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Sample records for detector readout chip

  1. SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.

    1998-02-01

    A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720 000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout, allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron.

  2. HEXITEC ASIC—a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lawrence; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20×20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  3. Test results of a self-triggering silicon strip detector readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasiński, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Robert; Czermak, Adam

    2009-08-01

    The n-XYter integrated circuit (ASIC) was designed in a CMOS 0.35 μm technology, as a 128-channel, data-driven silicon detector readout chip and became a prototype readout chip for several experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). The details of the circuit architecture have already been published [C. Schmidt, et al., in: Proceedings of the Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics, Prague, Czech Republic, 03-07 September 2007; A. Brogna, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 568 (2006) 301]. In this paper we present test results on discriminator threshold spread and its correction, analogue front-end gain measurements and calibration of the time-stamp circuitry. The measurements were performed using on-chip test pulses. The ASIC was connected to a 1 cm long, 100 μm pitch, AC-coupled silicon strip detector (SSD).

  4. A multi-channel integrated readout circuit (MIROC) chip for solid state charged particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiang

    2011-12-01

    Various electronic amplifier systems have been developed during the past years for solid state detectors for energetic charged particle detection. Most of them were based on the design of discrete parts or high performance hybrid packaged chips. With rapid development of modern integrated circuit industry, there are more and more integrated systems built for such applications. This work describes a novel multi-channel integrated readout circuit (MIROC) mixed-signal ASIC for solid stage charged particle detectors. The chip contains nineteen analog amplifier channels including the test channel, three on-chip 8-bit ADCs, each equipped with a 8-bit parallel-to-serial shift register, three 19-input analog multiplexers, and other digital control logic modules. This was the first known integrated readout system with multiple channels and multiple ADCs, by the time the project started. The chip is designed with special interest in 1MeV electrons. It is a highly integrated system that only requires minimal external controls, which could significantly reduce cost, space, power and total mass of the readout system, and reduce the development cycle of new instruments. MIROC chip was fabricated with IBM 7WL 0.18microm SiGe BiCMOS technology through MOSIS MEP research license, and has been tested, with key components characterized. Measured only 4mmx4mm, this highly integrated readout system has a FWHM noise below 20keV. The four configurable conversion gain levels of the amplifier chains, measured to be 164mV/MeV, 378mV/MeV, 611mV/MeV and 950mV/MeV, make the chip capable of studying energetic charged particles over the range of 100keV up to 6MeV.

  5. A binary readout chip for silicon microstrip detector in proton imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipala, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bondì, M.; Bonanno, D.; Cadeddu, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Civinini, C.; Cuttone, G.; Lai, A.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Maccioni, G.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Scaringella, M.; Talamonti, C.; Tesi, M.; Vanzi, E.

    2017-01-01

    The mixed-signal PRIMA-chip has been developed for sensitive-position silicon detector in proton imaging application. The chip is based upon the binary readout architecture which, providing fully parallel signal processing, is a good solution for high intensity radiation application. It includes 32-front-end channels with a charge preamplifier, a shaper and a comparator. In order to adjust the comparator thresholds, each channel contains a 8-bit DAC, programmed using an I2C like interface. The PRIMA-chip has been fabricated using the AMS 0.35 μm standard CMOS process and its performances have been tested coupling it to the detectors used in the tracker assembled for the pCT (proton Computed Tomography) apparatus.

  6. Radiation tolerance of prototype BTeV pixel detector readout chips

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2002-07-12

    High energy and nuclear physics experiments need tracking devices with increasing spatial precision and readout speed in the face of ever-higher track densities and increased radiation environments. The new generation of hybrid pixel detectors (arrays of silicon diodes bump bonded to arrays of front-end electronic cells) is the state of the art technology able to meet these challenges. We report on irradiation studies performed on BTeV pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Prototype pixel readout chip preFPIX2 has been developed at Fermilab for collider experiments and implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose up to 87 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been extensively measured.

  7. Characterization of edgeless pixel detectors coupled to Medipix2 readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliopuska, Juha; Tlustos, Lukas; Eränen, Simo; Virolainen, Tuula

    2011-08-01

    VTT has developed a straightforward and fast process to fabricate four-side buttable (edgeless) microstrip and pixel detectors on 6 in. (150 mm) wafers. The process relies on advanced ion implantation to activate the edges of the detector instead of using polysilicon. The article characterizes 150 μm thick n-on-n edgeless pixel detector prototypes with a dead layer at the edge below 1 μm. Electrical and radiation response characterization of 1.4×1.4 cm2 n-on-n edgeless detectors has been done by coupling them to the Medipix2 readout chips. The distance of the detector's physical edge from the pixels was either 20 or 50 μm. The leakage current of flip-chip bonded edgeless Medipix2 detector assembles were measured to be ˜90 nA/cm2 and no breakdown was observed below 110 V. Radiation response characterization includes X-ray tube and radiation source responses. The characterization results show that the detector's response at the pixels close to the physical edge of the detector depend dramatically on the pixel-to-edge distance.

  8. Evaluation of the x-ray response of a position-sensitive microstrip detector with an integrated readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    Rossington, C.; Jaklevic, J.; Haber, C.; Spieler, H. ); Reid, J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-08-01

    The performance of an SVX silicon microstrip detector and its compatible integrated readout chip have been evaluated in response to Rh K{alpha} x-rays (average energy 20.5 keV). The energy and spatial discrimination capabilities, efficient data management and fast readout rates make it an attractive alternative to the CCD and PDA detectors now being offered for x-ray position sensitive diffraction and EXAFS work. The SVX system was designed for high energy physics applications and thus further development of the existing system is required to optimize it for use in practical x-ray experiments. For optimum energy resolution the system noise must be decreased to its previously demonstrated low levels of 2 keV FWHM at 60 keV or less, and the data handling rate of the computer must be increased. New readout chips are now available that offer the potential of better performance. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  10. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  11. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzempek, P.

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC < PANDASTTReadoutChip >) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  12. Characterization of Silicon Detector Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.

    2015-07-22

    Configuration and calibration of the front-end electronics typical of many silicon detector configurations were investigated in a lab activity based on a pair of strip sensors interfaced with FSSR2 read-out chips and an FPGA. This simple hardware configuration, originally developed for a telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, was used to measure thresholds and noise on individual readout channels and to study the influence that different configurations of the front-end electronics had on the observed levels of noise in the system. An understanding of the calibration and operation of this small detector system provided an opportunity to explore the architecture of larger systems such as those currently in use at LHC experiments.

  13. Issues and directions in IR detector readout electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to the major issues encountered in the readout of imaging detector arrays in the infrared are presented. These include circuit issues such as multiplexing, buffering, and noise, as well as materials issues. Future directions in infrared readout electronics will also be discussed. These include on-chip signal processing and advanced hybridization schemes. Finally, recent work at Columbia on 2DEG-charge coupled devices for IR detector multiplexing are described.

  14. Thermopile detector radiation hard readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaalema, Stephen; Van Duyne, Stephen; Gates, James L.; Foote, Marc C.

    2010-08-01

    The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) conceptual payload contains a thermal instrument with six different spectral bands ranging from 8μm to 100μm. The thermal instrument is based on multiple linear arrays of thermopile detectors that are intrinsically radiation hard; however, the thermopile CMOS readout needs to be hardened to tolerate the radiation sources of the JEO mission. Black Forest Engineering is developing a thermopile readout to tolerate the JEO mission radiation sources. The thermal instrument and ROIC process/design techniques are described to meet the JEO mission requirements.

  15. XAMPS Detectors Readout ASIC for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragone, A; Pratte, J.F.; Rehak, P.; Carini, G.A.; Herbst, R.; O'Connor, P.; Siddons, D.P.; /BNL, NSLS

    2008-12-18

    An ASIC for the readout of signals from X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) detectors to be used at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is presented. The X-ray Pump Probe (XPP) instrument, for which the ASIC has been designed, requires a large input dynamic range on the order of 104 photons at 8 keV with a resolution of half a photon FWHM. Due to the size of the pixel and the length of the readout line, large input capacitance is expected, leading to stringent requirement on the noise optimization. Furthermore, the large number of pixels needed for a good position resolution and the fixed LCLS beam period impose limitations on the time available for the single pixel readout. Considering the periodic nature of the LCLS beam, the ASIC developed for this application is a time-variant system providing low-noise charge integration, filtering and correlated double sampling. In order to cope with the large input dynamic range a charge pump scheme implementing a zero-balance measurement method has been introduced. It provides an on chip 3-bit coarse digital conversion of the integrated charge. The residual charge is sampled using correlated double sampling into analog memory and measured with the required resolution. The first 64 channel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated in TSMC CMOS 0.25 {micro}m technology. In this paper, the ASIC architecture and performances are presented.

  16. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  17. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  18. Readout and DAQ for Pixel Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platkevic, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Data readout and acquisition control of pixel detectors demand the transfer of significantly a large amounts of bits between the detector and the computer. For this purpose dedicated interfaces are used which are designed with focus on features like speed, small dimensions or flexibility of use such as digital signal processors, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and USB communication ports. This work summarizes the readout and DAQ system built for state-of-the-art pixel detectors of the Medipix family.

  19. A microstrip detector with delay line readout

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, A.F. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble CNPq Riekel, C.; Wattecamps, P. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble )

    1992-01-01

    Principal limitations of position sensitive gasfilled detectors for x-ray synchrotron radiation applications are the counting rate and the positional resolution. Improvements in both areas are expected with microstrip technology. First results of a linear position sensitive microstrip detector with delay line readout are shown, and the possibility to achieve two-dimensional localization is evaluated.

  20. Fermilab silicon strip readout chip for BTev

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, Raymond; Hoff, Jim; Mekkaoui, Abderrezak; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Angeleri, Valentina; Manfredi, Pier Francesco; Ratti, Lodovico; Speziali, Valeria; /Fermilab /Bergamo U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U.

    2005-05-01

    A chip has been developed for reading out the silicon strip detectors in the new BTeV colliding beam experiment at Fermilab. The chip has been designed in a 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology for high radiation tolerance. Numerous programmable features have been added to the chip, such as setup for operation at different beam crossing intervals. A full size chip has been fabricated and successfully tested. The design philosophy, circuit features, and test results are presented in this paper.

  1. CHIPS Neutrino Detector Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Ramon; Vahle, Patricia; Chips Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The CHIPS R&D project is an effort to develop affordable megaton-scale neutrino detectors. The CHIPS strategy calls for submerging water Cherenkov detectors deep under water. The surrounding water acts as structural support, minimizing large initial investments in costly infrastructure, and serves as an overburden, shielding the detector from cosmic rays and eliminating the need for expensive underground construction. Additional cost savings will be achieved through photodetector development and optimization of readout geometry. In summer 2014 a small prototype of the CHIPS detector was deployed in the flooded Wentworth Mine Pit in Northern Minnesota. The detector has been recording data underwater throughout the fall and winter. In this talk, we will discuss lessons learned from the prototyping experience and the plans for submerging much larger detectors in future years.

  2. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Benato, G.; Cattadori, C.; Di Vacri, A.; Ferri, E.

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  3. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  4. High-speed readout of high-Z pixel detectors with the LAMBDA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Sheviakov, I.; Xia, Q.; Rothkirch, A.; Yu, Y.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-12-01

    High-frame-rate X-ray pixel detectors make it possible to perform time-resolved experiments at synchrotron beamlines, and to make better use of these sources by shortening experiment times. LAMBDA is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector based on the Medipix3 chip, designed to combine a small pixel size of 55 μm, a large tileable module design, high speed, and compatibility with ``high-Z'' sensors for hard X-ray detection. This technical paper focuses on LAMBDA's high-speed-readout functionality, which allows a frame rate of 2000 frames per second with no deadtime between successive images. This takes advantage of the Medipix3 chip's ``continuous read-write'' function and highly parallelised readout. The readout electronics serialise this data and send it back to a server PC over two 10 Gigabit Ethernet links. The server PC controls the detector and receives, processes and stores the data using software designed for the Tango control system. As a demonstration of high-speed readout of a high-Z sensor, a GaAs LAMBDA detector was used to make a high-speed X-ray video of a computer fan.

  5. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-01

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  6. The readout electronics for Plastic Scintillator Detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Yang, Haibo; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; JingZhe, Zhang; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Guoqing; Ma, Xinwen

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite, which launched in December 2015, is designed to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in the universe via the detection of the high-energy electrons and gamma-ray particles produced possibly by the annihilation of dark matter particles. Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of major part of the satellite payload, which is comprised of a crossed pair of layers with 41 plastic scintillator-strips, each read out from both ends by the same Hamamatsu R4443MOD2 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to extend linear dynamic range of detector, PMTs read out each plastic scintillator-strip separately with two dynode pickoffs. Therefore, the readout electronics system comprises of four Front-end boards to receive the pulses from 328 PMTs and implement charge measurement, which is based on the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip VA160, 16 bits ADC and FPGA. The electronics of the detector has been designed following stringent requirements on mechanical and thermal stability, power consumption, radiation hardness and double redundancy. Various experiments are designed and implemented to check the performance of the electronics, some excellent results has been achieved.According to experimental results analysis, it is proved that the readout electronics works well.

  7. FPIX2, the BTeV pixel readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Christian et al.

    2003-12-10

    A radiation tolerant pixel readout chip, FPIX2, has been developed at Fermilab for use by BTeV. Some of the requirements of the BTeV pixel readout chip are reviewed and contrasted with requirements for similar devices in LHC experiments. A description of the FPIX2 is given, and results of initial tests of its performance are presented, as is a summary of measurements planned for the coming year.

  8. FPHX: A New Silicon Strip Readout Chip for the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, James R.; Zimmerman, Tom N.; Yarema, Raymond J.; Kapustinsky, Jon S.; Brookes, Melynda L.; /LOS ALAMOS

    2009-01-01

    The FPHX chip is a silicon strip readout chip developed at Fermilab for use in the FVTX Detector of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. Each front end consists of an integrator which is AC coupled to a shaper, followed by a discriminator and a 3-bit analog-to-digital converter. The backend is a novel architecture in two stages that permits dead-timeless operation and high-speed readout with very low latency. A slow controller provides an interface for all on-chip programmable functions. This chip has been fabricated in the 0.25um TSMC process. All functionality including the analog front-end, the digital back-end, and the slow controller has been verified experimentally.

  9. GEMMA and GEMINI, two dedicated mixed-signal ASICs for Triple-GEM detectors readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotta, A.; Croci, G.; Costantini, A.; De Matteis, M.; Tagnani, D.; Corradi, G.; Murtas, F.; Gorini, G.; Baschirotto, A.

    2016-03-01

    GEMMA and GEMINI, two integrated-circuit front-ends for the Triple-GEM detector are presented. These two ASICs aim to improve detector readout performance in terms of count rate, adaptability, portability and power consumption. GEMMA target is to embed counting, timing and spectroscopic measurements in a single 8-channel device, managing a detector capacitance up to 15 pF. On the other hand, GEMINI is dedicated to counting measurements, embedding 16 channels with a detector capacitance up to 40 pF. Both prototypes, fabricated in 130 nm and 180 nm CMOS respectively, feature an automatic on-chip calibration circuit, compensating for process/temperature variations.

  10. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  11. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, S.W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies-imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution-will enable precision cosmological constraints and also awide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the AdvancedACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the AdvancedACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  12. A new analogue sampling readout system for the COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbon, P.; Dafni, T.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, H.; Gerassimov, S.; Ketzer, B.; Kolosov, V.; Konorov, I.; Kravtchuk, N.; Kunne, F.; Magnon, A.; Neyret, D.; Panebianco, S.; Paul, S.; Rebourgeard, P.

    2008-05-01

    A new electronic readout for CsI-coated multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC), used as photon detectors in the COMPASS ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, is described. A prototype system comprising more than 5000 channels has been built and tested in high-intensity beam conditions. It is based on the APV25-S1 analogue sampling chip, and replaces the GASSIPLEX chip readout used previously. The APV25 chip, although originally designed for Silicon microstrip detectors, is shown to perform well even with "slow" signals from an MWPC, maintaining a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 9. For every trigger the system reads out three consecutive amplitudes in time, thus allowing to extract information on both the signal amplitude and its timing. This information is used to reduce pile-up events in a high-rate environment. Prototype tests of the new readout electronics on a central RICH photocathode in nominal COMPASS beam conditions showed that the effective time window is reduced from more than 3 μs for the GASSIPLEX to less than 400 ns for the APV25 chip. This leads to a significant improvement of the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) with respect to the original readout. A gain by a factor of 5-6 was experimentally verified in the very forward region of phase space, where pile-up due to the muon beam halo is most significant. Owing to its pipelined architecture, the new readout system also considerably reduces the dead time per event, thus allowing to make use of trigger rates exceeding 50 kHz.

  13. Development of arrays of Silicon Drift Detectors and readout ASIC for the SIDDHARTA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Bellotti, G.; Butt, A. D.; Fiorini, C.; Bombelli, L.; Giacomini, G.; Ficorella, F.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the development of new Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and readout electronics for the upgrade of the SIDDHARTA experiment. The detector is based on a SDDs array organized in a 4×2 format with each SDD square shaped with 64 mm2 (8×8) active area. The total active area of the array is therefore 32×16 mm2 while the total area of the detector (including 1 mm border dead area) is 34 × 18mm2. The SIDDHARTA apparatus requires 48 of these modules that are designed and manufactured by Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK). The readout electronics is composed by CMOS preamplifiers (CUBEs) and by the new SFERA (SDDs Front-End Readout ASIC) circuit. SFERA is a 16-channels readout ASIC designed in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, which features in each single readout channel a high order shaping amplifier (9th order Semi-Gaussian complex-conjugate poles) and a high efficiency pile-up rejection logic. The outputs of the channels are connected to an analog multiplexer for the external analog to digital conversion. An on-chip 12-bit SAR ADC is also included. Preliminary measurements of the detectors in the single SDD format are reported. Also measurements of low X-ray energies are reported in order to prove the possible extension to the soft X-ray range.

  14. A SPICE model for Si microstrip detectors and read-out electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Bacchetta, N.; Candelori, A.; Bisello, D. |; Calgarotto, C.; Paccagnella, A. |

    1996-06-01

    The authors have developed a SPICE model of silicon microstrip detector and its read-out electronics. The SPICE model of an AC-coupled single-sided polysilicon-biased silicon microstrip detector has been implemented by using a RC network containing up to 19 strips. The main parameters of this model have been determined by direct comparison with DC and AC measurements. The simulated interstrip and coupling impedance and phase angle are in good agreement with experimental results, up to a frequency of 1 MHz. The authors have used the PreShape 32 as the read-out chip for both the simulation and the measurements. It consists of a charge sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaper and a buffer. The SPICE parameters have been adjusted to fit the experimental results obtained for the configuration where every strip is connected to the read-out electronics and kept the same for the different read-out configurations they have considered. By adding 2 further capacitances simulating the parasitic contributions between the read-out channels of the PS32 chip, a satisfactory matching between the experimental data and the simulated curves has been reached on both rising and trailing edges of the signal. Such agreement deteriorates only for strips far from the strip where the signal has been applied.

  15. A prototype scalable readout system for micro-pattern gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qi-Bin; Liu, Shu-Bin; Tian, Jing; Li, Cheng; Feng, Chang-Qing; An, Qi

    2016-08-01

    A scalable readout system (SRS) is designed to provide a general solution for different micro-pattern gas detectors in various applications. The system mainly consists of three kinds of modules: the ASIC card, the adapter card and the front-end card (FEC). The ASIC cards, mounted with particular ASIC chips, are designed for receiving detector signals. The adapter card is in charge of digitizing the output signals from several ASIC cards. The FEC, edged-mounted with the adapter, has field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based reconfigurable logic and I/O interfaces, allowing users to choose different ASIC cards and adapters for different experiments, which expands the system to various applications. The FEC transfers data through Gigabit Ethernet protocol realized by a TCP processor (SiTCP) IP core in FPGA. By assembling a flexible number of FECs in parallel through Gigabit Ethernet, the readout system can be tailored to specific sizes to adapt to the experiment scales and readout requirements. In this paper, two kinds of multi-channel ASIC chip, VA140 and AGET, are applied to verify the scalability of this SRS architecture. Based on this VA140 or AGET SRS, one FEC covers 8 ASIC (VA140) cards handling 512 detector channels, or 4 ASIC (AGET) cards handling 256 detector channels, respectively. More FECs can be assembled in crates to handle thousands of detector channels. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11222552)

  16. Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, John; Kim, T.; Freytsis, M.; Button-Shafer, J.; Kadyk, J.; Vahsen, S.E.; Wenzel, W.A.

    2007-12-21

    Two layers of GEMs and the ATLAS Pixel Chip, FEI3, have been combined and tested as a prototype for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The double-layer GEM system amplifies charge with gain sufficient to detect all track ionization. The suitability of three gas mixtures for this application was investigated, and gain measurements are presented. A large sample of cosmic ray tracks was reconstructed in 3D by using the simultaneous timing and 2D spatial information from the pixel chip. The chip provides pixel charge measurement as well as timing. These results demonstrate that a double GEM and pixel combination, with a suitably modified pixel ASIC, could meet the stringent readout requirements of the ILC.

  17. TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

  18. READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B.; KARGAR, A.; HARRISON, M.J.; MCGREGOR, D.S.

    2006-10-29

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.

  19. Readout and trigger for the AFP detector at ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocian, M.

    2017-01-01

    AFP, the ATLAS Forward Proton consists of silicon detectors at 205 m and 217 m on each side of ATLAS. In 2016 two detectors in one side were installed. The FEI4 chips are read at 160 Mbps over the optical fibers. The DAQ system uses a FPGA board with Artix chip and a mezzanine card with RCE data processing module based on a Zynq chip with ARM processor running ArchLinux. In this contribution we give an overview of the AFP detector with the commissioning steps taken to integrate with the ATLAS TDAQ. Furthermore first performance results are presented.

  20. Digital readouts for large microwave low-temperature detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; Irwin, Kent D.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-04-01

    Over the last several years many different types of low-temperature detectors (LTDs) have been developed that use a microwave resonant circuit as part of their readout. These devices include microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID), microwave SQUID readouts for transition edge sensors (TES), and NIS bolometers. Current readout techniques for these devices use analog frequency synthesizers and IQ mixers. While these components are available as microwave integrated circuits, one set is required for each resonator. We are exploring a new readout technique for this class of detectors based on a commercial-off-the-shelf technology called software defined radio (SDR). In this method a fast digital to analog (D/A) converter creates as many tones as desired in the available bandwidth. Our prototype system employs a 100 MS/s 16-bit D/A to generate an arbitrary number of tones in 50 MHz of bandwidth. This signal is then mixed up to the desired detector resonant frequency (˜10 GHz), sent through the detector, then mixed back down to baseband. The baseband signal is then digitized with a series of fast analog to digital converters (80 MS/s, 14-bit). Next, a numerical mixer in a dedicated integrated circuit or FPGA mixes the resonant frequency of a specified detector to 0 Hz, and sends the complex detector output over a computer bus for processing and storage. In this paper we will report on our results in using a prototype system to readout a MKID array, including system noise performance, X-ray pulse response, and cross-talk measurements. We will also discuss how this technique can be scaled to read out many thousands of detectors.

  1. Fully digital readout of segmented solid state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, K. H.; Badura, E.; Bräuning, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Koch, K.; Kurz, N.; Märtin, R.; Minami, S.; Ott, W.; Spillmann, U.; Stöhlker, Th; Weber, G.; Weber, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the digital readout of semiconductor detectors in combination with digital filters was investigated. Both non-segmented high-purity germanium and segmented planar lithium-drifted silicon detectors were used. In each case, photons from a stationary americium (241Am) gamma source were detected. The resulting preamplifier output pulses were digitized at a fixed sampling frequency and stored entirely. Digital filters were applied to the stored waveforms to extract time and energy information. The performance of different digital filters was compared. The optimum energy resolution obtained was comparable with the value resulting from an analogue readout system based on standard nuclear instrumentation module and versatile module Europe bus electronics.

  2. Balanced homodyne readout for quantum limited gravitational wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Fritschel, Peter; Evans, Matthew; Frolov, Valery

    2014-02-24

    Balanced homodyne detection is typically used to measure quantum-noise-limited optical beams, including squeezed states of light, at audio-band frequencies. Current designs of advanced gravitational wave interferometers use some type of homodyne readout for signal detection, in part because of its compatibility with the use of squeezed light. The readout scheme used in Advanced LIGO, called DC readout, is however not a balanced detection scheme. Instead, the local oscillator field, generated from a dark fringe offset, co-propagates with the signal field at the anti-symmetric output of the beam splitter. This article examines the alternative of a true balanced homodyne detection for the readout of gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO. Several practical advantages of the balanced detection scheme are described.

  3. High-flux ptychographic imaging using the new 55 µm-pixel detector ‘Lambda’ based on the Medipix3 readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, R. N. Wallentin, J.; Osterhoff, M.; Pennicard, D.; Zozulya, A.; Sprung, M.; Salditt, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Large Area Medipix-Based Detector Array (Lambda) has been used in a ptychographic imaging experiment on solar-cell nanowires. By using a semi-transparent central stop, the high flux density provided by nano-focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors can be fully exploited for high-resolution phase reconstructions. Suitable detection systems that are capable of recording high photon count rates with single-photon detection are instrumental for coherent X-ray imaging. The new single-photon-counting pixel detector ‘Lambda’ has been tested in a ptychographic imaging experiment on solar-cell nanowires using Kirkpatrick–Baez-focused 13.8 keV X-rays. Taking advantage of the high count rate of the Lambda and dynamic range expansion by the semi-transparent central stop, a high-dynamic-range diffraction signal covering more than seven orders of magnitude has been recorded, which corresponds to a photon flux density of about 10{sup 5} photons nm{sup −2} s{sup −1} or a flux of ∼10{sup 10} photons s{sup −1} on the sample. By comparison with data taken without the semi-transparent central stop, an increase in resolution by a factor of 3–4 is determined: from about 125 nm to about 38 nm for the nanowire and from about 83 nm to about 21 nm for the illuminating wavefield.

  4. FUTURE TRENDS IN MICROELECTRONICS - IMPACT ON DETECTOR READOUT.

    SciTech Connect

    O'CONNOR, P.

    2006-04-03

    Mainstream CMOS is now a well-established detector readout technology. We review technology scaling trends and limits, the implementation of analog circuits in digital CMOS processes, and radiation resistance. Emphasis is placed on the growing importance of power dissipation in ultra-scaled technologies.

  5. High-flux ptychographic imaging using the new 55 µm-pixel detector ‘Lambda’ based on the Medipix3 readout chip

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, R. N.; Wallentin, J.; Osterhoff, M.; Pennicard, D.; Zozulya, A.; Sprung, M.; Salditt, T.

    2014-01-01

    Suitable detection systems that are capable of recording high photon count rates with single-photon detection are instrumental for coherent X-ray imaging. The new single-photon-counting pixel detector ‘Lambda’ has been tested in a ptychographic imaging experiment on solar-cell nanowires using Kirkpatrick–Baez-focused 13.8 keV X-rays. Taking advantage of the high count rate of the Lambda and dynamic range expansion by the semi-transparent central stop, a high-dynamic-range diffraction signal covering more than seven orders of magnitude has been recorded, which corresponds to a photon flux density of about 105 photons nm−2 s−1 or a flux of ∼1010 photons s−1 on the sample. By comparison with data taken without the semi-transparent central stop, an increase in resolution by a factor of 3–4 is determined: from about 125 nm to about 38 nm for the nanowire and from about 83 nm to about 21 nm for the illuminating wavefield.

  6. A vertically integrated pixel readout device for the Vertex Detector at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Christian, David; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    3D-Integrated Circuit technology enables higher densities of electronic circuitry per unit area without the use of nanoscale processes. It is advantageous for mixed mode design with precise analog circuitry because processes with conservative feature sizes typically present lower process dispersions and tolerate higher power supply voltages, resulting in larger separation of a signal from the noise floor. Heterogeneous wafers (different foundries or different process families) may be combined with some 3D integration methods, leading to the optimization of each tier in the 3D stack. Tracking and vertexing in future High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments involves construction of detectors composed of up to a few billions of channels. Readout electronics must record the position and time of each measurement with the highest achievable precision. This paper reviews a prototype of the first 3D readout chip for HEP, designed for a vertex detector at the International Linear Collider. The prototype features 20 x 20 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 64 x 64 elements and was fabricated in a 3-tier 0.18 {micro}m Fully Depleted SOI CMOS process at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory. The tests showed correct functional operation of the structure. The chip performs a zero-suppressed readout. Successive submissions are planned in a commercial 3D bulk 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process to overcome some of the disadvantages of an FDSOI process.

  7. Sensor Development and Readout Prototyping for the STAR Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Stezelberger, T.; Szelezniak, M.; Sun, X.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.

    2009-01-14

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designing a new vertex detector. The purpose of this upgrade detector is to provide high resolution pointing to allow for the direct topological reconstruction of heavy flavor decays such as the D{sup 0} by finding vertices displaced from the collision vertex by greater than 60 microns. We are using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) as the sensor technology and have a coupled sensor development and readout system plan that leads to a final detector with a <200 {micro}s integration time, 400 M pixels and a coverage of -1 < {eta} < 1. We present our coupled sensor and readout development plan and the status of the prototyping work that has been accomplished.

  8. The SoLid anti-neutrino detector's readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, L.; Beaumont, W.; Cussans, D.; Newbold, D.; Ryder, N.; Weber, A.

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid collaboration have developed an intelligent readout system to reduce their 3200 silicon photomultiplier detector's data rate by a factor of 10000 whilst maintaining high efficiency for storing data from anti-neutrino interactions. The system employs an FPGA-level waveform characterisation to trigger on neutron signals. Following a trigger, data from a space-time region of interest around the neutron will be read out using the IPbus protocol. In these proceedings the design of the readout system is explained and results showing the performance of a prototype version of the system are presented.

