Science.gov

Sample records for detector efficiency calibration

  1. Quantum Efficient Detectors for Use in Absolute Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, Jessica; Eastwood, Michael; Pavri, Betina; Raney, James

    1998-01-01

    The trap or quantum efficient detector has a quantum efficiency of greater than 0.98 for the region from 450 to 900 nm. The region of flattest response is from 600 to 900 nm. The QED consists of three windowless Hamamatsu silicon detectors. The QED was mounted below AVIRIS to monitor the Spectralon panel for changes in radiance during radiometric calibration. The next step is to permanently mount the detector to AVIRIS and monitor the overall radiance of scenes along with calibration.

  2. Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-10-01

    The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.

  3. Coincidence corrected efficiency calibration of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aucott, Timothy; Brand, Alexander; DiPrete, David

    2015-04-20

    The authors present a reliable method to calibrate the full-energy efficiency and the coincidence correction factors using a commonly-available mixed source gamma standard. This is accomplished by measuring the peak areas from both summing and non-summing decay schemes and simultaneously fitting both the full-energy efficiency, as well as the total efficiency, as functions of energy. By using known decay schemes, these functions can then be used to provide correction factors for other nuclides not included in the calibration standard.

  4. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, B.; Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I.; Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G. F.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  5. New approach for calibration the efficiency of HpGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Alnour, I. A.; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Hamzah, S.; Siong, W. B.; Elias, M. S.

    2014-02-12

    This work evaluates the efficiency calibrating of HpGe detector coupled with Canberra GC3018 with Genie 2000 software and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C with Gamma Vision software; available at Neutron activation analysis laboratory in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The efficiency calibration curve was constructed from measurement of an IAEA, standard gamma–point sources set composed by {sup 214}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The efficiency calibrations were performed for three different geometries: 5, 10 and 15 cm distances from the end cap detector. The polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points. The efficiency equation was established from the known fitted parameters which allow for the efficiency evaluation at particular energy of interest. The study shows that significant deviations in the efficiency, depending on the source-detector distance and photon energy.

  6. BATSE spectroscopy detector calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Ford, L.; Matteson, J.; Lestrade, J. P.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the channel-to-energy calibration of the Spectroscopy Detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). These detectors consist of NaI(TI) crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes whose output in turn is measured by a pulse height analyzer. The calibration of these detectors has been complicated by frequent gain changes and by nonlinearities specific to the BATSE detectors. Nonlinearities in the light output from the NaI crystal and in the pulse height analyzer are shifted relative to each other by changes in the gain of the photomultiplier tube. We present the analytical model which is the basis of our calibration methodology, and outline how the empirical coefficients in this approach were determined. We also describe the complications peculiar to the Spectroscopy Detectors, and how our understanding of the detectors' operation led us to a solution to these problems.

  7. Close-geometry efficiency calibration of p-type HPGe detectors with a Cs-134 point source.

    PubMed

    DeFelice, P; Fazio, A; Vidmar, T; Korun, M

    2006-01-01

    When close-geometry detector calibration is required in gamma-ray spectrometry, single-line emitters are usually used in order to avoid true coincidence summing effects. We managed to overcome this limitation by developing a method for the determination of the efficiency of p-type HPGe detectors in close-geometry with a calibrated Cs-134 point source. No separate determination of coincidence summing correction factors is required and a single measurement furnishes the full-energy-peak efficiencies in the 475-1365 keV energy range.

  8. Comparison of two methods for high purity germanium detector efficiency calibration for charcoal canister radon measurement.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, J; Pantelic, G; Zivanovic, M; Rajacic, M; Todorovic, D

    2014-11-01

    The charcoal canister method of radon measurement according to US Environment Protection Agency protocol 520/5-87-005 is widely used for screening. This method is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. For the purpose of gamma spectrometry, appropriate efficiency calibration of the measuring system must be performed. The most usual method of calibration is using standard canister, a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. In the absence of standard canister, a different method of efficiency calibration has to be implemented. This study presents the results of efficiency calibration using the EFFTRAN efficiency transfer software. Efficiency was calculated using a soil matrix cylindrical secondary reference material as a starting point. Calculated efficiency is then compared with the one obtained using standard canister and applied to a realistic measurement in order to evaluate the results of the efficiency transfer.

  9. Optical detector calibrator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

  10. Calibration Analyses and Efficiency Studies for the Anti Coincidence Detector on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Kachulis, Chris; /Yale U. /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    The Anti Coincidence Detector (ACD) on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope provides charged particle rejection for the Large Area Telescope (LAT). We use two calibrations used by the ACD to conduct three studies on the performance of the ACD. We examine the trending of the calibrations to search for damage and find a timescale over which the calibrations can be considered reliable. We also calculated the number of photoelectrons counted by a PMT on the ACD from a normal proton. Third, we calculated the veto efficiencies of the ACD for two different veto settings. The trends of the calibrations exhibited no signs of damage, and indicated timescales of reliability for the calibrations of one to two years. The number of photoelectrons calculated ranged from 5 to 25. Large errors in the effect of the energy spectrum of the charged particles caused these values to have very large errors of around 60 percent. Finally, the veto efficiencies were found to be very high at both veto values, both for charged particles and for the lower energy backsplash spectrum. The Anti Coincidence Detector (ACD) on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope is a detector system built around the silicon strip tracker on the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The purpose of the ACD is to provide charged particle rejection for the LAT. To do this, the ACD must be calibrated correctly in flight, and must be able to efficiently veto charged particle events while minimizing false vetoes due to 'backsplash' from photons in the calorimeter. There are eleven calibrations used by the ACD. In this paper, we discuss the use of two of these calibrations to preform three studies on the performance of the ACD. The first study examines trending of the calibrations to check for possible hardware degradation. The second study uses the calibrations to explore the efficiency of an on-board hardware veto. The third study uses the calibrations to calculate the number of photoelectrons seen by each PMT when a minimum ionizing

  11. Application of the Monte Carlo method for the efficiency calibration of CsI and NaI detectors for gamma-ray measurements from terrestrial samples.

    PubMed

    Baccouche, S; Al-Azmi, D; Karunakara, N; Trabelsi, A

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray measurements in terrestrial/environmental samples require the use of high efficient detectors because of the low level of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the samples; thus scintillators are suitable for this purpose. Two scintillation detectors were studied in this work; CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) with identical size for measurement of terrestrial samples for performance study. This work describes a Monte Carlo method for making the full-energy efficiency calibration curves for both detectors using gamma-ray energies associated with the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides (137)Cs (661keV), (40)K (1460keV), (238)U ((214)Bi, 1764keV) and (232)Th ((208)Tl, 2614keV), which are found in terrestrial samples. The magnitude of the coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614keV emission of (208)Tl is assessed by simulation. The method provides an efficient tool to make the full-energy efficiency calibration curve for scintillation detectors for any samples geometry and volume in order to determine accurate activity concentrations in terrestrial samples.

  12. Efficiency transfer in the calibration of a coaxial p-type HpGe detector using the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Vargas, M Jurado; Díaz, N Cornejo; Sánchez, D Pérez

    2003-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was applied to the efficiency transfer exercise described in the EUROMET428 project (Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55 (2001) 493), evaluating the peak efficiencies in the energy range 60-2000 keV for a typical coaxial p-type HpGe detector and several types of source configuration: point sources located at various distances from the detector and a cylindrical box containing three matrices. The efficiency values were derived in two ways: (a) by direct calculation taking into account the physical dimensions of the detector provided by the supplier, and (b) by means of relative computation (efficiency transfer) taking also into consideration the known efficiency values for a reference point source. As expected, some significant discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values were found when a direct computation was made using the data provided by the supplier. On the contrary, the results for the peak efficiency derived by relative calculation by means of an efficiency transfer were in good agreement with the experimental values. The deviations found with this last procedure were generally below 5% for all the geometries considered, which is entirely satisfactory for the purposes of routine measurements.

  13. Calibration of CCD detector after damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudka, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    An Xcalibur X-ray diffractometer with a Sapphire 3 CCD detector (Rigaku Oxford Diffraction) has been calibrated to remove damage effects. Visual proof of the validity of the detector calibration map is obtained for the first time. The calibration has significantly improved the reliability of the structural data on Ba3TaFe3Si2O14 single crystal.

  14. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  15. Muon Energy Calibration of the MINOS Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Paul S.

    2004-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for conclusive evidence of neutrino oscillations and to measure the oscillation parameters precisely. MINOS comprises two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab and Soudan. The Calibration Detector at CERN is a third MINOS detector used as part of the detector response calibration programme. A correct energy calibration between these detectors is crucial for the accurate measurement of oscillation parameters. This thesis presents a calibration developed to produce a uniform response within a detector using cosmic muons. Reconstruction of tracks in cosmic ray data is discussed. This data is utilized to calculate calibration constants for each readout channel of the Calibration Detector. These constants have an average statistical error of 1.8%. The consistency of the constants is demonstrated both within a single run and between runs separated by a few days. Results are presented from applying the calibration to test beam particles measured by the Calibration Detector. The responses are calibrated to within 1.8% systematic error. The potential impact of the calibration on the measurement of oscillation parameters by MINOS is also investigated. Applying the calibration reduces the errors in the measured parameters by ~ 10%, which is equivalent to increasing the amount of data by 20%.

  16. Calibration of the Super-Kamiokande detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hayato, Y.; Iida, T.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Marti, Ll.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeda, A.; Takenaga, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tomura, T.; Ueno, K.; Wendell, R. A.; Yokozawa, T.; Irvine, T. J.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kaneyuki, K.; Lee, K. P.; Nishimura, Y.; Okumura, K.; McLachlan, T.; Labarga, L.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Bays, K.; Carminati, G.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Hong, N.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Himmel, A.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tasaka, S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Ikeda, M.; Kikawa, T.; Kubo, H.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Otani, M.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Choi, K.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyake, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Tacik, R.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Taylor, I.; Yanagisawa, C.; Idehara, Y.; Ishino, H.; Kibayashi, A.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Yamaguchi, R.; Yano, T.; Kuno, Y.; Kim, S. B.; Yang, B. S.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Martens, K.; Vagins, M. R.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Konaka, A.; Wilking, M. J.; Chen, S.; Heng, Y.; Sui, H.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhenwei, Y.; Connolly, K.; Dziomba, M.; Wilkes, R. J.

    2014-02-01

    Procedures and results on hardware-level detector calibration in Super-Kamiokande (SK) are presented in this paper. In particular, we report improvements made in our calibration methods for the experimental phase IV in which new readout electronics have been operating since 2008. The topics are separated into two parts. The first part describes the determination of constants needed to interpret the digitized output of our electronics so that we can obtain physical numbers such as photon counts and their arrival times for each photomultiplier tube (PMT). In this context, we developed an in situ procedure to determine high-voltage settings for PMTs in large detectors like SK, as well as a new method for measuring PMT quantum efficiency and gain in such a detector. The second part describes modeling of the detector in Monte Carlo simulations, including, in particular, the optical properties of the water target and their variability over time. Detailed studies on water quality are also presented. As a result of this work, we have achieved a precision sufficient for physics analyses over a wide energy range (from a few MeV to above 1 TeV). For example, charge determination was at the level of 1%, and the timing resolution was 2.1 ns at the one-photoelectron charge level and 0.5 ns at the 100-photoelectron charge level.

  17. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for a large volume (946cm(3)) LaBr3(Ce) detector: GEANT4 simulations and experimental measurements.

    PubMed

    Dhibar, M; Mankad, D; Mazumdar, I; Kumar, G Anil

    2016-12-01

    The paper describes the studies on efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for a 3.5″×6″ cylindrical LaBr3(Ce)detector. GEANT4 simulations were made with point sources, namely, (60)Co, (94)Nb, (24)Na, (46)Sc and (22)Na. The simulated efficiencies, extracted using (60)Co, (94)Nb, (24)Na and (46)Sc that emit coincident gamma rays with same decay intensities, were corrected for coincidence summing by applying the method proposed by Vidmar et al. (2003). The method was applied, for the first time, for correcting the simulated efficiencies extracted using (22)Na that emits coincident gamma rays with different decay intensities. The measured results obtained using (60)Co and (22)Na were found to be in good agreement with simulated results.

  18. Self consistent, absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors.

    PubMed

    Avella, A; Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M; Gramegna, M; Lolli, L; Monticone, E; Portesi, C; Rajteri, M; Rastello, M L; Taralli, E; Traina, P; White, M

    2011-11-07

    Well characterized photon number resolving detectors are a requirement for many applications ranging from quantum information and quantum metrology to the foundations of quantum mechanics. This prompts the necessity for reliable calibration techniques at the single photon level. In this paper we propose an innovative absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors, using a pulsed heralded photon source based on parametric down conversion. The technique, being absolute, does not require reference standards and is independent upon the performances of the heralding detector. The method provides the results of quantum efficiency for the heralded detector as a function of detected photon numbers. Furthermore, we prove its validity by performing the calibration of a Transition Edge Sensor based detector, a real photon number resolving detector that has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in various quantum information protocols.

  19. Calibration of a detector for nonlinear responses.

    PubMed

    Asnin, Leonid; Guiochon, Georges

    2005-09-30

    A calibration curve is often needed to derive from the record of the detector signal the actual concentration profile of the eluate in many studies of the thermodynamic and kinetic of adsorption by chromatography. The calibration task is complicated in the frequent cases in which the detector response is nonlinear. The simplest approach consists in preparing a series of solutions of known concentrations, in flushing them successively through the detector cell, and in recording the height of the plateau response obtained. However, this method requires relatively large amounts of the pure solutes studied. These are not always available, may be most costly, and could be applied to better uses. An alternative procedure consists of deriving this calibration curve from a series of peaks recorded upon the injection of increasingly large pulses of the studied compound. We validated this new method in HPLC with a UV detector. Questions concerning the reproducibility and accuracy of the method are discussed.

  20. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  1. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

  2. Astrophysical calibration of gravitational-wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitkin, M.; Messenger, C.; Wright, L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a method to assess the validity of gravitational-wave detector calibration through the use of gamma-ray bursts as standard sirens. Such signals, as measured via gravitational-wave observations, provide an estimated luminosity distance that is subject to uncertainties in the calibration of the data. If a host galaxy is identified for a given source then its redshift can be combined with current knowledge of the cosmological parameters yielding the true luminosity distance. This will then allow a direct comparison with the estimated value and can validate the accuracy of the original calibration. We use simulations of individual detectable gravitational-wave signals from binary neutron star (BNS) or neutron star-black hole systems, which we assume to be found in coincidence with short gamma-ray bursts, to estimate any discrepancy in the overall scaling of the calibration for detectors in the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo network. We find that the amplitude scaling of the calibration for the LIGO instruments could on average be confirmed to within ˜10 % for a BNS source within 100 Mpc. This result is largely independent of the current detector calibration method and gives an uncertainty that is competitive with that expected in the current calibration procedure. Confirmation of the calibration accuracy to within ˜20 % can be found with BNS sources out to ˜500 Mpc .

  3. Thoughts on VCD-145 Detector Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W V

    2005-02-10

    In 1980, Don Smith requested that the EG&G Detector Group in North Las Vegas provide a summary of calibrated sensitivities for the VCD-145 detector. The &sired information was provided in a memorandum from Sam Egdorf (Reference 1). A memo from Brent Davis issued a week later described the effect on VCD-145 detector sensitivity that resulted from changing the thickness of the stainless steel entrance window (Reference 2). This memo is intended first to effectively archive those two references, and second to record thoughts about the significance of their contents. Reference 1 lists a total of 118 calibrated values for 80 different VCD-145 detectors, from 1977 to 1980. With only four exceptions, all of the serial numbers from V004 to V087 were included. The earlier calibrations were for detectors with 1-mil entrance windows, and the later ones were for detectors with 2-mil entrance windows. Three of the earlier units were calibrated at both thicknesses by temporarily placing an extra 1-mil sheet of stainless steel across the window. Altogether six different collimator diameters were used, from 60 mm to 95 mm. Some units were calibrated for more than one collimator diameter, and 14 were at some point designated as backup detectors for a second event. Reference 2 describes the effect of window thickness on calibrated sensitivity. Quoting that reference: ''To demonstrate that the sensitivity decrease is solely a function of the window thickness, a standard VCD-145 detector with a 0.001-inch thick window was calibrated with the {sup 60}Co source. Then without changing detector or geometry, a 0.001 -inch thick stainless steel foil (same material as that of the window) was placed directly in front of the detector window, effectively making a 0.002-inch thick entrance window. The detector was again calibrated. This technique was repeated until the detector had an entrance window equivalent to 0.010-inches thick.'' There are multiple reasons to suspect that the accuracy of

  4. Sensitivity calibration of an imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer-detector system for determining the efficiency of broadband extreme ultraviolet sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, S.; Rödel, C.; Krebs, M.; Hädrich, S.; Bierbach, J.; Paz, A. E.; Kuschel, S.; Wünsche, M.; Hilbert, V.; Zastrau, U.; Förster, E.; Limpert, J.; Paulus, G. G.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system that is frequently employed to study emission from short-pulse laser experiments. The XUV spectrometer, consisting of a toroidal mirror and a transmission grating, was characterized at a synchrotron source in respect of the ratio of the detected to the incident photon flux at photon energies ranging from 15.5 eV to 99 eV. The absolute calibration allows the determination of the XUV photon number emitted by laser-based XUV sources, e.g., high-harmonic generation from plasma surfaces or in gaseous media. We have demonstrated high-harmonic generation in gases and plasma surfaces providing 2.3 μW and μJ per harmonic using the respective generation mechanisms.

  5. Calibration of single-photon detectors using quantum statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Mogilevtsev, D.

    2010-08-15

    I show that calibration of the single-photon detector can be performed without knowledge of the signal parameters. Only partial information about the state statistics is sufficient for that. If one knows that the state is the squeezed one or the squeezed one mixed with the incoherent radiation, one can infer both the parameters of the state and the efficiency of the detector. For that one needs only to measure on/off statistics of detector clicks for the number of known absorbers placed before the detector. Thus, I suggest a scheme that performs a tomography of the signal and the measuring apparatus simultaneously.

  6. Subspace Detectors: Efficient Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B; Paik, T

    2006-07-26

    computed efficiently for continuous multichannel seismic data. The speed of the calculation is significant as it may become desirable to deploy subspace detectors numbering in the thousands. One application contemplated for these detectors is as screens against signals from repeating sources such as mines or aftershocks of large earthquakes. With many tens of stations and potentially hundreds of sources to screen, efficient implementations are desirable. Speed, of course, can be achieved by procuring faster computers or special-purpose hardware. The approach we examine here is the development of two efficient algorithms that can make the calculations run faster on any machine. In the first section, we describe the subspace detector as we use it for the detection of repeating seismic events, defining terms and the parameterization used in succeeding sections. This section also reviews how the correlation computations central to the matched filter and subspace detectors can be implemented as a collection of convolution operations. Convolution algorithms using fast Fourier transforms, such as the overlap-add and overlap-save methods, have long been known as efficient implementations of discrete-time finite-impulse-response filters [e.g. Oppenheim and Schafer, 1975]. These may be extended in a straightforward manner to implement multichannel correlation detectors. In the second section, we describe how multichannel data can be multiplexed to compute the required convolutions with a single pair of FFT operations instead of a pair for each channel. This approach increases speed approximately twofold. Seismic data, almost invariably, are oversampled. This characteristic provides an opportunity for increased efficiency by decimating the data prior to performing the correlation calculations. In the third section, we describe a bandpass transformation of the data that allows a more aggressive decimation of the data without significant loss of fidelity in the correlation calculation

  7. MINERνA neutrino detector calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, Cheryl

    2015-05-15

    MINERνA is a neutrino scattering experiment that uses Fermilab’s NuMI beamline. Its goal is to measure cross-sections for neutrino scattering from different nuclei. Precise knowledge of these cross-sections is vital for current and future neutrino oscillation experiments. In order to measure these values to a high degree of accuracy, it is essential that the detector be carefully calibrated. Here, we describe in-situ calibration and cross-checks.

  8. A new experimental procedure for determination of photoelectric efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector used for nuclear medicine liquid waste monitoring with traceability to a reference standard radionuclide calibrator.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, A; Campanella, F; Ciofetta, G; Marracino, F M; Cannatà, V

    2010-02-01

    To determine photopeak efficiency for (99m)Tc of the NaI(Tl) detector used for liquid waste monitoring at the Nuclear Medicine Unit of IRCCS Paediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù in Rome, a specific experimental procedure, with traceability to primary standards, was developed. Working with the Italian National Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety, two different calibration source geometries were employed and the detector response dependence on geometry was investigated. The large percentage difference (almost 40%) between the two efficiency values obtained showed that geometrical effects cannot be neglected.

  9. IBIS detector performance during calibration - preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Laurent, P.; Malaguti, G.; Quadrini, E. M.; Segreto, A.; Volkmer, R.; del Santo, M.; Gabriele, M.; Tikkanen, T.

    2003-11-01

    The IBIS telescope is a high angular resolution gamma-ray imager due to be launched on the INTEGRAL satellite on October 17, 2002. The scientific goal of IBIS is to study astrophysical processes from celestial sources and diffuse regions in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray domains. IBIS features a coded aperture imaging system and a novel large area (~3000cm2) multilayer pixellated detector which utilises both cadmium telluride (16,384 detectors) and caesium iodide elements (4096 detectors) surrounded by a BGO active veto shield. We present an overview of, and preliminary analysis from, the IBIS calibration campaign. The performance of each pixel has been characterised, and hence the scientific performance of the IBIS detector system as a whole can now be established.

  10. Calibration of a detector for nonlinear chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Asnin, Leonid; Galinada, Wilmer; Gotmar, Gustaf; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-06-01

    In many studies of nonlinear or preparative chromatography, chromatographic signals must be recorded for relatively concentrated solutions and the detectors, that are designed for analytical applications and are highly sensitive, must be used under such experimental conditions that their responses are often nonlinear. Then, a calibration curve is needed to derive the actual concentration profiles of the eluates from the measured detector response. It becomes necessary to derive a relationship between the concentration of the eluent and the detector signal at any given time. The simplest approach consists in preparing a series of solutions of known concentrations and in flushing them successively through the detector cell, recording the height of the plateau response obtained. However, this method requires relatively large amounts of the pure solutes being studied and these are not always available or they may be most costly, although these solutions can be recovered. We describe and validate an alternative procedure providing this calibration from a series of peaks recorded upon the injection of increasingly large pulses of the studied compound.

  11. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD's) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD's, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  12. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    1995-03-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD`s) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD`s, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  13. Precise efficiency calibration of an HPGe detector up to 3.5 MeV, with measurements and Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Helmer, R G; Nica, N; Hardy, J C; Iacob, V E

    2004-01-01

    Previously we used relative and absolute efficiency measurements combined with Monte Carlo calculations to define the efficiency of an HPGe gamma-ray detector with 0.2% accuracy from 50 to 1400 keV. This work has been extended to 4.8 MeV with measurements of relative efficiencies from 24Na, 56Co, and 66Ga sources. The combined results of experiment and calculation yield an efficiency curve up to 3.5 MeV with 0.4% accuracy. Single- and double-escape peak contributions also agree with calculation if positron annihilation-in-flight is incorporated.

  14. X ray and gamma ray standards for detector calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    The IAEA established a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on the measurements and evaluation of x- and gamma-ray standards for detector efficiency calibration in 1986 with the aim of alleviating the generation of such discrepancies. Within the framework of this CRP, representatives of nine research groups from six member states and one international organization performed a number of precise measurements and systematic in-depth evaluations of the required decay data. They have also contributed to the development of evaluation methodology and measurement techniques, and stimulated a number of such studies at laboratories not directly involved in the IAEA project. The results of the work of the CRP, which was finished in 1990, are presented in this report. Recommended values of half-lives and photon emission probabilities are given for a carefully selected set of radionuclides that are suitable for detector efficiency calibration (x-rays from 5 to 90 keV and gamma-rays from 30 to about 3000 keV). Detector efficiency calibration for higher gamma-ray energies (up to 14 MeV) is also considered. The evaluation procedures used to obtain the recommended values and their estimated uncertainties are reported, and a summary of the remaining discrepancies is given.

  15. Calibration Software for the Muon Detectors at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannon, Kevin

    2001-04-01

    The muon detector system at CDF consists of the following subsystems: Central Muon Detector (CMU), the Central Muon Upgrade (CMP), the Central Muon Extension (CMX), and the Intermediate Muon Detector (IMU). Each subsystem is a collection of drift chambers and all but the CMU also incorporate scintillation counters for trigger and timing purposes. The muon calibration system performs diagnostics and calibrations on the above systems. We will describe the software that controls the muon calibration system. This software takes advantage of the existing CDF DAQ infrastructure to handle communication between a Java client containing the user interface and the VME crates where the calibration hardware resides.

  16. Radioxenon detector calibration spike production and delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; Cameron, Ian M.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kriss, Aaron A.; Lidey, Lance S.; Mendez, Jennifer M.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Riedmann, Robin A.

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Beta-Gamma coincidence radioxenon detectors must be calibrated for each of the four-radioxenon isotopes (135Xe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 131mXe). Without a proper calibration, there is potential for the misidentification of the amount of each isotope detected. It is important to accurately determine the amount of each radioxenon isotope, as the ratios can be used to distinguish between an anthropogenic source and a nuclear explosion. We have developed a xenon calibration system (XeCalS) that produces calibration spikes of known activity and pressure for field calibration of detectors. The activity concentrations of these calibration spikes are measured using a beta-gamma coincidence detector and a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. We will present the results from the development and commissioning of XeCalS, along with the future plans for a portable spike implementation system.

  17. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lösel, Philipp; Atlas Muon Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Resistive strip Micromegas detectors have been tested extensively as small detectors of about 10×10 cm2 in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100 kHz/cm2 and above. Tracking resolution well below 100 μm has been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3 m2 in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1 m2 detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 μm was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRMF) using two 4×2.2 m2 large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. A segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6 mm×93 mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by eleven 93 mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips. This allows for mapping of homogeneity in pulse height and efficiency, determination of signal propagation along the 1 m long anode strips and calibration of the position of the anode strips.

  18. Calibration Hardware for the Muon Detectors at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickey, Trevor

    2001-04-01

    The muon detector system at CDF consists of the following subsystems: Central Muon Detector (CMU), the Central Muon Upgrade (CMP), the Central Muon Extension (CMX), and the Intermediate Muon Detector (IMU). Each subsystem is a collection of drift chambers and all but the CMU also incorporate scintillation counters for trigger and timing purposes. We will describe the muon calibration system hardware, which performs diagnostics and calibrations on the above detectors. The muon calibration system injects charge into each channel of the CDF muon detectors to generate a signal similar to that of a muon traversing the chamber. Reading this pulse out with the data acquisition system allows us to spot problems with the muon system electronics as well as to calibrate detector timing and response to different amounts of charge.

  19. An MLC calibration method using a detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw's leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf's position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 {+-}0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of {+-}0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration.

  20. The LED calibration system of the SPHERE-2 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, R. A.; Bonvech, E. A.; Chernov, D. V.; Podgrudkov, D. A.; Roganova, T. M.

    2016-04-01

    An absolute calibration method for the PMT mosaic used in the SPHERE-2 experiment is presented. The method is based on the relative calibration of all PMTs in the mosaic to a single stable PMT, incorporated in it, during each measurement event and subsequent absolute calibration of that single PMT using a known stable light source. The results of the SPHERE-2 detector PMTs calibration are presented and are discussed.

  1. Using standard calibrated geometries to characterize a coaxial high purity germanium gamma detector for Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Graaf, E. R.; Dendooven, P.; Brandenburg, S.

    2014-06-01

    A detector model optimization procedure based on matching Monte Carlo simulations with measurements for two experimentally calibrated sample geometries which are frequently used in radioactivity measurement laboratories results in relative agreement within 5% between simulated and measured efficiencies for a high purity germanium detector. The optimization procedure indicated that the increase in dead layer thickness is largely responsible for a detector efficiency decrease in time. The optimized detector model allows Monte Carlo efficiency calibration for all other samples of which the geometry and bulk composition is known. The presented method is a competitive and economic alternative to more elaborate detector scanning methods and results in a comparable accuracy.

  2. Using standard calibrated geometries to characterize a coaxial high purity germanium gamma detector for Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    van der Graaf, E R; Dendooven, P; Brandenburg, S

    2014-06-01

    A detector model optimization procedure based on matching Monte Carlo simulations with measurements for two experimentally calibrated sample geometries which are frequently used in radioactivity measurement laboratories results in relative agreement within 5% between simulated and measured efficiencies for a high purity germanium detector. The optimization procedure indicated that the increase in dead layer thickness is largely responsible for a detector efficiency decrease in time. The optimized detector model allows Monte Carlo efficiency calibration for all other samples of which the geometry and bulk composition is known. The presented method is a competitive and economic alternative to more elaborate detector scanning methods and results in a comparable accuracy.

  3. Using standard calibrated geometries to characterize a coaxial high purity germanium gamma detector for Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Graaf, E. R. van der Dendooven, P.; Brandenburg, S.

    2014-06-15

    A detector model optimization procedure based on matching Monte Carlo simulations with measurements for two experimentally calibrated sample geometries which are frequently used in radioactivity measurement laboratories results in relative agreement within 5% between simulated and measured efficiencies for a high purity germanium detector. The optimization procedure indicated that the increase in dead layer thickness is largely responsible for a detector efficiency decrease in time. The optimized detector model allows Monte Carlo efficiency calibration for all other samples of which the geometry and bulk composition is known. The presented method is a competitive and economic alternative to more elaborate detector scanning methods and results in a comparable accuracy.

  4. Simulations toward Effective Calibrations of the CUORE Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Byron; Cuore Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    It is currently unknown whether or not the neutrino is a MAJORANA or Dirac particle, that is, whether or not the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Observing neutrinoless double-beta decay, a process only possible if neutrinos are MAJORANA particles, can answer this question. If observed, this process would indicate that Lepton number is not conserved. CUORE's (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) is a bolometer based detector with Te02 crystal bolometers that is used to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 130Te. To insure that this detector will identify the energy peaks resulting from neutrinoless double-beta decay precisely, the detectors must be calibrated with gamma sources. To calibrate the detector, twelve strings carrying the calibration source 232Th were cooled from 300K to 10mK and installed within and around the bolometer towers. Six strings are distributed around the outside of the towers, and six strings are among the towers. This organization of strings was chosen because the gamma ray radiation from the source strings cannot penetrate more than one or two crystals at low energy. I will present the results from Monte Carlo simulations run in order to understand how to calibrate the COURE detector during operations and how to calibrate the CUORE detector in circumstances where the twelve calibration strings fail to deploy properly. Maruyama Group / CUORE collaboration.

  5. Techniques for precise energy calibration of particle pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, M.; Campbell-Ricketts, T.; Bahadori, A.; Empl, A.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate techniques to improve the accuracy of the energy calibration of Timepix pixel detectors, used for the measurement of energetic particles. The typical signal from such particles spreads among many pixels due to charge sharing effects. As a consequence, the deposited energy in each pixel cannot be reconstructed unless the detector is calibrated, limiting the usability of such signals for calibration. To avoid this shortcoming, we calibrate using low energy X-rays. However, charge sharing effects still occur, resulting in part of the energy being deposited in adjacent pixels and possibly lost. This systematic error in the calibration process results in an error of about 5% in the energy measurements of calibrated devices. We use FLUKA simulations to assess the magnitude of charge sharing effects, allowing a corrected energy calibration to be performed on several Timepix pixel detectors and resulting in substantial improvement in energy deposition measurements. Next, we address shortcomings in calibration associated with the huge range (from kiloelectron-volts to megaelectron-volts) of energy deposited per pixel which result in a nonlinear energy response over the full range. We introduce a new method to characterize the non-linear response of the Timepix detectors at high input energies. We demonstrate improvement using a broad range of particle types and energies, showing that the new method reduces the energy measurement errors, in some cases by more than 90%.

  6. Calibration Techniques of the XENON1T Dark Matter Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienaar, Jacques; Xenon Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The XENON1T experiment will probe new parameter spaces in direct dark matter searches. The successful operation of such a detector requires several calibration techniques to accurately reconstruct the position and energies of events within the active volume. 220Rn is introduced into the detector itself, through re-circulation of gaseous Xe, for use as an internal calibration sources. The decay of 220Rn and its daughters provides both high-energy alpha particles as well as a low-energy beta spectrum that can be used to calibrate the detector. Mono-energetic 2.5 MeV neutrons, allow for the in-situ calibration of the charge yield of nuclear recoil events within the detector, using double scatter events to reconstruct the deposited energy at the first scatter. Accurately positioned external Compton sources allow to determine the performance of fiducialization, as well as an insitu calibration of the charge yield of electronic recoils. This talk will present the calibration systems of the XENON1T detector.

  7. Inaccuracy Determination in Mathematical Model of Labsocs Efficiency Calibration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, M.; Nikishkin, T.; Chursin, S.

    2016-08-01

    The study of radioactive materials quantitative inaccuracy determination caused by semiconductor detector aging is presented in the article. The study was conducted using a p- type coaxial GC 1518 detector made of a high-purity germanium produced by Canberra Company and LabSOCS mathematical efficiency calibration program. It was discovered that during 8 years of operation the efficiency of the detector had decreased due to increase of the dead layer of the germanium crystal. Increasing the thickness of the dead layer leads to 2 effects, which influence on the efficiency decrease: the shielding effect and the effect of reducing the active volume of the germanium crystal. It is found that the shielding effect contributes at energies below 88 keV. At energies above 88 keV the inaccuracy is connected with the decrease of the germanium crystal active volume, caused by lithium thermal diffusion.

  8. Calibration analysis software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    The calibration of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC fulfils two main purposes: to tune the front-end configuration parameters for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel Detector scans and analyses is called calibration console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new FE-I4 chips, required an update of the console architecture. It now handles scans and scan analyses applied together to chips with different characteristics. An overview of the newly developed calibration analysis software will be presented, together with some preliminary results.

  9. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors.

    PubMed

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  10. Efficient Calibration of Computationally Intensive Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, A.; Huot, P. L.; Audet, C.; Alarie, S.

    2015-12-01

    A new hybrid optimization algorithm for the calibration of computationally-intensive hydrological models is introduced. The calibration of hydrological models is a blackbox optimization problem where the only information available to the optimization algorithm is the objective function value. In the case of distributed hydrological models, the calibration process is often known to be hampered by computational efficiency issues. Running a single simulation may take several minutes and since the optimization process may require thousands of model evaluations, the computational time can easily expand to several hours or days. A blackbox optimization algorithm, which can substantially improve the calibration efficiency, has been developed. It merges both the convergence analysis and robust local refinement from the Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm, and the global exploration capabilities from the heuristic strategies used by the Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) algorithm. The new algorithm is applied to the calibration of the distributed and computationally-intensive HYDROTEL model on three different river basins located in the province of Quebec (Canada). Two calibration problems are considered: (1) calibration of a 10-parameter version of HYDROTEL, and (2) calibration of a 19-parameter version of the same model. A previous study by the authors had shown that the original version of DDS was the most efficient method for the calibration of HYDROTEL, when compared to the MADS and the very well-known SCEUA algorithms. The computational efficiency of the hybrid DDS-MADS method is therefore compared with the efficiency of the DDS algorithm based on a 2000 model evaluations budget. Results show that the hybrid DDS-MADS method can reduce the total number of model evaluations by 70% for the 10-parameter version of HYDROTEL and by 40% for the 19-parameter version without compromising the quality of the final objective function value.

  11. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: detector spectral response effects on thermal emissive band calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will be aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) to supply data needed for operational weather forecasts and long-term climate variability studies, which depend on high quality data. Unlike the heritage operational GOES systems that have two or four detectors per band, ABI has hundreds of detectors per channel requiring calibration coefficients for each one. This increase in number of detectors poses new challenges for next generation sensors as each detector has a unique spectral response function (SRF) even though only one averaged SRF per band is used operationally to calibrate each detector. This simplified processing increases computational efficiency. Using measured system-level SRF data from pre-launch testing, we have the opportunity to characterize the calibration impact using measured SRFs, both per detector and as an average of detector-level SRFs similar to the operational version. We calculated the spectral response impacts for the thermal emissive bands (TEB) theoretically, by simulating the ABI response viewing an ideal blackbody and practically, with the measured ABI response to an external reference blackbody from the pre-launch TEB calibration test. The impacts from the practical case match the theoretical results using an ideal blackbody. The observed brightness temperature trends show structure across the array with magnitudes as large as 0.1 K for and 12 (9.61 µm), and 0.25 K for band 14 (11.2 µm) for a 300 K blackbody. The trends in the raw ABI signal viewing the blackbody support the spectral response measurements results, since they show similar trends in bands 12 (9.61µm), and 14 (11.2 µm), meaning that the spectral effects dominate the response differences between detectors for these bands. We further validated these effects using the radiometric bias calculated between calibrations using the external blackbody and

  12. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOEpatents

    McFee, M.C.; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a ''shield plate'' or shell, and an opposing ''source plate'' containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects. 3 figures.

  13. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOEpatents

    Mc Fee, Matthew C.; Kirkham, Tim J.; Johnson, Tippi H.

    1994-01-01

    A device for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a "shield plate" or shell, and an opposing "source plate" containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects.

  14. Calibration of the neutron detectors for the cluster fusion experiment on the Texas Petawatt Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, W.; Quevedo, H. J.; Dyer, G.; Rougk, J.; Kim, I.; McCormick, M.; Bernstein, A. C.; Ditmire, T.

    2012-06-15

    Three types of neutron detectors (plastic scintillation detectors, indium activation detectors, and CR-39 track detectors) were calibrated for the measurement of 2.45 MeV DD fusion neutron yields from the deuterium cluster fusion experiment on the Texas Petawatt Laser. A Cf-252 neutron source and 2.45 MeV fusion neutrons generated from laser-cluster interaction were used as neutron sources. The scintillation detectors were calibrated such that they can detect up to 10{sup 8} DD fusion neutrons per shot in current mode under high electromagnetic pulse environments. Indium activation detectors successfully measured neutron yields as low as 10{sup 4} per shot and up to 10{sup 11} neutrons. The use of a Cf-252 neutron source allowed cross calibration of CR-39 and indium activation detectors at high neutron yields ({approx}10{sup 11}). The CR-39 detectors provided consistent measurements of the total neutron yield of Cf-252 when a modified detection efficiency of 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} was used. The combined use of all three detectors allowed for a detection range of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 11} neutrons per shot.

  15. Calibration of the solar neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccianiga, Barbara; Re, Alessandra Carlotta

    2016-04-01

    Calibrations have been crucial for the success of solar neutrino experiments. In this contribution we review the calibration strategies adopted by different solar neutrino experiments. In particular, we will emphasize their common critical aspects and their main differences. In order to do so, we will schematically divide the solar neutrino experiments in two groups: those based on radiochemical techniques, i.e. Homestake, Gallex/GNO, SAGE and those based on real-time techniques i.e. Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, Borexino and KamLAND.

  16. Fielding and calibration issues for diamond photoconducting detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Ruggles, L.E.; Pepping, R.E.; Breeze, S.F.; McGurn, J.S.; Struve, K.W.

    1996-12-01

    Diamond photoconducting detectors are routinely fielded as soft x-ray diagnostics on Sandia`s Saturn facility. We have developed an improved detector mount that provides a 200-ps time response, is easily cleanable, and is very rugged. In addition, we have developed a new, fast insertion unit to apply bias voltage to the detectors. Absolute calibration of the PCDs is carried out either at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source or on Sandia`s laser calibration facility. We are now fielding diamond elements that have the dimensions 1x3x0.5 nun and 1x1xO.5 mm. We are neutron damaging some of the 1x1xO.5-mm detectors to reduce their sensitivity. We can tailor PCD sensitivity by adjusting element size and neutron damage level.

  17. Design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dally, Adam

    2013-04-01

    CUORE, the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events, is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with an active mass of 206 kg of ^130Te. The detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operating at 10 mK. The signature of 0νββ decay is an excess of events at the Q-value of 2528 keV. Understanding the energy response is critical for event identification, but this presents many challenges. The detector requires ultra-low background radiation, vacuum compatible materials, and cryogenic temperatures. Individual energy calibration of the bolometers is achieved by placing radioactive sources between detectors inside the cryostat. A source deployment and thermalization system that meets the background and thermal requirements of the CUORE experiment has been developed. This talk will discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system.

  18. Laboratory Calibration of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Stewart, Mike F.; Christian, Hugh J.; Bergstrom, James W.; Hall, John M.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    We present in detail the laboratory apparatus and techniques that were used to complete a full radiometric calibration of two space-based lightning detectors developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). A discussion of the methods applied to geolocate lightning and to estimate lightning detection efficiency are provided.

  19. Mathematical calibration of Ge detectors, and the instruments that use them

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, F.L.; Young, B.

    1997-11-01

    Efficiency calibrations for Ge detectors are typically done with the use of multiple energy calibrations sources which are added to a bulk matrix intended to simulate the measurement sample, and then deposited in the sample container. This is rather easy for common laboratory samples. Bu, even there, for many environmental samples, waste assay samples, and operational health physics samples, accurate calibrations are difficult. For these situations, various mathematical corrections or direct calibration techniques are used at Canberra. EML has pioneered the use of mathematical calibrations following source-based detector characterization measurements for in situ measurements of environmental fallout. Canberra has expanded this by the use of MCNP for the source measurements required in EML. For other calibration situations, MCNP was used directly, as the primary calibration method. This is demonstrated to be at least as accurate as source based measurements, and probably better. Recently, a new method [ISOCS] has been developed and is nearing completion. This promises to be an easy to use calibration software that can be used by the customer for in situ gamma spectroscopy to accurately measure many large sized samples, such as boxes, drums, pipes, or to calibrate small laboratory-type samples. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. The detector calibration system for the CUORE cryogenic bolometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, Jeremy S.; Dally, Adam; Davis, Christopher J.; Ejzak, Larissa; Lenz, Daniel; Lim, Kyungeun E.; Heeger, Karsten M.; Maruyama, Reina H.; Nucciotti, Angelo; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Wise, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and other rare events. The CUORE detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operated underground at 10 mK in a dilution refrigerator at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Candidate events are identified through a precise measurement of their energy. The absolute energy response of the detectors is established by the regular calibration of each individual bolometer using gamma sources. The close-packed configuration of the CUORE bolometer array combined with the extensive shielding surrounding the detectors requires the placement of calibration sources within the array itself. The CUORE Detector Calibration System is designed to insert radioactive sources into and remove them from the cryostat while respecting the stringent heat load, radiopurity, and operational requirements of the experiment. This paper describes the design, commissioning, and performance of this novel source calibration deployment system for ultra-low-temperature environments.

  1. Chandra Grating Efficiencies Based on Ground Calibration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratzlaff, P.; Wargelin, B. J.; Drake, J. J.; Johnson, C. O.; Pease, D.; Dewey, D.

    2000-10-01

    Prior to launch, the Chandra X-ray Observatory underwent comprehensive calibration at the NASA X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF, Marshall Space Flight Center). We present results of a final analysis of these calibration data for the Low and High Energy Transmission Gratings (LETG and HETG), as well as for the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA). Detailed source spectra for each combination of x-ray source anode and filter were derived from imaging-detector/grating data. Results from simulations using the MARX ray-trace suite were then used to account for finite-aperture-size and window-bowing effects in the focal-plane flow proportional counters (FPCs) used to collect the grating efficiency data. After these adjustments were applied and the relative strength of each line within the complex was determined, the FPC JMKMOD model for the XSPEC spectral fitting program was used to fit data from focal-plane and beam-monitor detectors. In this way, best-fit parameters for the different instrument configurations were derived, yielding measurements of the HRMA effective area and LETG and HETG diffraction efficiencies over a broad spectral range. Although measurements of 0th and 1st order grating efficiencies comprise the bulk of the data, extensive information was also obtained on higher-order diffraction. P. Ratzlaff, B.J. Wargelin, J.J. Drake, C.O. Johnson and D. Pease were supported by Chandra X-ray Center NASA contract NAS8-39073.

  2. XMM-Newton satellite MOS CCD detectors calibration results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, Philippe B.; Pigot, Claude; Belsole, Elena; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Ferrando, Philippe; Hainaut, Olivier; Sauvageot, Jean L.

    2000-11-01

    X-Ray Multi Mirror (XMM) satellite has been successfully launched on the 10th of December 1999. It is carrying 3 CCD detectors (2 MOS and 1 PN) optimized for X-Rays (EPIC instrument). These detectors have been calibrated using 2 synchrotron beam lines developed on purpose within the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) and Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) facilities in Orsay, France). The absolute calibration is performed by comparing the camera data with those obtained using a Gaz Proportional Counter for the 0.2 to 0.8 keV range and a Silicium-Lithium diode for the 0.6 to 12.0 keV range. These results are then to be compared to XMM in-flight calibration data.

  3. A detector interferometric calibration experiment for high precision astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Henault, F.; Léger, A.; Cara, C.; LeDuigou, J. M.; Preis, O.; Kern, P.; Delboulbe, A.; Martin, G.; Feautrier, P.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Rochat, S.; Ketchazo, C.; Donati, M.; Doumayrou, E.; Lagage, P. O.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Behar, E.; Potin, S.; Saint-Pe, M.; Dupont, J.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Exoplanet science has made staggering progress in the last two decades, due to the relentless exploration of new detection methods and refinement of existing ones. Yet astrometry offers a unique and untapped potential of discovery of habitable-zone low-mass planets around all the solar-like stars of the solar neighborhood. To fulfill this goal, astrometry must be paired with high precision calibration of the detector. Aims: We present a way to calibrate a detector for high accuracy astrometry. An experimental testbed combining an astrometric simulator and an interferometric calibration system is used to validate both the hardware needed for the calibration and the signal processing methods. The objective is an accuracy of 5 × 10-6 pixel on the location of a Nyquist sampled polychromatic point spread function. Methods: The interferometric calibration system produced modulated Young fringes on the detector. The Young fringes were parametrized as products of time and space dependent functions, based on various pixel parameters. The minimization of function parameters was done iteratively, until convergence was obtained, revealing the pixel information needed for the calibration of astrometric measurements. Results: The calibration system yielded the pixel positions to an accuracy estimated at 4 × 10-4 pixel. After including the pixel position information, an astrometric accuracy of 6 × 10-5 pixel was obtained, for a PSF motion over more than five pixels. In the static mode (small jitter motion of less than 1 × 10-3 pixel), a photon noise limited precision of 3 × 10-5 pixel was reached.

  4. The plastic scintillator detector calibration circuit for DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haibo; Kong, Jie; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is being constructed as a scientific satellite to observe high energy cosmic rays in space. Plastic scintillator detector array (PSD), developed by Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMPCAS), is one of the most important parts in the payload of DAMPE which is mainly used for the study of dark matter. As an anti-coincidence detector, and a charged-particle identification detector, the PSD has a total of 360 electronic readout channels, which are distributed at four sides of PSD using four identical front end electronics (FEE). Each FEE reads out 90 charge signals output by the detector. A special calibration circuit is designed in FEE. FPGA is used for on-line control, enabling the calibration circuit to generate the pulse signal with known charge. The generated signal is then sent to the FEE for calibration and self-test. This circuit mainly consists of DAC, operation amplifier, analog switch, capacitance and resistance. By using controllable step pulse, the charge can be coupled to the charge measuring chip using the small capacitance. In order to fulfill the system's objective of large dynamic range, the FEE is required to have good linearity. Thus, the charge-controllable signal is needed to do sweep test on all channels in order to obtain the non-linear parameters for off-line correction. On the other hand, the FEE will run on the satellite for three years. The changes of the operational environment and the aging of devices will lead to parameter variation of the FEE, highlighting the need for regular calibration. The calibration signal generation circuit also has a compact structure and the ability to work normally, with the PSD system's voltage resolution being higher than 0.6%.

