Fingertips of human hand play an important role in hand-based interaction with computers. Identification of fingertips' positions in hand images is vital for developing a human computer interaction system. This paper proposes a novel method for detecting fingertips of a hand image analyzing the concept of the geometrical structural information of fingers. The research is divided into three parts: First, hand image is segmented for detecting hand; Second, invariant features (curvature zero-crossing points) are extracted from the boundary of the hand; Third, fingertips are detected. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is promising.

  10. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tania, U. T.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ibrahimy, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate.

  11. REAL-TIME IN SITU DETECTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM. Final tropical report (Task 1.3).

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; James A. Sorensen; Jaroslav Solc

    1999-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the field demonstration of a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method for characterization of brownfields and other contaminated sites. The technology was provided and demonstrated by Dakota Technologies, Inc. (DTI), of Fargo, North Dakota. LIF generates continuous data on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within the soil profile. The sensor used to record real-time data is deployed into the soil using a modified truck-mounted Geoprobe percussion soil probing device. The summary of observations described in the following text represents an independent evaluation of the performance, usefulness, and economics of the demonstrated technology for characterization at PAH-contaminated sites.

  12. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  13. Multilayer optical disc system using homodyne detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Takahiro; Ide, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Yukinobu; Watanabe, Koichi

    2014-09-01

    A write/read system using high-productivity multilayer optical discs was developed. The recording medium used in the system consists of planar recording layers and a separated guide layer, and is fabricated by web coating and lamination process. The recording layers in the medium are made of one-photon-absorption material, on which data can be recorded with a normal laser diode. The developed system is capable of focusing and tracking on the medium and amplifying readout signals by using phase-diversity homodyne detection. A highly layer-selective focusing method using homodyne detection was also proposed. This method obtains stable focus-error signals with clearly separated S-shaped curves even when layer spacing is quite narrow, causing large interlayer crosstalk. Writing on the medium and reading with the signal amplification effect of homodyne detection was demonstrated. In addition, the effectiveness of the method was experimentally evaluated.

  14. Novel systems for corrosion detection in piping

    SciTech Connect

    Raad, J.A. de; Fingerhut, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    Predictive maintenance requires accurate quantitative information. Nondestructive testing (NDT) tools have been able provide the necessary information, economically. Examination of the full surface of components is often required, which is contrary to the more typical spot location measurements. In addition, predictive maintenance inspection often requires the examination of hot and or insulated components. These challenges have been satisfied by recent developments in NDT and are applicable to a broad range of facility types such as tank terminals and pulp and paper plants. For non-insulated and above ground piping systems magnetic flux leakage (MFL) tools have recently been introduced into the marketplace. These tools allow very quick and reliable detection of local and extensive general corrosion, in carbon steel pipes or vessel walls, with nominal wall thicknesses of up to 15 mm. A relatively new method for detection of corrosion under insulated components is the RTD-Incotest, pulse eddy current (PEC) system. This system can also provide the components remaining wall thickness at general corrosion locations. Demand for corrosion detection under insulation on piping has also been satisfied by new dynamic Real-Time-Radiography systems. These systems are relatively fast, but the concept itself and its weight require close human access to the pipe, hence, some method of accessing above ground piping is required. Nevertheless, the systems satisfy a market demand. Time-of-flight-Diffraction (TOFD) for detection and sizing of weld root corrosion as well as coherent color enhanced thickness mapping will also be introduced.

  15. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  16. Fault detection and diagnosis of HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, C.Y.; Xiao, Y.; Ruther, C.J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) system for building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Model-based fault detection is based on the strategy of determining the difference or the residuals between the normal and the existing patterns. Their approach was to attack the problem on many levels of abstraction: from the signal level, controller programming level, and system component, all the way up to the information and knowledge processing level. The various issues of real implementation of the system and the processing of real-time on-line data in actual systems of campus buildings using the proven technology and off-the-shelf commercial tools are discussed. The research was based on input and output points and software control programs found in typical direct digital control systems used for variable-air-volume air handlers and VAV cooling and hot water reheat terminal units.

  17. Miniaturized detection system for handheld PCR assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, James B.; Benett, William J.; Stratton, Paul; Hadley, Dean R.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    2000-12-01

    We have developed and delivered a four chamber, battery powered, handheld instrument referred to as the HANAA which monitors the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process using a TaqMan based fluorescence assay. The detection system differs form standard configurations in two essential ways. First, the size is miniaturized, with a combined cycling and optics plug-in module for a duplex assay begin about the size of a small box of matches. Second, the detection/analysis system is designed to call a positive sample in real time.

  18. System for particle concentration and detection

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  19. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  20. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Reports describing various types of communication problems are presented along with summaries dealing with judgment and decision making. Concerns relating to the ground proximity warning system are summarized and several examples of true terrain proximity warnings are provided. An analytic study of reports relating to profile descents was performed. Problems were found to be associated with charting and graphic presentation of the descents, with lack of uniformity of the descent procedures among facilities using them, and with the flight crew workload engendered by profile descents, particularly when additional requirements are interposed by air traffic control during the execution of the profiles. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them were reviewed.

  1. Stationary Digital Tomosynthesis System for Early Detection of Breast Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Early detection is considered as the best hope for decreasing the mortality rate from breast cancer [1- 4 ]. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has the...and collimators can be installed on the tube housing. Figure 1. Front and back views of the CNT x-ray source array. 4 1.3 System

  2. Optoelectronic leak detection system for monitoring subsea structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moodie, D.,; Costello, L.; McStay, D.

    2010-04-01

    Leak detection and monitoring on subsea structures is an area of increasing interest for the detection and monitoring of production and control fluids for the oil and gas industry. Current techniques such as capacitive (dielectric) based measurement or passive acoustic systems have limitations and we report here an optoelectronic solution based upon fluorescence spectroscopy to provide a permanent monitoring solution. We report here a new class of optoelectronic subsea sensor for permanent, real time monitoring of hydrocarbon production systems. The system is capable of detecting small leaks of production or hydraulic fluid (ppm levels) over distances of 4-5 meters in a subsea environment. Ideally systems designed for such applications should be capable of working at depths of up to 3000m unattended for periods of 20+ years. The system uses advanced single emitter LED technology to meet the challenges of lifetime, power consumption, spatial coverage and delivery of a cost effective solution. The system is designed for permanent deployment on Christmas tree (XT), subsea processing systems (SPS) and associated equipment to provide enhanced leak detection capability.

  3. Faraday rotation system. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.; Wang, W.

    1994-07-01

    The Faraday Rotation System (FRS) is one of the advanced laser-based diagnostics developed at DIAL to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the MHD channel, the system directly measures electron density through a measurement of the induced rotation in the polarization of a far infrared laser beam after passing through the MHD flow along the magnetic field lines. A measurement of the induced polarization ellipticity provides a measure of the electron collision frequency which together with the electron density gives the electron conductivity, a crucial parameter for MHD channel performance. The theory of the measurements, a description of the system, its capabilities, laboratory demonstration measurements on seeded flames with comparison to emission absorption measurements, and the current status of the system are presented in this final report.

  4. Amplification refractory mutation system-PCR is essential for the detection of chimaeras with a minor allele population: a case report.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Park, Hye Ryoen; Park, Tae Sung; Oh, Seung Hwan; Shin, Myung Geun; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook; Park, Jong Tae; Cho, Duck

    2013-05-01

    Blood chimaera is a rare but important issue for immunohaematology laboratories. Several molecular approaches, such as ABO genotyping, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing and DNA short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, have been used to identify chimaerism. Unfortunately, the minor allele population can be overlooked by PCR-based methods, which preferentially amplify the major allele population. A case with AweakB (AwB), demonstrating a mixed-field pattern, was sent to our laboratory for further evaluation. Direct sequencing of ABO exons 6 and 7 revealed a B101/O02 genotype. Analysis of the 12 STR loci and HLA typing did not provide any evidence of chimaerism. However, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR identified the minor A102 allele in addition to B101/O02. Three alleles of the chimaera were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Thus, ARMS-PCR is essential, especially in the case of a chimaera with a minor allele population.

  5. Materiel requirements for airborne minefield detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, Karl A.; Huegle, Helmut

    1997-07-01

    Within the concept study, Material Requirements for an airborne minefield detection systems (AMiDS) the following topics were investigated: (i) concept concerning airborne minefield detection technique sand equipment, (ii) verification analysis of the AMiDS requirements using simulation models and (iii) application concept of AMiDS with regard o tactics and military operations. In a first approach the problems concerning unmanned airborne minefield detection techniques within a well-defined area were considered. The complexity of unmanned airborne minefield detection is a result of the following parameters: mine types, mine deployment methods, tactical requirements, topography, weather conditions, and the size of the area to be searched. In order to perform the analysis, a simulation model was developed to analyze the usability of the proposed remote controlled air carriers. The basic flight patterns for the proposed air carriers, as well as the preparation efforts of military operations and benefits of such a system during combat support missions were investigated. The results of the conceptual study showed that a proposed remote controlled helicopter drone could meet the stated German MOD scanning requirements of mine barriers. Fixed wing air carriers were at a definite disadvantage because of their inherently large turning loops. By implementing a mine detection system like AMiDS minefields can be reconnoitered before an attack. It is therefore possible either to plan, how the minefields can be circumvented or where precisely breaching lanes through the mine barriers are to be cleared for the advancing force.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Hyperspectral Chemical Detection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truslow, Eric

    Remote sensing of chemical vapor plumes is a difficult but important task with many military and civilian applications. Hyperspectral sensors operating in the long wave infrared (LWIR) regime have well demonstrated detection capabilities. However, the identification of a plume's chemical constituents, based on a chemical library, is a multiple hypothesis-testing problem that standard detection metrics do not fully describe. Our approach partitions and weights a confusion matrix to develop both the standard detection metrics and an identification metric based on the Dice index. Using the developed metrics, we demonstrate that using a detector bank followed by an identifier can achieve superior performance relative to either algorithm individually. Performance of the cascaded system relies on the first pass reliably detecting the plume. However, detection performance is severely hampered by the inclusion of plume pixels in estimates of background quantities. We demonstrate that this problem, known as contamination, can be mitigated by iteratively applying a spatial filter to the detected pixels. Multiple detection and filtering passes can remove nearly all contamination from the background estimates, a vast improvement over single-pass techniques.

  7. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  8. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  9. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  10. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-08-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  11. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  12. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  13. Lumber Scanning System for Surface Defect Detection

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Y. Jason Hou; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing a machine vision technology to drive automated processes in the hardwood forest products manufacturing industry. An industrial-scale machine vision system has been designed to scan variable-size hardwood lumber for detecting important features that influence the grade and value of lumber such as knots, holes, wane,...

  14. Portable light detection system for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, R. L.; Carpenter, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    System can be used to detect "ready" light on automatic cooking device, to tell if lights are on for visitors, or to tell whether it is daylight or dark outside. Device is actuated like flashlight. Light impinging on photo cell activates transistor which energizes buzzer to indicate presence of light.

  15. Photon Detection Systems for Modern Cherenkov Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, B.; Britting, A.; Cowie, E.; Eyrich, W.; Hoek, M.; Keri, T.; Lehmann, A.; Montgomery, R.; Uhlig, F.

    Modern experiments in hadronic physics require detector systems capable of identifying and reconstructing all final-state particle and their momentum vectors. The ANDA experiment at FAIR and the CLAS 12 experiment and Jefferson Laboratory both plan to use imaging Cherenkov counters for particle identification. CLAS 12 will feature a Ring Imaging CHerenkov counter (RICH), while ANDA plans to construct Cherenkov counters relying on the Detections of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC). These detectors require high-rate, single-photon capable light detection systems with sufficient granularity and position resolution. Several candidate systems are available, ranging from multi-anode photomultiplier tubes to micro-channel plate systems to silicon photomultipliers. Each of these detection solutions has particular advantages and disadvantages. Detailed studies of the rate dependence, cross-talk, time-resolution and position resolution fro a range of commercially available photon detection solutions are presented and evaluated on their applicability to the ANDA and CLAS12 Cherenkov counters.

  16. Detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the basic ideas associated with the detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems are presented. Multiple filter-based techniques and residual-based method and the multiple model and generalized likelihood ratio methods are considered. Issues such as the effect of unknown onset time on algorithm complexity and structure and robustness to model uncertainty are discussed.

  17. Interferometric label-free biomolecular detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hradetzky, David; Mueller, Claas; Reinecke, Holger

    2006-07-01

    This work presents a simple evanescent wave sensing system based on an interferometric approach, suitable to meet the requirements of label-free sensor systems for detecting biomolecular interactions. It represents a basic concept towards label-free detection systems in various applications. The basic objectives of transducers for evanescent wave sensing are discussed. An optical detection system based on a interferometric approach using Young's double slit configuration is discussed, set-up and characterized. With refractometric measurements of various sucrose dilutions, the performance of the pure optical set-up is evaluated. A mean resolution of the effective refractive index of 3\\sigma (\\overline {\\Delta n}_{\\mathrm {eff}})=0.9 \\times 10^{-6} without averaging was obtained and a reproducibility below σr(neff) = 0.1 × 10-6 was achieved. Furthermore basic experiments were carried out, for proofing the concept's suitability as a highly sensitive biosensor by detecting the hybridization of 21-mer DNA with an immobilized counterpart on the surface.

  18. Design and Analysis of Multi-Sensor Sequential Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    number for sensor 1 / seed = time(&seed); srand(se.-d); /*Given the constants of double exponential function*/ lamda =0.25; lanidalI = 0. 125; uO =-3.0...AD-A238 012 RL-TR-91-92 Final Technical Report July 1991 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF MULTI- SENSOR SEQUENTIAL DETECTION SYSTEM University of Virginia Quan...FUNDING NUMBERS DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF MULTI- SENSOR SEQUENTIAL C - F30602-81-C-0169 DETECTION SYSTEM PE - 62702F PR - 4506 6. AUTHOR(S) PR - 06 TA - 00

  19. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and each smoke detection system on a unit must— (1) Be approved by the Commandant; and (2) Have a visual...

  20. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and each smoke detection system on a unit must— (1) Be approved by the Commandant; and (2) Have a visual...

  1. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and each smoke detection system on a unit must— (1) Be approved by the Commandant; and (2) Have a visual...

  2. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and each smoke detection system on a unit must— (1) Be approved by the Commandant; and (2) Have a visual...

  3. Detection of timescales in evolving complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Darst, Richard K.; Granell, Clara; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Saramäki, Jari; Fortunato, Santo

    2016-01-01

    Most complex systems are intrinsically dynamic in nature. The evolution of a dynamic complex system is typically represented as a sequence of snapshots, where each snapshot describes the configuration of the system at a particular instant of time. This is often done by using constant intervals but a better approach would be to define dynamic intervals that match the evolution of the system’s configuration. To this end, we propose a method that aims at detecting evolutionary changes in the configuration of a complex system, and generates intervals accordingly. We show that evolutionary timescales can be identified by looking for peaks in the similarity between the sets of events on consecutive time intervals of data. Tests on simple toy models reveal that the technique is able to detect evolutionary timescales of time-varying data both when the evolution is smooth as well as when it changes sharply. This is further corroborated by analyses of several real datasets. Our method is scalable to extremely large datasets and is computationally efficient. This allows a quick, parameter-free detection of multiple timescales in the evolution of a complex system. PMID:28004820

  4. Detection of timescales in evolving complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darst, Richard K.; Granell, Clara; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Saramäki, Jari; Fortunato, Santo

    2016-12-01

    Most complex systems are intrinsically dynamic in nature. The evolution of a dynamic complex system is typically represented as a sequence of snapshots, where each snapshot describes the configuration of the system at a particular instant of time. This is often done by using constant intervals but a better approach would be to define dynamic intervals that match the evolution of the system’s configuration. To this end, we propose a method that aims at detecting evolutionary changes in the configuration of a complex system, and generates intervals accordingly. We show that evolutionary timescales can be identified by looking for peaks in the similarity between the sets of events on consecutive time intervals of data. Tests on simple toy models reveal that the technique is able to detect evolutionary timescales of time-varying data both when the evolution is smooth as well as when it changes sharply. This is further corroborated by analyses of several real datasets. Our method is scalable to extremely large datasets and is computationally efficient. This allows a quick, parameter-free detection of multiple timescales in the evolution of a complex system.

  5. Chemical detection system and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Chichester, David L.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Seabury, Edward H.; Van Siclen, Clinton D.; Wharton, C. Jayson; Zabriskie, John M.

    2017-06-27

    A chemical detection system includes a frame, an emitter coupled to the frame, and a detector coupled to the frame proximate the emitter. The system also includes a shielding system coupled to the frame and positioned at least partially between the emitter and the detector, wherein the frame positions a sensing surface of the detector in a direction substantially parallel to a plane extending along a front portion of the frame. A method of analyzing composition of a suspect object includes directing neutrons at the object, detecting gamma rays emitted from the object, and communicating spectrometer information regarding the gamma rays. The method also includes presenting a GUI to a user with a dynamic status of an ongoing neutron spectroscopy process. The dynamic status includes a present confidence for a plurality of compounds being present in the suspect object responsive to changes in the spectrometer information during the ongoing process.