  9. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  10. Characterizing the Noise Performance of the KPiX ASIC Readout Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, Jerome Kyrias; /Cabrillo Coll. /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    AKPiX is a prototype front-end readout chip designed for the Silicon Detector Design Concept for the International Linear Collider (ILC). It is targeted at readout of the outer tracker and the silicon-tungsten calorimeter and is under consideration for the hadronic calorimeter and muon systems. This chip takes advantage of the ILC timing structure by implementing pulsed-power operation to reduce power and cooling requirements and buffered readout to minimize material. Successful implementation of this chip requires optimal noise performance, of which there are two measures. The first is the noise on the output signal, previously measured at 1500e{sup -}, which is much larger than the anticipated 500e{sup -}. The other is the noise on the trigger logic branch, which determines where thresholds must be set in order to eliminate noise hits, thus defining the smallest signals to which the chip can be sensitive. A test procedure has been developed to measure the noise in the trigger branch by scanning across the pedestal in trigger threshold and taking self-triggered data to measure the accept rate at each threshold. This technique measures the integral of the pedestal shape. Shifts in the pedestal mean from injection of known calibration charges are used to normalize the distribution in units of charge. The shape of the pedestal is fit well by a Gaussian, the width of which is determined to be 2480e{sup -}, far in excess of the expected noise. The variation of the noise as a function of several key parameters was studied, but no significant source has been clearly isolated. However, several problems have been identified that are being addressed or are under further investigation. Meanwhile, the techniques developed here will be critical in ultimately verifying the performance goals of the KPiX chip.

  11. USB 3.0 readout and time-walk correction method for Timepix3 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turecek, D.; Jakubek, J.; Soukup, P.

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid particle counting pixel detectors of Medipix family are well known. In this contribution we present new USB 3.0 based interface AdvaDAQ for Timepix3 detector. The AdvaDAQ interface is designed with a maximal emphasis to the flexibility. It is successor of FitPIX interface developed in IEAP CTU in Prague. Its modular architecture supports all Medipix/Timepix chips and all their different readout modes: Medipix2, Timepix (serial and parallel), Medipix3 and Timepix3. The high bandwidth of USB 3.0 permits readout of 1700 full frames per second with Timepix or 8 channel data acquisition from Timepix3 at frequency of 320 MHz. The control and data acquisition is integrated in a multiplatform PiXet software (MS Windows, Mac OS, Linux). In the second part of the publication a new method for correction of the time-walk effect in Timepix3 is described. Moreover, a fully spectroscopic X-ray imaging with Timepix3 detector operated in the ToT mode (Time-over-Threshold) is presented. It is shown that the AdvaDAQ's readout speed is sufficient to perform spectroscopic measurement at full intensity of radiographic setups equipped with nano- or micro-focus X-ray tubes.

  12. Anode readout for pixellated CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hong, Jaesub; Niestemski, Francis C.

    2004-02-01

    Determination of the photon interaction depth offers numerous advantages for an astronomical hard X-ray telescope. The interaction depth is typically derived from two signals: anode and cathode, or collecting and non-collecting electrodes. We present some preliminary results from our depth sensing detectors using only the anode pixel signals. By examining several anode pixel signals simultaneously, we find that we can estimate the interaction depth, and get sub-pixel 2-D position resolution. We discuss our findings and the requirements for future ASIC development.

  13. Counting x-ray line detector with monolithically integrated readout circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, T.; Krüger, P.; Heuer, H.; Oppermann, M.; Torlee, H.; Meyendorf, N.

    2013-05-01

    The developed direct converting X-ray line detectors offer a number of advantages in comparison to other X-ray sensor concepts. Direct converting X-ray detectors are based on absorption of X-rays in semiconductor material, which leads to a generation of charge carriers. By applying high bias voltage charge carriers can be separated and with this the arising current pulse can be assessed by suitable readout integrated circuits (ICs) subsequently. The X-ray absorber itself is implemented as a diode based on GaAs to use it in the reverse direction. It exhibits low dark currents and can therefore be used at room temperatures. The GaAs absorber has a structured top electrode designed on variable bonding and high breakdown voltages. The implemented GaAs absorber exhibits a pixel size of 100 μm while the readout IC features fast dead-time-free readout, energy discrimination by two individually adjustable thresholds with 20 bit deep counters and radiation-hard design on chip level. These properties guarantee the application as fast and thus sensitive line detector for imaging processes. Another advantage of the imaging line detector is the cascadability of several sensor modules with 1024 pixels each. This property ensures that the 102.4 mm long sensor modules can be concatenated virtually with arbitrary length gaplessly. The readout ICs hitting radiation dose can be further minimized by implementing constructive steps to ensure longer lifetime of the sensor module. Furthermore, first results using the introduced sensor module for solid state X-ray detection are discussed.

  14. CALORIC: A readout chip for high granularity calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, L.; Bonnard, J.; Manen, S.; Gay, P.; Soumpholphakdy, X.

    2011-07-01

    A very-front-end electronics has been developed to fulfil requirements for the next generation of electromagnetic calorimeters. The compactness of this kind of detector and its large number of channels (up to several millions) impose a drastic limitation of the power consumption and a high level of integration. The electronic channel proposed is first of all composed of a low-noise Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) able to amplify the charge delivered by a silicon diode up to 10 pC. Next, a two-gain shaping, based on a Gated Integration (G.I.), is implemented to cover the 15 bits dynamic range required: a high gain shaper processes signals from 4 fC (charge corresponding to the MIP) up to 1 pC, and a low gain filter handles charges up to 10 pC. The G.I. performs also the analog memorization of the signal until it is digitalized. Hence, the analog-to-digital conversion is carried out through a low-power 12-bit cyclic ADC. If the signal overloads the high-gain channel dynamic range, a comparator selects the low-gain channel instead. Moreover, an auto-trigger channel has been implemented in order to select and store a valid event over the noise. The timing sequence of the channel is managed by a digital IP. It controls the G.I. switches, generates all needed clocks, drives the ADC and delivers the final result over 12 bits. The whole readout channel is power controlled, which permits to reduce the consumption according to the duty cycle of the beam collider. Simulations have been performed with Spectre simulator on the prototype chip designed with the 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology from Austriamicrosystems. Results show a non-linearity better than 0.1% for the high-gain channel, and a non-linearity limited to 1% for the low-gain channel. The Equivalent Noise Charge referred to the input of the channel is evaluated to 0.4 fC complying with the MIP/10 limit. With the timing sequence of the International Linear Collider, which presents a duty cycle of 1%, the power

  15. Coplanar interdigitated grid detector with single electrode readout

    DOEpatents

    Luke, Paul N.

    2001-01-01

    The coplanar interdigitated grid technique with single electrode readout provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional full-area planar electrode detectors and over coplanar interdigitated grid detectors which measure the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar grid electrodes. The signal from only one interdigitated grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. Only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used.

  16. The FE-I4 Pixel Readout Chip and the IBL Module

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, Marlon; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Fang, Xiao-Chao; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Karagounis, Michael; Hans, Kruger; Kruth, Andre; Wermes, Norbert; Breugnon, Patrick; Fougeron, Denis; Gensolen, Fabrice; Menouni, Mohsine; Rozanov, Alexander; Beccherle, Roberto; Darbo, Giovanni; Caminada, Lea; Dube, Sourabh; Fleury, Julien; Gnani, Dario; /LBL, Berkeley /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Gottingen U. /SLAC

    2012-05-01

    FE-I4 is the new ATLAS pixel readout chip for the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector. Designed in a CMOS 130 nm feature size process, the IC is able to withstand higher radiation levels compared to the present generation of ATLAS pixel Front-End FE-I3, and can also cope with higher hit rate. It is thus suitable for intermediate radii pixel detector layers in the High Luminosity LHC environment, but also for the inserted layer at 3.3 cm known as the 'Insertable B-Layer' project (IBL), at a shorter timescale. In this paper, an introduction to the FE-I4 will be given, focusing on test results from the first full size FE-I4A prototype which has been available since fall 2010. The IBL project will be introduced, with particular emphasis on the FE-I4-based module concept.

  17. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2004-05-18

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  18. Detector apparatus having a hybrid pixel-waveform readout system

    DOEpatents

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2014-10-21

    A gamma ray detector apparatus comprises a solid state detector that includes a plurality of anode pixels and at least one cathode. The solid state detector is configured for receiving gamma rays during an interaction and inducing a signal in an anode pixel and in a cathode. An anode pixel readout circuit is coupled to the plurality of anode pixels and is configured to read out and process the induced signal in the anode pixel and provide triggering and addressing information. A waveform sampling circuit is coupled to the at least one cathode and configured to read out and process the induced signal in the cathode and determine energy of the interaction, timing of the interaction, and depth of interaction.

  19. High-Resolution Mammography Detector Employing Optical Switching Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Katsutoshi; Sendai, Tomonari; Hosoi, Yuichi

    Conceiving a new detector structure, FUJIFILM Corporation has successfully put its invention of an X-ray detector employing "Optical Switching" into practical use. Since Optical Switching Technology allows an electrode structure to be easily designed, both high resolution of pixel pitch and low electrical noise readout have been achieved, which have consequently realized the world's smallest pixel size of 50×50 μm2 from a Direct-conversion FPD system as well as high DQE. The digital mammography system equipped with this detector enables to acquire high definition images while maintaining granularity. Its outstanding feature is to be able to acquire high-precision images of microcalcifications which is an important index in breast examination.

  20. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2006-12-12

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  1. Review of hybrid pixel detector readout ASICs for spectroscopic X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabriga, R.; Alozy, J.; Campbell, M.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E. H. M.; Koenig, T.; Llopart, X.; Marchal, J.; Pennicard, D.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.; Zuber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor detector readout chips with pulse processing electronics have made possible spectroscopic X-ray imaging, bringing an improvement in the overall image quality and, in the case of medical imaging, a reduction in the X-ray dose delivered to the patient. In this contribution we review the state of the art in semiconductor-detector readout ASICs for spectroscopic X-ray imaging with emphasis on hybrid pixel detector technology. We discuss how some of the key challenges of the technology (such as dealing with high fluxes, maintaining spectral fidelity, power consumption density) are addressed by the various ASICs. In order to understand the fundamental limits of the technology, the physics of the interaction of radiation with the semiconductor detector and the process of signal induction in the input electrodes of the readout circuit are described. Simulations of the process of signal induction are presented that reveal the importance of making use of the small pixel effect to minimize the impact of the slow motion of holes and hole trapping in the induced signal in high-Z sensor materials. This can contribute to preserve fidelity in the measured spectrum with relatively short values of the shaper peaking time. Simulations also show, on the other hand, the distortion in the energy spectrum due to charge sharing and fluorescence photons when the pixel pitch is decreased. However, using recent measurements from the Medipix3 ASIC, we demonstrate that the spectroscopic information contained in the incoming photon beam can be recovered by the implementation in hardware of an algorithm whereby the signal from a single photon is reconstructed and allocated to the pixel with the largest deposition.

  2. R&D on a novel spectro-imaging polarimeter with Micromegas detectors and a Caliste readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attié, D.; Blondel, C.; Boilevin-Kayl, L.; Desforges, D.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gevin, O.; Jeanneau, F.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Peyaud, A.

    2015-07-01

    Micromegas detectors, part of the Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) family, are used in a very wide range of applications in the High Energy Physics community but also in astroparticle and neutrino physics. In most of the Micromegas applications the design of the detector vessel and the readout plane is extremely coupled. A way of dissociating these two components would be by separating the amplification structure and the detector volume from the readout plane and electronics. This is achieved with the so called piggyback Micromegas detectors. They open up new possibilities of applications in terms of adaptability to new electronics. In particular piggyback resistive Micromegas can be easily coupled to modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests have been carried out with a Medipix chip where the protection of the resistive layer has been proved. The results of very recent tests coupling piggyback Micromegas with the readout module of Caliste are presented. Caliste is a high performance spectro-imager with event time-tagging capability, able to detect photons between 2 keV and 250 keV in the context of a spatial micro spectro-imaging polarimetrer. In the current application, with the Piggyback Micromegas, we use the readout module only as the sensitive detector. We benefit of the good spatial resolution thanks to the high density readout pixels ( 600 μm pixel pitch), to the low noise, to the low power and to the radiation hard integrated front-end IDEF-X electronics. The advantage of such a device is to have a high gain, low noise, low threshold, and robust detector operating at room temperature. This would be very attractive for spatial applications, for instance X-ray polarisation.

  3. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  4. Radiation Tolerance Studies of BTeV Pixel Readout Chip Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2001-09-11

    We report on several irradiation studies performed on BTeV preFPIX2 pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The preFPIX2 pixel readout chip has been implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose of 26 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been measured.

  5. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  6. A Distance Detector with a Strip Magnetic MOSFET and Readout Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Guo-Ming; Lin, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Hsing-Kuang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a distance detector composed of two separated metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), a differential polysilicon cross-shaped Hall plate (CSHP), and a readout circuit. The distance detector was fabricated using 0.18 μm 1P6M Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology to sense the magnetic induction perpendicular to the chip surface. The differential polysilicon CSHP enabled the magnetic device to not only increase the magnetosensitivity but also eliminate the offset voltage generated because of device mismatch and Lorentz force. Two MOSFETs generated two drain currents with a quadratic function of the differential Hall voltages at CSHP. A readout circuit—composed of a current-to-voltage converter, a low-pass filter, and a difference amplifier—was designed to amplify the current difference between two drains of MOSFETs. Measurements revealed that the electrostatic discharge (ESD) could be eliminated from the distance sensor by grounding it to earth; however, the sensor could be desensitized by ESD in the absence of grounding. The magnetic influence can be ignored if the magnetic body (human) stays far from the magnetic sensor, and the measuring system is grounded to earth by using the ESD wrist strap (Strap E-GND). Both ‘no grounding’ and ‘grounding to power supply’ conditions were unsuitable for measuring the induced Hall voltage. PMID:28075392

  7. A Distance Detector with a Strip Magnetic MOSFET and Readout Circuit.

    PubMed

    Sung, Guo-Ming; Lin, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Hsing-Kuang

    2017-01-10

    This paper presents a distance detector composed of two separated metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), a differential polysilicon cross-shaped Hall plate (CSHP), and a readout circuit. The distance detector was fabricated using 0.18 μm 1P6M Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology to sense the magnetic induction perpendicular to the chip surface. The differential polysilicon CSHP enabled the magnetic device to not only increase the magnetosensitivity but also eliminate the offset voltage generated because of device mismatch and Lorentz force. Two MOSFETs generated two drain currents with a quadratic function of the differential Hall voltages at CSHP. A readout circuit-composed of a current-to-voltage converter, a low-pass filter, and a difference amplifier-was designed to amplify the current difference between two drains of MOSFETs. Measurements revealed that the electrostatic discharge (ESD) could be eliminated from the distance sensor by grounding it to earth; however, the sensor could be desensitized by ESD in the absence of grounding. The magnetic influence can be ignored if the magnetic body (human) stays far from the magnetic sensor, and the measuring system is grounded to earth by using the ESD wrist strap (Strap E-GND). Both 'no grounding' and 'grounding to power supply' conditions were unsuitable for measuring the induced Hall voltage.

  8. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  9. Development of a low noise readout ASIC for CZT detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J.; Deng, Z.; Wang, G.; Li, H.; Liu, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A multi-channel readout ASIC for pixelated CZT detectors has been developed for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. Each channel consists of a low noise dual-stage charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), a CR-(RC)4 semi-Gaussian shaper and a class-AB output buffer. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of input PMOS transistor is optimized for 5 pF input capacitance and 1 μs peaking time using gm/ID design methodology. The gain can be adjusted from 100 mV/fC to 400 mV/fC and the peaking time can be adjusted from 1 μs to 4 μs. A 16-channel chip has been designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS technology. The test results show that the chip works well and fully satisfies the design specifications. The ENC was measured to be 72 e + 26 e/pF at 1 μs peaking time and 86 e + 20 e/pF at 4 μs peaking time. The non-uniformity of the channel gain and ENC was less than ±12% and ±11% respectively for 16 channels in one chip. The chip was also tested with a pixelated CZT detector at room temperature. The measured energy resolution at 59.5 keV photopeak of 241Am and 122 keV photopeak of 57Co were 4.5% FWHM and 2.8% FWHM for the central area pixels, respectively.

  10. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  11. Thermal Neutron Detectors with Discrete Anode Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,B.; Schaknowski, N.A., Smith, G.C., DeGeronimo, G., Vernon, E.O.

    2008-10-19

    A new two-dimensional thermal neutron detector concept that is capable of very high rates is being developed. It is based on neutron conversion in {sup 3}He in an ionization chamber (unity gas gain) that uses only a cathode and anode plane; there is no additional electrode such as a Frisch grid. The cathode is simply the entrance window, and the anode plane is composed of discrete pads, each with their own readout electronics implemented via application specific integrated circuits. The aim is to provide a new generation of detectors with key characteristics that are superior to existing techniques, such as higher count rate capability, better stability, lower sensitivity to background radiation, and more flexible geometries. Such capabilities will improve the performance of neutron scattering instruments at major neutron user facilities. In this paper, we report on progress with the development of a prototype device that has 48 x 48 anode pads and a sensitive area of 24cm x 24cm.

  12. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    DOEpatents

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  13. The NA62 Gigatracker: Detector properties and pixel read-out architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, M.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Noy, M.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2010-12-01

    The beam spectrometer of the NA62 experiment, named Gigatracker, has to perform single track reconstruction with unprecedented time resolution (150 ps rms) in a harsh radiation environment. To meet these requirements, and in order to reduce material budget to a minimum, three hybrid silicon pixel detector stations will be installed in vacuum. An adequate strategy to compensate for the discriminator time-walk must be implemented and R&D investigating two different options is ongoing. Two read-out chip prototypes have been designed in order to compare their performance: one approach is based on the use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC, while the other one is based on the use of a time-over-threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels. This paper describes the Gigatracker system, presents the global architectures of both read-out ASICs and reviews the current status of the R&D project.

  14. Readout, first- and second-level triggers of the new Belle silicon vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Asano, Y.; Aso, T.; Bakich, A.; Browder, T.; Chang, M. C.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chidzik, S.; Dalseno, J.; Dowd, R.; Dragic, J.; Everton, C. W.; Fernholz, R.; Fujii, H.; Gao, Z. W.; Gordon, A.; Guo, Y. N.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Harada, Y.; Haruyama, T.; Hasuko, K.; Hayashi, K.; Hazumi, M.; Heenan, E. M.; Higuchi, T.; Hirai, H.; Hitomi, N.; Igarashi, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, K.; Iwaida, S.; Kaneko, J.; Kapusta, P.; Karawatzki, R.; Kasami, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koike, S.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kurashiro, H.; Kusaka, A.; Lesiak, T.; Limosani, A.; Lin, W. C.; Marlow, D.; Matsumoto, H.; Mikami, Y.; Miyake, H.; Moloney, G. R.; Mori, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakano, Y.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nozaki, S.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohno, F.; Okuno, S.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Ozaki, H.; Peak, L.; Pernicka, M.; Rosen, M.; Rozanska, M.; Sato, N.; Schmid, S.; Shibata, T.; Stamen, R.; Stanič, S.; Steininger, H.; Sumisawa, K.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takasaki, F.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Terazaki, H.; Tomura, T.; Trabelsi, K.; Trischuk, W.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Ueno, K.; Ueno, K.; Uozaki, N.; Ushiroda, Y.; Vahsen, S.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, M. Z.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yanai, H.; Yang, R.; Yasu, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Ziegler, T.; Žontar, D.

    2004-12-01

    A major upgrade of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD 2.0) of the Belle experiment at the KEKB factory was installed along with new front-end and back-end electronics systems during the summer shutdown period in 2003 to cope with higher particle rates, improve the track resolution and meet the increasing requirements of radiation tolerance. The SVD 2.0 detector modules are read out by VA1TA chips which provide "fast or" (hit) signals that are combined by the back-end FADCTF modules to coarse, but immediate level 0 track trigger signals at rates of several tens of a kHz. Moreover, the digitized detector signals are compared to threshold lookup tables in the FADCTFs to pass on hit information on a single strip basis to the subsequent level 1.5 trigger system, which reduces the rate below the kHz range. Both FADCTF and level 1.5 electronics make use of parallel real-time processing in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), while further data acquisition and event building is done by PC farms running Linux. The new readout system hardware is described and the first results obtained with cosmics are shown.

  15. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmeier, S.; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H. K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-09-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m2) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  16. Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector.

    PubMed

    Terai, Hirotaka; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen

    2012-08-27

    We developed a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout technology for superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) to achieve low-jitter signal readout. By optimizing circuit parameters of the SFQ readout circuit, the input current sensitivity was improved below 10 μA, which is smaller than a typical critical current of SSPD. The experiment using a pulse-pattern generator as an input pulse source revealed that the measured jitter of the SFQ readout circuit is well below the system jitter of our measurement setup for the input current level above 15 μA. The measured jitter of the SSPD connected to the SFQ readout circuit was 37 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) for an SSPD bias current of around 18 μA, which is a significant improvement on 67 ps FWHM jitter observed in conventional readout without an SFQ readout circuit.

  17. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.; Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e- and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e- rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  18. Design and Measurement of a Low-Noise 64-Channels Front-End Readout ASIC for CdZnTe Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Bo; Wei, Tingcun; Gao, Wu; Liu, Hui; Hu, Yann

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detectors, as one of the principal detectors for the next-generation X-ray and γ-ray imagers, have high energy resolution and supporting electrode patterning in the radiation environment at room-temperature. In the present, a number of internationally renowned research institutions and universities are actively using these detector systems to carry out researches of energy spectrum analysis, medical imaging, materials characterization, high-energy physics, nuclear plant monitoring, and astrophysics. As the most important part of the readout system for the CdZnTe detector, the front-end readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) would have an important impact on the performances of the whole detector system. In order to ensure the small signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sufficient range of the output signal, it is necessary to design a front-end readout ASIC with very low noise and very high dynamic range. In addition, radiation hardness should be considered when the detectors are utilized in the space applications and high energy physics experiments. In this paper, we present measurements and performances of a novel multi-channel radiation-hardness low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors. The readout circuits in each channel consist of charge sensitive amplifier, leakage current compensation circuit (LCC), CR-RC shaper, S-K filter, inverse proportional amplifier, peak detect and hold circuit (PDH), discriminator and trigger logic, time sequence control circuit and driving buffer. All of 64 readout channels' outputs enter corresponding inputs of a 64 channel multiplexer. The output of the mux goes directly out of the chip via the output buffer. The 64-channel readout ASIC is implemented using the TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology. The die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm x 8 mm. At room temperature, the equivalent noise level of a typical channel reaches 66 e{sup -} (rms) at zero farad for a power

  19. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, M. S. Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumor, D.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  20. A Pixel Readout Chip in 40 nm CMOS Process for High Count Rate Imaging Systems with Minimization of Charge Sharing Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Maj, Piotr; Grybos, P.; Szczgiel, R.; Kmon, P.; Drozd, A.; Deptuch, G.

    2013-11-07

    We present a prototype chip in 40 nm CMOS technology for readout of hybrid pixel detector. The prototype chip has a matrix of 18x24 pixels with a pixel pitch of 100 μm. It can operate both in single photon counting (SPC) mode and in C8P1 mode. In SPC the measured ENC is 84 erms (for the peaking time of 48 ns), while the effective offset spread is below 2 mV rms. In the C8P1 mode the chip reconstructs full charge deposited in the detector, even in the case of charge sharing, and it identifies a pixel with the largest charge deposition. The chip architecture and preliminary measurements are reported.

  1. Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grabas, H.; Oberla, E.; Attenkoffer, K.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J.; Genat, J. F.; May, E. N.; Varner, G. S.; Wetstein, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)

  2. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, T. A.; Anjos, J. C.; Azzi, G.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chimenti, P.; Costa, J. A.; Dornelas, T. I.; Farias, P. C. M. A.; Guedes, G. P.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Kemp, E.; Lima, H. P.; Machado, R.; Nóbrega, R. A.; Pepe, I. M.; Ribeiro, D. B. S.; Simas Filho, E. F.; Valdiviesso, G. A.; Wagner, S.

    2016-09-01

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  3. Digital Signal Processors for Cryogenic High-Resolution X-Ray Detector Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O; Bechstein, S; Henning, W; Momayezi, M

    2003-01-01

    The authors are developing fast digital signal processors (DSPs) to read out superconducting high-resolution X-ray detectors with on-line pulse processing. For superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector read-out, the DSPs offer on-line filtering, rise time discrimination and pile-up rejection. Compared to analog pulse processing, DSP readout somewhat degrades the detector resolution, but improves the spectral purity of the detector response. They discuss DSP performance with the 9-channel STJ array for synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  5. PACIFIC: the readout ASIC for the SciFi Tracker of the upgraded LHCb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazorra, J.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gascón, D.; Gómez, S.; Han, X.; Pillet, N.; Vandaele, R.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and will switch to a 40 MHz readout rate using a trigger-less software based system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with the higher detector occupancy and radiation damage. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed and a custom ASIC, called the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC), will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. This article presents an overview of the R&D for the PACIFIC. It is a 64-channel ASIC implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology, aiming at a radiation tolerant design with a power consumption below 10 mW per channel. It interfaces directly with the SiPM anode through a current mode input, and provides a configurable non-linear 2-bit per channel digital output. The SiPM signal is acquired by a current conveyor and processed with a fast shaper and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a three threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. Simulation and test results show the PACIFIC chip prototypes functioning well.

  6. A Triple-GEM Detector with Pixel Readout for High-Rate Beam Tracking in COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, T.; Austregesilo, A.; Haas, F.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Krämer, M.; Mann, A.; Paul, S.

    2008-06-01

    For its physics program with a high-intensity hadron beam of 2 · 107 particles/s, the COMPASS experiment at CERN requires tracking of charged particles scattered by very small angles with respect to the incident beam direction. While good resolution in time and space is mandatory, the challenge is imposed by the high beam intensity, requiring radiation-hard detectors which add very little material to the beam path in order to minimise secondary interactions. To this end, a set of triple-GEM detectors with pixel readout in the beam region and 2-D strip readout in the periphery is currently being built. The pixel size has been chosen to be 1×1 mm2, which constitutes a compromise between the spatial resolution achievable and the number of readout channels. Surrounding the pixel area, a 2-D strip readout with a pitch of 400 μm has been realised on the same printed circuit foil. In total an active area of 10 × 10 cm2 is covered using 2048 readout channels. Analogue readout by the APV25 ASIC has been chosen in order to profit from amplitude measurements which help to improve the spatial resolution by clustering neighbouring hit strips or pixels. A detector prototype has been tested successfully in the 5 · 107 particles/s COMPASS muon beam, as well as in a focused hadron beam. The design of the detector and first results concerning its performance as a beam tracker will be presented.

  7. Smart readout of silicon drift detector using ON-LINE fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, G. V.; Becciani, U.; Caponetto, L.; Caligiore, C.; Lo Nigro, L.; Presti, D. Lo; Panebianco, S.; Pappalardo, L.; Petta, C.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Russo, M.

    2000-04-01

    A Silicon Drift Detector Front-End and a Smart Readout is proposed for ALICE's ITS readout. It is based on a dedicated Fuzzy Processor. Four main aims can be achieved: a significant reduction of data volume toward mass storage; less matter across the particle trajectories; ON-LINE personalised calibration of the detector against temperature effects; more insensitivity to noise effect compared with traditional systems for both position and charge measurement. The system fulfils the requirement for ALICE Inner Tracker System Silicon Drift Detectors. This paper aims at illustrating to the Physics community the work presently done that has engaged many people for a long time.

  8. Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit.

    PubMed

    Hofherr, Matthias; Wetzstein, Olaf; Engert, Sonja; Ortlepp, Thomas; Berg, Benjamin; Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Stolz, Ronny; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Siegel, Michael

    2012-12-17

    We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels.

  9. Method for producing a hybridization of detector array and integrated circuit for readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process is explained for fabricating a detector array in a layer of semiconductor material on one substrate and an integrated readout circuit in a layer of semiconductor material on a separate substrate in order to select semiconductor material for optimum performance of each structure, such as GaAs for the detector array and Si for the integrated readout circuit. The detector array layer is lifted off its substrate, laminated on the metallized surface on the integrated surface, etched with reticulating channels to the surface of the integrated circuit, and provided with interconnections between the detector array pixels and the integrated readout circuit through the channels. The adhesive material for the lamination is selected to be chemically stable to provide electrical and thermal insulation and to provide stress release between the two structures fabricated in semiconductor materials that may have different coefficients of thermal expansion.

  10. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented.

  11. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  12. Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

    2008-10-10

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

  13. BJT detector with FPGA-based read-out for alpha particle monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyzhnevyi, V.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Rovati, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce a new prototype of readout electronics (ALPHADET), which was designed for an α-particle detection system based on a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) detector. The system uses an FPGA, which provides many advantages at the stage of prototyping and testing the detector. The main design and electrical features of the board are discussed in this paper, along with selected results from the characterization of ALPHADET coupled to BJT detectors.

  14. READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR A HIGH-RATE CSC DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    OCONNOR,P.; GRATCHEV,V.; KANDASAMY,A.; POLYCHRONAKOS,V.; TCHERNIATINE,V.; PARSONS,J.; SIPPACH,W.

    1999-09-25

    A readout system for a high-rate muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is described. The system, planned for use in the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, uses two custom CMOS integrated circuits to achieve good position resolution at a flux of up to 2,500 tracks/cm{sup 2}/s.

  15. Design of the readout electronics for the DAMPE Silicon Tracker detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fei; Peng, Wen-Xi; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Dong, Yi-Fan; Qiao, Rui; Fan, Rui-Rui; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Wang, Huan-Yu; Wu, Xin; La Marra, Daniel; Azzarello, Philipp; Gallo, Valentina; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Nardinocchi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The Silicon Tracker (STK) is one of the detectors of the DAMPE satellite used to measure the incidence direction of high energy cosmic rays. It consists of 6 X-Y double layers of silicon micro-strip detectors with 73728 readout channels. It is a great challenge to read out the channels and process the huge volume of data in the harsh environment of space. 1152 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and 384 ADCs are used to read out the detector channels. 192 Tracker Front-end Hybrid (TFH) modules and 8 identical Tracker Readout Board (TRB) modules are designed to control and digitalize the front signals. In this paper, the design of the readout electronics for the STK and its performance are presented in detail.