  5. Calibration of the active radiation detector for Spacelab-One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The flight models of the active radiation detector (ARD) for the ENV-01 environmental monitor were calibrated using gamma radiation. Measured sensitivities of the ion chambers were 6.1 + or - 0.3 micron rad per count for ARD S/N1, and 10.4 + or - 0.5 micron rad per count for ARD S/N2. Both were linear over the measured range 0.10 to 500 m/rad hour. The particle counters (proportional counters) were set to respond to approximately 85% of minimum ionizing particles of unit charge passing through them. These counters were also calibrated in the gamma field.

  6. Automatic intrinsic calibration of double-sided silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, M.; Gerl, J.; Golubev, P.; Pietralla, N.

    2015-04-01

    A reliable and simple-to-use algorithm was developed for the energy-calibration of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSDs). It works by enforcing mutual consistency of p-side and n-side information for every detected event. The procedure does not rely on a dedicated data set for calibration and is robust enough to work fully automated without human supervision. The method was developed and applied to data from a DSSSD of the Lund-York-Cologne CAlorimeter (LYCCA) for the HISPEC experiment at FAIR. It has been tested on ions in the A ≈ 90 mass range at energies of Ekin ≈ 300 MeV / u.

  7. Results from source-based and detector-based calibrations of a CLARREO calibration demonstration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is formulated to determine long-term climate trends using SI-traceable measurements. The CLARREO mission will include instruments operating in the reflected solar (RS) wavelength region from 320 nm to 2300 nm. The Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO and facilitates testing and evaluation of calibration approaches. The basis of CLARREO and SOLARIS calibration is the Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Response (GLAMR) that provides a radiance-based calibration at reflective solar wavelengths using continuously tunable lasers. SI-traceability is achieved via detector-based standards that, in GLAMR's case, are a set of NIST-calibrated transfer radiometers. A portable version of the SOLARIS, Suitcase SOLARIS is used to evaluate GLAMR's calibration accuracies. The calibration of Suitcase SOLARIS using GLAMR agrees with that obtained from source-based results of the Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona to better than 5% (k=2) in the 720-860 nm spectral range. The differences are within the uncertainties of the NIST-calibrated FEL lamp-based approach of RSG and give confidence that GLAMR is operating at <5% (k=2) absolute uncertainties. Limitations of the Suitcase SOLARIS instrument also discussed and the next edition of the SOLARIS instrument (Suitcase SOLARIS- 2) is expected to provide an improved mechanism to further assess GLAMR and CLARREO calibration approaches.

  8. Development of high efficiency neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Menlove, H.O.

    1993-08-01

    We have designed a novel neutron detector system using conventional {sup 3}He detector tubes and composites of polyethylene, and graphite. At this time the design consists entirely of MCNP simulations of different detector configurations and materials. These detectors are applicable to low-level passive and active neutron assay systems such as the passive add-a-source and the {sup 252}Cf shuffler. Monte Carlo simulations of these neutron detector designs achieved efficiencies of over 35% for assay chambers that can accommodate 55-gal. drums. Only slight increases in the number of detector tubes and helium pressure are required. The detectors also have reduced die-away times. Potential applications are coincident and multiplicity neutron counting for waste disposal and safeguards. We will present the general design philosophy, underlying physics, calculation mechanics, and results.

  9. Efficient gradient calibration based on diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Irvin; Maguire, Mahon L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To propose a method for calibrating gradient systems and correcting gradient nonlinearities based on diffusion MRI measurements. Methods The gradient scaling in x, y, and z were first offset by up to 5% from precalibrated values to simulate a poorly calibrated system. Diffusion MRI data were acquired in a phantom filled with cyclooctane, and corrections for gradient scaling errors and nonlinearity were determined. The calibration was assessed with diffusion tensor imaging and independently validated with high resolution anatomical MRI of a second structured phantom. Results The errors in apparent diffusion coefficients along orthogonal axes ranged from −9.2% ± 0.4% to + 8.8% ± 0.7% before calibration and −0.5% ± 0.4% to + 0.8% ± 0.3% after calibration. Concurrently, fractional anisotropy decreased from 0.14 ± 0.03 to 0.03 ± 0.01. Errors in geometric measurements in x, y and z ranged from −5.5% to + 4.5% precalibration and were likewise reduced to −0.97% to + 0.23% postcalibration. Image distortions from gradient nonlinearity were markedly reduced. Conclusion Periodic gradient calibration is an integral part of quality assurance in MRI. The proposed approach is both accurate and efficient, can be setup with readily available materials, and improves accuracy in both anatomical and diffusion MRI to within ±1%. Magn Reson Med 77:170–179, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. PMID:26749277

  10. In-place HEPA (high efficiency, particulate air) filter testing at Hanford: Operating experiences, calibrations, and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, D.S.; Decelis, D.G.

    1989-10-01

    High Efficiency, Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters provide a minimum of 99.97% removal efficiency for particles greater than or equal to .3 microns in diameter. Each HEPA filter installation at Hanford is, at specified intervals, functionally tested for leaks. The test procedure involves a dioctylphthalate (DOP) smoke generator and a calibrated airborne particle detector. The DOP generator produces smoke of a known quantitative particle size distribution upstream of the filter. The airborne particle detector is first placed upstream, and then downstream of the filter to determine percent penetration. The smoke generator is characterized using a calibrated laser spectrometer, and the particle detector is calibrated using a calibrated picoammeter. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Calibration of a PEM detector with depth of interactionmeasurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.-C.; Huber, J.S.; Moses, W.W.; Choong, W.-S.; Maltz, J.S.

    2004-06-03

    We present an in situ calibration technique for the LBNL positron emission mammography (PEM) detector module that is capable of measuring depth of interaction (DOI). The detector module consists of 64LSO crystals coupled on one end to a single photomultiplier tube (PMT) and on the opposite end to a 64 pixel array of silicon photodiodes (PD). The PMT provides an accurate timing pulse, the PDs identify the crystal of interaction, the sum provides a total energy signal and the /splGamma/=PD/(PD+PMT) ratio determines the depth of interaction. We calibrate using the /sup 176/Lu natural background radiation of the LSO crystals. We determine the relative gain (K) of the PMT and PD by minimizing the asymmetry of the /spl Gamma/ distribution. We determine the depth dependence from the width of the /spl Gamma/ distribution with optimal K. The performance of calibrated detector modules is evaluated by averaging results from 12 modules. The energy resolution is a function of depth ranging from 24 percent FWHM at the PD end to 51 percent FWHM at the PMT end, and the DOI resolution ranges from 6 mm FWHM at the PD end to 11 mm FWHM at the PMT end.

  12. Calibration of the Solar Orbiter Energetic Particle Detector Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Panitzsch, L.; Boettcher, S.; Mason, G. M.; Kohler, J.; Ho, G. C.; Boden, S.; Grunau, J.; Steinhagen, J.; Terasa, C.; Yu, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Blanco, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the current status and plans for the calibration of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite on ESA's Solar Orbiter mission. Solar Orbiter is scheduled to launch in January 2017, instrument delivery in January 2015. EPD consists of four sensors: the SupraThermal Electron and Proton (STEP) sensor covers electrons (protons) from 2 (3) keV up to 100 keV, the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) from 20 to 300 (7000) keV, the Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS) determines the ionic composition from ~0.05 to ~10 MeV/nuc (species dependent), and the High Energy Telescope (HET) measures electrons and protons (ions) from 0.3 to 30 and 10 to >100 MeV/nuc (20 - 200 MeV/nuc species dependent). EPT, HET, and SIS have two approximately opposite-facing fields of view, EPT, and HET share a common electronics box, two EPT/HET sensors allow the determination of second-order anisotropies (a total of 4 FoVs). Apart from the use of radioactive sources, STEP will be calibrated at the Kiel calibration facilities, EPT both at Kiel (electrons and low-energy protons) as well as at PTB in Braunschweig. SIS will undergo calibration at the LBL 88' cyclotron, HET at HIMAC in Chiba, Japan. Tests of the electron/protons discrimination of EPT show the expected behavior, HET prototypes have already been calibrated and the results will be shown.

  13. In-situ calibration of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, H.W.; Palladino, R.W.; Barnes, C.W.; Diesso, M.; Felt, J.S.; Jassby, D.L.; Johnson, L.C.; Ku, L.P.; Liu, Q.P.; Motley, R.W.; Murphy, H.B.; Murphy, J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Roberts, J.A.; Saito, T.; Strachan, J.D.; Waszazak, R.J.; Young, K.

    1990-03-01

    We report results of the TFTR fission detector calibration performed in December 1988. A NBS-traceable, remotely controlled {sup 252}Cf neutron source was moved toroidally through the TFTR vacuum vessel. Detection efficiencies for two {sup 235}U detectors were measured for 930 locations of the neutron point source in toroidal scans at 16 different major radii and vertical heights. These scans effectively simulated the volume-distributed plasma neutron source, and the volume-integrated detection efficiency was found to be insensitive to plasma position. The Campbell mode is useful due to its large overlap with the count rate mode and large dynamic range. The resulting absolute plasma neutron source calibration has an uncertainty of {plus minus} 13%. 21 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Energy calibration of photon counting detectors using x-ray tube potential as a reference for material decomposition applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mini; Kandel, Bigyan; Park, Chan Soo; Liang, Zhihua

    2015-03-01

    Photon counting spectral detectors (PCSD) with smaller pixels and efficient sensors are desirable in applications like material decomposition and phase contrast x-ray imaging where discrimination of small signals and fine structure may be desired. Charge sharing in PCSD increases with decreasing pixel sizes and increasing sensor thickness such that the energy calibration or utility of spectral information can become a major hurdle. Utility of a combination of high Z sensors and small pixel sizes in PCSD is limited without efficient threshold calibration and charge sharing mitigation. Here we explore the utility of x-ray tube kVp as a reference to achieve efficient and fast calibration of PCSDs. This calibration method itself does not require rearranging the imaging setup and is not impacted by charge sharing. Our preliminary results indicate that this method can be useful even in scenarios where metal fluorescence and radioactive source based calibration techniques may be practically impossible. Our results are validated using x-ray fluorescence based calibration for a Silicon detector with moderate charge sharing. Calibration of a particularly challenging case of a Medipix2 detector (55 μm pixel size) with a 1 mm thick CdTe sensor and a Medipix3 detector with CdTe sensor is also demonstrated. A cross validation with K-edge identification of Gd is also presented here.

  15. Calibration improvements in the detector-to-detector differences for the MODIS ocean color bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonghong; Angal, Amit; Wu, Aisheng; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.

    2016-09-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a major instrument within NASA's Earth Observation System missions, has operated for over 16 and 14 years onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, respectively. Its reflective solar bands (RSB) covering a spectral range from 0.4 to 2.1 μm are primarily calibrated using the on-board solar diffuser (SD), with its on-orbit degradation monitored using the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor. RSB calibrations are supplemented by near-monthly lunar measurements acquired from the instrument's space-view port. Nine bands (bands 8-16) in the visible to near infrared spectral range from 0.412 to 0.866 μm are primarily used for ocean color observations. During a recent reprocessing of ocean color products, performed by the NASA's Ocean Biology Processing Group, detector-to-detector differences of up to 1.5% were observed in bands 13-16 of Terra MODIS. This paper provides an overview of the current approach to characterize the MODIS detector-to-detector differences. An alternative methodology was developed to mitigate the observed impacts for bands 13-16. The results indicated an improvement in the detector residuals and in turn are expected to improve the MODIS ocean color products. This paper also discusses the limitations, subsequent enhancements, and the improvements planned for future MODIS calibration collections.

  16. Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2014-01-27

    A method for absolute calibration of a photon-number resolving detector producing analog signals as the output is developed using a twin beam. The method gives both analog-to-digital conversion parameters and quantum detection efficiency for the photon fields. Characteristics of the used twin beam are also obtained. A simplified variant of the method applicable to fields with high signal to noise ratios and suitable for more intense twin beams is suggested.

  17. Using 220Rn to calibrate liquid noble gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Yamashita, M.; Takeda, A.; Kishimoto, K.; Moriyama, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we describe 220Rn calibration source that was developed for liquid noble gas detectors. The key advantage of this source is that it can provide 212Bi-212 Po consecutive events, which enables us to evaluate the vertex resolution of a detector at low energy by comparing low-energy events of 212Bi and corresponding higher-energy α-rays from 212Po. Since 220Rn is a noble gas, a hot metal getter can be used when introduced using xenon as the carrier gas. In addition, no long-life radioactive isotopes are left behind in the detector after the calibration is complete; this has clear advantage over the use of 222Rn which leaves longlife radioactivity, i.e., 210Pb. Using a small liquid xenon test chamber, we developed a system to introduce 220Rn via the xenon carrier gas; we demonstrated the successful introduction of 6 × 102 220Rn atoms in our test environment.

  18. CALET Data Processing and On-Orbit Detector Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    The CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope), launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in August 2015 and accumulating scientific data since October 2015, aims at long duration observations of high-energy cosmic rays onboard the ISS. The CALET detector features the very thick calorimeter of 30 radiation-length which consists of imaging and total absorption calorimeters (IMC and TASC respectively). It will directly measure the cosmic-ray electron spectrum in the energy range of 1 GeV-20 TeV with 2% energy resolution. In addition, the instrument has capabilities to measure the spectra of gamma-rays, protons and nuclei well into the TeV range. Precise pointing direction is determined with an attached Advanced Stellar Camera (ASC). To operate the CALET onboard ISS, the CALET Ground Support Equipment (CALET-GSE) and Waseda CALET Operations Center (WCOC) have been established at JAXA and Waseda Univ., respectively. Scientific operations of CALET are planned in the WCOC taking into account the orbital variations of geomagnetic rigidity cutoff. Scheduled command sequence is utilized to control CALET observation mode on orbit. A calibration data trigger mode, such as recording pedestal and penetrating particle events, a low-energy electron trigger mode operating at high geomagnetic latitude, and other dedicated trigger modes are scheduled around the ISS orbit while maintaining the maximum exposure to high-energy electrons. Scientific raw data called CALET Level 0 data are generated from raw telemetry packets in the CALET-GSE on an hourly basis by correcting time-order and by completing the data set using stored data taken during loss of real-time telemetry downlink. Level 0 data are processed to CALET Level 1 data in the WCOC by interpreting all the raw packets and building cosmic-ray event data as well as house keeping data. Level 1 data are then distributed to the collaboration for scientific data analysis. Level 1 data analysis is focused on the detector

  19. Geometric calibration of the SND detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korol, A. A.; Melnikova, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of the software alignment procedure used to perform geometric calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the SND detector which is taking data at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider (BINP, Novosibirsk). This procedure is based on the mathematical model describing the relative calorimeter position. The parameter values are determined by minimizing a χ2 function using the difference between particle directions reconstructed in these two subdetectors for e+e- →e+e- scattering events. The results of the calibration applied to data and MC simulation fit the model well and give an improvement in particle reconstruction. They are used in data reconstruction and MC simulation.

  20. Attenuation Calibration in the NOvA Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Medbh; NOvA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    NOvA is a long baseline neutrino experiment which is constructed from long extruded PVC cells filled with liquid scintillator. When charged particles move through the scintillator, they produce scintillation light. A loop of wavelength shifting optical fibre in each cell transports the scintillation light to the electronic readout. Light is attenuated as it passes through this fibre - this must be calibrated for using cosmic muons. However, cosmic muons do not deposit equal amounts of energy throughout the detector due to threshold effects, detector self-shielding, and variation in individual fibres' transmittance of light. In this talk, we discuss corrections for all three of these effects, and their impact on the accuracy of reconstructed energy.

  1. Dose Calibration of the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ISS-RAD instrument has been fabricated by Southwest Research Institute and delivered to NASA for flight to the ISS in late 2015 or early 2016. ISS-RAD is essentially two instruments that share a common interface to ISS. The two instruments are the Charged Particle Detector (CPD), which is very similar to the MSL-RAD detector on Mars, and the Fast Neutron Detector (FND), which is a boron-loaded plastic scintillator with readout optimized for the 0.5 to 10 MeV energy range. As the FND is completely new, it has been necessary to develop methodology to allow it to be used to measure the neutron dose and dose equivalent. This talk will focus on the methods developed and their implementation using calibration data obtained in quasi-monoenergetic (QMN) neutron fields at the PTB facility in Braunschweig, Germany. The QMN data allow us to determine an approximate response function, from which we estimate dose and dose equivalent contributions per detected neutron as a function of the pulse height. We refer to these as the "pSv per count" curves for dose equivalent and the "pGy per count" curves for dose. The FND is required to provide a dose equivalent measurement with an accuracy of ?10% of the known value in a calibrated AmBe field. Four variants of the analysis method were developed, corresponding to two different approximations of the pSv per count curve, and two different implementations, one for real-time analysis onboard ISS and one for ground analysis. We will show that the preferred method, when applied in either real-time or ground analysis, yields good accuracy for the AmBe field. We find that the real-time algorithm is more susceptible to chance-coincidence background than is the algorithm used in ground analysis, so that the best estimates will come from the latter.

  2. New analytical approach to calibrate the co-axial HPGe detectors including correction for source matrix self-attenuation.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Mohamed S; Gouda, Mona M; Nafee, Sherif S; El-Khatib, Ahmed M; El-Mallah, Ekram A

    2012-12-01

    To calibrate the co-axial HPGe semiconductor detectors, we introduce a new theoretical approach based on the Direct Statistical method proposed by Selim and Abbas (1995, 1996) to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency for cylindrical detectors. The present method depends on the accurate analytical calculation of the average path length covered by the photon inside the detector active volume and the geometrical solid angle Ω, to obtain a simple formula for the efficiency. In addition, the self attenuation coefficient of the source matrix (with a radius greater than the detector's radius), the attenuation factors of the source container and the detector housing materials are also treated by calculating the average path length within these materials. (152)Eu aqueous radioactive sources covering the energy range from 121 to 1408 keV were used. Remarkable agreement between the measured and the calculated efficiencies was achieved with discrepancies less than 2%.

  3. FOUR PI CALIBRATION AND MODELING OF A BARE GERMANIUM DETECTOR IN A CYLINDRICAL FIELD SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.; Young, J.

    2011-04-29

    In reference 1 the authors described {gamma}-ray holdup assay of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument where they utilized two axial symmetric cylindrical shell acquisitions and two disk source acquisitions to determine Am-241 and Np-237 contamination. The measured contents of the two species were determined using a general detector efficiency calibration taken from a 12-inch point source.2 The authors corrected the raw spectra for container absorption as well as for geometry corrections to transform the calibration curve to the applicable axial symmetric cylindrical source - and disk source - of contamination. The authors derived the geometry corrections with exact calculus that are shown in equations (1) and (2) of our Experimental section. A cylindrical shell (oven source) acquisition configuration is described in reference 3, where the authors disclosed this configuration to gain improved sensitivity for holdup measure of U-235 in a ten-chamber oven. The oven was a piece of process equipment used in the Savannah River Plant M-Area Uranium Fuel Fabrication plant for which a U-235 holdup measurement was necessary for its decontamination and decommissioning in 2003.4 In reference 4 the authors calibrated a bare NaI detector for these U-235 holdup measurements. In references 5 and 6 the authors calibrated a bare HpGe detector in a cylindrical shell configuration for improved sensitivity measurements of U-235 in other M-Area process equipment. Sensitivity was vastly improved compared to a close field view of the sample, with detection efficiency of greater than 1% for the 185.7-keV {gamma}-ray from U-235. In none of references 3 - 7 did the authors resolve the exact calculus descriptions of the acquisition configurations. Only the empirical efficiency for detection of the 185.7-keV photon from U-235 decay was obtained. Not until the 2010 paper of reference 1 did the authors derive a good theoretical description of the flux of photons onto the front face of a detector

  4. The development of an electrochemical technique for in situ calibrating of combustible gas detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumar, J. W.; Lantz, J. B.; Schubert, F. H.

    1976-01-01

    A program to determine the feasibility of performing in situ calibration of combustible gas detectors was successfully completed. Several possible techniques for performing the in situ calibration were proposed. The approach that showed the most promise involved the use of a miniature water vapor electrolysis cell for the generation of hydrogen within the flame arrestor of a combustible gas detector to be used for the purpose of calibrating the combustible gas detectors. A preliminary breadboard of the in situ calibration hardware was designed, fabricated and assembled. The breadboard equipment consisted of a commercially available combustible gas detector, modified to incorporate a water vapor electrolysis cell, and the instrumentation required for controlling the water vapor electrolysis and controlling and calibrating the combustible gas detector. The results showed that operation of the water vapor electrolysis at a given current density for a specific time period resulted in the attainment of a hydrogen concentration plateau within the flame arrestor of the combustible gas detector.

  5. Application of GEANT4 simulation on calibration of HPGe detectors for cylindrical environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, J D; Jokovic, D; Todorovic, D; Rajacic, M

    2014-06-01

    The determination of radionuclide activity concentration requires a prior knowledge of the full-energy peak (FEP) efficiency at all photon energies for a given measuring geometry. This problem has been partially solved by using procedures based on Monte Carlo simulations, developed in order to complement the experimental calibration procedures used in gamma-ray measurements of environmental samples. The aim of this article is to apply GEANT4 simulation for calibration of two HPGe detectors, for measurement of liquid and soil-like samples in cylindrical geometry. The efficiencies obtained using a simulation were compared with experimental results, and applied to a realistic measurement. Measurement uncertainties for both simulation and experimental values were estimated in order to see whether the results of the realistic measurement fall within acceptable limits. The trueness of the result was checked using the known activity of the measured samples provided by IAEA.

  6. Well GeHP detector calibration for environmental measurements using reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjani, A.; Mavon, C.; Belafrites, A.; Degrelle, D.; Boumala, D.; Rius, D.; Groetz, J.-E.

    2016-12-01

    A well-type detector installed in the Modane underground Laboratory (LSM) can combine both low background and high detection efficiency and it is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of environmental samples. Reference materials such as IAEA-447 (moss-soil), IAEA-RG-Th1 and IAEA-RG-U1 were used for the detector calibration, owing to a chemical composition close to those of the environmental samples. Nevertheless, the matrix effects and the true coincidence summing effects must be corrected from the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE). The FEPE was performed for a wide range of energy by a semi-empirical method using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6), intended for environmental measurements such as lake sediments dating. In the well geometry, the true coincidence summing effects could be very important and correction factors have been computed in three different ways.

  7. Calibration Method for ML Estimation of 3D Interaction Position in a Thick Gamma-Ray Detector

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, William C. J.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2010-01-01

    High-energy (> 100 keV) photon detectors are often made thick relative to their lateral resolution in order to improve their photon-detection efficiency. To avoid issues of parallax and increased signal variance that result from random interaction depth, we must determine the 3D interaction position in the imaging detector. With this goal in mind, we examine a method of calibrating response statistics of a thick-detector gamma camera to produce a maximum-likelihood estimate of 3D interaction position. We parameterize the mean detector response as a function of 3D position, and we estimate these parameters by maximizing their likelihood given prior knowledge of the pathlength distribution and a complete list of camera signals for an ensemble of gamma-ray interactions. Furthermore, we describe an iterative method for removing multiple-interaction events from our calibration data and for refining our calibration of the mean detector response to single interactions. We demonstrate this calibration method with simulated gamma-camera data. We then show that the resulting calibration is accurate and can be used to produce unbiased estimates of 3D interaction position. PMID:20191099

  8. Ultra-violet light-emitting diode calibration system for timing large area scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, P. Yu; Runtso, M. F.; Naumov, P. P.; Maklyaev, E. F.; Kaplin, V. A.; Fomin, V. S.; Razzhivin, I. S.; Melikyan, Yu A.

    2017-01-01

    Timing large area plastic scintillation detectors are developing for the space gamma-ray telescopes now. For the in-flight calibration of these detectors the use of ultra-violet light-emitting diode, irradiating the 1 m long detector module at the center of its lateral side is suggested. The results of the measurements show the possibility of this calibration system implementation as for amplitude as for timing properties monitoring.

  9. AN ALTERNATIVE CALIBRATION OF CR-39 DETECTORS FOR RADON DETECTION BEYOND THE SATURATION LIMIT.

    PubMed

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso; Cardellini, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Time-integrated measurements of indoor radon levels are commonly carried out using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), due to the numerous advantages offered by this radiation detection technique. However, the use of SSNTD also presents some problems that may affect the accuracy of the results. The effect of overlapping tracks often results in the underestimation of the detected track density, which leads to the reduction of the counting efficiency for increasing radon exposure. This article aims to address the effect of overlapping tracks by proposing an alternative calibration technique based on the measurement of the fraction of the detector surface covered by alpha tracks. The method has been tested against a set of Monte Carlo data and then applied to a set of experimental data collected at the radon chamber of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, at the ENEA centre in Casaccia, using CR-39 detectors. It has been proved that the method allows to extend the detectable range of radon exposure far beyond the intrinsic limit imposed by the standard calibration based on the track density.

  10. Capabilities, Calibration, and Impact of the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitgab, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the current NASA crew radiation health risk assessment framework, estimates for the neutron contributions to crew radiation exposure largely rely on simulated data with sizeable uncertainties due to the lack of experimental measurements inside the ISS. Integrated in the ISS-RAD instrument, the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector (FND) will deploy to the ISS on one of the next cargo supply missions. Together with the ISS-RAD Charged Particle Detector, the FND will perform, for the first time, routine and precise direct neutron measurements inside the ISS between 0.5 and 80 MeV. The measurements will close the NASA Medical Operations Requirement to monitor neutrons inside the ISS and impact crew radiation health risk assessments by reducing uncertainties on the neutron contribution to crew exposure, enabling more efficient mission planning. The presentation will focus on the FND detection mechanism, calibration results and expectations about the FND's interaction with the mixed radiation field inside the ISS.

  11. Intrinsic Efficiency Calibration Considering Geometric Factors in Gamma-ray Computed Tomography for Radioactive Waste Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Li

    2015-07-01

    In radioactive waste assay with gamma-ray computed tomography, calibration for intrinsic efficiency of the system is important to the reconstruction of radioactivity distribution. Due to the geometric characteristics of the system, the non-uniformity of intrinsic efficiency for gamma-rays with different incident positions and directions are often un-negligible. Intrinsic efficiency curves versus geometric parameters of incident gamma-ray are obtained by Monte-Carlo simulation, and two intrinsic efficiency models are suggested to characterize the intrinsic efficiency determined by relative source-detector position and system geometry in the system matrix. Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to compare the different intrinsic efficiency models. Better reconstruction results of radioactivity distribution are achieved by both suggested models than by the uniform intrinsic efficiency model. And compared to model based on detector position, model based on point response increases reconstruction accuracy as well as complexity and time of calculation. (authors)

  12. Calibration methodology for a dual-ended readout silicon photomultiplier based depth-of-interaction PET detector module

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Wenze; McKisson, John E.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Lee, Seung Joon; Taylor, William Mark; Stepanyan, Armenak; Zorn, Carl J.

    2012-11-01

    We developed a novel calibration methodology for a PET detector with dual-ended readout of an LYSO array by two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). By introducing a detector gain balancing step in the calibration process, improved depth-of-interaction calibration uniformity and accuracy can be achieved. The entire calibration process has four steps: scintillation crystal array mappings for two SiPM readouts, detector gain balancing, energy calibration, and depth-of-interaction calibration. This document provides a detailed description on the detector calibration system setup.

  13. Accounting for Calibration Uncertainty in Detectors for High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin

    Systematic instrumental uncertainties in astronomical analyses have been generally ignored in data analysis due to the lack of robust principled methods, though the importance of incorporating instrumental calibration uncertainty is widely recognized by both users and instrument builders. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. Lee et al. (2011) introduced a so-called pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is "pragmatic" in that it introduces an ad hoc technique that simplifies computation by assuming that the current data is not useful in narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product, i.e., that the prior and posterior distributions for the calibration products are the same. In the thesis, we focus on incorporating calibration uncertainty into a principled Bayesian X-ray spectral analysis, specifically we account for uncertainty in the so-called effective area curve and the photon redistribution matrix. X-ray spectral analysis models the distribution of the energies of X-ray photons emitted from an astronomical source. The effective area curve of an X-ray detector describes its sensitive as a function of the energy of incoming photons, and the photon redistribution matrix describes the probability distribution of the recorded (discrete) energy of a photon as a function of the true (discretized) energy. Starting with the effective area curve, we follow Lee et al. (2011) and use a principle component analysis (PCA) to efficiently represent the uncertainty. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method to account for calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. For the photon redistribution matrix, we first model each conditional distribution as a normal distribution and then apply PCA to the parameters describing the normal models. This results in an

  14. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Cruciani, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-01

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm2 are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm2 silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σE = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  15. Calibration of time of flight detectors using laser-driven neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Kar, S. Ahmed, H.; Green, A.; Alejo, A.; Jung, D.; Krygier, A. G.; Freeman, R. R.; Clarke, R.; Fuchs, J.; Vassura, L.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P.; Oliver, M.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2015-07-15

    Calibration of three scintillators (EJ232Q, BC422Q, and EJ410) in a time-of-flight arrangement using a laser drive-neutron source is presented. The three plastic scintillator detectors were calibrated with gamma insensitive bubble detector spectrometers, which were absolutely calibrated over a wide range of neutron energies ranging from sub-MeV to 20 MeV. A typical set of data obtained simultaneously by the detectors is shown, measuring the neutron spectrum emitted from a petawatt laser irradiated thin foil.

  16. Calibration of time of flight detectors using laser-driven neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Krygier, A. G.; Green, A.; Alejo, A.; Clarke, R.; Freeman, R. R.; Fuchs, J.; Jung, D.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P.; Oliver, M.; Roth, M.; Vassura, L.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2015-07-01

    Calibration of three scintillators (EJ232Q, BC422Q, and EJ410) in a time-of-flight arrangement using a laser drive-neutron source is presented. The three plastic scintillator detectors were calibrated with gamma insensitive bubble detector spectrometers, which were absolutely calibrated over a wide range of neutron energies ranging from sub-MeV to 20 MeV. A typical set of data obtained simultaneously by the detectors is shown, measuring the neutron spectrum emitted from a petawatt laser irradiated thin foil.

  17. Calibration with MCNP of NaI detector for the determination of natural radioactivity levels in the field.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Giorgia; Tositti, Laura; Mostacci, Domiziano; Baré, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    In view of assessing natural radioactivity with on-site quantitative gamma spectrometry, efficiency calibration of NaI(Tl) detectors is investigated. A calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation of detector response is proposed, to render reliable quantitative analysis practicable in field campaigns. The method is developed with reference to contact geometry, in which measurements are taken placing the NaI(Tl) probe directly against the solid source to be analyzed. The Monte Carlo code used for the simulations was MCNP. Experimental verification of the calibration goodness is obtained by comparison with appropriate standards, as reported. On-site measurements yield a quick quantitative assessment of natural radioactivity levels present ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th). On-site gamma spectrometry can prove particularly useful insofar as it provides information on materials from which samples cannot be taken.

  18. Instructions for calibrating gamma detectors using the Canberra-Nuclear Data Genie Gamma Spectroscopy System

    SciTech Connect

    Brunk, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    A straight forward protocol provides a way to guide the calibration of a gamma detector for a particular geometry and material. Several programs have used the Low Level Gamma Counting Facility of the Health and Ecological Assessment Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to count a variety of large environmental samples contained in several unique geometries. The equipment and calibration requirements needed to analyze these types of samples are explained. This document describes the calibration protocol that has been developed and describes how it is used to calibrate the detectors.

  19. Fast calibration of SPECT monolithic scintillation detectors using un-collimated sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    España, Samuel; Deprez, Karel; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2013-07-01

    Monolithic scintillation detectors for positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging have many advantages over pixelated detectors. The use of monolithic crystals allows for reducing the scintillator cost per unit volume and increasing the sensitivity along with the energy and timing resolution of the detector. In addition, on thick detectors the depth-of-interaction can be determined without additional hardware. However, costly and complex calibration procedures have been proposed to achieve optimal detector performance for monolithic detectors. This hampers their use in commercial systems. There is thus, a need for simple calibration routines that can be performed on assembled systems. The main goal of this work is to develop a simplified calibration procedure based on acquired training data. In comparison with other methods that use training data acquired with beam sources attached to robotic stages, the proposed method uses a static un-collimated activity source with simple geometry acquiring in a reasonable time. Once the data are acquired, the calibration of the detector is accomplished in three steps: energy calibration based on the k-means clustering method, self-organization based on the self-organizing maps algorithm, and distortion correction based on the Monge-Kantorovich grid adaptation. The proposed calibration method was validated for 2D positioning using a SPECT detector. Similar results were obtained by comparison with an existing calibration method (maximum likelihood estimation). In conclusion, we proposed a novel calibration method for monolithic scintillation detectors that greatly simplifies their use with optimal performance in SPECT systems.

  20. The latest results from DICE (Detector Interferometric Calibration Experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Hénault, F.; Léger, A.; Cara, C.; Le Duigou, J. M.; Preis, O.; Kern, P.; Delboulbe, A.; Martin, G.; Feautrier, P.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Rochat, S.; Ketchazo, C.; Donati, M.; Doumayrou, Eric; Lagage, P. O.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Behar, E.; Potin, S.; Saint-Pe, M.; Dupont, J.

    2016-07-01

    Theia is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA in 2014 for which one of the scientific objectives is detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. This objective requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 1x10-5 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 3x10-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The Theia consortium is operating a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 1x10-5 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the Theia spacecraft. The testbed consists of two main sub-systems. The first one produces pseudo stars: a blackbody source is fed into a large core fiber and lights-up a pinhole mask in the object plane, which is imaged by a mirror on the CCD. The second sub-system is the metrology, it projects young fringes on the CCD. The fringes are created by two single mode fibers facing the CCD and fixed on the mirror. In this paper we present the latest experiments conducted and the results obtained after a series of upgrades on the testbed was completed. The calibration system yielded the pixel positions to an accuracy estimated at 4x10-4 pixel. After including the pixel position information, an astrometric accuracy of 6 x 10-5 pixel was obtained, for a PSF motion over more than 5 pixels. In the static mode (small jitter motion of less than 1 x 10-3 pixel), a photon noise limited precision of 3x10-5 pixel was reached.

  1. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, M. E. M.; Sujo, L. C.; Villalba, L.; Peinado, J. S.; Jimenez, A. C.; Baca, A. M.; Gandara, S. D.; Villalobos, M. R.; Miranda, A. L.; Peraza, E. F. H.

    2003-10-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10% of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico.

  2. The Absolute, Relative and Multi-Wavelength Calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory Fluorescence Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Knapik, R.; Bauleo, P.; Becker, B.R.; Brack, J.; Caruso, R.; Fratte, C.Delle; Dorofeev, A.; Harton, J.; Insolia, A.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Menshikov, A.

    2007-08-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a 375 nm light source at the telescope aperture. This end-to-end technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The relative response has been measured at wavelengths of 320, 337, 355, 380 and 405 nm, defining a spectral response curve which has been normalized to the absolute calibration. Before and after each night of data taking a relative calibration of the phototubes is performed. This relative calibration is used to track both short and long term changes in the detector's response. A cross check of the calibration in some phototubes is performed using an independent laser technique. Overall uncertainties, current results and future plans are discussed.

  3. Mathematical method to calculate full-energy peak efficiency of detectors based on transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, M. M.; Hamzawy, A.; Badawi, M. S.; El-Khatib, A. M.; Thabet, A. A.; Abbas, M. I.

    2016-02-01

    The full-energy peak efficiency of high-purity germanium well-type detector is extremely important to calculate the absolute activities of natural and artificial radionuclides for samples with low radioactivity. In this work, the efficiency transfer method in an integral form is proposed to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency and to correct the coincidence summing effect for a high-purity germanium well-type detector. This technique is based on the calculation of the ratio of the effective solid angles subtended by the well-type detector with cylindrical sources measured inside detector cavity and an axial point source measured out the detector cavity including the attenuation of the photon by the absorber system. This technique can be easily applied in establishing the efficiency calibration curves of well-type detectors. The calculated values of the efficiency are in good agreement with the experimental calibration data obtained with a mixed γ-ray standard source containing 60Co and 88Y.

  4. Detection of muons in deep ocean by the deep underwater muon and neutrino detector: Detector calibration, background and detectability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Shinji

    1997-11-01

    The search for new high energy neutrino sources beyond the sun dictates construction of a 1 km3 scale, mature and well-calibrated detector. A water Cerenkov detector, the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector (DUMAND) was planned as an initial stage for such a 1 km3 detector. It was intended to detect upward-going muons produced by interactions of neutrinos of astrophysical origin with nine instrumented strings equipped with 24 optical sensors each and to be operated in deep ocean. The quality of DUMAND is discussed first with the results of two major calibrations of the detector. Since the proposed water Cerenkov technique requires an accurate knowledge of the optical sensors, an intense calibration was carried out for them. The results are presented, along with the main elements of the water Cerenkov technique. A fully integrated string has been operated on land for one year to test its capability and reliability. The results are discussed with respect to its data acquisition capability, i.e., the photodetection, data processing, transmission and selection performed by detector components. An initial DUMAND instrumented string was deployed in the deep ocean (~4.8 km of depth), 36 km off the Island of Hawaii in December, 1993. The detector was operated for three hours on site and data was obtained at the time of shore cable laying. With the results of data analysis, the detector performance in the deep ocean and characteristics of ambient light at the site, including its effects on the detector, are described. A Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to study applicability of the system developed by the DUMAND group to a 1 km3 detector in the deep ocean. A configuration is proposed to achieve 1 km2 effective detection area and /le 1o angular resolution for muons with TeV energies.

  5. Calibration and Readiness of the ISS-RAD Charged Particle Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, R.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is an intravehicular energetic particle detector designed to measure a broad spectrum of charged particle and neutron radiation unique to the ISS radiation environment. In this presentation, a summary of calibration and readiness of the RAD Sensor Head (RSH) - also referred to as the Charged Particle Detector (CPD) - for ISS will be presented. Calibration for the RSH consists of p, He, C, O, Si, and Fe ion data collected at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). The RSH consists of four detectors used in measuring the spectroscopy of charged particles - A, B, C, and D; high-energy neutral particles and charged particles are measured in E; and the last detector - F - is an anti-coincidence detector. A, B, and C are made from Si; D is made from BGO; E and F are made from EJ260XL plastic scintillator.

  6. Energy response calibration of photon-counting detectors using X-ray fluorescence: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H-M; Ding, H; Ziemer, BP; Molloi, S

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the application of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors in spectral imaging. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration and characterization of a photon-counting detector using X-ray fluorescence. A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was performed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) to investigate the optimal technique for X-ray fluorescence calibration. Simulations were conducted using a 100 kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2.7 mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3 × 3 mm2 in detection area. The angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence and scatter background was investigated by varying the detection angle from 20° to 170° with respect to the beam direction. The effects of the detector material, shape, and size on the recorded X-ray fluorescence were investigated. The fluorescent material size effect was considered with and without the container for the fluorescent material. In order to provide validation for the simulation result, the angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence from five fluorescent materials was experimentally measured using a spectrometer. Finally, eleven of the fluorescent materials were used for energy calibration of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The optimal detection angle was determined to be approximately at 120° with respect to the beam direction, which showed the highest fluorescence to scatter ratio (FSR) with a weak dependence on the fluorescent material size. The feasibility of X-ray fluorescence for energy calibration of photon-counting detectors in the diagnostic X-ray energy range was verified by successfully calibrating the energy response of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to implement the X-ray fluorescence calibration method for photon-counting detectors in a typical imaging laboratory. PMID:25369288

  7. Energy Calibration of a CdTe Photon Counting Spectral Detector with Consideration of its Non-Convergent Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Kang, Dong-Goo; Jin, Seung Oh; Kim, Insoo; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2016-04-11

    Fast and accurate energy calibration of photon counting spectral detectors (PCSDs) is essential for their biomedical applications to identify and characterize bio-components or contrast agents in tissues. Using the x-ray tube voltage as a reference for energy calibration is known to be an efficient method, but there has been no consideration in the energy calibration of non-convergent behavior of PCSDs. We observed that a single pixel mode (SPM) CdTe PCSD based on Medipix-2 shows some non-convergent behaviors in turning off the detector elements when a high enough threshold is applied to the comparator that produces a binary photon count pulse. More specifically, the detector elements are supposed to stop producing photon count pulses once the threshold reaches a point of the highest photon energy determined by the tube voltage. However, as the x-ray exposure time increases, the threshold giving 50% of off pixels also increases without converging to a point. We established a method to take account of the non-convergent behavior in the energy calibration. With the threshold-to-photon energy mapping function established by the proposed method, we could better identify iodine component in a phantom consisting of iodine and other components.

  8. Calibration of modified Liulin detector for cosmic radiation measurements on-board aircraft.

    PubMed

    Kyselová, D; Ambrožová, I; Krist, P; Kubančák, J; Uchihori, Y; Kitamura, H; Ploc, O

    2015-06-01

    The annual effective doses of aircrew members often exceed the limit of 1 mSv for the public due to the increased level of cosmic radiation at the flight altitudes, and thus, it is recommended to monitor them. Aircrew dosimetry is usually performed using special computer programs mostly based on results of Monte Carlo simulations. Contemporary, detectors are used mostly for validation of these computer codes, verification of effective dose calculations and for research purposes. One of such detectors is active silicon semiconductor deposited energy spectrometer Liulin. Output quantities of measurement with the Liulin detector are the absorbed dose in silicon D and the ambient dose equivalent H*(10); to determine it, two calibrations are necessary. The purpose of this work was to develop a calibration methodology that can be used to convert signal from the detector to D independently on calibration performed at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility in Chiba, Japan.

  9. Application and calibration of a simple position detector for a dust accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Katharina A.; Srama, Ralf; Auer, Siegfried; Bugiel, Sebastian; Grün, Eberhard; Kempf, Sascha; Xie, Jianfeng

    2013-11-01

    A newly developed position sensitive detector was implemented in the beam line of the Heidelberg dust accelerator. By charge induction, the detector enables the position of a dust particle to be determined without affecting its motion. The detector consists of four pairs of parallel plates, connected to a single common charge amplifier. The charge induced on the plates varies as a function of the dust particle trajectory, producing simple, easily interpreted signals. Using a segmented target installed in the beam line for a second independent measure of the trajectory, the position detector has been calibrated, allowing the detector signal to be mapped to a dust particle position. The resulting calibration curve indicates that the detector's position accuracy is approximately 0.14 mm, based on an average SNR of 700 for dust particles passing through the centre of the detector. The minimum dust charge for reliable detection was found to be about 1.1 fC. A detector simulation was used to produce a calibration curve that confirms the experimental results.

  10. Development of compact high efficiency microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, D. S.; Bellinger, S. L.; Fronk, R. G.; Henson, L.; Huddleston, D.; Ochs, T.; Shultis, J. K.; Sobering, T. J.; Taylor, R. D.

    2015-11-01

    Semiconductor diode detectors coated with neutron reactive materials are generally fashioned as planar diodes coated with 10B, 6LiF, or Gd. Planar detectors coated with 10B or 6LiF are limited to less than 5% intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency. Detectors coated with Gd can achieve higher efficiencies, but the low-energy signatures are problematic in the presence of background radiations. Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (MSNDs) can now achieve a tenfold increase in neutron detection efficiency over the planar diode designs. These semiconductor neutron detectors are fashioned with a matrix of microstructured patterns etched deeply into the semiconductor substrate and, subsequently, backfilled with neutron reactive materials. Intrinsic thermal-neutron detection efficiencies exceeding 35% have been achieved with devices no thicker than 1 mm while operating on less than 5 V, now allowing for instrumentation to be realized with similar performance as 3He gas-filled detectors.

  11. SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effect on ocean products.

    PubMed

    Eplee, Robert E; Patt, Frederick S; Franz, Bryan A; Bailey, Sean W; Meister, Gerhard; McClain, Charles R

    2007-09-20

    The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's Calibration and Validation Team has analyzed the mission-long Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) on-orbit gain and detector calibration time series to verify that lunar calibrations, obtained at nonstandard gains and radiance ranges, are valid for Earth data collected at standard gains and typical ocean, cloud, and land radiances. For gain calibrations, a constant voltage injected into the postdetector electronics allows gain ratios to be computed for all four detectors in each band. The on-orbit lunar gain ratio time series show small drifts for the near infrared bands. These drifts are propagated into the ocean color data through the atmospheric correction parameter epsilon, which uses the 765/865 nm band ratio. An anomaly analysis of global mean normalized water-leaving radiances at 510 nm shows a small decrease over the mission, while an analysis of epsilon shows a corresponding increase. The drifts in the lunar time series for the 765 and 865 nm bands were corrected. An analysis of the revised water-leaving radiances at 510 nm shows the drift has been eliminated, while an analysis of epsilon shows a reduced drift. For detector calibrations, solar diffuser observations made by the individual detectors in each band allows the response of the detectors to be monitored separately. The mission-long time series of detector calibration data show that the variations in the response of the individual detectors are less than 0.5% over the mission for all bands except the 865 nm band, where the variations are less than 1%.

  12. SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effect on ocean products

    SciTech Connect

    Eplee, Robert E. Jr.; Patt, Frederick S.; Franz, Bryan A.; Bailey, Sean W.; Meister, Gerhard; McClain, Charles R

    2007-09-20

    The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's Calibration and Validation Team has analyzed the mission-long Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor(SeaWiFS) on-orbit gain and detector calibration time series to verify that lunar calibrations, obtained at nonstandard gains and radiance ranges, are valid for Earth data collected at standard gains and typical ocean, cloud,and land radiances. For gain calibrations, a constant voltage injected into the postdetector electronics allows gain ratios to be computed for all four detectors in each band. The on-orbit lunar gain ratio time series show small drifts for the near infrared bands. These drifts are propagated into the ocean color data through the atmospheric correction parameter ?, which uses the765/865 nm band ratio. An anomaly analysis of global mean normalized water-leaving radiances at510 nm shows a small decrease over the mission,while an analysis of ? shows a corresponding increase. The drifts in the lunar time series for the 765 and865 nm bands were corrected. An analysis of the revised water-leaving radiances at510 nm shows the drift has been eliminated,while an analysis of ? shows a reduced drift. For detector calibrations, solar diffuser observations made by the individual detectors in each band allows the response of the detectors to be monitored separately. The mission-long time series of detector calibration data show that the variations in the response of the individual detectors are less than 0.5% over the mission for all bands except the865 nm band, where the variations are less than 1%.

  13. Evaluation of ANGLE(R), a code for calculating HPGe detector efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Victoria M

    2010-10-25

    This paper evaluates the ANGLE(reg sign) software package, an advanced efficiency calibration software for high purity germanium detectors that is distributed by ORTEC(reg sign). ANGLE(reg sign) uses a semi-empirical approach, by way of the efficiency transfer method, based on the calculated effective solid angle. This approach would have an advantage over the traditional relative and stochastic methods by decreasing the chances for systematic errors and reducing sensitivity to uncertainties in detector parameters. For experimental confirmation, a closed-end coaxial HPGe detector was used with sample geometries frequently encountered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results obtained were sufficient for detector-source configurations which included intercepting layers of plexiglass and carbon graphite, but somewhat insufficient for bare source configurations.