  6. Detection of anabolic steroid abuse using a yeast transactivation system.

    PubMed

    Zierau, Oliver; Lehmann, Sylvi; Vollmer, Günter; Schänzer, Willhelm; Diel, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    The classical analytical method for detection of anabolic steroid abuse is gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, even molecules with a chemical structure typical for this class of substances, are sometimes not identified in routine screening by GC/MS when their precise chemical structure is still unknown. A supplementary approach to identify anabolic steroid abuse could be a structure-independent identification of anabolic steroids based on their biological activity. To test the suitability of such a system, we have analyzed the yeast androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene system to identify anabolic steroids in human urine samples. Analysis of different anabolic steroids dissolved in buffer demonstrated that the yeast reporter gene system is able to detect a variety of different anabolic steroids and their metabolites with high specificity, including the so-called 'designer steroid' tetrahydrogestrinone. In contrast, other non-androgenic steroids, like glucocordicoids, progestins, mineralocordicoids and estrogens had a low potency to stimulate transactivation. To test whether the system would also allow the detection of androgens in urine, experiments with spiked urine samples were performed. The androgen reporter gene in yeast responds very sensitive to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), even at high urine concentrations. To examine whether the test system would also be able to detect anabolic steroids in the urine of anabolic steroid abusers, anonymous urine samples previously characterized by GCMS were analyzed with the reporter gene assay. Even when the concentration of the anabolic metabolites was comparatively low in some positive samples it was possible to identify the majority of positive samples by their biological activity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the yeast reporter gene system detects anabolic steroids and corresponding metabolites with high sensitivity even in urine of anabolic steroid abusing athletes

  7. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in systemic aspergillosis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, M.H.

    1980-06-01

    Because of difficulties in antemortem diagnosis of systemic aspergillosis, a radioimmunoassay to an Aspergillus fumigatus carbohydrate was developed and evaluated in patients with mycotic or bacterial infections. Antigenemia was detected in sera obtained antemortem from four of seven patients with systemic aspergillosis and in pleural fluid from an Aspergillus empyema but not in control sera or pleural fluid from 43 patients or 27 normal donors. When characterized with reference to onset of disease, antigenemia was an early sign of infection. This study shows the usefulness of the Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay for early, specific immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis.

  8. Portable chemical detection system with intergrated preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2005-12-27

    A portable system for the detection of chemical particles such as explosive residue utilizes a metal fiber substrate that may either be swiped over a subject or placed in a holder in a collection module which can shoot a jet of gas at the subject to dislodge residue, and then draw the air containing the residue into the substrate. The holder is then placed in a detection module, which resistively heats the substrate to evolve the particles, and provides a gas flow to move the particles to a miniature detector in the module.

  9. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  10. The Mount Rainier Lahar Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A. B.; Murray, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    To mitigate the risk of unheralded lahars from Mount Rainier, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pierce County, Washington, installed a lahar-detection system on the Puyallup and Carbon rivers that originate on Mount Rainier's western slopes. The system, installed in 1998, is designed to automatically detect the passage of lahars large enough to potentially affect populated areas downstream (approximate volume threshold 40 million cubic meters), while ignoring small lahars, earthquakes, extreme weather and floods. Along each river valley upstream, arrays of independent lahar-monitoring stations equipped with geophones and short tripwires telemeter data to a pair of redundant computer base stations located in and near Tacoma at existing public safety facilities that are staffed around the clock. Monitored data consist of ground-vibration levels, tripwire status, and transmissions at regular intervals. The base stations automatically evaluate these data to determine if a dangerous lahar is passing through the station array. The detection algorithm requires significant ground vibration to occur at those stations in the array that are above the anticipated level of inundation, while lower level `deadman' stations, inundated by the flow, experience tripwire breakage or are destroyed. Once a base station detects a lahar, it alerts staff who execute a call-down of public-safety officials and schools, initiating evacuation of areas potentially at risk. Because the system's risk-mitigation task imposes high standards of reliability on all components, it has been under test for several years. To date, the system has operated reliably and without false alarms, including during the nearby M6.8 Nisqually Earthquake on February 28, 2001. The system is being turned over to Pierce County, and activated as part of their lahar warning system.

  11. GIDL: Generalized Interference Detection and Localization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Konstantin Gennadievich

    The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) and the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) are being developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide satellite navigation performance compliant with the stringent requirements for aircraft precision approach and landing. A primary design goal of both systems is to insure that signal-in-space failures are detected by ground facilities and to exclude the affected measurements before differential corrections are broadcast to users. One such failure is unintentional interference or intentional jamming in the GPS frequency band. To protect integrity, LAAS and WAAS ground facilities must quickly detect the presence of any hazardous interference falling within the restricted band used by GPS. To protect availability, ground personnel must be able to quickly locate and deactivate the interference source. In order to serve this purpose, the prototype Generalized Interference Detection and Localization System (GIDL) has been developed. This prototype includes four antennae and RF sections slaved to a common clock to allow detection and determination of a three-dimensional interference location. Measurements of differential signal propagation delays across the multiple baselines between the GIDL antennae are combined to estimate the location of the undesired interference transmitter. The GIDL system can be implemented in parallel with a three- or four-receiver LAAS ground facility (sharing components with the LAAS reference receivers and processors) or as a separate installation to support nearby LAAS and WAAS sites. This dissertation describes the GIDL theory and GIDL receiver design and derives theoretical predictions of the ability of the GIDL to accurately locate interference sources. The GIDL System has been successfully demonstrated to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  12. Terahertz imaging system for stand-off detection of threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübers, H.-W.; Semenov, A. D.; Richter, H.; Böttger, U.

    2007-04-01

    Suicide bombers and hidden bombs or explosives have become serious threats especially for mass transportation. Until now there exists no established system which can be used against these threats. Therefore new technologies especially for stand-off detection of threats are required. Terahertz (THz) rays offer an alternative inspection method, which can cope with these new challenges. Major advantages of THz radiation as compared to other spectral regions are the possibility to penetrate through clothes and that THz radiation is not harmful for human health. In this report the design and results of a THz stand-off detection system will be presented. The sensor is based on active illumination of the object and sensitive heterodyne detection of reflected and backscattered radiation. The system operates at about 0.8 THz. A THz laser is used for illumination and a superconducting hot-electron bolometric mixer for detection. The local oscillator required for heterodyne detection is a multiplied microwave source. The optical system is designed to allow for stand-off detection at 20 m with a spatial resolution less than 2 cm.

  13. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The study deals with 165 inadvertent operations on or into inappropriate portions of the aircraft areas at controlled airports. Pilot-initiated and controller-initiated incursions are described and discussed. It was found that a majority of the pilot-initiated occurrences involved operation without a clearance; controller-initiated occurrences usually involved failure to maintain assured separation. The factors associated with these occurrences are analyzed. It appears that a major problem in these occurrences is inadequate coordination among the various system participants. Reasons for this, and some possible solutions to various aspects of the problem, are discussed. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is presented. These relate to undesired occurrences in air transport, general aviation, and air traffic control operations; to ATC coordination problems; and to a recurrent problem in ASRS reports, parachuting operations. A sample of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  14. Real-time head motion detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Kenji; Watanabe, Yasuhiko; Suenaga, Yasuhito

    1990-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional head motion detection system called a realtime headreader. This headreader analyzes the head motion picture sequences taken by a TV-camera, and extracts the motion parameters in realtime, i.e. 3-d rotations and translations. We used a simple but very fast algorithm, which exploits the contrast of hair and face to recognize face orientation. The system extracts the head and face area, then estimates the head motion parameters from the change in position of each area's centroids. The head motion is computed at nearly 10 frames per second on a SUN4 workstation and the motion parameters are sent to an IRIS workstation at a 2.5 Kbps. The IRIS generates a head motion sequence that duplicates the original head motion. The entire motion detection program is written in C language. No special image processing hardware is used, except for a video digitizer. Our head motion detection system will enhance man-machine interactions by providing a new visual eue. An operator will be able to point to a target by just looking at it thus a mouse or 3-d tracking device is not needed. The eventual goal of this research is to build an intelligent video communication system that codes the information in terms of high level language rather than compressed video signals.

  15. Detecting Anomalous Insiders in Collaborative Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Nyemba, Steve; Malin, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative information systems (CISs) are deployed within a diverse array of environments that manage sensitive information. Current security mechanisms detect insider threats, but they are ill-suited to monitor systems in which users function in dynamic teams. In this paper, we introduce the community anomaly detection system (CADS), an unsupervised learning framework to detect insider threats based on the access logs of collaborative environments. The framework is based on the observation that typical CIS users tend to form community structures based on the subjects accessed (e.g., patients’ records viewed by healthcare providers). CADS consists of two components: 1) relational pattern extraction, which derives community structures and 2) anomaly prediction, which leverages a statistical model to determine when users have sufficiently deviated from communities. We further extend CADS into MetaCADS to account for the semantics of subjects (e.g., patients’ diagnoses). To empirically evaluate the framework, we perform an assessment with three months of access logs from a real electronic health record (EHR) system in a large medical center. The results illustrate our models exhibit significant performance gains over state-of-the-art competitors. When the number of illicit users is low, MetaCADS is the best model, but as the number grows, commonly accessed semantics lead to hiding in a crowd, such that CADS is more prudent. PMID:24489520

  16. Detecting Anomalous Insiders in Collaborative Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, You; Nyemba, Steve; Malin, Bradley

    2012-05-01

    Collaborative information systems (CISs) are deployed within a diverse array of environments that manage sensitive information. Current security mechanisms detect insider threats, but they are ill-suited to monitor systems in which users function in dynamic teams. In this paper, we introduce the community anomaly detection system (CADS), an unsupervised learning framework to detect insider threats based on the access logs of collaborative environments. The framework is based on the observation that typical CIS users tend to form community structures based on the subjects accessed (e.g., patients' records viewed by healthcare providers). CADS consists of two components: 1) relational pattern extraction, which derives community structures and 2) anomaly prediction, which leverages a statistical model to determine when users have sufficiently deviated from communities. We further extend CADS into MetaCADS to account for the semantics of subjects (e.g., patients' diagnoses). To empirically evaluate the framework, we perform an assessment with three months of access logs from a real electronic health record (EHR) system in a large medical center. The results illustrate our models exhibit significant performance gains over state-of-the-art competitors. When the number of illicit users is low, MetaCADS is the best model, but as the number grows, commonly accessed semantics lead to hiding in a crowd, such that CADS is more prudent.

  17. Handheld microwave bomb-detecting imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo

    2017-05-01

    Proposed novel imaging technique will provide all weather high-resolution imaging and recognition capability for RF/Microwave signals with good penetration through highly scattered media: fog, snow, dust, smoke, even foliage, camouflage, walls and ground. Image resolution in proposed imaging system is not limited by diffraction and will be determined by processor and sampling frequency. Proposed imaging system can simultaneously cover wide field of view, detect multiple targets and can be multi-frequency, multi-function. Directional antennas in imaging system can be close positioned and installed in cell phone size handheld device, on small aircraft or distributed around protected border or object. Non-scanning monopulse system allows dramatically decrease in transmitting power and at the same time provides increased imaging range by integrating 2-3 orders more signals than regular scanning imaging systems.

  18. An Automated Flying-Insect-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An automated flying-insect-detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect's wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real-time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically displayed. All AFIDS data are pre-processed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LABVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation.

  19. Potential detection systems for monitoring UF{sub 6} releases

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.E.; Bostick, W.D.; Armstrong, D.P.; McNeely, J.R.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1994-09-01

    In the near future, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will begin to regulate the gaseous diffusion plants. Them is a concern that the smoke detectors currently used for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) release detection will not meet NRC safety system requirements such as high reliability and rapid response. The NRC`s position is that licensees should utilize state-of-the-art equipment such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) detectors that would provide more dependable detection of a UF{sub 6} release. A survey of the literature and current vendor information was undertaken to define the state-of-the-art and commercial availability of HF (or other appropriate) detection systems. For the purpose of this report, classification of the available HF detection systems is made on the basis of detection principle (e.g., calorimetric, electrochemical, separational, or optical). Emphasis is also placed on whether the device is primarily sensitive to response from a point source (e.g., outleakage in the immediate vicinity of a specific set of components), or whether the device is potentially applicable to remote sensing over a larger area. Traditional HF point source monitoring typically uses gas sampling tubes or coated paper tapes with color developing indicator, portable and small area HF monitors are often based upon electrochemical or extractive/separational systems; and remote sensing by optical systems holds promise for indoor and outdoor large area monitoring (including plant boundary/ambient air monitoring).

  20. Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, tsunami detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual tsunami at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a tsunami warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any tsunami warning system would be reliable tsunami detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC Tsunami Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The tsunami detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by tsunami waves as they propagate past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that

  1. Acquisition of a Recondensing Cryostat for Ultra-Sensitive Charge Detection of Quantum Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-21

    Acquisition of a Recondensing Cryostat for Ultra - Sensitive Charge Detection of Quantum Systems The funding provided by this grant was used to...accelerate our efforts to develop cavity-embedded Cooper pair transistors for ultra sensitive charge detection of quantum systems such as quantum dots and...reviewed journals: Final Report: Acquisition of a Recondensing Cryostat for Ultra -Sensitive Charge Detection of Quantum Systems Report Title The funding

  2. VETA-1 x ray detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podgorski, W. A.; Flanagan, Kathy A.; Freeman, Mark D.; Goddard, R. G.; Kellogg, Edwin M.; Norton, T. J.; Ouellette, J. P.; Roy, A. G.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    The alignment and X-ray imaging performance of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Verification Engineering Test Article-I (VETA-I) was measured by the VETA-I X-Ray Detection System (VXDS). The VXDS was based on the X-ray detection system utilized in the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) program, upgraded to meet the more stringent requirements of the VETA-I test program. The VXDS includes two types of X-ray detectors: (1) a High Resolution Imager (HRI) which provides X-ray imaging capabilities, and (2) sealed and flow proportional counters which, in conjunction with apertures of various types and precision translation stages, provide the most accurate measurement of VETA-I performance. Herein we give an overview of the VXDS hardware including X-ray detectors, translation stages, apertures, proportional counters and flow counter gas supply system and associated electronics. We also describe the installation of the VXDS into the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). We discuss in detail the design and performance of those elements of the VXDS which have not been discussed elsewhere; translation systems, flow counter gas supply system, apertures and thermal monitoring system.

  3. Object detection system using SPAD proximity detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Laurence; Raynor, Jeffrey M.; Henderson, Robert K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an object detection system based upon the use of multiple single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) proximity sensors operating upon the time-of-flight (ToF) principle, whereby the co-ordinates of a target object in a coordinate system relative to the assembly are calculated. The system is similar to a touch screen system in form and operation except that the lack of requirement of a physical sensing surface provides a novel advantage over most existing touch screen technologies. The sensors are controlled by FPGA-based firmware and each proximity sensor in the system measures the range from the sensor to the target object. A software algorithm is implemented to calculate the x-y coordinates of the target object based on the distance measurements from at least two separate sensors and the known relative positions of these sensors. Existing proximity sensors were capable of determining the distance to an object with centimetric accuracy and were modified to obtain a wide field of view in the x-y axes with low beam angle in z in order to provide a detection area as large as possible. Design and implementation of the firmware, electronic hardware, mechanics and optics are covered in the paper. Possible future work would include characterisation with alternative designs of proximity sensors, as this is the component which determines the highest achievable accur1acy of the system.

  4. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  5. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  6. Detecting Triple Systems with Gravitational Wave Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiron, Yohai; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has recently discovered gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by merging black hole binaries. We examine whether future GW detections may identify triple companions of merging binaries. Such a triple companion causes variations in the GW signal due to: (1) the varying path length along the line of sight during the orbit around the center of mass; (2) relativistic beaming, Doppler, and gravitational redshift; (3) the variation of the “light”-travel time in the gravitational field of the triple companion; and (4) secular variations of the orbital elements. We find that the prospects for detecting a triple companion are the highest for low-mass compact object binaries which spend the longest time in the LIGO frequency band. In particular, for merging neutron star binaries, LIGO may detect a white dwarf or M-dwarf perturber at a signal-to-noise ratio of 8, if it is within 0.4 {R}ȯ distance from the binary and the system is within a distance of 100 Mpc. Stellar mass (supermassive) black hole perturbers may be detected at a factor 5 × (103×) larger separations. Such pertubers in orbit around a merging binary emit GWs at frequencies above 1 mHz detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna in coincidence.

  7. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    PubMed Central

    Aliane, Nourdine; Fernandez, Javier; Mata, Mario; Bemposta, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR) for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations. PMID:25421737

  8. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1993-12-01

    A-prototype explosives detection system that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear resonance absorption techniques is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection- alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  9. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable vapor detection systems. 182.480 Section 182... detection systems. (a) A flammable vapor detection system required by § 182.410(c) must meet UL 1110... checking the proper operation of a flammable vapor detection system must be posted at the primary operating...

  10. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable vapor detection systems. 182.480 Section 182... detection systems. (a) A flammable vapor detection system required by § 182.410(c) must meet UL 1110... checking the proper operation of a flammable vapor detection system must be posted at the primary operating...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.164 - Fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire detection systems. 1910.164 Section 1910.164 Labor... detection systems. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all automatic fire detection systems... detection systems and components to normal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or...

  12. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable vapor detection systems. 182.480 Section 182... detection systems. (a) A flammable vapor detection system required by § 182.410(c) must meet UL 1110... checking the proper operation of a flammable vapor detection system must be posted at the primary operating...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.164 - Fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire detection systems. 1910.164 Section 1910.164 Labor... detection systems. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all automatic fire detection systems... detection systems and components to normal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.164 - Fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire detection systems. 1910.164 Section 1910.164 Labor... detection systems. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all automatic fire detection systems... detection systems and components to normal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or...

  15. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable vapor detection systems. 182.480 Section 182... detection systems. (a) A flammable vapor detection system required by § 182.410(c) must meet UL 1110... checking the proper operation of a flammable vapor detection system must be posted at the primary operating...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.164 - Fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire detection systems. 1910.164 Section 1910.164 Labor... detection systems. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all automatic fire detection systems... detection systems and components to normal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or...