  16. Silicon detector readout system using commercially available items

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1986-05-01

    The basic properties of silicon detectors are briefly noted, including bulk and electrical properties. Thermal and shot noise in front end amplifiers is discussed. The configuration of detectors and preamps is then briefly described. A detector test is described and results are given. (LEW)

  17. A large dynamic range readout design for the plastic scintillator detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yongjie; Fang, Fang; Chen, Junling; Hu, Bitao

    2016-08-01

    A large dynamic range is required by the Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) of DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) to detect particles from electron to heavy ions with Z ≤ 20. To expand the dynamic range, the readout design based on the double-dynodes signal extraction from the photomultiplier tube has been proposed and adopted by PSD. To verify this design, a prototype detector module has been constructed and tested with cosmic ray and relativistic ion beam. The results match with the estimation and the readout unit could easily cover the required dynamic range of about 4 orders of magnitude.

  18. High-speed crystal detection and characterization using a fast-readout detector.

    PubMed

    Aishima, Jun; Owen, Robin L; Axford, Danny; Shepherd, Emma; Winter, Graeme; Levik, Karl; Gibbons, Paul; Ashton, Alun; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2010-09-01

    A novel raster-scanning method combining continuous sample translation with the fast readout of a Pilatus P6M detector has been developed on microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. This fast grid-scan tool allows the rapid evaluation of large sample volumes without the need to increase the beam size at the sample through changes in beamline hardware. A slow version is available for slow-readout detectors. Examples of grid-scan use in centring optically invisible samples and in detecting and characterizing numerous microcrystals on a mesh-like holder illustrate the most common applications of the grid scan now in routine use on I24.

  19. A low-noise 64-channel front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, B.; Wei, T.; Gao, W.; Liu, H.; Hu, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the recent development of a 64-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a leakage current compensation circuit, a CR-RC shaper, two S-K filters, an inverse proportional amplifier, a peak-detect-and-hold circuit, a discriminator and trigger logic, a time sequence control circuit and a driving buffer. The readout ASIC is implemented in TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm×8.0 mm. The overall gain of the readout channel is 200 mV/fC, the power consumption is less than 8 mW/channel, the linearity error is less than 1%, the inconsistency among the channels is less than 2.86%, and the equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 66 e- at zero farad plus 14 e- per picofarad. By connecting this readout ASIC to an 8×8 pixel CdZnTe detector, we obtained an energy spectrum, the energy resolution of which is 4.5% at the 59.5 keV line of 241Am source.

  20. FDM Readout Assembly with Flexible, Superconducting Connection to Cryogenic kilo-Pixel TES Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruijn, M. P.; van der Linden, A. J.; Ridder, M. L.; van Weers, H. J.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a new fabrication process for a superconducting, flexible, and demountable connector to a kilo-pixel transition edge sensor. The demountable part contains planar coils for inductive coupling, in particular suited for AC-biased frequency domain multiplexed readout. A fixed connection to a chip with superconducting LC filters and SQUID readout is made by gold bump bonding with a connection resistance of 1.1 {× } 10^{-4} Ω . The Nb-based connecting lines on the flexible part show a superconducting transition around 7 K, which enables testing of connectors and LC filters in a simple L-He setup.

  1. Study of PET Detector Performance with Varying SiPM Parameters and Readout Schemes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Lockhart, Cate; Lewellen, Tom K; Miyaoka, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    The spatial resolution performance characteristics of a monolithic crystal PET detector utilizing a sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design is reported. To facilitate this design, we propose to utilize a 2D silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array device. Using a multi-step simulation process, we investigated the performance of a monolithic crystal PET detector with different data readout schemes and different SiPM parameters. The detector simulated was a 49.2mm by 49.2mm by 15mm LYSO crystal readout by a 12 by 12 array of 3.8mm by 3.8mm SiPM elements. A statistics based positioning (SBP) method was used for event positioning and depth of interaction (DOI) decoding. Although individual channel readout provided better spatial resolution, row-column summing is proposed to reduce the number of readout channels. The SiPM parameters investigated include photon detection efficiency (PDE) and gain variability between different channels; PDE and gain instability; and dark count noise. Of the variables investigated, the PDE shift of -3.2±0.7% and gain shift of -4±0.9% between detector testing and detector calibration had the most obvious impact on the detector performance, since it not only degraded the spatial resolution but also led to bias in positioning, especially at the edges of the crystal. The dark count noise also had an impact on the intrinsic spatial resolution. No data normalization is required for PDE variability of up to 12% FWHM and gain variability of up to 15% FWHM between SiPM channels. Based upon these results, a row-column summing readout scheme without data normalization will be used. Further, we plan to cool our detectors below room temperature to reduce dark count noise and to actively control the temperature of the SiPMs to reduce drifts in PDE and gain.

  2. Advanced data readout technique for Multianode Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube applicable in radiation imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the best performing PSPMT tubes from Hamamatsu and Burle are designed with a pad-matrix anode layout. However, for obtaining a high resolution, a small-sized anode photomultiplier tubes are preferable; these tubes may have 64, 256 or 1024 anodes per tube. If the tubes are used in array to get a larger area detector, the number of analog channels may range from hundreds to thousands. Multichannel analog readout requires special electronics ICs, ASICs etc., which are attached to multichannel DAQ system. As a result, the data file and data processing time will be increased. Therefore, this readout could not be performed in a small project. Usually, most of radiation imaging applications allow the use of analog data processing in front-end electronics, significantly reducing the number of the detector's output lines to data acquisition without reducing the image quality. The idea of pad-matrix decoupling circuit with gain correction was invented and intensively tested in JLab. Several versions of PSPMT readout electronics were produced and studied. All developments were done and optimized specifically for radiation imaging projects. They covered high resolution SPECT, high speed PET, fast neutron imaging, and single tube and multi tube array systems. This paper presents and discusses the summary of the observed results in readout electronics evaluation with different PSPMTs and radiation imaging systems, as well as the advantages and limitations of the developed approach to radiation imaging detectors readout.

  3. Systematic Comparison of the MINOS Near and Far Detector Readout Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, Anatael

    2005-06-22

    The MINOS experiment is a neutrino oscillation baseline experiment intending to use high resolution L/E neutrinos to measure the atmospheric neutrino oscillations parameters to unprecedented precision. Two detectors have been built to realize the measurements, a Near detector, located about 1km downstream from the beam target at the Fermi Laboratory, and a Far detector, located at 736km, at the Soudan Laboratory. The technique relies on the Near detector to measure the un-oscillated neutrino spectrum, while the Far detector measures the neutrino spectrum once oscillated. The comparison between the two measurements is expected to allow MINOS to measure Δm2 beyond 10% precision level. The Near and Far detectors have been built similarly to minimize possible systematic effects. Both detectors have been endowed with different readout systems, as the beam event rates are very different. The MINOS calibration detector (CalDet), installed at CERN, was instrumented with both readout systems such that they can simultaneously measure and characterize the energy deposition (response and event topology) of incident known particle from test-beams. This thesis presents the investigations to quantify the impact of the performance of both readout systems on the MINOS results using the measurements obtained with CalDet. The relative comparison of the responses of both readout systems have been measured to be consistent with being identical within a systematic uncertainty of 0.6%. The event topologies have been found to be negligibly affected. In addition, the performance of the detector simulations have been thoroughly investigated and validated to be in agreement with data within similar level of uncertainties.

  4. TOFFEE: a full custom amplifier-comparator chip for timing applications with silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenna, F.; Cartiglia, N.; Di Francesco, A.; Olave, J.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Rivetti, A.; Silva, J. C.; Silva, R.; Varela, J.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the design of a full custom amplifier-comparator readout chip for silicon detectors with internal gain designed for precise timing applications. The ASIC has been developed in UMC 110 nm CMOS technology and is aimed to fulfill the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) time resolution requirements (~ 30 ps per detector plane). It features LVDS outputs and the signal dynamic range matches the requirements of the High Precision TDC (HPTDC) system. The preliminary measurements results with a test board are included.

  5. Small long-range alpha detector (LRAD) with computer readout

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1991-10-01

    The small long-range alpha detector developed by N-2 was described in detail in the Los Alamos publication LA-12073-MS, Long-Range Alpha Detector,'' published in 1991. Since publication of that report, a computerized data acquisition system has been added to the LRAD detector. In addition to detailing the new data acquisition system, we discuss new data generated with the enhanced system, including measurements of (1) ultimate sensitivity; (2) detector linearity; (3) ion lifetime; and (4) characteristics. Furthermore, we have expanded our understanding of ion recombination and statistical noise effects in the LRAD and have addressed them here as well as several proposed applications. 6 refs., 30 figs.

  6. A read-out system for the Medipix2 chip capable of 500 frames per second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorino, M.; Martinez, R.; Pellegrini, G.; Blanchot, G.; Chmeissani, M.; Garcia, J.; Lozano, M.; Puigdengoles, C.; Ullan, M.

    2006-07-01

    High-speed X-ray-imaging acquisition technique is a growing field that can be used to understand microscopic mechanism of different phenomena in biology and material science. IFAE and CNM developed a very high-speed readout system, named DEMAS, for the Medipix2. The system is able to read a single Medipix2 chip through the parallel bus at a rate of 1 kHz.With a duty cycle of 50%, the real sampling speed is 500 frames per second (fps). This implies that 1 ms is allocated to the exposure time and another millisecond is devoted to the read-out of the chip. In such configuration, the raw data throughput is about 500 Mbit/s. For the first time we present examples of acquisition at 500 fps of moving samples with X-rays working in direct capture and photon counting mode.

  7. FPIX2: A radiation-hard pixel readout chip for BTeV

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Christian et al.

    2000-12-11

    A radiation-hard pixel readout chip, FPIX2, is being developed at Fermilab for the recently approved BTeV experiment. Although designed for BTeV, this chip should also be appropriate for use by CDF and DZero. A short review of this development effort is presented. Particular attention is given to the circuit redesign which was made necessary by the decision to implement FPIX2 using a standard deep-submicron CMOS process rather than an explicitly radiation-hard CMOS technology, as originally planned. The results of initial tests of prototype 0.25{micro} CMOS devices are presented, as are plans for the balance of the development effort.

  8. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hyejin; Kang, Homan; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Lee, Ho-Young; Jeong, Dae Hong

    2015-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  9. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Hyejin; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Jeong, Dae Hong E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com; Kang, Homan; Lee, Yoon-Sik E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com; Lee, Ho-Young E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  10. Development of a new readout system for the near-infrared detector of HONIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ui, Takahiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Takuya; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Moritani, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Urano, Takeshi; Ueno, Issei; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Nakao, Hikaru; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new readout system for the near-infrared detector VIRGO-2K (2kx2k HgCdTe array) installed in the optical-infrared simultaneous camera, HONIR, for the 1.5 m Kanata telescope at Higashi-Hiroshima observatory. The main goal of this development is to read out one frame within ~ 1 second through 16 output readout mode of the detector, in order to reduce the overhead time per exposure. The system is based on a CCD controller, Kiso Array Controller (KAC). We redesigned the analog part of KAC to fit VIRGO-2K. We employed a fully differential input circuit and a third order Bessel low-pass filter for noise reduction and a constant current system to improve the linearity of the detector. We set the cutoff frequency of the Bessel low-pass filter at the readout clock rate (120 kHz). We also set the constant current at 200 μA according to the data sheet of VIRGO-2K. We tested the new readout system at room temperature and confirmed that the low-pass filter works well as designed. The fluctuation of the current level of the constant current system is less than 2% for the typical output voltage range of VIRGO-2K (3.2-4.4 V). We measured the readout noise caused by the new readout system (connected to cooled multiplexer) and found that it is 30-40 μV rms, being comparable to or slightly higher than the typical readout noise of VIRGO-2K, ˜ 37 μV rms.

  11. Development of a hadron blind detector using a finely segmented pad readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Koki; Aoki, Kazuya; Aramaki, Yoki; En`yo, Hideto; Kawama, Daisuke; Komatsu, Yusuke; Masumoto, Shinichi; Nakai, Wataru; Obara, Yuki; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Sekimoto, Michiko; Shibukawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomonori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Yokkaichi, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    We constructed a hadron blind detector (HBD) using a finely segmented pad readout. The finely segmented pad readout enabled us to adopt an advanced particle identification method which applies a threshold to the number of pad hits in addition to the total amount of collected charge. The responses of the detector to electrons and pions were evaluated using a negatively charged secondary beam at 1.0 GeV/c containing 20% electrons at the J-PARC K1.1BR beam line. We observed 7.3 photoelectrons per incident electron. Using the advanced particle identification method, an electron detection efficiency of 83% was achieved with a pion rejection factor of 120. The method improved the pion rejection by approximately a factor of five, compared to the one which just applies a threshold to the amount of collected charge. The newly introduced finely segmented pad readout was found to be effective in rejecting pions.

  12. A prototype of pixel readout ASIC in 65 nm CMOS technology for extreme hit rate detectors at HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paternò, A.; Pacher, L.; Monteil, E.; Loddo, F.; Demaria, N.; Gaioni, L.; De Canio, F.; Traversi, G.; Re, V.; Ratti, L.; Rivetti, A.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Dellacasa, G.; Mazza, G.; Marzocca, C.; Licciulli, F.; Ciciriello, F.; Marconi, S.; Placidi, P.; Magazzù, G.; Stabile, A.; Mattiazzo, S.; Veri, C.

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes a readout ASIC prototype designed by the CHIPIX65 project, part of RD53, for a pixel detector at HL-LHC . A 64×64 matrix of 50×50μm2 pixels is realised. A digital architecture has been developed, with particle efficiency above 99.5% at 3 GHz/cm2 pixel rate, trigger frequency of 1 MHz and 12.5μsec latency. Two analog front end designs, one synchronous and one asynchronous, are implemented. Charge is measured with 5-bit precision, analog dead-time below 1%. The chip integrates for the first time many of the components developed by the collaboration in the past, including the Digital-to-Analog converters, Bandgap reference, Serializer, sLVS drivers, and analog Front Ends. Irradiation tests on these components proved their reliability up to 600 Mrad.

  13. The capacitive division image readout: a novel imaging device for microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Conneely, T. M.; Leach, S. A.; Moore, L.

    2013-09-01

    The Capacitive Division Image Readout (C-DIR) is a simple and novel image readout for photon counting detectors offering major performance advantages. C-DIR is a charge centroiding device comprising three elements; (i) a resistive anode providing event charge localization, event current return path and electrical isolation from detector high voltage, (ii) a dielectric substrate which capacitively couples the event transient signal to the third element, (iii) the readout device; an array of capacitively coupled electrodes which divides the signal among the readout charge measurement nodes. The resistive anode and dielectric substrate constitute the rear interface of the detector and capacitively couple the signal to the external C-DIR readout device. The C-DIR device is a passive, multilayer printed circuit board type device comprising a matrix of isolated electrodes whose geometries define the capacitive network. C-DIR is manufactured using conventional PCB geometries and is straightforward and economical to construct. C-DIR's robustness and simplicity belie its performance advantages. Its capacitive nature avoids partition noise, the Poisson noise associated with collection of discrete charges. The dominant noise limiting position resolution is electronic noise. However C-DIR also presents a low input capacitance to the readout electronics, minimising this noise component thus maximising spatial resolution. Optimisation of the C-DIR pattern-edge geometry can provide ~90% linear dynamic range. We present data showing image resolution and linearity of the C-DIR device in a microchannel plate detector and describe various electronic charge measurement scheme designed to exploit the full performance potential of the C-DIR device.

  14. GaAs Multiplexers for VLWIR Detector Readout Below 10 Kelvin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T.; Fitzsimmons, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    A multiplexer and buffer based on GaAs JFET technology is presented. This multiplexer operates normally from room temperature down to 4 Kelvin and is suitable for the readout of Very Long Wavelength Infrared Detectors that must be cooled to below 10 Kelvin.

  15. Design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gan; Tingcun, Wei; Wu, Gao; Yongcai, Hu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened front-end readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CdZnTe detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a CR-RC shaping amplifier, an analog output buffer, a fast shaper, and a discriminator. An 8-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35-μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.2 × 2.2 mm2. The input energy range is from 5 to 350 keV. For this 8-channel prototype ASIC, the measured electrical characteristics are as follows: the overall gain of the readout channel is 210 V/pC, the linearity error is less than 2%, the crosstalk is less than 0.36%, The equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 52.9 e- at zero farad plus 8.2 e- per picofarad, and the power consumption is less than 2.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement together with a CdZnTe detector, the energy resolution is 5.9% at the 59.5-keV line under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments show that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad(Si). Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project (No. 2011YQ040082), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11475136, 11575144, 61176094), and the Shaanxi Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2015JM1016).

  16. Novel PbS detector chip pattern with extinction function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fengjin; Si, Junjie; Su, Xianjun; Lv, Yanqiu; Shi, Zhengfeng

    2015-10-01

    A novel chip pattern with extinction function in Lead salt detectors is specified. Lead Sulfide (PbS) polycrystalline film is prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CMD) on a transparent substrate, then a special figure and structure is saved by lithography techonology on the substrate. As a quaternion detector chip that made by PbS thin film for example in this paper, whose performance including signal, noise, weak-peaks and the uniformity of the chip are too poor to meet the detecting system at the initial stage of research, and the qualified ratio of chips is only 3% .This paper explains the reason why the performance and qualified ratio of chips were so poor, focuses on a novel chip pattern with extinction which avoided the disadvantages of traditional one. the novel chip pattern has been applied in detectors. The novel chip pattern is prepared with PbS thin film which both "extinction slice" and detector chip are based on a same substrate , which not only had absorbed the jumbled light , improved the uniformity and other performance of photosensitive elements, but also had left out the assembly diffculty and precision demand when a extinction slice assembly in the restricted space of inswept detector chip, omitted the production process of extinction slice and shorten the assembly process of the detectors, and the qualified ratio of chips had been improved from 3% to 98%.

  17. Development of microwave kinetic inductance detectors and their readout system for LiteBIRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Ishino, H.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Mima, S.; Okamura, T.; Sato, N.; Tomaru, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yuasa, T.; Watanabe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Primordial gravitational waves generated by inflation have produced an odd-parity pattern B-mode in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. LiteBIRD (Light satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection) aims at detecting this B-mode polarization precisely. It requires about 2000 detectors capable of detecting a frequency range from 50 GHz to 250 GHz with ultra low noise. Superconducting detectors are suitable for this requirement. We have fabricated and tested microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) and developed a new readout system. We have designed antenna-coupled MKIDs. Quasi-particles are created by incident radiation and are detected as a change of the surface impedance of a superconductor strip. This change of the surface impedance is translated into the change of the resonant frequency of a microwave signal transmitted through the resonator. We also have developed a new readout system for MKIDs. The newly developed readout system is not only able to read out the amplitude and the phase data with the homodyne detection for multi-channels, but also provides a unique feature of tracking the resonant frequency of the target resonator. This mechanism enables us to detect signals with a large dynamic range. We report on the recent R&D status of the developing MKIDs and on the read-out system for LiteBIRD.

  18. Laboratory characterization of direct readout Si:Sb and Si:Ga infrared detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckelvey, Mark E.; Moss, Nicolas N.; Mcmurray, R. E., Jr.; Estrada, John A.; Goebel, John H.; Mccreight, Craig R.; Savage, Maureen L.; Junga, Frank; Whittemore, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of recent results obtained at Ames Research Center in performance evaluations of infrared detector arrays are presented. Antimony- and gallium-doped silicon direct readout 58x62 element hybrid devices from Ames' ongoing detector technology development program are described. The observed characteristics meet most of the performance goals specified by the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) instrument teams and compare favorably with the best performance reported for discrete non-integrating extrinsic silicon detectors. Initial results of radiation environment testing are reported, and non-ideal behavior demonstrated by these test devices is discussed.

  19. The front-end chip of the SuperB SVT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, F.; Comotti, D.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Fabbri, L.; Gabrielli, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M.; Bevan, A.; Wilson, F.; Beck, G.; Morris, J.; Ganaway, F.; Cenci, R.; Bombelli, L.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fiorini, C.; Liberali, V.; Monti, M.; Nasri, B.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stabile, A.; Balestri, G.; Batignani, G.; Bernardelli, A.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morsani, F.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Petragnani, G.; Profeti, A.; Rizzo, G.; Soldani, A.; Walsh, J.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Quartieri, E.; Ratti, L.; Zucca, S.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fontana, G.; Pancheri, L.; Povoli, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Bosisio, L.; Lanceri, L.; Rashevskaya, I.; Stella, C.; Vitale, L.

    2013-08-01

    The asymmetric e+e- collider SuperB is designed to deliver a high luminosity, greater than 1036cm-2s-1, with moderate beam currents and a reduced center of mass boost with respect to earlier B-Factories. The innermost detector is the Silicon Vertex Tracker which is made of 5 layers of double sided silicon strip sensors plus a layer 0, that can be equipped with short striplets detectors in a first phase of the experiment. In order to achieve an overall track reconstruction efficiency above 98% it is crucial to optimize both analog and digital readout circuits. The readout architecture being developed for the front-end chips will be able to cope with the very high rates expected in the first layer. The digital readout will be optimized to be fully efficient for hit rates up to 2 MHz/strip, including large margins on the maximum expected background rates, but can potentially accommodate higher rates with a proper tuning of the buffer depth. The readout is based on a triggered architecture where each of the 128 strip channel is provided with a dedicated digital buffer. Each buffer collects the digitized charge information by means of a 4-bit TOT, storing it in conjunction with the related time stamp. The depth of buffers was dimensioned considering the expected trigger latency and hit rate including suitable safety margins. Every buffer is connected to a highly parallelized circuit handling the trigger logic, rejecting expired data in the buffers and channeling the parallel stream of triggered hits to the common output of the chip. The presented architecture has been modeled by HDL language and investigated with a Monte Carlo hit generator emulating the analog front-end behavior. The simulations showed that even applying the highest stressing conditions, about 2 MHz per strip, the efficiency of the digital readout remained above 99.8%.

  20. Design and performance of a modular low-radioactivity readout system for cryogenic detectors in the CDMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Barnes, P. D., Jr.; Brink, P. L.; Cabrera, B.; Clarke, R. M.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Huber, M. E.; Kurylowicz, M.; Mandic, V.; Martinis, J. M.; Meunier, P.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Nam, S. W.; Perillo-Isaac, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R. W.; Seitz, D. N.; Shutt, T.; Smith, G. W.; Stockwell, W. K.; Sundqvist, K. M.; White, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment employs ultra-cold solid-state detectors to search for rare events resulting from WIMP-nucleus scattering. An innovative detector packaging and readout system has been developed to meet the unusual combination of requirements for: low temperature, low radioactivity, low energy threshold, and large channel count. Features include use of materials with low radioactivity such as multi-layer KAPTON laminates for circuit boards; immunity to microphonic noise via a vacuum coaxial wiring design, manufacturability, and modularity. The detector readout design had to accommodate various electronic components which have to be operated in close proximity to the detector as well maintaining separate individual temperatures (ranging from 600 mK to 150 K) in order to achieve optimal noise performance. The paper will describe the general electrical, thermal, and mechanical designs of the CDMS readout system, as well as presenting the theoretical and measured performance of the detector readout channels.

  1. A novel method of encoded multiplexing readout for micro-pattern gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bin-Xiang; Liu, Shu-Bin; Ji, Heng; Shen, Zhong-Tao; Ma, Si-Yuan; Liu, Hong-Bang; Huang, Wen-Qian; An, Qi

    2016-05-01

    The requirement of a large number of electronic channels poses a big challenge to the further applications of Micro-pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs). By using the redundancy that at least two neighboring strips record the signal of a particle, a novel method of encoded multiplexing readout for MPGDs is presented in this paper. The method offers a feasible and easily-extensible way of encoding and decoding, and can significantly reduce the number of readout channels. A verification test was carried out on a 5 cm × 5 cm Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detector using a 8 keV Cu X-ray source with 100 μm slit, where 166 strips were read out by 21 encoded readout channels. The test results show good linearity in its position response, and the spatial resolution root-mean-square (RMS) of the test system is about 260 μm. This method has potential to build large area detectors and can be easily adapted to other detectors similar to MPGDs. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11222552, 11265003)

  2. A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia sensor requires a post-process to etch the sacrificial layer, and to coat the sensitive film on the polysilicon electrodes. The sensitive film that is prepared by a hydrothermal method is made of zinc oxide. The sensor resistance changes when the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. Experiments show that the ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.5 mV/ppm at room temperature.

  3. A Zinc Oxide Nanorod Ammonia Microsensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit on-a-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia sensor requires a post-process to etch the sacrificial layer, and to coat the sensitive film on the polysilicon electrodes. The sensitive film that is prepared by a hydrothermal method is made of zinc oxide. The sensor resistance changes when the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. Experiments show that the ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.5 mV/ppm at room temperature. PMID:22247656

  4. Development of n+-in-p planar pixel quadsensor flip-chipped with FE-I4 readout ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Y.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Hori, R.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Takashima, R.; Tojo, J.; Kono, T.; Nagai, R.; Saito, S.; Sugibayashi, K.; Hirose, M.; Jinnouchi, O.; Sato, S.; Sawai, H.; Hara, K.; Sato, Kz.; Sato, Kj.; Iwabuchi, S.; Suzuki, J.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed flip-chip modules applicable to the pixel detector for the HL-LHC. New radiation-tolerant n+-in-p planar pixel sensors of a size of four FE-I4 application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are laid out in a 6-in wafer. Variation in readout connection for the pixels at the boundary of ASICs is implemented in the design of quadsensors. Bump bonding technology is developed for four ASICs onto one quadsensor. Both sensors and ASICs are thinned to 150 μm before bump bonding, and are held flat with vacuum chucks. Using lead-free SnAg solder bumps, we encounter deficiency with large areas of disconnected bumps after thermal stress treatment, including irradiation. Surface oxidation of the solder bumps is identified as a critical source of this deficiency after bump bonding trials, using SnAg bumps with solder flux, indium bumps, and SnAg bumps with a newly-introduced hydrogen-reflow process. With hydrogen-reflow, we establish flux-less bump bonding technology with SnAg bumps, appropriate for mass production of the flip-chip modules with thin sensors and thin ASICs.

  5. Gas proportional detectors with interpolating cathode pad readout for high track multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo

    1991-12-01

    New techniques for position encoding in very high rate particle and photon detectors will be required in experiments planned for future particle accelerators such as the Superconducting Super Collider and new, high intensity, synchrotron sources. Studies of two interpolating cathode ``pad`` readout systems are described in this thesis. They are well suited for high multiplicity, two dimensional unambiguous position sensitive detection of minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions as well as detection of x-rays at high counting rates. One of the readout systems uses subdivided rows of pads interconnected by resistive strips as the cathode of a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC). A position resolution of less than 100 {mu}m rms, for 5.4 keV x-rays, and differential non-linearity of 12% have been achieved. Low mass ({approximately}0.6% of a radiation length) detector construction techniques have been developed. The second readout system uses rows of chevron shaped cathode pads to perform geometrical charge division. Position resolution (FWHM) of about 1% of the readout spacing and differential non-linearity of 10% for 5.4 keV x-rays have been achieved. A review of other interpolating methods is included. Low mass cathode construction techniques are described. In conclusion, applications and future developments are discussed. 54 refs.

  6. Gas proportional detectors with interpolating cathode pad readout for high track multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo.

    1991-12-01

    New techniques for position encoding in very high rate particle and photon detectors will be required in experiments planned for future particle accelerators such as the Superconducting Super Collider and new, high intensity, synchrotron sources. Studies of two interpolating cathode pad'' readout systems are described in this thesis. They are well suited for high multiplicity, two dimensional unambiguous position sensitive detection of minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions as well as detection of x-rays at high counting rates. One of the readout systems uses subdivided rows of pads interconnected by resistive strips as the cathode of a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC). A position resolution of less than 100 {mu}m rms, for 5.4 keV x-rays, and differential non-linearity of 12% have been achieved. Low mass ({approximately}0.6% of a radiation length) detector construction techniques have been developed. The second readout system uses rows of chevron shaped cathode pads to perform geometrical charge division. Position resolution (FWHM) of about 1% of the readout spacing and differential non-linearity of 10% for 5.4 keV x-rays have been achieved. A review of other interpolating methods is included. Low mass cathode construction techniques are described. In conclusion, applications and future developments are discussed. 54 refs.

  7. Buffer direct injection readout integrated circuit design for dual band infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Tang, Shiang-Feng; Lin, Wen-Jen

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes dual-mode buffer direct injection (BDI) and direct injection (DI) readout circuit design. The DI readout circuit has the advantage of being a simple circuit, requiring a small layout area, and low power consumption. The internal resistance of the photodetector will affect the photocurrent injection efficiency. We used a buffer amplifier to design the BDI readout circuit since it would reduce the input impedance and raise the injection efficiency. This paper will discuss and analyze the power consumption, injection efficiency, layout area, and circuit noise. The circuit is simulated using a TSMC 0.35 um Mixed Signal 2P4M CMOS 5 V process. The dimension of the pixel area is 30×30 μm. We have designed a 10×8 array for the readout circuit of the interlaced columns. The input current ranges from 1 nA to 10 nA, when the measurement current is 10 pA to 10 nA. The integration time was varied. The circuit output swing was 2 V. The total root mean square noise voltage was 4.84 mV. The signal to noise ratio was 52 dB, and the full chip circuit power consumption was 9.94 mW.