  14. Development of an in situ calibration technique for combustible gas detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumar, J. W.; Wynveen, R. A.; Lance, N., Jr.; Lantz, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an in situ calibration procedure for combustible gas detectors (CGD). The CGD will be a necessary device for future space vehicles as many subsystems in the Environmental Control/Life Support System utilize or produce hydrogen (H2) gas. Existing calibration techniques are time-consuming and require support equipment such as an environmental chamber and calibration gas supply. The in situ calibration procedure involves utilization of a water vapor electrolysis cell for the automatic in situ generation of a H2/air calibration mixture within the flame arrestor of the CGD. The development effort concluded with the successful demonstration of in situ span calibrations of a CGD.

  15. Understanding the detector behavior through Montecarlo and calibration studies in view of the SOX measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminata, A.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, T.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquères, N.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Veyssiere, C.; Vishneva, A.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    Borexino is an unsegmented neutrino detector operating at LNGS in central Italy. The experiment has shown its performances through its unprecedented accomplishments in the solar and geoneutrino detection. These performances make it an ideal tool to accomplish a state- of-the-art experiment able to test the existence of sterile neutrinos (SOX experiment). For both the solar and the SOX analysis, a good understanding of the detector response is fundamental. Consequently, calibration campaigns with radioactive sources have been performed over the years. The calibration data are of extreme importance to develop an accurate Monte Carlo code. This code is used in all the neutrino analyses. The Borexino-SOX calibration techniques and program and the advances on the detector simulation code in view of the start of the SOX data taking are presented. 1

  16. Establishing a standard calibration methodology for MOSFET detectors in computed tomography dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S. L.; Kaufman, R. A.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: The use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors for patient dosimetry has increased by {approx}25% since 2005. Despite this increase, no standard calibration methodology has been identified nor calibration uncertainty quantified for the use of MOSFET dosimetry in CT. This work compares three MOSFET calibration methodologies proposed in the literature, and additionally investigates questions relating to optimal time for signal equilibration and exposure levels for maximum calibration precision. Methods: The calibration methodologies tested were (1) free in-air (FIA) with radiographic x-ray tube, (2) FIA with stationary CT x-ray tube, and (3) within scatter phantom with rotational CT x-ray tube. Each calibration was performed at absorbed dose levels of 10, 23, and 35 mGy. Times of 0 min or 5 min were investigated for signal equilibration before or after signal read out. Results: Calibration precision was measured to be better than 5%-7%, 3%-5%, and 2%-4% for the 10, 23, and 35 mGy respective dose levels, and independent of calibration methodology. No correlation was demonstrated for precision and signal equilibration time when allowing 5 min before or after signal read out. Differences in average calibration coefficients were demonstrated between the FIA with CT calibration methodology 26.7 {+-} 1.1 mV cGy{sup -1} versus the CT scatter phantom 29.2 {+-} 1.0 mV cGy{sup -1} and FIA with x-ray 29.9 {+-} 1.1 mV cGy{sup -1} methodologies. A decrease in MOSFET sensitivity was seen at an average change in read out voltage of {approx}3000 mV. Conclusions: The best measured calibration precision was obtained by exposing the MOSFET detectors to 23 mGy. No signal equilibration time is necessary to improve calibration precision. A significant difference between calibration outcomes was demonstrated for FIA with CT compared to the other two methodologies. If the FIA with a CT calibration methodology was used to create calibration

  17. Calibration of PICO Bubble Chamber Dark Matter Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Miaotianzi; PICO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PICO Collaboration builds bubble chambers for the direct detection of WIMP dark matter. I will present the suite of calibration experiments performed to measure the sensitivity of these chambers to nuclear recoils (the expected WIMP signal) and to gamma rays (a common background to the WIMP signal). These calibrations include measurements with a 10-ml C3F8 bubble chamber at Northwestern University and with a 30-ml C3F8 bubble chamber deployed in the University of Montreal's tandem Van de Graaf facility, giving the bubble chamber response to a variety of gamma rays, broad-spectrum neutron sources, and mono-energetic low energy neutrons. I will compare our measured sensitivities to those predicted by a simple thermodynamic model and will show how the results impact our ability to detect dark matter, with a focus on light WIMP searches. Supported by DOE Grant: DE-SC0012161.

  18. Satellite Calibration With LED Detectors at Mud Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiller, Jonathan D.

    2005-01-01

    Earth-monitoring instruments in orbit must be routinely calibrated in order to accurately analyze the data obtained. By comparing radiometric measurements taken on the ground in conjunction with a satellite overpass, calibration curves are derived for an orbiting instrument. A permanent, automated facility is planned for Mud Lake, Nevada (a large, homogeneous, dry lakebed) for this purpose. Because some orbiting instruments have low resolution (250 meters per pixel), inexpensive radiometers using LEDs as sensors are being developed to array widely over the lakebed. LEDs are ideal because they are inexpensive, reliable, and sense over a narrow bandwidth. By obtaining and averaging widespread data, errors are reduced and long-term surface changes can be more accurately observed.

  19. Calibration of a time-resolved hard-x-ray detector using radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Regan, S. P.; Romanofsky, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    A four-channel, time-resolved, hard x-ray detector (HXRD) has been operating at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics for more than a decade. The slope temperature of the hot-electron population in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments is inferred by recording the hard x-ray radiation generated in the interaction of the electrons with the target. Measuring the energy deposited by hot electrons requires an absolute calibration of the hard x-ray detector. A novel method to obtain an absolute calibration of the HXRD using single photons from radioactive sources was developed, which uses a thermoelectrically cooled, low-noise, charge-sensitive amplifier.

  20. Timing calibration and synchronization of surface and fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, P.; Bellido, J.; Bertou, Xavier; Covault, C.E.; Fick, B.E.; Gemmeke, H.; Kleifges, M.; Mostafa, M.; Menshikov, A.; Meyer, F.; Pryke, C.; Sommers, P.; Vanderpan, E.; Vernotte, F.; Wiencke, L.

    2005-08-01

    Reconstruction of cosmic ray arrival directions for Surface Detectors (SD) and Fluorescence Detectors (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory requires accurate timing (25 nanoseconds or better) between measurements at individual detectors and instrument triggers. Timing systems for both SD and FD are based on Motorola Oncore UT+ GPS receivers installed into custom-built time-tagging circuits that are calibrated in the laboratory to a statistical precision of better than 15 ns. We describe timing calibration and synchronization methods applied in the field for both the SD and the FD systems in four areas: (1) checks of timing offsets within the SD using co-located station pairs and timing residuals on reconstructed showers, (2) calibration within the FD using a custom-build LED calibration system, (3) calibration between SD and FD using laser signals fed simultaneously into an SD station and across the FD via the Central Laser Facility (CLF), and (4) studies of synchronization between FD and SD through the analysis of events detected by both systems, called hybrid events. These hybrid events allow for a much more accurate reconstruction of the shower and for relatively tight constraints on timing calibration offsets. We demonstrate that statistical and systematic timing uncertainties have no significant impact on the event reconstruction.

  1. Positional calibrations of the germanium double sided strip detectors for the Compton spectrometer and imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, A.; Boggs, S.; Chiu, J. L.; Kierans, C.; McBride, S.; Tseng, C. H.; Zoglauer, A.; Amman, M.; Chang, H. K.; Jean, P.; Lin, C. H.; Sleator, C.; Tomsick, J.; von Ballmoos, P.; Yang, C. Y.

    2016-08-01

    The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) is a medium energy gamma ray (0.2 - 10 MeV) imager designed to observe high-energy processes in the universe from a high altitude balloon platform. At its core, COSI is comprised of twelve high purity germanium double sided strip detectors which measure particle interaction energies and locations with high precision. This manuscript focuses on the positional calibrations of the COSI detectors. The interaction depth in a detector is inferred from the charge collection time difference between the two sides of the detector. We outline our previous approach to this depth calibration and also describe a new approach we have recently developed. Two dimensional localization of interactions along the faces of the detector (x and y) is straightforward, as the location of the triggering strips is simply used. However, we describe a possible technique to improve the x/y position resolution beyond the detector strip pitch of 2 mm. With the current positional calibrations, COSI achieves an angular resolution of 5.6 +/- 0.1 degrees at 662 keV, close to our expectations from simulations.

  2. On-orbit calibration of HALOE detector linearity.

    PubMed

    Hervig, Mark; Gordley, Larry; McHugh, Marty; Thompson, Earl; Magill, Brian; Deaver, Lance

    2007-11-10

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) conducted satellite solar occultation measurements for 14 years ending on 21 November 2005. HALOE contained a calibration wheel, which included three neutral density filters that were used to examine response linearity through a combination of ground and on-orbit measurements. Although measurement uncertainties preclude a confident assessment of the true extent of nonlinearity, the on-orbit data lead to the conclusion that any existing response nonlinearity has changed by less than 2% over the mission lifetime. This conclusion eliminates a potentially significant uncertainty when using HALOE data for studies of long-term atmospheric trends.

  3. Adaptive Waveform Correlation Detectors for Arrays: Algorithms for Autonomous Calibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    correlation coefficient , or some comparable detection statistic, exceeds a given threshold. Since these methods exploit characteristic details of the full waveform, they provide exquisitely sensitive detectors with far lower detection thresholds than typical short-term average/long-term average (STA/LTA) algorithms. The drawback is that the form of the sought-after signal needs to be known quite accurately a priori, which limits such methods to instances of seismicity whereby a very similar signal has already been observed by every station used. Such instances include

  4. Reproducibility and calibration of MMC-based high-resolution gamma detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C. R.; Pies, C.; Kempf, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Enss, C.; Friedrich, S.

    2016-07-15

    Here, we describe a prototype γ-ray detector based on a metallic magnetic calorimeter with an energy resolution of 46 eV at 60 keV and a reproducible response function that follows a simple second-order polynomial. The simple detector calibration allows adding high-resolution spectra from different pixels and different cool-downs without loss in energy resolution to determine γ-ray centroids with high accuracy. As an example of an application in nuclear safeguards enabled by such a γ-ray detector, we discuss the non-destructive assay of 242Pu in a mixed-isotope Pu sample.

  5. Reproducibility and calibration of MMC-based high-resolution gamma detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, C. R.; Pies, C.; Kempf, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Enss, C.; Friedrich, S.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a prototype γ-ray detector based on a metallic magnetic calorimeter with an energy resolution of 46 eV at 60 keV and a reproducible response function that follows a simple second-order polynomial. The simple detector calibration allows adding high-resolution spectra from different pixels and different cool-downs without loss in energy resolution to determine γ-ray centroids with high accuracy. As an example of an application in nuclear safeguards enabled by such a γ-ray detector, we discuss the non-destructive assay of 242Pu in a mixed-isotope Pu sample.

  6. Reproducibility and calibration of MMC-based high-resolution gamma detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Bates, C. R.; Pies, C.; Kempf, S.; ...

    2016-07-15

    Here, we describe a prototype γ-ray detector based on a metallic magnetic calorimeter with an energy resolution of 46 eV at 60 keV and a reproducible response function that follows a simple second-order polynomial. The simple detector calibration allows adding high-resolution spectra from different pixels and different cool-downs without loss in energy resolution to determine γ-ray centroids with high accuracy. As an example of an application in nuclear safeguards enabled by such a γ-ray detector, we discuss the non-destructive assay of 242Pu in a mixed-isotope Pu sample.

  7. Calibration and performance of the STAR Muon Telescope Detector using cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Huang, X. J.; Du, C. M.; Huang, B. C.; Ahammed, Z.; Banerjee, A.; Bhattarari, P.; Biswas, S.; Bowen, B.; Butterworth, J.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Carson, H.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cebra, D.; Chen, H. F.; Cheng, J. P.; Codrington, M.; Eppley, G.; Flores, C.; Geurts, F.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Jentsch, A.; Kesich, A.; Li, C.; Li, Y. J.; Llope, W. J.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohamed, Y.; Nussbaum, T.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Schambach, J. J.; Sun, Y. J.; Wang, Y.; Xin, K.; Xu, Z.; Yang, S.; Zhu, X. L.

    2014-10-01

    We report the timing and spatial resolution from the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) installed in the STAR experiment at RHIC. Cosmic ray muons traversing the STAR detector have an average transverse momentum of 6 GeV/c. Due to their very small multiple scattering, these cosmic muons provide an ideal tool to calibrate the detectors and measure their timing and spatial resolution. The values obtained were ~100 ps and ~1-2 cm. These values are comparable to those obtained from cosmic-ray bench tests and test beams.

  8. Calibration of the LIGO gravitational wave detectors in the fifth science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Atkinson, D. E.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Behnke, B.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Boyle, M.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cain, J.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Costa, C. A.; Coward, D. M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; Danzmann, K.; Das, K.; Daudert, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Dayanga, T.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Dergachev, V.; Derosa, R.; Desalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Palma, I.; Díaz, M.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J.-C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Finn, L. S.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Garofoli, J. A.; Gholami, I.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Graef, C.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hoyland, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Leong, J.; Leonor, I.; Li, J.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mak, C.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIvor, G.; McKechan, D. J. A.; Meadors, G.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mercer, R. A.; Merill, L.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Miller, J.; Mino, Y.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morioka, T.; Mors, K.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Nash, T.; Nawrodt, R.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nolting, D.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Ogin, G. H.; Oldenburg, R. G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Pareja, M.; Patel, P.; Pathak, D.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Penn, S.; Peralta, C.; Perreca, A.; Pickenpack, M.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Predoi, V.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F. J.; Radke, T.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rankins, B.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Roberts, P.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Röver, C.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Sakosky, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santostasi, G.; Saraf, S.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Satterthwaite, M.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Singer, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Speirits, F. C.; Stein, A. J.; Stein, L. C.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Stroeer, A.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Szokoly, G. P.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Titsler, C.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tseng, K.; Turner, L.; Ugolini, D.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vaishnav, B.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Villar, A. E.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Wei, P.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P. P.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2010-12-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a network of three detectors built to detect local perturbations in the space-time metric from astrophysical sources. These detectors, two in Hanford, WA and one in Livingston, LA, are power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometers. In their fifth science run (S5), between November 2005 and October 2007, these detectors accumulated one year of triple coincident data while operating at their designed sensitivity. In this paper, we describe the calibration of the instruments in the S5 data set, including measurement techniques and uncertainty estimation.

  9. Channel to energy calibration results for the BATSE large area detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, William S.; Briggs, Michael S.; Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Wilson, Robert B.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    Continuum 16 channel spectra obtained from in flight data are used to identify and correct for nonlinearities in the channel-to-energy conversion algorithm for the BATSE large area detectors. The Crab Nebula spectra obtained by the BATSE earth occultation technique are used to characterize any nonlinearities inherent in the low energy channel bin widths on a detector by detector basis. The bin widths are optimized to remove distortions from observed gamma ray spectra. The recalibrated bin edges are used in an analysis of Crab Pulsar data to verify the improvements in the calibration.

  10. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; ...

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,more » comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.« less

  11. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  12. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J. Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-15

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  13. A likelihood method to cross-calibrate air-shower detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter; Kégl, Balázs; Mariş, Ioana C.; Roth, Markus; Veberič, Darko

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed statistical treatment of the energy calibration of hybrid air-shower detectors, which combine a surface detector array and a fluorescence detector, to obtain an unbiased estimate of the calibration curve. The special features of calibration data from air showers prevent unbiased results, if a standard least-squares fit is applied to the problem. We develop a general maximum-likelihood approach, based on the detailed statistical model, to solve the problem. Our approach was developed for the Pierre Auger Observatory, but the applied principles are general and can be transferred to other air-shower experiments, even to the cross-calibration of other observables. Since our general likelihood function is expensive to compute, we derive two approximations with significantly smaller computational cost. In the recent years both have been used to calibrate data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We demonstrate that these approximations introduce negligible bias when they are applied to simulated toy experiments, which mimic realistic experimental conditions.

  14. Flat-Field Calibration of CCD Detector for Long TraceProfilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Franck, Keith D.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison,Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-07-31

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasersrequires x-ray optical systems with extremely high-performance,generally, of diffraction limited quality. Fabrication and use of suchoptics requires highly accurate metrology. In the present paper, wediscuss a way to improve the performance of the Long Trace Profiler(LTP), a slope measuring instrument widely used at synchrotron facilitiesto characterize x-ray optics at high-spatial-wavelengths fromapproximately 2 mm to 1 m. One of the major sources of LTP systematicerror is the detector. For optimal functionality, the detector has topossess the smallest possible pixel size/spacing, a fast method ofshuttering, and minimal non-uniformity of pixel-to-pixel photoresponse.While the first two requirements are determined by choice of detector,the non-uniformity of photoresponse of typical detectors such as CCDcameras is around 2-3 percent. We describe a flat-field calibration setupspecially developed for calibration of CCD camera photo-response and darkcurrent with an accuracy of better than 0.5 percent. Such accuracy isadequate for use of a camera as a detector for an LTP with performance of~;0.1 microradian (rms). We also present the design details of thecalibration system and results of calibration of a DALSA CCD camera usedfor upgrading our LTP-II instrument at the ALS Optical MetrologyLaboratory.

  15. Towards a global network of gamma-ray detector calibration facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijs, Marco; Koomans, Ronald; Limburg, Han

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray logging tools are applied worldwide. At various locations, calibration facilities are used to calibrate these gamma-ray logging systems. Several attempts have been made to cross-correlate well known calibration pits, but this cross-correlation does not include calibration facilities in Europe or private company calibration facilities. Our aim is to set-up a framework that gives the possibility to interlink all calibration facilities worldwide by using `tools of opportunity' - tools that have been calibrated in different calibration facilities, whether this usage was on a coordinated basis or by coincidence. To compare the measurement of different tools, it is important to understand the behaviour of the tools in the different calibration pits. Borehole properties, such as diameter, fluid, casing and probe diameter strongly influence the outcome of gamma-ray borehole logging. Logs need to be properly calibrated and compensated for these borehole properties in order to obtain in-situ grades or to do cross-hole correlation. Some tool providers provide tool-specific correction curves for this purpose. Others rely on reference measurements against sources of known radionuclide concentration and geometry. In this article, we present an attempt to set-up a framework for transferring `local' calibrations to be applied `globally'. This framework includes corrections for any geometry and detector size to give absolute concentrations of radionuclides from borehole measurements. This model is used to compare measurements in the calibration pits of Grand Junction, located in the USA; Adelaide (previously known as AMDEL), located in Adelaide Australia; and Stonehenge, located at Medusa Explorations BV in the Netherlands.

  16. Hard X-ray Detector Calibrations for the FOXSI Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A.; Glesener, L.; Buitrago Casas, J. C.; Han, R.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Christe, S.; Krucker, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the study of high-energy solar flares, detailed X-ray images and spectra of the Sun are required. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment is used to test direct-focusing X-ray telescopes and Double-sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) for solar flare study and to further understand coronal heating. The measurement of active region differential emission measures, flare temperatures, and possible quiet-Sun emission requires a precisely calibrated spectral response. This poster describes recent updates in the calibration of FOXSI's DSSDs based on new calibration tests that were performed after the second flight. The gain for each strip was recalculated using additional radioactive sources. Additionally, the varying strip sensitivity across the detectors was investigated and based on these measurements, the flight images were flatfielded. These improvements lead to more precise X-ray data for future FOXSI flights and show promise for these new technologies in imaging the Sun.

  17. Relative calibration of energy thresholds on multi-bin spectral x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjölin, M.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate and reliable energy calibration of spectral x-ray detectors used in medical imaging is essential for avoiding ring artifacts in the reconstructed images (computed tomography) and for performing accurate material basis decomposition. A simple and accurate method for relative calibration of the energy thresholds on a multi-bin spectral x-ray detector is presented. The method obtains the linear relations between all energy thresholds in a channel by scanning the thresholds with respect to each other during x-ray illumination. The method does not rely on a model of the detector's response function and does not require any identifiable features in the x-ray spectrum. Applying the same method, the offset between the thresholds can be determined also without external stimuli by utilizing the electronic noise as a source. The simplicity and accuracy of the method makes it suitable for implementation in clinical multi-bin spectral x-ray imaging systems.

  18. Photoneutron Calibration of SuperCDMS Soudan iZIP detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Vijay; SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Numerous astrophysical observations have indicated that dark matter constitutes about 27% of the mass and energy content of the universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are considered the most likely candidates for dark matter. The SuperCDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) collaboration has pioneered the use of low temperature solid state detectors to search for the rare scattering of WIMPs with an atomic nucleus. An accurate understanding of the nuclear recoil scale is necessary for establishing the WIMP mass scale. Monoenergetic neutrons produced by gamma ray excitation (hence photo-neutrons) can be used to calibrate our detectors. This talk will describe SuperCDMS detectors, discuss the current status and outlook of the photo-neutron calibration that was performed in the Soudan experiment.

  19. Absolute efficiency measurements with the 10B based Jalousie detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modzel, G.; Henske, M.; Houben, A.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.; Schweika, W.

    2014-04-01

    The 10B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for 3He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the 3He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new 10B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75-50% for neutron energies of 10-100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV).

  20. Hit efficiency study of CMS prototype forward pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongwook; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author describes the measurement of the hit efficiency of a prototype pixel device for the CMS forward pixel detector. These pixel detectors were FM type sensors with PSI46V1 chip readout. The data were taken with the 120 GeV proton beam at Fermilab during the period of December 2004 to February 2005. The detectors proved to be highly efficient (99.27 {+-} 0.02%). The inefficiency was primarily located near the corners of the individual pixels.

  1. Calibrations for Charged Particle Tracking with the GlueX Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staib, Michael; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Two gas detectors comprise the tracking system for the GlueX experiment, the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) and the Forward Drift Chamber (FDC). The CDC is a cylindrical straw-tube detector covering polar angles between 6° and 168°, delivering spatial resolution of ~150 μm. The FDC is a Cathode Strip Chamber consisting of four packages, each with six alternating layers of anode wires and cathode strips. The FDC is designed to track forward-going charged particles with polar angles between 1° and 20° with a spatial resolution of ~200 μm. Both tracking detectors record timing information and energy loss measurements useful for particle identification. During Fall 2014 and Spring 2015, the first photon beam was delivered on target for commissioning of the GlueX detector in Hall-D at Jefferson Lab. These data are currently being used in a large effort to calibrate the individual detector subsystems to achieve design performance. Methods and results for calibrations of each of the tracking detectors are presented. Techniques for alignment of the tracking system using a combination of cosmic rays and beam data is discussed. Finally, some early results of physics measurements including charged final-state particles are presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  2. Calibration tests on magnetic tape lightning current detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    The low cost, passive, peak lightning current detector (LCD) invented at the NASA/Kennedy Space Center, uses magnetic audio recording tape to sense the magnitude of the peak magnetic field around a conductor carrying lightning currents. Test results show that the length of audio tape erased was linearly related to the peak simulated lightning currents in a round conductor. Accuracies of + or - 10% were shown for measurements made using a stopwatch readout technique to determine the amount of tape erased by the lightning current. The stopwatch technique is a simple, low cost means of obtaining LCD readouts and can be used in the field to obtain immediate results. Where more accurate data are desired, the tape is played and the output recorded on a strip chart, oscilloscope, or some other means so that measurements can be made on that recording. Conductor dimensions, tape holder dimensions, and tape formulation must also be considered to obtain a more accurate result. If the shape of the conductor is other than circular (i.e., angle, channel, H-beam), an analysis of the magnetic field is required to use an LCD, especially at low current levels.

  3. Geometry Calibration of the SVT in the CLAS12 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Peter; Gilfoyle, Gerard

    2016-09-01

    A new detector called CLAS12 is being built in Hall B as part of the 12 GeV Upgrade at Jefferson Lab to learn how quarks and gluons form nuclei. The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is one of the subsystems designed to track the trajectory of charged particles as they are emitted from the target at large angles. The sensors of the SVT consist of long, narrow, strips embedded in a silicon substrate. There are 256 strips in a sensor, with a stereo angle of 0 -3° degrees. The location of the strips must be known to a precision of a few microns in order to accurately reconstruct particle tracks with the required resolution of 50-60 microns. Our first step toward achieving this resolution was to validate the nominal geometry relative to the design specification. We also resolved differences between the design and the CLAS12, Geant4-based simulation code GEMC. We developed software to apply alignment shifts to the nominal design geometry from a survey of fiducial points on the structure that supports each sensor. The final geometry will be generated by a common package written in JAVA to ensure consistency between the simulation and Reconstruction codes. The code will be tested by studying the impact of known distortions of the nominal geometry in simulation. Work supported by the Univeristy of Richmond and the US Department of Energy.

  4. HST/WFC3: new capabilities, improved IR detector calibrations, and long-term performance stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John W.; Baggett, Sylvia M.; Brammer, Gabriel; Hilbert, Bryan; Long, Knox S.; McCullough, Peter; Riess, Adam G.

    2014-08-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is the most used instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Providing a broad range of high quality imaging capabilities from 200 to 1700mn using Silicon CCD and HgCdTe IR detectors, WFC3 is fulfilling both our expectations and its formal requirements. With the re-establishment of the observatory level "spatial scan" capability, we have extended the scientific potential ofWFC3 in multiple directions. These controlled scans, often in combination with low resolution slit-less spectroscopy, enable extremely high precision differential photometric measurements of transiting exo-planets and direct measurement of sources considerably brighter than originally anticipated. In addition, long scans permit the measurement of the separation of star images to accuracies approaching 25 micro-arc seconds (a factor of 10 better than prior FGS or imaging measurements) enables direct parallax observations out to 4 kilo-parsecs. In addition, we have employed this spatial scan capability to both assess and improve the mid­ spatial frequency flat field calibrations. WFC3 uses a Teledyne HgCdTe 1014xl014 pixel Hawaii-lR infrared detector array developed for this mission. One aspect of this detector with implications for many types of science observations is the localized trapping of charge. This manifests itself as both image persistence lasting several hours and as an apparent response variation with photon arrival rate over a large dynamic range. Beyond a generally adopted observing strategy of obtaining multiple observations with small spatial offsets, we have developed a multi-parameter model that accounts for source flux, accumulated signal level, and decay time to predict image persistence at the pixel level. Using a running window through the entirety of the acquired data, we now provide observers with predictions for each individual exposure within several days of its acquisition. Ongoing characterization of the sources on infrared background and

  5. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, R. M.; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Jauregui, F.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Valentine, T.; Smirnov, A.

    2016-11-01

    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 107 n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each method are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.

  6. High efficiency proportional neutron detector with solid liner internal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger Allen; Holcomb, David Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2014-08-05

    A tube-style neutron detector, a panel-style neutron detector incorporating a plurality of tube-style neutron detectors, and a panel-style neutron detector including a plurality of anode wires are provided. A plurality of channels is provided in a neutron detector such that each channel has an inner surface of a coating layer including a neutron-absorbing material. A wire anode is provided at end of each channel so that electrons generated by a charged daughter particle generated by a neutron are collected to detect a neutron-matter interaction. Moderator units can be incorporated into a neutron detector to provide improved detection efficiencies and/or to determine neutron energy spectrum. Gas-based proportional response from the neutron detectors can be employed for special nuclear material (SNM) detection. This neutron detector can provide similar performance to .sup.3He-based detectors without requiring .sup.3He and without containing toxic, flammable, or high-pressure materials.

  7. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    SciTech Connect

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Di Domizio, S.; Castellano, M. G.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-31

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm{sup 2} are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σ{sub E} = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  8. GEANT4 calibration of gamma spectrometry efficiency for measurements of airborne radioactivity on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2014-11-01

    A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring airborne radioactivity collected on filter paper, was based on Monte Carlo simulations using the toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of an HPGe detector were calculated for a multi-gamma disk source. These efficiency values were compared to their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Such comparison revealed biases of 24, 10, 1, 3, 7, and 3% for the radionuclides (photon energies in keV) of Ce (166), Sn (392), Cs (662), Co (1,173), Co (1,333), and Y (1,836), respectively. The output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method.

  9. Calibration of semiconductor detectors in the 200-8500 keV range at VNIIM.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, Evgeny E; Moiseev, Nikolay

    2012-09-01

    At the ionising radiation department of the D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, a semiconductor detector was calibrated in the energy range 200-8500 keV using (n,2γ) and (n,γ) reactions. Separate cylindrical targets (77 mm diameter and 10mm height) were made from mercuric sulphate, sodium chloride and metallic titanium. A (252)Cf spontaneous fission neutron source, placed in 150 mm diameter polyethylene ball, was used to generate thermal neutrons. The optimal target dimensions were determined taking into account the thermal neutron cross-sections and gamma-radiation attenuations in the target materials. The influence of the background radiation induced by neutrons from the walls, floors and ceilings was also taken into account. The shapes of the efficiency curves for point and volume sources in the 200-8500 keV range have been investigated. The experimental results are in good agreement with Monte-Carlo calculations. The emission rate of the 6.13 MeV photons from a (238)Pu-(13)C source was determined with an expanded uncertainty, U(c), of 10% (k=2).

  10. Calibration of Cherenkov detectors for monoenergetic photon imaging in active interrogation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Active interrogation of cargo containers using monoenergetic photons offers a rapid and low-dose approach to search for shielded special nuclear materials. Cherenkov detectors can be used for imaging of the cargo provided that gamma ray energies used in interrogation are well resolved, as the case in 11B(d,n-γ)12C reaction resulting in 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV photons. While an array of Cherenkov threshold detectors reduces low energy background from scatter while providing the ability of high contrast transmission imaging, thus confirming the presence of high-Z materials, these detectors require a special approach to energy calibration due to the lack of resolution. In this paper, we discuss the utility of Cherenkov detectors for active interrogation with monoenergetic photons as well as the results of computational and experimental studies of their energy calibration. The results of the studies with sources emitting monoenergetic photons as well as complex gamma ray spectrum sources, for example 232Th, show that calibration is possible as long as the energies of photons of interest are distinct.

  11. Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector and its performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, S.

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the LHC, designed to perform high precision studies of B and D hadrons. In Run II of the LHC, a new scheme for the software trigger at LHCb allows splitting the triggering of events in two stages, giving room to perform the detector alignment and calibration in real time. In the novel detector alignment and calibration strategy for Run II, data collected at the start of the fill are processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment constants, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. This allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The larger timing budget, available in the trigger, allows us to perform the same track reconstruction online and offline. This enables LHCb to achieve the best reconstruction performance already in the trigger, and allows physics analyses to be performed directly on the data produced by the trigger reconstruction. The novel real-time processing strategy at LHCb is discussed from both the technical and operational point of view. The overall performance of the LHCb detector on the data of Run II is presented as well.

  12. Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral X-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-03-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally γ-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors.

  13. Realization of highly efficient hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Maity, A.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2016-08-16

    Here, we report the achievement of highly efficient 10B enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h- 10BN) direct conversion neutron detectors. These detectors were realized from freestanding 4-in. diameter h- 10BN wafers 43 μm in thickness obtained from epitaxy growth and subsequent mechanical separation from sapphire substrates. Both sides of the film were subjected to ohmic contact deposition to form a simple vertical “photoconductor-type” detector. Transport measurements revealed excellent vertical transport properties including high electrical resistivity (>1013 Ω cm) and mobility-lifetime (μτ) products. A much larger μτ product for holes compared to that of electrons along the c-axis of h- BN was observed, implying that holes (electrons) behave like majority (minority) carriers in undoped h- BN. Exposure to thermal neutrons from a californium-252 (252Cf) source moderated by a high density polyethylene moderator reveals that 43 μm h- 10BN detectors possess 51.4% detection efficiency at a bias voltage of 400 V, which is the highest reported efficiency for any semiconductor-based neutron detector. The results point to the possibility of obtaining highly efficient, compact solid-state neutron detectors with high gamma rejection and low manufacturing and maintenance costs.

  14. Realization of highly efficient hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Maity, A.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; ...

    2016-08-16

    Here, we report the achievement of highly efficient 10B enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h- 10BN) direct conversion neutron detectors. These detectors were realized from freestanding 4-in. diameter h- 10BN wafers 43 μm in thickness obtained from epitaxy growth and subsequent mechanical separation from sapphire substrates. Both sides of the film were subjected to ohmic contact deposition to form a simple vertical “photoconductor-type” detector. Transport measurements revealed excellent vertical transport properties including high electrical resistivity (>1013 Ω cm) and mobility-lifetime (μτ) products. A much larger μτ product for holes compared to that of electrons along the c-axis of h- BN wasmore » observed, implying that holes (electrons) behave like majority (minority) carriers in undoped h- BN. Exposure to thermal neutrons from a californium-252 (252Cf) source moderated by a high density polyethylene moderator reveals that 43 μm h- 10BN detectors possess 51.4% detection efficiency at a bias voltage of 400 V, which is the highest reported efficiency for any semiconductor-based neutron detector. The results point to the possibility of obtaining highly efficient, compact solid-state neutron detectors with high gamma rejection and low manufacturing and maintenance costs.« less

  15. Realization of highly efficient hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, A.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2016-08-01

    We report the achievement of highly efficient 10B enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h-10BN) direct conversion neutron detectors. These detectors were realized from freestanding 4-in. diameter h-10BN wafers 43 μm in thickness obtained from epitaxy growth and subsequent mechanical separation from sapphire substrates. Both sides of the film were subjected to ohmic contact deposition to form a simple vertical "photoconductor-type" detector. Transport measurements revealed excellent vertical transport properties including high electrical resistivity (>1013 Ω cm) and mobility-lifetime (μτ) products. A much larger μτ product for holes compared to that of electrons along the c-axis of h-BN was observed, implying that holes (electrons) behave like majority (minority) carriers in undoped h-BN. Exposure to thermal neutrons from a californium-252 (252Cf) source moderated by a high density polyethylene moderator reveals that 43 μm h-10BN detectors possess 51.4% detection efficiency at a bias voltage of 400 V, which is the highest reported efficiency for any semiconductor-based neutron detector. The results point to the possibility of obtaining highly efficient, compact solid-state neutron detectors with high gamma rejection and low manufacturing and maintenance costs.

  16. Measurement and simulation of the segmented Germanium-Detector's Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Shadi

    This paper presents the methods to determine the detection efficiency of the segmented germanium detector. Two methods are given for the investigating the detection efficiency of the semiconductor segmented-germanium detector. Experimental measurements using radioactive sources are reported. The radioactive sources, which were involved, can give us the opportunity to cover the photon energy ranging up to hundreds of keV. A useful compilation is included of the latest values of the emission rates per decay for the following radioactive sources: 241Am and 133Ba. The second method, the simulation of the efficiency is involved for comparison purposes. A good agreement between the measurements and the simulation is obtained.

  17. Nuclear reactor pulse calibration using a CdZnTe electro-optic radiation detector.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kyle A; Geuther, Jeffrey A; Neihart, James L; Riedel, Todd A; Rojeski, Ronald A; Saddler, Jeffrey L; Schmidt, Aaron J; McGregor, Douglas S

    2012-07-01

    A CdZnTe electro-optic radiation detector was used to calibrate nuclear reactor pulses. The standard configuration of the Pockels cell has collimated light passing through an optically transparent CdZnTe crystal located between crossed polarizers. The transmitted light was focused onto an IR sensitive photodiode. Calibrations of reactor pulses were performed using the CdZnTe Pockels cell by measuring the change in the photodiode current, repeated 10 times for each set of reactor pulses, set between 1.00 and 2.50 dollars in 0.50 increments of reactivity.

  18. Simultaneous calibration of optical tweezers spring constant and position detector response.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Antoine; Perronet, Karen; Dulin, David; Villing, André; Bouyer, Philippe; Visscher, Koen; Westbrook, Nathalie

    2010-12-06

    We demonstrate a fast and direct calibration method for systems using a single laser for optical tweezers and particle position detection. The method takes direct advantage of back-focal-plane interferometry measuring not an absolute but a differential position, i.e. the position of the trapped particle relative to the center of the optical tweezers. Therefore, a fast step-wise motion of the optical tweezers yields the impulse response of the trapped particle. Calibration parameters such as the detector's spatial and temporal response and the spring constant of the optical tweezers then follow readily from fitting the measured impulse response.

  19. Complete model of a spherical gravitational wave detector with capacitive transducers: Calibration and sensitivity optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Gottardi, Luciano

    2007-01-15

    We report the results of a detailed numerical analysis of a real resonant spherical gravitational wave antenna operating with six resonant two-mode capacitive transducers read out by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) amplifiers. We derive a set of equations to describe the electromechanical dynamics of the detector. The model takes into account the effect of all the noise sources present in each transducer chain: the thermal noise associated with the mechanical resonators, the thermal noise from the superconducting impedance matching transformer, the backaction noise, and the additive current noise of the SQUID amplifier. Asymmetries in the detector signal-to-noise ratio and bandwidth, coming from considering the transducers not as pointlike objects but as a sensor with physically defined geometry and dimension, are also investigated. We calculate the sensitivity for an ultracryogenic, 30 ton, 2 m in diameter, spherical detector with optimal and nonoptimal impedance matching of the electrical readout scheme to the mechanical modes. The results of the analysis are useful not only to optimize existing smaller mass spherical detector like MiniGrail, in Leiden, but also as a technological guideline for future massive detectors. Furthermore we calculate the antenna patterns when the sphere operates with one, three, and six transducers. The sky coverage for two detectors based in The Netherlands and Brazil and operating in coincidence is also estimated. Finally, we describe and numerically verify a calibration and filtering procedure useful for diagnostic and detection purposes in analogy with existing resonant bar detectors.

  20. Proton calibration of low energy neutron detectors containing (6)LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of the present calibrations is to measure the proton response of the detectors with accelerated beams having energies within the region of maximum intensities in the trapped proton spectrum encountered in near-Earth orbit. This response is compared with the responses of the spaceflight detectors when related to proton exposures. All of the spaceflight neutron measurements have been accompanied by TLD absorbed doses measurements in close proximity within the spacecraft. For purposes of comparison, the spaceflight TLD doses are assumed to be proton doses.

  1. Proton calibration of low energy neutron detectors containing (6)LiF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present calibrations is to measure the proton response of the detectors with accelerated beams having energies within the region of maximum intensities in the trapped proton spectrum encountered in near-Earth orbit. This response is compared with the responses of the spaceflight detectors when related to proton exposures. All of the spaceflight neutron measurements have been accompanied by TLD absorbed doses measurements in close proximity within the spacecraft. For purposes of comparison, the spaceflight TLD doses are assumed to be proton doses.

  2. Monte Carlo based geometrical model for efficiency calculation of an n-type HPGe detector.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Fatima Padilla; Lopez-Pino, Neivy; Bernal-Castillo, Jose Luis; Martinez-Palenzuela, Yisel; Aguilar-Mena, Jimmy; D'Alessandro, Katia; Arbelo, Yuniesky; Corrales, Yasser; Diaz, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    A procedure to optimize the geometrical model of an n-type detector is described. Sixteen lines from seven point sources ((241)Am, (133)Ba, (22)Na, (60)Co, (57)Co, (137)Cs and (152)Eu) placed at three different source-to-detector distances (10, 20 and 30 cm) were used to calibrate a low-background gamma spectrometer between 26 and 1408 keV. Direct Monte Carlo techniques using the MCNPX 2.6 and GEANT 4 9.2 codes, and a semi-empirical procedure were performed to obtain theoretical efficiency curves. Since discrepancies were found between experimental and calculated data using the manufacturer parameters of the detector, a detail study of the crystal dimensions and the geometrical configuration is carried out. The relative deviation with experimental data decreases from a mean value of 18-4%, after the parameters were optimized.

  3. Pyroelectric neutron generator for calibration of neutrino and dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Ionidi, V. Y.; Ivashchuk, O. O.; Kubankin, A. S.; Oleinik, A. N.; Shchagin, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Pyroelectric crystals, such as LiNbO3 or LiTaO3 being under influence of a temperature gradient can produce an electric field up to 105 kV/cm. It was experimentally confirmed that a crystal installed in a chamber with a residual gas pressure of about 1 mTorr could be used to generate X-Ray radiation with an energy up to 100 keV The same setup could be used to generate s 2.45 MeV neutrons if the target is deuterated and residual gas is D2. Due to such properties as On/Off mode of operation and the absence of radioactive materials, pyroelectric neutron generators seem to be a promising tool for calibration of neutrino and dark matter and other low background detectors. We propose the application of the controlled pyroelectric neutron generator for calibration of such detectors.

  4. High accuracy position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate ion detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, R.; Leredde, A.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Fléchard, X.; García, A.; Müller, P.; Knecht, A.; Liénard, E.; Kossin, M.; Sternberg, M. G.; Swanson, H. E.; Zumwalt, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector with a delay-line anode position readout scheme. Using an in situ calibration mask, an accuracy of 8 μm and a resolution of 85 μm (FWHM) have been achieved for MeV-scale α particles and ions with energies of ∼10 keV. At this level of accuracy, the difference between the MCP position responses to high-energy α particles and low-energy ions is significant. The improved performance of the MCP detector can find applications in many fields of AMO and nuclear physics. In our case, it helps reducing systematic uncertainties in a high-precision nuclear β-decay experiment.

  5. Development of a high efficiency personal/environmental radon dosimeter using polycarbonate detectors.

    PubMed

    Taheri, M; Jafarizadeh, M; Baradaran, S; Zainali, Gh

    2006-12-01

    Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are widely used for the assessment of radon exposure. These methods are often applied in radon dosimetry for long periods of time. In this research work, we have developed a highly efficient method of personal/environmental radon dosimetry that is based upon the detection of alpha particles from radon daughters, (218)Po and (214)Po, using a polycarbonate detector (PC). The radon daughters are collected on the filter surface by passing a fixed flow of air through it and the PC detector, placed at a specified distance from the filter, is simultaneously exposed to alpha particles. After exposure, the latent tracks on the detector are made to appear by means of an electrochemical etching process; these are proportional to the radon dose. The air flow rate and the detector-filter distance are the major factors that can affect the performance of the dosimeter. The results obtained in our experimental investigations have shown that a distance of 1.5 cm between the detector and the filter, an absorber layer of Al with a thickness of 12 microm and an air flow rate of 4 l min(-1) offer the best design parameters for a high efficiency radon dosimeter. Then, the designed dosimeter was calibrated against different values of radon exposures and the obtained sensitivity was found to be 2.1 (tracks cm(-2)) (kBq h m(-3))(-1). The most important advantages of this method are that it is reliable, fast and convenient when used for radon dose assessment. In this paper, the optimized parameters of the dosimeter structure and its calibration procedure are presented and discussed.

  6. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV.

  7. A calibration of detectors and gratings between 100 and 600 Angstroms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Calibration and efficiency measurements of magnetic electron multipliers, diffraction gratings, and photocathodes over the wavelength range 100 to 600 A are reported. For some of the measurements it was found necessary to use the synchrotron radiation from a storage ring. Measurements of grating efficiencies, the polarization produced by diffraction gratings, and the photoelectric yields of various photocathodes are included.

  8. Measurement of Yields and Fluctuations using Background and Calibration Data from the LUX Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, Evan; LUX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector is a 350-kg liquid xenon (LXe) time-projection chamber designed for the direct detection of weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. LUX operates on the 4850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. Monoenergetic electronic recoil (ER) peaks in the WIMP search and calibration data from the first underground science run of the LUX detector have been used to measure ER light and charge yields in LXe between 5.2 keV and 662 keV. The energy resolution of the LUX detector at these energies will also be presented. Recombination fluctuations are observed to follow a linear dependence on the number of ions for the energies in this study, and this dependence is consistent with low-energy measurements made with a tritium beta source in the LUX detector. Using these results and additional measurements of the recoil bands from tritium and D-D neutron calibrations, I will compare recombination fluctuations in LXe response to electronic and nuclear recoils. The presenter is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) program. The SCGSR program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the DOE under contract DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  9. A calibration method for the measurement of IR detector spectral responses using a FTIR spectrometer equipped with a DTGS reference cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravrand, Olivier; Wlassow, J.; Bonnefond, L.

    2014-07-01

    Various high performance IR detectors are today available on the market from QWIPs to narrow gap semiconductor photodiodes, which exhibit various spectral features. In the astrophysics community, the knowledge of the detector spectral shape is of first importance. This quantity (spectral QE or response) is usually measured by means of a monochromator followed by an integrating sphere and compared to a calibrated reference detector. This approach is usually very efficient in the visible range, where all optical elements are very well known, particularly the reference detector. This setup is also widely used in the near IR (up to 3μm) but as the wavelength increases, it becomes less efficient. For instance, the internal emittance of integrating spheres in the IR, and the bad knowledge of reference detectors for longer wavelengths tend to degrade the measurement reliability. Another approach may therefore be considered, using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer (FTIR). In this case, as opposed to the monochromator, the tested detector is not in low flux condition, the incident light containing a mix of different wavelengths. Therefore, the reference detector has to be to be sensitive (and known) in the whole spectral band of interest, because it will sense all those wavelengths at the same time. A popular detector used in this case is a Deuterated Triglycine Sulfate thermal detector (DTGS). Being a pyro detetector, the spectral response of such a detector is very flat, mainly limited by its window. However, the response of such a detector is very slow, highly depending on the temporal frequency of the input signal. Moreover, being a differential detector, it doesn't work in DC. In commercial FTIR spectrometers, the source luminance is usually continuously modulated by the moving interferometer, and the result is that the interferogram mixes optical spectral information (optical path difference) and temporal variations (temporal frequency) so that the temporal

  10. Detection efficiency calculation for photons, electrons and positrons in a well detector. Part I: Analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.

    2009-06-01

    An analytical model is presented to calculate the total detection efficiency of a well-type radiation detector for photons, electrons and positrons emitted from a radioactive source at an arbitrary position inside the well. The model is well suited to treat a typical set-up with a point source or cylindrical source and vial inside a NaI well detector, with or without lead shield surrounding it. It allows for fast absolute or relative total efficiency calibrations for a wide variety of geometrical configurations and also provides accurate input for the calculation of coincidence summing effects. Depending on its accuracy, it may even be applied in 4π-γ counting, a primary standardisation method for activity. Besides an accurate account of photon interactions, precautions are taken to simulate the special case of 511 keV annihilation quanta and to include realistic approximations for the range of (conversion) electrons and β -- and β +-particles.

  11. Status of the laboratory infrastructure for detector calibration and characterization at the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, N.; Ballak, K.-E.; Dietze, T.; Ekmedzič, M.; Hauf, S.; Januschek, F.; Kaukher, A.; Kuster, M.; Lang, P. M.; Münnich, A.; Schmitt, R.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Turcato, M.

    2016-12-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide unprecedented peak brilliance and ultra-short and spatially coherent X-ray pulses in an energy range of 0.25 to 25 keV . The pulse timing structure is unique with a burst of 2700 pulses of 100 fs length at a temporal distance of 220 ns followed by a 99.4 ms gap. To make optimal use of this timing structure and energy range a great variety of detectors are being developed for use at XFEL.EU, including 2D X-ray imaging cameras that are able to detect images at a rate of 4.5 MHz, provide dynamic ranges up to 105 photons per pulse per pixel under different operating conditions and covering a large range of angular resolution \\cite{requirements,Markus}. In order to characterize, commission and calibrate this variety of detectors and for testing of detector prototypes the XFEL.EU detector group is building up an X-ray test laboratory that allows testing of detectors with X-ray photons under conditions that are as similar to the future beam line conditions at the XFEL.EU as is possible with laboratory sources [1]. A total of four test environments provide the infrastructure for detector tests and calibration: two portable setups that utilize low power X-ray sources and radioactive isotopes, a test environment where a commercial high power X-ray generator is in use, and a pulsed X-ray/electron source which will provide pulses as short as 25 ns in XFEL.EU burst mode combined with target anodes of different materials. The status of the test environments, three of which are already in use while one is in commissioning phase, will be presented as well as first results from performance tests and characterization of the sources.