  17. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  18. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  19. Development of a Ballistic Impact Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    skin without causing the impact expected for a projectile of such weight and velocity. The spherical shapes used in the proof-of-concept less than...voltage recording for ID 65-4. Embedded Projectile Presumed Shock Wave Tissue Displacement Wave Development of a Ballistic Impact Detection System...the non-lethal phase. Calculated values for the non-lethal projectiles range from 46 to 66 Joules, at the velocities (250 – 300 ft/sec) used in the

  20. Stratification of pedigrees multiplex for systemic lupus erythematosus and for self-reported rheumatoid arthritis detects a systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility gene (SLER1) at 5p15.3.

    PubMed

    Namjou, Bahram; Nath, Swapan K; Kilpatrick, Jeff; Kelly, Jennifer A; Reid, Jeff; James, Judith A; Harley, John B

    2002-11-01

    Arthritis is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), appearing in approximately 85% of patients. Often, the polyarthritis at presentation of SLE cannot be distinguished from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by physical examination or history. Indeed, physicians initially tell many SLE patients that they have RA (one source of "self-reported RA"), only to have SLE established later. In addition, RA aggregates in families with an SLE proband. We predicted that pedigrees multiplex for both SLE and for self-reported RA would better isolate particular genetic effects. If this proved to be true, we would then use the increased genetic homogeneity to more easily reveal genetic linkage. From a collection of 160 pedigrees multiplex for SLE, we selected 36 pedigrees that also contained >or=2 members with self-reported RA (19 pedigrees were African American, 14 were European American, and 3 were of other ethnic origin). Data from a genome scan of 307 microsatellite markers were evaluated for SLE linkage by contemporary genetic epidemiologic techniques. The most significant evidence of linkage to SLE was obtained at 5p15.3 in the European American pedigrees by both parametric (logarithm of odds [LOD] score 6.2, P = 9.3 x 10(-8)) and nonparametric (LOD score 6.9, P = 1.7 x 10(-8)) methods. The best-fitting model for this putative SLE gene in this region was a recessive gene with a population frequency of 5% and with 50% penetrance in females and 15% penetrance in males at virtually 100% homogeneity. For a genetically complex disease phenotype, an unusually powerful linkage has been found with SLE at 5p15.3 in European American pedigrees multiplex for SLE and for self-reported RA. This result predicts the presence of a gene at the top of chromosome 5 in this subset of patients that is important for the pathogenesis of SLE.

  1. Incipient Transient Detection in Reactor Systems: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Lefteri H. Tsoukalas; S.T. Revankar; X Wang; R. Sattuluri

    2005-09-27

    The main goal of this research was to develop a method for detecting reactor system transients at the earliest possible time through a comprehensive experimental, testing and benchmarking program. This approach holds strong promise for developing new diagnostic technologies that are non-intrusive, generic and highly portable across different systems. It will help in the design of new generation nuclear power reactors, which utilize passive safety systems with a reliable and non-intrusive multiphase flow diagnostic system to monitor the function of the passive safety systems. The main objective of this research was to develop an improved fuzzy logic based detection method based on a comprehensive experimental testing program to detect reactor transients at the earliest possible time, practically at their birth moment. A fuzzy logic and neural network based transient identification methodology and implemented in a computer code called PROTREN was considered in this research and was compared with SPRT (Sequentially Probability Ratio Testing) decision and Bayesian inference. The project involved experiment, theoretical modeling and a thermal-hydraulic code assessment. It involved graduate and undergraduate students participation providing them with exposure and training in advanced reactor concepts and safety systems. In this final report, main tasks performed during the project period are summarized and the selected results are presented. Detailed descriptions for the tasks and the results are presented in previous yearly reports (Revankar et al 2003 and Revankar et al 2004).

  2. An evaluation of fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the testing and evaluation of four commercially available fiber optic intrusion detection systems. The systems were tested under carpet-type matting and in a vaulted ceiling application. This report will focus on nuisance alarm data and intrusion detection results. Tests were conducted in a mobile office building and in a bunker.

  3. Projection image enhancement for explosive detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) generate a series of 2-D projections from a series of X-ray scans OF luggage under inspection. 3-D volumetric images can also be generated from the collected data set. Extensive data manipulation of the 2-D and 3-D image sets for detecting the presence of explosives is done automatically by EDS. The results are then forwarded to human screeners for final review. The final determination as to whether the luggage contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed by trained TSA (Transportation Security Administration) screeners following an approved TSA protocol. The TSA protocol has the screeners visually inspect the resulting images and the renderings from the EDS to determine if the luggage is suspicious and consequently should be searched manually. Enhancing those projection images delivers a higher quality screening, reduces screening time and also reduces the amount of luggage that needs to be manually searched otherwise. This paper presents a novel edge detection algorithm that is geared towards, though not exclusive to, automated explosive detection systems. The goal of these enhancements is to provide a higher quality screening process while reducing the overall screening time and luggage search rates. Accurately determining the location of edge pixels within 2-D signals, often the first step in segmentation and recognition systems indicates the boundary between overlapping objects in a luggage. Most of the edge detection algorithms such as Canny, Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, and Laplacian methods are based on the first and second derivatives/difference operators. These operators detect the discontinuities in the differences of pixels. These approaches are sensitive to the presence of noise and could produce false edges in noisy images. Including large scale filters, may avoid errors generated by noise, but often simultaneously eliminating the finer edge details as

  4. An Automated Flying-Insect Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An automated flying-insect detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland-security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect s wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing-beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically. All AFIDS data are preprocessed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LabVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al-GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing-beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation. Preliminary data indicate that AFIDS has

  5. Vehicle detection system using artificial retina chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Koichi; Tamura, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Kyuma, Kazuo

    2001-05-01

    The AR chip is a versatile CMOS image sensor, functions are not only normal image acquisition but also on-chip image processing. Such features can accelerate algorithms of image processing and the controls of proper image. We have developed the low-cost and compact vehicle detection system using he AR chips. The system is composed of a processing module and an AR camera module. The AR Camera module has dual artificial retina chips to cover the wide dynamic range of the outdoor brightness environment. The ND filter is coated on the lens of one of the chips, each AR chip covers different range of the brightness. The control algorithm of image acquisition is designed to select an adequate chip based on the image quality. The images of the selected chip are processed by on-chip functions for pre-processing and they are transferred to the processing module. Finally the processing module judges the existence of vehicles and detects several kinds of attributive information of the detected vehicle such as moving direction. In our paper, we describe details of the system and the algorithm and we show several result data through field experiments under the real road environment.

  6. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  7. Microwave System for Detecting Ice on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Philip J.; Glynn, Dennis P., Jr.; Joseph, John C.

    2004-01-01

    A microwave-based system has been developed as a means of detecting ice on aircraft surfaces, with enough sensitivity to provide a warning before the ice accretes to a dangerous thickness. The system can measure the thickness of ice from a few mils (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) to about 1/4 in. (.6 mm) and can distinguish among (1) ice, (2) water (or deicing fluid), and (3) a mixture of ice and water (or deicing fluid). Sensors have been ruggedized to withstand the rain erosion environment.

  8. System and method for detecting gas

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  9. Evaluation of 3M molecular detection system and ANSR pathogen detection system for rapid detection of salmonella from egg products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel simple detection technology that amplifies DNA with high speed, efficiency, and specificity under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 3M Molecular Detection System (MDS) and ANSR Pathogen Det...

  10. Automatic flatness detection system for micro part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Wang, Xiaodong; Shan, Zhendong; Li, Kehong

    2016-01-01

    An automatic flatness detection system for micro rings is developed. It is made up of machine vision module, ring supporting module and control system. An industry CCD camera with the resolution of 1628×1236 pixel, a telecentric with magnification of two, and light sources are used to collect the vision information. A rotary stage with a polished silicon wafer is used to support the ring. The silicon wafer provides a mirror image and doubles the gap caused by unevenness of the ring. The control system comprise an industry computer and software written in LabVIEW Get Kernel and Convolute Function are selected to reduce noise and distortion, Laplacian Operator is used to sharp the image, and IMAQ Threshold function is used to separate the target object from the background. Based on this software, system repeating precision is 2.19 μm, less than one pixel. The designed detection system can easily identify the ring warpage larger than 5 μm, and if the warpage is less than 25 μm, it can be used in ring assembly and satisfied the final positionary and perpendicularity error requirement of the component.

  11. Immunoliposome-PCR: a generic ultrasensitive quantitative antigen detection system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    liposomes allows nonspecific DNA in the assay medium to be degraded with DNase I prior to quantification of the encapsulated reporter by PCR, which reduces false-positive results and improves quantitative accuracy. The ability to encapsulate multiple reporters per liposome also helps overcome the effect of polymerase inhibitors present in biological specimens. Finally, the biotin-labeled liposome detection reagent can be coupled through a NeutrAvidin bridge to a multitude of biotin-labeled probes, making ILPCR a highly generic assay system. PMID:22726242

  12. Detection system for ocular refractive error measurement.

    PubMed

    Ventura, L; de Faria e Sousa, S J; de Castro, J C

    1998-05-01

    An automatic and objective system for measuring ocular refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism) was developed. The system consists of projecting a light target (a ring), using a diode laser (lambda = 850 nm), at the fundus of the patient's eye. The light beams scattered from the retina are submitted to an optical system and are analysed with regard to their vergence by a CCD detector (matrix). This system uses the same basic principle for the projection of beams into the tested eye as some commercial refractors, but it is innovative regarding the ring-shaped measuring target for the projection system and the detection system where a matrix detector provides a wider range of measurement and a less complex system for the optical alignment. Also a dedicated electronic circuit was not necessary for treating the electronic signals from the detector (as the usual refractors do); instead a commercial frame grabber was used and software based on the heuristic search technique was developed. All the guiding equations that describe the system as well as the image processing procedure are presented in detail. Measurements in model eyes and in human eyes are in good agreement with retinoscopic measurements and they are also as precise as these kinds of measurements require (0.125D and 5 degrees).

  13. Incidentally Detected Blue Nevus of Endocervix: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Shaila Talengala; Shivamurthy, Archana; Kini Rao, Anuradha Calicut

    2015-01-01

    Blue nevi are uncommon, asymptomatic lesions of the uterine cervix. These lesions are not often detected clinically or on colposcopy. Careful histopathological examination is required. The nevus cells are said to originate from the immature melanoblasts of the neural crest. These lesions need to be differentiated from malignant melanoma and melanosis of the cervix. We present here a case report of incidentally detected cervical blue nevus in a 52 year old lady. PMID:26351493

  14. Integrating event detection system operation characteristics into sensor placement optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, William Eugene; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Murray, Regan Elizabeth; Hart, David Blaine

    2010-05-01

    We consider the problem of placing sensors in a municipal water network when we can choose both the location of sensors and the sensitivity and specificity of the contamination warning system. Sensor stations in a municipal water distribution network continuously send sensor output information to a centralized computing facility, and event detection systems at the control center determine when to signal an anomaly worthy of response. Although most sensor placement research has assumed perfect anomaly detection, signal analysis software has parameters that control the tradeoff between false alarms and false negatives. We describe a nonlinear sensor placement formulation, which we heuristically optimize with a linear approximation that can be solved as a mixed-integer linear program. We report the results of initial experiments on a real network and discuss tradeoffs between early detection of contamination incidents, and control of false alarms.

  15. Noninvasive biological sensor system for detection of drunk driving.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kohji; Fujita, Etsunori; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Shinitirou; Ogura, Yumi; Kamei, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Toshio; Kaneko, Shigehiko; Yoshizumi, Masao; Suzuki, Nobutaka

    2011-01-01

    Systems capable of monitoring the biological condition of a driver and issuing warnings during instances of drowsiness have recently been studied. Moreover, many researchers have reported that biological signals, such as brain waves, pulsation waves, and heart rate, are different between people who have and have not consumed alcohol. Currently, we are developing a noninvasive system to detect individuals driving under the influence of alcohol by measuring biological signals. We used the frequency time series analysis to attempt to distinguish between normal and intoxicated states of a person as the basis of the sensing system.

  16. The ITER Radial Neutron Camera Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Marocco, D.; Belli, F.; Esposito, B.; Petrizzi, L.; Riva, M.; Bonheure, G.; Kaschuck, Y.

    2008-03-12

    A multichannel neutron detection system (Radial Neutron Camera, RNC) will be installed on the ITER equatorial port plug 1 for total neutron source strength, neutron emissivity/ion temperature profiles and n{sub t}/n{sub d} ratio measurements [1]. The system is composed by two fan shaped collimating structures: an ex-vessel structure, looking at the plasma core, containing tree sets of 12 collimators (each set lying on a different toroidal plane), and an in-vessel structure, containing 9 collimators, for plasma edge coverage. The RNC detecting system will work in a harsh environment (neutron fiux up to 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} s, magnetic field >0.5 T or in-vessel detectors), should provide both counting and spectrometric information and should be flexible enough to cover the high neutron flux dynamic range expected during the different ITER operation phases. ENEA has been involved in several activities related to RNC design and optimization [2,3]. In the present paper the up-to-date design and the neutron emissivity reconstruction capabilities of the RNC will be described. Different options for detectors suitable for spectrometry and counting (e.g. scintillators and diamonds) focusing on the implications in terms of overall RNC performance will be discussed. The increase of the RNC capabilities offered by the use of new digital data acquisition systems will be also addressed.

  17. Advanced kick detection systems improve HPHT operations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, T.W.R.; Hendriks, P.; Surewaard, J.H.G.

    1995-09-01

    Many high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) wells are often characterized by the small margins that can exist between pore pressure and formation strength. Therefore, it is not surprising that kicks are far more likely to occur in HPHT wells and that a greater risk of internal blowout exists. The development and application of advanced kick detection systems for HPHT wells can help manage risks and improve drilling efficiency. Such systems enable earlier well shut-in, minimizing both the influx volume and the subsequent well bore pressures. This in turn lowers the risk, time and cost required for well control operations. Carefully considered application of these systems can also justify favorable economic benefits by optimization of the HPHT preliminary casing design. Minimizing kick volume can be important for the critical HPHT hole sections, where a reduced operating margin between pore pressure and fracture gradient exists, defining small design kick tolerance limits to permit safe drilling ahead to reach specified objectives. Kick detection for HPHT wells equivalent to less than 5 bbl of gas influx are often necessary to adequately minimize the risk of internal blowout and obtain the same levels of safety which are applied to conventional wells. This paper reviews these systems for both on-shore and off-shore operations.

  18. Data mining for prospective early detection of safety signals in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): a case study of febrile seizures after a 2010-2011 seasonal influenza virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Martin, David; Menschik, David; Bryant-Genevier, Marthe; Ball, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Reports of data mining results as an initial indication of a prospectively detected safety signal in the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) have been limited. In April 2010 a vaccine safety signal for febrile seizures after Fluvax(®) and Fluvax(®) Junior was identified in Australia without the aid of data mining. In order to refine Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine safety surveillance, VAERS data mining analyses based on vaccine brand name were initiated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We describe the strategies that led to the finding of a novel safety signal using empirical Bayesian data mining. The primary US VAERS analysis calculated an empirical Bayesian geometric mean (EBGM), which was adjusted for age group, sex and year received. A secondary age-stratified analysis calculated a separate EBGM for 11 pre-defined age subsets. These bi-weekly analyses were generated with database restrictions that separated live and inactivated vaccines as well as with the US VAERS database. A cutoff of 2.0 at the fifth percentile of the confidence interval (CI) for the EBGM, the EB05, was used to identify vaccine adverse event combinations for further evaluation. Examination of potential interactions among concomitantly administered vaccines is based on the Interaction Signal Score (INTSS), which is a relative measure of how much excess disproportionality is present in the three-dimensional combination of two vaccines and one adverse event term. An INTSS >1 indicates that the CI for the three-dimensional analysis is larger than and does not overlap with the CI from the highest two-dimensional analysis. We subsequently examined the possibility of masking by removing all 2,095 Fluzone(®) 2010-2011 reports from the 10 December 2010 version of the VAERS database. In addition, we calculated relative reporting ratios to observe the relative contribution of adjustment and the Multi-Item Gamma Poisson Shrinker (MGPS) algorithm to EBGM values. On 10

  19. Global ionospheric flare detection system (GIFDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Daniela; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Mayer, Christoph; Valladares, Cesar; Heber, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    The Global Ionospheric Flare Detection System (GIFDS) is currently under development at the German Aerospace Center as a ground based detector for continuous monitoring of the solar flare activity in order to provide real time warnings on solar X-ray events. GIFDS is using Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio transmissions in the northern hemisphere which respond to enhanced ionization in the bottomside ionosphere caused by X-ray flares. Since solar flares can only be detected during daytime, VLF receivers have to be installed around the globe to guarantee continuous records at the dayside sector. GIFDS consists of a network of Perseus SDR (Software Defined Radio) receivers equipped with a MiniWhip antenna each. Reliable detection of solar flares is ensured by recording multiple frequency channels ranging from 0 to 500 kHz. The applicability of the system is demonstrated in a first analysis by comparing VLF measurements with GOES's (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) X-ray flux data. The high potential of GIFDS for a permanent monitoring of solar flares in near real time is discussed.

  20. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a smoke detection system must be located on the overhead of the compartment protected by the system in a location...

  1. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  2. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  3. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  4. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  5. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a smoke detection system must be located on the overhead of the compartment protected by the system in a location...

  6. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a smoke detection system must be located on the overhead of the compartment protected by the system in a location...