  8. A front end ASIC for the readout of the PMT in the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Timmer, P.; Heine, E.; Kluit, R.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we describe the front end ASIC to readout the Photo-Multiplier-Tube of the KM3NeT detector, in detail. Stringent power budgeting, area constraints and lowering cost motivate us to design a custom front-end ASIC for reading the PMT. The ASIC amplifies the PMT signal and discriminates it against a threshold level and delivers the information via low voltage differential signals (LVDS). These LVDS signals carry highly accurate timing information of the photons . The length of the LVDS signals or Time over Threshold (ToT) gives information on the number of detected photons. A one-time programmable read-only memory (PROM) block provides unique identification to the chip. The chip communicates with the data acquisition electronics via an I2C bus. The data is transmitted to shore via fiber optics, where processing is done. The ASIC was fabricated in 0.35u CMOS process from AustriaMicroSystems (AMS).

  9. THE CONTROLLED DRIFT DETECTOR : CHARACTERISATION OF THE READOUT MECHANISM AND OF THE CHARGE HANDLING CAPABILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    CASTOLDI,A.; GATTI,E.; GUAZZONI,C.; LONGONI,A.; REHAK,P.; STRUDER,L.

    1998-11-08

    A new position-sensing X-ray detector operated in integrate-readout mode has been recently designed and characterized. Due to the peculiar working principle of the new detector, the charge handling capability, that is the maximum charge that can be stored in a pixel, is related to the operating conditions of the device. In particular the amplitude of the barriers that confine the signal electrons during the integration phase depends on the applied drift field and on the field perturbation superposed to it. A detailed experimental characterization of the charge handling capability as a function of these parameters has been carried out.

  10. A Neutron Sensitive Microchannel Plate Detector with Cross Delay Line Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Kevin D.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Crow, Lowell; Diawara, Yacouba; Feller, W. Bruce; Iverson, Erik B.; Martin, Adrian; Robertson, J. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Microchannel plates containing neutron absorbing elements such as boron and gadolinium in the bulk glass are used as the sensing element in high spatial resolution, high rate neutron imaging systems. In this paper we describe one such device, using both 10B and natural Gd, which employs cross delay line signal readout, with time-of-flight capability. This detector has a measured spatial resolution under 40 m FWHM, thermal neutron efficiency of 19%, and has recorded rates in excess of 500 kHz. A physical and functional description is presented, followed by a discussion of measurements of detector performance and a brief survey of some practical applications.

  11. Integrated input protection against discharges for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors readout ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.; Koperny, S.; Wiącek, P.

    2017-02-01

    Immunity against possible random discharges inside active detector volume of MPGDs is one of the key aspects that should be addressed in the design of the front-end electronics. This issue becomes particularly critical for systems with high channel counts and high density readout employing the front-end electronics built as multichannel ASICs implemented in modern CMOS technologies, for which the breakdown voltages are in the range of a few Volts. The paper presents the design of various input protection structures integrated in the ASIC manufactured in a 350 nm CMOS process and test results using an electrical circuit to mimic discharges in the detectors.

  12. READOUT ASIC FOR 3D POSITION-SENSITIVE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; VERNON, E.; ACKLEY, K.; DRAGONE, A.; FRIED, J.; OCONNOR, P.; HE, Z.; HERMAN, C.; ZHANG, F.

    2007-10-27

    We describe an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position-sensitive detectors. It was optimized for pixelated CZT sensors, and it measures, corresponding to an ionizing event, the energy and timing of signals from 121 anodes and one cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping, along with peak- and timing-detection. The cathode's timing can be measured in three different ways: the first is based on multiple thresholds on the charge amplifier's voltage output; the second uses the threshold crossing of a fast-shaped signal; and the third measures the peak amplitude and timing from a bipolar shaper. With its power of 2 mW per channel the ASIC measures, on a CZT sensor Connected and biased, charges up to 100 fC with an electronic resolution better than 200 e{sup -} rms. Our preliminary spectral measurements applying a simple cathode/mode ratio correction demonstrated a single-pixel resolution of 4.8 keV (0.72 %) at 662 keV, with the electronics and leakage current contributing in total with 2.1 keV.

  13. Fast readout of GEM detectors for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucciantonio, M.; Amaldi, U.; Kieffer, R.; Malakhov, N.; Sauli, F.; Watts, D.

    2013-08-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a fast data acquisition (DAQ) system for Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) trackers applied to imaging and dosimetry in hadrontherapy. Within the AQUA project of the TERA foundation a prototype of Proton Range Radiography of 30×30 cm2 active area has been designed and built to provide in-beam integrated density images of the patient before treatment. It makes use of a pair of GEMs to record position and direction of protons emerging from the target. A fast data acquisition rate close to 1 MHz will allow obtaining a good resolution in-beam proton radiography in a few seconds. A dedicated fast front-end circuit for GEM detectors (GEMROC by AGH-Crakow University) is read by the FPGA based DAQ card (GR_DAQ), developed by the AQUA group. The same system is under evaluation (within the ENVISION European project) to realize the in-vivo dosimetry, based on detecting secondary light particles during the treatment of the patient.

  14. Infrared Optical Readout of a Gas-Based Recoil Tracking Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Katrina; Barbeau, Phillip; Rich, Grayson; Awe, Connor

    2016-03-01

    Gas-based recoil tracking detectors are used in a variety of nuclear and particle physics experiments to identify particles based on distinct interaction signatures. Past research shows that this technology, if further developed, may prove useful in the ongoing search for dark matter and coherent neutrino scattering observations. This research presents the original design and development of a tracking detector that uses gaseous argon as a scintillating material to measure infrared optical readout. The initial model of this detector, consisting of a wire chamber filled with P-10, has produced unambiguous ionization signals. Current studies are focused toward using pure gaseous argon to detect coincident scintillation signals, which will demonstrate the capability of the detector to image particle tracks using nonvisible radiation.

  15. Fast SiPM Readout of the PANDA TOF Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, M.; Lehmann, A.; Motz, S.; Uhlig, F.

    2016-05-01

    For the identification of low momentum charged particles and for event timing purposes a barrel Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector surrounding the interaction point is planned for the PANDA experiment at FAIR . Since the boundary conditions in terms of available radial space and radiation length are quite strict the favored layout is a hodoscope composed of several thousand small scintillating tiles (SciTils) read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). A time resolution of well below 100 ps is aimed for. With the originally proposed 30 × 30 × 5 mm3 SciTils read out by two single 3 × 3 mm2 SiPMs at the rims of the scintillator the targeted time resolution can be just reached, but with a considerable position dependence across the scintillator surface. In this paper we discuss other design options to further improve the time resolution and its homogeneity. It will be shown that wide scintillating rods (SciRods) with a size of, e.g., 50 × 30 × 5 mm3 or longer and read out at opposite sides by a chain of four serially connected SiPMs a time resolution down to 50 ps can be reached without problems. In addition, the position dependence of the time resolution is negligible. These SciRods were tested in the laboratory with electrons of a 90Sr source and under real experimental conditions in a particle beam at CERN. The measured time resolutions using fast BC418 or BC420 plastic scintillators wrapped in aluminum foil were consistently between 45 and 75 ps dependent on the SciRod design. This is a significant improvement compared to the original SciTil layout.

  16. High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, Wolfgang

    2012-06-22

    In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications.The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the PCI Express interface is working, the SDRAM has been successfully tested and the SHARC

  17. Development of a low-noise readout ASIC for Silicon Drift Detectors in high energy resolution X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E.; Levin, V.; Malankin, E.; Shumikhin, V.

    2017-03-01

    ASIC with a low-noise readout channel for Silicon Drift Detectors in high energy resolution X-ray spectrometry was designed and prototyped in the AMS 350 nm CMOS process via Europractice as a miniASIC. For the analog readout channel tests there was used the detector module SDD-10-130-PTW LTplus-ic (PNDetector GmbH). The measured energy resolution of this module with the designed readout channel: 200 eV (FWHM) at 55Fe, -16 °C, 1 kcps and a peaking time of 8 μs.

  18. Calibration methodology for a dual-ended readout silicon photomultiplier based depth-of-interaction PET detector module

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Wenze; McKisson, John E.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Lee, Seung Joon; Taylor, William Mark; Stepanyan, Armenak; Zorn, Carl J.

    2012-11-01

    We developed a novel calibration methodology for a PET detector with dual-ended readout of an LYSO array by two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). By introducing a detector gain balancing step in the calibration process, improved depth-of-interaction calibration uniformity and accuracy can be achieved. The entire calibration process has four steps: scintillation crystal array mappings for two SiPM readouts, detector gain balancing, energy calibration, and depth-of-interaction calibration. This document provides a detailed description on the detector calibration system setup.

  19. CMOS Integrated Lock-in Readout Circuit for FET Terahertz Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Suzana; Perenzoni, Daniele; Perenzoni, Matteo; Stoppa, David

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a switched-capacitor readout circuit topology integrated with a THz antenna and field-effect transistor detector is analyzed, designed, and fabricated in a 0.13-μm standard CMOS technology. The main objective is to perform amplification and filtering of the signal, as well as subtraction of background in case of modulated source, in order to avoid the need for an external lock-in amplifier, in a compact implementation. A maximum responsivity of 139.7 kV/W, and a corresponding minimum NEP of 2.2 nW/√Hz, was obtained with a two-stage readout circuit at 1 kHz modulation frequency. The presented switched-capacitor circuit is suitable for implementation in pixel arrays due to its compact size and power consumption (0.014 mm2 and 36 μW).

  20. Coherent operation of detector systems and their readout electronics in a complex experiment control environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestner, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing size and degree of complexity of today's experiments in high energy physics the required amount of work and complexity to integrate a complete subdetector into an experiment control system is often underestimated. We report here on the layered software structure and protocols used by the LHCb experiment to control its detectors and readout boards. The experiment control system of LHCb is based on the commercial SCADA system PVSS II. Readout boards which are outside the radiation area are accessed via embedded credit card sized PCs which are connected to a large local area network. The SPECS protocol is used for control of the front end electronics. Finite state machines are introduced to facilitate the control of a large number of electronic devices and to model the whole experiment at the level of an expert system.

  1. Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout for Superconducting Gamma-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, Jonathan G.; Arnold, Kam; Lanting, Trevor M.; Dobbs, Matt A.; Friedrich, Stephan; Lee, Adrian T.; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2006-08-30

    We are developing a frequency-multiplexed readout for arrays of high-resolution Gamma detectors based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). Each sensor is part of an LCR resonant circuit and is biased at an identifying carrier frequency. Several carrier signals are added and amplified with a single SQUID preamplifier at 4 K. Gamma absorption modulates the amplitude of the carrier, and demodulation at room temperature retrieves the initial temperature evolution of the sensor. This multiplexing system has originally been developed to read out large arrays of bolometers for cosmic microwave background studies. To accommodate the faster Gamma-ray signals, its demodulator bandwidth is being extended to 20 kHz to allow reading out up to eight TESs with a detector bandwidth of 10 kHz. Here we characterize the system noise performance and show how this multiplexing scheme can be adapted to read out arrays of superconducting Gamma-ray detectors.

  2. Measurement of characteristic impedance of silicon fiber sheet based readout strip panel for RPC detector in INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. K.; Kumar, A.; Marimuthu, N.; Singh, V.; Subrahmanyam, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a mega science project of India, which is going to use about 30,000 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) as active detector elements for the study of atmoshpheric neutrino oscillations. Each RPC detector will consist of two orthogonally placed readout strip panel for picking the signals generated in the gas chamber. The area of RPC detector in INO-ICAL (Iron Calorimeter) experiment will be 2 m × 2 m, therefore the dimensions of readout strip panel should also be 2 m × 2 m. To get undistorted signals pass through the readout strip panel to front-end electronics, their characteristic impedance should be matched with each other. In the present paper, we describe the need and search of new dielectric material for the fabrication of flame resistant, waterproof and flexible readout strip panel. We will also describe the measurement of characteristic impedance of Plastic Honeycomb (PH) based readout strip panel and Silicon Fiber Sheet (SFS) based readout strip panel in a comparative way, and its variation under loading and with time. Based on this study, we found that a 5 mm thick SFS-based readout strip panel has a minimum signal reflection at 49.5 ohm characteristic impedance value. Our study shows that SFS is a good dielectric material for the purpose.

  3. An instrumentation amplifier based readout circuit for a dual element microbolometer infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waal, D. J.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    The infrared band is widely used in many applications to solve problems stretching over very diverse fields, ranging from medical applications like inflammation detection to military, security and safety applications employing thermal imaging in low light conditions. At the heart of these optoelectrical systems lies a sensor used to detect incident infrared radiation, and in the case of this work our focus is on uncooled microbolometers as thermal detectors. Microbolometer based thermal detectors are limited in sensitivity by various parameters, including the detector layout and design, operating temperature, air pressure and biasing that causes self heating. Traditional microbolometers use the entire membrane surface for a single detector material. This work presents the design of a readout circuit amplifier where a dual detector element microbolometer is used, rather than the traditional single element. The concept to be investigated is based on the principle that both elements will be stimulated with a similar incoming IR signal and experience the same resistive change, thus creating a common mode signal. However, such a common mode signal will be rejected by a differential amplifier, thus one element is placed within a negative resistance converter to create a differential mode signal that is twice the magnitude of the comparable single mode signal of traditional detector designs. An instrumentation amplifier is used for the final stage of the readout amplifier circuit, as it allows for very high common mode rejection with proper trimming of the Wheatstone bridge to compensate for manufacturing tolerance. It was found that by implementing the above, improved sensitivity can be achieved.

  4. Digitial readout for microwave kinetic inductance detectors and applications in high time resolution astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Matthew James

    This dissertation spans two topics relating to optical to near-infrared astronomical cameras built around Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). The first topic is the development of a digital readout system for 10- to 30-kilopixel arrays of MKIDs. MKIDs are superconducting detectors that can detect individual photons with a wide range of wavelengths with high time resolution (SI{2}{micro s}) and low energy resolution. The advantage of MKIDs over other low temperature detectors with similar capabilities is that it is relatively straightforward to multiplex MKIDs into large arrays. All the complexity of readout is in room temperature electronics. This work discusses the implementation and programming of these electronics. The second part of this work demonstrates the capabilities of the prototype optical and near-infrared MKID instrument with observations of pulsars. Detecting optical pulsations in these objects require high time resolution and low noise. The discovery of a correlation between the brightness of optical pulses from the Crab pulsar and the time of arrival of coincident giant radio pulses is presented. The search for optical pulses from a millisecond pulsar J0337+1715 is discussed along with a new upper limit on the brightness of its optical pulses.

  5. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  6. Characterization of an ultraviolet imaging detector with high event rate ROIC (HEROIC) readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nell, Nicholas; France, Kevin; Harwit, Alex; Bradley, Scott; Franka, Steve; Freymiller, Ed; Ebbets, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    We present characterization results from a photon counting imaging detector consisting of one microchannel plate (MCP) and an array of two readout integrated circuits (ROIC) that record photon position. The ROICs used in the position readout are the high event rate ROIC (HEROIC) devices designed to handle event rates up to 1 MHz per pixel, recently developed by the Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in collaboration with the University of Colorado. An opaque cesium iodide (CsI) photocathode sensitive in the far-ultraviolet (FUV; 122-200 nm), is deposited on the upper surface of the MCP. The detector is characterized in a chamber developed by CU Boulder that is capable of illumination with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) monochromatic light and measurement of absolute ux with a calibrated photodiode. Testing includes investigation of the effects of adjustment of internal settings of the HEROIC devices including charge threshold, gain, and amplifier bias. The detector response to high count rates is tested. We report initial results including background, uniformity, and quantum detection efficiency (QDE) as a function of wavelength.

  7. SiPM readout for the SHiP timing detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, C.; Bezshyiko, I.; Brundler, R.; Serra, N.; Storaci, B.

    2017-02-01

    The SHiP experiment is a new general purpose fixed target experiment proposed at the CERN SPS accelerator. A dedicated beam line in the North Area will be aimed at a fixed target station, followed by a magnetic shield to reduce beam induced background. The experiment will comprise a compact tau neutrino detector and a detector to search for hidden particles. Background rejection is ensured by use of background taggers and a dedicated timing detector. The timing detector will reduce combinatorial di-muon background by requiring incoming particles to be coincident in time within 100 ps. One option for the timing detector consists of columns of horizontal scintillating bars read-out on each end by Silicon Photomultiplier arrays. This study includes characterization of SiPMs from different manufacturers to be used in the timing detector in terms of Current-Voltage behavior, cross-talk probability, dark count rate and single photon timing resolution. Initial results of the time resolution of a EJ-200 scintillating bar read out on both ends by a single SiPM are presented.

  8. High speed readout electronics development for frequency-multiplexed kinetic inductance detector design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrion, O.; Vescovi, C.; Catalano, A.; Calvo, M.; D'Addabbo, A.; Goupy, J.; Boudou, N.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Monfardini, A.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID) are a promising solution for space-borne mm-wave astronomy. To optimize their design and make them insensitive to the ballistic phonons created by cosmic-ray interactions in the substrate, the phonon propagation in silicon must be studied. A dedicated fast readout electronics, using channelized Digital Down Conversion for monitoring up to 12 MKIDs over a 100 MHz bandwidth was developed. Thanks to the fast ADC sampling and steep digital filtering, In-phase and Quadrature samples, having a high dynamic range, are provided at ~ 2 Msps. This paper describes the technical solution chosen and the results obtained.

  9. A silicon photomultiplier readout for time of flight neutron spectroscopy with {gamma}-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pietropaolo, A.; Gorini, G.; Festa, G.; Andreani, C.; De Pascale, M. P.; Reali, E.; Grazzi, F.; Schooneveld, E. M.

    2009-09-15

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a recently developed photosensor used in particle physics, e.g., for detection of minimum ionizing particles and/or Cherenkov radiation. Its performance is comparable to that of photomultiplier tubes, but with advantages in terms of reduced volume and magnetic field insensitivity. In the present study, the performance of a gamma ray detector made of an yttrium aluminum perovskite scintillation crystal and a SiPM-based readout is assessed for use in time of flight neutron spectroscopy. Measurements performed at the ISIS pulsed neutron source demonstrate the feasibility of {gamma}-detection based on the new device.

  10. Planar double delay-line readout technique for microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Raffanti, R.

    1990-01-01

    A two-dimensional position-sensitive electrical readout system for microchannel plate detectors in spectroscopic applications has been devised. Two adjacent parallel coplanar delay lines are used. The difference in time of arrival of the electron event signal between the ends of the delay lines gives one coordinate of the centroid of each event pulse. The ratio of the event amplitudes on the two delay lines gives the orthogonal coordinate by means of charge partitioning. The performance characteristics of operational double delay lines for systems of this type are presented.

  11. A silicon photomultiplier readout for time of flight neutron spectroscopy with gamma-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, A; Gorini, G; Festa, G; Andreani, C; De Pascale, M P; Reali, E; Grazzi, F; Schooneveld, E M

    2009-09-01

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a recently developed photosensor used in particle physics, e.g., for detection of minimum ionizing particles and/or Cherenkov radiation. Its performance is comparable to that of photomultiplier tubes, but with advantages in terms of reduced volume and magnetic field insensitivity. In the present study, the performance of a gamma ray detector made of an yttrium aluminum perovskite scintillation crystal and a SiPM-based readout is assessed for use in time of flight neutron spectroscopy. Measurements performed at the ISIS pulsed neutron source demonstrate the feasibility of gamma-detection based on the new device.

  12. A fast one-chip event-preprocessor and sequencer for the Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Maier, D.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present an FPGA-based digital camera electronics consisting of an Event-Preprocessor (EPP) for on-board data preprocessing and a related Sequencer (SEQ) to generate the necessary signals to control the readout of the detector. The device has been originally designed for the Simbol-X low energy detector (LED). The EPP operates on 64×64 pixel images and has a real-time processing capability of more than 8000 frames per second. The already working releases of the EPP and the SEQ are now combined into one Digital-Camera-Controller-Chip (D3C).

  13. Calibration Scheme for Large Kinetic Inductance Detector Arrays Based on Readout Frequency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisigello, L.; Yates, S. J. C.; Murugesan, V.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) provides a way to build large ground-based sub-mm instruments such as NIKA and A-MKID. For such instruments, therefore, it is important to understand and characterize the response to ensure good linearity and calibration over a wide dynamic range. We propose to use the MKID readout frequency response to determine the MKID responsivity to an input optical source power. A signal can be measured in a KID as a change in the phase of the readout signal with respect to the KID resonant circle. Fundamentally, this phase change is due to a shift in the KID resonance frequency, in turn due to a radiation induced change in the quasiparticle number in the superconducting resonator. We show that the shift in resonant frequency can be determined from the phase shift by using KID phase versus frequency dependence using a previously measured resonant frequency. Working in this calculated resonant frequency, we gain near linearity and constant calibration to a constant optical signal applied in a wide range of operating points on the resonance and readout powers. This calibration method has three particular advantages: first, it is fast enough to be used to calibrate large arrays, with pixel counts in the thousands of pixels; second, it is based on data that are already necessary to determine KID positions; third, it can be done without applying any optical source in front of the array.

  14. Geant4 Simulations of the SuperCDMS iZIP Detector Charge Carrier Propagation and FET Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, R.; Brandt, D.; Asai, M.; Cabrera, B.; Leman, S.; McCarthy, K.; Redl, P.; Saab, T.; Wright, D.

    2014-09-01

    The SuperCDMS experiment aims to directly detect dark matter particles called WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). The detectors measure phonon and ionization energy due to nuclear and electron recoils from incident particles. The SuperCDMS Detector Monte Carlo group uses Geant4 to simulate electron-hole pairs () and low temperature phonons. We use these simulations in order to study energy deposition in the detectors. Phonons and electron-hole pairs are tracked in a crystal detector. Because of the band structure of the crystals, the electrons undergo oblique propagation. The charge electrodes on each side of the detector are biased at different voltages while the phonon sensors are grounded. This creates a nearly uniform electric field through the bulk of the detector, with a complex shape near the surfaces. The electric field is calculated from interpolating on a tetrahedral mesh. The resulting TES phonon readout, as well as the FET charge readout are simulated. To calculate the FET readout, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied to simulate the current in the FET. The goal of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of calculating the electric field, performing the charge carrier propagation, and simulating the FET readout of the SuperCDMS detectors.

  15. Implementation of a Readout Circuit on SOI Technology for the Signal Conditioning of a Neutron Detector in Harsh Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Krit, S.; Coulie-Castellani, K.; Rahajandraibe, W.; Micolau, G.; Lyoussi, A.

    2015-07-01

    A transistor level implementation of the analog block of a readout system on SOI process is presented here. This system is dedicated to the signal conditioning of a neutron detector in harsh environment. The different parts of the readout circuits are defined. The harsh environment constraints (crossing particle effect, high temperatures) are also detailed and modeled in the circuit in order to test and evaluate the characteristics of the designed block when working under these conditions. (authors)

  16. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  17. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R. T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A. J.; Moschovakos, P.; Nelson, A.; Ntekas, K.; Ruckman, L.; Russell, J.; Schernau, M.; Schlenker, S.; Su, D.; Valderanis, C.; Wittgen, M.; Yildiz, S. C.

    2016-01-25

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all of these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. In conclusion, we will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.

  18. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGES

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; ...

    2016-01-25

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all ofmore » these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. In conclusion, we will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.« less

  19. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGES

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQmore » building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.« less

  20. Cobalt oxide nanosheet and CNT micro carbon monoxide sensor integrated with readout circuit on chip.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ching-Liang; Chen, Yen-Chi; Wu, Chyan-Chyi; Kuo, Chin-Fu

    2010-01-01

    The study presents a micro carbon monoxide (CO) sensor integrated with a readout circuit-on-a-chip manufactured by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and a post-process. The sensing film of the sensor is a composite cobalt oxide nanosheet and carbon nanotube (CoOOH/CNT) film that is prepared by a precipitation-oxidation method. The structure of the CO sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a sensing film. The sensor, which is of a resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs CO gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. The post-processing of the sensor includes etching the sacrificial layers and coating the sensing film. The advantages of the sensor include room temperature operation, short response/recovery times and easy post-processing. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the CO sensor is about 0.19 mV/ppm, and the response and recovery times are 23 s and 34 s for 200 ppm CO, respectively.

  1. Requirements for the detectors and read-out of ATHENA X-IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, R.; Barret, D.; Gottardi, L.; den Herder, J.-W.; Jackson, B.; de Korte, P.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B.-J.; van Loon, D.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.; Ravera, L.

    2014-07-01

    The detector system of the X-Ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), one of the two ATHENA focal plane instruments will be an ambitious step forward in the field of astronomical X-ray detection. We describe its baseline configuration, consisting of 3840 Transition Edge Sensors (TES) microcalorimeters with an energy resolution of 2.5 eV FWHM, spanning a 5 arcminute field-of-view and allowing an imaging resolution of 5 arcsec. The detectors are read out in 96 channels of 40 pixels each, using frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). Each channel contains a dual-stage SQUID pre-amplifier and a low-noise amplifier (LNA). In order to enhance the dynamic range of the SQUIDs a specific technique, baseband feedback (BBFB), is applied. The generation of the carrier and feedback signals, and the signal processing are done in the digital domain. We review the requirements for the main elements of this system, needed to ensure the high performance of the detector system. From the resolution requirements for the detectors follows a budget for contributions to the energy resolution on top of the intrinsic detector resolution. This budget forms the basis for the assessment of the dynamic range requirements for the SQUID and the LNA and the DACs and the ADC. Requirements are also derived for the levels of crosstalk and non-linearity in the readout chain.

  2. Cryogenic phonon-scintillation detectors with PMT readout for rare event search experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Lin, J.; Mikhailik, V. B.; Kraus, H.

    2016-06-01

    Cryogenic phonon-scintillation detectors (CPSD) for rare event search experiments require reliable, efficient and robust photon detectors that can resolve individual photons in a scintillation event. We report on a cryogenic detector containing a scintillating crystal, equipped with an NTD-Ge phonon sensor and a photon detector based on a low-temperature photomultiplier tube (PMT) that is powered by a Cockcroft-Walton generator. Here we present results from the characterisation of two detector modules, one with CaWO4, the other with CaMoO4 as scintillator. The energy resolutions (FWHM) at 122.1 keV for the scintillation/PMT channel are 19.9% and 29.7% respectively for CaWO4 and CaMoO4 while the energy resolutions (FWHM) for the phonon channels are 2.17 keV (1.8%) and 0.97 keV (0.79%). These characteristics compare favourably with other CPSDs currently used in cryogenic rare-event search experiments. The detection module with PMT readout benefits from the implementation of a well-understood, reliable, and commercially available component and improved time resolution, while retaining the major advantages of conventional CPSD, such as high sensitivity, resolving power and discrimination ability.

  3. Free-Space optical interconnects for cable-less readout in particle physics detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, John; Kwan, Simon; Moretti, Tony; Sugg, Alan; Prosser, Alan; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Particle physics detectors utilize readout data links requiring a complicated network of copper wires or optical fibers. These links are both massive and costly. Upgrades to such detectors may require additional bandwidth to be provisioned with limited space available to route new cables or fibers. In contrast, free-space optical interconnects will offer cable-less readout, thereby resulting in significant reductions of material and labor. A collaborative effort between Fermilab and Vega Wave Systems is pursuing the development of a unique free-space optical link design that utilizes the transparency of silicon at wavelengths including 1310 nm and multiple wavelengths used in standard telecommunications applications such as coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). The first step in the pursuit of that design is a proof that the concept may be viable. To that end, experiments have been performed to characterize the bit error rate performance of a prototype link over a free-space optical path and through doped silicon at multi-gigabit rates. These experiments have demonstrated that operation within acceptable bit error rates is possible using single and multiple wavelength transmission arrangements.

  4. World's Cheapest Readout Electronics for Kinetic Inductance Detector by Using RedPitaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, N.; Jeong, H.; Choi, J.; Ishitsuka, H.; Mima, S.; Nagasaki, T.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic inductance detector (KID) is a cutting-edge superconducting detector. The number of KID developers is growing. Most of them have switched from their previous study to superconducting technologies. Therefore, infrastructures for the fabrication of KIDs and cooling systems for their tests have already been established. However, readout electronics have to be newly prepared. Neither a commercial system nor low-cost standard electronics are available despite various attempts to create a standard one. We suggest the use of RedPitaya as readout electronics for the initial step of KID development, which is low cost (≈ 400 USD) and easy to set up. The RedPitaya consists of an all-programmable FPGA-CPU module and a dual-channel 14 bit DAC (ADC) to generate (measure) fast analog signals with 125 MSpS. Each port can be synchronized in-phase or quadrature-phase, and functions for generating and sampling analog signal are prepared. It is straightforward to construct vector network analyzer-like logic by using a combination of these default functions. Up-conversion and down-conversion of its frequency range are also possible by using commercial equipment, i.e., mixers, couplers, and a local oscillator. We implemented direct down-conversion logic on the RedPitaya, and successfully demonstrated KID signal measurements.

  5. Preliminary demonstration of an IonCCD as an alternative pixelated anode for direct MCP readout in a compact MS-based detector.

    PubMed

    Hadjar, Omar; Fowler, William K; Kibelka, Gottfried; Schnute, William C

    2012-02-01

    We report on the preliminary testing of a new position-sensitive detector (PSD) by combining a microchannel plate (MCP) and a charge-sensitive pixilated anode with a direct readout based on charge-coupled detector (CCD) technology, which will be referred to as IonCCD (Hadjar et al. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 22(4):612-623, 2011; Johnson et al. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 22(8):1388-1394, 2011; Hadjar et al. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 22(10):1872-1884, 2011). This work exploits the recently discovered electron detection capability of the IonCCD (Hadjar et al. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 22(4):612-623, 2011), allowing it to be used directly behind an MC. This MCP-IonCCD configuration potentially obviates the need for electro-optical ion detector systems (EOIDs), which typically feature a relatively difficult-to-implement 5-kV power source as well as a phosphorus screen behind the MCP for conversion of electrons to photons prior to signal generation in a photosensitive CCD. Thus, the new system (MCP-IonCCD) has the potential to be smaller, simpler, more robust, and more cost efficient than EOID-based technologies in many applications. The use of the IonCCD as direct MCP readout anode, as opposed to its direct use as an ion detector, will benefit from the instant three-to-four-order-of-magnitude gain of the MCP with virtually no additional noise. The signal/noise gain can be used for either sensitivity or speed enhancement of the detector. The speed enhancement may motivate the development of faster IonCCD readout speeds (currently at 2.7 ms) to achieve the 2 kHz frame rate for which the IonCCD chip was designed, a must for transient signal applications. The presented detector exhibits clear potential not only as a trace analysis detector in scan-free mass spectrometry and electron spectroscopy but also as a compact detector for photon and particle imaging applications.