  12. SU-E-T-641: Proton Range Measurements Using a Geometrically Calibrated Liquid Scintillator Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C; Robertson, D; Alsanea, F; Beddar, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a geometric calibration method to accurately calculate physical distances within a liquid scintillator detector and to assess the accuracy, consistency, and robustness of proton beam range measurements when using a liquid scintillator detector system with the proposed geometric calibration process. Methods: We developed a geometric calibration procedure to accurately convert pixel locations in the camera frame into physical locations in the scintillator frame. To ensure accuracy, the geometric calibration was performed before each experiment. The liquid scintillator was irradiated with spot scanning proton beams of 94 energies in two deliveries. A CCD camera was used to capture the two-dimensional scintillation light profile of each of the proton energies. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate the proton range from the acquired images. The measured range was compared to the nominal range to assess the accuracy of the detector. To evaluate the robustness of the detector between each setup, the experiments were repeated on three different days. To evaluate the consistency of the measurements between deliveries, three sets of measurements were acquired for each experiment. Results: Using this geometric calibration procedure, the proton beam ranges measured using the liquid scintillator system were all within 0.3mm of the nominal range. The average difference between the measured and nominal ranges was −0.20mm. The delivery-to-delivery standard deviation of the proton range measurement was 0.04mm, and the setup-to-setup standard deviation of the measurement was 0.10mm. Conclusion: The liquid scintillator system can measure the range of all 94 beams in just two deliveries. With the proposed geometric calibration, it can measure proton range with sub-millimeter accuracy, and the measurements were shown to be consistent between deliveries and setups. Therefore, we conclude that the liquid scintillator

  13. Gamma spectrometry efficiency calibration using Monte Carlo methods to measure radioactivity of 137Cs in food samples.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, T

    2014-12-01

    A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring the radioactivity of (137)Cs in food samples, was based on Monte Carlo simulations available in the free-of-charge toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of a high-purity germanium detector were calculated for three reference materials representing three different food items. These efficiency values were compared with their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Interestingly, the output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method.

  14. Novel real-time alignment and calibration of LHCb detector for Run II and tracking for the upgrade.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagliani, Renato; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run II. Data collected at the start of the fill is processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. The procedure aims to improve the quality of the online selection and performance stability. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. A similar scheme is planned to be used for Run III foreseen to start in 2020. At that time LHCb will run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2 x 1033 cm-2 s-1 and a fully software based trigger strategy will be used. The new running conditions and the tighter timing constraints in the software trigger (only 13 ms per event are available) represent a big challenge for track reconstruction. The new software based trigger strategy implies a full detector read-out at the collision rate of 40 MHz. High performance and timing constraints are ensured by a new tracking system and a fast and efficient track reconstruction strategy.

  15. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  16. IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project: update of X-ray and gamma-ray decay data standards for detector calibration and other applications.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Alan L

    2004-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) was established in 1998 by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (Update of X-ray and gamma-ray Decay Data Standards for Detector Calibration and Other Applications), in order to improve further the recommended decay data used to undertake efficiency calibrations of gamma-ray detectors. Participants in this CRP reviewed and modified the list of radionuclides most suited for detector efficiency calibration, and also considered the decay-data needs for safeguards, waste management, dosimetry, nuclear medicine, material analysis and environmental monitoring. Overall, 62 radionuclides were selected for decay-data evaluation, along with four parent-daughter combinations and two natural decay chains. gamma-ray emissions from specific nuclear reactions were also included to extend the calibrant energy well beyond 10 MeV. A significant number of these decay-data evaluations have been completed, and an IAEA-TECDOC report and database are in the process of being assembled for planned completion by the end of 2003.

  17. Cross calibration of neutron detectors for deuterium-tritium operation in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. C.; Barnes, Cris W.; Duong, H. H.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Jassby, D. L.; Loughlin, M. J.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E.; Strachan, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    During the initial deuterium-tritium experiments on TFTR, neutron emission was measured with 235U and 238U fission chambers, silicon surface barrier diodes, spatially collimated 4He proportional counters and ZnS scintillators, and a variety of elemental activation foils. The activation foils, 4He counters, and silicon diodes can discriminate between 14 and 2.5 MeV neutrons. The other detectors respond to both DD and DT neutrons but are more sensitive to the latter. The proportional counters, scintillators, and some of the fission chambers were calibrated absolutely, using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at numerous locations inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. Although the directly calibrated systems were saturated during the highest-power deuterium-tritium operation, they allowed cross calibration of less sensitive fission chambers and silicon diodes. The estimated absolute accuracy of the uncertainty-weighted mean of these cross calibrations, combined with an independent calibration derived from activation foil determinations of total neutron yield, is ±7%.

  18. Nuclear Recoil Calibrations in the LUX Detector Using Direct and Backscattered D-D Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyne, Casey; LUX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. I will discuss the latest calibration of the nuclear recoil (NR) response in liquid xenon (LXe), performed in-situ in the LUX detector using mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons produced via the Adelphi Technologies, Inc. DD108 D-D neutron generator. The calibration measured the NR charge yield in LXe (Qy) to 0.7 keVnr recoil energy with an absolute determination of deposited energy and the NR light yield in LXe (Ly) to recoil energies of 1.1 keVnr, both of which improve upon all previous measurements. I will then focus in depth on the extension of this calibration using a new technique for generating a beam of sub-300 keV quasi-mono-energetic neutrons via the backscatter of 2.45 MeV neutrons off a deuterium-based reflector. Current simulations work optimizing the technique, its advantages, and its impact on future research will be discussed, including the extension of the NR Qy calibration down to 0.14 keVnr, an independent NR Ly calibration, and an a priori estimate of the expected 8B solar neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering signal in the upcoming LUX-ZEPLIN experiment.

  19. Determination of the Quantum Efficiency of a Light Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2008-01-01

    The "quantum efficiency" (QE) is an important property of a light detector. This quantity can be determined in the undergraduate physics laboratory. The experimentally determined QE of a silicon photodiode appeared to be in reasonable agreement with expected values. The experiment confirms the quantum properties of light and seems to be a useful…

  20. Spectrum reconstruction method based on the detector response model calibrated by x-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruizhe; Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-07

    Accurate estimation of distortion-free spectra is important but difficult in various applications, especially for spectral computed tomography. Two key problems must be solved to reconstruct the incident spectrum. One is the acquisition of the detector energy response. It can be calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, which requires detailed modeling of the detector system and a high computational power. It can also be acquired by establishing a parametric response model and be calibrated using monochromatic x-ray sources, such as synchrotron sources or radioactive isotopes. However, these monochromatic sources are difficult to obtain. Inspired by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum modeling, we propose a feasible method to obtain the detector energy response based on an optimized parametric model for CdZnTe or CdTe detectors. The other key problem is the reconstruction of the incident spectrum with the detector response. Directly obtaining an accurate solution from noisy data is difficult because the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed. Different from the existing spectrum stripping method, a maximum likelihood-expectation maximization iterative algorithm is developed based on the Poisson noise model of the system. Simulation and experiment results show that our method is effective for spectrum reconstruction and markedly increases the accuracy of XRF spectra compared with the spectrum stripping method. The applicability of the proposed method is discussed, and promising results are presented.

  1. Spectrum reconstruction method based on the detector response model calibrated by x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruizhe; Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-01

    Accurate estimation of distortion-free spectra is important but difficult in various applications, especially for spectral computed tomography. Two key problems must be solved to reconstruct the incident spectrum. One is the acquisition of the detector energy response. It can be calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, which requires detailed modeling of the detector system and a high computational power. It can also be acquired by establishing a parametric response model and be calibrated using monochromatic x-ray sources, such as synchrotron sources or radioactive isotopes. However, these monochromatic sources are difficult to obtain. Inspired by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum modeling, we propose a feasible method to obtain the detector energy response based on an optimized parametric model for CdZnTe or CdTe detectors. The other key problem is the reconstruction of the incident spectrum with the detector response. Directly obtaining an accurate solution from noisy data is difficult because the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed. Different from the existing spectrum stripping method, a maximum likelihood-expectation maximization iterative algorithm is developed based on the Poisson noise model of the system. Simulation and experiment results show that our method is effective for spectrum reconstruction and markedly increases the accuracy of XRF spectra compared with the spectrum stripping method. The applicability of the proposed method is discussed, and promising results are presented.

  2. An improved method of energy calibration for position-sensitive silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Huang, Tian-Heng; Liu, Zhong; Ding, Bing; Yang, Hua-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Guo; Ma, Long; Yu, Lin; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Gan, Zai-Guo; Xiao-Hong, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors is achieved by parabolic fitting in the traditional method, where the systematic variations of vertex and curvature of the parabola with energy must be considered. In this paper we extend the traditional method in order to correct the fitting function, simplify the procedure of calibration and improve the experimental data quality. Instead of a parabolic function as used in the traditional method, a new function describing the relation of position and energy is introduced. The energy resolution of the 8.088 MeV α decay of 213Rn is determined to be about 87 keV (FWHM), which is better than the result of the traditional method, 104 keV (FWHM). The improved method can be applied to the energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors with various performances. Supported by ‘100 Person Project’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405224 and 11435014)

  3. Taking a look at the calibration of a CCD detector with a fiber-optic taper

    DOE PAGES

    Alkire, R. W.; Rotella, F. J.; Duke, Norma E. C.; ...

    2016-02-16

    At the Structural Biology Center beamline 19BM, located at the Advanced Photon Source, the operational characteristics of the equipment are routinely checked to ensure they are in proper working order. After performing a partial flat-field calibration for the ADSC Quantum 210r CCD detector, it was confirmed that the detector operates within specifications. However, as a secondary check it was decided to scan a single reflection across one-half of a detector module to validate the accuracy of the calibration. The intensities from this single reflection varied by more than 30% from the module center to the corner of the module. Redistributionmore » of light within bent fibers of the fiber-optic taper was identified to be a source of this variation. As a result, the degree to which the diffraction intensities are corrected to account for characteristics of the fiber-optic tapers depends primarily upon the experimental strategy of data collection, approximations made by the data processing software during scaling, and crystal symmetry.« less

  4. Taking a look at the calibration of a CCD detector with a fiber-optic taper

    PubMed Central

    Alkire, R. W.; Rotella, F. J.; Duke, N. E. C.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Borek, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    At the Structural Biology Center beamline 19BM, located at the Advanced Photon Source, the operational characteristics of the equipment are routinely checked to ensure they are in proper working order. After performing a partial flat-field calibration for the ADSC Quantum 210r CCD detector, it was confirmed that the detector operates within specifications. However, as a secondary check it was decided to scan a single reflection across one-half of a detector module to validate the accuracy of the calibration. The intensities from this single reflection varied by more than 30% from the module center to the corner of the module. Redistribution of light within bent fibers of the fiber-optic taper was identified to be a source of this variation. The degree to which the diffraction intensities are corrected to account for characteristics of the fiber-optic tapers depends primarily upon the experimental strategy of data collection, approximations made by the data processing software during scaling, and crystal symmetry. PMID:27047303

  5. Means and method for calibrating a photon detector utilizing electron-photon coincidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An arrangement for calibrating a photon detector particularly applicable for the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet regions is based on electron photon coincidence utilizing crossed electron beam atom beam collisions. Atoms are excited by electrons which lose a known amount of energy and scatter with a known remaining energy, while the excited atoms emit photons of known radiation. Electrons of the known remaining energy are separated from other electrons and are counted. Photons emitted in a direction related to the particular direction of scattered electrons are detected to serve as a standard. Each of the electrons is used to initiate the measurements of a time interval which terminates with the arrival of a photon exciting the photon detector. Only the number of time intervals related to the coincidence correlation and of electrons scattered in the particular direction with the known remaining energy and photons of a particular radiation level emitted due to the collisions of such scattered electrons are counted. The detector calibration is related to the number of counted electrons and photons.

  6. Taking a look at the calibration of a CCD detector with a fiber-optic taper

    SciTech Connect

    Alkire, R. W.; Rotella, F. J.; Duke, Norma E. C.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Borek, Dominika M.

    2016-02-16

    At the Structural Biology Center beamline 19BM, located at the Advanced Photon Source, the operational characteristics of the equipment are routinely checked to ensure they are in proper working order. After performing a partial flat-field calibration for the ADSC Quantum 210r CCD detector, it was confirmed that the detector operates within specifications. However, as a secondary check it was decided to scan a single reflection across one-half of a detector module to validate the accuracy of the calibration. The intensities from this single reflection varied by more than 30% from the module center to the corner of the module. Redistribution of light within bent fibers of the fiber-optic taper was identified to be a source of this variation. As a result, the degree to which the diffraction intensities are corrected to account for characteristics of the fiber-optic tapers depends primarily upon the experimental strategy of data collection, approximations made by the data processing software during scaling, and crystal symmetry.

  7. Efficiency Studies for the new Muon Telescope Detector at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Hannah; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) is a new detector subsystem in STAR at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The MTD will contribute to studies of the matter being created in heavy-ion collisions by allowing measurements of the J/Psi meson and the different Upsilon states over a broad transverse momentum range via the reconstruction of their di-muon decays. Simulations to estimate the efficiency of the MTD for detecting muons were performed. The results of these simulations will be presented.

  8. Neutron efficiency of LaBr3:Ce detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebran, A.; Roig, O.; Méot, V.; Delaune, O.

    2014-12-01

    We report on a measurement of the neutron detection efficiency in a LaBr3 detector in the energy range 0.1-2 MeV. The experiment was carried out using a 4 MV Van-de-Graaff accelerator which provided monoenergetic neutrons from T(p,n)3He and 7Li(p,n)7Be reactions. The five most intense γ-rays from the LaBr3(n, n ‧ γ) reaction have been studied to deduce the neutron sensitivity of the detector. GEANT4 simulations with different nuclear data libraries have been done and a comparison with the data is provided.

  9. Calibration of 4π NaI(Tl) detectors with coincidence summing correction using new numerical procedure and ANGLE4 software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Mohamed S.; Jovanovic, Slobodan I.; Thabet, Abouzeid A.; El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Dlabac, Aleksandar D.; Salem, Bohaysa A.; Gouda, Mona M.; Mihaljevic, Nikola N.; Almugren, Kholud S.; Abbas, Mahmoud I.

    2017-03-01

    The 4π NaI(Tl) γ-ray detectors are consisted of the well cavity with cylindrical cross section, and the enclosing geometry of measurements with large detection angle. This leads to exceptionally high efficiency level and a significant coincidence summing effect, much more than a single cylindrical or coaxial detector especially in very low activity measurements. In the present work, the detection effective solid angle in addition to both full-energy peak and total efficiencies of well-type detectors, were mainly calculated by the new numerical simulation method (NSM) and ANGLE4 software. To obtain the coincidence summing correction factors through the previously mentioned methods, the simulation of the coincident emission of photons was modeled mathematically, based on the analytical equations and complex integrations over the radioactive volumetric sources including the self-attenuation factor. The measured full-energy peak efficiencies and correction factors were done by using 152Eu, where an exact adjustment is required for the detector efficiency curve, because neglecting the coincidence summing effect can make the results inconsistent with the whole. These phenomena, in general due to the efficiency calibration process and the coincidence summing corrections, appear jointly. The full-energy peak and the total efficiencies from the two methods typically agree with discrepancy 10%. The discrepancy between the simulation, ANGLE4 and measured full-energy peak after corrections for the coincidence summing effect was on the average, while not exceeding 14%. Therefore, this technique can be easily applied in establishing the efficiency calibration curves of well-type detectors.

  10. Broad-band efficiency calibration of ITER bolometer prototypes using Pt absorbers on SiN membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, H.; Willmeroth, M.; Zhang, D.; Gottwald, A.; Krumrey, M.; Scholze, F.

    2013-12-01

    The energy resolved efficiency of two bolometer detector prototypes for ITER with 4 channels each and absorber thicknesses of 4.5 μm and 12.5 μm, respectively, has been calibrated in a broad spectral range from 1.46 eV up to 25 keV. The calibration in the energy range above 3 eV was performed against previously calibrated silicon photodiodes using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by five different beamlines of Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage rings BESSY II and Metrology Light Source in Berlin. For the measurements in the visible range, a setup was realised using monochromatized halogen lamp radiation and a calibrated laser power meter as reference. The measurements clearly demonstrate that the efficiency of the bolometer prototype detectors in the range from 50 eV up to ≈6 keV is close to unity; at a photon energy of 20 keV the bolometer with the thick absorber detects 80% of the photons, the one with the thin absorber about 50%. This indicates that the detectors will be well capable of measuring the plasma radiation expected from the standard ITER scenario. However, a minimum absorber thickness will be required for the high temperatures in the central plasma. At 11.56 keV, the sharp Pt-L3 absorption edge allowed to cross-check the absorber thickness by fitting the measured efficiency to the theoretically expected absorption of X-rays in a homogeneous Pt-layer. Furthermore, below 50 eV the efficiency first follows the losses due to reflectance expected for Pt, but below 10 eV it is reduced further by a factor of 2 for the thick absorber and a factor of 4 for the thin absorber. Most probably, the different histories in production, storage, and operation led to varying surface conditions and additional loss channels.

  11. Development of a new method for measurement of neutron detector efficiency up to 20 MeV

    DOE PAGES

    Kornilov, N. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Massey, T. N.; ...

    2014-09-03

    A new approach to neutron detector efficiency has been taken. A neutron detector has been calibrated with a 252Cf source at low energy. The calibration can be extended to energies above 8 MeV based on the 252Cf results. The techniques uses the fact that the cross section for a symmetric reaction with nucleus of atomic number A yielding a final nucleus with atomic number (2A-1) and a neutron A + A → (2A – 1) + n. This reaction must be symmetric about 90° in the center-of-mass system. Furthermore, the laboratory energies for the neutrons at the paired energies differmore » substantially. Thus, an efficiency known at one of the two angles can be used to determine the efficiency to higher energies or, for a negative Q, to lower neutron energies.« less

  12. Quantitative carbon detector (QCD) for calibration-free, high-resolution characterization of complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Maduskar, Saurabh; Teixeira, Andrew R; Paulsen, Alex D; Krumm, Christoph; Mountziaris, T J; Fan, Wei; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2015-01-21

    Current research of complex chemical systems, including biomass pyrolysis, petroleum refining, and wastewater remediation requires analysis of large analyte mixtures (>100 compounds). Quantification of each carbon-containing analyte by existing methods (flame ionization detection) requires extensive identification and calibration. In this work, we describe an integrated microreactor system called the Quantitative Carbon Detector (QCD) for use with current gas chromatography techniques for calibration-free quantitation of analyte mixtures. Combined heating, catalytic combustion, methanation and gas co-reactant mixing within a single modular reactor fully converts all analytes to methane (>99.9%) within a thermodynamic operable regime. Residence time distribution of the QCD reveals negligible loss in chromatographic resolution consistent with fine separation of complex mixtures including cellulose pyrolysis products.

  13. Optimal Design of Calibration Signals in Space Borne Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nofrarias, Miquel; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Gibert, Ferran; Armano, Michele; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Dolesi, Rita; Ferraioli, Luigi; Thorpe, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Future space borne gravitational wave detectors will require a precise definition of calibration signals to ensure the achievement of their design sensitivity. The careful design of the test signals plays a key role in the correct understanding and characterization of these instruments. In that sense, methods achieving optimal experiment designs must be considered as complementary to the parameter estimation methods being used to determine the parameters describing the system. The relevance of experiment design is particularly significant for the LISA Pathfinder mission, which will spend most of its operation time performing experiments to characterize key technologies for future space borne gravitational wave observatories. Here we propose a framework to derive the optimal signals in terms of minimum parameter uncertainty to be injected to these instruments during its calibration phase. We compare our results with an alternative numerical algorithm which achieves an optimal input signal by iteratively improving an initial guess. We show agreement of both approaches when applied to the LISA Pathfinder case.

  14. Calibrating an optical scanner for quality assurance of large area radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadzhinova, A.; Hildén, T.; Berdova, M.; Lauhakangas, R.; Heino, J.; Tuominen, E.; Franssila, S.; Hæggström, E.; Kassamakov, I.

    2014-11-01

    A gas electron multiplier (GEM) is a particle detector used in high-energy physics. Its main component is a thin copper-polymer-copper sandwich that carries Ø =70  ±  5 µm holes. Quality assurance (QA) is needed to guarantee both long operating life and reading fidelity of the GEM. Absence of layer defects and conformity of the holes to specifications is important. Both hole size and shape influence the detector’s gas multiplication factor and hence affect the collected data. For the scanner the required lateral measurement tolerance is ± 5 µm. We calibrated a high aspect ratio optical scanning system (OSS) to allow ensuring the quality of large GEM foils. For the calibration we microfabricated transfer standards, which were imaged with the OSS and which were compared to corresponding scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The calibration fulfilled the ISO/IEC 17025 and UKAS M3003 requirements: the calibration factor was 1.01  ±  0.01, determined at 95% confidence level across a 950  ×  950 mm2 area. The proposed large-scale scanning technique can potentially be valuable in other microfabricated products too.

  15. Calibration Scheme for Large Kinetic Inductance Detector Arrays Based on Readout Frequency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisigello, L.; Yates, S. J. C.; Murugesan, V.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) provides a way to build large ground-based sub-mm instruments such as NIKA and A-MKID. For such instruments, therefore, it is important to understand and characterize the response to ensure good linearity and calibration over a wide dynamic range. We propose to use the MKID readout frequency response to determine the MKID responsivity to an input optical source power. A signal can be measured in a KID as a change in the phase of the readout signal with respect to the KID resonant circle. Fundamentally, this phase change is due to a shift in the KID resonance frequency, in turn due to a radiation induced change in the quasiparticle number in the superconducting resonator. We show that the shift in resonant frequency can be determined from the phase shift by using KID phase versus frequency dependence using a previously measured resonant frequency. Working in this calculated resonant frequency, we gain near linearity and constant calibration to a constant optical signal applied in a wide range of operating points on the resonance and readout powers. This calibration method has three particular advantages: first, it is fast enough to be used to calibrate large arrays, with pixel counts in the thousands of pixels; second, it is based on data that are already necessary to determine KID positions; third, it can be done without applying any optical source in front of the array.

  16. Development of pyroelectric neutron source for calibration of neutrino and dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Ionidi, V. Y.; Gromov, M. B.; Kirsanov, M. A.; Klyuyev, A. S.; Kubankin, A. S.; Oleinik, A. N.; Shchagin, A. V.; Vokhmyanina, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    The laboratory experimental setup for development of pyroelectric neutron generator for calibration of neutrino and dark matter detectors for direct search of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) has been developed. The setup allows providing and controlling the neutrons generation process realized during d-d nuclear fusion. It is shown that the neutrons with energy 2.45 MeV can be generated starting from a level of electric potential generated by pyroelectric crystal about 30 kV, in contrast to the typical neutron tubes which need the applied outer high voltage level about 100 kV.

  17. Efficiency and spatial resolution of the CASCADE thermal neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhli, M.; Allmendinger, F.; Häußler, W.; Schröder, T.; Klein, M.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, U.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the CASCADE project - a detection system, which has been designed for the purposes of neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy and which is continuously further developed and adapted to various applications. It features 2D spatially resolved detection of thermal neutrons at high rates. The CASCADE detector is composed of a stack of solid 10B coated Gas Electron Multiplier foils, which serve both as a neutron converter and as an amplifier for the primary ionization deposited in the standard counting gas environment. This multi-layer setup efficiently increases the detection efficiency and by extracting the signal of the charge traversing the stack the conversion layer can be identified allowing a precise determination of the time-of-flight. The spatial resolution is found by optical contrast determination to be σ =(1.39 ± 0.05) mm and by divergence corrected aperture measurements σ =(1.454 ± 0.007) mm , which is in agreement with the simulated detector model. Furthermore this enabled to investigate and describe the non-Gaussian resolution function. At the HEiDi diffractometer the absolute detection efficiency has been studied. At 0.6 Å for the 6 layer detector, which is currently part of the RESEDA spectrometer, an efficiency of 7.8% has been measured, which by means of Monte Carlo simulations translates to (21.0±1.5)% for thermal neutrons at 1.8 Å and (46.9±3.3)% at 5.4 Å.

  18. Investigation of the quantum efficiency of optical heterodyne detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency response and quantum efficiency of optical photodetectors for heterodyne receivers is investigated. The measurements utilized two spectral lines from the output of two lasers as input to the photodetectors. These lines are easily measurable in power and frequency and hence serve as known inputs. By measuring the output current of the photodetector the quantum efficiency is determined as a function of frequency separation between the two input signals. An investigation of the theoretical basis and accuracy of this type of measurement relative to similar measurements utilizing risetime is undertaken. A theoretical study of the heterodyne process in photodetectors based on semiconductor physics is included so that higher bandwidth detectors may be designed. All measurements are made on commercially available detectors and manufacturers' specifications for normal photodetector operation are compared to the measured heterodyne characteristics.

  19. Development of a Calibration System for Cryogenic Light Detectors in CUPID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Meng; Kolomensky, Yury; O'Donnell, Thomas; Schmidt, Benjamin; Cupid Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    If neutrino is a Majorana particle, it is possible to observe neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ), whose signature is a monochromatic line at the Q-value of the decay in the energy spectrum of the two electrons. Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment which aims to search for 0 νββ in 130Te with TeO2 bolometers, whose background is dominated by α particles from natural radioactivity in the detector material. CUPID (CUORE Upgrade with Particle IDentification) is the next generation experiment proposed to distinguish 0 νββ events from those of α particles with Cherenkov radiation. An important part of CUPID R&D is to design, build and characterize a calibration system that can generate a known amount of light and transport that light to the dilution refrigerator at mK temperatures. We describe the design, implementation and performance of a calibration system developed for bolometric light detectors. Preparation work includes researching and selecting a light source (LED). A transport system (optical fiber) was developed to direct the light to the coldest part of the dilution refrigerator. Additionally, the light yield attenuation of optical fiber at cryogenic temperatures was measured. This project is supported by National Science Foundation and UC-Berkeley.

  20. Towards monolithic scintillator based TOF-PET systems: practical methods for detector calibration and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Giacomo; Tabacchini, Valerio; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-ray detectors based on thick monolithic scintillator crystals can achieve spatial resolutions  <2 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and coincidence resolving times (CRTs) better than 200 ps FWHM. Moreover, they provide high sensitivity and depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. While these are excellent characteristics for clinical time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET), the application of monolithic scintillators has so far been hampered by the lengthy and complex procedures needed for position- and time-of-interaction estimation. Here, the algorithms previously developed in our group are revised to make the calibration and operation of a large number of monolithic scintillator detectors in a TOF-PET system practical. In particular, the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification method for x,y-position estimation is accelerated with an algorithm that quickly preselects only the most useful reference events, reducing the computation time for position estimation by a factor of ~200 compared to the previously published k-NN 1D method. Also, the procedures for estimating the DOI and time of interaction are revised to enable full detector calibration by means of fan-beam or flood irradiations only. Moreover, a new technique is presented to allow the use of events in which some of the photosensor pixel values and/or timestamps are missing (e.g. due to dead time), so as to further increase system sensitivity. The accelerated methods were tested on a monolithic scintillator detector specifically developed for clinical PET applications, consisting of a 32 mm  ×  32 mm  ×  22 mm LYSO : Ce crystal coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array. This resulted in a spatial resolution of 1.7 mm FWHM, an average DOI resolution of 3.7 mm FWHM, and a CRT of 214 ps. Moreover, the possibility of using events missing the information of up to 16 out of 64 photosensor pixels is shown. This results in only a small

  1. CMOS-APS Detectors for Solar Physics: Lessons Learned during the SWAP Preflight Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Nicula, B.; Halain, J.-P.; Defise, J.-M.; Thibert, T.; Schühle, U.

    2008-05-01

    CMOS-APS imaging detectors open new opportunities for remote sensing in solar physics beyond what classical CCDs can provide, offering far less power consumption, simpler electronics, better radiation hardness, and the possibility of avoiding a mechanical shutter. The SWAP telescope onboard the PROBA2 technology demonstration satellite of the European Space Agency will be the first actual implementation of a CMOS-APS detector for solar physics in orbit. One of the goals of the SWAP project is precisely to acquire experience with the CMOS-APS technology in a real-live space science context. Such a precursor mission is essential in the preparation of missions such as Solar Orbiter where the extra CMOS-APS functionalities will be hard requirements. The current paper concentrates on specific CMOS-APS issues that were identified during the SWAP preflight calibration measurements. We will discuss the different readout possibilities that the CMOS-APS detector of SWAP provides and their associated pros and cons. In particular we describe the “image lag” effect, which results in a contamination of each image with a remnant of the previous image. We have characterised this effect for the specific SWAP implementation and we conclude with a strategy on how to successfully circumvent the problem and actually take benefit of it for solar monitoring.

  2. Quantum efficiency measurement of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) CCD detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, A.; Villasenor, J.; Thayer, C.; Kissel, S.; Ricker, G.; Seager, S.; Lyle, R.; Deline, A.; Morgan, E.; Sauerwein, T.; Vanderspek, R.

    2016-07-01

    Very precise on-ground characterization and calibration of TESS CCD detectors will significantly assist in the analysis of the science data from the mission. An accurate optical test bench with very high photometric stability has been developed to perform precise measurements of the absolute quantum efficiency. The setup consists of a vacuum dewar with a single MIT Lincoln Lab CCID-80 device mounted on a cold plate with the calibrated reference photodiode mounted next to the CCD. A very stable laser-driven light source is integrated with a closed-loop intensity stabilization unit to control variations of the light source down to a few parts-per-million when averaged over 60 s. Light from the stabilization unit enters a 20 inch integrating sphere. The output light from the sphere produces near-uniform illumination on the cold CCD and on the calibrated reference photodiode inside the dewar. The ratio of the CCD and photodiode signals provides the absolute quantum efficiency measurement. The design, key features, error analysis, and results from the test campaign are presented.

  3. H2RG detector characterization for RIMAS and instrument efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, Vicki L.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Capone, John I.; Hams, Thomas; Robinson, F. D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2016-08-01

    The Rapid infrared IMAger-Spectrometer (RIMAS) is a near-infrared (NIR) imager and spectrometer that will quickly follow up gamma-ray burst afterglows on the 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). RIMAS has two optical arms which allows simultaneous coverage over two bandpasses (YJ and HK) in either imaging or spectroscopy mode. RIMAS utilizes two Teledyne HgCdTe H2RG detectors controlled by Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc. (ARC/Leach) drivers. We report the laboratory characterization of RIMAS's detectors: conversion gain, read noise, linearity, saturation, dynamic range, and dark current. We also present RIMAS's instrument efficiency from atmospheric transmission models and optics data (both telescope and instrument) in all three observing modes.

  4. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvadó, M

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from (137)Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I and (137)Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times.

  5. Calibration status and plans for the charge integrating JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redford, S.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Ekinci, Y.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Rajeev, R.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, C.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Zhang, J.

    2016-11-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector under development for photon science applications at free electron laser and synchrotron facilities. In particular, JUNGFRAU detectors will equip the Aramis end stations of SwissFEL, an X-ray free electron laser currently under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen, Switzerland. JUNGFRAU has been designed specifically to meet the challenges of photon science at XFELs, including high frame rates, single photon sensitivity in combination with a high dynamic range, vacuum compatibility and tilable modules. This has resulted in a charge integrating detector with three dynamically adjusting gains, a low noise of 55 ENC RMS, readout speeds in excess of 2 kHz, single photon sensitivity down to 2 keV (with a signal to noise ratio of 10) and a dynamic range covering four orders of magnitude at 12 keV. Each JUNGFRAU module consists of eight chips of 256 × 256 pixels, each 75 × 75 μm2 in size. The chips are arranged in 2 × 4 formation and bump-bonded to a single silicon sensor 320 μm thick, resulting in an active area of approximately 4 × 8 cm2 per module. Multi-module vacuum compatible systems comprising up to 16 Mpixels (32 modules) will be used at SwissFEL. The design of SwissFEL and the JUNGFRAU system for the Aramis end station A will be introduced, together with results from early prototypes and a characterisation using the first batch of final JUNGFRAU modules. Plans and first results of the pixel-by-pixel calibration will also be shown. The vacuum compatibility of the JUNGFRAU module is demonstrated for the first time.

  6. Calibration of spectral responsivity of IR detectors in the range from 0.6 μm to 24 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Hanssen, Leonard M.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2016-05-01

    We report the upgraded performance of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) facility for spectral responsivity calibrations of infrared (IR) detectors in both radiant power and irradiance measurement modes. The extension of the wavelength range of the previous scale, below 0.8 μm and above 19 μm in radiant power mode as well as above 5.3 μm in irradiance mode, became available as a result of multiple improvements. The calibration facility was optimized for low-level radiant flux. A significantly reduced noise-equivalent-power and a relatively constant spectral response were achieved recently on newly developed pyroelectric detectors. Also, an efficient optical geometry was developed for calibration of the spectral irradiance responsivity without using an integrating sphere. Simultaneously, the upgrade and maintenance of the NIST transfer standards, with an extended spectral range, were supported by spectral reflectance measurements of a transfer standard pyroelectric detector using a custom integrating sphere and a Fourier transform spectrometer. The sphere reflectance measurements performed in a relative mode were compared to a bare gold-coated mirror reference, separately calibrated at the Fourier transform Infrared Spectrophotometry facility to 18 μm. Currently, the reflectance data for the pyroelectric standard, available in the range up to 30 μm, are supporting the absolute power responsivity scale by the propagation of the reflectance curve to the absolute tie-spectrum in the overlapping range. Typical examples of working standard pyroelectric-, Si-, MCT-, InSb- and InGaAs- detectors are presented and their optimal use for scale dissemination is analyzed.

  7. Intercomparison of a correlated-photon-based method to measure detector quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Migdall, Alan; Castelletto, Stefania; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Rastello, Maria Luisa

    2002-05-20

    We report on the absolute calibration of photodetector quantum efficiency by using correlated photon sources, performed independently at two laboratories, the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale (IEN). The goal is to use an interlaboratory comparison to demonstrate the inherent absoluteness of the photon correlation technique by showing its independence from the particular experimental setup. We find that detector nonuniformity limited this comparison rather than uncertainty inherent in the method itself. The ultimate goal of these investigations is development of a robust measurement protocol that allows the uncertainties of individual measurements to be determined experimentally and verified operationally. Furthermore, to demonstrate the generality of the procedure, the IEN measurement setup was also used to calibrate a fiber-coupled avalanche photodiode module. Uncertainties are evaluated for the detector both with and without fiber coupling and differences are discussed. The current IEN setup using a thinner and higher transmittance nonlinear crystal for the generation of correlated photons shows a significant improvement in overall accuracy with respect to previously reported results from IEN [Metrologia 32, 501-503 (1996)].

  8. NORSAR Final Scientific Report Adaptive Waveform Correlation Detectors for Arrays: Algorithms for Autonomous Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, S J; Ringdal, F; Harris, D B

    2009-04-16

    meet this challenge, we have examined two strategies: (1) use of subspace detectors, a multi-dimensional extension of correlators, which allow representation and detection of signals exhibiting some degree of variation; and (2) autonomous calibration of many subspace and correlation detectors in an adaptive detection framework, subject to analyst review. Because correlation detectors are relatively new to seismology, a significant amount of research on how to tune these detectors has been needed to address later calibration efforts that will arise as they are adopted for operational use. We have approached these challenges by carrying out a number of case studies, encompassing various monitoring scenarios such as earthquake aftershock sequences and swarms, recurring mining explosions, other types of explosions, and rockbursts. We have studied several different geographical regions (the European Arctic, Central Asia, and the western United States). We have drawn on available Ground Truth data in assessing the results of the various processing schemes. In all cases, we have benefited from the high-quality seismic arrays or networks available in these regions, and we have thus been able to evaluate the performance of array-based correlation processing under a variety of conditions. The main results of the project are summarized as follows: (1) Array-based waveform correlation has been demonstrated to lower significantly detection thresholds in comparison with standard single-channel waveform correlation. (2) Frequency-wavenumber analysis of the correlation traces on a small-aperture array provides an effective method for screening out a certain category of false alarms, and can therefore be used to improve detector sensitivity by lowering the threshold for automatic array detection. (3) We have developed and tested a framework for autonomous correlation detection. The framework comprises a set of conventional (STA/LTA) detectors on a collection of array beams, augmented

  9. Energy calibration and gain correction of pixelated spectroscopic x-ray detectors using correlation optimised warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, C. K.; Scuffham, J. W.; Veale, M. C.; Wilson, M. D.; Seller, P.; Cernik, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a reliable, robust and flexible gain correction and energy calibration algorithm for pixelated spectroscopic x-ray detectors. This algorithm uses a data processing method known as correlation optimised warping which aligns shifted datasets by means of a segmental linear stretching and compression of the spectral data in order to best correlate with a reference spectrum. We found the algorithm to be very robust against low-count spectroscopy, and was reliable in a range of different spectroscopic applications. Analysis of the integrated spectrum over all pixels for a Cerium K-alpha x-ray emission (at 34.72 keV) yielded a peak width of 2.45 keV before alignment and 1.11 keV after alignment. This compares favourably with the best in class pixel peak width of 0.76 keV and the mean peak width for all pixels of 1.00 keV. We also found the algorithm to be more user friendly than other peak-search algorithms because there is less external input. A key advantage of this algorithm is that it requires no prior knowledge of the input spectral characteristics, shape or quality of the data. This therefore lends itself to being useful for in-line processing and potentially removes the need for a separate calibration standard (e.g. a radioactive source). This algorithm can be used for any system that simultaneously collects large numbers of spectral data—including multi-element detectors.

  10. Optimal design of calibration signals in space-borne gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofrarias, Miquel; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Gibert, Ferran; Armano, Michele; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Dolesi, Rita; Ferraioli, Luigi; Ferroni, Valerio; Hewitson, Martin; Hueller, Mauro; Inchauspe, Henri; Jennrich, Oliver; Korsakova, Natalia; McNamara, Paul W.; Plagnol, Eric; Thorpe, James I.; Vetrugno, Daniele; Vitale, Stefano; Wass, Peter; Weber, William J.

    2016-05-01

    Future space-borne gravitational wave detectors will require a precise definition of calibration signals to ensure the achievement of their design sensitivity. The careful design of the test signals plays a key role in the correct understanding and characterization of these instruments. In that sense, methods achieving optimal experiment designs must be considered as complementary to the parameter estimation methods being used to determine the parameters describing the system. The relevance of experiment design is particularly significant for the LISA Pathfinder mission, which will spend most of its operation time performing experiments to characterize key technologies for future space-borne gravitational wave observatories. Here we propose a framework to derive the optimal signals—in terms of minimum parameter uncertainty—to be injected into these instruments during the calibration phase. We compare our results with an alternative numerical algorithm which achieves an optimal input signal by iteratively improving an initial guess. We show agreement of both approaches when applied to the LISA Pathfinder case.

  11. In-situ Calibration of Detectors using Muon-induced Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Reyna, David

    2016-10-31

    In this work we investigate a method that confirms the operability of neutron detectors requiring neither radiological sources nor radiation generating devices. This is desirable when radiological sources are not available, but confidence in the functionality of the instrument is required. The “source”, based on the production of neutrons in high-Z materials by muons, provides a tagged, low-background and consistent rate of neutrons that can be used to check the functionality of or calibrate a detector. Using a Monte Carlo guided optimization, an experimental apparatus was designed and built to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. Through a series of trial measurements in a variety of locations we show that gated muon-induced neutrons appear to provide a consistent source of neutrons (35.9 ± 2.3 measured neutrons/10,000 muons in the instrument) under normal environmental variability (less than one statistical standard deviation for 10,000 muons) with a combined environmental + statistical uncertainty of ~18% for 10,000 muons. This is achieved in a single 21-22 minute measurement at sea level.

  12. Persistence characterization and data calibration scheme for the RSS-NIR H2RG detector on SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, Gregory; Eggen, Nathan; Wolf, Marsha; Jaehnig, Kurt; Kotulla, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The University of Wisconsin Madison is building a NIR spectrograph (RSS-NIR) for the Southern African Large Telescope. The detector system uses a H2RG HdCdTe 1.7 μm cutoff array. We performed tests to measure and characterize the persistence of the detector to inform strategies to mitigate this effect. These tests use up-the- ramp group samples to get finer time resolution of the release of persistence. We share these test results. We also present preliminary results of the dependence of persistence on detector temperature. We conclude with an outline and assessment of a persistence calibration scheme.

  13. Detection of 15 dB Squeezed States of Light and their Application for the Absolute Calibration of Photoelectric Quantum Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Squeezed states of light belong to the most prominent nonclassical resources. They have compelling applications in metrology, which has been demonstrated by their routine exploitation for improving the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave detector since 2010. Here, we report on the direct measurement of 15 dB squeezed vacuum states of light and their application to calibrate the quantum efficiency of photoelectric detection. The object of calibration is a customized InGaAs positive intrinsic negative (p-i-n) photodiode optimized for high external quantum efficiency. The calibration yields a value of 99.5% with a 0.5% (k =2 ) uncertainty for a photon flux of the order 1 017 s-1 at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The calibration neither requires any standard nor knowledge of the incident light power and thus represents a valuable application of squeezed states of light in quantum metrology.

  14. Calculation of the absolute detection efficiency of a moderated /sup 235/U neutron detector on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, L.P.; Hendel, H.W.; Liew, S.L.

    1989-02-01

    Neutron transport simulations have been carried out to calculate the absolute detection efficiency of a moderated /sup 235/U neutron detector which is used on the TFTR as a part of the primary fission detector diagnostic system for measuring fusion power yields. Transport simulations provide a means by which the effects of variations in various shielding and geometrical parameters can be explored. These effects are difficult to study in calibration experiments. The calculational model, benchmarked against measurements, can be used to complement future detector calibrations, when the high level of radioactivity resulting from machine operation may severely restrict access to the tokamak. We present a coupled forward-adjoint algorithm, employing both the deterministic and Monte Carlo sampling methods, to model the neutron transport in the complex tokamak and detector geometries. Sensitivities of the detector response to the major and minor radii, and angular anisotropy of the neutron emission are discussed. A semi-empirical model based on matching the calculational results with a small set of experiments produces good agreement (+-15%) for a wide range of source energies and geometries. 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. An experimental approach to efficiency calibration for gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of large air particulate filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarchio, Elio

    2013-04-01

    A full-energy-peak efficiency (FEPE) calibration procedure for gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of air particulate samples collected on large filters is described herein. The experimental results are obtained for an unconventional measurement geometry, termed a "packet-sample". The sample is obtained from a large cellulose filter (45 cm×45 cm) used to collect air particulate samples that is resized to dimensions suitable for spectrometric measurements (6 cm×6 cm×0.7 cm). To determine the FEPEs, many standards were created, i.e., some filters containing a small amount of ThO2 and others containing a known amount of KCl. Efficiency curves obtained through best fits to experimental data for three high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, one of them for X-ray measurement, cover the energy range from 40 keV to 2600 keV. To validate the efficiency calibration procedure two experimental tests with the use of calibrated sources were conducted and, as application example, airborne concentrations of 131I (particulate matter), 134Cs and 137Cs at Palermo (Italy) in the days following the Fukushima accident in Japan were evaluated.

  16. Misalignments calibration in small-animal PET scanners based on rotating planar detectors and parallel-beam geometry.

    PubMed

    Abella, M; Vicente, E; Rodríguez-Ruano, A; España, S; Lage, E; Desco, M; Udias, J M; Vaquero, J J

    2012-11-21

    Technological advances have improved the assembly process of PET detectors, resulting in quite small mechanical tolerances. However, in high-spatial-resolution systems, even submillimetric misalignments of the detectors may lead to a notable degradation of image resolution and artifacts. Therefore, the exact characterization of misalignments is critical for optimum reconstruction quality in such systems. This subject has been widely studied for CT and SPECT scanners based on cone beam geometry, but this is not the case for PET tomographs based on rotating planar detectors. The purpose of this work is to analyze misalignment effects in these systems and to propose a robust and easy-to-implement protocol for geometric characterization. The result of the proposed calibration method, which requires no more than a simple calibration phantom, can then be used to generate a correct 3D-sinogram from the acquired list mode data.

  17. Development of an acoustic sensor for the future IceCube-Gen2 detector for neutrino detection and position calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickmann, Stefan; Eliseev, Dmitry; Heinen, Dirk; Linder, Peter; Rongen, Martin; Scholz, Franziska; Weinstock, Lars Steffen; Wiebusch, Christopher; Zierke, Simon

    2017-03-01

    For the planned high-energy extension of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in the glacial ice at the South Pole the spacing of detector modules will be increased with respect to IceCube. Because of these larger distances the quality of the geometry calibration based on pulsed light sources is expected to deteriorate. To counter this an independent acoustic geometry calibration system based on trilateration is introduced. Such an acoustic positioning system (APS) has already been developed for the Enceladus Explorer Project (EnEx), initiated by the DLR Space Administration. In order to integrate such APS-sensors into the IceCube detector the power consumption needs to be minimized. In addition, the frequency response of the front end electronics is optimized for positioning as well as the acoustic detection of neutrinos. The new design of the acoustic sensor and results of test measurements with an IceCube detector module will be presented.

  18. Efficient Accommodation of Local Minima in Watershed Model Calibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-02

    of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to...should notify the user of this, and of the fact that parameter estimates forthcom- ing from the calibration process are nonunique . Whether or not an...challenges posed by parameter nonuniqueness and local objective function minima will lead to the necessity to carry out more model runs than that

  19. Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielnicki, Kevin

    Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on

  20. Performance and Calibration of H2RG Detectors and SIDECAR ASICs for the RATIR Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Ori D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Rapchun, David A.; Klein, Christopher R.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Bloom, Josh; de Diego, Jos A.; Simn Farah, Alejandro D.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Georgiev, Leonid; Gonzlez-Hernandez, J. Jess; Lee, William H.; Loose, Markus; Lotkin, Gennadiy; Moseley, Samuel H.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Richer, Michael G.; Robinson, Frederick D.; Romn-Zuniga, Carols; Samuel, Mathew V.; Sparr, Leroy M.; Watson, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    The Reionization And Transient Infra,.Red (RATIR) camera has been built for rapid Gamma,.Ray Burst (GRE) followup and will provide simultaneous optical and infrared photometric capabilities. The infrared portion of this camera incorporates two Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG detectors, controlled by Teledyne's SIDECAR ASICs. While other ground-based systems have used the SIDECAR before, this system also utilizes Teledyne's JADE2 interface card and IDE development environment. Together, this setup comprises Teledyne's Development Kit, which is a bundled solution that can be efficiently integrated into future ground-based systems. In this presentation, we characterize the system's read noise, dark current, and conversion gain.

  1. Efficiency as a function of MEQ-CWT for large area germanium detectors using LLNL phantom.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, S; Brindha, J Thulasi; Sreedevi, K R; Hegde, A G

    2012-01-01

    The lung counting system at Kalpakkam, India, used for the estimation of transuranics deposited in the lungs of occupational workers, consists of an array of three large area germanium detectors fixed in a single assembly. The efficiency calibration for low energy photons was carried out using ²⁴¹Am and ²³²Th lung sets of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory phantom. The muscle equivalent chest wall thickness (MEQ-CWT) was derived for the three energies 59.5, 75.95 (average energy of ²³²Th) and 238.9 keV for the series of overlay plates made of different adipose mass ratios. Efficiency as a function of MEQ-CWT was calculated for individual detectors for the three energies. Variation of MEQ-CWT from 16 to 40 mm resulted in an efficiency variation of around 40 % for all the three energies. The array efficiency for different MEQ-CWT ranged from 1.4×10⁻³ to 3.2×10⁻³, 1.5×10⁻³ to 3.3×10⁻³ and 1.1×10⁻³ to 2.3×10⁻³ for 59.5, 75.95 and 238.9 keV, respectively. In the energy response, efficiency was observed to be maximum for 75.95 keV compared with 59.5 and 238.9 keV.