  7. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Benítez, Néstor; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, José; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur. PMID:27136548

  8. Supersensitive SQUID/magnetostrictor detecting system

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, Aleksander I; Zherikhina, L N; Tskhovrebov, Andrei M; Izmailov, G N

    2012-12-31

    It is shown that using the state-of-the-art quantum interferometer (SQUID) with the resolution 10{sup -6} {Phi}{sub 0} Hz{sup -1/2} = 2.07 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -21} Wb Hz{sup -1/2}, coupled to a magnetostrictor, playing the role of tensomagnetic transducer, it is possible to construct a system for detecting pressure variations with the ultimate sensitivity of 10{sup -13} Pa Hz{sup -1/2} and for measuring specific elongation with the sensitivity of 10{sup -24} Hz{sup -1/2}. The analysis of physical grounds of the inverse magnetostriction effect demonstrates concrete ways to essentially higher efficiency of tensomagnetic conversion. The estimates performed demonstrate the possibility of using the SQUID/magnetostrictor system as a detector of gravitational waves. Other possibilities of using this system for solving both fundamental and applied problems are also considered. (experimental techniques)

  9. Arc burst pattern analysis fault detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting an arcing fault on a power line carrying a load current. Parameters indicative of power flow and possible fault events on the line, such as voltage and load current, are monitored and analyzed for an arc burst pattern exhibited by arcing faults in a power system. These arcing faults are detected by identifying bursts of each half-cycle of the fundamental current. Bursts occurring at or near a voltage peak indicate arcing on that phase. Once a faulted phase line is identified, a comparison of the current and voltage reveals whether the fault is located in a downstream direction of power flow toward customers, or upstream toward a generation station. If the fault is located downstream, the line is de-energized, and if located upstream, the line may remain energized to prevent unnecessary power outages.

  10. Optical imaging module for astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Min; Cheng, Chung-Hsiang; Molnar, Gabor; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Hwu, En-Te; Huang, Kuang-Yuh

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, an optical imaging module design for an astigmatic detection system (ADS) is presented. The module is based on a commercial optical pickup unit (OPU) and it contains a coaxial illuminant for illuminating a specimen. Furthermore, the imaging module facilitates viewing the specimen and the detection laser spot of the ADS with a lateral resolution of approximately 1 μm without requiring the removal of an element of the OPU. Two polarizers and one infrared filter are used to eliminate stray laser light in the OPU and stray light produced by the illuminant. Imaging modules designed for digital versatile disks (DVDs) and Blu-ray DVDs were demonstrated. Furthermore, the module can be used for imaging a small cantilever with approximate dimensions of 2 μm (width) × 5 μm (length), and therefore, it has the potential to be used in high-speed atomic force microscopy.

  11. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOEpatents

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  12. INFERNO: a system for early outbreak detection and signature forecasting.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Elena N; O'Neil, E; MacNeill, I

    2005-08-26

    Public health surveillance systems that monitor daily disease incidence provide valuable information about threats to public health and enable public health authorities to detect enteric outbreaks rapidly. This report describes the INtegrated Forecasts and EaRly eNteric Outbreak (INFERNO) detection system of algorithms for outbreak detection and forecasting. INFERNO incorporates existing knowledge of infectious disease epidemiology into adaptive forecasts and uses the concept of an outbreak signature as a composite of disease epidemic curves. Four main components comprise the system: 1) training, 2) warning and flagging, 3) signature forecasting, and 4) evaluation. The unifying goal of the system is to gain insight into the nature of temporal variations in the incidence of infection. Daily collected records are smoothed initially by using a loess-type smoother. Upon receipt of new data, the smoothing is updated; estimates are made of the first two derivatives of the smoothed curve, which are used for near-term forecasting. Recent data and near-term forecasts are used to compute a five level, color-coded warning index to quantify the level of concern. Warning algorithms are designed to balance false detection of an epidemic (Type I errors) with failure to correctly detect an epidemic (Type II errors). If the warning index signals a sufficiently high probability of an epidemic, the fitting of a gamma-based signature curve to the actual data produces a forecast of the possible size of the outbreak. Although the system is under development, its potential has been demonstrated through successful use of emergency department records associated with a substantial waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis that occurred in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1993. Prospects for further development, including adjustment for seasonality and reporting delays, are also outlined.

  13. Remote health monitoring system for detecting cardiac disorders.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ayush; Kumar, Sunil; Bajpai, Anurag; Tiwari, Vijay N; Nayak, Mithun; Venkatesan, Shankar; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-12-01

    Remote health monitoring system with clinical decision support system as a key component could potentially quicken the response of medical specialists to critical health emergencies experienced by their patients. A monitoring system, specifically designed for cardiac care with electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analysis as the core diagnostic technique, could play a vital role in early detection of a wide range of cardiac ailments, from a simple arrhythmia to life threatening conditions such as myocardial infarction. The system that the authors have developed consists of three major components, namely, (a) mobile gateway, deployed on patient's mobile device, that receives 12-lead ECG signals from any ECG sensor, (b) remote server component that hosts algorithms for accurate annotation and analysis of the ECG signal and (c) point of care device of the doctor to receive a diagnostic report from the server based on the analysis of ECG signals. In the present study, their focus has been toward developing a system capable of detecting critical cardiac events well in advance using an advanced remote monitoring system. A system of this kind is expected to have applications ranging from tracking wellness/fitness to detection of symptoms leading to fatal cardiac events.

  14. [Foodborne illness report systems in China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianghui; Li, Fengqin; Li, Ning; Yan, Weixing; Xu, Haibin; Ma, Ning; Song, Xiaoyu; Liang, Jiang; Wang, Xiaodan; Gao, Peng

    2013-09-01

    To introduce the current foodborne illness report system in China. Foodborne illness (food poisoning included) report system and food related unusual cases reported system were characterized by their report definitions, scopes and report procedures as well as their differences. From October, 2010 to June, 2012, there are 2961 centers of disease control and prevention and heath executive organizations at the different local levels registered in the foodborne illness (food poisoning included) report system and 1525 incidents were reported. There were 553 hospitals registered in the food related unusual cases reported system while only 38 cases reported. The foodborne illness report system has been set up in China and further efforts in capacities building are needed.

  15. Development of a Calibration Strip for Immunochromatographic Assay Detection Systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue-Ming; Wei, Jian-Chong; Mak, Peng-Un; Vai, Mang-I; Du, Min; Pun, Sio-Hang

    2016-06-29

    With many benefits and applications, immunochromatographic (ICG) assay detection systems have been reported on a great deal. However, the existing research mainly focuses on increasing the dynamic detection range or application fields. Calibration of the detection system, which has a great influence on the detection accuracy, has not been addressed properly. In this context, this work develops a calibration strip for ICG assay photoelectric detection systems. An image of the test strip is captured by an image acquisition device, followed by performing a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm and maximin-distance algorithm for image segmentation. Additionally, experiments are conducted to find the best characteristic quantity. By analyzing the linear coefficient, an average value of hue (H) at 14 min is chosen as the characteristic quantity and the empirical formula between H and optical density (OD) value is established. Therefore, H, saturation (S), and value (V) are calculated by a number of selected OD values. Then, H, S, and V values are transferred to the RGB color space and a high-resolution printer is used to print the strip images on cellulose nitrate membranes. Finally, verification of the printed calibration strips is conducted by analyzing the linear correlation between OD and the spectral reflectance, which shows a good linear correlation (R² = 98.78%).

  16. Development of a Calibration Strip for Immunochromatographic Assay Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yue-Ming; Wei, Jian-Chong; Mak, Peng-Un; Vai, Mang-I.; Du, Min; Pun, Sio-Hang

    2016-01-01

    With many benefits and applications, immunochromatographic (ICG) assay detection systems have been reported on a great deal. However, the existing research mainly focuses on increasing the dynamic detection range or application fields. Calibration of the detection system, which has a great influence on the detection accuracy, has not been addressed properly. In this context, this work develops a calibration strip for ICG assay photoelectric detection systems. An image of the test strip is captured by an image acquisition device, followed by performing a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm and maximin-distance algorithm for image segmentation. Additionally, experiments are conducted to find the best characteristic quantity. By analyzing the linear coefficient, an average value of hue (H) at 14 min is chosen as the characteristic quantity and the empirical formula between H and optical density (OD) value is established. Therefore, H, saturation (S), and value (V) are calculated by a number of selected OD values. Then, H, S, and V values are transferred to the RGB color space and a high-resolution printer is used to print the strip images on cellulose nitrate membranes. Finally, verification of the printed calibration strips is conducted by analyzing the linear correlation between OD and the spectral reflectance, which shows a good linear correlation (R2 = 98.78%). PMID:27367694

  17. WCEDS: A waveform correlation event detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.J.; Beiriger, J.I.; Trujillo, J.R.; Withers, M.M.; Aster, R.C.; Astiz, L.; Shearer, P.M.

    1995-08-01

    We have developed a working prototype of a grid-based global event detection system based on waveform correlation. The algorithm comes from a long-period detector but we have recast it in a full matrix formulation which can reduce the number of multiplications needed by better than two orders of magnitude for realistic monitoring scenarios. The reduction is made possible by eliminating redundant multiplications in the original formulation. All unique correlations for a given origin time are stored in a correlation matrix (C) which is formed by a full matrix product of a Master Image matrix (M) and a data matrix (D). The detector value at each grid point is calculated by following a different summation path through the correlation matrix. Master Images can be derived either empirically or synthetically. Our testing has used synthetic Master Images because their influence on the detector is easier to understand. We tested the system using the matrix formulation with continuous data from the IRIS (Incorporate Research Institutes for Seismology) broadband global network to monitor a 2 degree evenly spaced surface grid with a time discretization of 1 sps; we successfully detected the largest event in a two hour segment from October 1993. The output at the correct gridpoint was at least 33% larger than at adjacent grid points, and the output at the correct gridpoint at the correct origin time was more than 500% larger than the output at the same gridpoint immediately before or after. Analysis of the C matrix for the origin time of the event demonstrates that there are many significant ``false`` correlations of observed phases with incorrect predicted phases. These false correlations dull the sensitivity of the detector and so must be dealt with if our system is to attain detection thresholds consistent with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

  18. Microfluidics-based integrated airborne pathogen detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrup, M. Allen; Alleman-Sposito, Jennifer; Austin, Todd; Devitt, Amy; Fong, Donna; Lin, Phil; Nakao, Brian; Pourahmadi, Farzad; Vinas, Mary; Yuan, Bob

    2006-09-01

    Microfluidic Systems is focused on building microfluidic platforms that interface front-end mesofluidics to handle real world sample volumes for optimal sensitivity coupled to microfluidic circuitry to process small liquid volumes for complex reagent metering, mixing, and biochemical analysis, particularly for pathogens. MFSI is the prime contractor on two programs for the US Department of Homeland Security: BAND (Bioagent Autonomous Networked Detector) and IBADS (Instantaneous Bio-Aerosol Detection System). The goal of BAND is to develop an autonomous system for monitoring the air for known biological agents. This consists of air collection, sample lysis, sample purification, detection of DNA, RNA, and toxins, and a networked interface to report the results. For IBADS, MFSI is developing the confirmatory device which must verify the presence of a pathogen with 5 minutes of an air collector/trigger sounding an alarm. Instrument designs and biological assay results from both BAND and IBADS will be presented.

  19. An in-house developed annular bright field detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Leonardo; Wright, Ian; Pingstone, Daniel; Steward, Jonathan; Gilks, Daniel; Lazarov, Vlado K.

    2014-06-01

    Annular bright field (ABF) detectors have been developed in the last few years allowing the direct imaging of low-Z atoms from oxygen down to hydrogen. These types of detectors are now available as standard attachments for the latest generation of top-end electron microscopes. However these systems cannot always be installed in previous generation microscopes. In this paper we report the preliminary results of an in-house implementation of a ABF detection system on a CEOS aberration corrected JEOL 2200FS STEM. This has been obtained by exploiting the standard BF detector coupled with a high vacuum compatible, X-ray tight and retractable shadowing mechanism. This results in the acquisition of near zero-angle scattered electrons with inner collection semi-angle from 2.0 mrad to 23 mrad and outer semi-angle in the range from 3.0 mrad to 35 mrad. The characteristics and performances of this ABF detection system are discussed.

  20. The COMPASS RICH-1 fast photon detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbon, P.; Alexeev, M.; Angerer, H.; Birsa, R.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Colantoni, M. L.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Delagnes, E.; Denisov, O.; Deschamps, H.; Diaz, V.; Dibiase, N.; Duic, V.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Gerassimov, S.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Hagemann, R.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Joosten, R.; Ketzer, B.; Kolosov, V. N.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Kramer, D.; Kunne, F.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Mann, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Mutter, A.; Nähle, O.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Pizzolotto, C.; Polak, J.; Rebourgeard, P.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schoenmeier, P.; Schröder, W.; Silva, L.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Svec, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Wollny, H.

    2008-09-01

    A fast photon detection system has been built as a part of the upgrade of the COMPASS RICH-1 detector: it is based on 576 multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes and fast readout electronics. This system has replaced the MWPCs with CsI photo-cathodes in the central region (1.3m, 25% of the total area) of the COMPASS RICH-1 photon detectors and has successfully been operated during the data taking in 2006 and 2007. We report about the fast photon detection system design, construction and commissioning, in particular about the design optimization and the validation tests of the lens telescopes. Preliminary values for the increased performances of COMPASS RICH-1 after the upgrade are also presented.

  1. Electrical breakdown detection system for dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilardi, Michele; Busfield, James J. C.; Carpi, Federico

    2017-04-01

    Electrical breakdown of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) is an issue that has to be carefully addressed when designing systems based on this novel technology. Indeed, in some systems electrical breakdown might have serious consequences, not only in terms of interruption of the desired function but also in terms of safety of the overall system (e.g. overheating and even burning). The risk for electrical breakdown often cannot be completely avoided by simply reducing the driving voltages, either because completely safe voltages might not generate sufficient actuation or because internal or external factors might change some properties of the actuator whilst in operation (for example the aging or fatigue of the material, or an externally imposed deformation decreasing the distance between the compliant electrodes). So, there is the clear need for reliable, simple and cost-effective detection systems that are able to acknowledge the occurrence of a breakdown event, making DEA-based devices able to monitor their status and become safer and "selfaware". Here a simple solution for a portable detection system is reported that is based on a voltage-divider configuration that detects the voltage drop at the DEA terminals and assesses the occurrence of breakdown via a microcontroller (Beaglebone Black single-board computer) combined with a real-time, ultra-low-latency processing unit (Bela cape an open-source embedded platform developed at Queen Mary University of London). The system was used to both generate the control signal that drives the actuator and constantly monitor the functionality of the actuator, detecting any breakdown event and discontinuing the supplied voltage accordingly, so as to obtain a safer controlled actuation. This paper presents preliminary tests of the detection system in different scenarios in order to assess its reliability.

  2. Natural contamination in radionuclide detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, N.A.

    1980-10-01

    Through the use of low-level gamma-ray spectrometry, clean material for construction of radionuclide detection systems has been identified. In general aluminum contains high quantities of /sup 232/Th and /sup 238/U with minimal quantities of /sup 40/K. Stainless steels contain /sup 60/Co. The radioactive contents of foams, cements, and light reflective materials are quite variable. Molecular sieve materials used in germanium spectrometers contain from 4-9 dpm/g. Only through a judicious choice of materials can a spectrometer with the lowest achievable background be assembled.

  3. A dual-threshold radar detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, K. J.

    It is known that the beam agility of a phased-array radar can be utilized to enhance target detection capability as compared to a radar which has the same power but which radiates its energy uniformly over the solid angle being surveilled. A dual-threshold approach for realizing this enhancement is examined. Quantitative results are presented parametrically for four signal fluctuation models. The study also identifies the optimum combination of dual-threshold design parameters for each target model under a wide range of imposed system constraints such as the allowed number of false alarms per beam position. It is shown that under certain imposed constraints, no enhancement is possible.

  4. Systems and methods for detecting and processing

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Michael M.; Yoshimura, Ann S.

    2006-03-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provides systems and method for detecting. Sensing modules are provided in communication with one or more detectors. In some embodiments, detectors are provided that are sensitive to chemical, biological, or radiological agents. Embodiments of sensing modules include processing capabilities to analyze, perform computations on, and/or run models to predict or interpret data received from one or more detectors. Embodiments of sensing modules form various network configurations with one another and/or with one or more data aggregation devices. Some embodiments of sensing modules include power management functionalities.

  5. Armando System Measurements at R-306 FY 2003 Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Lutz; S. A. Baker

    2003-09-01

    This report details some of the measurements made by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to characterize the Armando radiographic detection system and marks the completion of the R-306 Armando System Characterization milestone. The measurements, made in July 2003, utilized the Cygnus pulse power machine, which was assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Firing Site R-306. This report describes the test configuration used and the findings concerning the following Armando radiographic detection system issues for source spot size, mirror vs. pellicle performance, scintillator configuration evaluation, resolution and reproducibility, off-axis scatter contribution, and source spectra reproducibility.

  6. Leak and Pipe Detection Method and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for locating leaks of conductive fluids from non-conductive pipes and other structures or for locat- ing non-conductive pipes or structures having conductive fluid contained therein, employ a charge generator to apply a time varying charge to the conductive fluid, and a capaci- tive type detector that can detect the variable charge that is induced in the fluid. The capacitive detector, which prefer- ably includes a handheld housing, employs a large conduc- tive pickup plate that is used to locate the pipe or leak by scanning the plate over the ground and detecting the induced charge that is generated when the plate comes in close proximity to the pipe or leak. If a leak is encountered, the resulting signal will appear over an area larger than expected for a buried pipe, assuming the leak provides an electrically conductive path between the flow and the wet surrounding ground. The detector uses any suitable type of indicator device, such as a pair of headphones that enable an operator to hear the detected signal as a chirping sound, for example.

  7. Airport Economics: Management Control Financial Reporting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of management control financial reporting systems for airport operation is discussed. The operation of the system to provide the reports required for determining the specific revenue producing facilities of airports is described. The organization of the cost reporting centers to show the types of information provided by the system is analyzed.

  8. Airport Economics: Management Control Financial Reporting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of management control financial reporting systems for airport operation is discussed. The operation of the system to provide the reports required for determining the specific revenue producing facilities of airports is described. The organization of the cost reporting centers to show the types of information provided by the system is analyzed.

  9. Formation and Detection of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. The most detailed models of planetary growth are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed, and the methods that are being used and planned for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets are reviewed.