  6. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system.

    PubMed

    Choong, W-S; Abu-Nimeh, F; Moses, W W; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Wu, J-Y

    2015-08-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  7. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    DOE PAGES

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; ...

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, whichmore » allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.« less

  8. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J. -Y.

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  9. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is ``time stamped'' by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA . This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  10. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    PubMed Central

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W.W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C.Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is “time stamped” by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc. PMID:27134641

  11. A Cylindrical GEM Detector with Analog Readout for the BESIII Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cibinetto, G.

    2015-07-01

    Inner Trackers (IT) are key detectors in Particle Physics experiments; excellent spatial resolution, radiation transparency and hardness, and operability under high occupancies are main requirements. We aim to design, build and commission by 2017 a Cylindrical GEM (CGEM) detector candidate to be the new IT of the BESIII spectrometer, hosted on BEPC2 in IHEP, Beijing; BESIII data taking will last until at least 2020. The IT itself will represent an evolution w.r.t. the state of the art of GEM detectors, since the use of new kind of mechanical supports for the GEM foils will reduce the total radiation length of the detector and improve its tracking performance; an innovative design of the CGEM anode will allow for smaller capacitance and hence for bigger signals. The relatively strong BESIII magnetic field requires a new analogue readout; full custom front-end electronics, including a dedicated ASIC, will be designed and produced for optimal data collection. Prototype Beam Test results showing the measurement of the spatial resolution in a 1 Tesla magnetic field will be presented among with the mechanical design and simulations. (authors)

  12. Molecular beacon modified sensor chips for oligonucleotide detection with optical readout.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiang; Wesner, Daniel; Schönherr, Holger; Nöll, Gilbert

    2014-12-02

    Three different surface bound molecular beacons (MBs) were investigated using surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) as an optical readout technique. While MB1 and MB2, both consisting of 36 bases, differed only in the length of the linker for surface attachment, the significantly longer MB3, consisting of 56 bases, comprised an entirely different sequence. For sensor chip preparation, the MBs were chemisorbed on gold via thiol anchors together with different thiol spacers. The influence of important parameters, such as the length of the MBs, the length of the linker between the MBs and the gold surface, the length and nature of the thiol spacers, and the ratio between the MBs and the thiol spacers was studied. After hybridization with the target, the fluorophore of the longer MB3 was oriented close to the surface, and the shorter MBs were standing more or less upright, leading to a larger increase in fluorescence intensity. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a homogeneous distribution of the MBs on the surface. The sensor chips could be used for simple and fast detection of target molecules with a limit of detection in the larger picomolar range. The response time was between 5 and 20 min. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish between fully complementary and singly mismatched targets. While rinsing with buffer solution after hybridization with target did not result in any signal decrease, complete dehybridization could be carried out by intense rinsing with pure water. The MB modified sensor chips could be prepared in a repeatable manner and reused many times without significant decrease in performance.

  13. Cross strip anode readouts for microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Cooney, M.; Raffanti, R.; Varner, G.; Siegmund, O.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (eg. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. The PXS anode is a set of orthogonal conducting strips (80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital (ADC) converter at 50MHz. All of the 160 ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T). Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated < 20 microns FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 the our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). This detector design could then be modified for individual flight opportunities with a higher level of confidence than

  14. Lutetium oxyorthosilicate block detector readout by avalanche photodiode arrays for high resolution animal PET.

    PubMed

    Pichler, B J; Swann, B K; Rochelle, J; Nutt, R E; Cherry, S R; Siegel, S B

    2004-09-21

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have proven to be useful as light detectors for high resolution positron emission tomography (PET). Their compactness makes these devices excellent candidates for replacing bulky photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in PET systems where space limitations are an issue. The readout of densely packed, 10 x 10 lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) block detectors (crystal size 2.0 x 2.0 x 12 mm3) with custom-built monolithic 3 x 3 APD arrays was investigated. The APDs had a 5 x 5 mm2 active surface and were arranged on a 6.25 mm pitch. The dead space on the edges of the array was 1.25 mm. The APDs were operated at a bias voltage of approximately 380 V for a gain of 100 and a dark current of 10 nA per APD. The standard deviation in gain between the APDs in the array ranged from 1.8 to 6.5% as the gain was varied from 50 to 108. A fast, low-noise, multi-channel charge sensitive preamplifier application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was developed for the APD readout. The amplifier had a rise time of 8 ns, a noise floor of 515 e- rms and a 9 e- pF(-1) noise slope. An acquired flood image showed that all 100 crystals from the block detector could be resolved. Timing measurements with single-channel LSO-APD detectors, as well as with the array, against a plastic scintillator and PMT assembly showed a time resolution of 1.2 ns and 2.5 ns, respectively. The energy resolution measured with a single 4.0 x 4.0 x 10 mm3 LSO crystal, wrapped in four-layer polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and coupled with optical grease on a single APD of the array, yielded 15% (full width at half maximum, FWHM) at 511 keV. Stability tests over 9 months of operation showed that the APD arrays do not degrade appreciably. These results demonstrate the ability to decode densely packed LSO scintillation blocks with compact APD arrays. The good timing and energy resolution makes these detectors suitable for high resolution PET.

  15. Simulation of digital pixel readout chip architectures with the RD53 SystemVerilog-UVM verification environment using Monte Carlo physics data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, E.; Marconi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Placidi, P.; Hemperek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and verification framework developed by the RD53 collaboration is a powerful tool for global architecture optimization and design verification of next generation hybrid pixel readout chips. In this paper the framework is used for studying digital pixel chip architectures at behavioral level. This is carried out by simulating a dedicated, highly parameterized pixel chip description, which makes it possible to investigate different grouping strategies between pixels and different latency buffering and arbitration schemes. The pixel hit information used as simulation input can be either generated internally in the framework or imported from external Monte Carlo detector simulation data. The latter have been provided by both the CMS and ATLAS experiments, featuring HL-LHC operating conditions and the specifications related to the Phase 2 upgrade. Pixel regions and double columns were simulated using such Monte Carlo data as inputs: the performance of different latency buffering architectures was compared and the compliance of different link speeds with the expected column data rate was verified.

  16. A novel readout module for single photon solid state detectors (SiPMD, GAPD, MPPC, MAPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Huna, Z.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper a novel, Readout Module (RM) for Single Photon Detector (SiPD has been described. The electronics design is based on the concept of virtual instrumentation RM consists of SiPD preamplifier, shaping amplifier, discriminator, multi channel analyzer and control module connected to a PC through the USB bus and of PC application software. The RM can be used for investigation of different types of SiPD with maximum biasing voltage 90 V and maximal current 2 mA. The RM has fast digital output for triggering and 12 bit internal ADC for output digitizing. The RM uses USB bus as a power supply. It could be very useful for laboratory experiment. The small size of module allows easy integration of few modules into multi-channel system that can be used for PET application. (authors)

  17. Linearity enhancement design of a 16-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huiming; Wei, Tingcun; Wang, Jia

    2017-03-01

    A 16-channel front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with linearity enhancement design for cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is presented in this paper. The resistors in the slow shaper are realized using a high-Z circuit to obtain constant resistance value instead of using only a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor, thus the shaping time of the slow shaper can be kept constant for different amounts of input energies. As a result, the linearity of conversion gain is improved significantly. The ASIC was designed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a die size of 2.60 mm×3.53 mm. The tested results show that a typical channel provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 109.7e-+16.3e-/pF with a power consumption of 4 mW and achieves a conversion gain of 87 mV/fC with a nonlinearity of <0.4%. The linearity of conversion gain is improved by at least 86.6% as compared with the traditional approaches using the same front-end readout architecture and manufacture process. Moreover, the inconsistency among channels is <0.3%. An energy resolution of 2.975 keV (FWHM) for gamma rays of 59.5 keV was measured by connecting the ASIC to a 5 mm×5 mm ×2 mm CdZnTe detector at room temperature. The front-end readout ASIC presented in this paper achieves an outstanding linearity performance without compromising the noise, power consumption, and chip size performances.

  18. Integrated Micro-Chip Amino Acid Chirality Detector for MOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Botta, O.; Kminek, G.; Grunthaner, F.; Mathies, R.

    2001-01-01

    Integration of a micro-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer with a sublimation-based extraction technique, as used in the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), for the in-situ detection of amino acids and their enantiomers on solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Study of the VMM1 read-out chip in a neutron irradiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Fanourakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kokkoris, M.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Papageorgiou, K.; Tsipolitis, G.

    2016-05-01

    Within 2015, the LHC operated close to the design energy of √s = 13-14 TeV delivering instantaneous luminosities up to Script L = 5 × 1033 cm-2s-1. The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade in 2018/19 will introduce the MicroMEGAS detectors in the area of the small wheel at the end caps. Accompanying new electronics are designed and built such as the VMM front end ASIC, which provides energy, timing and triggering information and allows fast data read-out. The first VMM version (VMM1) has been widely produced and tested in various test beams, whilst the second version (VMM2) is currently being tested. This paper focuses on the VMM1 single event upset studies and more specifically on the response of the configuration registers under harsh radiation environments. Similar conditions are expected at Run III with Script L = 2 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and a mean of 55 interactions per bunch crossing. Two VMM1s were exposed in a neutron irradiation environment using the TANDEM Van Der Graaff accelerator at NSCR Demokritos, Athens, Greece. The results showed a rate of SEU occurrences at a measured cross section of (4.1±0.8)×10-14 cm2/bit for each VMM. Consequently, when extrapolating this value to the luminosity expected in Run III, the occurrence is roughly 6 SEUs/min in all the read-out system comprising 40,000 VMMs installed during the Phase-I upgrade.

  20. High sensitivity phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detector with combined amplitude and phase read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Colantoni, I.; Cruciani, A.; Bellini, F.; Castellano, M. G.; Cosmelli, C.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2017-01-01

    Developing wide-area cryogenic light detectors with baseline resolution better than 20 eV is one of the priorities of next generation bolometric experiments searching for rare interactions, as the simultaneous read-out of the light and heat signals enables background suppression through particle identification. Among the proposed technological approaches for the phonon sensor, the naturally multiplexed Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) stand out for their excellent intrinsic energy resolution and reproducibility. The potential of this technique was proved by the CALDER project that reached a baseline resolution of 154 ± 7 eV RMS by sampling a 2 × 2 cm2 Silicon substrate with 4 Aluminum KIDs. In this paper, we present a prototype of Aluminum KID with improved geometry and quality factor. The design improvement, as well as the combined analysis of amplitude and phase signals, allowed to reach a baseline resolution of 82 ± 4 eV by sampling the same substrate with a single Aluminum KID.

  1. Prototyping the read-out chain of the CBM Microvertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, P.; Wiebusch, M.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Deveaux, M.; Koziel, M.; Michel, J.; Milanovic, B.; Müntz, C.; Tischler, T.; Stroth, J.

    2016-03-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) Experiment at the future FAIR (Darmstadt/Germany) will study the phase diagram of hadronic matter in the regime of highest net-baryon densities. The fixed target experiment will explore the nuclear fireballs created in violent heavy ion reactions with a rich number of probes. To reconstruct the decay topologies of open-charm particles as well as to track low-momentum particles, an ultra-light and precise Microvertex Detector (MVD) is required. The necessary performance in terms of spatial resolution, material budget and rate capability will be reached by equipping the MVD with highly granular, radiation-hard CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (CPS) developped at IPHC Strasbourg, which are operated in the target vacuum of the experiment. This contribution introduces the concept of the MVD and puts a focus on the latest results obtained from the R&D of the electronics and read-out chain of the device. Moreover, we briefly introduce the PRESTO project, which realises a prototype of a full size quadrant of an MVD detector station.

  2. Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, F. C.; Rigon, L.; Longo, R.; Arfelli, F.; Bergamaschi, A.; Chen, R. C.; Dreossi, D.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2011-12-01

    A single-photon counting detector read-out system for mammography with synchrotron radiation has been developed with the aim to meet the needs of the mammographic imaging station of the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. The system called PICASSO (Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn) is a modular detector that implements a read-out system with MYTHEN II ASICs, an embedded Linux-based controller board and a Scientific Linux acquisition workstation. The system architecture and characteristics are herein presented. The system was tested at the SYRMEP beamline and achieved a frame rate of 33 Hz for 8448 channels at 24-bit dynamic range, and it is capable of continuously acquiring up to 2000 frames. Standard mammographic phantoms were imaged and good quality images were obtained at doses comparable with what is delivered in conventional full field mammographic systems.

  3. Time-over-threshold readout to enhance the high flux capabilities of single-photon-counting detectors.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Anna; Dinapoli, Roberto; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Stoppani, Laura

    2011-11-01

    The MYTHEN single-photon-counting (SPC) detector has been characterized using the time-over-threshold (ToT) readout method, i.e. measuring the time that the signal produced by the detected X-rays remains above the comparator threshold. In the following it is shown that the ToT readout preserves the sensitivity, dynamic range and capability of background suppression of the SPC mode, while enhancing the count-rate capability, which is the main limitation of state-of-the-art SPC systems.

  4. Characterization of direct readout Si:Sb and Si:Ga infrared detector arrays for space-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckelvey, Mark E.; Mccreight, Craig R.; Goebel, John H.; Moss, Nicolas N.; Savage, Maureen L.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary test results from the evaluation of Si:Sb and Si:Ga 58 x 62-element infrared detector arrays are presented. These devices are being characterized under background conditions and readout rates representative of operation in orbiting, crogenically-cooled infrared observatories. The arrays are hybridized to silicon direct-readout multiplexers which allow random-access and nondestructive readout. Array performance optimization is being conducted with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readoaut electronics system. Preliminary Si:Sb measurements indicate a sense node capacitance of 0.06 pF, peak (28-micron) responsivity above 3 A/W at 2V bias, read noise of 130 rms e(-), dark current approximately 10 e(-)/s, and a well capacity greater than 10 to the 5th e(-). The limited test data available on the performance of the Si:Ga array are also discussed.

  5. Geant4 Simulations of SuperCDMS iZip Detector Charge Carrier Propagation and FET Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, Rob

    2013-04-01

    The SuperCDMS experiment aims to directly detect dark matter particles called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). The detectors collect phonon and ionization energy of incident particles for analysis. The SuperCDMS Detector Monte Carlo group is implementing low temperature phonon and ionization simulations in Geant4 in order to study the response of the detectors to incident events. Phonons and electron-hole pairs are tracked in a low temperature crystal detector. The resulting TES phonon readout, as well as the FET charge readout are simulated. The Geant4 framework is well-suited to these tasks. The charge transport in the presence of a complex electric field is performed by calculating a tetrahedral mesh of potentials across the crystal volume. To calculate the FET readout, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied to simulate the current in the FET. The focus of this presentation will be on incorporating and using the software package, Qhull, to calculate a tetrahedral mesh from known potentials and then using barycentric coordinates to perform a linear interpolation to calculate the field. After calculating the field at each charge carrier's position, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied and the previous triangulation technique is performed to simulate the FET response

  6. Si Memory Chip as a Sensitive Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    William Quam

    2008-03-01

    A novel neutron detector is based on semiconductor technology. A boron-containing film is an integral part of the semiconductor device and is in physical contact with the charge-storage medium (CSM). The CSM is a proprietary cell design known as MirrorBit{trademark}, which is different from conventional memory designs such as SRAM or DRAM. The design doubles the resolution and sensitivity in the array. This enables a highly effective detection of the secondary particles, {sup 7}Li and {sup 4}He, produced due to neutron capture by {sup 10}B in the device. Other approaches using semiconductor materials for neutron detection have employed single-diode detectors that require off-system preamplifiers to filter and condition the signal. There are several advantages to this non-volatile detector, one being that it requires no power for detection and retains the signal until reset. Further, this detector, a semiconductor chip, can be seamlessly integrated into other systems. Finally, the semiconductor manufacturing process on which the detector is based will allow for a high-volume and low-cost alternative to current detectors. MirrorBit{trademark} chips were exposed to neutron flux and the signals recorded. Detailed results from this experiment will be described in this presentation.

  7. A generic FPGA-based detector readout and real-time image processing board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Mathew, Joice; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-07-01

    For space-based astronomical observations, it is important to have a mechanism to capture the digital output from the standard detector for further on-board analysis and storage. We have developed a generic (application- wise) field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board to interface with an image sensor, a method to generate the clocks required to read the image data from the sensor, and a real-time image processor system (on-chip) which can be used for various image processing tasks. The FPGA board is applied as the image processor board in the Lunar Ultraviolet Cosmic Imager (LUCI) and a star sensor (StarSense) - instruments developed by our group. In this paper, we discuss the various design considerations for this board and its applications in the future balloon and possible space flights.

  8. Test beam results of the first CMS double-sided strip module prototypes using the CBC2 read-out chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harb, Ali; Mussgiller, Andreas; Hauk, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    The CMS Binary Chip (CBC) is a prototype version of the front-end read-out ASIC to be used in the silicon strip modules of the CMS outer tracking detector during the high luminosity phase of the LHC. The CBC is produced in 130 nm CMOS technology and bump-bonded to the hybrid of a double layer silicon strip module, the so-called 2S-pT module. It has 254 input channels and is designed to provide on-board trigger information to the first level trigger system of CMS, with the capability of cluster-width discrimination and high-pT track identification. In November 2013 the first 2S-pT module prototypes equipped with the CBC chips were put to test at the DESY-II test beam facility. Data were collected exploiting a beam of positrons with an energy ranging from 2 to 4 GeV. In this paper the test setup and the results are presented.

  9. Preliminary validation results of an ASIC for the readout and control of near-infrared large array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâhlsson, Philip; Meier, Dirk; Otnes Berge, Hans Kristian; Øya, Petter; Steenari, David; Olsen, Alf; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Altan, Mehmet A.; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Talebi, Jahanzad; Azman, Suleyman; Gheorghe, Codin; Ackermann, Jörg; Mæhlum, Gunnar

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present initial test results of the Near Infrared Readout and Controller ASIC (NIRCA), designed for large area image sensors under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Norwegian Space Center. The ASIC is designed to read out image sensors based on mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe, or MCT) operating down to 77 K. IDEAS has developed, designed and initiated testing of NIRCA with promising results, showing complete functionality of all ASIC sub-components. The ASIC generates programmable digital signals to clock out the contents of an image array and to amplify, digitize and transfer the resulting pixel charge. The digital signals can be programmed into the ASIC during run-time and allows for windowing and custom readout schemes. The clocked out voltages are amplified by programmable gain amplifiers and digitized by 12-bit, 3-Msps successive approximation register (SAR) analogue-to-digital converters (ADC). Digitized data is encoded using 8-bit to 10-bit encoding and transferred over LVDS to the readout system. The ASIC will give European researchers access to high spectral sensitivity, very low noise and radiation hardened readout electronics for astronomy and Earth observation missions operating at 77 K and room temperature. The versatility of the chip makes the architecture a possible candidate for other research areas, or defense or industrial applications that require analog and digital acquisition, voltage regulation, and digital signal generation.

  10. Measuring Io's Lava Eruption Temperatures with a Novel Infrared Detector and Digital Readout Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ashley; Gunapala, Sarath; Rafol, B., Sir; Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David Z.

    2016-10-01

    One method of determining lava eruption temperature of Io's dominant silicate lavas is by measuring radiant flux at two or more wavelengths and fitting a black-body thermal emission function. Only certain styles of volcanic activity are suitable, those where thermal emission is from a restricted range of surface temperatures close to eruption temperature. Such processes include [1] large lava fountains; [2] fountaining in lava lakes; and [3] lava tube skylights. Problems that must be overcome are (1) the cooling of the lava between data acquisitions at different wavelengths; (2) the unknown magnitude of thermal emission, which often led to detector saturation; and (3) thermal emission changing on a shorter timescale than the observation integration time. We can overcome these problems by using the HOT-BIRD detector [4] and an advanced digital readout circuit [5]. We have created an instrument model that allows different instrument parameters (including mirror diameter, number of signal splits, exposure duration, filter band pass, and optics transmissivity) to be tested so as to determine eruption detectability. We find that a short-wavelength infrared instrument on an Io flyby mission can achieve simultaneity of observations by splitting the incoming signal for all relevant eruption processes and obtain data fast enough to remove uncertainties in accurate determination of the highest lava surface temperatures exposed. Observations at 1 and 1.5 μm are sufficient to do this. Lava temperature determinations are also possible with a visible wavelength detector [3] so long as data at different wavelengths are obtained simultaneously and integration time is very short. This is especially important for examining the thermal emission from lava tube skylights [3] due to rapidly-changing viewing geometry during close flybys. References: [1] Davies et al., 2001, JGR, 106, 33079-33104. [2] Davies et al., 2011, GRL, 38, L21308. [3] Davies et al., 2016, Icarus, in press. [4

  11. A self contained Linux based data acquisition system for 2D detectors with delay line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltran, D.; Toledo, J.; Klora, A. C.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Martínez, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a fast and self-contained data acquisition system for 2D gas-filled detectors with delay line readout. It allows the realization of time resolved experiments in the millisecond scale. The acquisition system comprises of an industrial PC running Linux, a commercial time-to-digital converter and an in-house developed histogramming PCI card. The PC provides a mass storage for images and a graphical user interface for system monitoring and control. The histogramming card builds images with a maximum count rate of 5 MHz limited by the time-to-digital converter. Histograms are transferred to the PC at 85 MB/s. This card also includes a time frame generator, a calibration channel unit and eight digital outputs for experiment control. The control software was developed for easy integration into a beamline, including scans. The system is fully operational at the Spanish beamline BM16 at the ESRF in France, the neutron beamlines Adam and Eva at the ILL in France, the Max Plank Institute in Stuttgart in Germany, the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and at the future ALBA synchrotron in Spain. Some representative collected images from synchrotron and neutron beamlines are presented.

  12. A 12-bit SAR ADC integrated on a multichannel silicon drift detector readout IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, F.; Bellotti, G.; Fiorini, C.

    2016-07-01

    A 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) addressed to Silicon-Drift Detectors (SDDs) multichannel readout ASICs for X- and gamma-ray applications is presented. Aiming at digitizing output multiplexed data from the upstream analog filters banks, the converter must ensure 11-bit accuracy and a sampling frequency of about 5 MS/s. The ADC architecture is the charge-redistribution (CR) successive-approximation register (SAR). A fully differential topology has also been chosen for better rejection of common-mode noise and disturbances. The internal DAC is made of binary-scaled capacitors, whose bottom plates are switched by the SAR logic to perform the binary search of the analog input value by means of the monotonic switching scheme. The A/D converter is integrated on SFERA, a multichannel ASIC fabricated in a standard CMOS 0.35 μm 3.3 V technology and it occupies an area of 0.42 mm2. Simulated static performance shows monotonicity over the whole input-output characteristic. The description of the circuit topology and of inner blocks architectures together with the experimental characterization is here presented.

  13. Readout channel with majority logic timestamp and digital peak detector for Muon Chambers of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E.; Bulbakov, I.; Ivanov, P.; Ivanov, V.; Malankin, E.; Normanov, D.; Sagdiev, I.; Samsonov, V.; Shumikhin, V.; Shumkin, O.; Vinogradov, S.; Voronin, A.

    2016-12-01

    A prototype readout channel was manufactured in UMC CMOS 180 nm for the purpose of the CBM experiment at the FAIR accelerator. The channel includes a preamplifier with fast and slow CR-RC shapers, discriminator with a differential threshold setup circuit, a 6-bit SAR ADC (DNL = 0.70, INL = 0.45), digital peak detector and block of the time stamp registration. The control data, clock and output data are supplied through SLVS transmitter and receiver. The slow and fast channels have 1000 el and 1500 el ENC accordingly at a 50 pF detector capacitance. Power consumption is 10 mW/channel.

  14. Cross strip anode readouts for large format, photon counting microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes of the detector and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Raffanti, Rick; Cooney, Michael; Cumming, Harley; Varner, Gary; Seljak, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. Laboratory versions of PXS electronics have demonstrated < 20 μm FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector and electronics from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). The first ASICs designed for this program have been fabricated and are undergoing testing. We present the latest progress on these ASIC designs and performance and show imaging results from the new 50 x 50 mm XS detector.

  15. The high performance readout chain for the DSSC 1Megapixel detector, designed for high throughput during pulsed operation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Soldat, J.; Kugel, A.; Donato, M.; Porro, M.; Fischer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The readout chain of the DSSC 1M pixel detector currently built at DESY, Hamburg for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser is described. The system operates in pulsed operation mode comparable to the new ILC. Each 0.1 seconds 800 images of 1M pixels are produced and readout by the DSSC DAQ electronics. The total data production rate of the system is about 134 Gbit/s. In order to deal with the high data rates, latest technology components like the Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGA are used to implement fast DDR3-1600 image buffers, high speed serial FPGA to FPGA communication and 10 GB Ethernet links concentrated in one 40 Gbit/s QSFP+ transceiver.

  16. MuTRiG: a mixed signal Silicon Photomultiplier readout ASIC with high timing resolution and gigabit data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Shen, W.; Stankova, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.

    2017-01-01

    MuTRiG is a mixed signal Silicon Photomultiplier readout ASIC designed in UMC 180 nm CMOS technology for precise timing and high event rate applications in high energy physics experiments and medical imaging. It is dedicated to the readout of the scintillating fiber detector and the scintillating tile detector of the Mu3e experiment. The MuTRiG chip extends the excellent timing performance of the STiCv3 chip with a fast digital readout for high rate applications. The high timing performance of the fully differential SiPM readout channels and 50 ps time binning TDCs are complemented by an upgraded digital readout logic and a 1.28 Gbps LVDS serial data link. The design of the chip and the characterization results of the analog front-end, TDC and the LVDS data link are presented.

  17. Development of large-area CZT detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Joergensen, Carl C.; Westergaard, Niels J.; Jonasson, Per; van Pamelen, Mike A.; Reglero, Victor; Eyles, Christopher J.; Neubert, Torsten

    1999-10-01

    DSRI has initiated a development program of CZT x-ray and gamma ray detectors employing strip readout techniques. A dramatic improvement of the energy response was found operating the detectors as so-called drift detectors. For the electronic readout, modern ASIC chips were investigated. Modular design and the low power electronics will make large area detectors using the drift strip method feasible. The performance of a prototype CZT system will be presented and discussed.

  18. Evaluation of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters for cone-beam CT imaging of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jennifer; Sisniega, Alejandro; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Dang, Hao; Webster Stayman, J.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassillis E.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and dose were characterized for a new CBCT system developed for point-of-care imaging of the head, with potential application to diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and stroke. A detector performance model was extended to include the effects of detector readout gain on electronic digitization noise. The noise performance for high-gain (HG), low-gain (LG), and dual-gain (DG) detector readout was evaluated, and the benefit associated with HG mode in regions free from detector saturation was quantified. Such benefit could be realized (without detector saturation) either via DG mode or by incorporation of a bowtie filter. Therefore, three bowtie filters were investigated that varied in thickness and curvature. A polyenergetic gain correction method was developed to equalize the detector response between the flood-field and projection data in the presence of a bowtie. The effect of bowtie filters on dose, scatter-to-primary ratio, contrast, and noise was quantified in phantom studies, and results were compared to a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to characterize x-ray scatter and dose distributions in the head. Imaging in DG mode improved the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by ~15% compared to LG mode at a dose (D 0, measured at the center of a 16 cm CTDI phantom) of 19 mGy. MC dose calculations agreed with CTDI measurements and showed that bowtie filters reduce peripheral dose by as much as 50% at the same central dose. Bowtie filters were found to increase the CNR per unit square-root dose near the center of the image by ~5-20% depending on bowtie thickness, but reduced CNR in the periphery by ~10-40%. Images acquired at equal CTDIw with and without a bowtie demonstrated a 24% increase in CNR at the center of an anthropomorphic head phantom. Combining a thick bowtie filter with a short arc (180°  +  fan angle) scan centered

  19. Evaluation of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters for cone-beam CT imaging of the head.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jennifer; Sisniega, Alejandro; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Dang, Hao; Stayman, J Webster; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassillis E; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2016-08-21

    The effects of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and dose were characterized for a new CBCT system developed for point-of-care imaging of the head, with potential application to diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and stroke. A detector performance model was extended to include the effects of detector readout gain on electronic digitization noise. The noise performance for high-gain (HG), low-gain (LG), and dual-gain (DG) detector readout was evaluated, and the benefit associated with HG mode in regions free from detector saturation was quantified. Such benefit could be realized (without detector saturation) either via DG mode or by incorporation of a bowtie filter. Therefore, three bowtie filters were investigated that varied in thickness and curvature. A polyenergetic gain correction method was developed to equalize the detector response between the flood-field and projection data in the presence of a bowtie. The effect of bowtie filters on dose, scatter-to-primary ratio, contrast, and noise was quantified in phantom studies, and results were compared to a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to characterize x-ray scatter and dose distributions in the head. Imaging in DG mode improved the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by ~15% compared to LG mode at a dose (D 0, measured at the center of a 16 cm CTDI phantom) of 19 mGy. MC dose calculations agreed with CTDI measurements and showed that bowtie filters reduce peripheral dose by as much as 50% at the same central dose. Bowtie filters were found to increase the CNR per unit square-root dose near the center of the image by ~5-20% depending on bowtie thickness, but reduced CNR in the periphery by ~10-40%. Images acquired at equal CTDIw with and without a bowtie demonstrated a 24% increase in CNR at the center of an anthropomorphic head phantom. Combining a thick bowtie filter with a short arc (180°  +  fan angle) scan centered

  20. Energy and Timing Measurement with Time-Based Detector Readout for PET Applications: Principle and Validation with Discrete Circuit Components.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xishan; Lan, Allan K; Bircher, Chad; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Yinong; Shao, Yiping

    2011-06-11

    A new signal processing method for PET application has been developed, with discrete circuit components to measure energy and timing of a gamma interaction based solely on digital timing processing without using an amplitude-to-digital convertor (ADC) or a constant fraction discriminator (CFD). A single channel discrete component time-based readout (TBR) circuit was implemented in a PC board. Initial circuit functionality and performance evaluations have been conducted. Accuracy and linearity of signal amplitude measurement were excellent, as measured with test pulses. The measured timing accuracy from test pulses reached to less than 300 ps, a value limited mainly by the timing jitter of the prototype electronics circuit. Both suitable energy and coincidence timing resolutions (~18% and ~1.0 ns) have been achieved with 3 × 3 × 20 mm(3) LYSO scintillator and photomultiplier tube-based detectors. With its relatively simple circuit and low cost, TBR is expected to be a suitable front-end signal readout electronics for compact PET or other radiation detectors requiring the reading of a large number of detector channels and demanding high performance for energy and timing measurement.