  2. On the Charge Collection Efficiency of the PERCIVAL Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, J.; Marras, A.; Wunderer, C. B.; Göttlicher, P.; Lange, S.; Reza, S.; Shevyakov, I.; Tennert, M.; Niemann, M.; Hirsemann, H.; Smoljanin, S.; Supra, J.; Xia, Q.; Zimmer, M.; Allahgholi, A.; Gloskovskii, A.; Viefhaus, J.; Scholz, F.; Seltmann, J.; Klumpp, S.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Khromova, A.; Menk, R.; Pinaroli, G.; Stebel, L.; Rinaldi, S.; Zema, N.; Catone, D.; Pedersen, U.; Tartoni, N.; Guerrini, N.; Marsh, B.; Sedgwick, I.; Nicholls, T.; Turchetta, R.; Hyun, H. J.; Kim, K. S.; Rah, S. Y.; Hoenk, M. E.; Jewell, A. D.; Jones, T. J.; Nikzad, S.; Graafsma, H.

    2016-12-01

    The PERCIVAL soft X-ray imager is being developed by DESY, RAL, Elettra, DLS, and PAL to address the challenges at high brilliance Light Sources such as new-generation Synchrotrons and Free Electron Lasers. Typical requirements for detector systems at these sources are high frame rates, large dynamic range, single-photon counting capability with low probability of false positives, high quantum efficiency, and (multi)-mega-pixel arrangements. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active pixel sensor, based on CMOS technology. It is designed for the soft X-ray regime and, therefore, it is post-processed in order to achieve high quantum efficiency in its primary energy range (250 eV to 1 keV) . This work will report on the latest experimental results on charge collection efficiency obtained for multiple back-side-illuminated test sensors during two campaigns, at the P04 beam-line at PETRA III, and the CiPo beam-line at Elettra, spanning most of the primary energy range as well as testing the performance for photon-energies below 250 eV . In addition, XPS surface analysis was used to cross-check the obtained results.

  3. Development and calibration of fine collimators for the ASTRO-H Soft Gamma-ray Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Kimura, D.; Fukazawa, Y.; Furui, S.; Goto, K.; Hayashi, T.; Kawabata, K. S.; Kawano, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Shirakawa, H.; Tanabe, T.; Makishima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakazawa, K.; Fukuyama, T.; Ichinohe, Y.; Ishimura, K.; Ohta, M.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Uchida, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Ishibashi, K.; Sakanobe, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyazawa, T.; Mori, H.; Sakai, M.; Tajima, H.

    2014-07-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is a Si/CdTe Compton telescope surrounded by a thick BGO active shield and is scheduled to be onboard the ASTRO-H satellite when it is launched in 2015. The SGD covers the energy range from 40 to 600 keV with high sensitivity, which allows us to study nonthermal phenomena in the universe. The SGD uses a Compton camera with the narrow field-of-view (FOV) concept to reduce the non-Xray background (NXB) and improve the sensitivity. Since the SGD is essentially a nonimaging instrument, it also has to cope with the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) within the FOV. The SGD adopts passive shields called "fine collimators" (FCs) to restrict the FOV to <= 0.6° for low-energy photons (<= 100 keV), which reduces contamination from CXB to less than what is expected due to NXB. Although the FC concept was already adopted by the Hard X-ray Detector onboard Suzaku, FCs for the SGD are about four times larger in size and are technically more difficult to operate. We developed FCs for the SGD and confirmed that the prototypes function as required by subjecting them to an X-ray test and environmental tests, such as vibration tests. We also developed an autocollimator system, which uses visible light to determine the transmittance and the optical axis, and calibrated it against data from the X-ray test. The acceptance tests of flight models started in December 2013: five out of six FCs were deemed acceptable, and one more unit is currently being produced. The activation properties were studied based on a proton-beam test and the results were used to estimate the in-orbit NXB.

  4. Detector Calibration to Spontaneous Fission for the Study of Superheavy Elements Using Gas-Filled Recoil Ion Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeyama, Mirei; Kaji, Daiya; Morimoto, Kouji; Wakabayashi, Yasuo; Tokanai, Fuyuki; Morita, Kosuke

    Detector response to spontaneous fission (SF) of heavy nuclides produced in the 206Pb(48Ca,2n)252No reaction was investigated using a gas-filled recoil ion separator (GARIS). Kinetic energy distributions of the SF originating from 252No were observed by tuning implantation depth of evaporation residue (ER) to the detector. The focal plane detector used in the GARIS experiments was well calibrated by comparing with the known total kinetic energy (TKE) of SF due to 252No. The correction value for the TKE calculation was deduced as a function of the implantation depth of 252No to the detector. Furthermore, we have investigated the results by comparing with those obtained by a computer simulation using the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS).

  5. Patient-dependent count-rate adaptive normalization for PET detector efficiency with delayed-window coincidence events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Hongwei; Xia, Ting; Asma, Evren; Winkler, Mark; Gagnon, Daniel; Wang, Wenli

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative PET imaging is widely used in clinical diagnosis in oncology and neuroimaging. Accurate normalization correction for the efficiency of each line-of- response is essential for accurate quantitative PET image reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a normalization calibration method by using the delayed-window coincidence events from the scanning phantom or patient. The proposed method could dramatically reduce the ‘ring’ artifacts caused by mismatched system count-rates between the calibration and phantom/patient datasets. Moreover, a modified algorithm for mean detector efficiency estimation is proposed, which could generate crystal efficiency maps with more uniform variance. Both phantom and real patient datasets are used for evaluation. The results show that the proposed method could lead to better uniformity in reconstructed images by removing ring artifacts, and more uniform axial variance profiles, especially around the axial edge slices of the scanner. The proposed method also has the potential benefit to simplify the normalization calibration procedure, since the calibration can be performed using the on-the-fly acquired delayed-window dataset.

  6. 2D wavelet-analysis-based calibration technique for flat-panel imaging detectors: application in cone beam volume CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Ning, Ruola; Yu, Rongfeng; Conover, David L.

    1999-05-01

    The application of the newly developed flat panel x-ray imaging detector in cone beam volume CT has attracted increasing interest recently. Due to an imperfect solid state array manufacturing process, however, defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image unavoidably exist in all kinds of flat panel x-ray imaging detectors, which will cause severe streak and ring artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image and severely degrade image quality. A calibration technique, in which the artifacts resulting from the defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image can be reduced significantly, is presented in this paper. The detection of defective elements is distinctively based upon two-dimensional (2D) wavelet analysis. Because of its inherent localizability in recognizing singularities or discontinuities, wavelet analysis possesses the capability of detecting defective elements over a rather large x-ray exposure range, e.g., 20% to approximately 60% of the dynamic range of the detector used. Three-dimensional (3D) images of a low-contrast CT phantom have been reconstructed from projection images acquired by a flat panel x-ray imaging detector with and without calibration process applied. The artifacts caused individually by defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image have been separated and investigated in detail, and the correlation with each other have also been exposed explicitly. The investigation is enforced by quantitative analysis of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the image uniformity of the cone beam reconstruction image. It has been demonstrated that the ring and streak artifacts resulting from the imperfect performance of a flat panel x-ray imaging detector can be reduced dramatically, and then the image qualities of a cone beam reconstruction image, such as contrast resolution and image uniformity are improved significantly. Furthermore, with little modification, the calibration technique presented here is also applicable

  7. In situ calibration of the foil detector for an infrared imaging video bolometer using a carbon evaporation technique.

    PubMed

    Mukai, K; Peterson, B J; Takayama, S; Sano, R

    2016-11-01

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a useful diagnostic for the multi-dimensional measurement of plasma radiation profiles. For the application of IRVB measurement to the neutron environment in fusion plasma devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD), in situ calibration of the thermal characteristics of the foil detector is required. Laser irradiation tests of sample foils show that the reproducibility and uniformity of the carbon coating for the foil were improved using a vacuum evaporation method. Also, the principle of the in situ calibration system was justified.

  8. CALIBRATION AND TESTING OF A LARGE-AREA FAST-NEUTRON DIRECTIONAL DETECTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    VANIER,P.E.

    2007-05-16

    We have developed a new directional fast-neutron detector based on double proton recoil in two separated planes of plastic scintillators with position-sensitive readout. This method allows the energy spectrum of the neutrons to be measured by a combination of peak amplitude in the first plane and time of flight to the second plane. The planes are made up of 1-m long, 10-cm high paddles with photomultipliers at both ends, so that the location of an event along the paddle can be estimated from the time delay between the optical pulses detected at the two ends. The direction of the scattered neutron can be estimated from the locations of two time-correlated events in the two planes, and the energy lost in the first scattering event can be estimated from the pulse amplitude in the first plane. The direction of the incident neutron can then be determined to lie on a cone whose angle is determined by the kinematic equations. The superposition of many such cones generates an image that indicates the presence of a localized source. Setting upper and lower limits on the time of flight allows discrimination between gamma rays, muons and neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the expected angular resolution and efficiency. These models show that the lower energy limit for useful directional events is about 100 keV, because lower energy neutrons are likely to scatter more than once in the first plane. Placing a shadow bar in front of the detector provides an alternative way to obtain the direction to a point source, which may require fewer events. This method also can provide dual capability as a directional gamma detector.

  9. EFFICIENCY STUDY OF A LEGe DETECTOR SYSTEM FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF 241Am IN SKULL AT CIEMAT WHOLE BODY COUNTER.

    PubMed

    Pérez López, B; Navarro, J F; López Ponte, M A; Nogueira, P

    2016-09-01

    (241)Am incorporation due to an incident or chronic exposure causes an internal dose, which can be evaluated from the total activity of this isotope in the skeleton several months after the intake. For this purpose, it is necessary to perform in vivo measurements of this bone-seeker radionuclide in appropriate counting bone geometries with very low attenuation of surrounded tissue and to extrapolate to total activity in the skeleton (ICRP 89, Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values. 2001. 265). The work here presented refers to direct measurements of americium in the Cohen skull phantom at the CIEMAT Whole Body Counter (WBC) using low-energy germanium (LEGe) detectors inside a shielding room. The main goal was to determinate the most adequate head counting geometry for the in vivo detection of americium in the bone. The calibration of the in vivo LEGe system was performed with four detectors with 2 cm of distance to Cohen phantom. Two geometries were measured, on junction of frontal to parietal bones and frontal bone. The efficiencies are very similar in both geometries, the preferred counting geometry is the most comfortable for the person, with the LEGe detectors in the highest part of the frontal bone, near the junction with the parietal bone, CIEMAT WBC participated in a skull intercomparison exercise organised by WG7 of EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V.). Efficiencies using three different skull phantoms were obtained. Measurements were performed for different head counting positions, four of them in the plane of symmetry and others over the temporal bone. The detector was placed in parallel with the calibration phantom at a distance of 1 cm. The main gamma emission of (241)Am, 59.5 keV (36 %), was used for comparing efficiency values. The lower efficiency was obtained over the frontal and occipital bones. Measurement with one LEGe detector over the parietal bone is the most efficient. The

  10. The Charge Transfer Efficiency and Calibration of WFPC2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2000-01-01

    A new determination of WFPC2 photometric corrections is presented, using HSTphot reduction of the WFPC2 Omega Centauri and NGC 2419 observations from January 1994 through March 2000 and a comparison with ground-based photometry. No evidence is seen for any position-independent photometric offsets (the "long-short anomaly"); all systematic errors appear to be corrected with the CTE and zero point solution. The CTE loss time dependence is determined to be very significant in the Y direction, causing time-independent CTE solutions to be valid only for a small range of times. On average, the present solution produces corrections similar to Whitmore, Heyer, & Casertano, although with an improved functional form that produces less scatter in the residuals and determined with roughly a year of additional data. In addition to the CTE loss characterization, zero point corrections are also determined as functions of chip, gain, filter, and temperature. Of interest, there are chip-to-chip differences of order 0.01 - 0.02 magnitudes relative to the Holtzman et al. calibrations, and the present study provides empirical zero point determinations for the non-standard filters such as the frequently-used F450W, F606W, and F702W.

  11. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  12. Absolute photometric calibration of detectors to 0.3 mmag using amplitude-stabilized lasers and a helium-cooled absolute radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser sources whose intensity is determined with a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer are described. Detectors are then calibrated against this known flux, with an overall error of 0.028 percent (0.3 mmag). Ongoing research has produced laser intensity stabilizers with flicker and drift of less than 0.01 percent. Recently, the useful wavelength limit of these stabilizers have been extended to 1.65 microns by using a new modular technology and InGaAs detector systems. Data from Si photodiode calibration using the method of Zalewski and Geist are compared against an absolute cavity radiometer calibration as an internal check on the calibration system.

  13. Energy calibration of energy-resolved photon-counting pixel detectors using laboratory polychromatic x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Hanbean; Han, Jong Chul; Kam, Soohwa; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Recently, photon-counting detectors capable of resolving incident x-ray photon energies have been considered for use in spectral x-ray imaging applications. For reliable use of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors (ERPCDs), energy calibration is an essential procedure prior to their use because variations in responses from each pixel of the ERPCD for incident photons, even at the same energy, are inevitable. Energy calibration can be performed using a variety of methods. In all of these methods, the photon spectra with well-defined peak energies are recorded. Every pixel should be calibrated on its own. In this study, we suggest the use of a conventional polychromatic x-ray source (that is typically used in laboratories) for energy calibration. The energy calibration procedure mainly includes the determination of the peak energies in the spectra, flood-field irradiation, determination of peak channels, and determination of calibration curves (i.e., the slopes and intercepts of linear polynomials). We applied a calibration algorithm to a CdTe ERPCD comprised of 128×128 pixels with a pitch of 0.35 mm using highly attenuated polychromatic x-ray beams to reduce the pulse pile-up effect, and to obtain a narrow-shaped spectrum due to beam hardening. The averaged relative error in calibration curves obtained from 16,384 pixels was about 0.56% for 59.6 keV photons from an Americium radioisotope. This pixel-by-pixel energy calibration enhanced the signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios in images, respectively, by a factor of ~5 and 3 due to improvement in image homogeneity, compared to those obtained without energy calibration. One secondary finding of this study was that the x-ray photon spectra obtained using a common algorithm for computing x-ray spectra reasonably described the peaks in the measured spectra, which implies easier peak detection without the direct measurement of spectra using a separate spectrometer. The proposed method will be a useful alternative to

  14. An efficient repeating signal detector to investigate earthquake swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoumal, Robert J.; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Currie, Brian S.

    2016-08-01

    Repetitive earthquake swarms have been recognized as key signatures in fluid injection induced seismicity, precursors to volcanic eruptions, and slow slip events preceding megathrust earthquakes. We investigate earthquake swarms by developing a Repeating Signal Detector (RSD), a computationally efficient algorithm utilizing agglomerative clustering to identify similar waveforms buried in years of seismic recordings using a single seismometer. Instead of relying on existing earthquake catalogs of larger earthquakes, RSD identifies characteristic repetitive waveforms by rapidly identifying signals of interest above a low signal-to-noise ratio and then grouping based on spectral and time domain characteristics, resulting in dramatically shorter processing time than more exhaustive autocorrelation approaches. We investigate seismicity in four regions using RSD: (1) volcanic seismicity at Mammoth Mountain, California, (2) subduction-related seismicity in Oaxaca, Mexico, (3) induced seismicity in Central Alberta, Canada, and (4) induced seismicity in Harrison County, Ohio. In each case, RSD detects a similar or larger number of earthquakes than existing catalogs created using more time intensive methods. In Harrison County, RSD identifies 18 seismic sequences that correlate temporally and spatially to separate hydraulic fracturing operations, 15 of which were previously unreported. RSD utilizes a single seismometer for earthquake detection which enables seismicity to be quickly identified in poorly instrumented regions at the expense of relying on another method to locate the new detections. Due to the smaller computation overhead and success at distances up to ~50 km, RSD is well suited for real-time detection of low-magnitude earthquake swarms with permanent regional networks.

  15. Monte Carlo Simulations for the Purpose of Efficiency Curve Calibration for the Fastscan Whole Body Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Hannah Robyn

    In order to be able to qualify and quantify radiation exposure in terms of dose, a Fastscan whole body counter must be calibrated correctly. Current calibration methods do not take the full range of body types into consideration when creating efficiency curve calibrations. The goal of this work is the creation of a Monte Carlo (MCNP) model, that allows the simulation of efficiency curves for a diverse population of subjects. Models were created for both the Darlington and the Pickering Fastscan WBCs, and the simulations were benchmarked against experimental results with good agreement. The Pickering Fastscan was found to have agreement to within +/-9%, and the Darlington Fastscan had agreement to within +/-11%. Further simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of increased body fat on the detected activity, as well as locating the position of external contamination using front/back ratios of activity. Simulations were also conducted to create efficiency calibrations that had good agreement with the manufacturer's efficiency curves. The work completed in this thesis can be used to create efficiency calibration curves for unique body compositions in the future.

  16. An Improved Nuclear Recoil Calibration in the LUX Detector Using a Pulsed D-D Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 370 kg (250 kg active mass) two-_phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. The first absolute charge (Qy) and light (Ly) measurement performed in situ in the LUX detector with a D-D calibration technique for nuclear recoil spanning 0.7 to 74 keV and 1.1 to 74 keV respectively have been reported in. The D-D calibration has subsequently been further improved by incorporating pulsing technique, i.e. the D-D neutron production is concentrated within narrow pulses (20 us / 250 Hz) with the timing information recorded. This technique allows the suppression of accidental backgrounds in D-D neutron data and also provides increased sensitivity for the lower energy NR calibrations. I will report the improved NR absolute Qy and Ly measurements using the pulsed D-D calibration technique performed in situ in the LUX detector. Brown University, Large Underground Xenon(LUX) Collaboration.

  17. Energy resolution of the CdTe-XPAD detector:calibration and potential for Laue diffractionmeasurements on protein crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Medjoubi K.; Idir M.; Thompson, A.; Berar, J-F.; Clemens, J-C.; Delpierre, P.; Da Silva, P.; Dinkespiler, B.; Itie, J-P.; Legrand, P.; Menneglier, C.; Mercere, P.; Picca, F.; Samama J-P.

    2012-02-02

    The XPAD3S-CdTe, a CdTe photon-counting pixel array detector, has been used to measure the energy and the intensity of the white-beam diffraction from a lysozyme crystal. A method was developed to calibrate the detector in terms of energy, allowing incident photon energy measurement to high resolution (approximately 140 eV), opening up new possibilities in energy-resolved X-ray diffraction. In order to demonstrate this, Laue diffraction experiments were performed on the bending-magnet beamline METROLOGIE at Synchrotron SOLEIL. The X-ray energy spectra of diffracted spots were deduced from the indexed Laue patterns collected with an imaging-plate detector and then measured with both the XPAD3S-CdTe and the XPAD3S-Si, a silicon photon-counting pixel array detector. The predicted and measured energy of selected diffraction spots are in good agreement, demonstrating the reliability of the calibration method. These results open up the way to direct unit-cell parameter determination and the measurement of high-quality Laue data even at low resolution. Based on the success of these measurements, potential applications in X-ray diffraction opened up by this type of technology are discussed.

  18. On-line quick-look analysis and archiving system for the calibration of the PICsIT high-energy detector on the INTEGRAL satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, John B.; Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio

    2000-12-01

    The PICsIT instrument is the high energy imager which together with a low-energy plane comprises one of the two main detectors of the INTEGRAL gamma-ray satellite due to be launched by ESA in late 2001. PICsIT consists of 8 identical modules of 512 Caesium Iodide (CsI) scintillation crystals. The calibration of the detection plane is performed at module level (in three parallel chains), and consists of characterizing each pixel in terms of resolution, gain and efficiency to a very high precision. The high precision and large number of pixels leads to the production of very large amounts of data which then leads to the requirement for a system capable of accumulating at a very high bit-rate; of archiving the data in a suitable format for later analysis; of visualizing these data as they are accumulated in a quick-look fashion in order to control the correct set-up of the test arrangement and the detector functionality during the test and of partially analyzing these extremely large quantities of data on-line so as to obtain the results essential for proceeding with the test process in a rapid manner and not to impede the data accumulation process. Herein we describe the test equipment currently in use for the flight model calibration.

  19. Gain and offset calibration reduces variation in exposure-dependent SNR among systems with identical digital flat-panel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, Charles E.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy Y.; Lofton, Brad K.; White, R. Allen

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The conditions under which vendor performance criteria for digital radiography systems are obtained do not adequately simulate the conditions of actual clinical imaging with respect to radiographic technique factors, scatter production, and scatter control. Therefore, the relationship between performance under ideal conditions and performance in clinical practice remains unclear. Using data from a large complement of systems in clinical use, the authors sought to develop a method to establish expected performance criteria for digital flat-panel radiography systems with respect to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) versus detector exposure under clinical conditions for thoracic imaging. Methods: The authors made radiographic exposures of a patient-equivalent chest phantom at 125 kVp and 180 cm source-to-image distance. The mAs value was modified to produce exposures above and below the mAs delivered by automatic exposure control. Exposures measured free-in-air were corrected to the imaging plane by the inverse square law, by the attenuation factor of the phantom, and by the Bucky factor of the grid for the phantom, geometry, and kilovolt peak. SNR was evaluated as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation (SD) of a region of interest automatically selected in the center of each unprocessed image. Data were acquired from 18 systems, 14 of which were tested both before and after gain and offset calibration. SNR as a function of detector exposure was interpolated using a double logarithmic function to stratify the data into groups of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mR exposure (1.8, 4.5, 9.0, 18, and 45 {mu}Gy air KERMA) to the detector. Results: The mean SNR at each exposure interval after calibration exhibited linear dependence on the mean SNR before calibration (r{sup 2} = 0.9999). The dependence was greater than unity (m = 1.101 {+-} 0.006), and the difference from unity was statistically significant (p < 0.005). The SD of mean SNR after calibration also

  20. Modeling study of a proposed field calibration source using K-40 and high-Z targets for sodium iodide detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Rogers, Jeremy; Marianno, Craig; Kallenbach, Gene; ...

    2016-06-01

    Calibration sources based on the primordial isotope potassium-40 (40K) have reduced controls on the source’s activity due to its terrestrial ubiquity and very low specific activity. Potassium–40’s beta emissions and 1,460.8 keV gamma ray can be used to induce K-shell fluorescence x rays in high-Z metals between 60 and 80 keV. A gamma ray calibration source that uses potassium chloride salt and a high-Z metal to create a two-point calibration for a sodium iodide field gamma spectroscopy instrument is thus proposed. The calibration source was designed in collaboration with the Sandia National Laboratory using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX)more » transport code. Two methods of x-ray production were explored. First, a thin high-Z layer (HZL) was interposed between the detector and the potassium chloride-urethane source matrix. Second, bismuth metal powder was homogeneously mixed with a urethane binding agent to form a potassium chloride-bismuth matrix (KBM). The bismuth-based source was selected as the development model because it is inexpensive, nontoxic, and outperforms the high-Z layer method in simulation. As a result, based on the MCNPX studies, sealing a mixture of bismuth powder and potassium chloride into a thin plastic case could provide a light, inexpensive field calibration source.« less

  1. Modeling Study of a Proposed Field Calibration Source Using K-40 and High-Z Targets for Sodium Iodide Detectors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jeremy; Marianno, Craig; Kallenbach, Gene; Trevino, Jose

    2016-06-01

    Calibration sources based on the primordial isotope potassium-40 (K) have reduced controls on the source's activity due to its terrestrial ubiquity and very low specific activity. Potassium-40's beta emissions and 1,460.8 keV gamma ray can be used to induce K-shell fluorescence x rays in high-Z metals between 60 and 80 keV. A gamma ray calibration source that uses potassium chloride salt and a high-Z metal to create a two-point calibration for a sodium iodide field gamma spectroscopy instrument is thus proposed. The calibration source was designed in collaboration with the Sandia National Laboratory using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code. Two methods of x-ray production were explored. First, a thin high-Z layer (HZL) was interposed between the detector and the potassium chloride-urethane source matrix. Second, bismuth metal powder was homogeneously mixed with a urethane binding agent to form a potassium chloride-bismuth matrix (KBM). The bismuth-based source was selected as the development model because it is inexpensive, nontoxic, and outperforms the high-Z layer method in simulation. Based on the MCNPX studies, sealing a mixture of bismuth powder and potassium chloride into a thin plastic case could provide a light, inexpensive field calibration source.

  2. Modeling study of a proposed field calibration source using K-40 and high-Z targets for sodium iodide detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Jeremy; Marianno, Craig; Kallenbach, Gene; Trevino, Jose

    2016-06-01

    Calibration sources based on the primordial isotope potassium-40 (40K) have reduced controls on the source’s activity due to its terrestrial ubiquity and very low specific activity. Potassium–40’s beta emissions and 1,460.8 keV gamma ray can be used to induce K-shell fluorescence x rays in high-Z metals between 60 and 80 keV. A gamma ray calibration source that uses potassium chloride salt and a high-Z metal to create a two-point calibration for a sodium iodide field gamma spectroscopy instrument is thus proposed. The calibration source was designed in collaboration with the Sandia National Laboratory using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code. Two methods of x-ray production were explored. First, a thin high-Z layer (HZL) was interposed between the detector and the potassium chloride-urethane source matrix. Second, bismuth metal powder was homogeneously mixed with a urethane binding agent to form a potassium chloride-bismuth matrix (KBM). The bismuth-based source was selected as the development model because it is inexpensive, nontoxic, and outperforms the high-Z layer method in simulation. As a result, based on the MCNPX studies, sealing a mixture of bismuth powder and potassium chloride into a thin plastic case could provide a light, inexpensive field calibration source.

  3. Time- and computation-efficient calibration of MEMS 3D accelerometers and gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2014-08-13

    We propose calibration methods for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) 3D accelerometers and gyroscopes that are efficient in terms of time and computational complexity. The calibration process for both sensors is simple, does not require additional expensive equipment, and can be performed in the field before or between motion measurements. The methods rely on a small number of defined calibration measurements that are used to obtain the values of 12 calibration parameters. This process enables the static compensation of sensor inaccuracies. The values detected by the 3D sensor are interpreted using a generalized 3D sensor model. The model assumes that the values detected by the sensor are equal to the projections of the measured value on the sensor sensitivity axes. Although this finding is trivial for 3D accelerometers, its validity for 3D gyroscopes is not immediately apparent; thus, this paper elaborates on this latter topic. For an example sensor device, calibration parameters were established using calibration measurements of approximately 1.5 min in duration for the 3D accelerometer and 2.5 min in duration for the 3D gyroscope. Correction of each detected 3D value using the established calibration parameters in further measurements requires only nine addition and nine multiplication operations.

  4. Optical relative calibration and stability monitoring for the Auger fluorescence detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aramo, Carla; Brack, J.; Caruso, R.; D'Urso, D.; Fazio, D.; Fonte, R.; Gemmeke, H.; Kleifges, M.; Knapik, R.; Insolia, A.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Menshikov, A.; Miller, W.; Privitera, P.; Rodriguez Martino, J.

    2005-07-01

    The stability of the fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory is monitored with the optical relative calibration setup. Optical fibers distribute light pulses to three different diffuser groups within the optical system. The total charge per pulse is measured for each pixel and compared with reference calibration measurements. This allows monitoring the short and long term stability with respect of the relative timing between pixels and the relative gain for each pixel. The designs of the LED calibration unit (LCU) and of the Xenon flash lamp used for relative calibration, are described and their capabilities to monitor the stability of the telescope performances are studied. We report the analysis of relative calibration data recorded during 2004. Fluctuations in the relative calibration constants provide a measure of the stability of the FD.

  5. Multi-energy x-ray detector calibration for Te and impurity density (nZ) measurements of MCF plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Maddox, J.; Pablant, N.; Efthimion, P.; ...

    2016-09-07

    Here, soft x-ray detection with the new "multi-energy" PILATUS3 detector systems holds promise as a magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasma diagnostic for ITER and beyond. The measured x-ray brightness can be used to determine impurity concentrations, electron temperatures, n2eZeff products, and to probe the electron energy distribution. However, in order to be effective, these detectors which are really large arrays of detectors with photon energy gating capabilities must be precisely calibrated for each pixel. The energy-dependence of the detector response of the multi-energy PILATUS3 system with 100 K pixels has been measured at Dectris Laboratory. X-rays emitted from a tubemore » under high voltage bombard various elements such that they emit x-ray lines from Zr-Lα to Ag-Kα between 1.8 and 22.16 keV. Each pixel on the PILATUS3 can be set to a minimum energy threshold in the range from 1.6 to 25 keV. This feature allows a single detector to be sensitive to a variety of x-ray energies, so that it is possible to sample the energy distribution of the x-ray continuum and line-emission. PILATUS3 can be configured for 1D or 2D imaging of MCF plasmas with typical spatial energy and temporal resolution of 1 cm, 0.6 keV, and 5 ms, respectively.« less

  6. Multi-energy x-ray detector calibration for Te and impurity density (nZ) measurements of MCF plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, J.; Pablant, N.; Efthimion, P.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rissi, M.; Donath, T.; Luethi, B.; Stratton, B.

    2016-11-01

    Soft x-ray detection with the new "multi-energy" PILATUS3 detector systems holds promise as a magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasma diagnostic for ITER and beyond. The measured x-ray brightness can be used to determine impurity concentrations, electron temperatures, ne 2 Z eff products, and to probe the electron energy distribution. However, in order to be effective, these detectors which are really large arrays of detectors with photon energy gating capabilities must be precisely calibrated for each pixel. The energy-dependence of the detector response of the multi-energy PILATUS3 system with 100 K pixels has been measured at Dectris Laboratory. X-rays emitted from a tube under high voltage bombard various elements such that they emit x-ray lines from Zr-Lα to Ag-Kα between 1.8 and 22.16 keV. Each pixel on the PILATUS3 can be set to a minimum energy threshold in the range from 1.6 to 25 keV. This feature allows a single detector to be sensitive to a variety of x-ray energies, so that it is possible to sample the energy distribution of the x-ray continuum and line-emission. PILATUS3 can be configured for 1D or 2D imaging of MCF plasmas with typical spatial energy and temporal resolution of 1 cm, 0.6 keV, and 5 ms, respectively.

  7. Development of A Self Biased High Efficiency Solid-State Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara; Jian-Qiang Lu, James

    2013-09-03

    Neutron detection is an important aspect of materials protection, accounting, and control for transmutation (MPACT). Currently He-3 filled thermal neutron detectors are utilized in many applications; these detectors require high-voltage bias for operation, which complicates the system when multiple detectors are used. In addition, due to recent increase in homeland security activity and the nuclear renaissance, there is a shortage of He-3, and these detectors become more expensive. Instead, cheap solid-state detectors that can be mass produced like any other computer chips will be developed. The new detector does not require a bias for operation, has low gamma sensitivity, and a fast response. The detection system is based on a honeycomb-like silicon device, which is filled with B-10 as the neutron converter; while a silicon p-n diode (i.e., solar cell type device) formed on the thin silicon wall of the honeycomb structure detects the energetic charged particles emitted from the B-10 conversion layer. Such a detector has ~40% calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency with an overall detector thickness of about 200 ?m. Stacking of these devices allows over 90% thermal neutron detection efficiency. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a high-efficiency, low-noise, self-powered solid-state neutron detector system based on the promising results of the existing research program. A prototype of this solid-state neutron detector system with sufficient detector size (up to 8-inch diam., but still portable and inexpensive) and integrated with interface electronics (e.g., preamplifier) will be designed, fabricated, and tested as a coincidence counter for MPACT applications. All fabrications proposed are based on silicon-compatible processing; thus, an extremely cheap detector system could be massively produced like any other silicon chips. Such detectors will revolutionize current neutron detection systems by providing a solid-state alternative to

  8. Detector calibration of the Indian cosmic ray experiment (IONS) in Space-Shuttle Spacelab-13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadav, J. S.; Biswas, S.; Durgaprasad, N.

    1985-01-01

    In the Indian cosmic ray experiment (IONS) in Spacelab-3 the intention is to study nuclei up to iron in low energy cosmic rays, using CR-39 (DOP) detectors. CR-39 (DOP) was exposed to He4, C12, O16, Ne20, Si28, Ar40, Cr52 and Fe56 accelerated beams from various accelerator facilities available around the world. Different beam energies and exposure angles were used. From these exposures, the charge resolution and energy resolution for the detector in the region of interest were studied. The effect of pre-annealing and depth on the response of our detector was studied. For isotopic resolution, exposed the detector samples were exposed to Ne2O and Ne22 accelerated beams. Samples of CR-39 (DOP) exposed to different accelerated heavy ions were kept in the detector module to take into account the effect of ambient conditions on detector response during the flight.

  9. An investigation of the Eigenvalue Calibration Method (ECM) using GASP for non-imaging and imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyne, Gillian; Lara, David; Hallinan, Gregg; Redfern, Michael; Shearer, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Polarised light from astronomical targets can yield a wealth of information about their source radiation mechanisms, and about the geometry of the scattered light regions. Optical observations, of both the linear and circular polarisation components, have been impeded due to non-optimised instrumentation. The need for suitable observing conditions and the availability of luminous targets are also limiting factors. The science motivation of any instrument adds constraints to its operation such as high signal-to-noise (SNR) and detector readout speeds. These factors in particular lead to a wide range of sources that have yet to be observed. The Galway Astronomical Stokes Polarimeter (GASP) has been specifically designed to make observations of these sources. GASP uses division of amplitude polarimeter (DOAP) (Compain and Drevillon Appl. Opt. 37, 5938-5944, 1998) to measure the four components of the Stokes vector (I, Q, U and V) simultaneously, which eliminates the constraints placed upon the need for moving parts during observation, and offers a real-time complete measurement of polarisation. Results from the GASP calibration are presented in this work for both a 1D detector system, and a pixel-by-pixel analysis on a 2D detector system. Following Compain et al. (Appl. Opt. 38, 3490-3502 1999) we use the Eigenvalue Calibration Method (ECM) to measure the polarimetric limitations of the instrument for each of the two systems. Consequently, the ECM is able to compensate for systematic errors introduced by the calibration optics, and it also accounts for all optical elements of the polarimeter in the output. Initial laboratory results of the ECM are presented, using APD detectors, where errors of 0.2 % and 0.1° were measured for the degree of linear polarisation (DOLP) and polarisation angle (PA) respectively. Channel-to-channel image registration is an important aspect of 2-D polarimetry. We present our calibration results of the measured Mueller matrix of each sample

  10. MCNP optimization of filtered neutron beams for calibration of the SIMPLE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C.; Giuliani, F.; Girard, T. A.; Marques, J. G.; Salgado, J.; Collar, J. I.; Morlat, T.; Limagne, D.; Waysand, G.

    2004-01-01

    We report an MCNP study of filtered monochromatic neutron beams of energies 25, 54 and 149 keV for response studies of a superheated droplet detector for the SIMPLE experiment. The results identify the importance of the detector temperature stabilizing water bath and the aqueous gel of the detector on the beam quality, in general agreement with recent measurements made on the thermal port of the Portuguese research reactor.

  11. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Shultis, John K.; Rice, Blake B.; McNeil, Walter J.; Solomon, Clell J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Bellinger, Steven L.

    2010-12-21

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  12. An efficient calibration method for SQUID measurement system using three orthogonal Helmholtz coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Li; Shu-Lin, Zhang; Chao-Xiang, Zhang; Xiang-Yan, Kong; Xiao-Ming, Xie

    2016-06-01

    For a practical superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based measurement system, the Tesla/volt coefficient must be accurately calibrated. In this paper, we propose a highly efficient method of calibrating a SQUID magnetometer system using three orthogonal Helmholtz coils. The Tesla/volt coefficient is regarded as the magnitude of a vector pointing to the normal direction of the pickup coil. By applying magnetic fields through a three-dimensional Helmholtz coil, the Tesla/volt coefficient can be directly calculated from magnetometer responses to the three orthogonally applied magnetic fields. Calibration with alternating current (AC) field is normally used for better signal-to-noise ratio in noisy urban environments and the results are compared with the direct current (DC) calibration to avoid possible effects due to eddy current. In our experiment, a calibration relative error of about 6.89 × 10-4 is obtained, and the error is mainly caused by the non-orthogonality of three axes of the Helmholtz coils. The method does not need precise alignment of the magnetometer inside the Helmholtz coil. It can be used for the multichannel magnetometer system calibration effectively and accurately. Project supported by the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB04020200) and the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission Project, China (Grant No. 15DZ1940902).

  13. Experimental Determination of the HPGe Spectrometer Efficiency Calibration Curves for Various Sample Geometry for Gamma Energy from 50 keV to 2000 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini; Yusop, Mohammad Fariz; Zainal, Muhd Amiruddin

    2010-07-07

    Detection efficiency of a gamma-ray spectrometry system is dependent upon among others, energy, sample and detector geometry, volume and density of the samples. In the present study the efficiency calibration curves of newly acquired (August 2008) HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry system was carried out for four sample container geometries, namely Marinelli beaker, disc, cylindrical beaker and vial, normally used for activity determination of gamma-ray from environmental samples. Calibration standards were prepared by using known amount of analytical grade uranium trioxide ore, homogenized in plain flour into the respective containers. The ore produces gamma-rays of energy ranging from 53 keV to 1001 keV. Analytical grade potassium chloride were prepared to determine detection efficiency of 1460 keV gamma-ray emitted by potassium isotope K-40. Plots of detection efficiency against gamma-ray energy for the four sample geometries were found to fit smoothly to a general form of {epsilon} = A{Epsilon}{sup a}+B{Epsilon}{sup b}, where {epsilon} is efficiency, {Epsilon} is energy in keV, A, B, a and b are constants that are dependent on the sample geometries. All calibration curves showed the presence of a ''knee'' at about 180 keV. Comparison between the four geometries showed that the efficiency of Marinelli beaker is higher than cylindrical beaker and vial, while cylindrical disk showed the lowest.

  14. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect "Violin-Mode" (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a "synthesized split photodiode" detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC "shadow notch" outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing "jitter" at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  15. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions.

    PubMed

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect "Violin-Mode" (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a "synthesized split photodiode" detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC "shadow notch" outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing "jitter" at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  16. Development of a portable instrument for automated measurements of the detective quantum efficiency of x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, I. A.; Lazarev, S.; Sattarivand, M.; Jankovic, N. D.

    2007-03-01

    The scientific community has generally adopted use of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as primary measures of performance of radiographic detectors. However, measurement of these parameters is generally restricted to experts in laboratory environments due to the required x-ray physics knowledge, specialized instrumentation and computational analyses. We have developed a prototype instrument that automates both the physical measurement and subsequent image analysis to determine the MTF, noise power spectrum (NPS) and DQE of radiographic and mammographic systems. The instrument is placed in the x-ray path directly in front of the detector. A series of images are acquired, saved in "raw" DICOM format and then used to determine the MTF (using the slanted-edge method) and NPS. The number of incident quanta is calculated from measurements of the incident exposure including corrections for air temperature and pressure and ionization chamber spectral response. The primary sources of error are backscatter from the detector and scatter generated within the instrument. These have been minimized to achieve an incident exposure measurement within 2% of a calibrated electrometer and chamber in free space. The MTF and DQE of a commercial CsI-based flat-panel detector were measured over a range of incident exposures from 20 uR to 20 mR per image. Results agreed with both our own laboratory measurements and previously published measurements performed elsewhere with a similar detector within 2% for the MTF and 5% for the DQE. A complete DQE analysis of a clinical digital flat-panel detector is completed in 30 minutes and requires no system modifications.

  17. Calibration model of a dual gain flat panel detector for 2D and 3D x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidgunst, C.; Ritter, D.; Lang, E.

    2007-09-15

    The continuing research and further development in flat panel detector technology have led to its integration into more and more medical x-ray systems for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging, such as fixed or mobile C arms. Besides the obvious advantages of flat panel detectors, like the slim design and the resulting optimum accessibility to the patient, their success is primarily a product of the image quality that can be achieved. The benefits in the physical and performance-related features as opposed to conventional image intensifier systems (e.g., distortion-free reproduction of imaging information or almost linear signal response over a large dynamic range) can be fully exploited, however, only if the raw detector images are correctly calibrated and postprocessed. Previous procedures for processing raw data contain idealizations that, in the real world, lead to artifacts or losses in image quality. Thus, for example, temperature dependencies or changes in beam geometry, as can occur with mobile C arm systems, have not been taken into account up to this time. Additionally, adverse characteristics such as image lag or aging effects have to be compensated to attain the best possible image quality. In this article a procedure is presented that takes into account the important dependencies of the individual pixel sensitivity of flat panel detectors used in 2D or 3D imaging and simultaneously minimizes the work required for an extensive recalibration. It is suitable for conventional detectors with only one gain mode as well as for the detectors specially developed for 3D imaging with dual gain read-out technology.

  18. Calibration model of a dual gain flat panel detector for 2D and 3D x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Schmidgunst, C; Ritter, D; Lang, E

    2007-09-01

    The continuing research and further development in flat panel detector technology have led to its integration into more and more medical x-ray systems for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging, such as fixed or mobile C arms. Besides the obvious advantages of flat panel detectors, like the slim design and the resulting optimum accessibility to the patient, their success is primarily a product of the image quality that can be achieved. The benefits in the physical and performance-related features as opposed to conventional image intensifier systems, (e.g., distortion-free reproduction of imaging information or almost linear signal response over a large dynamic range) can be fully exploited, however, only if the raw detector images are correctly calibrated and postprocessed. Previous procedures for processing raw data contain idealizations that, in the real world, lead to artifacts or losses in image quality. Thus, for example, temperature dependencies or changes in beam geometry, as can occur with mobile C arm systems, have not been taken into account up to this time. Additionally, adverse characteristics such as image lag or aging effects have to be compensated to attain the best possible image quality. In this article a procedure is presented that takes into account the important dependencies of the individual pixel sensitivity of flat panel detectors used in 2D or 3D imaging and simultaneously minimizes the work required for an extensive recalibration. It is suitable for conventional detectors with only one gain mode as well as for the detectors specially developed for 3D imaging with dual gain read-out technology.

  19. In-situ absolute calibration of electric-field amplitude measurements with the LPDA radio detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briechle, Florian

    2017-03-01

    With the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) located at the Pierre Auger Observatory, radio emission of extensive air showers is observed. To exploit the physics potential of AERA, electric-field amplitude measurements with the radio detector stations need to be well-calibrated on an absolute level. A convenient tool for far-field calibration campaigns is a flying drone. Here we make use of an octocopter to place a calibrated source at freely chosen positions above the radio detector array. Special emphasis is put on the reconstruction of the octocopter position and its accuracy during the flights. The antenna response pattern of the radio detector stations was measured in a recent calibration campaign. Results of these measurements are presented and compared to simulations. It is found that measurements and simulations are in good agreement.

  20. A new automated and precise calibration method for gamma level gauges with rod detector arrangement.

    PubMed

    Peyvandi, Reza Gholipour; Taheri, Ali; Olfateh, Ali; Islami, Seyyedeh Zahra

    2016-06-01

    Gamma-ray liquid level gauging is of particular importance in several industries. Industrial vessels, tanks, and reactors, which work at high temperatures and pressures, usually have thick metal walls up to 20cm. These factors make it impossible to know the exact level of liquid or fluid while the system is operating. For this reason, the calibration process of the gamma level gauges is difficult as it is impossible to gain access to the inside of the vessels, which is important during the calibration process. In this study, a new auto-calibration method was proposed for the aforementioned situations.

  1. Globally efficient non-parametric inference of average treatment effects by empirical balancing calibration weighting.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Yam, Sheung Chi Phillip; Zhang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    The estimation of average treatment effects based on observational data is extremely important in practice and has been studied by generations of statisticians under different frameworks. Existing globally efficient estimators require non-parametric estimation of a propensity score function, an outcome regression function or both, but their performance can be poor in practical sample sizes. Without explicitly estimating either functions, we consider a wide class calibration weights constructed to attain an exact three-way balance of the moments of observed covariates among the treated, the control, and the combined group. The wide class includes exponential tilting, empirical likelihood and generalized regression as important special cases, and extends survey calibration estimators to different statistical problems and with important distinctions. Global semiparametric efficiency for the estimation of average treatment effects is established for this general class of calibration estimators. The results show that efficiency can be achieved by solely balancing the covariate distributions without resorting to direct estimation of propensity score or outcome regression function. We also propose a consistent estimator for the efficient asymptotic variance, which does not involve additional functional estimation of either the propensity score or the outcome regression functions. The proposed variance estimator outperforms existing estimators that require a direct approximation of the efficient influence function.

  2. Use of internal scintillator radioactivity to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bircher, Chad; Shao Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors that use a dual-ended-scintillator readout to measure depth-of-interaction (DOI) must have an accurate DOI function to provide the relationship between DOI and signal ratios to be used for detector calibration and recalibration. In a previous study, the authors used a novel and simple method to accurately and quickly measure DOI function by irradiating the detector with an external uniform flood source; however, as a practical concern, implementing external uniform flood sources in an assembled PET system is technically challenging and expensive. In the current study, therefore, the authors investigated whether the same method could be used to acquire DOI function from scintillator-generated (i.e., internal) radiation. The authors also developed a method for calibrating the energy scale necessary to select the events within the desired energy window. Methods: The authors measured the DOI function of a PET detector with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators. Radiation events originating from the scintillators' internal Lu-176 beta decay were used to measure DOI functions which were then compared with those measured from both an external uniform flood source and an electronically collimated external point source. The authors conducted these studies with several scintillators of differing geometries (1.5 x 1.5 and 2.0 x 2.0 mm{sup 2} cross-section area and 20, 30, and 40 mm length) and various surface finishes (mirror-finishing, saw-cut rough, and other finishes in between), and in a prototype array. Results: All measured results using internal and external radiation sources showed excellent agreement in DOI function measurement. The mean difference among DOI values for all scintillators measured from internal and external radiation sources was less than 1.0 mm for different scintillator geometries and various surface finishes. Conclusions: The internal radioactivity of LYSO scintillators can be used

  3. Efficient calibration of a distributed pde-based hydrological model using grid coarsening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Gunten, D.; Wöhling, T.; Haslauer, C.; Merchán, D.; Causapé, J.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2014-11-01

    Partial-differential-equation based integrated hydrological models are now regularly used at catchment scale. They rely on the shallow water equations for surface flow and on the Richards' equations for subsurface flow, allowing a spatially explicit representation of properties and states. However, these models usually come at high computational costs, which limit their accessibility to state-of-the-art methods of parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification, because these methods require a large number of model evaluations. In this study, we present an efficient model calibration strategy, based on a hierarchy of grid resolutions, each of them resolving the same zonation of subsurface and land-surface units. We first analyze which model outputs show the highest similarities between the original model and two differently coarsened grids. Then we calibrate the coarser models by comparing these similar outputs to the measurements. We finish the calibration using the fully resolved model, taking the result of the preliminary calibration as starting point. We apply the proposed approach to the well monitored Lerma catchment in North-East Spain, using the model HydroGeoSphere. The original model grid with 80,000 finite elements was complemented with two other model variants with approximately 16,000 and 10,000 elements, respectively. Comparing the model results for these different grids, we observe differences in peak discharge, evapotranspiration, and near-surface saturation. Hydraulic heads and low flow, however, are very similar for all tested parameter sets, which allows the use of these variables to calibrate our model. The calibration results are satisfactory and the duration of the calibration has been greatly decreased by using different model grid resolutions.