  10. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  11. High resolution detection system of capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Li Qiang; Shi, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Lu, Zu Kang

    2007-12-01

    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser induced fluorescence detection (LIFD) system was founded according to confocal theory. The 3-D adjustment of the exciting and collecting optical paths was realized. The photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used and the signals are processed by a software designed by ourselves. Under computer control, high voltage is applied to appropriate reservoirs and to inject and separate DNA samples respectively. Two fluorescent dyes Thiazole Orange (TO) and SYBR Green I were contrasted. With both of the dyes, high signals-to-noise images were obtained with the CE-LIFD system. The single-bases can be distinguished from the electrophoretogram and high resolution of DNA sample separation was obtained.

  12. Threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocoy, Edward H.; Pierowicz, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Calspan SRL Corporation is currently developing an on- vehicle threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance (ICA) as part of its ICA program with the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Crash scenarios were previously defined and an on-board radar sensor was designed. This paper describes recent efforts that include the development of a simulation of a multitarget tracker and collision avoidance algorithm used to predict system performance in a variety of target configurations in the various ICA crash scenarios. In addition, a current headway radar was mounted on the Calspan Instrumented Vehicle and in-traffic data were recorded for two limited crash scenarios. Warning functions were developed through the simulation and applied to the recorded data.

  13. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center.

  14. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1992-01-01

    This task specified developing the hardware and software necessary to implement the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm, developed under Technology Test Bed (TTB) Task 21, on the TTB engine stand. This effort involved building two units; one unit to be installed in the Block II Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Hardware Simulation Lab (HSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and one unit to be installed at the TTB engine stand. Rocketdyne personnel from the HSL performed the task. The SAFD algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failure as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient condition.

  15. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1992-07-01

    This task specified developing the hardware and software necessary to implement the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm, developed under Technology Test Bed (TTB) Task 21, on the TTB engine stand. This effort involved building two units; one unit to be installed in the Block II Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Hardware Simulation Lab (HSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and one unit to be installed at the TTB engine stand. Rocketdyne personnel from the HSL performed the task. The SAFD algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failure as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient condition.

  16. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for standoff explosives detection : LDRD 138733 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Theisen, Lisa Anne; Linker, Kevin Lane

    2009-09-01

    Continued acts of terrorism using explosive materials throughout the world have led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially technologies that have a potential for remote or standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the benefit of the possible use of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff explosives detection equipment. Standoff detection of explosives is currently one of the most difficult problems facing the explosives detection community. Increased domestic and troop security could be achieved through the remote detection of explosives. An effective remote or standoff explosives detection capability would save lives and prevent losses of mission-critical resources by increasing the distance between the explosives and the intended targets and/or security forces. Many sectors of the US government are urgently attempting to obtain useful equipment to deploy to our troops currently serving in hostile environments. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff detection systems. This report documents the potential opportunities that Sandia National Laboratories can contribute to the field of QCL development. The following is a list of areas where SNL can contribute: (1) Determine optimal wavelengths for standoff explosives detection utilizing QCLs; (2) Optimize the photon collection and detection efficiency of a detection system for optical spectroscopy; (3) Develop QCLs with broader wavelength tunability (current technology is a 10% change in wavelength) while maintaining high efficiency; (4) Perform system engineering in the design of a complete detection system and not just the laser head; and (5) Perform real-world testing with explosive materials with commercial prototype detection systems.

  17. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system...

  18. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Steven A; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  19. Doppler-corrected differential detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Doppler in a communication system operating with a multiple differential phase-shift-keyed format (MDPSK) creates an adverse phase shift in an incoming signal. An open loop frequency estimation is derived from a Doppler-contaminated incoming signal. Based upon the recognition that, whereas the change in phase of the received signal over a full symbol contains both the differentially encoded data and the Doppler induced phase shift, the same change in phase over half a symbol (within a given symbol interval) contains only the Doppler induced phase shift, and the Doppler effect can be estimated and removed from the incoming signal. Doppler correction occurs prior to the receiver's final output of decoded data. A multiphase system can operate with two samplings per symbol interval at no penalty in signal-to-noise ratio provided that an ideal low pass pre-detection filter is employed, and two samples, at 1/4 and 3/4 of the symbol interval T sub s, are taken and summed together prior to incoming signal data detection.

  20. Simulation Model of Mobile Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunds, T; Faissol, D; Yao, Y

    2009-01-27

    In this paper, we consider a mobile source that we attempt to detect with man-portable, vehicle-mounted or boat-mounted radiation detectors. The source is assumed to transit an area populated with these mobile detectors, and the objective is to detect the source before it reaches a perimeter. We describe a simulation model developed to estimate the probability that one of the mobile detectors will come in to close proximity of the moving source and detect it. We illustrate with a maritime simulation example. Our simulation takes place in a 10 km by 5 km rectangular bay patrolled by boats equipped with 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch NaI detectors. Boats to be inspected enter the bay and randomly proceed to one of seven harbors on the shore. A source-bearing boat enters the mouth of the bay and proceeds to a pier on the opposite side. We wish to determine the probability that the source is detected and its range from target when detected. Patrol boats select the nearest in-bound boat for inspection and initiate an intercept course. Once within an operational range for the detection system, a detection algorithm is started. If the patrol boat confirms the source is not present, it selects the next nearest boat for inspection. Each run of the simulation ends either when a patrol successfully detects a source or when the source reaches its target. Several statistical detection algorithms have been implemented in the simulation model. First, a simple k-sigma algorithm, which alarms with the counts in a time window exceeds the mean background plus k times the standard deviation of background, is available to the user. The time window used is optimized with respect to the signal-to-background ratio for that range and relative speed. Second, a sequential probability ratio test [Wald 1947] is available, and configured in this simulation with a target false positive probability of 0.001 and false negative probability of 0.1. This test is utilized when the mobile detector maintains

  1. Apollo experience report: Problem reporting and corrective action system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Apollo spacecraft Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System is presented. The evolution from the early system to the present day system is described. The deficiencies and the actions taken to correct them are noted, as are management controls for both the contractor and NASA. Significant experience gained from the Apollo Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System that may be applicable to future manned spacecraft is presented.

  2. Technical specifications manual for the MARK-1 pulsed ionizing radiation detection system. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.S.; Harker, Y.D.; Jones, J.L.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The MARK-1 detection system was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation. The completely portable system was designed for the detection and analysis of intense photon emissions from pulsed ionizing radiation sources. This manual presents the technical design specifications for the MARK-1 detection system and was written primarily to assist the support or service technician in the service, calibration, and repair of the system. The manual presents the general detection system theory, the MARK-1 component design specifications, the acquisition and control software, the data processing sequence, and the system calibration procedure. A second manual entitled: Volume 2: Operations Manual for the MARK-1 Pulsed Ionizing Radiation Detection System (USDOE Report WINCO-1108, September 1992) provides a general operational description of the MARK-1 detection system. The Operations Manual was written primarily to assist the field operator in system operations and analysis of the data.

  3. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    PubMed

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  5. Final Report on the Detection of Green Monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; DeVor, Robert W.; Bauer, Brint M.; Captain, James; Coutts, Janelle L.; Surma, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) funded a project titled "Familiarization and Detection of Green Monopropellants" utilizing Independent Research and Technology Development (IR&TD) and Center Innovation Fund (CIF) funding. The purpose of the project was to evaluate methods of detection for ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN). An Engineering Services Contract (ESC) task order was created with the scope of evaluation of several methods of detecting ADN- and HAN-based propellants, as well as development of methods for detection. Detection methods include developed methods such as colorimetric indicating absorbent socks, and commercial-off-the- shelf (COTS) units for ammonia detection. An additional goal of the task order was for ESC to become familiar with ADN's and HAN's material properties and material compatibility. Two approaches were initially investigated as possible methods for the detection of HAN (or AFM315E) and ADN (or LMP-103S). These approaches were colorimetric analysis and instrumentation-based COTS vapor sensors utilization. Initial testing showed that the relatively non-existent vapor pressure of the AF-M315E (of which HAN is a major component) propellant would make the use of COTS sensors difficult for real-time area monitoring of HAN; a small response was detected through the use of active COTS sensors, including the RAE Systems MultiRAE Lite and Drager X-act (registered) 5000, but the levels detected were below the threshold limit value for the toxic gas ammonia. Therefore, a detection system ased upon a colorimetric indicator impregnated into an absorbent material was developed. Preliminary analysis (ESC-245-FDG-001) identified a particularly outstanding candidate as a colorimetric indicator for the detection of the presence of AF-M315E in the form of a Methyl Red (Basic) indicator. Materials impregnated with this indicator exhibit significant color change and the

  6. Development of a Magnetic Beads Quantitative Detection System for Fast Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yujiro; Morishita, Tomohiro; Matsuyama, Kenji; Takasa, Kenji; Shibasaki, Ichiro

    This paper reports the development and performance of a detection system for magnetic beads. The system consists of a semiconductor based magneto-resistance sensor for beads detection and a lateral flow kit. Detection of anti-gen of H.Influenza at concentration of 0.1ng/ml was performed with satisfactory sensitivity, showing the system to be a promising for immunoassay.

  7. Advanced Water Vapor Lidar Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    1998-01-01

    In the present water vapor lidar system, the detected signal is sent over long cables to a waveform digitizer in a CAMAC crate. This has the disadvantage of transmitting analog signals for a relatively long distance, which is subjected to pickup noise, leading to a decrease in the signal to noise ratio. Generally, errors in the measurement of water vapor with the DIAL method arise from both random and systematic sources. Systematic errors in DIAL measurements are caused by both atmospheric and instrumentation effects. The selection of the on-line alexandrite laser with a narrow linewidth, suitable intensity and high spectral purity, and its operation at the center of the water vapor lines, ensures minimum influence in the DIAL measurement that are caused by the laser spectral distribution and avoid system overloads. Random errors are caused by noise in the detected signal. Variability of the photon statistics in the lidar return signal, noise resulting from detector dark current, and noise in the background signal are the main sources of random error. This type of error can be minimized by maximizing the signal to noise ratio. The increase in the signal to noise ratio can be achieved by several ways. One way is to increase the laser pulse energy, by increasing its amplitude or the pulse repetition rate. Another way, is to use a detector system with higher quantum efficiency and lower noise, on the other hand, the selection of a narrow band optical filter that rejects most of the day background light and retains high optical efficiency is an important issue. Following acquisition of the lidar data, we minimize random errors in the DIAL measurement by averaging the data, but this will result in the reduction of the vertical and horizontal resolutions. Thus, a trade off is necessary to achieve a balance between the spatial resolution and the measurement precision. Therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to increase the signal to noise ratio by a factor of

  8. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der

    2002-09-01

    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  9. Leak detection system upgrades Cochin pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, B.; O`Leary, C.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco Canada`s Cochin pipeline system consists of 1,900 miles of 12-inch pipeline, 31 pump stations, eight injection/delivery stations and five propane terminals. It originates just northeast of Edmonton and crosses into the US in North Dakota, runs south of Lake Michigan, turns northeast to pass through Detroit and terminates in Sarnia, Ontario. In 1991, it was decided to significantly upgrade facilities for operating the Cochin pipeline. The control center hardware was obsolete, including parts and components no longer available. Also, SCADA and modeling software was no longer supported by outside vendors or consultants and there was only limited in-house support available. The land-based communications system was unreliable and expensive. Goals for the upgrade project included maintaining (improving) reliability and minimizing operating risks. Amoco Canada wanted to ensure reliable operations and support, provide reliable and effective leak detection, establish dependable communications, have the capability to respond to market additions or changes and maintain customer and regulatory confidence. Another important goal was to minimize operating costs. Specifically, methods were sought to minimize power costs, communications expense and support and maintenance expenditures while eliminating non-productive work. This paper reviews the resulting design and performance of this system.

  10. Method and system for turbomachinery surge detection

    DOEpatents

    Faymon, David K.; Mays, Darrell C.; Xiong, Yufei

    2004-11-23

    A method and system for surge detection within a gas turbine engine, comprises: measuring the compressor discharge pressure (CDP) of the gas turbine over a period of time; determining a time derivative (CDP.sub.D ) of the measured (CDP) correcting the CDP.sub.D for altitude, (CDP.sub.DCOR); estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2 ; estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR ; and determining a short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change (CDP.sub.roc) based upon the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR and the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2. The method and system then compares the short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change with a pre-determined threshold (CDP.sub.proc) and signals an output when CDP.sub.roc >CDP.sub.proc. The method and system provides a signal of a surge within the gas turbine engine when CDP.sub.roc remains>CDP.sub.proc for pre-determined period of time.

  11. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  12. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  13. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    DOEpatents

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  14. Signs of life: Report of a NRC workshop on life detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J.

    Given the active interest in the astrobiological exploration of Mars, Europa, Titan, and other targets, it is timely to assess the state of life detection techniques for use on planetary surfaces and on samples returned to terrestrial laboratories. The Space Studies Board (SSB) charged the Committee for the Origin and Evolution of Life (COEL) which reports to both the SSB and the Board on Life SciencesUto organize a scientific workshop to explore advances in biology, biotechnology, medicine, and the environmental sciences likely to lead to new approaches to detecting life or its remnants. COEL, co-chaired by John Baross (U. Washington) and the presenter, held the workshop in April 2000 and published a report of the proceedings and resulting conclusions. This report is just now available on the NRC website and in hard copy, so I will summarize the major findings of the report and their implications for the detection of life on other solar system bodies.

  15. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a fire detector is in a space, it must provide effective detection of fires most likely to occur in the...

  16. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a fire detector is in a space, it must provide effective detection of fires most likely to occur in the...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a fixed flammable gas detection system that has sampling points in: (1) Each cargo pump room; (2) Each cargo...

  18. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a fire detector is in a space, it must provide effective detection of fires most likely to occur in the...

  19. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a fire detector is in a space, it must provide effective detection of fires most likely to occur in the...

  20. Development of automated detection of radiology reports citing adrenal findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zopf, Jason; Langer, Jessica; Boonn, William; Kim, Woojin; Zafar, Hanna

    2011-03-01

    Indeterminate incidental findings pose a challenge to both the radiologist and the ordering physician as their imaging appearance is potentially harmful but their clinical significance and optimal management is unknown. We seek to determine if it is possible to automate detection of adrenal nodules, an indeterminate incidental finding, on imaging examinations at our institution. Using PRESTO (Pathology-Radiology Enterprise Search tool), a newly developed search engine at our institution that mines dictated radiology reports, we searched for phrases used by attendings to describe incidental adrenal findings. Using these phrases as a guide, we designed a query that can be used with the PRESTO index. The results were refined using a modified version of NegEx to eliminate query terms that have been negated within the report text. In order to validate these findings we used an online random date generator to select two random weeks. We queried our RIS database for all reports created on those dates and manually reviewed each report to check for adrenal incidental findings. This survey produced a ground- truth dataset of reports citing adrenal incidental findings against which to compare query performance. We further reviewed the false positives and negatives identified by our validation study, in an attempt to improve the performance query. This algorithm is an important step towards automating the detection of incidental adrenal nodules on cross sectional imaging at our institution. Subsequently, this query can be combined with electronic medical record data searches to determine the clinical significance of these findings through resultant follow-up.

  1. Evaluation of 3M Molecular Detection System and ANSR Pathogen Detection System for rapid detection of Salmonella from egg products.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Ma, L M; Zheng, S; He, X; Wang, H; Brown, E W; Hammack, T S; Zhang, G

    2017-05-01

    Isothermal amplification assay is a novel simple detection technology that amplifies DNA with high speed, efficiency, and specificity under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3M Molecular Detection System (MDS) and ANSR Pathogen Detection System (PDS) for the detection of Salmonella in egg products as compared to the Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) culture method and a modified culture method (3M MDS and ANSR PDS preferred method). Two Salmonella ser. Enteritidis (18579, PT4; CDC_2010K_1441, PT8), one Salmonella ser. Heidelberg (607310-1), and one Salmonella ser. Typhimurium (0723) isolates were used in this study. Seven wet egg products and 13 dry egg products were inoculated with these strains individually at 1 to 5 CFU/25 g. One set of test portions was prepared following FDA BAM procedures [with lactose broth (LB) as pre-enrichment broth]. Another set of test portions was prepared using buffered peptone water (BPW) as pre-enrichment broth, as instructed by the 2 detection systems. Results from 3M MDS and ANSR PDS were 100% in agreement with their BPW-based culture method results. When LB was used as pre-enrichment broth, the number of Salmonella positive test portions (80 tested), identified with the BAM, 3M MDS, and ANSR PDS, were 63, 61, and 60, respectively. In conclusion, both 3M MDS and ANSR PDS Salmonella assays were as effective as their BPW based culture methods and were equivalent to the BAM culture method for the detection of Salmonella in egg products. These sensitive isothermal assays can be used as rapid detection tools for Salmonella in egg products provided that BPW is used as pre-enrichment broth. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. System/Design Trade Study Report for the Navigation of the Airborne, Ground Vehicular and Man-Portable Platforms in Support of the Buried Ordnance Detection, Identification, and Remediation Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division Project Manager: Gerard Snyder 301/743-6855 2008 Stump Neck Road Indian Head ...NUMBER 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER SFIM-AEC-ET-CR-95043 Supporting Contractor: PRC, Inc. 801 North Strauss Avenue Indian Head ...available on the market today for detection, mapping and remediation of hazardous materials have not been developed to the level that could be

  3. Responding to detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis by autonomous detection systems in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Patrick J; Rosenstein, Nancy E; Gillen, Matthew; Meyer, Richard F; Kiefer, Max J; Deitchman, Scott; Besser, Richard E; Ehrenberg, Richard L; Edwards, Kathleen M; Martinez, Kenneth F

    2004-06-04

    Autonomous detection systems (ADSs) are under development to detect agents of biologic and chemical terror in the environment. These systems will eventually be able to detect biologic and chemical hazards reliably and provide approximate real-time alerts that an agent is present. One type of ADS that tests specifically for Bacillus anthracis is being deployed in hundreds of postal distribution centers across the United States. Identification of aerosolized B. anthracis spores in an air sample can facilitate prompt on-site decontamination of workers and subsequent administration of postexposure prophylaxis to prevent inhalational anthrax. Every employer who deploys an ADS should develop detailed plans for responding to a positive signal. Responding to ADS detection of B. anthracis involves coordinating responses with community partners and should include drills and exercises with these partners. This report provides guidelines in the following six areas: 1) response and consequence management planning, including the minimum components of a facility response plan; 2) immediate response and evacuation; 3) decontamination of potentially exposed workers to remove spores from clothing and skin and prevent introduction of B. anthracis into the worker's home and conveyances; 4) laboratory confirmation of an ADS signal; 5) steps for evaluating potentially contaminated environments; and 6) postexposure prophylaxis and follow-up.