  1. Energy and Timing Measurement with Time-Based Detector Readout for PET Applications: Principle and Validation with Discrete Circuit Components

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xishan; Lan, Allan K.; Bircher, Chad; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Yinong; Shao, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    A new signal processing method for PET application has been developed, with discrete circuit components to measure energy and timing of a gamma interaction based solely on digital timing processing without using an amplitude-to-digital convertor (ADC) or a constant fraction discriminator (CFD). A single channel discrete component time-based readout (TBR) circuit was implemented in a PC board. Initial circuit functionality and performance evaluations have been conducted. Accuracy and linearity of signal amplitude measurement were excellent, as measured with test pulses. The measured timing accuracy from test pulses reached to less than 300 ps, a value limited mainly by the timing jitter of the prototype electronics circuit. Both suitable energy and coincidence timing resolutions (~18% and ~1.0 ns) have been achieved with 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 LYSO scintillator and photomultiplier tube-based detectors. With its relatively simple circuit and low cost, TBR is expected to be a suitable front-end signal readout electronics for compact PET or other radiation detectors requiring the reading of a large number of detector channels and demanding high performance for energy and timing measurement. PMID:21743761

  2. A high-granularity plastic scintillator tile hadronic calorimeter with APD readout for a linear collider detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V.; Cvach, J.; Danilov, M.; Devitsin, E.; Dodonov, V.; Eigen, G.; Garutti, E.; Gilitzky, Yu.; Groll, M.; Heuer, R.-D.; Janata, M.; Kacl, I.; Korbel, V.; Kozlov, V.; Meyer, H.; Morgunov, V.; Němeček, S.; Pöschl, R.; Polák, I.; Raspereza, A.; Reiche, S.; Rusinov, V.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terkulov, A.; Valkár, Š.; Weichert, J.; Zálešák, J.

    2006-08-01

    We report upon the performance of an analog hadron calorimeter prototype, where plastic scintillator tiles are read out with wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to avalanche photodiodes. This prototype configuration has been tested using a positron beam at DESY with energies between 1 and 6 GeV. We present different detector calibration methods, show measurements for noise, linearity, and energy resolution and discuss gain monitoring with an LED system. The results are in good agreement with our simulation studies and previous measurements using silicon photomultiplier readout.

  3. {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) Neutrons Scintillator Detector Configuration for Optimal Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Osovizky, A.; Yehuda-Zada, Y.; Ghelman, M.; Tsai, P.; Thompson, A.K.; Pritchard, K.; Ziegler, J.B.; Ibberson, R.M.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Maliszewskyj, N.C.

    2015-07-01

    WLS fibers; therefore the diode area should ideally be only minimally larger than fiber bundle area. - Low dark noise - it is desirable to minimize the dark noise during the pulse integration period so as to minimize the background for pulse shape discrimination. - Photon Detection Efficiency - it is desirable to increase the SiPM PDE in order to enhance light collection. This will increase the likelihood of detecting neutron events with lower light production and will present a cleaner raw signal for pulse shape discrimination. We will present the SiPM optimization process and studies of dark noise and gamma and neutron sensitivity as a function of bias voltage and operating temperature that have enabled us to optimize the detector sensitivity and gamma rejection. The gamma rejection performance goal requires to overcome the challenge of discriminating between the light signature accepted by neutron event to the one received by the noise. In addition there is a huge variation between the number of light photons that reaching the WLS fibers for different neutron events caused by the heavy ions energy losses prior to ionizing the ZnS(Ag) and the high light attenuation of the scintillation mixture. This variation in the light signal along with the long decay time of the ZnS(Ag) (tens of microseconds) can cause double counting of the same neutron event in the case of high light output signature or preventing the detection of low sequential light output signature neutron event. We will presents the algorithm developed for {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) sensor readout and the results achieved by an off-line analysis by Matlab software code that successfully achieved both the high gamma rejection with a sensitive and accurate neutron event detection. (authors)

  4. Design of a 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for front-end readout of 32-channel CZT detector imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Tingcun; Li, Bo; Guo, Panjie; Hu, Yongcai

    2015-06-01

    A 12-bit 1MS/s SAR-ADC for the front-end readout of a 32-channel CZT detector imaging system is presented. In order to improve the performances of the ADC, several techniques are proposed. First, a novel offset cancellation method for comparator is proposed, in which no any capacitor is introduced in the signal pathway, thus it has faster operation speed than traditional one. Second, the architecture of unit capacitor array is adopted in the charge-redistribution DAC to reduce the capacitor mismatch. Third, the radiation-hardened ability is enhanced through circuit and layout design. The prototype chip was fabricated using a TSMC 0.35 um 2P4M CMOS process. At a 3.3/5 V power supply, the proposed SAR-ADC achieves 67.64 dB SINAD at 1MS/s, consumes 10 mW power and occupies a core area of 1180×1080 um2.

  5. High-performance low-noise 128-channel readout-integrated circuit for flat-panel x-ray detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuville, Eric J.; Belding, Mark; Costello, Adrienne N.; Hansen, Randy; Petronio, Susan M.

    2004-05-01

    A silicon mixed-signal integrated circuit is needed to extract and process x-ray induced signals from a coated flat panel thin film transistor array (TFT) in order to generate a digital x-ray image. Indigo Systems Corporation has designed, fabricated, and tested such a readout integrated circuit (ROIC), the ISC9717. This off-the-shelf, high performance, low-noise, 128-channel device is fully programmable with a multistage pipelined architecture and a 9 to 14-bit programmable A/D converter per channel, making it suitable for numerous X-ray medical imaging applications. These include high-resolution radiography in single frame mode and fluoroscopy where high frame rates are required. The ISC9717 can be used with various flat panel arrays and solid-state detectors materials: Selenium (Se), Cesium Iodide (CsI), Silicon (Si), Amorphous Silicon, Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe). The 80-micron pitch ROIC is designed to interface (wire bonding or flip-chip) along one or two sides of the x-ray panel, where ROICs are abutted vertically, each reading out charge from pixels multiplexed onto 128 horizontal read lines. The paper will present the design and test results of the ROIC, including the mechanical and electrical interface to a TFT array, system performance requirements, output multiplexing of the digital signals to an off-board processor, and characterization test results from fabricated arrays.

  6. Monte Carlo code G3sim for simulation of plastic scintillator detectors with wavelength shifter fiber readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, P. K.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed description of a compact Monte Carlo simulation code "G3sim" for studying the performance of a plastic scintillator detector with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout is presented. G3sim was developed for optimizing the design of new scintillator detectors used in the GRAPES-3 extensive air shower experiment. Propagation of the blue photons produced by the passage of relativistic charged particles in the scintillator is treated by incorporating the absorption, total internal, and diffuse reflections. Capture of blue photons by the WLS fibers and subsequent re-emission of longer wavelength green photons is appropriately treated. The trapping and propagation of green photons inside the WLS fiber is treated using the laws of optics for meridional and skew rays. Propagation time of each photon is taken into account for the generation of the electrical signal at the photomultiplier. A comparison of the results from G3sim with the performance of a prototype scintillator detector showed an excellent agreement between the simulated and measured properties. The simulation results can be parametrized in terms of exponential functions providing a deeper insight into the functioning of these versatile detectors. G3sim can be used to aid the design and optimize the performance of scintillator detectors prior to actual fabrication that may result in a considerable saving of time, labor, and money spent.

  7. Array of virtual Frisch-grid CZT detectors with common cathode readout and pulse-height correction

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, E.U.; Fochuk, P.M.; Fuerstnau, M.; Gul, R.; Hossain, A.; Jones, F.; Kim, K.; Kopach, O.V.; Taggart, R.; Yang, G.; Ye, Z.; Xu, L.; and James, R.B.

    2010-08-01

    We present our new results from testing 15-mm-long virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors with a common-cathode readout for correcting pulse-height distortions. The array employs parallelepiped-shaped CdZnTe (CZT) detectors of a large geometrical aspect ratio, with two planar contacts on the top and bottom surfaces (anode and cathode) and an additional shielding electrode on the crystal's sides to create the virtual Frisch-grid effect. We optimized the geometry of the device and improved its spectral response. We found that reducing to 5 mm the length of the shielding electrode placed next to the anode had no adverse effects on the device's performance. At the same time, this allowed corrections for electron loss by reading the cathode signals to obtain depth information.

  8. Fabrication of an Absorber-Coupled MKID Detector and Readout for Sub-Millimeter and Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and farinfrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of lambda/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5µm thick silicon membrane, and 380µm thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  9. Fabrication of an Absorber-Coupled MKID Detector and Readout for Sub-Millimeter and Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and far-infrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of lambda/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5 micrometer thick silicon membrane, and 380 micrometer thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  10. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-01-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5.3 mm × 6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μW. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μW. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e−RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature. PMID:26744545

  11. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-10-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5.3 mm × 6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μW. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μW. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e(-)RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature.

  12. Characterization and performance of monolithic detector blocks with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout for PET imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro; Sarasola Martín, Icíar; Cañadas, Mario; de Acilu, Paz García; Cuypers, Robin; Manuel Pérez, José; Willmott, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We are developing a human brain PET scanner prototype compatible with MRI based on monolithic scintillator crystals, APD matrices and a dedicated ASIC front-end readout. In this work we report on the performance of individual detector modules and on the operation of such modules in PET coincidence. Results will be presented on the individual characterization of detector blocks and its ASIC front-end readout, with measured energy resolutions of 13% full-width half-maximum (FWHM) at 511 keV and spatial resolutions of the order of 2 mm FWHM. First results on PET coincidence performance indicate spatial resolutions as good as 2.1 mm FWHM for SSRB/FBP reconstruction of tomographic data obtained using a simple PET demonstrator based on a pair of monolithic detector blocks with ASIC readout.

  13. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16 ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1992-10-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here, emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application.

  14. CZT strip detectors for imaging and spectroscopy: collimated beam and ASIC readout experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurczynski, P.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Stahle, C. M.; Parsons, A.; Palmer, D. M.; Bartlett, L. M.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Birsa, F.; Gehrels, N.; Odom, J.; Hanchak, C.; Shu, P.; Teegarden, B. J.; Tueller, J.; Barbier, L. M.

    The authors report the status of ongoing investigations into Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) strip detectors for application in hard X-ray astronomy. They have instrumented a nine strip by nine strip region of a two sided strip detector. In order to measure the position resolution of the detectors, they have implemented a collimated beam that concentrates radiation to a spot size less than the strip width of the detector. The detectors exhibited excellent strip uniformity in terms of photon count rate and spectroscopic information.

  15. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This conference poster reviews the Indium hybridization of the large format TES bolometer arrays. We are developing a key technology to enable the next generation of detectors. That is the Hybridization of Large Format Arrays using Indium bonded detector arrays containing 32x40 elements which conforms to the NIST multiplexer readout architecture of 1135 micron pitch. We have fabricated and hybridized mechanical models with the detector chips bonded after being fully back-etched. The mechanical support consists of 30 micron walls between elements Demonstrated electrical continuity for each element. The goal is to hybridize fully functional array of TES detectors to NIST readout.

  16. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  17. PS-module prototypes with MPA-light readout chip for the CMS Tracker Phase 2 Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, J.

    2017-02-01

    During the HL-LHC era an instantaneous luminosity of 5×1034 cm‑2s‑1 will be reached and possibly 3000 fb‑1 integrated luminosity will be delivered. This results in the requirement for a major upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker detector. This contribution briefly reviews the module types and the front end readout electronics foreseen in the preparation program known as phase 2 upgrade. R&D towards the construction of full module prototypes for the Pixel-Strip (PS) module is ongoing. The module combines a macro-pixel sensor and a strip sensor and has pT -discrimination capability at module level. The current experience from module construction with a demonstrator assembly and initial laboratory testing with an alternative module concept for the PS-module is shown. A possible calibration method is introduced.

  18. A large area plastic scintillation detector with 4-corner-readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shu-Wen; Yu, Yu-Hong; Zhou, Yong; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Heng; Wang, Shi-Tao; Yue, Ke; Liu, Long-Xiang; Fang, Fang; Yan, Duo; Sun, Yu; Wang, Zhao-Min

    2016-05-01

    A 760 mm × 760 mm × 30 mm plastic scintillation detector viewed by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) from four corners has been developed, and the detector has been tested with cosmic rays and γ rays. A position-independent effective time T eff has been found, indicating this detector can be used as a TOF detector. The hit position can also be reconstructed by the time from the four corners. A TOF resolution of 236 ps and a position resolution of 48 mm have been achieved, and the detection efficiency has also been investigated. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1332207, 11405242)

  19. Conceptual design of the TRACE detector readout using a compact, dead time-less analog memory ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliaga, R. J.; Herrero-Bosch, V.; Capra, S.; Pullia, A.; Dueñas, J. A.; Grassi, L.; Triossi, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Gadea, R.; González, V.; Hüyük, T.; Sanchís, E.; Gadea, A.; Mengoni, D.

    2015-11-01

    The new TRacking Array for light Charged particle Ejectiles (TRACE) detector system requires monitorization and sampling of all pulses in a large number of channels with very strict space and power consumption restrictions for the front-end electronics and cabling. Its readout system is to be based on analog memory ASICs with 64 channels each that sample a 1 μs window of the waveform of any valid pulses at 200 MHz while discarding any other signals and are read out at 50 MHz with external ADC digitization. For this purpose, a new, compact analog memory architecture is described that allows pulse capture with zero dead time in any channel while vastly reducing the total number of storage cells, particularly for large amounts of input channels. This is accomplished by partitioning the typical Switched Capacitor Array structure into two pipelined, asymmetric stages and introducing FIFO queue-like control circuitry for captured data, achieving total independence between the capture and readout operations.

  20. Time resolution of time-of-flight detector based on multiple scintillation counters readout by SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Nishimura, M.; Ootani, W.; Rossella, M.; Shirabe, S.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2016-08-01

    A new timing detector measuring ∼ 50 MeV / c positrons is under development for the MEG II experiment, aiming at a time resolution σt ∼ 30 ps. The resolution is expected to be achieved by measuring each positron time with multiple counters made of plastic scintillator readout by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the time resolution for ∼ 50 MeV / c positrons using prototype counters. Counters with dimensions of 90 × 40 × 5mm3 readout by six SiPMs (three on each 40 × 5mm2 plane) were built with SiPMs from Hamamatsu Photonics and AdvanSiD and tested in a positron beam at the DAΦNE Beam Test Facility. The time resolution was found to improve nearly as the square root of the number of counter hits. A time resolution σt = 26.2 ± 1.3 ps was obtained with eight counters with Hamamatsu SiPMs. These results suggest that the design resolution is achievable in the MEG II experiment.

  1. A cryo-amplifier working in a double loop-flux locked loop scheme for SQUID readout of TES detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrioli, Guido; Bastia, Paolo; Piro, Luigi; Macculi, Claudio; Colasanti, Luca

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we report on a novel SQUID readout scheme, called Double Loop-Flux Locked loop (DL-FLL), that we are investigating in the frame of ASI and ESA technological development contracts. This scheme is based on the realization of a cryogenic amplifier which is used in order to readout TES detectors in the Frequency Division Multiplexing technique, where high loop-gain is required up to few MHz. Loop-gain in feedback systems is, usually, limited by the propagation delay of the signals traveling in the loop because of the distance between the feedback loop elements. This problem is particularly evident in the case of SQUID systems, where the elements of the feedback loop are placed both at cryogenic and room temperature. To solve this issue we propose a low power dissipation cryo-amplifier capable to work at cryogenic temperatures so that it can be placed close to the SQUID realizing a local cryogenic loop. The adoption of the DL-FLL scheme allows to simplify considerably the cryo-amplifier which, being AC-coupled, don't require the features of a precision DC-coupled amplifier and can be made with a limited number of electronic components and with a consequent reduction of power dissipation.

  2. High efficiency plastic scintillator detector with wavelength-shifting fiber readout for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. A.; Deering, P. L.; Hartman, R. C.; Johnson, T. E.; Nebel, T. R.; Ormes, J. F.; Thompson, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the design and performance studies of the scintillator tile detectors for the anti-coincidence detector (ACD) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), scheduled for launch in early 2008. The scintillator tile detectors utilize wavelength-shifting fibers and have dual-photomultiplier-tube readout. The design requires highly efficient and uniform detection of singly charged relativistic particles over the tile area and must meet all requirements for a launch, as well as operation in a space environment. We present here the design of three basic types of tiles used in the ACD, ranging in size from ˜450 to ˜2500 cm2, all ˜1 cm thick, with different shapes, and with photoelectron yield of ˜20 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle at normal tile incidence, uniform over the tile area. Some tiles require flexible clear fiber cables up to 1.5 m long to deliver scintillator light to remotely located photomultiplier tubes.

  3. Development of silicon pad detectors and readout electronics for a Compton camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studen, A.; Cindro, V.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Czermak, A.; Dulinski, W.; Fuster, J.; Han, L.; Jalocha, P.; Kowal, M.; Kragh, T.; Lacasta, C.; Llosá, G.; Meier, D.; Mikuž, M.; Nygård, E.; Park, S. J.; Roe, S.; Rogers, W. L.; Sowicki, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wilderman, S. J.; Yoshioka, K.; Zhang, L.

    2003-03-01

    Applications in nuclear medicine and bio-medical engineering may profit using a Compton camera for imaging distributions of radio-isotope labelled tracers in organs and tissues. These applications require detection of photons using thick position-sensitive silicon sensors with the highest possible energy and good spatial resolution. In this paper, research and development on silicon pad sensors and associated readout electronics for a Compton camera are presented. First results with low-noise, self-triggering VATAGP ASIC's are reported. The measured energy resolution was 1.1 keV FWHM at room temperature for the 241Am photo-peak at 59.5 keV.

  4. A low-power, low-latency, dual-channel serializer ASIC for detector front-end readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, L.; Gong, D.; Liu, T.; Chen, J.; Fan, Q.; Feng, Y.; Guo, D.; He, H.; Hou, S.; Huang, G.; Li, X.; Liu, C.; Sun, Q.; Sun, X.; Teng, P.-K.; Wang, J.; Xiang, A. C.; Yang, D.; Ye, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dual-channel serializer ASIC, LOCx2, and its pin-compatible backup, LOCx2-130, for detector front-end readout. LOCx2 is fabricated in a 0.25-μm Silicon-on-Sapphire CMOS process and each channel operates at 5.12 Gbps, while LOCx2-130 is fabricated in a 130-nm bulk CMOS process and each channel operates at 4.8 Gbps. The power consumption and the transmission latency are 900 mW and 27 ns for LOCx2 and the corresponding simulation result of LOCx2-130 are 386 mW and 38 ns, respectively.

  5. A prototype of a new generation readout ASIC in 65nm CMOS for pixel detectors at HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, E.; Pacher, L.; Paternò, A.; Loddo, F.; Demaria, N.; Gaioni, L.; De Canio, F.; Traversi, G.; Re, V.; Ratti, L.; Rivetti, A.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Dellacasa, G.; Mazza, G.; Marzocca, C.; Licciulli, F.; Ciciriello, F.; Marconi, S.; Placidi, P.; Magazzù, G.; Stabile, A.; Mattiazzo, S.; Veri, C.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a readout ASIC prototype designed by CHIPIX65 project, part of RD53, for a pixel detector at HL-LHC . A 64 × 64 matrix of 50 × 50 μ m2 pixels is realised. A digital architecture has been developed, with particle efficiency above 99.9% at 3 GHz/cm2 pixel rate, 1 MHz trigger rate with 12.5 μ s latency. Two analog front end designs, one synchronous and one asynchronous, are implemented. Charge is measured with 5-bit precision and the analog dead-time is below 1%. IP-blocks (DAC, ADC, BandGap, SER, sLVS-TX/RX) and very front ends are silicon proven, irradiated to 600-800Mrad.

  6. On-chip read-out of picomechanical motion under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Putrino, Gino; Martyniuk, Mariusz; Keating, Adrian; Faraone, Lorenzo; Dell, John

    2015-02-07

    Monitoring the nanomechanical movement of suspended cantilever structures has found use in applications ranging from biological/chemical sensing to atomic force microscopy. Interrogating these sensors relies on the ability to accurately determine the sub-nanometre movements of the cantilever. Here we investigate a technique based on the combination of integrated silicon photonics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) to create an optically resonant microcavity and demonstrate its use for monitoring of the position of cantilevers on the picometer scale under ambient conditions with dynamic range extending over several microns. The technique is interferometric, and we show it to be sufficiently sensitive to measure both the first and second modes of cantilever Brownian motion. We anticipate that application of this technique will provide a physically robust, picometer precision, integrated cantilever movement read-out technology which can take cantilever sensors from laboratory controlled environments into real world conditions, allowing everyday applications.

  7. Comparison of Detector Intrinsic Spatial Resolution Characteristics for Sensor on the Entrance Surface and Conventional Readout Designs

    PubMed Central

    Miyaoka, Robert S.; Li, Xiaoli; Lockhart, Cate; Lewellen, Tom K.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a high resolution, monolithic crystal PET detector design concept that provides depth of interaction (DOI) positioning within the crystal. Our design utilizes a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) approach combined with a maximum likelihood positioning algorithm. We compare the intrinsic spatial resolution characteristics (i.e., X, Y and Z) using our SES design versus conventional placement of the photo-sensors on the rear surface of the crystal. The sensors can be any two-dimensional array of solid state readout devices (e.g., silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) or avalanche photodiodes (APD)). SiPMs are a new type of solid-state photodetector with Geiger mode operation that can provide signal gain similar to a photomltipiler tube (PMT). Utilizing a multi-step simulation process, we determined the intrinsic spatial resolution characteristics for a variety of detector configurations. The SES design was evaluated via simulation for three different two-dimensional array sizes: 8×8 with 5.8×5.8 mm2 pads; 12×12 with 3.8×3.8mm2 pads; and 16×16 with 2.8×2.8 mm2 pads. To reduce the number of signal channels row-column summing readout was used for the 12×12 and 16×16 channel array devices. The crystal was modeled as a 15 mm monolithic slab of a lutetium-based scintillator with the large area surface varying from 48.8×48.8 mm2 up to 49.6×49.6 mm2 depending upon the dimensions of the two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The intrinsic spatial resolution for the 8×8 array is 0.88 mm FWHM in X and Y, and 1.83 mm FWHM in Z (i.e., DOI). Comparing the results versus using a conventional design with the photo-sensors on the backside of the crystal, an average improvement of ~24% in X and Y and 20% in Z is achieved. The X, Y intrinsic spatial resolution improved to 0.67 mm and 0.64 mm FWHM for the 12×12 and 16×16 arrays using row-column readout. Using the 12×12 and 16×16 arrays also led to a slight improvement in the DOI positioning accuracy. PMID

  8. Ringo – an R/Bioconductor package for analyzing ChIP-chip readouts

    PubMed Central

    Toedling, Joern; Sklyar, Oleg; Huber, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with DNA microarrays (ChIP-chip) is a high-throughput assay for DNA-protein-binding or post-translational chromatin/histone modifications. However, the raw microarray intensity readings themselves are not immediately useful to researchers, but require a number of bioinformatic analysis steps. Identified enriched regions need to be bioinformatically annotated and compared to related datasets by statistical methods. Results We present a free, open-source R package Ringo that facilitates the analysis of ChIP-chip experiments by providing functionality for data import, quality assessment, normalization and visualization of the data, and the detection of ChIP-enriched genomic regions. Conclusion Ringo integrates with other packages of the Bioconductor project, uses common data structures and is accompanied by ample documentation. It facilitates the construction of programmed analysis workflows, offers benefits in scalability, reproducibility and methodical scope of the analyses and opens up a broad selection of follow-up statistical and bioinformatic methods. PMID:17594472

  9. Measuring the attenuation length of water in the CHIPS-M water Cherenkov detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amat, F.; Bizouard, P.; Bryant, J.; Carroll, T. J.; Rijck, S. De; Germani, S.; Joyce, T.; Kriesten, B.; Marshak, M.; Meier, J.; Nelson, J. K.; Perch, A. J.; Pfützner, M. M.; Salazar, R.; Thomas, J.; Trokan-Tenorio, J.; Vahle, P.; Wade, R.; Wendt, C.; Whitehead, L. H.; Whitney, M.

    2017-02-01

    The water at the proposed site of the CHIPS water Cherenkov detector has been studied to measure its attenuation length for Cherenkov light as a function of filtering time. A scaled model of the CHIPS detector filled with water from the Wentworth 2W pit, proposed site of the CHIPS deployment, in conjunction with a 3.2 m vertical column filled with this water, was used to study the transmission of 405 nm laser light. Results consistent with attenuation lengths of up to 100 m were observed for this wavelength with filtration and UV sterilization alone.

  10. Use of internal scintillator radioactivity to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bircher, Chad; Shao Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors that use a dual-ended-scintillator readout to measure depth-of-interaction (DOI) must have an accurate DOI function to provide the relationship between DOI and signal ratios to be used for detector calibration and recalibration. In a previous study, the authors used a novel and simple method to accurately and quickly measure DOI function by irradiating the detector with an external uniform flood source; however, as a practical concern, implementing external uniform flood sources in an assembled PET system is technically challenging and expensive. In the current study, therefore, the authors investigated whether the same method could be used to acquire DOI function from scintillator-generated (i.e., internal) radiation. The authors also developed a method for calibrating the energy scale necessary to select the events within the desired energy window. Methods: The authors measured the DOI function of a PET detector with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators. Radiation events originating from the scintillators' internal Lu-176 beta decay were used to measure DOI functions which were then compared with those measured from both an external uniform flood source and an electronically collimated external point source. The authors conducted these studies with several scintillators of differing geometries (1.5 x 1.5 and 2.0 x 2.0 mm{sup 2} cross-section area and 20, 30, and 40 mm length) and various surface finishes (mirror-finishing, saw-cut rough, and other finishes in between), and in a prototype array. Results: All measured results using internal and external radiation sources showed excellent agreement in DOI function measurement. The mean difference among DOI values for all scintillators measured from internal and external radiation sources was less than 1.0 mm for different scintillator geometries and various surface finishes. Conclusions: The internal radioactivity of LYSO scintillators can be used

  11. A programmable energy efficient readout chip for a multiparameter highly integrated implantable biosensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawito, M.; Richter, H.; Stett, A.; Burghartz, J. N.

    2015-11-01

    In this work an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for an implantable electrochemical biosensor system (SMART implant, Stett et al., 2014) is presented. The ASIC drives the measurement electrodes and performs amperometric measurements for determining the oxygen concentration, potentiometric measurements for evaluating the pH-level as well as temperature measurements. A 10-bit pipeline analog to digital (ADC) is used to digitize the acquired analog samples and is implemented as a single stage to reduce power consumption and chip area. For pH measurements, an offset subtraction technique is employed to raise the resolution to 12-bits. Charge integration is utilized for oxygen and temperature measurements with the capability to cover current ranges between 30 nA and 1 μA. In order to achieve good performance over a wide range of supply and process variations, internal reference voltages are generated from a programmable band-gap regulated circuit and biasing currents are supplied from a wide-range bootstrap current reference. To accommodate the limited available electrical power, all components are designed for low power operation. Also a sequential operation approach is applied, in which essential circuit building blocks are time multiplexed between different measurement types. All measurement sequences and parameters are programmable and can be adjusted for different tissues and media. The chip communicates with external unites through a full duplex two-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), which receives operational instructions and at the same time outputs the internally stored measurement data. The circuit has been fabricated in a standard 0.5-μm CMOS process and operates on a supply as low as 2.7 V. Measurement results show good performance and agree with circuit simulation. It consumes a maximum of 500 μA DC current and is clocked between 500 kHz and 4 MHz according to the measurement parameters. Measurement results of the on-chip ADC show a

  12. Embedded adaptive optics for ubiquitous lab-on-a-chip readout on intact cell phones.

    PubMed

    Preechaburana, Pakorn; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to provide such capability. This work demonstrates a disposable and morphing liquid lens concept that can be integrated in LOC devices and refocuses micrometric features in the range necessary for LOC evaluation using diverse cell phone cameras. During natural evaporation, the lens focus varies adapting to different type of cameras. Standard software in the phone commands a time-lapse acquisition for best focal selection that is sufficient to capture and resolve, under ambient illumination, 50 μm features in regions larger than 500 × 500 μm(2). In this way, the present concept introduces a generic solution compatible with the use of diverse and unmodified cell phone cameras to evaluate disposable LOC devices.