  4. Multi Objective Optimization for Calibration and Efficient Uncertainty Analysis of Computationally Expensive Watershed Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, T.; Shoemaker, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing the sensitivity of calibration results to different calibration criteria can be done through multi objective optimization that considers multiple calibration criteria. This analysis can be extended to uncertainty analysis by comparing the results of simulation of the model with parameter sets from many points along a Pareto Front. In this study we employ multi-objective optimization in order to understand which parameter values should be used for flow parameters of a SWAT model, (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) designed to simulate flow in the Cannonsville Reservoir in upstate New York. The comprehensive analysis procedure encapsulates identification of suitable objectives, analysis of trade-offs obtained through multi-objective optimization, and the impact of the trade-offs uncertainty. Examples of multiple criteria can include a) quality of the fit in different seasons, b) quality of the fit for high flow events and for low flow events, c) quality of the fit for different constituents (e.g. water versus nutrients). Many distributed watershed models are computationally expensive and include a large number of parameters that are to be calibrated. Efficient optimization algorithms are hence needed to find good solutions to multi-criteria calibration problems in a feasible amount of time. We apply a new algorithm called Gap Optimized Multi-Objective Optimization using Response Surfaces (GOMORS), for efficient multi-criteria optimization of the Cannonsville SWAT watershed calibration problem. GOMORS is a stochastic optimization method, which makes use of Radial Basis Functions for approximation of the computationally expensive objectives. GOMORS performance is also compared against other multi-objective algorithms ParEGO and NSGA-II. ParEGO is a kriging based efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm, whereas NSGA-II is a well-known multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm. GOMORS is more efficient than both ParEGO and NSGA-II in providing

  5. An efficient multi-metric framework for the calibration of hydrological models with signature metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfannerstill, Matthias; Guse, Björn; Haas, Marcelo; Fohrer, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological models are commonly applied for discharge prediction. To achieve reliable reproductions of the discharge and of the hydrological processes for different research questions, a calibration procedure providing reasonable model results is required. Automatic model calibrations of complex hydrological models usually require a large number of model runs. Thus, there is the need to reduce the high computational demand and to increase the information about model reliability in the same model framework that is applied for the automatic model calibration. The calibration of hydrological models is often focused directly or indirectly on special discharge phases (e.g. extreme high flow or extreme low flow) by accepting less satisfying performance of other discharge phases. In this way, the best model calibration runs are selected according to the specific research questions. However, the efficiency of automatic calibration can be increased if the same set of model calibrations can be used for different research questions without recalibration. This is achieved by integrating a flexible evaluation of different discharge phases which depends on the aim of discharge prediction. Our study presents an efficient multi-metric framework that is able to integrate different phases of the hydrograph with corresponding efficiency criteria. The evaluation framework integrates statistical performance metrics for the evaluation of discharge and signature metrics which are focused on the reproduction of segments of the flow duration curve (FDC). In order to consider a fairly balanced evaluation between high and low flow phases, we divided the flow duration curve into segments of high, medium and low flow phases, and additionally into very high and very low flow phases. By integrating all the different segments of the FDC, we make sure that low and high flows are reproduced simultaneously without neglecting a satisfying reproduction of the other phases of the hydrograph. In this

  6. 2E1 Ar(17+) decay and conventional radioactive sources to determine efficiency of semiconductor detectors.

    PubMed

    Lamour, Emily; Prigent, Christophe; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Rozet, Jean Pierre; Vernhet, Dominique

    2009-02-01

    Although reliable models may predict the detection efficiency of semiconductor detectors, measurements are needed to check the parameters supplied by the manufacturers, namely, the thicknesses of dead layer, beryllium window, and crystal active area. The efficiency of three silicon detectors has been precisely investigated in their entire photon energy range of detection. In the zero to a few keV range, we developed a new method based on the detection of the 2E1 decay of the metastable Ar(17+) 2s-->1s transition. Very good theoretical knowledge of the energetic distribution of the 2E1 decay mode enables precise characterization of the absorbing layers in front of the detectors. In the high-energy range (>10 keV), the detector crystal thickness plays a major role in the detection efficiency and has been determined using a (241)Am source.

  7. Note: Fast neutron efficiency in CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, S.

    2015-03-15

    CR-39 samples are commonly employed for fast neutron detection in fusion reactors and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The literature reported efficiencies are strongly depending on experimental conditions and, in some cases, highly dispersed. The present note analyses the dependence of efficiency as a function of various parameters and experimental conditions in both the radiator-assisted and the stand-alone CR-39 configurations. Comparisons of literature experimental data with Monte Carlo calculations and optimized efficiency values are shown and discussed.

  8. Thin film CdTe based neutron detectors with high thermal neutron efficiency and gamma rejection for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L.; Murphy, J. W.; Kim, J.; Rozhdestvenskyy, S.; Mejia, I.; Park, H.; Allee, D. R.; Quevedo-Lopez, M.; Gnade, B.

    2016-12-01

    Solid-state neutron detectors offer an alternative to 3He based detectors, but suffer from limited neutron efficiencies that make their use in security applications impractical. Solid-state neutron detectors based on single crystal silicon also have relatively high gamma-ray efficiencies that lead to false positives. Thin film polycrystalline CdTe based detectors require less complex processing with significantly lower gamma-ray efficiencies. Advanced geometries can also be implemented to achieve high thermal neutron efficiencies competitive with silicon based technology. This study evaluates these strategies by simulation and experimentation and demonstrates an approach to achieve >10% intrinsic efficiency with <10-6 gamma-ray efficiency.

  9. Efficiency of Moderated Neutron Lithium Glass Detectors Using Monte Carlo Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Due to national security concerns over the smuggling of special nuclear materials and the small supply of He-3 for use in neutron detectors, there is a great need for a new kind of neutron detector. Using Monte Carlo techniques I have been studying the use of lithium glass in varying configurations for neutron detectors. My research has included the effects of using a detector with two thin sheets of lithium at varying distances apart. I have also researched the effects of varying amounts of shielding a californium source with varying amounts of water. This is important since shielding would likely be used to make nuclear material more difficult to detect. The addition of one sheet of lithium-6 glass on the front surface of the detector significantly improves the efficiency for the detection of neutrons from a moderated fission source.

  10. Algorithms for calculating detector efficiency normalization coefficients for true coincidences in 3D PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, R. D.; Lodge, M. A.; Marsden, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate normalization of lines of response in 3D PET is a prerequisite for quantitative reconstruction. Most current methods are component based, calculating a series of geometric and intrinsic detector efficiency factors. We have reviewed the theory behind several existing algorithms for calculating detector efficiency factors in 2D and 3D PET, and have extended them to create a range of new algorithms. Three of the algorithms described are `fully 3D' in that they make use of data from all detector rings for the calculation of the efficiencies of any one line of response. We have assessed the performance of the new and existing methods using simulated and real data, and have demonstrated that the fully 3D algorithms allow the rapid acquisition of crystal efficiency normalization data using low-activity sources. Such methods enable the use of scatter-free scanning line sources or the use of very short acquisitions of cylindrical sources for routine normalization.

  11. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  12. Experimental HPGe coaxial detector response and efficiency compared to Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Maidana, Nora L; Vanin, Vito R; García-Alvarez, Juan A; Hermida-López, Marcelino; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2016-02-01

    The peak efficiency for photons hitting the frontal surface of a medium volume n-type HPGe coaxial detector is mapped using acutely collimated beams of energies between 31 and 383 keV from a (133)Ba radioactive source. Simulated values obtained with the Monte Carlo radiation transport code penelope, using a model that respected actual detector dimensions and physical constants while varying dead-layer thicknesses, allowed us to fit the experimental results in the detector bulk but not near its rim. The spectra of a (137)Cs source were measured using the detector shielded from the natural background radiation, with and without a broad angle collimator. The corresponding simulated spectra, using the fitted dead-layer thicknesses, underestimate the continuum component of the spectra and overestimate the peak efficiency, by less than ten percent in the broad angle collimator arrangement. The simulated results are sensitive to the photon attenuation coefficients.

  13. Quantum efficiency of a double quantum dot microwave photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement; Vavilov, Maxim

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we study charge transfer through a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting cavity subject to a microwave field. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and determine the optimal parameter regime for complete absorption of radiation and efficient conversion of microwave photons to electric current. For experimentally available DQD systems, we show that the cavity-coupled DQD operates as a photon-to-charge converter with quantum efficiencies up to 80% C.W. acknowledges support by the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.

  14. Quantum efficiency performances of the NIR European Large Format Array detectors tested at ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, P.-E.; Duvet, L.; de Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Blommaert, S.; Butler, B.; Van Duinkerken, G.; ter Haar, J.; Heijnen, J.; van der Luijt, K.; Smit, H.

    2015-10-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 10/12/2015, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 10/23/2015. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. The Payload Technology Validation Section (SRE-FV) at ESTEC has the goal to validate new technology for future or on-going mission. In this framework, a test set up to characterize the quantum efficiency of near-infrared (NIR) detectors has been created. In the context of the NIR European Large Format Array ("LFA"), 3 deliverables detectors coming from SELEX-UK/ATC (UK) on one side, and CEA/LETI- CEA/IRFU-SOFRADIR (FR) on the other side were characterized. The quantum efficiency of an HAWAII-2RG detector from Teledyne was as well measured. The capability to compare on the same setup detectors from different manufacturers is a unique asset for the future mission preparation office. This publication will present the quantum efficiency results of a HAWAII-2RG detector from Teledyne with a 2.5um cut off compared to the LFA European detectors prototypes developed independently by SELEX-UK/ATC (UK) on one side, and CEA/LETI- CEA/IRFU-SOFRADIR (FR) on the other side.

  15. Improving Light Collection Efficiency in HAWC Detector Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudler-Flam, Jonah; HAWC Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory was designed to detect air showers produced by gamma-rays and cosmic-rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The detector is composed of 300 water tanks with four photomultipliers (PMTs) located at the bottom of each tank. When charged particles from air showers enter the tanks, the Cherenkov light produced by the particles is detected by the PMTs. However, much of the Cherenkov light is lost due to the small collection areas of the PMTs. To increase the collection area of the photosensors, we investigate light collectors composed of wavelength-shifting fibers. We have constructed a simple concentrator in the lab using two silicon photomultipliers and 1 mm optical fibers coated with a wavelength-shifting layer, and simulated the response of the setup using PVTrace, a Python package designed to raytrace photons in luminescent concentrators. We compare our simulations to results obtained in the laboratory and find that the concentration gain of the fiber system scales linearly with the number of fibers. This project was supported in part by NSF grant NSF-PHY 1460352.

  16. Calibrating Momentum Measurements Of The CMS Detector Using Cosmic Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    We report results on the muon momentum calibration using cosmic-ray data taken by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The momentum scale of high-pT muons is sensitive to a possible bias on the curvature coming from the alignment of the muon system. Cosmic rays are a source of high-pT muons that can be used to measure the momentum scale of muons with pT > 200 GeV. The present talk describes the method used to measure the momentum scale from cosmic data and the measurement using the 2016 cosmic data is presented.

  17. PET/CT alignment calibration with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic 176Lu radiation of PET detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingyang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Liu, Yaqiang; Gu, Yu; Dai, Tiantian

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an important tool for clinical studies and pre-clinical researches which provides both functional and anatomical images. To achieve high quality co-registered PET/CT images, alignment calibration of PET and CT scanner is a critical procedure. The existing methods reported use positron source phantoms imaged both by PET and CT scanner and then derive the transformation matrix from the reconstructed images of the two modalities. In this paper, a novel PET/CT alignment calibration method with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic 176Lu radiation of the PET detector was developed. Firstly, a multi-tungsten-alloy-sphere phantom without positron source was designed and imaged by CT and the PET scanner using intrinsic 176Lu radiation included in LYSO. Secondly, the centroids of the spheres were derived and matched by an automatic program. Lastly, the rotation matrix and the translation vector were calculated by least-square fitting of the centroid data. The proposed method was employed in an animal PET/CT system (InliView-3000) developed in our lab. Experimental results showed that the proposed method achieves high accuracy and is feasible to replace the conventional positron source based methods.

  18. Bell inequalities violated using detectors of low efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    We define a family of binary-outcome n -party m ≤n settings per party Bell inequalities whose members require the least detection efficiency for their violation among all known inequalities of the same type. This gives upper bounds for the minimum value of the critical efficiency—below which no violation is possible—achievable for such inequalities. For m =2 , our family reduces to the one given by Larsson and Semitecolos in 2001 [Phys. Rev. A 63, 022117 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevA.63.022117]. For m >2 , a gap remains between these bounds and the best lower bounds. The violating state near the threshold efficiency always approaches a product state of n qubits.

  19. Calibration and GEANT4 Simulations of the Phase II Proton Compute Tomography (pCT) Range Stack Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Uzunyan, S. A.; Blazey, G.; Boi, S.; Coutrakon, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Hedin, D.; Johnson, E.; Kalnins, J.; Zutshi, V.; Ford, R.; Rauch, J. E.; Rubinov, P.; Sellberg, G.; Wilson, P.; Naimuddin, M.

    2015-12-29

    Northern Illinois University in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) and Delhi University has been designing and building a proton CT scanner for applications in proton treatment planning. The Phase II proton CT scanner consists of eight planes of tracking detectors with two X and two Y coordinate measurements both before and after the patient. In addition, a range stack detector consisting of a stack of thin scintillator tiles, arranged in twelve eight-tile frames, is used to determine the water equivalent path length (WEPL) of each track through the patient. The X-Y coordinates and WEPL are required input for image reconstruction software to find the relative (proton) stopping powers (RSP) value of each voxel in the patient and generate a corresponding 3D image. In this Note we describe tests conducted in 2015 at the proton beam at the Central DuPage Hospital in Warrenville, IL, focusing on the range stack calibration procedure and comparisons with the GEANT~4 range stack simulation.

  20. Radiance calibration of spherical integrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, James T.; Guenther, Bruce W.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for improving the knowledge of the radiance of large area spherical and hemispherical integrating energy sources have been investigated. Such sources are used to calibrate numerous aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing instruments. Comparisons are made between using a standard source based calibration method and a quantum efficient detector (QED) based calibration method. The uncertainty involved in transferring the calibrated values of the point source standard lamp to the extended source is estimated to be 5 to 10 percent. The use of the QED allows an improvement in the uncertainty to 1 to 2 percent for the measurement of absolute radiance from a spherical integrator source.

  1. Filter-based infrared detectors for high temperature size exclusion chromatography analysis of polyolefins: calibration with a small number of standards and error analysis.

    PubMed

    Ortín, A; López, E; Monrabal, B; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Álvarez-Coque, M C

    2012-09-28

    Infrared detection has been shown to be very appropriate for high temperature analysis of polyolefins. After some early reports in which dispersive or single-band filter-based detectors were applied, Fourier transform detectors have been described for this application, in order to improve the method sensitivity. Modern simple filter-based detectors prove, however, comparable sensitivity while providing a number of practical advantages when coupled to chromatographic systems: reduced cell volume, simplified hardware, continuous generation of absorbance chromatograms, as well as simpler data collection and processing. A practical method for calibration, using multiple-band signals obtained with filter-based detectors and a small number of reference materials, is here discussed. Calibration data are used to compare the performance of detectors based on different opto-electronic technologies and filter designs. A procedure for estimation of errors in the slice-by-slice measured methyl frequency, based on signal-to-noise ratio considerations, is described. The good accuracy provided by the filter-based IR detectors was noticeable, considering that it was obtained using a small set of reference materials. A minimal concentration of 0.009 mg/mL was estimated to be required at the detector cell, in order to keep the errors below one unit of methyl per one thousand total carbons. This low minimal concentration requirement allows using standard SEC conditions, without compromising the molar mass distribution accuracy and resolution.

  2. A Sensitized Emission Based Calibration of FRET Efficiency for Probing the Architecture of Macromolecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Ajit; Chen, Renjie; Lawrimore, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Macromolecular machines participate in almost every cell biological function. These machines can take the form of well-defined protein structures such as the kinetochore, or more loosely organized protein assemblies like the endocytic coat. The protein architecture of these machines-the arrangement of multiple copies of protein subunits at the nanoscale, is necessary for understanding their cell biological function and biophysical mechanism. Defining this architecture in vivo presents a major challenge. High density of protein molecules within macromolecular machines severely limits the effectiveness of super-resolution microscopy. However, this density is ideal for Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), which can determine the proximity between neighboring molecules. Here, we present a simple FRET quantitation scheme that calibrates a standard epifluorescence microscope for measuring donor-acceptor separations. This calibration can be used to deduce FRET efficiency fluorescence intensity measurements. This method will allow accurate determination of FRET efficiency over a wide range of values and FRET pair number. It will also allow dynamic FRET measurements with high spatiotemporal resolution under cell biological conditions. Although the poor maturation efficiency of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins presents a challenge, we show that its effects can be alleviated. To demonstrate this methodology, we probe the in vivo architecture of the γ-Tubulin Ring. Our technique can be applied to study the architecture and dynamics of a wide range of macromolecular machines.

  3. An efficient surrogate-based simulation-optimization method for calibrating a regional MODFLOW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjie; Izady, Azizallah; Abdalla, Osman A.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation-optimization method entails a large number of model simulations, which is computationally intensive or even prohibitive if the model simulation is extremely time-consuming. Statistical models have been examined as a surrogate of the high-fidelity physical model during simulation-optimization process to tackle this problem. Among them, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), a non-parametric adaptive regression method, is superior in overcoming problems of high-dimensions and discontinuities of the data. Furthermore, the stability and accuracy of MARS model can be improved by bootstrap aggregating methods, namely, bagging. In this paper, Bagging MARS (BMARS) method is integrated to a surrogate-based simulation-optimization framework to calibrate a three-dimensional MODFLOW model, which is developed to simulate the groundwater flow in an arid hardrock-alluvium region in northwestern Oman. The physical MODFLOW model is surrogated by the statistical model developed using BMARS algorithm. The surrogate model, which is fitted and validated using training dataset generated by the physical model, can approximate solutions rapidly. An efficient Sobol' method is employed to calculate global sensitivities of head outputs to input parameters, which are used to analyze their importance for the model outputs spatiotemporally. Only sensitive parameters are included in the calibration process to further improve the computational efficiency. Normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) between measured and simulated heads at observation wells is used as the objective function to be minimized during optimization. The reasonable history match between the simulated and observed heads demonstrated feasibility of this high-efficient calibration framework.

  4. Low-cost fabrication of high efficiency solid-state neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia-Woei; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Weltz, Adam; English, Erik; Hella, Mona M.; Dahal, Rajendra; Lu, James J.-Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2016-05-01

    The development of high-efficiency solid state thermal neutron detectors at low cost is critical for a wide range of civilian and defense applications. The use of present neutron detector system for personal radiation detection is limited by the cost, size, weight and power requirements. Chip scale solid state neutron detectors based on silicon technology would provide significant benefits in terms of cost, volume, and allow for wafer level integration with charge preamplifiers and readout electronics. In this paper, anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers was used to replace deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) to produce microstructured neutron detectors with lower cost and compatibility with mass production. Deep trenches were etched by 30 wt% KOH at 85°C with a highest etch ratio of (110) to (111). A trench-microstructure thermal neutron detector described by the aforementioned processes was fabricated and characterized. The detector—which has a continuous p+-n junction diode—was filled with enriched boron (99% of 10B) as a neutron converter material. The device showed a leakage current of ~ 6.7 × 10-6 A/cm2 at -1V and thermal neutron detection efficiency of ~16.3%. The detector uses custom built charge pre-amplifier, a shaping amplifier, and an analogto- digital converter (ADC) for data acquisition.

  5. Geometric efficiency for a circular detector and a ring source of arbitrary orientation and position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, John T.

    2011-06-01

    Two distinct axisymmetric radiation vector potentials are derived for a circular ring source, both of which are given in terms of elliptic integrals. In combination with Stokes's theorem these potentials reduce the surface integral for the geometric efficiency of a ring source and a general detector to a line integral, though only a circular detector is analyzed in detail here. One of the potentials is bounded as the axis of symmetry is approached and it can also be expressed as an integral of Bessel functions. It is used to derive the ring source analogue of Ruby's formula and its noncoaxial generalization. A trigonometric integral is given for the general noncoaxial case and closed form solutions are given for the coaxial case and the case where the ring source is in the detector plane. Numerical data is given for these cases. The second potential is singular along the entire ring axis and Stokes's theorem must be modified when using it whenever the ring axis intersects the detector or its boundary. This potential is used to derive a trigonometric integral for the geometric efficiency of the ring source and a circular detector in the general case where the source and the detector have arbitrary relative position and angular orientation. Numerical data is given for selected geometric parameters when the planes of the ring and disk are perpendicular and for the general case. The intersection of some results for point source radiation vector potentials with vector potentials arising in diffraction theory is given in an Appendix.

  6. Efficient Auto-Calibration of Computationally Intensive Hydrologic Models by Running the Model on Short Data Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.

    2012-04-01

    Sophisticated hydrologic models may require very long run times to simulate for medium-sized and long data periods. With such models in hand, activities like automatic calibration, parameter space exploration, and uncertainty analysis become very computationally intensive as these models are required to repeatedly run hundreds or thousands of times. This study proposes a strategy to improve the computational efficiency of these activities by utilizing a secondary model in conjunction with the original model which works on a medium-sized or long calibration data period. The secondary model is basically the same as the original model but running on a relatively short data period which is a portion of the calibration data period. Certain relationships can be identified to relate the performance of the model on the entire calibration period with the performance of the secondary model on the short data period. Upon establishing such a relationship, the performance of the model for a given parameter set over the entire calibration period can be probabilistically predicted after running the model with the same parameter set over the short data period. The appeal of this strategy is demonstrated in a SWAT hydrologic model automatic calibration case study. A SWAT2000 model of the Cannonsville reservoir watershed in New York, the United States, with 14 parameters is calibrated over a 6-year period. Kriging is used to establish the relationship between the modelling performances for the entire calibration and short periods. Covariance Matrix Adaptation-Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) is used as the optimizing engine to explore the parameter space during calibration. Numerical results show that the proposed strategy can significantly reduce the computational budget required in automatic calibration practices. Importantly, these efficiency gains are achievable with a minimum level of sacrifice of accuracy. Results also show that through this strategy the parameter space can be

  7. Calibration of impact ionization cosmic dust detectors: first tests to investigate how the dust density influences the signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasmin Sterken, Veerle; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Hillier, Jon; Fielding, Lee; Lovett, Joseph; Armes, Steven; Fechler, Nina; Srama, Ralf; Bugiel, Sebastian; Hornung, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Impact ionization experiments have been performed since more than 40 years for calibrating cosmic dust detectors. A linear Van de Graaff dust accelerator was used to accelerate the cosmic dust analogues of submicron to micron-size to speeds up to 80 km s^-1. Different materials have been used for calibration: iron, carbon, metal-coated minerals and most recently, minerals coated with conductive polymers. While different materials with different densities have been used for instrument calibration, a comparative analysis of dust impacts of equal material but different density is necessary: porous or aggregate-like particles are increasingly found to be present in the solar system: e.g. dust from comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko [Fulle et al 2015], aggregate particles from the plumes of Enceladus [Gao et al 2016], and low-density interstellar dust [Westphal 2014 et al, Sterken et al 2015]. These recalibrations are relevant for measuring the size distributions of interplanetary and interstellar dust and thus mass budgets like the gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud.We report about the calibrations that have been performed at the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility for investigating the influence of particle density on the impact ionization charge. We used the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer for the target, and compared hollow versus compact silica particles in our study as a first attempt to investigate experimentally the influence of dust density on the signals obtained. Also, preliminary tests with carbon aerogel were performed, and (unsuccessful) attempts to accelerate silica aerogel. In this talk we explain the motivation of the study, the experiment set-up, the preparation of — and the materials used, the results and plans and recommendations for future tests.Fulle, M. et al 2015, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 802, Issue 1, article id. L12, 5 pp. (2015)Gao, P. et al 2016, Icarus, Volume 264, p. 227-238Westphal, A. et al 2014, Science

  8. Detection efficiency calibration of single-photon silicon avalanche photodiodes traceable using double attenuator technique

    PubMed Central

    López, Marco; Hofer, Helmuth; Kück, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A highly accurate method for the determination of the detection efficiency of a silicon single-photon avalanche diode (Si-SPAD) is presented. This method is based on the comparison of the detected count rate of the Si-SPAD compared to the photon rate determined from a calibrated silicon diode using a modified attenuator technique, in which the total attenuation is measured in two attenuation steps. Furthermore, a validation of this two-step method is performed using attenuators of higher transmittance. The setup is a tabletop one, laser-based, and fully automated. The measurement uncertainty components are determined and analyzed in detail. The obtained standard measurement uncertainty is < 0.5%. Main contributions are the transmission of the neutral density filters used as attenuators and the spectral responsivity of the calibrated analog silicon diode. Furthermore, the dependence of the detection efficiency of the Si-SPAD on the mean photon number of the impinging laser radiation with Poissonian statistics is investigated. PMID:25892852

  9. A software package using a mesh-grid method for simulating HPGe detector efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, Russell E; Jackman, Kevin R; Biegalski, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Traditional ways of determining the absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are often time consuming, cost prohibitive, or not feasible. A software package, KMESS (Kevin's Mesh Efficiency Simulator Software), was developed to assist in predicting these efficiencies. It uses a semiempirical mesh-grid method and works for arbitrary source shapes and counting geometries. The model assumes that any gamma-ray source shape can be treated as a large enough collection of point sources. The code is readily adaptable, has a web-based graphical front-end. and could easily be coupled to a 3D scanner. As will be shown. this software can estimate absolute full-energy peak efficiencies with good accuracy in reasonable computation times. It has applications to the field of gamma-ray spectroscopy because it is a quick and accurate way to assist in performing quantitative analyses using HPGe detectors.

  10. A Software Package Using a Mesh-grid Method for Simulating HPGe Detector Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jackman

    2009-10-01

    Traditional ways of determining the absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are often time consuming, cost prohibitive, or not feasible. A software package, KMESS (Kevin’s Mesh Efficiency Simulator Software), was developed to assist in predicting these efficiencies. It uses a semiempirical mesh-grid method and works for arbitrary source shapes and counting geometries. The model assumes that any gamma-ray source shape can be treated as a large enough collection of point sources. The code is readily adaptable, has a web-based graphical front-end, and could easily be coupled to a 3D scanner. As will be shown, this software can estimate absolute full-energy peak efficiencies with good accuracy in reasonable computation times. It has applications to the field of gamma-ray spectroscopy because it is a quick and accurate way to assist in performing quantitative analyses using HPGe detectors.

  11. Detection efficiency, spatial and timing resolution of thermal and cold neutron counting MCP detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Hull, J. S.; Feller, W. B.; Lehmann, E.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron counting detectors with boron or gadolinium doped microchannel plates (MCPs) have very high detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution, and have a very low readout noise. In this paper we present the results of both theoretical predictions and experimental evaluations of detection efficiency and spatial resolution measured at cold and thermal neutron beamlines. The quantum detection efficiency of a detector (not fully optimized) was measured to be 43% and 16% for the cold and thermal beamlines, respectively. The experiments also demonstrate that the spatial resolution can be better than 15 μm—highest achievable with the particular MCP pore dimension used in the experiment, although more electronics development is required in order to increase the counting rate capabilities of those <15 μm resolution devices. The timing accuracy of neutron detection is on the scale of few μs and is limited by the neutron absorption depth in the detector. The good agreement between the predicted and measured performance allows the optimization of the detector parameters in order to achieve the highest spatial resolution and detection efficiency in future devices.

  12. SuperTIGER scintillator detector calibration with 30 GeV/nucleon Pb and its fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) long-duration balloon instrument has measured the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements to provide sensitive tests and clarification of the OB-association model of Galactic cosmic-ray origins. More than 600 nuclei with atomic number Z > 30 were observed on its first flight and the abundances of nuclei have been determined with clear individual element resolution and high statistical precision for 30 <= Z <= 40. From November 25 to December 01, 2015, a beamtest was carried out at CERN with fixed energy 30 GeV/nucleon Pb and its fragments to measure the saturation response of the scintillator detectors, which are essential to determine the abundances of nuclei with atomic number Z > 40. The beamtest results have been used to optimize the Geant4 simulation to represent the flight data, and will be used to interpret the flight data to extend the abundance determination to about _{60}Nd. SuperTIGER was developed by Washington University in St. Louis, NASA Goddard Flight Center, the California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the University of Minnesota.

  13. More efficient evolutionary strategies for model calibration with watershed model for demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, J. S.; Skahill, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    Evolutionary strategies allow automatic calibration of more complex models than traditional gradient based approaches, but they are more computationally intensive. We present several efficiency enhancements for evolution strategies, many of which are not new, but when combined have been shown to dramatically decrease the number of model runs required for calibration of synthetic problems. To reduce the number of expensive model runs we employ a surrogate objective function for an adaptively determined fraction of the population at each generation (Kern et al., 2006). We demonstrate improvements to the adaptive ranking strategy that increase its efficiency while sacrificing little reliability and further reduce the number of model runs required in densely sampled parts of parameter space. Furthermore, we include a gradient individual in each generation that is usually not selected when the search is in a global phase or when the derivatives are poorly approximated, but when selected near a smooth local minimum can dramatically increase convergence speed (Tahk et al., 2007). Finally, the selection of the gradient individual is used to adapt the size of the population near local minima. We show, by incorporating these enhancements into the Covariance Matrix Adaption Evolution Strategy (CMAES; Hansen, 2006), that their synergetic effect is greater than their individual parts. This hybrid evolutionary strategy exploits smooth structure when it is present but degrades to an ordinary evolutionary strategy, at worst, if smoothness is not present. Calibration of 2D-3D synthetic models with the modified CMAES requires approximately 10%-25% of the model runs of ordinary CMAES. Preliminary demonstration of this hybrid strategy will be shown for watershed model calibration problems. Hansen, N. (2006). The CMA Evolution Strategy: A Comparing Review. In J.A. Lozano, P. Larrañga, I. Inza and E. Bengoetxea (Eds.). Towards a new evolutionary computation. Advances in estimation of

  14. Cross Calibration of Omnidirectional Orbital Neutron Detectors of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) by Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J.; SU, J. J.; Sagdeev, R.; Chin, G.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction:Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have been used to investigate neutron production and leakage from the lunar surface to assess the composition of the lunar soil [1-3]. Orbital measurements of lunar neutron flux have been made by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS)[4] of the Lunar Prospector mission and the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND)[5] of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. While both are cylindrical helium-3 detectors, LEND's SETN (Sensor EpiThermal Neutrons) instrument is shorter, with double the helium-3 pressure than that of LPNS. The two instruments therefore have different angular sensitivities and neutron detection efficiencies. Furthermore, the Lunar Prospector's spin-stabilized design makes its detection efficiency latitude-dependent, while the SETN instrument faces permanently downward toward the lunar surface. We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code[6] to investigate the leakage lunar neutron energy spectrum, which follows a power law of the form E-0.9 in the epithermal energy range, and the signals detected by LPNS and SETN in the LP and LRO mission epochs, respectively. Using the lunar neutron flux reconstructed for LPNS epoch, we calculate the signal that would have been observed by SETN at that time. The subsequent deviation from the actual signal observed during the LEND epoch is due to the significantly higher intensity of Galactic Cosmic Rays during the anomalous Solar Minimum of 2009-2010. References: [1] W. C. Feldman, et al., (1998) Science Vol. 281 no. 5382 pp. 1496-1500. [2] Gasnault, O., et al.,(2000) J. Geophys. Res., 105(E2), 4263-4271. [3] Little, R. C., et al. (2003), J. Geophys. Res., 108(E5), 5046. [4]W. C. Feldman, et al., (1999) Nucl. Inst. And Method in Phys. Res. A 422, [5] M. L. Litvak, et al., (2012) J.Geophys. Res. 117, E00H32 [6] J. Allison, et al, (2006) IEEE Trans. on Nucl Sci, Vol 53, No 1.

  15. Calibration of the Rapid Scan Particle Detector Mounted in the SCATHA Satellite.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-18

    44:172. 7. Iglesias , G.E., and McGarity, J.O. (1971) Channel electron multiplier efficiency for protons of 0.2-10 keV, Rev. Sci. Inst. 42:1728. ,L 8...Nuclear Collisions for 0. l- to 1000-MeV Protons, Rep. AFWL-TR-65-150, AFWL, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico . 26 /I, U’ - - MM*M I IO II straggling in the...using laboratory simulated ominidirectional electron beams, Rev. Sdi. Inst. 44:172. 7. Iglesias , G. E., and McGarity, J. 0. (1971) Channel electron

  16. Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Kahl, Oliver; Ferrari, Simone; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, compatibility with an integrated optical platform is a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. Here we present SNSPDs embedded in nanophotonic integrated circuits which achieve internal quantum efficiencies close to unity at 1550 nm wavelength. This allows for the SNSPDs to be operated at bias currents far below the critical current where unwanted dark count events reach milli-Hz levels while on-chip detection efficiencies above 70% are maintained. The measured dark count rates correspond to noise-equivalent powers in the 10−19 W/Hz−1/2 range and the timing jitter is as low as 35 ps. Our detectors are fully scalable and interface directly with waveguide-based optical platforms. PMID:26061283

  17. Monte Carlo analysis of the influence of germanium dead layer thickness on the HPGe gamma detector experimental efficiency measured by use of extended sources.

    PubMed

    Chham, E; García, F Piñero; El Bardouni, T; Ferro-García, M Angeles; Azahra, M; Benaalilou, K; Krikiz, M; Elyaakoubi, H; El Bakkali, J; Kaddour, M

    2014-09-22

    We have carried out a study to figure out the influence of crystal inactive-layer thickness on gamma spectra measured by an HPGe detector. The thickness of this dead layer (DL) is not known (no information about it was delivered by the manufacturer) due to the existence of a transition zone where photons are increasingly absorbed. To perform this analyses a virtual model of a Canberra HPGe detector was produced with the aid of MCNPX 2.7 code. The main objective of this work is to produce an optimal modeling for our GPGe detector. To this end, the study included the analysis of the total inactive germanium layer thickness and the active volume that are needed in order to obtain the smallest discrepancy between calculated and experimental efficiencies. Calculations and measurements were performed for all of the radionuclides included in a standard calibration gamma cocktail solution. Different geometry sources were used: a Marinelli and two other new sources represented as S(1) and S(2). The former was used for the determination of the active volume, whereas the two latter were used for the determination of the face and lateral DL, respectively. The model was validated by comparing calculated and experimental full energy peak efficiencies in the 50-1900keV energy range. the results show that the insertion of the DL parameter in the modeling is absolutely essential to reproduce the experimental results, and that the thickness of this DL varies from one position to the other on the detector surface.

  18. Evaluating the Efficiency of a Multi-core Aware Multi-objective Optimization Tool for Calibrating the SWAT Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Zong, Z.; Zhao, K.; Thomson, A. M.

    2012-08-20

    The efficiency of calibrating physically-based complex hydrologic models is a major concern in the application of those models to understand and manage natural and human activities that affect watershed systems. In this study, we developed a multi-core aware multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm (MAMEOA) to improve the efficiency of calibrating a worldwide used watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)). The test results show that MAMEOA can save about 1-9%, 26-51%, and 39-56% time consumed by calibrating SWAT as compared with sequential method by using dual-core, quad-core, and eight-core machines, respectively. Potential and limitations of MAMEOA for calibrating SWAT are discussed. MAMEOA is open source software.

  19. The effect of magnetic field on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Renema, J. J.; Rengelink, R. J.; Komen, I.; Wang, Q.; Kes, P.; Aarts, J.; Exter, M. P. van; Dood, M. J. A. de; Gaudio, R.; Hoog, K. P. M. op 't; Zhou, Z.; Fiore, A.; Sahin, D.; Driessen, E. F. C.

    2015-03-02

    We experimentally investigate the effect of a magnetic field on photon detection in superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). At low fields, the effect of a magnetic field is through the direct modification of the quasiparticle density of states of the superconductor, and magnetic field and bias current are interchangeable, as is expected for homogeneous dirty-limit superconductors. At the field where a first vortex enters the detector, the effect of the magnetic field is reduced, up until the point where the critical current of the detector starts to be determined by flux flow. From this field on, increasing the magnetic field does not alter the detection of photons anymore, whereas it does still change the rate of dark counts. This result points at an intrinsic difference in dark and photon counts, and also shows that no enhancement of the intrinsic detection efficiency of a straight SSPD wire is achievable in a magnetic field.

  20. An efficient protocol for radiochromic film dosimetry combining calibration and measurement in a single scan

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, David; Micke, Andre; Yu Xiang; Chan, Maria F.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Radiochromic film provides dose measurement at high spatial resolution, but often is not preferred for routine evaluation of patient-specific intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans owing to ease-of-use factors. The authors have established an efficient protocol that combines calibration and measurement in a single scan and enables measurement results to be obtained in less than 30 min. This avoids complications due to postexposure changes in radiochromic film that delay the completion of a measurement, often for up to 24 h, in commonly used methods. In addition, the protocol addresses the accuracy and integrity of the measurement by eliminating environmental and interscan variability issues. Methods: The authors collected dose-response data from six production lots of Gafchromic EBT3 film and three production lots of EBT2 film at doses up to 480 cGy. In this work, the authors used seven different scanners of two different models-Epson 10000XL and V700; postexposure times before scanning from 30 min to 9 days; ambient temperatures for scanning spanning 11 Degree-Sign C; and two film orientations. Scanning was in 48-bit RGB format at 72 dpi resolution. Dose evaluation was conducted using a triple-channel dosimetry method. To evaluate the measurement protocol, patient specific IMRT and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were exposed onto EBT3 films on a Varian Trilogy Linac. Film scanning was done following the protocol under a number of different conditions and the dose maps were analyzed to demonstrate the equivalence of results. Results: The results indicated that the dose-response data could be fit by a set of related rational functions leading to the description of a generic calibration curve. A simplified dosimetry protocol was established where dose-response data for a specific film lot, scanner, and scanning conditions could be derived from two films exposed to known doses. In most cases only one calibrated exposure was required

  1. Calibration of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for fluctuation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, H. D.; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Holly, D. J.; O'Connell, R.; Reusch, J. A.

    2008-10-15

    Detailed calibrations of the Madison Symmetric Torus polychromator Thomson scattering system have been made suitable for electron temperature fluctuation measurements. All calibrations have taken place focusing on accuracy, ease of use and repeatability, and in situ measurements wherever possible. Novel calibration processes have been made possible with an insertable integrating sphere (ISIS), using an avalanche photodiode (APD) as a reference detector and optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Discussed are a novel in situ spatial calibration with the use of the ISIS, the use of an APD as a reference detector to streamline the APD calibration process, a standard dc spectral calibration, and in situ pulsed spectral calibration made possible with a combination of an OPO as a light source, the ISIS, and an APD used as a reference detector. In addition a relative quantum efficiency curve for the APDs is obtained to aid in uncertainty analysis.

  2. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments.

    PubMed

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude

    2015-02-01

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK's Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  3. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; Hahn, Robert von; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan

    2015-02-15

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK’s Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  4. Gamma-ray detection efficiency of the microchannel plate installed as an ion detector in the low energy particle instrument onboard the GEOTAIL satellite.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y T; Yoshikawa, I; Yoshioka, K; Terasawa, T; Saito, Y; Mukai, T

    2007-03-01

    A microchannel plate (MCP) assembly has been used as an ion detector in the low energy particle (LEP) instrument onboard the magnetospheric satellite GEOTAIL. Recently the MCP assembly has detected gamma rays emitted from an astronomical object and has been shown to provide unique information of gamma rays if they are intense enough. However, the detection efficiency for gamma rays was not measured before launch, and therefore we could not analyze the LEP data quantitatively. In this article, we report the gamma-ray detection efficiency of the MCP assembly. The measured efficiencies are 1.29%+/-0.71% and 0.21%+/-0.14% for normal incidence 60 and 662 keV gamma rays, respectively. The incident angle dependence is also presented. Our calibration is crucial to study high energy astrophysical phenomena by using the LEP.

  5. Precipitating Electron and Ion Detectors (SSJ/4) for the Block 5D/flights 6-10 DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) Satellites: Calibration and Data Presentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Figure 12. Angular Response of Electron Channels 10 and 11 for the SSJ/4 Detectors for the F6, F8, and 10 Satellites . The top curves give the normalized ... Satellites : 0 Calibration and Data Presentation Lf D. A. HARDY H. C. YEH L. K. SCHMITT, ILt, USAF T. L. SCHUMAKER I M. S. GUSSENHOVEN A. HUBER F. J...been reviewed by the ESD Public Affairs Office (PA) and is releasable to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). Qualified requestors may

  6. High-efficiency microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors for direct 3He replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronk, R. G.; Bellinger, S. L.; Henson, L. C.; Huddleston, D. E.; Ochs, T. R.; Sobering, T. J.; McGregor, D. S.

    2015-04-01

    High-efficiency Microstructured Semiconductor Neutron Detectors (MSNDs) have been tiled and arranged in a cylindrical form factor in order to serve as a direct replacement to aging and increasingly expensive 3He gas-filled proportional neutron detectors. Two 6-in long by 2-in diameter cylinders were constructed and populated with MSNDs which were then directly compared to a 4 atm Reuter Stokes 3He detector of the same dimensions. The Generation 1 MSND-based 3Helium-Replacement (HeRep Mk I) device contained sixty-four 1-cm2 active-area MSNDs, each with an intrinsic neutron detection efficiency of approximately 7%. A Generation 2 device (the HeRep Mk II) was populated with thirty 4-cm2 active-area MSNDs, with an intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of approximately 30%. The MSNDs of each HeRep were integrated to count as a single device. The 3He proportional counter and the HeRep devices were tested while encased in a cylinder of high-density polyethylene measuring a total of 6-in by 9-in. The 3He counter and the HeRep Mk II were each placed 1 m from a 54-ng 252Cf source and tested for efficiency. The 3He proportional counter had a net count rate of 17.13±0.10 cps at 1 m. The HeRep Mk II device had a net count rate of 17.60±0.10 cps, amounting to 102.71±2.65% of the 3He gas counter while inside of the moderator. Outside of moderator, the 3He tube had a count rate of 3.35±0.05 cps and the HeRep Mk II device reported 3.19±05, amounting to 95.15±9.04% of the 3He neutron detector.

  7. DSN 63 64-meter antenna S- and X-band efficiency and system noise temperature calibrations, July 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.

    1987-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) 64-meter antenna in Spain (DSN 63) has been calibrated prior to its upgrading to a 70-meter high efficiency configuration in preparation for the Voyager Neptune encounter in August 1989. The S-band (2285 MHz) and X-band (8420 MHz) effective area efficiency and system noise temperature calibrations were carried out during July 1986 to establish a baseline system performance for this station. It is expected that the 70-meter will result in at least a 1.9 dB G/T improvement at X-band relative to the 64-meter baseline reference.

  8. A Novel Front-End ASIC With Post Digital Filtering and Calibration for CZT-Based PET Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, W.; Yin, J.; Li, C.; Zeng, H.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel front-end electronics based on a front-end ASIC with post digital filtering and calibration dedicated to CZT detectors for PET imaging. A cascade amplifier based on split-leg topology is selected to realize the charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) for the sake of low noise performances and the simple scheme of the power supplies. The output of the CSA is connected to a variable-gain amplifier to generate the compatible signals for the A/D conversion. A multi-channel single-slope ADC is designed to sample multiple points for the digital filtering and shaping. The digital signal processing algorithms are implemented by a FPGA. To verify the proposed scheme, a front-end readout prototype ASIC is designed and implemented in 0.35 μm CMOS process. In a single readout channel, a CSA, a VGA, a 10-bit ADC and registers are integrated. Two dummy channels, bias circuits, and time controller are also integrated. The die size is 2.0 mm x 2.1 mm. The input range of the ASIC is from 2000 e{sup -} to 100000 e{sup -}, which is suitable for the detection of the X-and gamma ray from 11.2 keV to 550 keV. The linearity of the output voltage is less than 1 %. The gain of the readout channel is 40.2 V/pC. The static power dissipation is about 10 mW/channel. The above tested results show that the electrical performances of the ASIC can well satisfy PET imaging applications. (authors)

  9. Note: Determining the detection efficiency of excited neutral atoms by a microchannel plate detector

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Ben; Zohrabi, M.; Hayes, D.; Ablikim, U.; Jochim, Bethany; Severt, T.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-04-15

    We present a method for determining the detection efficiency of neutral atoms relative to keV ions. Excited D* atoms are produced by D{sub 2} fragmentation in a strong laser field. The fragments are detected by a micro-channel plate detector either directly as neutrals or as keV ions following field ionization and acceleration by a static electric field. Moreover, we propose a new mechanism by which neutrals are detected. We show that the ratio of the yield of neutrals and ions can be related to the relative detection efficiency of these species.

  10. Calibration and operational data for a compact photodiode detector useful for monitoring the location of moving sources of positron emitting radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsland, M. G.; Dehnel, M. P.; Johansson, S.; Rajander, J.; Solin, O.; Theroux, J.; Stewart, T. M.; Christensen, T.; Hollinger, C.

    2013-04-01

    D-Pace has developed a compact cost-effective gamma detector system based on technology licensed from TRIUMF [1]. These photodiode detectors are convenient for detecting the presence of positron emitting radioisotopes, particularly for the case of transport of radioisotopes from a PET cyclotron to hotlab, or from one location to another in an automated radiochemistry processing unit. This paper describes recent calibration experiments undertaken at the Turku PET Centre for stationary and moving sources of F18 and C11 in standard setups. The practical diagnostic utility of using several of these devices to track the transport of radioisotopes from the cyclotron to hotlab is illustrated. For example, such a detector system provides: a semi-quantitative indication of total activity, speed of transport, location of any activity lost en route and effectiveness of follow-up system flushes, a means of identifying bolus break-up, feedback useful for deciding when to change out tubing.

  11. Calibration and operational data for a compact photodiode detector useful for monitoring the location of moving sources of positron emitting radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marsland, M. G.; Dehnel, M. P.; Theroux, J.; Christensen, T.; Hollinger, C.; Johansson, S.; Rajander, J.; Solin, O.; Stewart, T. M.

    2013-04-19

    D-Pace has developed a compact cost-effective gamma detector system based on technology licensed from TRIUMF. These photodiode detectors are convenient for detecting the presence of positron emitting radioisotopes, particularly for the case of transport of radioisotopes from a PET cyclotron to hotlab, or from one location to another in an automated radiochemistry processing unit. This paper describes recent calibration experiments undertaken at the Turku PET Centre for stationary and moving sources of F18 and C11 in standard setups. The practical diagnostic utility of using several of these devices to track the transport of radioisotopes from the cyclotron to hotlab is illustrated. For example, such a detector system provides: a semi-quantitative indication of total activity, speed of transport, location of any activity lost en route and effectiveness of follow-up system flushes, a means of identifying bolus break-up, feedback useful for deciding when to change out tubing.