  4. Internally controlled PCR system for detection of airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Usachev, Evgeny V; Agranovski, Igor E

    2012-05-01

    Recently, we reported the outcomes of feasibility studies of a technological approach allowing rapid detection of a wide range of bioaerosols by combining a personal bioaerosol sampler with a real-time PCR technology. The protocol was found suitable for detection of targeted microorganisms within relatively short time periods. Considering the crucial importance of the PCR procedure quality control, the current paper reports the results of the development of an internally controlled PCR system for utilization by the above technology. The suggested strategy is based on utilization of only two fluorescent dyes, which are used respectively for target and internal amplification control (IAC) DNA amplification. A bacteriophage T4 and recombinant phage fd (M13) were used in this research as target and IAC, respectively. The constructed IAC was added directly to the collection liquid of the personal bioaerosol sampler enabling quality control to be present throughout the entire sampling-analysis procedures. For performance evaluation, serial ten-fold dilutions of T4 phage were aerosolized and sampled over a 10 minutes time period. The results showed that T4 phage could be reliably detected at the concentration of around 200 PFU per litre of air over the 10 minutes sampling period. The developed PCR assay demonstrated high specificity and no cross reaction. It is concluded that the recombinant phage fd is suitable for utilization as an internal control enabling to significantly minimize false negative results for bioaerosol detection procedures.

  5. Obstacle detection for autonomous navigation : an LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, Denise D.

    2004-03-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Navigation'. The principal goal of this project was to develop a mathematical framework for obstacle detection. The framework provides a basis for solutions to many complex obstacle detection problems critical to successful autonomous navigation. Another goal of this project was to characterize sensing requirements in terms of physical characteristics of obstacles, vehicles, and terrain. For example, a specific vehicle traveling at a specific velocity over a specific terrain requires a sensor with a certain range of detection, resolution, field-of-view, and sufficient sensitivity to specific obstacle characteristics. In some cases, combinations of sensors were required to distinguish between different hazardous obstacles and benign terrain. In our framework, the problem was posed as a multidimensional, multiple-hypothesis, pattern recognition problem. Features were extracted from selected sensors that allow hazardous obstacles to be distinguished from benign terrain and other types of obstacles. Another unique thrust of this project was to characterize different terrain classes with respect to both positive (e.g., rocks, trees, fences) and negative (e.g., holes, ditches, drop-offs) obstacles. The density of various hazards per square kilometer was statistically quantified for different terrain categories (e.g., high desert, ponderosa forest, and prairie). This quantification reflects the scale, or size, and mobility of different types of vehicles. The tradeoffs between obstacle detection, position location, path planning, and vehicle mobility capabilities were also to be characterized.

  6. DICOM structured report: implementation notes for basic structured reporting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, DongOok; Lee, DongHyuk; Lee, JinHyung; Park, HeeJung; Lim, HyunWoo; Ahn, JinYoung; Kim, JongHyo

    2002-05-01

    Structured Report (SR) is new standard of interchanging diagnostic report between medical devices. SR is encoded as traditional DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) format. There are two types of SR, which are Basic Text SR and Enhanced SR. Enhanced SR includes more information, such as measurement information, than Basic Text SR. In the system point of view, SR can be classified as Report Creator, Report Repository, Report Manager, Report Reader, External Report Repository Access, and Enterprise Result Repository. Specific system transactions are defined at IHE Year3 Technical Framework (Fig1). This paper is an implementation note for Report Creator and Report Reader of the Basic Text SR. The Report Creator has a tree structure for the user interface. The tree structure is converted to DICOM SR. This DICOM SR can be transferred to Report Manager. Report Reader gets SRs through DICOM SR Query/Retrieve Service. Report Reader saves the SR at local Database. The SR is converted to XML and the XML is combined with XSL to be displayed at the SR Browser. Microsoft Internet Explorer is utilized for the SR Browser.

  7. NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS - Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Holmes

    2005-12-31

    This document is the final report on the work completed on DE-FG02-95ER25238 since the start of the second renewal period: Jan 1, 2001. It supplements the annual reports submitted in 2001 and 2002. In the renewal proposal I envisaged work in three main areas: Analytical and topological tools for studying flows and maps Low dimensional models of fluid flow Models of animal locomotion and I describe the progess made on each project.

  8. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A sample of reports relating to operations during winter weather is presented. Several reports involving problems of judgment and decisionmaking have been selected from the numerous reports representative of this area. Problems related to aeronautical charts are discussed in a number of reports. An analytic study of reports involving potential conflicts in the immediate vicinity of uncontrolled airports was performed; the results are discussed in this report. It was found that in three-fourths of 127 such conflicts, neither pilot, or only one of the pilots, was communicating position and intentions on the appropriate frequency. The importance of providing aural transfer of information, as a backup to the visual see and avoid mode of information transfer is discussed. It was also found that a large fraction of pilots involved in potential conflicts on final approach had executed straight-in approaches, rather than the recommended traffic pattern entries, prior to the conflicts. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them by various segments of the aviation community is presented.

  9. Chaotic system detection of weak seismic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Yang, B. J.; Badal, J.; Zhao, X. P.; Lin, H. B.; Li, R. L.

    2009-09-01

    When the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is less than -3 dB or even 0 dB, seismic events are generally difficult to identify from a common shot record. To overcome this type of problem we present a method to detect weak seismic signals based on the oscillations described by a chaotic dynamic system in phase space. The basic idea is that a non-linear chaotic oscillator is strongly immune to noise. Such a dynamic system is less influenced by noise, but it is more sensitive to periodic signals, changing from a chaotic state to a large-scale periodic phase state when excited by a weak signal. With the purpose of checking the possible contamination of the signal by noise, we have performed a numerical experiment with an oscillator controlled by the Duffing-Holmes equation, taking a distorted Ricker wavelet sequence as input signal. In doing so, we prove that the oscillator system is able to reach a large-scale periodic phase state in a strong noise environment. In the case of a common shot record with low S/N ratio, the onsets reflected from a same interface are similar to one other and can be put on a single trace with a common reference time and the periodicity of the so-generated signal follows as a consequence of moveout at a particular scanning velocity. This operation, which is called `horizontal dynamic correction' and leads to a nearly periodic signal, is implemented on synthetic wavelet sequences taking various sampling arrival times and scanning velocities. Thereafter, two tests, both in a noisy ambient of -3.7 dB, are done using a chaotic oscillator: the first demonstrates the capability of the method to really detect a weak seismic signal; the second takes care of the fundamental weakness of the dynamic correction coming from the use of a particular scanning velocity, which is investigated from the effect caused by near-surface lateral velocity variation on the periodicity of the reconstructed seismic signal. Finally, we have developed an application of the

  10. Phase Measurement System for Gravitational Wave Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, William

    We propose to advance the maturity of the LISA Phasemeter based on our recent experience developing a flight Phasemeter for the Laser Ranging Interferometer (LRI) on NASA's GRACE Follow-On mission. Our three main objectives are to: 1) incorporate the flight GRACE Follow-on LRI phasemeter developments into the TRL4 LISA design used extensively in our interferometer testbed; 2) evaluate the LRI Phasemeter against LISA's more stringent requirements in order to identify required design changes; 3) advance the design maturity of the LISA phasemeter through an architecture study to maintain the viability of the Phasemeter as a contribution to ESA's L3 gravitational wave mission. NASA intends to partner in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Gravitational-Wave detection mission, selected for the L3 mission to launch in 2034. This is expected to be a LISA-like mission with the two enabling LISA technologies: 1. a drag-free system to mitigate or measure non-gravitational forces on the spacecraft, 2. an interferometric measure¬ment system with precision phasemeters to measure picometer variations over the million kilometer separation between the spacecraft. To validate the key technologies of the drag-free system, the ESA LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission is currently demonstrating a gravitational reference sensor (GRS) and microNewton thrusters in space. While LPF has an on-board interferometer to measure proof- mass motion with respect to the spacecraft, the LPF interferometer does not test the interspacecraft laser interferometry needed for a LISA-like mission. To validate the key technologies of the LISA interferometric measurement, the JPL LISA Phase Measurement Team has studied and developed a prototype LISA phase measurement system. This phase measurement system has also been adapted for a demonstration mission, albeit in a different arena. GRACE Follow-Ons Laser Ranging Interferometer (LRI), due to launch in late 2017, will make LISA-like inter-spacecraft interferometric

  11. Apollo experience report: Television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The progress of the Apollo television systems from the early definition of requirements through the development and inflight use of color television hardware is presented. Television systems that have been used during the Apollo Program are discussed, beginning with a description of the specifications for each system. The document describes the technical approach taken for the development of each system and discusses the prototype and engineering hardware built to test the system itself and to perform the testing to verify compatibility with the spacecraft systems. Problems that occurred during the design and development phase are described. Finally, the flight hardware, operational characteristics, and performance during several Apollo missions are described, and specific recommendations for the remaining Apollo flights and future space missions are made.

  12. Health care professionals' perspectives on barriers to elder abuse detection and reporting in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Schmeidel, Amy N; Daly, Jeanette M; Rosenbaum, Marcy E; Schmuch, Gretchen A; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore health care professionals' perspectives on elder abuse to achieve a better understanding of the problems of reporting and to generate ideas for improving the detection and reporting process. Through a mailed survey, nurses, physicians, and social workers were invited to participate in an interview. Nine nurses, 8 physicians, and 6 social workers were interviewed, and thematic analysis was used to identify the following core themes: preconceptions, assessment, interpretation, systems, and knowledge and education. Participants suggested a reorganization of the external reporting system. More frequent and pragmatic education is necessary to strengthen practical knowledge about elder abuse.

  13. The use of a handheld Raman system for virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunyuan; Driskell, Jeremy D.; Tripp, Ralph A.; Cui, Yiping; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    The combination of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a handheld Raman system would lead to a powerful portable device for defense and security applications. The Thermo Scientific FirstDefender RM instrument is a 785-nm handheld Raman spectrometer intended for rapid field identification of unknown solid and liquid samples. Its sensitivity and effectiveness for SERS-based detection was initially confirmed by evaluating detection of 1,2-di(4- pyridyl)ethylene as a reporter molecule on a silver nanorod (AgNR) substrate, and the results are comparable to those from a confocal Bruker Raman system. As avian influenza A viruses (AIV) are recognized as an important emerging threat to public health, this portable handheld Raman spectrometer is used, for the first time, to detect and identify avian influenza A viruses using a multi-well AgNR SERS chip. The SERS spectra obtained had rich peaks which demonstrated that the instrument can be effectively used for SERS-based influenza virus detection. According to the SERS spectra, these different influenza viruses were distinguished from the negative control via the principal component analysis and by partial least squares-discriminate analysis. Together, these results show that the combination effective SERS substrates when combined with a portable Raman spectrometer provides a powerful field device for chemical and biological sensing.

  14. Visual Support System for Report Distinctiveness Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Toshiaki

    In recent years, as the Internet has grown, electronic reports have come to be used in educational organizations such as universities. Though reports written by hand must be evaluated by hand except for stereotype descriptions or numerical answers, electronic reports can be rated by computer. There are two major criteria in rating reports, correctness and distinctiveness. Correctness is rated by absolute criteria and distinctiveness is rated by relative criteria. Relative evaluation is difficult because raters should memorize all contents of submitted reports to provide objective rates. In addition, electronic data are easily copied or exchanged by students. This paper presents a report evaluation support system with which raters can compare each report and give objective rates for distinctiveness. This system evaluates each report by objective similarity criteria and visualizes them in a two-dimensional interface as the calculated distinctiveness order. Experimental results show the system is valid and effective for estimating associations between reports.

  15. Integration of the TDWR and LLWAS wind shear detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornman, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Operational demonstrations of a prototype TDWR/LLWAS (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar/Low Level Wind shear Alarm System) integrated wind shear detection system were conducted. The integration of wind shear detection systems is needed to provide end-users with a single, consensus source of information. A properly implemented integrated system provides wind shear warnings of a higher quality than stand-alone LLWAS or TDWR systems. The algorithmic concept used to generate the TDWR/LLWAS integrated products and several case studies are discussed, indicating the viability and potential of integrated wind shear detection systems. Implications for integrating ground and airborne wind shear detection systems are briefly examined.

  16. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  17. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Robert A.; Beshay, Manal

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  18. Laboratory test system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, G.L.

    1980-03-01

    This project was initiated to develop a laboratory test capability for evaluating new and existing digital product designs. In recent years, Bendix Kansas City has become more active in syppling early development hardware to the design laboratories for evaluation. Because of the more complex electronic designs being used in new components, more highly automated test systems are needed to evaluate development hardware. To meet this requirement, a universal test system was developed to provide both basic test capabilities and flexibility to adapt easily to specific product applications. This laboratory evaluation system will reduce the need to develop complex dedicated test systems for each new product design, while still providing the benefits of an automated system. A special purpose interface chassis was designed and fabricated to permit a standardized interface between the test system and the product application. Connector assignments by system functions provide convenience and function isolation. Standard cables were used to reduce the need for special purpose hardware. Electrical testing of a developmental electronics assembly demonstrated the adaptability of this system for a typical product application. Both the interface hardware and the software were developed for this application.

  19. Inventory Systems Laboratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naddor, Eliezer

    Four computer programs to aid students in understanding inventory systems, constructing mathematical inventory models, and developing optimal decision rules are presented. The program series allows a user to set input levels, simulates the behavior of major variables in inventory systems, and provides performance measures as output. Inventory…

  20. Developing a user-centered voluntary medical incident reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hua, Lei; Gong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Medical errors are one of leading causes of death among adults in the United States. According to the Institute of Medicine, reporting of medical incidents could be a cornerstone to learn from errors and to improve patient safety, if incident data are collected in a properly structured format which is useful for the detection of patterns, discovery of underlying factors, and generation of solutions. Globally, a number of medical incident reporting systems were deployed for collecting observable incident data in care delivery organizations (CDO) over the past several years. However, few researches delved into design of user-centered reporting system for improving completeness and accuracy of medical incident collection, let alone design models created for other institutes to follow. In this paper, we introduce the problems identified in a current using voluntary reporting system and our effort is being made towards complete, accurate and useful user-centered new reporting system through a usability engineering process.

  1. Development of Getting Up Detection and Report Device using Power Line Communication and Mat-Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Kazuo; Tanaka, Kanya; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yasuoka, Katsunori; Uchibori, Akihiko; Oka, Masato

    In this paper, we propose the getting up detection and report device which can be installed in middle-small facilities and ordinary houses. This device combines a mat sensor which detects rising and a power line communication (PLC) device as a reporting system. This device does not need any additional construction for installation as long as facilities equip electric power supply 100V for ordinary businesses. At first, the mat sensor in the system detects rising of an elderly person or lying down to bed. The PLC system sends ON/OFF signal and reports to nurses and staff members in their rooms. Since the main objective of the PLC system is to keep exact detection and transmission of the mat-sensor ON/OFF signal, high-speed network is not necessary. It is required that the system should be robust against noises of household electrical appliances. We used the selected-career method as a transmission method in which we located 2 lines of tone frequency (132kHz or 115kHz) for the power line transmission in the device. The effectiveness of the proposed device has been confirmed by the field experiments in welfare facilities for elderly people.

  2. DETECTABILITY OF GLYCINE IN SOLAR-TYPE SYSTEM PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Testi, Leonardo; Caselli, Paola; Viti, Serena E-mail: ltesti@eso.org E-mail: sv@star.ucl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH) is the simplest amino acid relevant to life. Its detection in the interstellar medium is key to understanding the formation mechanisms of pre-biotic molecules and their subsequent delivery onto planetary systems. Glycine has been extensively searched for toward hot molecular cores, although these studies did not yield any firm detection. In contrast to hot cores, low-mass star forming regions, in particular their earliest stages represented by cold pre-stellar cores, may be better suited for the detection of glycine as well as more relevant to the study of pre-biotic chemistry in young solar system analogs. We present one-dimensional spherically symmetric radiative transfer calculations of the glycine emission expected to arise from the low-mass pre-stellar core L1544. Water vapor has recently been reported toward this core, indicating that a small fraction of the grain mantles in L1544 (∼0.5%) has been injected into the gas phase. Assuming that glycine is photo-desorbed together with water in L1544, and considering a solid abundance of glycine on ices of ∼10{sup –4} with respect to water, our calculations reveal that several glycine lines between 67 GHz and 80 GHz have peak intensities larger than 10 mK. These results show for the first time that glycine could reach detectable levels in cold objects such as L1544. This opens up the possibility of detecting glycine, and other pre-biotic species, at the coldest and earliest stages in the formation of solar-type systems with near-future instrumentation such as the Band 2 receivers of ALMA.