  13. PETIROC2 based readout electronics optimization for Gamma Cameras and PET detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monzo, J. M.; Aguilar, A.; González-Montoro, A.; Lamprou, E.; González, A. J.; Hernández, L.; Mazur, D.; Colom, R. J.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Developing front-end electronics to improve charge detection and time resolution in gamma-ray detectors is one of the main tasks to improve performance in new multimodal imaging systems that merge information of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Gamma Camera or PET tomographs. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and to optimize the performance of an ASIC for PET and Gamma Camera applications based on SiPMs detectors. PETIROC2 is a commercial ASIC developed by Weeroc to provide accurate charge and time coincidence resolutions. It has 32 analog input channels that are independently managed. Each channel is divided into two signals, one for time stamping using a TDC and another for charge measurement. In this work, PETIROC2 is evaluated in an experimental setup composed of two pixelated LYSO crystals based detectors, each coupled to a Hamamatsu 4×4 SiPM array. Both detectors are working in coincidence with a separation distance between them that can be modified. In the present work, an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM and a time coincidence resolution of 815 ps FWHM have been obtained. These results will be useful to optimize and improve PETIROC2 based PET and Gamma Camera systems.

  14. Digital radiology using active matrix readout of amorphous selenium: detectors with high voltage protection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W; Law, J; Waechter, D; Huang, Z; Rowlands, J A

    1998-04-01

    A flat-panel x-ray imaging detector is being investigated for digital radiography and fluoroscopy. The detector uses a layer of amorphous selenium (a-Se) to convert x rays to a charge image, which is then electronically read out with a two-dimensional array of thin film transistors (TFTs). In order to sensitize the a-Se layer to x rays, a high voltage (of the order of several thousand volts) is applied to its top surface. The TFTs, which are at the bottom surface of the a-Se layer, are not subjected to any high voltage under normal radiological operational conditions since the pixel potential is < 10 V. However under a fault condition where these two events occur simultaneously: (1) suspended detector scan; and (2) an x-ray exposure more than ten times higher than normal, the voltage on the TFTs could rise to a damaging value. This paper describes a method for protecting the TFTs from high voltage damage under this fault condition. It employs a dual-gate TFT structure, one gate is for scanning control and the other is connected to the pixel electrode for high voltage protection. Before the pixel potential reaches a damaging value, the protection gate turns on the TFT automatically and drains excess charge away from the pixel thus providing a safe pixel saturation potential. In this paper, the characteristic curves of dual-gate TFTs are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The pixel x-ray response for imaging detectors with high voltage protection are predicted, and it is shown that with practical TFT designs the detector can provide a safe pixel saturation potential as well as satisfy the dynamic range required for diagnostic x-ray imaging applications.

  15. Improved image quality using monolithic scintillator detectors with dual-sided readout in a whole-body TOF-PET ring: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabacchini, Valerio; Surti, Suleman; Borghi, Giacomo; Karp, Joel S.; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2017-03-01

    We have recently built and characterized the performance of a monolithic scintillator detector based on a 32 mm  ×  32 mm  ×  22 mm LYSO:Ce crystal read out by digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM) arrays coupled to the crystal front and back surfaces in a dual-sided readout (DSR) configuration. The detector spatial resolution appeared to be markedly better than that of a detector consisting of the same crystal with conventional back-sided readout (BSR). Here, we aim to evaluate the influence of this difference in the detector spatial response on the quality of reconstructed images, so as to quantify the potential benefit of the DSR approach for high-resolution, whole-body time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) applications. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of clinical PET systems based on BSR and DSR detectors, using the results of our detector characterization experiments to model the detector spatial responses. We subsequently quantify the improvement in image quality obtained with DSR compared to BSR, using clinically relevant metrics such as the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and the area under the localized receiver operating characteristic curve (ALROC). Finally, we compare the results with simulated rings of pixelated detectors with DOI capability. Our results show that the DSR detector produces significantly higher CRC and increased ALROC values than the BSR detector. The comparison with pixelated systems indicates that one would need to choose a crystal size of 3.2 mm with three DOI layers to match the performance of the BSR detector, while a pixel size of 1.3 mm with three DOI layers would be required to get on par with the DSR detector.

  16. Improved image quality using monolithic scintillator detectors with dual-sided readout in a whole-body TOF-PET ring: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Tabacchini, Valerio; Surti, Suleman; Borghi, Giacomo; Karp, Joel S; Schaart, Dennis R

    2017-02-13

    We have recently built and characterized the performance of a monolithic scintillator detector based on a 32 mm  ×  32 mm  ×  22 mm LYSO:Ce crystal read out by digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM) arrays coupled to the crystal front and back surfaces in a dual-sided readout (DSR) configuration. The detector spatial resolution appeared to be markedly better than that of a detector consisting of the same crystal with conventional back-sided readout (BSR). Here, we aim to evaluate the influence of this difference in the detector spatial response on the quality of reconstructed images, so as to quantify the potential benefit of the DSR approach for high-resolution, whole-body time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) applications. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of clinical PET systems based on BSR and DSR detectors, using the results of our detector characterization experiments to model the detector spatial responses. We subsequently quantify the improvement in image quality obtained with DSR compared to BSR, using clinically relevant metrics such as the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and the area under the localized receiver operating characteristic curve (ALROC). Finally, we compare the results with simulated rings of pixelated detectors with DOI capability. Our results show that the DSR detector produces significantly higher CRC and increased ALROC values than the BSR detector. The comparison with pixelated systems indicates that one would need to choose a crystal size of 3.2 mm with three DOI layers to match the performance of the BSR detector, while a pixel size of 1.3 mm with three DOI layers would be required to get on par with the DSR detector.

  17. Fast Imaging Detector Readout Circuits with In-Pixel ADCs for Fourier Transform Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D.; Blavier, J-F.; Cunningham, T.; Hancock, B.; Key, R.; Pannell, Z.; Sander, S.; Seshadri, S.; Sun, C.; Wrigley, C.

    2011-01-01

    Focal plane arrays (FPAs) with high frame rates and many pixels benefit several upcoming Earth science missions including GEO-CAPE, GACM, and ACE by enabling broader spatial coverage and higher spectral resolution. FPAs for the PanFTS, a high spatial resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and a candidate instrument for the GEO-CAPE mission are the focus of the developments reported here, but this FPA technology has the potential to enable a variety of future measurements and instruments. The ESTO ACT Program funded the developed of a fast readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on an innovative in-pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC features 60 ?m pixels, a 14-bit ADC in each pixel and operates at a continuous frame rate of 14 kHz consuming only 1.1 W of power. The ROIC outputs digitized data completely eliminating the bulky, power consuming signal chains needed by conventional FPAs. The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC has been fabricated in CMOS and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current version is designed to be hybridized with PIN photodiode arrays via indium bump bonding for light detection in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. However, the ROIC design incorporates a small photodiode in each cell to permit detailed characterization of the ROICperformance without the need for hybridization. We will describe the essential features of the ROIC design and present results of ROIC performance measurements.

  18. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Design and test of a Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber with Long readout-strip (LMRPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong-Jie; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Shao, Ming; Zhao, Yan-E.; Chen, Hong-Fang

    2009-02-01

    A new kind (two end readout) of Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber with long readout-strip (LMRPC) is developed to be used at the large-area Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at mid-rapidity at RHIC/STAR experiment for Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurement. The LMRPC has an active area of 87 cm × 17 cm, 10 gas gaps of 250 μm arranged in 2 stacks, with readout strips of 2.5 cm wide and 90 cm long. The considerations in LMRPC design related to its performance are discussed in this paper. The cosmic ray test results of a prototype LMRPC show a detection efficiency >95% and the time resolution ~70 ps.

  19. A drift detector system with anode and cathode readout in the GlueX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, V V; Somov, S V; Pentchev, L; Zihlmann, B

    2015-01-01

    A drift detector system designed to detect charged particle tracks in the GlueX experiment dedicated to study the nature of confinement is described. The key design features of the drift chambers associated with the requirement of a minimum material budget in the path of secondary particles are presented. The spatial resolution and the detection efficiency have been measured with cosmic rays using the automatic data acquisition system.

  20. Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones

    PubMed Central

    Preechaburana, Pakorn; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to provide such capability. This work demonstrates a disposable and morphing liquid lens concept that can be integrated in LOC devices and refocuses micrometric features in the range necessary for LOC evaluation using diverse cell phone cameras. During natural evaporation, the lens focus varies adapting to different type of cameras. Standard software in the phone commands a time-lapse acquisition for best focal selection that is sufficient to capture and resolve, under ambient illumination, 50 μm features in regions larger than 500 × 500 μm2. In this way, the present concept introduces a generic solution compatible with the use of diverse and unmodified cell phone cameras to evaluate disposable LOC devices. PMID:23012507

  1. A reference voltage in capacitor-resister hybrid SAR ADC for front-end readout system of CZT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liu; Tingcun, Wei; Bo, Li; Lifeng, Yang; Yongcai, Hu

    2016-01-01

    An on-chip reference voltage has been designed in capacitor-resister hybrid SAR ADC for CZT detector with the TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. The voltage reference has a dynamic load since using variable capacitors and resistances, which need a large driving ability to deal with the current related to the time and sampling rate. Most of the previous articles about the reference for ADC present only the bandgap part for a low temperature coefficient and high PSRR. However, it is not enough and overall, it needs to consider the output driving ability. The proposed voltage reference is realized by the band-gap reference, voltage generator and output buffer. Apart from a low temperature coefficient and high PSRR, it has the features of a large driving ability and low power consumption. What is more, for CZT detectors application in space, a radiation-hardened design has been considered. The measurement results show that the output reference voltage of the buffer is 4.096 V. When the temperature varied from 0 to 80 °C, the temperature coefficient is 12.2 ppm/°C. The PSRR was -70 dB @ 100 kHz. The drive current of the reference can reach up to 10 mA. The area of the voltage reference in the SAR ADC chip is only 449 × 614 μm2. The total power consumption is only 1.092 mW. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project (No. 2011YQ040082), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376034), and the Shaanxi Province Science and Technology Innovation Project (No. 2015KTZDGY03-03).

  2. The SVX II Silicon Vertex Detector at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valls, Juan A.

    1999-08-01

    The Silicon VerteX detector (SVX II) for the CDF experiment at the Tevatron p overlinep collider is a 3-barrel 5-layer device with double-sided, AC-coupled silicon strip detectors. The readout is based on a custom IC, the SVX3 chip, capable of simultaneous acquisition, digitization and readout operation (dead-timeless). In this paper we report on the SVX II design and project status including mechanical design, frontend electronics, and data acquisition.

  3. A novel single-ended readout depth-of-interaction PET detector fabricated using sub-surface laser engraving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, H.; Sakai, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Hakamata, K.; Shimizu, K.; Yamashita, T.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel scintillation detector design for positron emission tomography (PET), which has depth of interaction (DOI) capability and uses a single-ended readout scheme. The DOI detector contains a pair of crystal bars segmented using sub-surface laser engraving (SSLE). The two crystal bars are optically coupled to each other at their top segments and are coupled to two photo-sensors at their bottom segments. Initially, we evaluated the performance of different designs of single crystal bars coupled to photomultiplier tubes at both ends. We found that segmentation by SSLE results in superior performance compared to the conventional method. As the next step, we constructed a crystal unit composed of a 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 crystal bar pair, with each bar containing four layers segmented using the SSLE. We measured the DOI performance by changing the optical conditions for the crystal unit. Based on the experimental results, we then assessed the detector performance in terms of the DOI capability by evaluating the position error, energy resolution, and light collection efficiency for various crystal unit designs with different bar sizes and a different number of layers (four to seven layers). DOI encoding with small position error was achieved for crystal units composed of a 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 LYSO bar pair having up to seven layers, and with those composed of a 2  ×  2  ×  20 mm3 LYSO bar pair having up to six layers. The energy resolution of the segment in the seven-layer 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 crystal bar pair was 9.3%-15.5% for 662 keV gamma-rays, where the segments closer to the photo-sensors provided better energy resolution. SSLE provides high geometrical accuracy at low production cost due to the simplicity of the crystal assembly. Therefore, the proposed DOI detector is expected to be an attractive choice for practical small-bore PET systems dedicated to imaging of the brain

  4. Segmented scintillation detectors with silicon photomultiplier readout for measuring antiproton annihilations

    SciTech Connect

    Sótér, A.; Todoroki, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Barna, D.; Horváth, D.; Hori, M.

    2014-02-15

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN constructed segmented scintillators to detect and track the charged pions which emerge from antiproton annihilations in a future superconducting radiofrequency Paul trap for antiprotons. A system of 541 cast and extruded scintillator bars were arranged in 11 detector modules which provided a spatial resolution of 17 mm. Green wavelength-shifting fibers were embedded in the scintillators, and read out by silicon photomultipliers which had a sensitive area of 1 × 1 mm{sup 2}. The photoelectron yields of various scintillator configurations were measured using a negative pion beam of momentum p ≈ 1 GeV/c. Various fibers and silicon photomultipliers, fiber end terminations, and couplings between the fibers and scintillators were compared. The detectors were also tested using the antiproton beam of the AD. Nonlinear effects due to the saturation of the silicon photomultiplier were seen at high annihilation rates of the antiprotons.

  5. The RD53 collaboration's SystemVerilog-UVM simulation framework and its general applicability to design of advanced pixel readout chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, S.; Conti, E.; Placidi, P.; Christiansen, J.; Hemperek, T.

    2014-10-01

    The foreseen Phase 2 pixel upgrades at the LHC have very challenging requirements for the design of hybrid pixel readout chips. A versatile pixel simulation platform is as an essential development tool for the design, verification and optimization of both the system architecture and the pixel chip building blocks (Intellectual Properties, IPs). This work is focused on the implemented simulation and verification environment named VEPIX53, built using the SystemVerilog language and the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) class library in the framework of the RD53 Collaboration. The environment supports pixel chips at different levels of description: its reusable components feature the generation of different classes of parameterized input hits to the pixel matrix, monitoring of pixel chip inputs and outputs, conformity checks between predicted and actual outputs and collection of statistics on system performance. The environment has been tested performing a study of shared architectures of the trigger latency buffering section of pixel chips. A fully shared architecture and a distributed one have been described at behavioral level and simulated; the resulting memory occupancy statistics and hit loss rates have subsequently been compared.

  6. Precision muon tracking detectors and read-out electronics for operation at very high background rates at future colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Nowak, S.; Richter, R.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Schwegler, Ph.

    2016-07-01

    The experience of the ATLAS MDT muon spectrometer shows that drift-tube chambers provide highly reliable precision muon tracking over large areas. The ATLAS muon chambers are exposed to unprecedentedly high background of photons and neutrons induced by the proton collisions. Still higher background rates are expected at future high-energy and high-luminosity colliders beyond HL-LHC. Therefore, drift-tube detectors with 15 mm tube diameter (30 mm in ATLAS), optimised for high rate operation, have been developed for such conditions. Several such full-scale sMDT chambers have been constructed with unprecedentedly high sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 10 μm. The chamber design and assembly methods have been optimised for large-scale production, reducing considerably cost and construction time while maintaining the high mechanical accuracy and reliability. Tests at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN showed that the rate capability of sMDT chambers is improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to the MDT chambers. By using read-out electronics optimised for high counting rates, the rate capability can be further increased.

  7. Hybrid integration process for the development of multisensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Na; Liu, Weiguo

    A novel hybrid integration process had been developed for the integration of single crystal pyroelectric detector with readout IC based on a thinning and anisotropic conduction tape bonding technique. We report our recent progress in applying the hybrid integration process for the fabrication of a multisensor chip with thermal and sound detectors integrated. The sound detector in the multisensor chip is based on thinned single crystal quartz, while the thermal detector in the chip is making use of thinned PLZT ceramic wafer. A membrane transfer process (MTP) was applied for the thinning and integration of the single crystal and ceramic wafers.

  8. Radiation Hardness Tests of a Scintillation Detector with Wavelength Shifting Fiber Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Alfaro, R.; Sandoval, A.; Cruz, E.; Martinez, M. I.; Paic, G.; Montano, L. M.

    2006-09-25

    We have performed radiation tolerance tests on the BCF-99-29MC wavelength shifting fibers and the BC404 plastic scintillator from Bicron as well as on silicon rubber optical couplers. We used the 60Co gamma source at the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares facility to irradiate 30-cm fiber samples with doses from 50 Krad to 1 Mrad. We also irradiated a 10x10 cm2 scintillator detector with the WLS fibers embedded on it with a 200 krad dose and the optical conectors between the scintillator and the PMT with doses from 100 to 300 krad. We measured the radiation damage on the materials by comparing the pre- and post-irradiation optical transparency as a function of time.

  9. Scalability, Scintillation Readout and Charge Drift in a Kilogram Scale Solid Xenon Particle Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, J.; Cease, H.; Jaskierny, W. F.; Markley, D.; Pahlka, R. B.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Saab, T.; Filipenko, M.

    2014-10-23

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employ a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat combined with a xenon purification and chiller system to measure the scintillation light output and electron drift speed from both the solid and liquid phases of xenon. Scintillation light output from sealed radioactive sources is measured by a set of high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes suitable for cryogenic applications. We observed a reduced amount of photons in solid phase compared to that in liquid phase. We used a conventional time projection chamber system to measure the electron drift time in a kilogram of solid xenon and observed faster electron drift speed in the solid phase xenon compared to that in the liquid phase.

  10. Submillisecond X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy from a pixel array detector with fast dual gating and no readout dead-time

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingteng; Dufresne, Eric M.; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Maj, Piotr; Narayanan, Suresh; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Szczygiel, Robert; Sandy, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Small-angle scattering X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) studies were performed using a novel photon-counting pixel array detector with dual counters for each pixel. Each counter can be read out independently from the other to ensure there is no readout dead-time between the neighboring frames. A maximum frame rate of 11.8 kHz was achieved. Results on test samples show good agreement with simple diffusion. The potential of extending the time resolution of XPCS beyond the limit set by the detector frame rate using dual counters is also discussed. PMID:27140146

  11. Submillisecond X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy from a pixel array detector with fast dual gating and no readout dead-time

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Qingteng; Dufresne, Eric M.; Grybos, Pawel; ...

    2016-01-01

    Small-angle scattering X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) studies were performed using a novel photon-counting pixel array detector with dual counters for each pixel. Each counter can be read out independently from the other to ensure there is no readout dead-time between the neighboring frames. A maximum frame rate of 11.8 kHz was achieved. Results on test samples show good agreement with simple diffusion. As a result, the potential of extending the time resolution of XPCS beyond the limit set by the detector frame rate using dual counters is also discussed.

  12. Submillisecond X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy from a pixel array detector with fast dual gating and no readout dead-time

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qingteng; Dufresne, Eric M.; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Maj, Piotr; Narayanan, Suresh; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Szczygiel, Robert; Sandy, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Small-angle scattering X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) studies were performed using a novel photon-counting pixel array detector with dual counters for each pixel. Each counter can be read out independently from the other to ensure there is no readout dead-time between the neighboring frames. A maximum frame rate of 11.8 kHz was achieved. Results on test samples show good agreement with simple diffusion. As a result, the potential of extending the time resolution of XPCS beyond the limit set by the detector frame rate using dual counters is also discussed.

  13. TGV32: A 32-channel preamplifier chip for the multiplicity vertex detector at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.; Frank, S.S.

    1997-12-31

    The TGV32, a 32-channel preamplifier-multiplicity discriminator chip for the Multiplicity Vertex Detector (MVD) at PHENIX, is a unique silicon preamplifier in that it provides both an analog output for storage in an analog memory and a weighted summed-current output for conversion to a channel multiplicity count. The architecture and test results of the chip are presented. Details about the design of the preamplifier, discriminator, and programmable digital-analog converters (DACs) performance as well as the process variations are presented. The chip is fabricated in a 1.2-{micro}m, n-well, CMOS process.

  14. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  15. Portable visual quantitative detection of aflatoxin B1 using a target-responsive hydrogel and a distance-readout microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanli; Mao, Yu; Huang, Di; He, Zhe; Yan, Jinmao; Tian, Tian; Shi, Yuanzhi; Song, Yanling; Li, Xingrui; Zhu, Zhi; Zhou, Leiji; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-08-02

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), as the secondary metabolite of molds, is the most predominant and toxic mycotoxin that seriously threatens the health of humans and animals. In this work, an AFB1-responsive hydrogel was synthesized for highly sensitive and portable detection of AFB1. The AFB1-responsive hydrogel was prepared using an AFB1 aptamer and its two short complementary DNA strands as cross-linkers. For visual detection of AFB1, the hydrogel is preloaded with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Upon introduction of AFB1, the AFB1 aptamer binds with AFB1, leading to the disruption of the hydrogel and release of the AuNPs with a distinct color change of the supernatant from colorless to red. In order to lower the detection limit and extend the method to quantitative analysis, a distance-readout volumetric bar chart chip (V-chip) was combined with an AFB1-responsive hydrogel preloaded with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs). In the presence of AFB1, the hydrogel collapses and releases PtNPs which can catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to generate O2. The increasing gas pressure moves a red ink bar in the V-chip and provides a quantitative relationship between the distance and the concentration of AFB1. The method was applied for detection of AFB1 in beer, with a detection limit of 1.77 nM (0.55 ppb) where an immunoaffinity column (IAC) of AFB1 was used to cleanup and pre-concentrate the sample, which satisfies the testing requirement of 2.0 ppb set by the European Union. The combination of an AFB1-responsive hydrogel with a distance-based readout V-chip offers a user-friendly POCT device, which has great potential for rapid, portable, selective, and quantitative detection of AFB1 in real samples to ensure food safety and avoid subsequent economic losses.

  16. Micro-Radiography Using an Electron Linac Source and Ram Memory Chip Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    comme source un accelerateur lineaire d’electron a impulsion ( LINAC ) et utilisant des memoires a circuits integres comme detecteur est etudiee dans ce...MICRO-RADIOGRAPHY USING AN ELECTRON LINAC SOURCE AND RAM MEMORY CHIP DETECTORS (U) by 00 T. Cousins, E.L Karam and J.R. Brisson ("NI DTIC.. ELECTE...Defence nationaie MICRO-RADIOGRAPHY USING AN ELECTRON LINAC SOURCE AND RAM MEMORY CHIP DETECTORS (U) by T. Cousins, E.L Karam and J.R. Brisson Nuclear

  17. Development and commissioning of the HARDROC based readout for the INO-ICAL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Gaur, Ankit; Phogat, Aman; Rafik, Md.; Naimuddin, Md.

    2016-10-01

    Glass based Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are going to be used as an active element in the Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) experiment at the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO), which is being constructed to study atmospheric neutrinos. Though the RPC detector operational parameters are more or less finalized, the readout electronics is being developed using various technologies. The ICAL experiment will consist of about 29,000 RPC detectors of 2 m × 2 m in size with each detector having 64 readout channels both in the X and Y directions. The present study focusses on multi-channel electronics based on SiGe 350 nm technology as an option for the INO-ICAL RPC detectors. The study includes commissioning and usage of frontend application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) HARDROC chip in which 64 channels are handled independently to perform zero suppression. We present first testbench results using the HARDROC chip with the aim to use it finally in the ICAL experiment.

  18. Fast readout of the COMPASS RICH CsI-MWPC photon chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbon, P.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, H.; Kunne, F.; Gerasimov, S.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Kravtchuk, N.; Magnon, A.; Neyret, D.; Panebianco, S.; Paul, S.; Rebourgeard, P.; Tessaroto, F.

    2006-11-01

    A new readout system for CsI-coated MWPCs, used in the COMPASS RICH detector, has been proposed and tested in nominal high-rate conditions. It is based on the APV25-S1 analog sampling chip, and will replace the Gassiplex chip readout used up to now. The APV chip, originally designed for silicon microstrip detectors, is shown to perform well even with "slow" signals from a MWPC, keeping a signal-to-noise ratio of 9. For every trigger the system reads three consecutive in-time samples, thus allowing to extract information on the signal shape and its timing. The effective time window is reduced from ˜3 μs for the Gassiplex to below 400 ns for the APV25-S1 chip, reducing pile-up events at high particle rate. A significant improvement of the signal-to-background ratio by a factor 5-6 with respect to the original readout has been measured in the central region of the RICH detector. Due to its pipelined architecture, the new readout system also considerably reduces the dead time per event, allowing efficient data taking at higher trigger rate.

  19. A novel front-end chip for a human PET scanner based on monolithic detector blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarasola, I.; Rato Mendes, P.; Cuerdo, R.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Cela, J. M.; Oller, J. C.; Romero, L.; Pérez, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner based on avalanche photodiodes (APD), monolithic LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and a dedicated readout chip. All these components allow operation inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner with the aim of building a PET/MRI hybrid imaging system for clinical human brain studies. Previous work verified the functional performance of our first chip (VATA240) based on a leading edge comparator and the principle of operation of our radiation sensors, which are capable of providing reconstructed images of positron point sources with spatial resolutions of 2.1 mm FWHM. The new VATA241 chip presented in this work has been designed with the aim of reducing the coincidence window of our final PET scanner by implementing an on-chip constant fraction discriminator (CFD), as well as providing a better robustness for its implementation in the full-scale PET scanner. Results from the characterization of the VATA241 chip are presented, together with the first results on coincidence performance, validating the new design for our application.

  20. A data acquisition system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanu, A. R.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.

    2015-04-01

    We present a data acquisition (DAQ) system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors using the delay-line method for readout. The DAQ system consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) as the main data processor and our time-to-digital (TDC) mezzanine card for making time measurements. We developed the TDC mezzanine card around the Acam TDC-GPX ASIC and it features four independent stop channels referenced to a common start, a typical timing resolution of ~81 ps, and a 17-bit measurement range, and is compliant with the VITA 57.1 standard. For our DAQ system, we have chosen the Xilinx SP601 development kit which features a single Spartan 6 FPGA, 128 MB of DDR2 memory, and a serial USB interface for communication. Output images consist of 1024×1024 square pixels, where each pixel has a 32-bit depth and corresponds to a time difference of 162 ps relative to its neighbours. When configured for a 250 ns acquisition window, the DAQ can resolve periodic event rates up to 1.8×106 Hz without any loses and will report a maximum event rate of 6.11×105 Hz for events whose arrival times follow Poisson statistics. The integral and differential non-linearities have also been measured and are better than 0.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Unlike commercial units, our DAQ system implements the delay-line image reconstruction algorithm entirely in hardware and is particularly attractive for its modularity, low cost, ease of integration, excellent linearity, and high throughput rate.

  1. Effects of static and dynamic higher-order optical modes in balanced homodyne readout for future gravitational waves detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Teng; Danilishin, Stefan L.; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Barr, Bryan W.; Bell, Angus S.; Dupej, Peter; Gräf, Christian; Hennig, Jan-Simon; Houston, E. Alasdair; Huttner, Sabina H.; Leavey, Sean S.; Pascucci, Daniela; Sorazu, Borja; Spencer, Andrew; Wright, Jennifer; Strain, Kenneth A.; Hild, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    With the recent detection of gravitational waves (GWs), marking the start of the new field of GW astronomy, the push for building more sensitive laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors (GWDs) has never been stronger. Balanced homodyne detection (BHD) allows for a quantum-noise (QN) limited readout of arbitrary light field quadratures, and has therefore been suggested as a vital building block for upgrades to Advanced LIGO and third-generation observatories. In terms of the practical implementation of BHD, we develop a full framework for analyzing the static optical high-order modes (HOMs) occurring in the BHD paths related to the misalignment or mode matching at the input and output ports of the laser interferometer. We find the effects of HOMs on the quantum-noise limited sensitivity is independent of the actual interferometer configuration; e.g. Michelson and Sagnac interferometers are affected in the same way. We show that misalignment of the output ports of the interferometer (output misalignment) only affects the high-frequency part of the quantum-noise limited sensitivity (detection noise). However, at low frequencies, HOMs reduce the interferometer response and the radiation pressure noise (back-action noise) by the same amount and hence the quantum-noise limited sensitivity is not negatively affected in that frequency range. We show that the misalignment of the laser into the interferometer (input misalignment) produces the same effect as output misalignment and additionally decreases the power inside the interferometer. We also analyze dynamic HOM effects, such as beam jitter created by the suspended mirrors of the BHD. Our analyses can be directly applied to any BHD implementation in a future GWD. Moreover, we apply our analytical techniques to the example of the speed meter proof-of-concept experiment under construction in Glasgow. We find that for our experimental parameters, the performance of our seismic isolation system in the BHD paths is

  2. An indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain for low dose x-ray imaging: SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Dan; Rowlands, J. A.; Egami, N.; Takiguchi, Y.; Nanba, M.; Honda, Y.; Ohkawa, Y.; Kubota, M.; Tanioka, K.; Suzuki, K.; Kawai, T.

    2008-03-01

    An indirect flat-imager with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging with high resolution. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI (Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor). The charge image created by HARP is read out by electron beams generated by the FEA. The proposed detector is called SAPHIRE (Scintillator Avalanche Photoconductor with HIgh Resolution Emitter readout). The avalanche gain of HARP depends on both a-Se thickness and applied electric field E Se. At E Se of > 80 V/μm, the avalanche gain can enhance the signal at low dose (e.g. fluoroscopy) and make the detector x-ray quantum noise limited down to a single x-ray photon. At high exposure (e.g. radiography), the avalanche gain can be turned off by decreasing E Se to < 70 V/μm. In this paper the imaging characteristics of the FEA readout method, including the spatial resolution and noise, were investigated experimentally using a prototype optical HARP-FEA image sensor. The potential x-ray imaging performance of SAPHIRE, especially the aspect of programmable gain to ensure wide dynamic range and x-ray quantum noise limited performance at the lowest exposure in fluoroscopy, was investigated.

  3. Commissioning of the read-out driver (ROD) card for the ATLAS IBL detector and upgrade studies for the pixel Layers 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Falchieri, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Travaglini, R.; Chen, S.-P.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hauck, S.; Kugel, A.