  12. Detective quantum efficiency of photon-counting x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguay, Jesse; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Single-photon-counting (SPC) x-ray imaging has the potential to improve image quality and enable novel energy-dependent imaging methods. Similar to conventional detectors, optimizing image SPC quality will require systems that produce the highest possible detective quantum efficiency (DQE). This paper builds on the cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) framework to develop a comprehensive description of the DQE of SPC detectors that implement adaptive binning. Methods: The DQE of SPC systems can be described using the CSA approach by propagating the probability density function (PDF) of the number of image-forming quanta through simple quantum processes. New relationships are developed to describe PDF transfer through serial and parallel cascades to accommodate scatter reabsorption. Results are applied to hypothetical silicon and selenium-based flat-panel SPC detectors including the effects of reabsorption of characteristic/scatter photons from photoelectric and Compton interactions, stochastic conversion of x-ray energy to secondary quanta, depth-dependent charge collection, and electronic noise. Results are compared with a Monte Carlo study. Results: Depth-dependent collection efficiency can result in substantial broadening of photopeaks that in turn may result in reduced DQE at lower x-ray energies (20–45 keV). Double-counting interaction events caused by reabsorption of characteristic/scatter photons may result in falsely inflated image signal-to-noise ratio and potential overestimation of the DQE. Conclusions: The CSA approach is extended to describe signal and noise propagation through photoelectric and Compton interactions in SPC detectors, including the effects of escape and reabsorption of emission/scatter photons. High-performance SPC systems can be achieved but only for certain combinations of secondary conversion gain, depth-dependent collection efficiency, electronic noise, and reabsorption characteristics.

  13. A robust approach to measuring the detective quantum efficiency of radiographic detectors in a clinical setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael C.; Kim, H. K.; Henry, J. R.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2012-03-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely accepted as a primary measure of x-ray detector performance in the scientific community. A standard method for measuring the DQE, based on IEC 62220-1, requires the system to have a linear response meaning that the detector output signals are proportional to the incident x-ray exposure. However, many systems have a non-linear response due to characteristics of the detector, or post processing of the detector signals, that cannot be disabled and may involve unknown algorithms considered proprietary by the manufacturer. For these reasons, the DQE has not been considered as a practical candidate for routine quality assurance testing in a clinical setting. In this article we described a method that can be used to measure the DQE of both linear and non-linear systems that employ only linear image processing algorithms. The method was validated on a Cesium Iodide based flat panel system that simultaneously stores a raw (linear) and processed (non-linear) image for each exposure. It was found that the resulting DQE was equivalent to a conventional standards-compliant DQE with measurement precision, and the gray-scale inversion and linear edge enhancement did not affect the DQE result. While not IEC 62220-1 compliant, it may be adequate for QA programs.

  14. Detective quantum efficiency: a standard test to ensure optimal detector performance and low patient exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartin, Terenz R.; Nano, Tomi F.; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2016-03-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE), expressed as a function of spatial frequency, describes the ability of an x-ray detector to produce high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images. While regulatory and scientific communities have used the DQE as a primary metric for optimizing detector design, the DQE is rarely used by end users to ensure high system performance is maintained. Of concern is that image quality varies across different systems for the same exposures with no current measures available to describe system performance. Therefore, here we conducted an initial DQE measurement survey of clinical x-ray systems using a DQE-testing instrument to identify their range of performance. Following laboratory validation, experiments revealed that the DQE of five different systems under the same exposure level (8.0 μGy) ranged from 0.36 to 0.75 at low spatial frequencies, and 0.02 to 0.4 at high spatial frequencies (3.5 cycles/mm). Furthermore, the DQE dropped substantially with decreasing detector exposure by a factor of up to 1.5x in the lowest spatial frequency, and a factor of 10x at 3.5 cycles/mm due to the effect of detector readout noise. It is concluded that DQE specifications in purchasing decisions, combined with periodic DQE testing, are important factors to ensure patients receive the health benefits of high-quality images for low x-ray exposures.

  15. Absolute intensity calibration of the Wendelstein 7-X high efficiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiche, Albert; Biel, Wolfgang; Marchuk, Oleksandr; Burhenn, Rainer

    2008-09-01

    The new high effiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer (HEXOS) system for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X is now mounted for testing and adjustment at the tokamak experiment for technology oriented research (TEXTOR). One part of the testing phase was the intensity calibration of the two double spectrometers which in total cover a spectral range from 2.5 to 160.0 nm with overlap. This work presents the current intensity calibration curves for HEXOS and describes the method of calibration. The calibration was implemented with calibrated lines of a hollow cathode light source and the branching ratio technique. The hollow cathode light source provides calibrated lines from 16 up to 147 nm. We could extend the calibrated region in the spectrometers down to 2.8 nm by using the branching line pairs emitted by an uncalibrated pinch extreme ultraviolet light source as well as emission lines from boron and carbon in TEXTOR plasmas. In total HEXOS is calibrated from 2.8 up to 147 nm, which covers most of the observable wavelength region. The approximate density of carbon in the range of the minor radius from 18 to 35 cm in a TEXTOR plasma determined by simulating calibrated vacuum ultraviolet emission lines with a transport code was 5.5×1017 m-3 which corresponds to a local carbon concentration of 2%.

  16. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  17. Analysis of the detective quantum efficiency of a developmental detector for digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Williams, M B; Simoni, P U; Smilowitz, L; Stanton, M; Phillips, W; Stewart, A

    1999-11-01

    We are developing a modular detector for applications in full field digital mammography and for diagnostic breast imaging. The detector is based on a design that has been refined over the past decade for applications in x-ray crystallography [Kalata et al., Proc. SPIE 1345, 270-279 (1990); Phillips et al. ibid. 2009, 133-138 (1993), Phillips et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. A 334, 621-630 (1993)]. The full field mammographic detector, currently undergoing clinical evaluation, is formed from a 19 cm x 28 cm phosphor screen, read out by a 2 x 3 array of butted charge-coupled device (CCD) modules. Each 2k x 2k CCD is optically coupled to the phosphor via a fiber optic taper with dimensions of 9.4 cm x 9.4cm at the phosphor. This paper describes the imaging performance of a two-module prototype, built using a similar design. In this paper we use cascaded linear systems analysis to develop a model for calculating the spatial frequency dependent noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector using the measured modulation transfer function (MTF). We compare results of the calculation with the measured NPS and DQE of the prototype. Calculated and measured DQEs are compared over a range of clinically relevant x-ray exposures and kVps. We find that for x-ray photon energies between 10 and 28 keV, the detector gain ranges between 2.5 and 3.7 CCD electrons per incident x-ray, or approximately 5-8 electrons per absorbed x ray. Using a Mo/Mo beam and acrylic phantom, over a detector entrance exposure range of approximately 10 to 80 mR, the volume under the measured 2-d NPS of the prototype detector is proportional to the x-ray exposure, indicating quantum limited performance. Substantial agreement between the calculated and measured values was obtained for the frequency and exposure dependent NPS and DQE over a range of tube voltage from 25 to 30 kVp.

  18. High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits

    PubMed Central

    Pernice, W.H.P.; Schuck, C.; Minaeva, O.; Li, M.; Goltsman, G.N.; Sergienko, A.V.; Tang, H.X.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafast, high-efficiency single-photon detectors are among the most sought-after elements in modern quantum optics and quantum communication. However, imperfect modal matching and finite photon absorption rates have usually limited their maximum attainable detection efficiency. Here we demonstrate superconducting nanowire detectors atop nanophotonic waveguides, which enable a drastic increase of the absorption length for incoming photons. This allows us to achieve high on-chip single-photon detection efficiency up to 91% at telecom wavelengths, repeatable across several fabricated chips. We also observe remarkably low dark count rates without significant compromise of the on-chip detection efficiency. The detectors are fully embedded in scalable silicon photonic circuits and provide ultrashort timing jitter of 18 ps. Exploiting this high temporal resolution, we demonstrate ballistic photon transport in silicon ring resonators. Our direct implementation of a high-performance single-photon detector on chip overcomes a major barrier in integrated quantum photonics. PMID:23271658

  19. Stratospheric Radiation Environment measurements, calibrations and pattern recognition by CERN MEDIPIX-2 and TIMEPIX Radiation Imaging Detectors on ESA BEXUS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbar, J.; Jakubek, J.; Scheirich, J.

    2009-12-01

    Results of the first two experiments using a MEDIPIX-2 and TIMEPIX detector for cosmic ray imaging in stratospheric environment are presented. The detecting device was based on hybrid pixel detector of MEDIPIX-2/TIMEPIX developed at CERN with USB interface developed at Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics of Czech Technical University in Prague. The detector was used in its tracking mode allowing it to operate as an ''active nuclear emulsion'' The actual flight time of BEXUS7 on 8th October 2008 was over 4 hours, with 2 hours at stable floating altitude of 26km. The flight opportunity was provided by Education dept. of European Space Agency (ESA) and Eurolaunch (Collaboration of SSC and DLR, German Space Agency). The motivation was to check proper calibration by detecting height-dependent profiles of ionizing radiation, also testing detector endurance and performance. BEXUS is quite ideal platform for such in-situ measurements. Not only because of the high altitudes reached, but also due to its slow ascent velocity for statistically relevant sampling of the ambient environment. Detector performance was evaluated for further design implications of advanced concept focusing on Cosmic Ray Induced Ionization rate measurements prepared for flight with additional instrumentation in October 2009 on BEXUS8. The preliminary results of the second campaign to be presented in scope of the outcomes of first campaign.

  20. The effect of a compression paddle on energy response, calibration and measurement with mammographic dosimeters using ionization chambers and solid-state detectors.

    PubMed

    Hourdakis, C J; Boziari, A; Koumbouli, E

    2009-02-21

    A compression paddle is always used in mammography x-ray examinations, in order to improve image quality and reduce patient doses. Although clinical dose measurements should be performed with the paddle to interfere with the x-ray beam, calibration of mammography dosimeters is performed free in air without the presence of the paddle. The paddle hardens the x-ray beam, which has an impact on a dosimeter performance, particularly on high-energy-dependent detectors. Due to the paddle, clinical mammography x-ray systems may exhibit beams with HVL values exceeding those of the IEC 61267 RQR-M series qualities at which dosimeters are usually calibrated. In this study, the influence of the paddle in mammography dosimetry is examined, in Mo/Mo anode/filter x-ray qualities. PMMA slabs of 1, 2 and 3 mm thickness and Al foils of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mm thicknesses were used to simulate the paddles, producing beams with HVL values from 0.28 up to 0.43 mmAl. In these qualities, four solid-state (ST) detectors and three ionizations chambers (IC) were calibrated in terms of Kair and N(K) and k(Q) were deduced. The results showed that all IC and two modern-type ST dosimeters have a flat energy response in the above HVL range (less than 3%), so their calibration factor at RQR-M2 quality could be safely used for clinical measurements. Two other ST dosimeters exhibit up to 20% energy response, so differences up to 15% in dose measurement may be observed if the effect of paddle on their performance is ignored. Finally, the need of additional mammographic calibration qualities to the existing IEC 61267 RQR-M series is examined and discussed.

  1. Potential of combining iterative reconstruction with noise efficient detector design: aggressive dose reduction in head CT

    PubMed Central

    Bender, B; Schabel, C; Fenchel, M; Ernemann, U; Korn, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: With further increase of CT numbers and their dominant contribution to medical exposure, there is a recent quest for more effective dose control. While reintroduction of iterative reconstruction (IR) has proved its potential in many applications, a novel focus is placed on more noise efficient detectors. Our purpose was to assess the potential of IR in combination with an integrated circuit detector (ICD) for aggressive dose reduction in head CT. Methods: Non-contrast low-dose head CT [190 mAs; weighted volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), 33.2 mGy] was performed in 50 consecutive patients, using a new noise efficient detector and IR. Images were assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality and compared with standard dose acquisitions (320 mAs; CTDIvol, 59.7 mGy) using a conventional detector and filtered back projection. Results: By combining ICD and IR in low-dose examinations, the signal to noise was improved by about 13% above the baseline level in the standard-dose control group. Both, contrast-to-noise ratio (2.02 ± 0.6 vs 1.88 ± 0.4; p = 0.18) and objective measurements of image sharpness (695 ± 84 vs 705 ± 151 change in Hounsfield units per pixel; p = 0.79) were fully preserved in the low-dose group. Likewise, there was no significant difference in the grading of several subjective image quality parameters when both noise-reducing strategies were used in low-dose examinations. Conclusion: Combination of noise efficient detector with IR allows for meaningful dose reduction in head CT without compromise of standard image quality. Advances in knowledge: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of almost 50% dose reduction in head CT dose (1.1 mSv per scan) through combination of novel dose-reducing strategies. PMID:25827204

  2. SU-E-I-67: X-Ray Fluorescence for Energy Response Calibration of a Photon Counting Detector: A Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H; Ding, H; Ziemer, B; Molloi, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of energy calibration and energy response characterization of a photon counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was done to investigate the influence of various geometric components on the x-ray fluorescence measurement. Different materials, sizes, and detection angles were simulated using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) Monte Carlo package. Simulations were conducted using 100 kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2 mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3 × 3 mm2 in detection area. The fluorescence material was placed 300 mm away from both the x-ray source and the detector. For angular dependence measurement, the distance was decreased to 30 mm to reduce the simulation time. Compound materials, containing silver, barium, gadolinium, hafnium, and gold in cylindrical shape, were simulated. The object size varied from 5 to 100 mm in diameter. The angular dependence of fluorescence and scatter were simulated from 20° to 170° with an incremental step of 10° to optimize the fluorescence to scatter ratio. Furthermore, the angular dependence was also experimentally measured using a spectrometer (X-123CdTe, Amptek Inc., MA) to validate the simulation results. Results: The detection angle between 120° to 160° resulted in more optimal x-ray fluorescence to scatter ratio. At a detection angle of 120°, the object size did not have a significant effect on the fluorescence to scatter ratio. The experimental results of fluorescence angular dependence are in good agreement with the simulation results. The Kα and Kβ peaks of five materials could be identified. Conclusion: The simulation results show that the x-ray fluorescence procedure has the potential to be used for detector energy calibration and detector response characteristics by using the optimal system geometry.

  3. An efficient calibration method for freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Daniel F

    2004-07-01

    A phantom has been developed to quickly calibrate a freehand 3-D ultrasound (US) imaging system. Calibration defines the spatial relationship between the US image plane and an external tracking device attached to the scanhead. The phantom consists of a planar array of strings and beads, and a set of out-of-plane strings that guide the user to proper scanhead orientation for imaging. When an US image plane is coincident with the plane defined by the strings, the calibration parameters are calculated by matching of homologous points in the image and phantom. The resulting precision and accuracy of the 3-D imaging system are similar to those achieved with a more complex calibration procedure. The 3-D reconstruction performance of the calibrated system is demonstrated with a magnetic tracking system, but the method could be applied to other tracking devices.

  4. Results of ground tests and calibration of x-ray focal plane detectors for ART-XC/SRG instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Vasily; Pavlinsky, Mikhail; Akimov, Valery; Kuznetsova, Maria; Rotin, Alexey; Krivchenko, Aleksandr; Lapshov, Igor; Oleynikov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    The Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) has developed seven flight models and three spare models of the X-ray detectors for the ART-XC/SRG telescope. Each detector situated in the focal plane of ART-XC X-ray optics and includes CdTe die, front-end electronics, data processing, storage and telemetry units. In the Space Research Institute performed a vibration, thermal cycling and thermal vacuum tests of X-ray detectors. During this tests have been studied the leakage current stability, polarization rate, spectroscopic and imaging performance in the working temperature range. The current status of the X-ray detectors development and testing presented.

  5. CR-39 track detector calibration for H, He, and C ions from 0.1-0.5 MeV up to 5 MeV for laser-induced nuclear fusion product identification.

    PubMed

    Baccou, C; Yahia, V; Depierreux, S; Neuville, C; Goyon, C; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Ducret, J E; Boutoux, G; Rafelski, J; Labaune, C

    2015-08-01

    Laser-accelerated ion beams can be used in many applications and, especially, to initiate nuclear reactions out of thermal equilibrium. We have experimentally studied aneutronic fusion reactions induced by protons accelerated by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, colliding with a boron target. Such experiments require a rigorous method to identify the reaction products (alpha particles) collected in detectors among a few other ion species such as protons or carbon ions, for example. CR-39 track detectors are widely used because they are mostly sensitive to ions and their efficiency is near 100%. We present a complete calibration of CR-39 track detector for protons, alpha particles, and carbon ions. We give measurements of their track diameters for energy ranging from hundreds of keV to a few MeV and for etching times between 1 and 8 h. We used these results to identify alpha particles in our experiments on proton-boron fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated protons. We show that their number clearly increases when the boron fuel is preformed in a plasma state.

  6. Development of Highly Efficient and High Speed X-ray Detectors Using Modern Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Cholewa, Marian; Moser, Herbert O.; Lau, Shu Ping; Gao Xingyu; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Polak, Wojciech; Lekki, Janusz; Stachura, Zbigniew

    2007-01-19

    The secondary electron emission (SEE) yield of heterostructures of ZnO nanoneedles coaxially coated with AlN or GaN has been studied for the first time using electron, ion, and X-ray beams. The SEE yield of the heterostructures is enhanced significantly by the intrinsic nanostructure of the ZnO nanoneedle templates as compared to the AlN and GaN thin films on Si substrates. These findings open up a way to develop new universal highly efficient radiation detectors based on the SEE principle by incorporating these one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures as a material of choice.

  7. Scintillation efficiency for low energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Xiong, Xiaonu; Ji, Xiangdong

    2015-02-01

    We perform a theoretical study of the scintillation efficiency of the low energy region crucial for liquid xenon dark matter detectors. We develop a computer program to simulate the cascading process of the recoiling xenon nucleus in liquid xenon and calculate the nuclear quenching effect due to atomic collisions. We use the electronic stopping power extrapolated from experimental data to the low energy region, and take into account the effects of electron escape from electron-ion pair recombination using the generalized Thomas-Imel model fitted to scintillation data. Our result agrees well with the experiments from neutron scattering and vanishes rapidly as the recoil energy drops below 3 keV.

  8. The trigger system of the Pierre Auger Surface Detector: operation, efficiency and stablility

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, D.; Armengaud, E.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Bertou, Xavier; Billoir, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dorofeev, A.; Ghia, P.L.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gorgi, A.; Hamilton, J.C.; Harton, J.

    2005-08-01

    The trigger system of the Surface Detector (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory is described, from the identification of candidate showers (E > 1 EeV) at the level of a single station, among a huge background (mainly single muons), up to the selection of real events and the rejection of random coincidences at a higher central trigger level (including the reconstruction accuracy). Efficiency of a single station trigger is evaluated using real data, and the high performance of event selection hierarchy will be demonstrated.

  9. Efficiency Studies and Simulations of a Neutron Background Veto for Dark Matter Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, Shawn; Shields, Emily; Xu, Jingke; Calaprice, Frank

    2013-04-01

    In direct WIMP dark matter detection experiments, neutrons from cosmogenic sources and nuclear reactions in detector materials can provide backgrounds indistinguishable from WIMP signals. To reduce this background, an active neutron veto filled with a boron-loaded scintillator is being developed. The scintillator used will be pseudocumene, mixed with trimethyl borate as a boron source, and a PPO wavelength shifter. Such a veto would detect neutrons in the volume surrounding the detector, allowing coincident background events in the detector to be rejected. Neutrons are captured by the ^10B with a high cross section, resulting in an α and ^7Li. The scintillation from the nuclear products is heavily quenched to an equivalent electron energy as low as 50 keV. To detect this, it is necessary to have high light collection efficiency. To model the neutron veto concept, light yield measurements were taken for a small prototype filled with the scintillator mixture and lined with a Lumirror reflector. These results were reproduced in GEANT4 and in an independent simulation. We then applied the simulations to the DarkSide-50 neutron veto to predict its neutron rejection power. Results from measurements taken with the prototype and from the simulation will be presented.

  10. A Low-Cost and Efficient Way to Archive Calibration/Validation Findings for Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, G.; Denning, M.; Saunders, D.; Iwunze, M.; Ullman, R.; Privette, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Operational satellite products such as Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs) undergo vigorous Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) studies throughout their mission life, especially prior to the initial public release. Recognizing the importance of preserving details of these Cal/Val methods and results or "findings" for current and future missions (e.g., the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)) as well as for the climate community, a web-based tool was developed in a joint effort of the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS), and the Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing, and Evaluation (GRAVITE), the Cal/Val support infrastructure at the JPSS Program Office. The goal of the collaboration is to provide a low-cost but efficient way to preserve Cal/Val study information, in order to provide traceability of product quality statements, to increase scientific defensibility and public confidence in weather and climate satellite products, to provide a reliable resource for advancing remote sensing science, and to establish a baseline or reference for future product algorithm development and evaluation. The group has streamlined the process to create (putting all necessary results and documentations together), review, archive, and provide access to the Cal/Val findings. The end-to-end system design, data flow, and functionality of the web-based tool for creation and submission of the Cal/Val findings will be outlined along with guidelines on its applications and recommendations on documentation towards better transparency, traceability, and reproducibility of the archived findings.

  11. New numerical simulation method to calibrate the regular hexagonal NaI(Tl) detector with radioactive point sources situated non-axial.

    PubMed

    Hamzawy, Ayman; Grozdanov, Dimitar N; Badawi, Mohamed S; Aliyev, Fuad A; Thabet, Abouzeid A; Abbas, Mahmoud I; Ruskov, Ivan N; El-Khatib, Ahmed M; Kopatch, Yuri N; Gouda, Mona M

    2016-11-01

    Scintillation crystals are usually used for detection of energetic photons at room temperature in high energy and nuclear physics research, non-destructive analysis of materials testing, safeguards, nuclear treaty verification, geological exploration, and medical imaging. Therefore, new designs and construction of radioactive beam facilities are coming on-line with these science brunches. A good number of researchers are investigating the efficiency of the γ-ray detectors to improve the models and techniques used in order to deal with the most pressing problems in physics research today. In the present work, a new integrative and uncomplicated numerical simulation method (NSM) is used to compute the full-energy (photo) peak efficiency of a regular hexagonal prism NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector using radioactive point sources situated non-axial within its front surface boundaries. This simulation method is based on the efficiency transfer method. Most of the mathematical formulas in this work are derived analytically and solved numerically. The main core of the NSM is the calculation of the effective solid angle for radioactive point sources, which are situated non-axially at different distances from the front surface of the detector. The attenuation of the γ-rays through the detector's material and any other materials in-between the source and the detector is taken into account. A remarkable agreement between the experimental and calculated by present formalism results has been observed.

  12. New numerical simulation method to calibrate the regular hexagonal NaI(Tl) detector with radioactive point sources situated non-axial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzawy, Ayman; Grozdanov, Dimitar N.; Badawi, Mohamed S.; Aliyev, Fuad A.; Thabet, Abouzeid A.; Abbas, Mahmoud I.; Ruskov, Ivan N.; El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Kopatch, Yuri N.; Gouda, Mona M.

    2016-11-01

    Scintillation crystals are usually used for detection of energetic photons at room temperature in high energy and nuclear physics research, non-destructive analysis of materials testing, safeguards, nuclear treaty verification, geological exploration, and medical imaging. Therefore, new designs and construction of radioactive beam facilities are coming on-line with these science brunches. A good number of researchers are investigating the efficiency of the γ-ray detectors to improve the models and techniques used in order to deal with the most pressing problems in physics research today. In the present work, a new integrative and uncomplicated numerical simulation method (NSM) is used to compute the full-energy (photo) peak efficiency of a regular hexagonal prism NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector using radioactive point sources situated non-axial within its front surface boundaries. This simulation method is based on the efficiency transfer method. Most of the mathematical formulas in this work are derived analytically and solved numerically. The main core of the NSM is the calculation of the effective solid angle for radioactive point sources, which are situated non-axially at different distances from the front surface of the detector. The attenuation of the γ-rays through the detector's material and any other materials in-between the source and the detector is taken into account. A remarkable agreement between the experimental and calculated by present formalism results has been observed.

  13. High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum state engineering in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Jeannic, Hanna; Verma, Varun B.; Cavaillès, Adrien; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Huang, Kun; Morin, Olivier; Nam, Sae Woo; Laurat, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We report on high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on amorphous WSi and optimized at 1064 nm. At an operating temperature of 1.8 K, we demonstrated a 93% system detection efficiency at this wavelength with a dark noise of a few counts per second. Combined with cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion, this fiber-coupled detector enabled us to generate narrowband single photons with a heralding efficiency greater than 90% and a high spectral brightness of $0.6\\times10^4$ photons/(s$\\cdot$mW$\\cdot$MHz). Beyond single-photon generation at large rate, such high-efficiency detectors open the path to efficient multiple-photon heralding and complex quantum state engineering.

  14. High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum state engineering in the near infrared.

    PubMed

    Le Jeannic, Hanna; Verma, Varun B; Cavaillès, Adrien; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Huang, Kun; Morin, Olivier; Nam, Sae Woo; Laurat, Julien

    2016-11-15

    We report on high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on amorphous tungsten silicide and optimized at 1064 nm. At an operating temperature of 1.8 K, we demonstrated a 93% system detection efficiency at this wavelength with a dark noise of a few counts per second. Combined with cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion, this fiber-coupled detector enabled us to generate narrowband single photons with a heralding efficiency greater than 90% and a high spectral brightness of 0.6×104 photons/(s·mW·MHz). Beyond single-photon generation at large rate, such high-efficiency detectors open the path to efficient multiple-photon heralding and complex quantum state engineering.

  15. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-10-15

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect “Violin-Mode” (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a “synthesized split photodiode” detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC “shadow notch” outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing “jitter” at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  16. [Development of an experimental apparatus for energy calibration of a CdTe detector by means of diagnostic X-ray equipment].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ikuma; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Takegami, Kazuki; Konishi, Yuki

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic X-ray equipment was used to develop an experimental apparatus for calibrating a CdTe detector. Powder-type samples were irradiated with collimated X-rays. On excitation of the atoms, characteristic X-rays were emitted. We prepared Nb2O5, SnO2, La2O3, Gd2O3, and WO3 metal oxide samples. Experiments using the diagnostic X-ray equipment were carried out to verify the practicality of our apparatus. First, we verified that the collimators involving the apparatus worked well. Second, the X-ray spectra were measured using the prepared samples. Finally, we analyzed the spectra, which indicated that the energy calibration curve had been obtained at an accuracy of ±0.06 keV. The developed apparatus could be used conveniently, suggesting it to be useful for the practical training of beginners and researchers.

  17. Using second-order calibration method based on trilinear decomposition algorithms coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector for determination of quinolones in honey samples.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Jie; Wu, Hai-Long; Shao, Sheng-Zhi; Kang, Chao; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2011-09-15

    A novel strategy that combines the second-order calibration method based on the trilinear decomposition algorithms with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed to mathematically separate the overlapped peaks and to quantify quinolones in honey samples. The HPLC-DAD data were obtained within a short time in isocratic mode. The developed method could be applied to determine 12 quinolones at the same time even in the presence of uncalibrated interfering components in complex background. To access the performance of the proposed strategy for the determination of quinolones in honey samples, the figures of merit were employed. The limits of quantitation for all analytes were within the range 1.2-56.7 μg kg(-1). The work presented in this paper illustrated the suitability and interesting potential of combining second-order calibration method with second-order analytical instrument for multi-residue analysis in honey samples.

  18. Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: A comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Mathieu; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The purposes of this work were: (1) To determine if a spectral method can accurately correct the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) for situations where the Cerenkov light is dominant over the scintillation light and (2) to develop a procedural guideline for accurately determining the calibration factors of PSDs. Methods: The authors demonstrate, by using the equations of the spectral method, that the condition for accurately correcting the effect of Cerenkov light is that the ratio of the two calibration factors must be equal to the ratio of the Cerenkov light measured within the two different spectral regions used for analysis. Based on this proof, the authors propose two new procedures to determine the calibration factors of PSDs, which were designed to respect this condition. A PSD that consists of a cylindrical polystyrene scintillating fiber (1.6 mm{sup 3}) coupled to a plastic optical fiber was calibrated by using these new procedures and the two reference procedures described in the literature. To validate the extracted calibration factors, relative dose profiles and output factors for a 6 MV photon beam from a medical linac were measured with the PSD and an ionization chamber. Emphasis was placed on situations where the Cerenkov light is dominant over the scintillation light and on situations dissimilar to the calibration conditions. Results: The authors found that the accuracy of the spectral method depends on the procedure used to determine the calibration factors of the PSD and on the attenuation properties of the optical fiber used. The results from the relative dose profile measurements showed that the spectral method can correct the Cerenkov light effect with an accuracy level of 1%. The results obtained also indicate that PSDs measure output factors that are lower than those measured with ionization chambers for square field sizes larger than 25x25 cm{sup 2}, in general agreement with previously published Monte

  19. Minimum length Pb/SCIN detector for efficient cosmic ray identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, H. David

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the performance of a minimal length cosmic ray shower detector that would be light enough for space flight and would provide efficient identification of positions and protons. Cosmic ray positions are mainly produced in the decay chain of: Pion yields Muon yields Positron and they provide a measure of the matter density traversed by primary protons. Present positron flux measurements are consistent with the Leaky Box and Halo models for sources of cosmic rays. Abundant protons in the space environment are a significant source of background that would wash out the positron signal. Protons and positrons produced very distictive showers of particles when they enter matter; many studies have been published on their behavior on large calorimeter detectors. The challenge is to determine the minimal material necessary (minimal calorimeter depth) for positive particles identification. The primary instrument for the investigation is the Monte Carlo code GEANT, a library of programs from CERN that can be used to model experimental geometry, detector responses and particle interaction processes. The use of the Monte Carlo approach is crucial since statistical fluctuations in shower shape are significant. Studies conducted during the 1988 summer program showed that straightforward approaches to the problem achieved 85 to 90 percent correct identification, but left a residue of 10 to 15 percent misidentified particles. This percentage improved to a few percent when multiple shower-cut criteria were applied to the data. This summer, the same study was extended to employ several physical and statistical methods of identifying response of the calorimeter and the efficiency of the optimal shower cuts to off-normal incidence particle was determined.

  20. ELENA MCP detector: absolute detection efficiency for low-energy neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J. A.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-09-01

    Microchannel Plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission of ESA to Mercury to be launched in 2015. ELENA is a Time of Flight (TOF) sensor, based on a novel concept using an ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section), which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop detector. The scientific objective of ELENA is to detect energetic neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 76° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the plasma environment and the planet’s surface, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles released from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (< 1eV - < 100 eV) as well as Hydrogen back-scattered at hundreds eV. MCP absolute detection efficiency for very low energy neutral atoms (E < 30 eV) is a crucial point for this investigation. At the MEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of the University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different types of MCP (with and without coating) have been performed providing the detection efficiencies in the energy range 10eV - 1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are discussed here.

  1. Numerical Simulations of Pillar Structured Solid State Thermal Neutron Detector Efficiency and Gamma Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, A; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C; Nikolic, R

    2008-06-24

    This work reports numerical simulations of a novel three-dimensionally integrated, {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B) and silicon p+, intrinsic, n+ (PIN) diode micropillar array for thermal neutron detection. The inter-digitated device structure has a high probability of interaction between the Si PIN pillars and the charged particles (alpha and {sup 7}Li) created from the neutron - {sup 10}B reaction. In this work, the effect of both the 3-D geometry (including pillar diameter, separation and height) and energy loss mechanisms are investigated via simulations to predict the neutron detection efficiency and gamma discrimination of this structure. The simulation results are demonstrated to compare well with the measurement results. This indicates that upon scaling the pillar height, a high efficiency thermal neutron detector is possible.

  2. Analysis of factors affecting the light collection efficiency in CT detector: CWO+PIN diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sung W.; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Ho K.; Cho, Gyuseong; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Goh, Sung Min; Lee, Yoon; Park, Jung Byung

    2002-05-01

    The solid-state detector(SSD) for X-CT consists of photodiode coupled to CdWO4$(CWO. It is important to maximize the light collection in respect of a patient's dose, radiation effect and X-ray efficiency. The factors affecting the light collection efficiency are analyzed and optimized by using experimental data and appropriate simulation code. Quantum nomogram is used to investigate the signal propagation characteristics of optimally designed solid-state detector and to ensure at which stage quantum sink occurs. This paper shows that the part of SSD, the CWO of treatment with ground top/ground side yields higher quanta than that of ground top/polish side, which is different from the result of previous studies. We also shows that optimum thickness of SiN passivation and p-layer is 0.12mm and 0.1mm, respectively. From the quantum nomogram calculated for optimal design, it is predicted that the most serious signal degradation occurs at the photodiode.

  3. Maximizing the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate detectors - The collection of photoelectrons from the interchannel web using an electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. C.; Hettrick, M. C.; Malina, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    High quantum efficiency and two-dimensional imaging capabilities make the microchannel plate (MCP) a suitable detector for a sky survey instrument. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite, to be launched in 1987, will use MCP detectors. A feature which limits MCP efficiency is related to the walls of individual channels. The walls are of finite thickness and thus form an interchannel web. Under normal circumstances, this web does not contribute to the detector's quantum efficiency. Panitz and Foesch (1976) have found that in the case of a bombardment with ions, electrons were ejected from the electrode material coating the web. By applying a small electric field, the electrons were returned to the MCP surface where they were detected. The present investigation is concerned with the enhancement of quantum efficiencies in the case of extreme UV wavelengths. Attention is given to a model and a computer simulation which quantitatively reproduce the experimental results.

  4. Measurement of the photon identification efficiencies with the ATLAS detector using LHC Run-1 data.

    PubMed

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Verzini, M J Alconada; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alstaty, M; Gonzalez, B Alvarez; Piqueras, D Álvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Coutinho, Y Amaral; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Santos, S P Amor Dos; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Bella, L Aperio; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Navarro, L Barranco; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Noccioli, E Benhar; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Kuutmann, E Bergeaas; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bylund, O Bessidskaia; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; 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Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    2016-01-01

    The algorithms used by the ATLAS Collaboration to reconstruct and identify prompt photons are described. Measurements of the photon identification efficiencies are reported, using 4.9 fb[Formula: see text] of pp collision data collected at the LHC at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and 20.3 fb[Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. The efficiencies are measured separately for converted and unconverted photons, in four different pseudorapidity regions, for transverse momenta between 10 [Formula: see text] and 1.5 [Formula: see text]. The results from the combination of three data-driven techniques are compared to the predictions from a simulation of the detector response, after correcting the electromagnetic shower momenta in the simulation for the average differences observed with respect to data. Data-to-simulation efficiency ratios used as correction factors in physics measurements are determined to account for the small residual efficiency differences. These factors are measured with uncertainties between 0.5% and 10% in 7 [Formula: see text] data and between 0.5% and 5.6% in 8 [Formula: see text] data, depending on the photon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity.

  5. Measurement of the photon identification efficiencies with the ATLAS detector using LHC Run-1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Verzini, M. J. Alconada; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Piqueras, D. Álvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. 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Pedraza; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Codina, E. Perez; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Astigarraga, M. E. Pozo; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Ravinovich, I.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Reale, M.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rimoldi, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Perez, A. Rodriguez; Rodriguez, D. Rodriguez; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Saez, S. M. Romano; Adam, E. Romero; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rosien, N.-A.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Tehrani, F. Safai; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Loyola, J. E. Salazar; Salek, D.; De Bruin, P. H. Sales; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Martinez, V. Sanchez; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Castillo, I. Santoyo; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Saadi, D. Shoaleh; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Sanchez, C. A. Solans; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Araya, S. Tapia; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Delgado, A. Tavares; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Kate, H. Ten; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Torres, R. E. Ticse; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Pastor, E. Torró; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Santurio, E. Valdes; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Ferrer, J. A. Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Schroeder, T. Vazquez; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Boeriu, O. E. Vickey; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Perez, M. Villaplana; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Milosavljevic, M. Vranjes; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Wong, K. H. Yau; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Nedden, M. zur; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-12-01

    The algorithms used by the ATLAS Collaboration to reconstruct and identify prompt photons are described. Measurements of the photon identification efficiencies are reported, using 4.9 fb^{-1} of pp collision data collected at the LHC at √{s} = 7 {TeV} and 20.3 fb^{-1} at √{s} = 8 {TeV}. The efficiencies are measured separately for converted and unconverted photons, in four different pseudorapidity regions, for transverse momenta between 10 {GeV} and 1.5 {TeV}. The results from the combination of three data-driven techniques are compared to the predictions from a simulation of the detector response, after correcting the electromagnetic shower momenta in the simulation for the average differences observed with respect to data. Data-to-simulation efficiency ratios used as correction factors in physics measurements are determined to account for the small residual efficiency differences. These factors are measured with uncertainties between 0.5% and 10% in 7 {TeV} data and between 0.5% and 5.6% in 8 {TeV} data, depending on the photon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity.

  6. Efficient, Non-Iterative Estimator for Imaging Contrast Agents With Spectral X-Ray Detectors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    An estimator to image contrast agents and body materials with x-ray spectral measurements is described. The estimator is usable with the three or more basis functions that are required to represent the attenuation coefficient of high atomic number materials. The estimator variance is equal to the Cramèr-Rao lower bound (CRLB) and it is unbiased. Its parameters are computed from measurements of a calibration phantom with the clinical x-ray system and it is non-iterative. The estimator is compared with an iterative maximum likelihood estimator. The estimator first computes a linearized maximum likelihood estimate of the line integrals of the basis set coefficients. Corrections for errors in the initial estimates are computed by interpolation with calibration phantom data. The final estimate is the initial estimate plus the correction. The performance of the estimator is measured using a Monte Carlo simulation. Random photon counting with pulse height analysis data are generated. The mean squared errors of the estimates are compared to the CRLB. The random data are also processed with an iterative maximum likelihood estimator. Previous implementations of iterative estimators required advanced physics instruments not usually available in clinical institutions. The estimator mean squared error is essentially equal to the CRLB. The estimator outputs are close to those of the iterative estimator but the computation time is approximately 180 times shorter. The estimator is efficient and has advantages over alternate approaches such as iterative estimators.

  7. The Calibration System Based On the Controllable UV/visible LED Flasher for the Veto System of the DarkSide Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Gromov, M. B.; Litvinovich, E. A.; Machulin, I. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Shamarin, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    A prototype of the calibration system for the Liquid Scintillator Veto (LSV) and for the Water Cherenkov Veto (WCV) of the DarkSide detector have been developed. The instrument consists of a fast double output flasher which can be configured and controlled via USB, the appropriate application software. UV, visible or combination of both LEDs could be installed. Flashes amplitude, repetition rate and delay time between two continuous pulses are adjustable. High –OH silica fibers are used to minimize intensity losses on the delivery path. X shape splitter is used to combine two LED’s pigtailed output and then to split the sum of the signals. One output feeds calibration path to the detector, while the second is used for pulse-to-pulse measurement of the flash intensity with compatible photodiode in combination with Flash ADC. The instrument allows to simulate point-like physical events in very wide energy range from a few hundred keV up to several dozen of MeV. Additional studies (pile-up analysis, spatial reconstruction, quenching as a function of position and wavelength) can be performed due to double-LEDs scheme and possibility of fast replacement of diodes.

  8. A Calibration Routine for Efficient ETD in Large-Scale Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Christopher M.; Rush, Matthew J. P.; Riley, Nicholas M.; Merrill, Anna E.; Kwiecien, Nicholas W.; Holden, Dustin D.; Mullen, Christopher; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has been broadly adopted and is now available on a variety of commercial mass spectrometers. Unlike collisional activation techniques, optimal performance of ETD requires considerable user knowledge and input. ETD reaction duration is one key parameter that can greatly influence spectral quality and overall experiment outcome. We describe a calibration routine that determines the correct number of reagent anions necessary to reach a defined ETD reaction rate. Implementation of this automated calibration routine on two hybrid Orbitrap platforms illustrate considerable advantages, namely, increased product ion yield with concomitant reduction in scan rates netting up to 75% more unique peptide identifications in a shotgun experiment.

  9. Multi-energy x-ray detector calibration for Te and impurity density (nZ) measurements of MCF plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.; Pablant, N.; Efthimion, P.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rissi, M.; Donath, T.; Luethi, B.; Stratton, B.

    2016-09-07

    Here, soft x-ray detection with the new "multi-energy" PILATUS3 detector systems holds promise as a magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasma diagnostic for ITER and beyond. The measured x-ray brightness can be used to determine impurity concentrations, electron temperatures, n2eZeff products, and to probe the electron energy distribution. However, in order to be effective, these detectors which are really large arrays of detectors with photon energy gating capabilities must be precisely calibrated for each pixel. The energy-dependence of the detector response of the multi-energy PILATUS3 system with 100 K pixels has been measured at Dectris Laboratory. X-rays emitted from a tube under high voltage bombard various elements such that they emit x-ray lines from Zr-Lα to Ag-Kα between 1.8 and 22.16 keV. Each pixel on the PILATUS3 can be set to a minimum energy threshold in the range from 1.6 to 25 keV. This feature allows a single detector to be sensitive to a variety of x-ray energies, so that it is possible to sample the energy distribution of the x-ray continuum and line-emission. PILATUS3 can be configured for 1D or 2D imaging of MCF plasmas with typical spatial energy and temporal resolution of 1 cm, 0.6 keV, and 5 ms, respectively.

  10. A high efficiency veto to increase the sensitivity of ZEPLIN-III, a WIMP detector

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, E. J.

    2009-09-08

    An active veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III two phase Xenon, direct dark matter device is described. The proposed design consists of 52 plastic scintillator segments, individually read out by high efficiency photomultipliers, coupled to a Gd loaded passive polypropylene shield. Experimental work was performed to determine the plastic scintillator characteristics which were used to inform a complete end-to-end Monte Carlo simulation of the expected performance of the new instrument, both operating alone and as an active veto detector for ZEPLIN-III. The veto device will be capable of tagging over 65% of coincident nuclear recoil events in the energy range of interest in ZEPLIN-III, and over 12% for gamma ray rejection, while contributing no significant additional background. In addition it will also provide valuable diagnostic capabilities. The inclusion of the veto to ZEPLIN-III will aid to significantly improve the sensitivity to spin independent WIMP-nucleon cross sections below 10{sup -8} pb.

  11. A high efficiency veto to increase the sensitivity of ZEPLIN-III, a WIMP detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, E. J.

    2009-09-01

    An active veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III two phase Xenon, direct dark matter device is described. The proposed design consists of 52 plastic scintillator segments, individually read out by high efficiency photomultipliers, coupled to a Gd loaded passive polypropylene shield. Experimental work was performed to determine the plastic scintillator characteristics which were used to inform a complete end-to-end Monte Carlo simulation of the expected performance of the new instrument, both operating alone and as an active veto detector for ZEPLIN-III. The veto device will be capable of tagging over 65% of coincident nuclear recoil events in the energy range of interest in ZEPLIN-III, and over 12% for gamma ray rejection, while contributing no significant additional background. In addition it will also provide valuable diagnostic capabilities. The inclusion of the veto to ZEPLIN-III will aid to significantly improve the sensitivity to spin independent WIMP-nucleon cross sections below 10-8 pb.

  12. Practical expressions describing detective quantum efficiency in flat-panel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. K.

    2011-11-01

    In radiology, image quality excellence is a balance between system performance and patient dose, hence x-ray systems must be designed to ensure the maximum image quality is obtained for the lowest consistent dose. The concept of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely used to quantify, understand, measure, and predict the performance of x-ray detectors and imaging systems. Cascaded linear-systems theory can be used to estimate DQE based on the system design parameters and this theoretical DQE can be utilized for determining the impact of various physical processes, such as secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, reabsorption noise, and others. However, the prediction of DQE usually requires tremendous efforts to determine each parameter consisting of the cascaded linear-systems model. In this paper, practical DQE formalisms assessing both the photoconductor- and scintillator-based flat-panel detectors under quantum-noise-limited operation are described. The developed formalisms are experimentally validated and discussed for their limits. The formalisms described in this paper would be helpful for the rapid prediction of the DQE performances of developing systems as well as the optimal design of systems.

  13. Monte carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  14. Monte Carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  15. Three-dimensional diamond detectors: Charge collection efficiency of graphitic electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lagomarsino, S. Parrini, G.; Sciortino, S.; Bellini, M.; Gorelli, F.; Santoro, M.; Corsi, C.

    2013-12-02

    Implementation of 3D-architectures in diamond detectors promises to achieve unreached performances in the radiation-harsh environment of future high-energy physics experiments. This work reports on the collection efficiency under β-irradiation of graphitic 3D-electrodes, created by laser pulses in the domains of nanoseconds (ns-made-sensors) and femtoseconds (fs-made-sensors). Full collection is achieved with the fs-made-sensors, while a loss of 25%–30% is found for the ns-made-sensors. The peculiar behaviour of ns-made sensors has been explained by the presence of a nano-structured sp{sup 3}-carbon layer around the graphitic electrodes, evidenced by micro-Raman imaging, by means of a numerical model of the charge transport near the electrodes.

  16. Measurement of the Charge Collection Efficiency After Heavy Non-Uniform Irradiation in BABAR Silicon Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Calderini, G.; Forti, F.; Marchiori, G.; Rizzo, G.; Giorgi, M.A.; Bosisio, L.; Dittongo, S.; Campagnari, C.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the depletion voltage changes, leakage current increase and charge collection efficiency of a silicon microstrip detector identical to those used in the inner layers of the BABAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) after heavy nonuniform irradiation. A full SVT module with the front-end electronics connected has been irradiated with a 0.9 GeV electron beam up to a peak fluence of 3.5 x 10{sup 14} e{sup -}/cm{sup 2}, well beyond the level causing substrate type inversion. We have irradiated the silicon with a nonuniform profile having {sigma} = 1.4 mm that simulates the conditions encountered in the BABAR experiment by the modules intersecting the horizontal machine plane. The position dependence of the charge collection properties and the depletion voltage have been investigated in detail using a 1060 nm LED and an innovative measuring technique based only on the digital output of the chip.

  17. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  18. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site.

  19. Investigations of afterpulsing and detection efficiency recovery in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Viacheslav; Xu, He; Qi, Bing; Hadfield, Robert H.; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2013-06-01

    We report on the observation of a non-uniform dark count rate in Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors (SNSPDs), specifically focusing on an afterpulsing effect present when the SNSPD is operated at a high bias current regime. The afterpulsing exists for real detection events (triggered by input photons) as well as for dark counts (no laser input). In our standard set-up, the afterpulsing is most likely to occur at around 180 ns following a detection event, for both real counts and dark counts. We characterize the afterpulsing behavior and speculate that it is not due to the SNSPD itself but rather the amplifiers used to boost the electrical output signal from the SNSPD. We show that the afterpulsing indeed disappears when we use a different amplifier with a better low frequency response. We also examine the short-lived enhancement of detection efficiency during the recovery of the SNSPD due to temporary perturbation of the bias and grounding conditions.

  20. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement.

  1. Quantum efficiency of a single microwave photon detector based on a semiconductor double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement H.; Vavilov, Maxim G.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we consider a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting resonator that is driven by the microwave field of a superconducting transmission line. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and show that the resonator-coupled DQD is a sensitive microwave single photon detector. Using currently available experimental parameters of DQD-resonator coupling and dissipation, including the effects of 1 /f charge noise and phonon noise, we determine the parameter regime for which incident photons are completely absorbed and near-unit ≳98 % efficiency can be achieved. We show that this regime can be reached by using very high quality resonators with quality factor Q ≃105 .

  2. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement. PMID:26682623

  3. High efficiency photon counting detectors for the FAUST Spacelab far ultraviolet astronomy payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Lampton, M.; Bixler, J.; Vallerga, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1987-01-01

    The performances of sealed tube microchannel-plate position sensitive detectors having transmission CsI photocathodes or opaque CsI photocathodes are compared. These devices were developed for the FAUST Spacelab payload to accomplish imaging surveys in the band between 1300 A and 1800 A. It is demonstrated that photocathode quantum efficiencies in excess of 40 percent at 1216 A have been achieved with the transmission and the opaque CsI photocathodes. The effect of the photoelectron trajectory on the spatial resolution is assessed. Spatial resolution of less than 70 microns FWHM has been obtained and is maintained up to event rates of 50,000/sec. Background rates of 0.55 events sq cm per sec have been achieved and low distortion (less than 1 percent) imaging has been demonstrated.