  3. Analyzing and Detecting Problems in Systems of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Christopher; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is mission-critical. Evidence indicates that transmission failures and performance issues are not uncommon occurrences. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we are presenting an approach for analyzing inter-system communications with the goal to uncover both transmission errors and performance problems. Our approach consists of a visualization and an evaluation component. While the visualization of the observed communication aims to facilitate understanding, the evaluation component automatically checks the conformance of an observed communication (actual) to a desired one (planned). The actual and the planned are represented as sequence diagrams. The evaluation algorithm checks the conformance of the actual to the planned diagram. We have applied our approach to the communication of aerospace systems and were successful in detecting and resolving even subtle and long existing transmission problems.

  4. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive study of near midair collisions in terminal airspace, derived from the ASRS database is presented. A selection of controller and pilot reports on airport perimeter security, unauthorized takeoffs and landings, and on winter operations is presented. A sampling of typical Alert Bulletins and their responses is presented.

  5. Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

  6. Development of Fall Detection System Using Ultrasound Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Takuya; Abe, Takehiko; Kimura, Haruhiko

    This paper proposes a sensing system for detecting bather's fall. The fall detection system uses ultrasound sensors installed on the ceiling of bathroom to measure the distance between sensor and a bather. The merits of utilizing ultrasound sensor are easy installation and easy use. Moreover the apparatus has an advantage of enhancing the privacy of bathers and having robustness against humidity. In order to detect bather's fall, the proposed system uses the following two methods: status detection and behavior detection. The function of status detection is to estimate bather's postures such as standing and sitting by monitoring the highest part of bather's body. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to grasp the speed of bather's vertical movement by monitoring the change of distance between sensor and the bather. The system estimates the occurrence of bather's fall when the distance changes suddenly. As a result of experiment with some subjects, the system was possible to detect bather's falling behavior with high accuracy.

  7. A novel sensitive pathogen detection system based on Microbead Quantum Dot System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Su, Yi-Yu; Shu, Wei-Hsien; Mercado, Augustus T; Wang, Shi-Kwun; Hsu, Ling-Yi; Tsai, Yow-Fu; Chen, Chung-Yung

    2016-04-15

    A fast and accurate detection system for pathogens can provide immediate measurements for the identification of infectious agents. Therefore, the Microbead Quantum-dots Detection System (MQDS) was developed to identify and measure target DNAs of pathogenic microorganisms and eliminated the need of PCR amplifications. This nanomaterial-based technique can detect different microorganisms by flow cytometry measurements. In MQDS, pathogen specific DNA probes were designed to form a hairpin structure and conjugated on microbeads. In the presence of the complementary target DNA sequence, the probes will compete for binding with the reporter probes but will not interfere with the binding between the probe and internal control DNA. To monitor the binding process by flow cytometry, both the reporter probes and internal control probes were conjugated with Quantum dots that fluoresce at different emission wavelengths using the click reaction. When MQDS was used to detect the pathogens in environmental samples, a high correlation coefficient (R=0.994) for Legionella spp., with a detection limit of 0.1 ng of the extracted DNAs and 10 CFU/test, can be achieved. Thus, this newly developed technique can also be applied to detect other pathogens, particularly viruses and other genetic diseases.

  8. Design of an infrared camera based aircraft detection system for laser guide star installations

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Macintosh, B.

    1996-03-05

    There have been incidents in which the irradiance resulting from laser guide stars have temporarily blinded pilots or passengers of aircraft. An aircraft detection system based on passive near infrared cameras (instead of active radar) is described in this report.

  9. Maryland Report Card: 2008 Performance Report. State and School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the 2008 Maryland School Performance Report. It shows the academic performance results of the State and its 24 school systems. This report includes the results from the Maryland School Assessment (MSA) given in spring 2008, information about the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) measures required by the federal No Child Left…

  10. Chemiluminescent reporter gene assays: sensitive detection of the GUS and SEAP gene products.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, I; Fortin, J J; Voyta, J C; Juo, R R; Edwards, B; Olesen, C E; Lijam, N; Kricka, L J

    1994-07-01

    Chemiluminescent assays are described for the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene products. These assays provide simple, sensitive, non-isotopic alternatives to existing detection methods and are performed in microplate or tube luminometers or in a scintillation counter. The SEAP reporter gene product is secreted from mammalian cells and is thus easily detected in a sample of culture medium. Sensitive detection of secreted placental alkaline phosphatase is performed with CSPD chemiluminescent alkaline phosphatase substrate, and approximately 3 fg of enzyme can be detected. GUS has become the major reporter gene used for the analysis of plant gene expression. Sensitive chemiluminescent detection of GUS activity can be performed with an assay system we have developed using Glucuron, a beta-glucuronidase substrate. This chemiluminescent assay detects 60 fg of GUS and is linear over six orders of magnitude of enzyme concentration. CSPD and Glucuron substrates have been incorporated into two new chemiluminescent reporter gene assay kits for SEAP and GUS.

  11. Conference Report: Biosignature Preservation and Detection in Mars Analog Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Lindsay; Beaty, David

    2017-01-01

    The Conference on Biosignature Preservation and Detection in Mars Analog Environments held in May 2016 brought together scientists to discuss microbial biosignatures in Mars analog habitable environments. Five analog environments were discussed: (1) hydrothermal spring systems, (2) subaqueous environments, (3) subaerial environments, (4) subsurface environments, and (5) iron-rich systems. This paper details the major messages that resulted from the discussions and will be followed by a review paper that adds significant detail from the published literature and interpretations from the writing committee of the workshop for future research and application to astrobiological exploration missions.

  12. Imaging systems for biomedical applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Radparvar, M.

    1995-06-06

    Many of the activities of the human body manifest themselves by the presence of a very weak magnetic field outside the body, a field that is so weak that an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor is needed for specific biomagnetic measurements. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are extremely sensitive detectors of magnetic flux and have been used extensively to detect the human magnetocardiogram, and magnetoencephalogram. and other biomagnetic signals. In order to utilize a SQUID as a magnetometer, its transfer characteristics should be linearized. This linearization requires extensive peripheral electronics, thus limiting the number of SQUID magnetometer channels in a practical system. The proposed digital SQUID integrates the processing circuitry on the same cryogenic chip as the SQUID magnetometer and eliminates the sophisticated peripheral electronics. Such a system is compact and cost effective, and requires minimal support electronics. Under a DOE-sponsored SBIR program, we designed, simulated, laid out, fabricated, evaluated, and demonstrated a digital SQUID magnetometer. This report summarizes the accomplishments under this program and clearly demonstrates that all of the tasks proposed in the phase II application were successfully completed with confirmed experimental results.

  13. An immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user's command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems.

  14. An Immunity-Based Anomaly Detection System with Sensor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user's command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems. PMID:22291560

  15. Detection technique of targets for missile defense system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hua-ling; Deng, Jia-hao; Cai, Ke-rong

    2009-11-01

    Ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is a weapon system for intercepting enemy ballistic missiles. It includes ballistic-missile warning system, target discrimination system, anti-ballistic-missile guidance systems, and command-control communication system. Infrared imaging detection and laser imaging detection are widely used in BMDS for surveillance, target detection, target tracking, and target discrimination. Based on a comprehensive review of the application of target-detection techniques in the missile defense system, including infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), ground-based radar detection technology, 3-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and microchip laser, this paper focuses on the infrared and laser imaging detection techniques in missile defense system, as well as the trends for their future development.

  16. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  17. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  18. BacT/Alert: an automated colorimetric microbial detection system.

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, T C; Wilson, M L; Turner, J E; DiGuiseppi, J L; Willert, M; Mirrett, S; Reller, L B

    1990-01-01

    BacT/Alert (Organon Teknika Corp., Durham, N.C.) is an automated microbial detection system based on the colorimetric detection of CO2 produced by growing microorganisms. Results of an evaluation of the media, sensor, detection system, and detection algorithm indicate that the system reliably grows and detects a wide variety of bacteria and fungi. Results of a limited pilot clinical trial with a prototype research instrument indicate that the system is comparable to the radiometric BACTEC 460 system in its ability to grow and detect microorganisms in blood. On the basis of these initial findings, large-scale clinical trials comparing BacT/Alert with other commercial microbial detection systems appear warranted. PMID:2116451

  19. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a portable laboratory system for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface waters for the detection and quantification of hazardous materials, organics, and radioactive contaminants. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) is a sample throughput of 20 samples per day, providing a full range of analysis on each sample within 16 hours of preparation with high accuracy.

  20. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  1. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  2. Novel design for suspension array detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guoxiong; Shi, Yan; Ni, Xuxiang; Lu, Zukang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for establishing a two-dimensional laminar fluidic suspension array which is analyzed by using time delay integration (TDI) CCD imaging technology in parallel. The method will make suspension array technology (SAT) bear high throughput as well as its flexibility. Basically, bioassays are conducted on the surface of fluorescent-dyed beads. With each bead set (i.e., multiple beads with the same fluorescent signature) having a slightly different fluorescent signature, probes are first attached to a particular bead set and then hybridized with labeled samples or targets. Two different kinds of encoding dyes are excited by red laser (635 nm, 20mw), their emission wave length are 660nm, 720nm, respectively. Fluorescent dye of reporter molecules was excited by green laser (532nm, 20mw), emitted at 580 nm. The liquid sample was pumped into micro-reservoir by a linear motor. As the velocity of liquid sample is so slow (10mm/s) it is easy to form a laminar fluidic field in the middle of the micro-reservoir. In the direction of laser propagation the size of reservoir is 0.1mm so the laminar liquid can be treated as a two-dimensional fluidic plane. The size of detection area depends on size of micro-sphere and CCD imaging area. The three kinds of fluorescence signals were focused by a lens and then split by mirrors. Fluorescence pass through three band-pass filters (+/-20nm) before collected by three TDI-CCDs respectively. With these high-quality filters the cross-talk between signals was diminished significantly. The analysis speed is about 2x103 micro-spheres per second, which is much higher than that obtained from currently cytometry method (about 102 micro-spheres to the same size micro-spheres).

  3. Acceptability of a Wearable Vital Sign Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    OF ABSTRACT 8. P07-59 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acceptability of a Wearable Vital Sign Detection System. 6. AUTHOR(S...distribution unlimited 14. SUBJECT TERMS Vital Signs Detection System (VSDS), Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM), Medical Monitoring...with wearing a Vital Sign Detection System (VSDS), a body worn physiological monitoring system. Experienced combat Soldiers (n = 27) participated in a

  4. [Optical detection system for micro biochemical analyses].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wu, Yi-hui; Zhao, Hua-bing; Ju, Hui

    2005-04-01

    For the need of biochemical chip, which consumes fewer specimens and is easy to integrate with micro-fluid chip, two kinds of spectrophotometric analysis methods are described in the present paper. Both the direct detection method and evanescent wave detection method are used in the experiments with visible light (460-800 nm). The experimental results proved that the direct detection is simple and evident; on the other hand the evanescent wave detection method consumes much less reagent and is easy to integrate with microchips.

  5. SYRIT Computer School Systems Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Carmen

    The 1991-92 and 1993-94 audit for SYRIT Computer School Systems revealed noncompliance of appropriate law and regulations in certifying students for Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) awards. SYRIT was overpaid $2,817,394 because school officials incorrectly certified student eligibility. The audit also discovered that students graduated and were…

  6. Apollo experience report: Food systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rapp, R. M.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Development, delivery, and use of food systems in support of the Apollo 7 to 14 missions are discussed. Changes in design criteria for this unique program as mission requirements varied are traced from the baseline system that was established before the completion of the Gemini Program. Problems and progress in subsystem management, material selection, food packaging, development of new food items, menu design, and food-consumption methods under zero-gravity conditions are described. The effectiveness of various approaches in meeting food system objectives of providing flight crews with safe, nutritious, easy to prepare, and highly acceptable foods is considered. Nutritional quality and adequacy in maintaining crew health are discussed in relation to the establishment of nutritional criteria for future missions. Technological advances that have resulted from the design of separate food systems for the command module, the lunar module, The Mobile Quarantine Facility, and the Lunar Receiving Laboratory are presented for application to future manned spacecraft and to unique populations in earthbound situations.

  7. Advanced Clinical Decision Support for Vaccine Adverse Event Detection and Reporting.

    PubMed

    Baker, Meghan A; Kaelber, David C; Bar-Shain, David S; Moro, Pedro L; Zambarano, Bob; Mazza, Megan; Garcia, Crystal; Henry, Adam; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2015-09-15

    Reporting of adverse events (AEs) following vaccination can help identify rare or unexpected complications of immunizations and aid in characterizing potential vaccine safety signals. We developed an open-source, generalizable clinical decision support system called Electronic Support for Public Health-Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (ESP-VAERS) to assist clinicians with AE detection and reporting. ESP-VAERS monitors patients' electronic health records for new diagnoses, changes in laboratory values, and new allergies following vaccinations. When suggestive events are found, ESP-VAERS sends the patient's clinician a secure electronic message with an invitation to affirm or refute the message, add comments, and submit an automated, prepopulated electronic report to VAERS. High-probability AEs are reported automatically if the clinician does not respond. We implemented ESP-VAERS in December 2012 throughout the MetroHealth System, an integrated healthcare system in Ohio. We queried the VAERS database to determine MetroHealth's baseline reporting rates from January 2009 to March 2012 and then assessed changes in reporting rates with ESP-VAERS. In the 8 months following implementation, 91 622 vaccinations were given. ESP-VAERS sent 1385 messages to responsible clinicians describing potential AEs. Clinicians opened 1304 (94.2%) messages, responded to 209 (15.1%), and confirmed 16 for transmission to VAERS. An additional 16 high-probability AEs were sent automatically. Reported events included seizure, pleural effusion, and lymphocytopenia. The odds of a VAERS report submission during the implementation period were 30.2 (95% confidence interval, 9.52-95.5) times greater than the odds during the comparable preimplementation period. An open-source, electronic health record-based clinical decision support system can increase AE detection and reporting rates in VAERS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society

  8. Biofouling detection monitoring devices: status assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hillman, R.E.; Anson, D.; Corliss, J.M.; Vigon, B.W.; Gray, R.H.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-03-01

    An inventory of devices to detect and monitor biofouling in power plant condenser systems was prepared. The inventory was developed through a review of manufacturers' product information brochures, a general literature review, and limited personal contact with users and manufacturers. Two macrofouling and seventeen microfouling detection devices were reviewed. A summary analysis of the principal features of each device was prepared. Macrofouling devices are generally simple devices located at or near cooling water intakes. They monitor the growth of larger organisms such as mussels, barnacles, and large seaweeds. Microfouling detectors are usually located in or near the condenser tubes. They detect and monitor the growth of slime films on the tubes. Some of the devices measure changes in heat transfer or pressure drop in the condenser tubes. Other types include condenser simulators, biofilm samplers, or devices that measure the acoustic properties of the fouling films. Most devices are still in the development stage. Of the few available for general use, the type that measures heat transfer and/or pressure drop are developed to a greater degree than the other types. Recommendations for further research into development of a biofouling detection and monitoring devices include a side-by-side field comparison of selected devices, and the continued development of an effective acoustic device.

  9. Container System Hardware Status Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    8217 was initiated by the former Office of the Project Manager , Army Containerm, Oriented Distribution System to provide information to various Army...deck sockets for accomodating containerized cargo. Status: Issue of the Request for Proposals is expected during 1Q86, with a proyected Contract Award...waste management , galley, messing, sickbay, laundry, administrative, recreation, and storage support. Status: Preliminary design of HUSS access modules

  10. Electronic system for floor surface type detection in robotics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarapata, Grzegorz; Paczesny, Daniel; Tarasiuk, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    The paper reports a recognizing method base on ultrasonic transducers utilized for the surface types detection. Ultra-sonic signal is transmitted toward the examined substrate, then reflected and scattered signal goes back to another ultra-sonic receiver. Thee measuring signal is generated by a piezo-electric transducer located at specified distance from the tested substrate. The detector is a second piezo-electric transducer located next to the transmitter. Depending on thee type of substrate which is exposed by an ultrasonic wave, the signal is partially absorbed inn the material, diffused and reflected towards the receiver. To measure the level of received signal, the dedicated electronic circuit was design and implemented in the presented systems. Such system was designed too recognize two types of floor surface: solid (like concrete, ceramic stiles, wood) and soft (carpets, floor coverings). The method will be applied in electronic detection system dedicated to autonomous cleaning robots due to selection of appropriate cleaning method. This work presents the concept of ultrasonic signals utilization, the design of both the measurement system and the measuring stand and as well number of wide tests results which validates correctness of applied ultrasonic method.

  11. The architecture of a network level intrusion detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.; Maccabe, A.; Servilla, M.

    1990-08-15

    This paper presents the preliminary architecture of a network level intrusion detection system. The proposed system will monitor base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, and time), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  12. Detection of Illicit Drugs with the EURITRACK System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Franulovic, A.

    2009-03-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system has been developed within the 6th EU Framework Program to complement X-ray scanners in the detection of explosives and other illicit materials hidden in cargo containers. Gamma rays are produced inside the cargo materials by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams, which yields information about the chemical composition of the transported goods. In the beginning of year 2007, the EURITRACK system was implemented in the Seaport of Rijeka, Croatia, primarily to carry out a demonstration using real containers to conduct a series of detection tests. This article reports tests performed with real samples of illicit drugs hidden in a metallic cargo with an average density of 0.2 g/cm3. Heroin and cocaine have been distinguished from benign substances based on their chemical composition. Marijuana, which chemical composition is similar to benign materials, cannot be distinguished from common organic goods. However, the detection of an unexpected organic substance inside the metallic cargo indicates that a suspicious object has been hidden in the container.