  4. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-21

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement.

  5. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Ultimately, simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  6. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  7. ELENA MCP detector: absolute efficiency measurement for low energy neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-04-01

    MicroChannel plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission to Mercury to be launched in 2014. ELENA is a TOF sensor, based on a novel concept ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section)which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop section. It is aimed to detect neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 70° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the environment and the planet, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles release from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (<1eV and >100 eV) as well as Hydrogen back-scattered at hundreds eV. MCP absolute detection efficiency for very low energy neutral atoms (E< 30eV) is a crucial point not yet investigated. At the MEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different type of MCPs coating have been performed providing the behaviors of MCP detection efficiency in the range 10eV-1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are here discussed.

  8. HAND-HELD GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER BASED ON HIGH-EFFICIENCY FRISCH-RING CdZnTe DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI,Y.

    2007-05-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution, el% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. This technique facilitates the application of CdZnTe materials for high efficiency gamma-ray detection. A hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8x8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so that detection efficiency is significantly improved. By using the front-end ASICs developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy resolution. The spectrometer includes signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuit, high-voltage module, and USB interface. In this paper, we introduce the details of the system structure and report our test results with it.

  9. High-Efficiency Continuous Cooling for Cryogenic Instruments and sub-Kelvin Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, James

    Although large, diffraction-limited telescopes are approaching a size limited by available launch vehicles, there is still an enormous discovery spaceopen to astrophysics through the use of advanced low temperature instruments and deep sub-Kelvin detectors. These devices offer the potential for orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and spectral resolution. In the past, cryogenic instruments have been large, expensive, and power hungry, consisting of complex cooling chains with multiple coolers using different technologies. High cost and complexity have been the major impediment to the selection of missions using these advanced capabilities. We propose to develop a compact cooling system that will span more than a factor of 200 in temperature, lifting heat continuously at temperature below 50 mK and rejecting it at over 10 K, simplifying the overall cryogenic system. The device, based on Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs), will have high thermodynamic efficiency. The prototype system will exceed the requirements of all currently conceived cryogenic detector arrays, including those for flagship missions such as the Far-IR Surveyor, Inflation Probe, X-ray Surveyor, and possibly HabEx and LUVOIR. In particular, it will have more than 5 times the cooling power at 50 mK than previous sub-Kelvin coolers, greatly relaxing the requirements on the heat generation in large detector arrays, and simplifying the thermal design of the focal plane assemblies. ADRs by themselves have no moving parts and produce no measurable vibration, however upper-stage mechanical coolers have been linear piston devices that export significant vibration. Ameliorating the problems due to upper-stage cooler vibrations has contributed to increased costs on recent astrophysics missions such as JWST and AstroH. By raising the heat reject temperature to 10 K, the proposed sub-Kelvin cooler becomes compatible with recently-demonstrated extremely low vibration mechanical coolers

  10. A new NaI(Tl) four-detector layout for field contamination assessment using artificial neural networks and the Monte Carlo method for system calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, M. C. F.; Conti, C. C.; Schirru, R.

    2010-09-01

    An NaI(Tl) multidetector layout combined with the use of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed to assess the radioactive contamination of urban and semi-urban environment surfaces. A very simple urban environment like a model street composed of a wall on either side and the ground surface was the study case. A layout of four NaI(Tl) detectors was used, and the data corresponding to the response of the detectors were obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Two additional data sets with random values for the contamination and for detectors' response were also produced to test the ANNs. For this work, 18 feedforward topologies with backpropagation learning algorithm ANNs were chosen and trained. The results showed that some trained ANNs were able to accurately predict the contamination on the three urban surfaces when submitted to values within the training range. Other results showed that generalization outside the training range of values could not be achieved. The use of Monte Carlo calculations in combination with ANNs has been proven to be a powerful tool to perform detection calibration for highly complicated detection geometries.

  11. Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Lu; You, Lixing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Weijun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Sijing; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-06-29

    Satellite-ground quantum communication requires single-photon detectors of 850-nm wavelength with both high detection efficiency and large sensitive area. We developed superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals, which acted as optical cavities to enhance the optical absorption, with a sensitive-area diameter of 50 μm. The fabricated multimode fiber coupled NbN SNSPDs exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency (DE) of up to 82% and a DE of 78% at a dark count rate of 100 Hz at 850-nm wavelength as well as a system jitter of 105 ps.

  12. TH-C-BRD-05: Reducing Proton Beam Range Uncertainty with Patient-Specific CT HU to RSP Calibrations Based On Single-Detector Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Doolan, P; Sharp, G; Testa, M; Lu, H-M; Bentefour, E; Royle, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Beam range uncertainty in proton treatment comes primarily from converting the patient's X-ray CT (xCT) dataset to relative stopping power (RSP). Current practices use a single curve for this conversion, produced by a stoichiometric calibration based on tissue composition data for average, healthy, adult humans, but not for the individual in question. Proton radiographs produce water-equivalent path length (WEPL) maps, dependent on the RSP of tissues within the specific patient. This work investigates the use of such WEPL maps to optimize patient-specific calibration curves for reducing beam range uncertainty. Methods: The optimization procedure works on the principle of minimizing the difference between the known WEPL map, obtained from a proton radiograph, and a digitally-reconstructed WEPL map (DRWM) through an RSP dataset, by altering the calibration curve that is used to convert the xCT into an RSP dataset. DRWMs were produced with Plastimatch, an in-house developed software, and an optimization procedure was implemented in Matlab. Tests were made on a range of systems including simulated datasets with computed WEPL maps and phantoms (anthropomorphic and real biological tissue) with WEPL maps measured by single detector proton radiography. Results: For the simulated datasets, the optimizer showed excellent results. It was able to either completely eradicate or significantly reduce the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) in the WEPL for the homogeneous phantoms (to zero for individual materials or from 1.5% to 0.2% for the simultaneous optimization of multiple materials). For the heterogeneous phantom the RMSE was reduced from 1.9% to 0.3%. Conclusion: An optimization procedure has been designed to produce patient-specific calibration curves. Test results on a range of systems with different complexities and sizes have been promising for accurate beam range control in patients. This project was funded equally by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research

  13. Efficient Orientation and Calibration of Large Aerial Blocks of Multi-Camera Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karel, W.; Ressl, C.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    Aerial multi-camera platforms typically incorporate a nadir-looking camera accompanied by further cameras that provide oblique views, potentially resulting in utmost coverage, redundancy, and accuracy even on vertical surfaces. However, issues have remained unresolved with the orientation and calibration of the resulting imagery, to two of which we present feasible solutions. First, as standard feature point descriptors used for the automated matching of homologous points are only invariant to the geometric variations of translation, rotation, and scale, they are not invariant to general changes in perspective. While the deviations from local 2D-similarity transforms may be negligible for corresponding surface patches in vertical views of flat land, they become evident at vertical surfaces, and in oblique views in general. Usage of such similarity-invariant descriptors thus limits the amount of tie points that stabilize the orientation and calibration of oblique views and cameras. To alleviate this problem, we present the positive impact on image connectivity of using a quasi affine-invariant descriptor. Second, no matter which hard- and software are used, at some point, the number of unknowns of a bundle block may be too large to be handled. With multi-camera platforms, these limits are reached even sooner. Adjustment of sub-blocks is sub-optimal, as it complicates data management, and hinders self-calibration. Simply discarding unreliable tie points of low manifold is not an option either, because these points are needed at the block borders and in poorly textured areas. As a remedy, we present a straight-forward method how to considerably reduce the number of tie points and hence unknowns before bundle block adjustment, while preserving orientation and calibration quality.

  14. Surface detector array for the Pierre Auger observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, H.; Garipov, G. K.; Khrenov, B. A.; Martínez, O.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, L.; Zepeda, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Pierre Auger international collaboration will install two observatories, one in the southern hemisphere and other in the northern hemisphere. Each observatory will consist of two different subsystem: a surface detector array of about 1600 water Cherenkov detectors (WCD) and a set of fluorescence eyes to measure the longitudinal development of air showers. The large area covered by the surface detectors requires efficient calibration and monitoring methods that can be implemented remotely. We present several complementary methods to calibrate and monitor the performance of the individual surface detector stations. We also present some results of the studies made with a full size prototype tank in Puebla, Mexico and in Malargue, Argentina. .

  15. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    PubMed

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation.

  16. Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Based on High-Efficiency Frisch-Ring Cdznte Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y.; Bolotnikov, A; Camarda, G; Hossain, A; James, R; DeGeronimo, G; Fried, J; O'Connor, P; Kargar, A; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated both good energy resolution, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency in detecting gamma rays, highlighting the strong potential of CdZnTe materials for such applications. We are designing a hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8 times 8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so greatly improving detection efficiency. By using the front-end application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy-resolution. It includes a signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuits, a high-voltage module, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. In this paper, we detail the system's structure and report the results of our tests with it.

  17. An efficient and robust maneuvering mode to calibrate low cost magnetometer for improved heading estimation for pedestrian navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S.; Syed, Z.; Goodall, C. L.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2013-03-01

    Personal navigation systems intend to provide the navigation information in any environment, indoors and outdoors, and at any time. In outdoor environments, the positioning solution is typically provided by using Global Positioning System (GPS). However, GPS is inaccurate or unavailable in most of indoor environments and therefore other externally-referenced sensing techniques are required. Inertial sensing techniques are used for pedestrian navigation in association with dead reckoning approach. Magnetometers can be used to derive the user's heading by sensing the Earth's magnetic field. In this paper, an efficient and robust maneuvering mode to calibrate low cost magnetometer is recommended for pedestrian navigation applications. Additionally, other maneuvering modes and errors associated with each mode to achieve best estimation for the calibration parameters in the 3D Space are also provided. Also, the effect of using different maneuvering modes (DMM) on the heading estimation for the pedestrian navigation is studied. The results show that the coordinated mode is suitable to perform the calibration process as the unit is rotated in a way to cover the whole 3D space.

  18. Efficient Bell state analyzer for time-bin qubits with fast-recovery WSi superconducting single photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Valivarthi, R; Lucio-Martinez, I; Rubenok, A; Chan, P; Marsili, F; Verma, V B; Shaw, M D; Stern, J A; Slater, J A; Oblak, D; Nam, S W; Tittel, W

    2014-10-06

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-efficiency Bell state measurement for time-bin qubits that employs two superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with short dead-times, allowing projections onto two Bell states, |ψ⁻〉 and |ψ⁺〉. Compared to previous implementations for time-bin qubits, this yields an increase in the efficiency of Bell state analysis by a factor of thirty.

  19. An efficient stable optical polariser module for calibration of the S4UVN earth observation satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolt, Stephen; Calcines, Ariadna; Lomanowski, Bartosz; Bramall, David; Shaw, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    We describe here an optical polariser module intended to deliver well characterised polarised light to an imaging spectrometer instrument. The instrument in question is the Sentinel-4/UVN Earth observation imaging spectrometer due to be deployed in 2019 in a geostationary orbit. The polariser module described here will be used in the ground based calibration campaign for this instrument. One critical task of the calibration campaign will be the highly accurate characterisation of the polarisation sensitivity of instrument. The polariser module provides a constant, uniform source of linearly polarised light whose direction can be adjusted without changing the output level or uniformity of the illumination. A critical requirement of the polariser module is that the illumination is uniform across the exit pupil. Unfortunately, a conventional Glan-Taylor arrangement cannot provide this uniformity due to the strong variation in transmission at a refractive surface for angles close to the critical angle. Therefore a modified prism arrangement is proposed and this is described in detail. Detailed tolerance modelling and straylight modelling is also reported here.

  20. HOTSPUR: gamma ray emission from spheres pulsed with D-T neutrons. I. Calibration of improved NE213 detector assembly. II. Comparison of TART/SANDYL electron recoil spectra to experiment; preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, E.; Hansen, L.F.; Komoto, T.T.; Pohl, B.A.

    1986-09-01

    The NE213 scintillator detector was modified so that the pulse height would be linear with electron energy over the full range of interest - up to 7.1 MeV. Absolute calibration was done with four different calibrated gamma sources. An average correction factor is obtained which normalizes SANDYL calculations with respect to the calibration experiments. The procedure for calculating neutron-induced gamma-ray output and electron recoil spectra is described, and experimental data from a number of spherical assemblies are given and compared to TART/SANDYL calculations. (LEW)

  1. Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC) Gaussian Corrections for Automated Background Normalization of Rate-Tracked Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Wetterer, C.; Sydney, P.; Gerber, J.

    Photometric processing of non-resolved Electro-Optical (EO) images has commonly required the use of dark and flat calibration frames that are obtained to correct for charge coupled device (CCD) dark (thermal) noise and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects respectively. It is necessary to account/calibrate for these effects so that the brightness of objects of interest (e.g. stars or resident space objects (RSOs)) may be measured in a consistent manner across the CCD field of view. Detected objects typically require further calibration using aperture photometry to compensate for sky background (shot noise). For this, annuluses are measured around each detected object whose contained pixels are used to estimate an average background level that is subtracted from the detected pixel measurements. In a new photometric calibration software tool developed for AFRL/RD, called Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC), an automated background normalization technique is proposed that eliminates the requirement to capture dark and flat calibration images. The proposed technique simultaneously corrects for dark noise, shot noise, and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects. With this, a constant detection threshold may be applied for constant false alarm rate (CFAR) object detection without the need for aperture photometry corrections. The detected pixels may be simply summed (without further correction) for an accurate instrumental magnitude estimate. The noise distribution associated with each pixel is assumed to be sampled from a Poisson distribution. Since Poisson distributed data closely resembles Gaussian data for parameterized means greater than 10, the data may be corrected by applying bias subtraction and standard-deviation division. EPIC performs automated background normalization on rate-tracked satellite images using the following technique. A deck of approximately 50-100 images is combined by performing an independent median

  2. Study of the Neutron Detection Efficiency for the CLAS12 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Keegan; Gilfoyle, Gerard; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    One of the central physics goals of Jefferson Lab is to understand how quarks and gluons form nuclei. The 12 GeV upgrade is nearing completion and a new detector, CLAS12, is being built in Hall B. One of the approved experiments will measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron. To make this measurement, we will extract the ratio of electron-neutron (e-n) to electron-proton (e-p) scattering events from deuterium in quasi-elastic kinematics. A major source of systematic uncertainty is the neutron detection efficiency (NDE) of CLAS12. To better understand the NDE we used the Monte Carlo code gemc to simulate quasi-elastic e-n events like those expected in the experiment. We then analyzed the simulated e-n events by using the measured, scattered electron information to predict the neutron's path. The neutron is detected in CLAS12's electromagnetic calorimeter (EC). If the predicted neutron path intersected the fiducial volume of the EC, then we searched for a hit near that point. The NDE is the ratio of the number of neutrons found in the EC to the number of neutrons predicted to hit the EC. The analysis was done using the newly released CLAS12 reconstruction tools. We observe a rapid rise in the NDE at low neutron momentum and a plateau above 60%. Work supported by the University of Richmond and the US Department of Energy.

  3. Selecting Power-Efficient Signal Features for a Low-Power Fall Detector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhong; Redmond, Stephen; Lu, Wei; Stevens, Michael; Lord, Stephen; Lovell, Nigel

    2017-02-15

    Falls are a serious threat to the health of older people. A wearable fall detector can automatically detect the occurrence of a fall and alert a caregiver or an emergency response service so they may deliver immediate assistance, improving the chances of recovering from fall-related injuries. One constraint of such a wearable technology is its limited battery life. Thus, minimization of power consumption is an important design concern, all the while maintaining satisfactory accuracy of the fall detection algorithms implemented on the wearable device. This paper proposes an approach for selecting power-efficient signal features such that the minimum desirable fall detection accuracy is assured. Using data collected in simulated falls, simulated activities of daily living, and real free-living trials, all using young volunteers, the proposed approach selects three features from a set of ten commonly-used features, providing a power saving of 75.3%, while limiting the error rate of a binary classification decision tree fall detection algorithm to 7.1%.

  4. A new design for a high resolution, high efficiency CZT gamma camera detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestais, C.; Baffert, N.; Bonnefoy, J. P.; Chapuis, A.; Koenig, A.; Monnet, O.; Ouvrier Buffet, P.; Rostaing, J. P.; Sauvage, F.; Verger, L.

    2001-02-01

    We have designed a CZT gamma camera detector that provides an array of CZT pixels and associated front-end electronics - including an ASIC - and permits gamma camera measurements using the method patented by CEA-LETI and reported by Verger et al. [1]. Electron response in each CZT pixel is registered by correcting pulse height for position of interaction based on fast rise-time information. This method brings advantages of high scatter rejection while allowing high detection efficiency. These techniques and the systems approach have been developed at CEA-LETI in an exclusive joint development with BICRON and CRISMATEC who in turn are commercializing the technology. The initial system is implemented in an array framework with 1920 pixels, approximately 180×215 mm 2 in dimension, but the system architecture expands readily to 4096 pixels, and these arrays can be ganged into groups of up to 8 for pixel planes totaling over 32 000 pixels without architecture changes. The overall system design is described and brain phantom images are presented that were obtained by scanning with a small number of pixels.

  5. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    DOE PAGES

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; ...

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, makingmore » it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Ultimately, simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.« less

  6. Monte Carlo calculation of the sensitivity of a commercial dose calibrator to gamma and beta radiation.

    PubMed

    Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Valley, Jean-François; Bulling, Shelley; Bochud, François O

    2004-06-01

    The detection process used in a commercial dose calibrator was modeled using the GEANT 3 Monte Carlo code. Dose calibrator efficiency for gamma and beta emitters, and the response to monoenergetic photons and electrons was calculated. The model shows that beta emitters below 2.5 MeV deposit energy indirectly in the detector through bremsstrahlung produced in the chamber wall or in the source itself. Higher energy beta emitters (E > 2.5 MeV) deposit energy directly in the chamber sensitive volume, and dose calibrator sensitivity increases abruptly for these radionuclides. The Monte Carlo calculations were compared with gamma and beta emitter measurements. The calculations show that the variation in dose calibrator efficiency with measuring conditions (source volume, container diameter, container wall thickness and material, position of the source within the calibrator) is relatively small and can be considered insignificant for routine measurement applications. However, dose calibrator efficiency depends strongly on the inner-wall thickness of the detector.

  7. The efficiency calibration of the DSS-24 34-meter beam-waveguide antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, L. S.; Britcliffe, M. J.; Franco, M. M.; Stewart, S. R.; Jackson, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave performance testing of the new Deep Space Station (DSS)-24 34-m-diameter antenna was carried out during the summer of 1994. Efficiency measurements were made at the 8.45 GHz (X-band) and 32-GHz (ka-band) frequencies both at the antenna Cassegrian (f1) and beam-waveguide (f3) focal points. In addition, the antenna f3 efficiencies were measured on the DSS-24 operational 2.295-GHz (S-band) and 8.45-Ghz feeds. This article presents the efficiency determinations as a function of elevation angle along with a corresponding error analysis of the measurements. Peak measured gains and efficiencies are tabulated for all frequencies.

  8. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Pennycook, Timothy J.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Yang, Hao; ...

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phasemore » contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. In conclusion, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe.« less

  9. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Timothy J.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Yang, Hao; Murfitt, Matthew F.; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phase contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. In conclusion, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe.

  10. Comparison of calculation results of neutron detection efficiency for models with silicon semiconductor detector and plastic scintillator for GAMMA-400 telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedenko, G.; Zin, Thant; Kadilin, V.; Gavrikov, I.; Tyurin, E.; Isakov, S.

    2013-02-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were performed for two models of neutron detector. The first model of the neutron detector includes the layer of polyethylene as a moderator, boron as a target for (n, α) reaction and silicon as a detector of α-particles. The second model consists of polyethylene layers alternating with layers of plastic-boron scintillators. Calculations were performed for parallel neutron flux with evaporation spectrum. The calculation results of neutron detection efficiency for two proposed models were analyzed and compared. The high neutron detection efficiency is attained by using a plastic-boron scintillator. Using natural boron the 10% of detection efficiency is attained and in the case of enriched boron more than 15% of detection efficiency is attained when the detector thickness is 4 cm. The model using silicon detectors provides the detection efficiency about 4%.

  11. A Practical Guide to Calibration of a GSSHA Hydrologic Model Using ERDC Automated Model Calibration Software - Effective and Efficient Stochastic Global Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    2007. Calibration of the NEMURO nutrient - phytoplankton -zooplankton food web model to a coastal ecosystem: Evaluation of an automated calibration...Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products . All product names and... product of its use both during and after the parameter estimation process. Another feature is that it is easily adapted by the inclusion of various

  12. Construction and Calibration of Optically Efficient LCD-based Multi-Layer Light Field Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Matthew; Lanman, Douglas; Wetzstein, Gordon; Raskar, Ramesh

    2013-02-01

    Near-term commercial multi-view displays currently employ ray-based 3D or 4D light field techniques. Conventional approaches to ray-based display typically include lens arrays or heuristic barrier patterns combined with integral interlaced views on a display screen such as an LCD panel. Recent work has placed an emphasis on the co-design of optics and image formation algorithms to achieve increased frame rates, brighter images, and wider fields-of-view using optimization-in-the-loop and novel arrangements of commodity LCD panels. In this paper we examine the construction and calibration methods of computational, multi-layer LCD light field displays. We present several experimental configurations that are simple to build and can be tuned to sufficient precision to achieve a research quality light field display. We also present an analysis of moiré interference in these displays, and guidelines for diffuser placement and display alignment to reduce the effects of moiré. We describe a technique using the moiré magnifier to fine-tune the alignment of the LCD layers.

  13. Efficient Calibration/Uncertainty Analysis Using Paired Complex/Surrogate Models.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Wesley; Doherty, John

    2015-01-01

    The use of detailed groundwater models to simulate complex environmental processes can be hampered by (1) long run-times and (2) a penchant for solution convergence problems. Collectively, these can undermine the ability of a modeler to reduce and quantify predictive uncertainty, and therefore limit the use of such detailed models in the decision-making context. We explain and demonstrate a novel approach to calibration and the exploration of posterior predictive uncertainty, of a complex model, that can overcome these problems in many modelling contexts. The methodology relies on conjunctive use of a simplified surrogate version of the complex model in combination with the complex model itself. The methodology employs gradient-based subspace analysis and is thus readily adapted for use in highly parameterized contexts. In its most basic form, one or more surrogate models are used for calculation of the partial derivatives that collectively comprise the Jacobian matrix. Meanwhile, testing of parameter upgrades and the making of predictions is done by the original complex model. The methodology is demonstrated using a density-dependent seawater intrusion model in which the model domain is characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity.

  14. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kidney, Darren; Rawson, Benjamin M.; Borchers, David L.; Stevenson, Ben C.; Marques, Tiago A.; Thomas, Len

    2016-01-01

    Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers’ estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will make this method

  15. SU-F-BRA-09: New Efficient Method for Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy Source Calibration by Pre-Characterizing Surface Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective is to improve the efficiency and efficacy of Xoft™ Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (EBT) calibration of the source & surface applicator using AAPM TG-61 formalism. Methods: Current method of Xoft EBT source calibration involves determination of absolute dose rate of the source in each of the four conical surface applicators using in-air chamber measurements & TG61 formalism. We propose a simplified TG-61 calibration methodology involving initial characterization of surface cone applicators. This is accomplished by calibrating dose rates for all 4 surface applicator sets (for 10 sources) which establishes the “applicator output ratios” with respect to the selected reference applicator (20 mm applicator). After the initial time, Xoft™ Axxent™ source TG61 Calibration is carried out only in the reference applicator. Using the established applicator output ratios, dose rates for other applicators will be calculated. Results: 200 sources & 8 surface applicator sets were calibrated cumulatively using a Standard Imaging A20 ion-chamber in accordance with manufacturer-recommended protocols. Dose rates of 10, 20, 35 & 50mm applicators were normalized to the reference (20mm) applicator. The data in Figure 1 indicates that the normalized dose rate variation for each applicator for all 200 sources is better than ±3%. The average output ratios are 1.11, 1.02 and 0.49 for the 10 mm,35 mm and 50 mm applicators, respectively, which are in good agreement with the manufacturer’s published output ratios of 1.13, 1.02 and 0.49. Conclusion: Our measurements successfully demonstrate the accuracy of a new calibration method using a single surface applicator for Xoft EBT sources and deriving the dose rates of other applicators. The accuracy of the calibration is improved as this method minimizes the source position variation inside the applicator during individual source calibrations. The new method significantly reduces the calibration time to less

  16. Integrated four-channel all-fiber up-conversion single-photon-detector with adjustable efficiency and dark count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming-Yang; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Ma, Fei; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Hai-Ting; Dai, Yun-Qi; Xie, Xiuping; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Up-conversion single photon detector (UCSPD) has been widely used in many research fields including quantum key distribution, lidar, optical time domain reflectrometry, and deep space communication. For the first time in laboratory, we have developed an integrated four-channel all-fiber UCSPD which can work in both free-running and gate modes. This compact module can satisfy different experimental demands with adjustable detection efficiency and dark count. We have characterized the key parameters of the UCSPD system.

  17. Calibration of the MEDUSA neutron spectrometer (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T. C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Lerche, R. A.; Phillips, T. W.; Stoeckl, C.; Padalino, S. J.; Olliver, H.; Thompson, S.

    2001-01-01

    The MEDUSA array is a multielement, scintillator-based neutron time-of-flight spectrometer designed primarily to measure primary and secondary neutron production from indirect drive DD and DT capsule implosions at the Omega Laser in Rochester, NY. The array consists of 824 identical scintillator-photomultiplier tube detectors coupled to analog signal discriminators and high resolution, multihit time-to-digital converters, and is located 19.4 m from the center of the Omega target chamber. It is possible to accurately measure the neutron energy spectrum by simply measuring an adequate sample of neutron flight times to the array (the burn time width is negligible). However it is essential to understand the response of the array detectors to the fusion neutrons before an energy spectrum can be deduced from the data. This array response function is generally given in terms of a calibration constant that relates the expected number of detector hits in the array to the number of source neutrons. The calibration constant is a function of the individual detector gains, the thresholds of the discriminators, and the amount of neutron attenuating material between the array and the target. After gain matching the detectors, a calibration constant can be generated by comparing the array response against a known yield of neutrons (this requires dozens of implosions) or from a first principles measurement of the individual detector efficiencies. In this article, we report on the results of both calibrations of the MEDUSA array. In particular, we will focus on the issues and errors associated with the very different measurements required and discuss a new technique being considered for rapid in situ future calibrations.

  18. Electron reconstruction and identification efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2011 LHC proton-proton collision data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Khalek, S. Abdel; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Verzini, M. J. Alconada; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Ammosov, V. V.; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Bella, L. Aperio; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Mayes, J. Backus; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães da; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Noccioli, E. Benhar; Garcia, J. A. Benitez; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E. Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; De Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Renstrom, P. A. Bruckman de; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Urbán, S. Cabrera; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Toro, R. Camacho; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Armadans, R. Caminal; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Garrido, M. D. M. Capeans; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Gimenez, V. Castillo; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, K.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Barajas, C. A. Chavez; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Moursli, R. Cherkaoui El; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christidi, I. A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Muiño, P. Conde; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Ortuzar, M. Crispin; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Donszelmann, T. Cuhadar; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; De Sousa, M. J. Da Cunha Sargedas; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Hoffmann, M. Dano; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J. A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Ciaccio, A. Di; Di Ciaccio, L.; Domenico, A. Di; Donato, C. Di; Girolamo, A. Di; Girolamo, B. Di; Mattia, A. Di; Micco, B. Di; Nardo, R. Di; Simone, A. Di; Sipio, R. Di; Valentino, D. Di; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Vale, M. A. B. do; Wemans, A. Do Valle; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Perez, S. Fernandez; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; de Lima, D. E. Ferreira; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Parodi, A. Ferretto; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Castillo, L. R. Flores; Bustos, A. C. Florez; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Torregrosa, E. Fullana; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Walls, F. M. Garay; Garberson, F.; García, C.; Navarro, J. E. García; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goeringer, C.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Fajardo, L. S. Gomez; Gonçalo, R.; Costa, J. Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da; Gonella, L.; de la Hoz, S. González; Parra, G. Gonzalez; Silva, M. L. Gonzalez; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Gozpinar, S.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grout, Z. J.; Grybel, K.; Guan, L.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Gunther, J.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageboeck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Heisterkamp, S.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, C.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Herbert, G. H.; Jiménez, Y. Hernández; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, J. I.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. R.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Ideal, E.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Quiles, A. Irles; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Ivashin, A. V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J. N.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, K. E.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jungst, R. M.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kanno, T.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karastathis, N.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P. T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Keller, J. S.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Keung, J.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Khodinov, A.; Khomich, A.; Khoo, T. J.; Khoriauli, G.; Khoroshilov, A.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, R. S. B.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kitamura, T.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiuchi, K.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. A.; Kohlmann, S.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Komar, A. A.; Komori, Y.; Kondo, T.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; König, S.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopeliansky, R.; Koperny, S.; Köpke, L.; Kopp, A. K.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korol, A. A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Korotkov, V. A.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J. K.; Kravchenko, A.; Kreiss, S.; Kretz, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kreutzfeldt, K.; Krieger, P.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Kruker, T.; Krumnack, N.; Krumshteyn, Z. V.; Kruse, A.; Kruse, M. C.; Kruskal, M.; Kubota, T.; Kuday, S.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuna, M.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kurumida, R.; Kus, V.; Kuwertz, E. S.; Kuze, M.; Kvita, J.; La Rosa, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Labarga, L.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacey, J.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Laier, H.; Lambourne, L.; Lammers, S.; Lampen, C. 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H.; Vranjes, N.; Milosavljevic, M. Vranjes; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2014-07-01

    Many of the interesting physics processes to be measured at the LHC have a signature involving one or more isolated electrons. The electron reconstruction and identification efficiencies of the ATLAS detector at the LHC have been evaluated using proton-proton collision data collected in 2011 at TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb. Tag-and-probe methods using events with leptonic decays of and bosons and mesons are employed to benchmark these performance parameters. The combination of all measurements results in identification efficiencies determined with an accuracy at the few per mil level for electron transverse energy greater than 30 GeV.

  19. High efficiency and rapid response superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector based on asymmetric split ring metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guanhai; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Shao-Wei Lu, Wei

    2014-06-09

    With asymmetric split ring metamaterial periodically placed on top of the niobium nitride (NbN) nanowire meander, we theoretically propose a kind of metal-insulator-metallic metamaterial nanocavity to enhance absorbing efficiency and shorten response time of the superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) operating at wavelength of 1550 nm. Up to 99.6% of the energy is absorbed and 96.5% dissipated in the nanowire. Meanwhile, taking advantage of this high efficiency absorbing cavity, we implement a more sparse arrangement of the NbN nanowire of the filling factor 0.2, which significantly lessens the nanowire and crucially boosts the response time to be only 40% of reset time in previous evenly spaced meander design. Together with trapped mode resonance, a standing wave oscillation mechanism is presented to explain the high efficiency and broad bandwidth properties. To further demonstrate the advantages of the nanocavity, a four-pixel SNSPD on 10 μm × 10 μm area is designed to further reduce 75% reset time while maintaining 70% absorbing efficiency. Utilizing the asymmetric split ring metamaterial, we show a higher efficiency and more rapid response SNSPD configuration to contribute to the development of single photon detectors.

  20. Quantum efficiencies of imaging detectors with alkali halide photocathodes. I - Microchannel plates with separate and integral CsI photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements and comparisons have been made of the quantum efficiencies of microchannel plate (MCP) detectors in the far-UV (below 2000-A) wavelength range using CsI photocathodes (a) deposited on the front surfaces of microchannel plates and (b) deposited on solid substrates as opaque photocathodes with the resulting photoelectrons input to microchannel plates. The efficiences were measured in both pulse-counting and photodiode modes of operation. Typical efficiencies are about 15 percent at 1216 A for a CsI-coated MCP compared with 65 percent for an opaque CsI photocathode MCP detector. Special processing has yielded an efficiency as high as 20 percent for a CsI-coated MCP. This may possibly be further improved by optimization of the tilt angle of the MCP channels relative to the front face of the MCP and incident radiation. However, at present there still remains a factor of at least 3 quantum efficiency advantage in the separate opaque CsI photocathode configuration.

  1. High-Efficiency CdZnTe Position-Sensitive VFG Gamma-Ray Detectors for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Vernon, E.; Camarda, G. S.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Indusi, J.; Boyer, Brian

    2015-09-30

    The goal of this project is to incorporate a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detector (with 1% or better resolution) into a bench-top prototype for isotope identification and related safeguards applications. The bench-top system is based on a 2x2 array of 6x6x20 mm3 position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid (VFG) CZT detectors. The key features of the array are that it allows for the use of average-grade CZT material with a moderate content of defects, and yet it provides high energy resolution, 1% FWHM at 662 keV, large effective area, and low-power consumption. The development of this type of 3D detector and new instruments incorporating them is motivated by the high cost and low availability of large, > 1 cm3, CZT crystals suitable for making multi-pixel detectors with acceptable energy resolution and efficiency.

  2. Characterization and modeling of relative luminescence efficiency of optically stimulated luminescence detectors exposed to heavy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel Oliveira

    Scope and method of study. This work investigates the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of carbon-doped aluminum oxide Al2O3:C detectors exposed to heavy charged particles (HCPs) with energies relevant to radiation protection in space, and cancer therapy. This investigation includes ground-based experiments in accelerators and theoretical studies of the detector's response. These theoretical studies are based on the track structure model (TSM) and require information of the spatial pattern of energy deposition around the HCP path---the radial dose distribution (RDD). Thus, RDDs were obtained using six analytical models, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the code GEANT4. In addition, we propose a modified analytical model to improve the agreement between calculated and experimental efficiency values. Findings and conclusions. Dose response experiments showed that beta rays and H 1000 MeV radiations produced similar responses in the detectors and we concluded that the H 1000 MeV and beta radiations deposit energy similarly. We observed a common trend of decreasing the relative luminescence efficiency (etaHCP,gamma ) as increasing the unrestricted linear energy transfer in water ( LH2Oinfinity ) for all the detectors. For Luxel(TM) detectors the eta HCP,gamma was close to unit for particles with LH2Oinfinity lower than 3 keV/mum. TSM using the RDD from Chatterjee and Schaefer, Butts and Katz, Waligorski et al., Fageeha et al., Kiefer and Straaten, and Geibeta et al. models failed to predict the etaHCP,gamma values. We proposed a modified version of the RDD from Butts and Katz model, which agreed within 20% with relative luminescence efficiency experimental data. This was the first time that such agreement was achieved for a wide range of HCPs of different energies. MC simulations with GEANT4 agreed within 35% with etaHCP,gamma experimental data. Finally, we suggested a correction method, based on the calculation of etaHCP,gamma using the TSM

  3. Improvements in the Low Energy Collection Efficiency of Si(Li) X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox,C.; Fischer, D.; Schwartz, W.; Song, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Soft X-ray beam-line applications are of fundamental importance to material research, and commonly employ high-resolution Si(Li) detectors for energy dispersive spectroscopy. However, the measurement of X-rays below 1 keV is compromised by absorption in the material layers in front of the active crystal and a dead layer at the crystal surface. Various Schottky barrier type contacts were investigated resulting in a 40% reduction of the dead-layer thickness and a factor of two increased sensitivity at carbon K{sub {alpha}} compared to the standard Si(Li) detector. Si(Li) detectors were tested on the U7A soft X-ray beam-line at the National Synchrotron Light Source and on a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  4. Effect of finite detector-element width on the spatial-frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Ian A.; Westmore, Michael S.; Fenster, Aaron

    1995-05-01

    Image blur in digital imaging systems results from both the spatial spreading of quanta representing the image in the detector system and from the integration of quanta over the finite detector element width. Linear-systems theory has often been used to describe these blurring mechanisms as a convolution, implying the existence of a corresponding modulation transfer function (MTF) in the spatial-frequency domain. This also implies that the resulting noise- power spectrum (NPS) is modified by the square of the blurring MTF. This deterministic approach correctly describes the effect of each blurring mechanism on the overall system MTF, but does not correctly describe image noise characteristics. This is because the convolution is a deterministic calculation, and neglects the statistical properties of the image quanta. Rabbani et al. developed an expression for the NPS following a stochastic spreading mechanism that correctly accounts for these statistical properties. Use of their results requires a modification in how we should interpret the convolution theorem. We suggest the use of a `stochastic' convolution operator, that uses the Rabbani equation for the NPS rather than the deterministic result. This approach unifies the description of both image blur and image noise into a single linear-systems framework. This method is then used to develop expressions for the signal, NPS, DQE, and pixel SNR for a hypothetical digital detector design that includes the effects of conversion to secondary quanta, stochastic spreading of the secondary quanta, and a finite detector-element width.

  5. Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Korzh, B. Walenta, N.; Lunghi, T.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.

    2014-02-24

    We present a free-running single photon detector for telecom wavelengths based on a negative feedback avalanche photodiode (NFAD). A dark count rate as low as 1 cps was obtained at a detection efficiency of 10%, with an afterpulse probability of 2.2% for 20 μs of deadtime. This was achieved by using an active hold-off circuit and cooling the NFAD with a free-piston stirling cooler down to temperatures of −110 °C. We integrated two detectors into a practical, 625 MHz clocked quantum key distribution system. Stable, real-time key distribution in the presence of 30 dB channel loss was possible, yielding a secret key rate of 350 bps.

  6. Time-resolved singlet-oxygen luminescence detection with an efficient and practical semiconductor single-photon detector

    PubMed Central

    Boso, Gianluca; Ke, Damei; Korzh, Boris; Bouilloux, Jordan; Lange, Norbert; Zbinden, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    In clinical applications, such as PhotoDynamic Therapy, direct singlet-oxygen detection through its luminescence in the near-infrared range (1270 nm) has been a challenging task due to its low emission probability and the lack of suitable single-photon detectors. Here, we propose a practical setup based on a negative-feedback avalanche diode detector that is a viable alternative to the current state-of-the art for different clinical scenarios, especially where geometric collection efficiency is limited (e.g. fiber-based systems, confocal microscopy, scanning systems etc.). The proposed setup is characterized with Rose Bengal as a standard photosensitizer and it is used to measure the singlet-oxygen quantum yield of a new set of photosensitizers for site-selective photodynamic therapy. PMID:26819830

  7. A highly stable 30 keV proton accelerator for studies of angular detection efficiency on Si detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Bacci, Americo; Baessler, Stefan; Carr, Peter; Hefele, Thomas; Pocanic, Dinko; Roane, Nicholas; Ross, Aaron; Slater, R.; Smith, Alexander; Toth, Csaba; Warner, Dane; Zamperini, Shawn; Zotev, Panaiot; Nab experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Nab experiment at the SNS measures the electron-neutrino correlation parameter and the Fierz interference term in free neutron beta decay by measuring in coincidence the electron energy and proton momentum in a magnetic spectrometer with two Si detectors. These large area, thick, and 127-hexagonal segmented Si detectors have to be carefully characterized for optimal performance and for control of systematic errors. The angular detection efficiency of 30 keV proton incident on Si is an important part of this studies. We will present the design, simulation, operation, and detection of 30 keV H+ and H2+as well as results to control the beam stability by the correlation of both detected ion signals. At present we have reached beam stability of (1.2 +/-1.3)E-7/sec.

  8. Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzh, B.; Walenta, N.; Lunghi, T.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.

    2014-02-01

    We present a free-running single photon detector for telecom wavelengths based on a negative feedback avalanche photodiode (NFAD). A dark count rate as low as 1 cps was obtained at a detection efficiency of 10%, with an afterpulse probability of 2.2% for 20 μs of deadtime. This was achieved by using an active hold-off circuit and cooling the NFAD with a free-piston stirling cooler down to temperatures of -110 °C. We integrated two detectors into a practical, 625 MHz clocked quantum key distribution system. Stable, real-time key distribution in the presence of 30 dB channel loss was possible, yielding a secret key rate of 350 bps.

  9. Alkali ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Hrizo, John; Bauerle, James E.; Witkowski, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

  10. Multigamma-ray calibration sources

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.A.; Massey, T.N.

    1983-05-01

    We have calibrated a self-consistent set of multigamma-ray standards using the automated multi-spectrometry ..gamma..-ray counting facility at LLNL's Nuclear Chemistry Division. Pure sources of long-lived activity were produced by mass separation and/or chemical purification. The sources were counted individually and in combination on several different calibrated spectrometer systems. These systems utilize various detectors ranging from small (x-ray) detectors to large volume high-purity Ge detectors. This has allowed the use of the most ideal individual detector-efficiency characteristics for the determination of the relative ..gamma..-ray intensities. Precise energy measurements, reported earlier (Meyer, 1976) have been performed by an independent method. Both the energy and ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities determined compare well with independently established values such as the recent ICRM intercomparison of /sup 152/Eu. We discuss our investigations aimed at resolving the shape of the efficiency response function up to 10 MeV for large volume Ge(Li) and high-purity Ge detectors. Recent results on the ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities per decay for /sup 149/Gd and /sup 168/Tm multigamma-ray sources are discussed. For /sup 168/Tm, we deduce a 0.01% ..beta../sup -/ branch to the 87.73-keV level in /sup 168/Yb rather than the previous value which was a factor of 200 greater. In addition, we describe current cooperative efforts aimed at establishing a consistent set of data for short-lived fission products. Included are recent measurements on the bromine fission products with ..gamma.. rays up to 7 MeV.

  11. ALTEA calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to

  12. The ROSAT WFC imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Sansom, A. E.

    1990-11-01

    Results of the calibration program performed on flight and flight-spare detectors for the Rosat Wide Field Camera (WFC) are presented. The result of an accelerated life test on a development model detector assembled to flight standard are summarized. Imaging tests demonstrate that the lookup table technique for removing distortion works efficiency with low differential nonlinearity. No undesirable 'chicken wire' effects are seen in the images, and the detector resolution matches the on-axis performance of the telescope and is constant across the field of view. Peaks in efficiency occur at 10.2, 20, and 100 eV and mimima at 13 and 45 eV. The secondary 13 eV minimum is correlated with the onset of two-electron photoemission. The mean change in gain as a function of photon energy in the EUV band is much less rapid than in the soft X-ray band.

  13. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined detection of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Chiles, M.M.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1987-02-27

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation event count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  14. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Chiles, Marion M.; Mihalczo, John T.; Blakeman, Edward D.

    1989-01-01

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  15. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Chiles, Marion M.; Mihalczo, John T.; Blakeman, Edward D.

    1989-02-07

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  16. Security loophole in free-space quantum key distribution due to spatial-mode detector-efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Chaiwongkhot, Poompong; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jennewein, Thomas; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Makarov, Vadim

    2015-06-01

    In free-space quantum key distribution (QKD), the sensitivity of the receiver's detector channels may depend differently on the spatial mode of incoming photons. Consequently, an attacker can control the spatial mode to break security. We experimentally investigate a standard polarization QKD receiver and identify sources of efficiency mismatch in its optical scheme. We model a practical intercept-and-resend attack and show that it would break security in most situations. We show experimentally that adding an appropriately chosen spatial filter at the receiver's entrance may be an effective countermeasure.

  17. High efficiency plastic scintillator detector with wavelength-shifting fiber readout for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. A.; Deering, P. L.; Hartman, R. C.; Johnson, T. E.; Nebel, T. R.; Ormes, J. F.; Thompson, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the design and performance studies of the scintillator tile detectors for the anti-coincidence detector (ACD) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), scheduled for launch in early 2008. The scintillator tile detectors utilize wavelength-shifting fibers and have dual-photomultiplier-tube readout. The design requires highly efficient and uniform detection of singly charged relativistic particles over the tile area and must meet all requirements for a launch, as well as operation in a space environment. We present here the design of three basic types of tiles used in the ACD, ranging in size from ˜450 to ˜2500 cm2, all ˜1 cm thick, with different shapes, and with photoelectron yield of ˜20 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle at normal tile incidence, uniform over the tile area. Some tiles require flexible clear fiber cables up to 1.5 m long to deliver scintillator light to remotely located photomultiplier tubes.

  18. Technology for radiation efficiency measurement of high-power halogen tungsten lamp used in calibration of high-energy laser energy meter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Hu, Xiao Yang; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Chang, Yan

    2015-03-20

    The calibration method using a high-power halogen tungsten lamp as a calibration source has many advantages such as strong equivalence and high power, so it is very fit for the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. However, high-power halogen tungsten lamps after power-off still reserve much residual energy and continually radiate energy, which is difficult to be measured. Two measuring systems were found to solve the problems. One system is composed of an integrating sphere and two optical spectrometers, which can accurately characterize the radiative spectra and power-time variation of the halogen tungsten lamp. This measuring system was then calibrated using a normal halogen tungsten lamp made of the same material as the high-power halogen tungsten lamp. In this way, the radiation efficiency of the halogen tungsten lamp after power-off can be quantitatively measured. In the other measuring system, a wide-spectrum power meter was installed far away from the halogen tungsten lamp; thus, the lamp can be regarded as a point light source. The radiation efficiency of residual energy from the halogen tungsten lamp was computed on the basis of geometrical relations. The results show that the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency was improved with power-on time but did not change under constant power-on time/energy. All the tested halogen tungsten lamps reached 89.3% of radiation efficiency at 50 s after power-on. After power-off, the residual energy in the halogen tungsten lamp gradually dropped to less than 10% of the initial radiation power, and the radiation efficiency changed with time. The final total radiation energy was decided by the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency, the radiation efficiency of residual energy, and the total power consumption. The measuring uncertainty of total radiation energy was 2.4% (here, the confidence factor is two).

  19. Efficient, non-iterative estimator for imaging contrast agents with spectral x-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Robert E

    2015-12-22

    This paper describes an estimator to image contrast agents and body materials with x-ray spectral measurements. Previous implementations were limited to a two function basis set but the new implementation is usable with the three or more basis functions that are required with high atomic number contrast materials. The estimator variance is equal to the Cramèr-Rao lower bound (CRLB) and it is unbiased. Its parameters can be computed from measurements of a calibration phantom with the clinical x-ray system and it is non-iterative. The estimator is compared with an iterative maximum likelihood estimator.

  20. A comparison of methods for determining neutron detector efficiencies at medium energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Anderson, B. D.; Baldwin, A. R.; Lebo, C.; Flanders, B.; Pairsuwan, W.; Madey, R.; Foster, C. C.

    1983-10-01

    We compare the "Lithium Activation" (LiA) method and the "Isospin Clebsch-Gordan Ratio" (ICGR) method for determining detection efficiencies of neutrons between 100 and 160 MeV. Each method was used to determine the efficiency by relating a measured neutron yield to a cross section measured in another way: γ-ray activation cross sections for LiA; (p, p') cross sections from experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility for ICGR. Efficiencies determined by the two methods disagree substantially. Efficiencies calculated with the Monte Carlo code of Cecil et al. agree with the ICGR results. We conclude that the Lithium Activation method is inconsistent at these energies.

  1. Electron reconstruction and identification efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2011 LHC proton-proton collision data.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Khalek, S Abdel; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmad, A; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Verzini, M J Alconada; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Gonzalez, B Alvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Coutinho, Y Amaral; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Ammosov, V V; Santos, S P Amor Dos; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; 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