  13. Practical comparison of aberration detection algorithms for biosurveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Burkom, Howard; Winston, Carla A; Dey, Achintya; Ajani, Umed

    2015-10-01

    National syndromic surveillance systems require optimal anomaly detection methods. For method performance comparison, we injected multi-day signals stochastically drawn from lognormal distributions into time series of aggregated daily visit counts from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BioSense syndromic surveillance system. The time series corresponded to three different syndrome groups: rash, upper respiratory infection, and gastrointestinal illness. We included a sample of facilities with data reported every day and with median daily syndromic counts ⩾1 over the entire study period. We compared anomaly detection methods of five control chart adaptations, a linear regression model and a Poisson regression model. We assessed sensitivity and timeliness of these methods for detection of multi-day signals. At a daily background alert rate of 1% and 2%, the sensitivities and timeliness ranged from 24 to 77% and 3.3 to 6.1days, respectively. The overall sensitivity and timeliness increased substantially after stratification by weekday versus weekend and holiday. Adjusting the baseline syndromic count by the total number of facility visits gave consistently improved sensitivity and timeliness without stratification, but it provided better performance when combined with stratification. The daily syndrome/total-visit proportion method did not improve the performance. In general, alerting based on linear regression outperformed control chart based methods. A Poisson regression model obtained the best sensitivity in the series with high-count data.

  14. A real-time robot arm collision detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Clifford A.; Herb, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    A data structure and update algorithm are presented for a prototype real time collision detection safety system for a multi-robot environment. The data structure is a variant of the octree, which serves as a spatial index. An octree recursively decomposes 3-D space into eight equal cubic octants until each octant meets some decomposition criteria. The octree stores cylspheres (cylinders with spheres on each end) and rectangular solids as primitives (other primitives can easily be added as required). These primitives make up the two seven degrees-of-freedom robot arms and environment modeled by the system. Octree nodes containing more than a predetermined number N of primitives are decomposed. This rule keeps the octree small, as the entire environment for the application can be modeled using a few dozen primitives. As robot arms move, the octree is updated to reflect their changed positions. During most update cycles, any given primitive does not change which octree nodes it is in. Thus, modification to the octree is rarely required. Incidents in which one robot arm comes too close to another arm or an object are reported. Cycle time for interpreting current joint angles, updating the octree, and detecting/reporting imminent collisions averages 30 milliseconds on an Intel 80386 processor running at 20 MHz.

  15. Blind Leak Detection for Closed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter; Johnson, Ricky; Todd, Douglas; Russell, Samuel; Walker, James

    2003-01-01

    The current inspection technique for locating interstitial leaking in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles is the application of a liquid leak check solution in the openings where the interstitials space between the tubing and the structural jacket vent out the aft end of the nozzle, while its cooling tubes are pressurized to 25 psig with Helium. When a leak is found, it is classified, and if the leak is severe enough the suspect tube is cut open so that a boroscope can be inserted to find the leak point. Since the boroscope can only cover a finite tube length and since it is impossible to identify which tube (to the right or left of the identified interstitial) is leaking, many extra and undesired repairs have been made to fix just one leak. In certain instances when the interstitials are interlinked by poor braze bonding, many interstitials will show indications of leaking from a single source. What is desired is a technique that can identify the leak source so that a single repair can be performed. Dr, Samuel Russell and James Walker, both with NASA/MSFC have developed a thermographic inspection system that addresses a single repair approach. They have teamed with Boeing/Rocketdyne to repackage the inspection processes to be suitable to address full scale Shuttle development and flight hardware and implement the process at NASA centers. The methods and results presented address the thermographic identification of interstitial leaks in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles. A highly sensitive digital infrared camera (capable of detecting a delta temperature difference of 0.025 C) is used to record the cooling effects associated with a leak source, such as a crack or pinhole, hidden within the nozzle wall by observing the inner hot wall surface as the nozzle is pressurized, These images are enhanced by digitally subtracting a thermal reference image taken before pressurization. The method provides a non-intrusive way of locating the tube that is leaking and the

  16. Blind Leak Detection for Closed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter; Johnson, Ricky; Todd, Douglas; Russell, Samuel; Walker, James

    2003-01-01

    The current inspection technique for locating interstitial leaking in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles is the application of a liquid leak check solution in the openings where the interstitials space between the tubing and the structural jacket vent out the aft end of the nozzle, while its cooling tubes are pressurized to 25 psig with Helium. When a leak is found, it is classified, and if the leak is severe enough the suspect tube is cut open so that a boroscope can be inserted to find the leak point. Since the boroscope can only cover a finite tube length and since it is impossible to identify which tube (to the right or left of the identified interstitial) is leaking, many extra and undesired repairs have been made to fix just one leak. In certain instances when the interstitials are interlinked by poor braze bonding, many interstitials will show indications of leaking from a single source. What is desired is a technique that can identify the leak source so that a single repair can be performed. Dr, Samuel Russell and James Walker, both with NASA/MSFC have developed a thermographic inspection system that addresses a single repair approach. They have teamed with Boeing/Rocketdyne to repackage the inspection processes to be suitable to address full scale Shuttle development and flight hardware and implement the process at NASA centers. The methods and results presented address the thermographic identification of interstitial leaks in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles. A highly sensitive digital infrared camera (capable of detecting a delta temperature difference of 0.025 C) is used to record the cooling effects associated with a leak source, such as a crack or pinhole, hidden within the nozzle wall by observing the inner hot wall surface as the nozzle is pressurized, These images are enhanced by digitally subtracting a thermal reference image taken before pressurization. The method provides a non-intrusive way of locating the tube that is leaking and the

  17. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Doyle, Robert T.; Grubisha, Desiree S.; Rahman, Salma

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  18. Flight Tests of the DELICAT Airborne LIDAR System for Remote Clear Air Turbulence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Witschas, Benjamin; Veerman, Henk; Tump, Robert; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Lombard, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    An important aeronautics application of lidar is the airborne remote detection of Clear Air Turbulence which cannot be performed with onboard radar. We report on a DLR-developed lidar system for the remote detection of such turbulent areas in the flight path of an aircraft. The lidar, consisting of a high-power UV laser transmitter and a direct detection system, was installed on a Dutch research aircraft. Flight tests executed in 2013 demonstrated the performance of the lidar system to detect local subtle variations in the molecular backscatter coefficient indicating the turbulence some 10 to 15 km ahead.

  19. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a smoke...

  20. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a smoke...

  1. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108.404 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If...

  2. The Use of Electronic Book Theft Detection Systems in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Thomas B.

    1996-01-01

    Although electronic book theft detection systems can be a deterrent to library material theft, no electronic system is foolproof, and a total security program is necessary to ensure collection security. Describes how book theft detection systems work, their effectiveness, and the problems inherent in technology. A total security program considers…

  3. Final Report on Actinide Glass Scintillators for Fast Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-10-01

    This is the final report of an experimental investigation of actinide glass scintillators for fast-neutron detection. It covers work performed during FY2012. This supplements a previous report, PNNL-20854 “Initial Characterization of Thorium-loaded Glasses for Fast Neutron Detection” (October 2011). The work in FY2012 was done with funding remaining from FY2011. As noted in PNNL-20854, the glasses tested prior to July 2011 were erroneously identified as scintillators. The decision was then made to start from “scratch” with a literature survey and some test melts with a non-radioactive glass composition that could later be fabricated with select actinides, most likely thorium. The normal stand-in for thorium in radioactive waste glasses is cerium in the same oxidation state. Since cerium in the 3+ state is used as the light emitter in many scintillating glasses, the next most common substitute was used: hafnium. Three hafnium glasses were melted. Two melts were colored amber and a third was clear. It barely scintillated when exposed to alpha particles. The uses and applications for a scintillating fast neutron detector are important enough that the search for such a material should not be totally abandoned. This current effort focused on actinides that have very high neutron capture energy releases but low neutron capture cross sections. This results in very long counting times and poor signal to noise when working with sealed sources. These materials are best for high flux applications and access to neutron generators or reactors would enable better test scenarios. The total energy of the neutron capture reaction is not the only factor to focus on in isotope selection. Many neutron capture reactions result in energetic gamma rays that require large volumes or high densities to detect. If the scintillator is to separate neutrons from gamma rays, the capture reactions should produce heavy particles and few gamma rays. This would improve the detection of a

  4. Intrusion Detection in Control Systems using Sequence Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Mai; Onoda, Takashi

    Intrusion detection is considered effective in control systems. Sequences of the control application behavior observed in the communication, such as the order of the control device to be controlled, are important in control systems. However, most intrusion detection systems do not effectively reflect sequences in the application layer into the detection rules. In our previous work, we considered utilizing sequences for intrusion detection in control systems, and demonstrated the usefulness of sequences for intrusion detection. However, manually writing the detection rules for a large system can be difficult, so using machine learning methods becomes feasible. Also, in the case of control systems, there have been very few observed cyber attacks, so we have very little knowledge of the attack data that should be used to train the intrusion detection system. In this paper, we use an approach that combines CRF (Conditional Random Field) considering the sequence of the system, thus able to reflect the characteristics of control system sequences into the intrusion detection system, and also does not need the knowledge of attack data to construct the detection rules.

  5. Detecting, reporting, and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Park, Meeyoung Mattie; Amo-Addae, Maame Pokuah; Adewuyi, Peter Adebayo; Nagbe, Thomas Knue

    2017-01-01

    An essential component of a public health surveillance system is its ability to detect priority diseases which fall within the mandate of public health officials at all levels. Early detection, reporting and response to public health events help to reduce the burden of mortality and morbidity on communities. Analysis of reliable surveillance data provides relevant information which can enable implementation of timely and appropriate public health interventions. To ensure that a resilient system is in place, the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided guidelines for detection, reporting and response to public health events in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy. This case study provides training on detection, reporting and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia and highlights potential errors and challenges which can hinder effective surveillance. Table-top exercises and group discussion lead participants through a simulated verification and analyses of summary case reports in the role of the District Surveillance Officer. This case study is intended for public health training in a classroom setting and can be accomplished within 2 hours 30 minutes. The target audience include residents in Frontline Epidemiology Training Programs (FETP-Frontline), Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs), and others who are interested in this topic.

  6. Electronic system streamlines Arkansas hazwaste reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, O.

    1997-01-01

    Preparing hazardous waste reports has become a nightmare for many companies. Form after form must be filled out, with reports written, transcribed, checked and rechecked, printed, and mailed in huge, bulky packages. Once the forms are received by the state agency, the sheer volume of paperwork is often such that it takes months to enter the information into the state`s system for submittal to the Environmental Protection Agency. By the time the information is entered and ready for analysis, the next reporting cycle is well underway. Using paper-based reporting, the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology (ADPC and E) was faced with manually entering annual reporting data from every small- and large-quantity waste generator and every waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) in the state. In 1995, they learned about Environmental Management and Consulting Inc.`s (EMCI; Madison, Ala.) FingerPrint Electronic Reporting System (ERS), a RCRA hazardous waste report software system. Windows{trademark}-based system includes a generator version to prepare reports and a regulator version that automatically converts data to an EPA-suitable file format. ADPC and E worked with EMCI to customize the product for Arkansas. The Microsoft{reg_sign} Access{trademark}-based system is comparable with most other database structures, is easy for small generators to use, and its SQL-server capabilities make it practical for use by larger companies with networked computer systems.

  7. Improvement of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers Using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Hiroki; Tajima, Takuya; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko

    This paper proposes a new method for improving an existing abnormality detection system for person who soaks in a bathtub. As the number of aged people increases year by year in Japan, bathing accident of the aged is growing at a rapid rate, especially in-bathtub drowning accident. Therefore, prompt detection of bather's abnormality such as dizziness and fainting is important to prevent in-bathtub drowning. In order to detect bather's abnormality promptly, an abnormality detection system using seven ultrasonic sensors has been proposed. The system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection, to detect bather's different state from normal before an accident occurs, and improves a delay of detection considered to be a serious problem heretofore. There was however plenty of room for improvement. In order to improve detection rate of the system, we propose a new detection method in this paper. The method uses two ultrasonic sensors to beam bather's head and neck, and detects the head height and swing speed of the head. Experimental results are superior to the accuracy of the existing system, which enables us to detect bather's abnormality more accurately.

  8. Lunar power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified.

  9. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  10. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to

  11. Oscillation Detection Algorithm Development Summary Report and Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2009-10-03

    -based modal analysis algorithms have been developed. They include Prony analysis, Regularized Ro-bust Recursive Least Square (R3LS) algorithm, Yule-Walker algorithm, Yule-Walker Spectrum algorithm, and the N4SID algo-rithm. Each has been shown to be effective for certain situations, but not as effective for some other situations. For example, the traditional Prony analysis works well for disturbance data but not for ambient data, while Yule-Walker is designed for ambient data only. Even in an algorithm that works for both disturbance data and ambient data, such as R3LS, latency results from the time window used in the algorithm is an issue in timely estimation of oscillation modes. For ambient data, the time window needs to be longer to accumulate information for a reasonably accurate estimation; while for disturbance data, the time window can be significantly shorter so the latency in estimation can be much less. In addition, adding a known input signal such as noise probing signals can increase the knowledge of system oscillatory properties and thus improve the quality of mode estimation. System situations change over time. Disturbances can occur at any time, and probing signals can be added for a certain time period and then removed. All these observations point to the need to add intelligence to ModeMeter applications. That is, a ModeMeter needs to adaptively select different algorithms and adjust parameters for various situations. This project aims to develop systematic approaches for algorithm selection and parameter adjustment. The very first step is to detect occurrence of oscillations so the algorithm and parameters can be changed accordingly. The proposed oscillation detection approach is based on the signal-noise ratio of measurements.

  12. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-12-05

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement over traditional signal-processing methods for the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the output of a thermionic detector attached to a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above the threshold. In addition, two of six spikes were detected at levels of 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. Another two of the six would have been detected correctly if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was subsequently identified by analyzing a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods should be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  13. Athletic injury reporting. Development of universal systems.

    PubMed

    Meeuwisse, W H; Love, E J

    1997-09-01

    There are numerous athletic injury reporting systems currently in place. In order for our understanding of athletic injury epidemiology to advance, we must be able to compare data from divergent sources. This paper provides a review of existing athletic injury reporting systems in North America. The epidemiological designs employed in these systems are outlined, along with a description of the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to reporting. The differences between the case-series and cohort methods are delineated and the importance of injury definition, sources of error, denominator data and exposure estimation are discussed within this context. Four recommendations are then offered to assist in moving toward more universal systems for athletic injury reporting. First, comparability of data between systems should be maximised through clear indication of the reporting system design and the methods of data collection. Secondly, an exact definition should be given as to what constitutes a reportable event ('injury'). Thirdly, whenever possible, outcome information should be collected on each reported event so that an injury definition may be applied at the time of data analysis. Lastly, any limitations or sources of error should be acknowledged.

  14. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  15. FINDS: A fault inferring nonlinear detection system programmers manual, version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancraft, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed software documentation of the digital computer program FINDS (Fault Inferring Nonlinear Detection System) Version 3.0 is provided. FINDS is a highly modular and extensible computer program designed to monitor and detect sensor failures, while at the same time providing reliable state estimates. In this version of the program the FINDS methodology is used to detect, isolate, and compensate for failures in simulated avionics sensors used by the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transport System Research Vehicle (TSRV) in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment. It is intended that this report serve as a programmers guide to aid in the maintenance, modification, and revision of the FINDS software.

  16. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  17. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  18. Final LDRD report : advanced plastic scintillators for neutron detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Andrew L.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; O'Bryan, Greg; Mrowka, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a one-year, feasibility-scale LDRD project that was conducted with the goal of developing new plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for neutron detection. Copolymers composed of matrix materials such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and blocks containing trans-stilbene (tSB) as the scintillator component were prepared and tested for gamma/neutron response. Block copolymer synthesis utilizing tSBMA proved unsuccessful so random copolymers containing up to 30% tSB were prepared. These copolymers were found to function as scintillators upon exposure to gamma radiation; however, they did not exhibit PSD when exposed to a neutron source. This project, while falling short of its ultimate goal, demonstrated the possible utility of single-component, undoped plastics as scintillators for applications that do not require PSD.

  19. CASCADE - a multi-layer Boron-10 neutron detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhli, M.; Klein, M.; Allmendinger, F.; Perrevoort, A.-K.; Schröder, T.; Martin, N.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.

    2016-09-01

    The globally increased demand for helium-3 along with the limited availability of this gas calls for the development of alternative technologies for the large ESS instrumentation pool. We report on the CASCADE Project - a novel detection system, which has been developed for the purposes of neutron spin echo spectroscopy. It features 2D spatially resolved detection of thermal neutrons at high rates. The CASCADE detector is composed of a stack of solid 10B coated Gas Electron Multiplier foils, which serve both as a neutron converter and as an amplifier for the primary ionization deposited in the standard Argon-CO2 counting gas environment. This multi-layer setup efficiently increases the detection efficiency and serves as a helium-3 alternative. It has furthermore been possible to extract the signal of the charge traversing the stack to identify the very thin conversion layer of about 1 micrometer. This allows the precise determination of the time-of-flight, necessary for the application in MIEZE spin echo techniques.

  20. Efficient Device-Independent Entanglement Detection for Multipartite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccari, F.; Cavalcanti, D.; Wittek, P.; Acín, A.

    2017-04-01

    Entanglement is one of the most studied properties of quantum mechanics for its application in quantum information protocols. Nevertheless, detecting the presence of entanglement in large multipartite states continues to be a great challenge both from the theoretical and the experimental point of view. Most of the known methods either have computational costs that scale inefficiently with the number of particles or require more information on the state than what is attainable in everyday experiments. We introduce a new technique for entanglement detection that provides several important advantages in these respects. First, it scales efficiently with the number of particles, thus allowing for application to systems composed by up to few tens of particles. Second, it needs only the knowledge of a subset of all possible measurements on the state, therefore being apt for experimental implementation. Moreover, since it is based on the detection of nonlocality, our method is device independent. We report several examples of its implementation for well-known multipartite states, showing that the introduced technique has a promising range of applications.