    2014-11-01

    The higher luminosity that is expected for the LHC after future upgrades will require better performance by the data acquisition system, especially in terms of throughput. In particular, during the first shutdown of the LHC collider in 2013/14, the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be equipped with a fourth layer - the Insertable B-Layer or IBL - located at a radius smaller than the present three layers. Consequently, a new front end ASIC (FE-I4) was designed as well as a new off-detector chain. The latter is composed mainly of two 9U-VME cards called the Back-Of-Crate (BOC) and Read-Out Driver (ROD). The ROD is used for data and event formatting and for configuration and control of the overall read-out electronics. After some prototyping samples were completed, a pre-production batch of 5 ROD cards was delivered with the final layout. Actual production of another 15 ROD cards is ongoing in Fall 2013, and commissioning is scheduled in 2014. Altogether 14 cards are necessary for the 14 staves of the IBL detector, one additional card is required by the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), and additional spare ROD cards will be produced for a total of 20 boards. This paper describes some integration tests that were performed and our plan to test the production of the ROD cards. Slices of the IBL read-out chain have been instrumented, and ROD performance is verified on a test bench mimicking a small-sized final setup. This contribution will report also one view on the possible adoption of the IBL ROD for ATLAS Pixel Detector Layer 2 (firstly) and, possibly, in the future, for Layer 1.

  4. A depth-of-interaction PET detector using a stair-shaped reflector arrangement and a single-ended scintillation light readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jeong-Whan; Lee, Min Sun; Lee, Jae Sung

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors with the ability to encode depth-of-interaction (DOI) information allow us to simultaneously improve the spatial resolution and sensitivity of PET scanners. In this study, we propose a DOI PET detector based on a stair-pattern reflector arrangement inserted between pixelated crystals and a single-ended scintillation light readout. The main advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity; DOI information is decoded from a flood map and the data can be simply acquired by using a single-ended readout system. Another potential advantage is that the two-step DOI detectors can provide the largest peak position distance in a flood map because two-dimensional peak positions can be evenly distributed. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation and obtained flood maps. Then, we conducted experimental studies using two-step DOI arrays of 5  ×  5 Lu1.9Y0.1SiO5:Ce crystals with a cross-section of 1.7  ×  1.7 mm2 and different detector configurations: an unpolished single-layer (US) array, a polished single-layer (PS) array and a polished stacked two-layer (PT) array. For each detector configuration, both air gaps and room-temperature vulcanization (RTV) silicone gaps were tested. Detectors US and PT showed good peak separation in each scintillator with an average peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) and distance-to-width ratio (DWR) of 2.09 and 1.53, respectively. Detector PSRTV showed lower PVR and DWR (1.65 and 1.34, respectively). The configuration of detector PTAir is preferable for the construction of time-of-flight-DOI detectors because timing resolution was degraded by only about 40 ps compared with that of a non-DOI detector. The performance of detectors USAir and PSRTV was lower than that of a non-DOI detector, and thus these designs are favorable when the manufacturing cost is more important than timing performance. The results demonstrate that the proposed DOI-encoding method is a promising candidate for PET

  5. A depth-of-interaction PET detector using a stair-shaped reflector arrangement and a single-ended scintillation light readout.

    PubMed

    Son, Jeong-Whan; Lee, Min Sun; Lee, Jae Sung

    2017-01-21

    Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors with the ability to encode depth-of-interaction (DOI) information allow us to simultaneously improve the spatial resolution and sensitivity of PET scanners. In this study, we propose a DOI PET detector based on a stair-pattern reflector arrangement inserted between pixelated crystals and a single-ended scintillation light readout. The main advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity; DOI information is decoded from a flood map and the data can be simply acquired by using a single-ended readout system. Another potential advantage is that the two-step DOI detectors can provide the largest peak position distance in a flood map because two-dimensional peak positions can be evenly distributed. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation and obtained flood maps. Then, we conducted experimental studies using two-step DOI arrays of 5  ×  5 Lu1.9Y0.1SiO5:Ce crystals with a cross-section of 1.7  ×  1.7 mm(2) and different detector configurations: an unpolished single-layer (US) array, a polished single-layer (PS) array and a polished stacked two-layer (PT) array. For each detector configuration, both air gaps and room-temperature vulcanization (RTV) silicone gaps were tested. Detectors US and PT showed good peak separation in each scintillator with an average peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) and distance-to-width ratio (DWR) of 2.09 and 1.53, respectively. Detector PSRTV showed lower PVR and DWR (1.65 and 1.34, respectively). The configuration of detector PTAir is preferable for the construction of time-of-flight-DOI detectors because timing resolution was degraded by only about 40 ps compared with that of a non-DOI detector. The performance of detectors USAir and PSRTV was lower than that of a non-DOI detector, and thus these designs are favorable when the manufacturing cost is more important than timing performance. The results demonstrate that the proposed DOI-encoding method is a promising candidate for PET

  6. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; Austin, J.; Cao, S. V.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Davies, G. S.; Evans, J. J.; Guzowski, P.; Habig, A.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Johnson, R.; St. John, J.; Kreymer, A.; Kordosky, M.; Lang, K.; Marshak, M. L.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J.; Miller, W.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Nichol, R. J.; Patterson, R. B.; Paolone, V.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfutzner, M.; Proga, M.; Qian, X.; Radovic, A.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schreiner, S.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sousa, A.; Thomas, J.; Vahle, P.; Wendt, C.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S.

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  7. Measurements of Si Hybrid CMOS X-Ray Detector Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, Stephen; Falcone, A.; Burrows, D.; Cook, R.

    2010-01-01

    The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in contention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and Swift). However their bucket-brigade readout architecture, which transfers charge across the chip with discrete component readout electronics, results in clockrate limited readout speeds that cause pileup (saturation) of bright sources and an inherent susceptibility to radiation induced displacement damage that limits mission lifetime. In contrast, HCDs read pixels with low power, on-chip multiplexer electronics in a random access fashion. Faster frame rates, achieved with multi-output readout design, will allow the next generation's larger effective area telescopes to observe bright sources free of pileup. Radiation damaged lattice sites effect a single pixel instead of an entire row. Random access, multi-output readout will allow for novel readout modes such as simultaneous bright-source-fast/whole-chip-slow readout. In order for HCDs to become useful X-Ray detectors, they must show noise and energy resolution performance similar to CCDs while retaining advantages inherent to HCDs. We will report on readnoise, conversion gain, and energy resolution measurements of X-Ray enhanced Teledyne HAWAII-1RG (H1RG) HCDs and describe techniques of H1RG data reduction.

  8. Measurements of Si hybrid CMOS x-ray detector characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, Stephen D.; Falcone, Abe D.; Burrows, David N.; Cook, Robert; Bai, Yibin; Farris, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in contention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and Swift). However their bucket-brigade readout architecture, which transfers charge across the chip with discrete component readout electronics, results in clockrate limited readout speeds that cause pileup (saturation) of bright sources and an inherent susceptibility to radiation induced displacement damage that limits mission lifetime. In contrast, HCDs read pixels with low power, on-chip multiplexer electronics in a random access fashion. Faster frame rates achieved with multi-output readout design will allow the next generation's larger effective area telescopes to observe bright sources free of pileup. Radiation damaged lattice sites effect a single pixel instead of an entire row. Random access, multi-output readout will allow for novel readout modes such as simultaneous bright-source-fast/whole-chip-slow readout. In order for HCDs to be useful as X-Ray detectors, they must show noise and energy resolution performance similar to CCDs while retaining advantages inherent to HCDs. We will report on readnoise, conversion gain, and energy resolution measurements of an X-Ray enhanced Teledyne HAWAII-1RG (H1RG) HCD and describe techniques of H1RG data reduction.

  9. Readout of two-kilopixel transition-edge sensor arrays for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Shawn W.; Stevens, Jason R.; Amiri, Mandana; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Choi, Steve K.; Cothard, Nicholas F.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Duff, Shannon M.; Fitzgerald, Colin P.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Gene; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; Li, Yaqiong; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael; Reintsema, Carl D.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan T.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol is an instrument upgrade for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) designed to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular resolution. To achieve its science goals, Advanced ACTPol utilizes a larger readout multiplexing factor than any previous CMB experiment to measure detector arrays with approximately two thousand transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in each 150 mm detector wafer. We present the implementation and testing of the Advanced ACTPol time-division multiplexing readout architecture with a 64-row multiplexing factor. This includes testing of individual multichroic detector pixels and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing chips as well as testing and optimizing of the integrated readout electronics. In particular, we describe the new automated multiplexing SQUID tuning procedure developed to select and optimize the thousands of SQUID parameters required to readout each Advanced ACTPol array. The multichroic detector pixels in each array use separate channels for each polarization and each of the two frequencies, such that four TESes must be read out per pixel. Challenges addressed include doubling the number of detectors per multiplexed readout channel compared to ACTPol and optimizing the Nyquist inductance to minimize detector and SQUID noise aliasing.

  10. High resolution 1280×1024, 15 μm pitch compact InSb IR detector with on-chip ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesher, O.; Pivnik, I.; Ilan, E.; Calalhorra, Z.; Koifman, A.; Vaserman, I.; Oiknine Schlesinger, J.; Gazit, R.; Hirsh, I.

    2009-05-01

    Over the last decade, SCD has developed and manufactured high quality InSb Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), which are currently used in many applications worldwide. SCD's production line includes many different types of InSb FPA with formats of 320x256, 480x384 and 640x512 elements and with pitch sizes in the range of 15 to 30 μm. All these FPAs are available in various packaging configurations, including fully integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assemblies (DDCA) with either closed-cycle Sterling or open-loop Joule-Thomson coolers. With an increasing need for higher resolution, SCD has recently developed a new large format 2-D InSb detector with 1280x1024 elements and a pixel size of 15μm. The InSb 15μm pixel technology has already been proven at SCD with the "Pelican" detector (640x512 elements), which was introduced at the Orlando conference in 2006. A new signal processor was developed at SCD for use in this mega-pixel detector. This Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) is designed for, and manufactured with, 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The migration from 0.5 to 0.18 μm CMOS technology supports SCD's roadmap for the reduction of pixel size and power consumption and is in line with the increasing demand for improved performance and on-chip functionality. Consequently, the new ROIC maintains the same level of performance and functionality with a 15 μm pitch, as exists in our 20 μm-pitch ROICs based on 0.5μm CMOS technology. Similar to Sebastian (SCD ROIC with A/D on chip), this signal processor also includes A/D converters on the chip and demonstrates the same level of performance, but with reduced power consumption. The pixel readout rate has been increased up to 160 MHz in order to support a high frame rate, resulting in 120 Hz operation with a window of 1024×1024 elements at ~130 mW. These A/D converters on chip save the need for using 16 A/D channels on board (in the case of an analog ROIC) which would operate at 10 MHz and consume about 8Watts A Dewar has been

  11. Performance of LYSO and CeBr3 crystals readout by silicon photomultiplier arrays as compact detectors for space based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryemadhi, A.; Barner, L.; Grove, A.; Mohler, J.; Sisson, C.; Roth, A.

    2017-02-01

    Space based MeV range gamma rays have been largely unexplored due to the difficulty associated with the measurements; however they address a broad range of astrophysical questions, including indirect searches for dark matter. To address these challenges and yet have compact instruments, the next generation experiments would need detectors with high efficiency, high stopping power, excellent energy resolution, and excellent angular resolution. Fast and bright crystal scintillators coupled to compact photo-detectors are an ideal option. In this work we have investigated the LYSO and CeBr3 crystal scintillators because of their high light yield, fast decay time, and small radiation length. We have used the silicon photomultiplier arrays as photo-detectors because of their small size, simple readout, low voltage operation, and immunity to magnetic fields. We studied the gamma rays response for the 1.6 cm × 1.6 cm × 4.0 cm LYSO crystals and a 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm CeBr3 crystal readout by 4 × 4 SensL arrays (ArrayC30035). The crystal self-absorption and timing resolution have been examined along with linearity and energy resolution. The DRS4 evaluation board was used for acquisition of the events.

  12. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Performance testing of a long-strip two-end readout multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Yi; Luo, Ming; Li, Yuan-Jing; Cheng, Jian-Ping

    2009-02-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a new generation of gas detector with good timing and spacial resolution, whose technique is widely applied in some recent high energy (nuclear) physics experiments. In this letter, we report a long-strip two-end readout MRPC and its test beam performance. The measurements show that the long-strip performs a transmission line characteristic and the impedance is independent of the length of strip. The MRPC module we developed is presented to gain a timing resolution of ~80 ps and a spacial resolution of ~6.4 mm. The possible application of the MRPC is also discussed.

  13. Simulation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose from 137 Cs Gammas Using a Si Timepix Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Empl, Anton; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The TimePix readout chip is a hybrid pixel detector with over 65k independent pixel elements. Each pixel contains its own circuitry for charge collection, counting logic, and readout. When coupled with a Silicon detector layer, the Timepix chip is capable of measuring the charge, and thus energy, deposited in the Silicon. Measurements using a NIST traceable 137Cs gamma source have been made at Johnson Space Center using such a Si Timepix detector, and this data is compared to simulations of energy deposition in the Si layer carried out using FLUKA.

  14. Medipix2 parallel readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.

    2003-08-01

    A fast parallel readout system based on a PCI board has been developed in the framework of the Medipix collaboration. The readout electronics consists of two boards: the motherboard directly interfacing the Medipix2 chip, and the PCI board with digital I/O ports 32 bits wide. The device driver and readout software have been developed at low level in Assembler to allow fast data transfer and image reconstruction. The parallel readout permits a transfer rate up to 64 Mbytes/s. http://medipix.web.cern ch/MEDIPIX/

  15. A 72 channel 125 MSPS analog-to-digital converter module for drift chamber readout for the GlueX detector

    SciTech Connect

    G. visser, D. Abbot, F. Barbosa, C. Cuevas, H. Dong, E. Jastrzembski, B. Moffitt, B. Raydo

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a very high channel density custom A/D converter module for the drift chamber readout requirements of the Glue-X detector at Jefferson Lab Hall-D. This 6U VME64× module has 72 channels, including a low noise differential line receiver, cable frequency response equalization, and signal shaping with a 5th order filter. The signals are digitized at 125 MSPS with an assembly option for either 12 or 14 bit resolution (GlueX will use 12 bit). The digitized data is written continuously to a circular buffer, with an independent read port and pipelined readout path able to extract potentially overlapping signal records at a 200 kHz trigger rate without deadtime. The extracted data is zero suppressed and may be further processed on-board to reduce the data volume, and is then assembled into event records and event block records. Up to 1 MB of output data is buffered on-board and available for readout via 2eSST at up to 320 MByte/s.

  16. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Two-Dimensional Read-Out Boards for Sub-Atomic Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David; Majka, Richard

    2010-10-22

    We report results from research aimed at developing and demonstrating production of 2-D readout structures for GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) charged particle tracking chambers at Tech-Etch. Readout boards of two types, bi-planar and single plane, were fabricated and evaluated. The results show that Tech-Etch can produce suitable boards of either type however the single plane board has a number of advantages both in production and use that will likely make it the preferred choice for GEM tracking chambers.

  17. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, B.; Visser, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Kulis, S.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.

    2017-02-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a "soft core" CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four 10 Gigabit

  18. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Two-Dimensional Read-Out Boards for Sub-Atomic Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David; Majka, Richard

    2010-10-22

    Tech-Etch has considerable experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products including production of GEM foils. The required precision and production process for 2-D readout boards is similar to that developed for GEM foil production. Additionally, Tech-Etch has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven National Laboratory, MIT and Yale University) that can help design and evaluate the performance of the readout boards produced at Tech-Etch. Since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, optimized for a particular customer's requirements. We report results from research aimed at developing and demonstrating production of 2-D readout structures for GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) charged particle tracking chambers at Tech-Etch. Readout boards of two types, bi-planar and single plane, were fabricated and evaluated. The results show that Tech-Etch can produce suitable boards of either type however the single plane board has a number of advantages both in production and use that will likely make it the preferred choice for GEM tracking chambers.

  19. Toward VIP-PIX: A Low Noise Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Use in the Next Generation of PET Scanners.

    PubMed

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Puigdengoles, Carles; Lorenzo, Gianluca De; Martínez, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    VIP-PIX will be a low noise and low power pixel readout electronics with digital output for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. The proposed pixel will be part of a 2D pixel-array detector for various types of nuclear medicine imaging devices such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners, Compton gamma cameras, and positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanners. Each pixel will include a SAR ADC that provides the energy deposited with 10-bit resolution. Simultaneously, the self-triggered pixel which will be connected to a global time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 1 ns resolution will provide the event's time stamp. The analog part of the readout chain and the ADC have been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology and characterized with an external test pulse. The power consumption of these parts is 200 μW from a 2.5 V supply. It offers 4 switchable gains from ±10 mV/fC to ±40 mV/fC and an input charge dynamic range of up to ±70 fC for the minimum gain for both polarities. Based on noise measurements, the expected equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 65 e(-) RMS at room temperature.

  20. Toward VIP-PIX: A Low Noise Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Use in the Next Generation of PET Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Puigdengoles, Carles; Lorenzo, Gianluca De; Martínez, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    VIP-PIX will be a low noise and low power pixel readout electronics with digital output for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. The proposed pixel will be part of a 2D pixel-array detector for various types of nuclear medicine imaging devices such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners, Compton gamma cameras, and positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanners. Each pixel will include a SAR ADC that provides the energy deposited with 10-bit resolution. Simultaneously, the self-triggered pixel which will be connected to a global time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 1 ns resolution will provide the event’s time stamp. The analog part of the readout chain and the ADC have been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology and characterized with an external test pulse. The power consumption of these parts is 200 μW from a 2.5 V supply. It offers 4 switchable gains from ±10 mV/fC to ±40 mV/fC and an input charge dynamic range of up to ±70 fC for the minimum gain for both polarities. Based on noise measurements, the expected equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 65 e− RMS at room temperature. PMID:24187382

  1. Integrated heterodyne interferometer with on-chip modulators and detectors.

    PubMed

    Cole, David B; Sorace-Agaskar, Cheryl; Moresco, Michele; Leake, Gerald; Coolbaugh, Douglas; Watts, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first on-chip heterodyne interferometer fabricated on a 300-mm CMOS compatible process that exhibits root-mean-square (RMS) position noise on the order of 2 nm. Measuring 1 mm by 6 mm, the interferometer is also, to our knowledge, the smallest heterodyne interferometer demonstrated to date and will surely impact numerous interferometric and metrology applications, including displacement measurement, laser Doppler velocimetry and vibrometry, Fourier transform spectroscopy, imaging, and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). Here we present preliminary results that demonstrate the displacement mode.

  2. Integration of the ATLAS FE-I4 Pixel Chip in the Mini Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Thibodeaux, Mayra; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Kadyk, John; Oliver-Mallory, Kelsey

    2013-04-01

    This project deals with development of readout for a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) prototype. This is a type of detector proposed for direct detection of dark matter (WIMPS) with direction information. The TPC is a gaseous charged particle tracking detector composed of a field cage and a gas avalanche detector. The latter is made of two Gas Electron Multipliers in series, illuminating a pixel readout integrated circuit, which measures the distribution in position and time of the output charge. We are testing the TPC prototype, filled with ArCO2 gas, using a Fe-55 x-ray source and cosmic rays. The present prototype uses an FE-I3 chip for readout. This chip was developed about 10 years ago and is presently in use within the ATLAS pixel detector at the LHC. The aim of this work is to upgrade the TPC prototype to use an FE-I4 chip. The FE-I4 has an active area of 336 mm^2 and 26880 pixels, over nine times the number of pixels in the FE-I3 chip, and an active area about six times as much. The FE-I4 chip represents the state of the art of pixel detector readout, and is presently being used to build an upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector.

  3. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  4. Effects of reflector and crystal surface on the performance of a depth-encoding PET detector with dual-ended readout

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Silin; Yang, Yongfeng Cherry, Simon R.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Depth encoding detectors are required to improve the spatial resolution and spatial resolution uniformity of small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, as well as dedicated breast and brain scanners. Depth of interaction (DOI) can be measured by using dual-ended readout of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays with position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes. Inter-crystal reflectors and crystal surface treatments play important roles in determining the performance of dual-ended detectors. In this paper, the authors evaluated five LSO arrays made with three different intercrystal reflectors and with either polished or unpolished crystal surfaces. Methods: The crystal size in all arrays was 1.5 mm, which is typical of the detector size used in small animal and dedicated breast scanners. The LSO arrays were measured with dual-ended readout and were compared in terms of flood histogram, energy resolution, and DOI resolution performance. Results: The four arrays using enhanced specular reflector (ESR) and Toray reflector provided similar quality flood histograms and the array using Crystal Wrap reflector gave the worst flood histogram. The two arrays using ESR reflector provided the best energy resolution and the array using Crystal Wrap reflector yielded the worst energy resolution. All arrays except the polished ESR array provided good DOI resolution ranging from 1.9 mm to 2.9 mm. DOI resolution improved as the gradient in light collection efficiency with depth (GLCED) increased. The geometric mean energies were also calculated for these dual-ended readout detectors as an alternative to the conventional summed total energy. It was shown that the geometric mean energy is advantageous in that it provides more uniform photopeak amplitude at different depths for arrays with high GLCED, and is beneficial in event selection by allowing a fixed energy window independent of depth. A new method of DOI calculation that improved the linearity

  5. All-in-one readout electronics for the Belle-II Central Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Nanae; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Yoshihito; Saito, Masatoshi; Shimazaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Manobu; Uchida, Tomohisa; Uno, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    For the Belle-II experiment at KEK, a Central Drift Chamber (CDC) with readout electronics is required to be upgraded to cope with the design luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2 s-1. Not only the readout electronics will be completely replaced, but also the wire chamber itself. The new readout electronics system must handle higher trigger rates with less dead time. The front-end electronics are located close to detector and send digitized signal through optical fibers. The Amp-Shaper-Discriminator chips, FADC and FPGA are assembled on a single board. This paper will give an overview of the Belle-II CDC and present results of the performance of the readout board in a test beam.

  6. An Efficient, FPGA-Based, Cluster Detection Algorithm Implementation for a Strip Detector Readout System in a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E. (Editor); Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photoelectron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  7. Invited review article: physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors.

    PubMed

    Leman, Steven W

    2012-09-01

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models.

  8. Invited Review Article: Physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Leman, Steven W.

    2012-09-15

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models.

  9. Pixel detector system development at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Tartoni, N.

    2010-10-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors consisting of an array of silicon photodiodes bump-bonded to CMOS read-out chips provide high signal-to-noise ratio and high dynamic range compared to CCD-based detectors and Image Plates. These detector features are important for SAXS experiments where a wide range of intensities are present in the images. For time resolved SAXS experiments, high frame rates are compulsory. The latest CMOS read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX collaboration provides high frame rate and continuous acquisition mode. A read-out system for an array of MEDIPIX3 sensors is under development at Diamond Light Source. This system will support a full resolution frame rate of 1 kHz at a pixel counter depth of 12-bit and a frame rate of 30 kHz at a counter depth of 1 bit. Details concerning system design and MEDIPIX sensors characterization are presented.

  10. Development FD-SOI MOSFET Amplifiers for Integrated Read-Out Circuit of Superconducting-Tunnel-Junction Single-Photon-Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kiuchi, Kenji; et al.

    2015-07-27

    We proposed a new high-resolution single-photon infrared spectrometer for search for radiative decay of cosmic neutrino background (Cν#23;B). The superconducting-tunnel-junctions(STJs) are used as a single-photon counting device. Each STJ consists of Nb/Al/AlxOy/Al/Nb layers, and their thicknesses are optimized for the operation temperature at 370 mK cooled by a 3He sorption refrigerator. Our STJs achieved the leak current 250 pA, and the measured data implies that a smaller area STJ fulfills our requirement. FD-SOI MOSFETs are employed to amplify the STJ signal current in order to increase signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). FD-SOI MOSFETs can be operated at cryogenic temperature of 370 mK, which reduces the noise of the signal amplification system. FD-SOI MOSFET characteristics are measured at cryogenic temperature. The Id-Vgs curve shows a sharper turn on with a higher threshold voltage and the Id-Vds curve shows a nonlinear shape in linear region at cryogenic temperature. Taking into account these effects, FD-SOI MOSFETs are available for read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The bias voltage for STJ detectors is 0.4 mV, and it must be well stabilized to deliver high performance. We proposed an FD-SOI MOSFET-based charge integrated amplifier design as a read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The requirements for an operational amplifier used in the amplifier is estimated using SPICE simulation. The op-amp is required to have a fast response (GBW ≥ #21;100 MHz), and it must have low power dissipation as compared to the cooling power of refrigerator.

  11. X-ray imaging using a 320 x 240 hybrid GaAs pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Irsigler, R.; Andersson, J.; Alverbro, J.

    1999-06-01

    The authors present room temperature measurements on 200 {micro}m thick GaAs pixel detectors, which were hybridized to silicon readout circuits. The whole detector array contains 320 x 240 square shaped pixel with a pitch of 38 {micro}m and is based on semi-insulating liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs material. After fabricating and dicing, the detector chips were indium bump flip chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration and finally evaluated. This readout chip was originally designed for the readout of flip chip bonded infrared detectors, but appears to be suitable for X-ray applications as well. A bias voltage between 50 V and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector at room temperature. The detector array did respond to x-ray radiation by an increase in current due to production of electron hole pairs by the ionization processes. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard X-ray source for dental imaging. The new X-ray hybrid detector was analyzed with respect to its imaging properties. Due to the high absorption coefficient for X-rays in GaAs and the small pixel size, the sensor shows a high modulation transfer function up to the Nyquist frequency.

  12. 3D-FBK pixel sensors with CMS readout: First test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obertino, M.; Solano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Alagoz, E.; Andresen, J.; Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Boscardin, M.; Brosius, R.; Bubna, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Jensen, F.; Krzywda, A.; Kumar, A.; Kwan, S.; Lei, C. M.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Ngadiuba, J.; Osipenkov, I.; Perera, L.; Povoli, M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Shipsey, I.; Tan, P.; Terzo, S.; Uplegger, L.; Wagner, S.; Dinardo, M.

    2013-08-01

    Silicon 3D detectors consist of an array of columnar electrodes of both doping types which penetrate entirely in the detector bulk, perpendicularly to the surface. They are emerging as one of the most promising technologies for innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Until recently, properties of 3D sensors have been investigated mostly with ATLAS readout electronics. 3D pixel sensors compatible with the CMS readout were first fabricated at SINTEF (Oslo, Norway), and more recently at FBK (Trento, Italy) and CNM (Barcelona, Spain). Several sensors with different electrode configurations, bump-bonded with the CMS pixel PSI46 readout chip, were characterized in laboratory and tested at Fermilab with a proton beam of 120 GeV/c. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  13. Development of a Position Sensitive Microstrip Detector System and its Readout Electronics Using ASICs Technologies for SAMURAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saastamoinen, A.; Baba, H.; Blackmon, J. C.; Elson, J.; Kurokawa, M.; McCleskey, M.; Otsu, H.; Rasco, B. C.; Roeder, B. T.; Sobotka, L. G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Yoneda, K.; Zenihiro, J.

    We are building a Si detector tracker system for the SAMURAI spectrometer. Characterizing the behavior of the detectors and associated electronics is essential for properly analyzing the future experimental results. We have performed test experiments to study the detector system response to heavy ion and proton beams of various energies. In this contribution we present some of the results and give an outlook of the future plans.

  14. Sub-micro-liter Electrochemical Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism Detector for Lab-on-a-Chip System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fiorini, Paolo; Peeters, Sara; Majeed, Bivragh; Sterken, Tom; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Hayashi, Miho; Yaku, Hidenobu; Yamashita, Ichiro

    2012-04-01

    A sub-micro-liter single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) detector for lab-on-a-chip applications is developed. This detector enables a fast, sensitive, and selective SNP detection directly from human blood. The detector is fabricated on a Si substrate by a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor/micro electro mechanical systems (CMOS/MEMS) process and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molding. Stable and reproducible measurements are obtained by implementing an on-chip Ag/AgCl electrode and encapsulating the detector. The detector senses the presence of SNPs by measuring the concentration of pyrophosphoric acid generated during selective DNA amplification. A 0.5-µL-volume detector enabled the successful performance of the typing of a SNP within the ABO gene using human blood. The measured sensitivity is 566 pA/µM.

  15. The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.

    1993-09-01

    A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the detector in the radiation environment are discussed. The device has been taking colliding beams data since May of 1992, performing at its best design specifications and enhancing the physics program of CDF.

  16. Frequency and sensitivity tunable microresonator array for high-speed quantum processor readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskinson, Emile; Whittaker, J. D.; Swenson, L. J.; Volkmann, M. H.; Spear, P.; Altomare, F.; Berkley, A. J.; Bumble, B.; Bunyk, P.; Day, P. K.; Eom, B. H.; Harris, R.; Hilton, J. P.; Johnson, M. W.; Kleinsasser, A.; Ladizinsky, E.; Lanting, T.; Oh, T.; Perminov, I.; Tolkacheva, E.; Yao, J.

    Frequency multiplexed arrays of superconducting microresonators have been used as detectors in a variety of applications. The degree of multiplexing achievable is limited by fabrication variation causing non-uniform shifts in resonator frequencies. We have designed, implemented and characterized a superconducting microresonator readout that incorporates two tunable inductances per detector, allowing independent control of each detector frequency and sensitivity. The tunable inductances are adjusted using on-chip programmable digital-to-analog flux converters, which are programmed with a scalable addressing scheme that requires few external lines.

  17. Capacitance-to-digital: a single chip detector for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Drevinskas, Tomas; Kaljurand, Mihkel; Maruška, Audrius

    2014-08-01

    A capacitance-to-digital converter integrated circuit was implemented in an automated CE device as a single chip detector. In this paper, design and hardware issues related to the fabrication and application of a miniature detector for contactless measurement of complex impedance are discussed. The capacitance-to-digital converter integrated circuit was used as the whole detector. The advantage of this setup is that the single integrated circuit provides digital data and neither additional signal conditioning nor analog-to-digital converter is required. Different separation conditions were used to evaluate the detection characteristics of the constructed detection unit. A 1 μM LOD for sodium and a 1.6 μM LOD for potassium ions were revealed for the detector. The detection system designed is competitive with miniaturized contactless conductivity detectors or UV absorbance detectors with respect to overall parameters (sensitivity, resolution, power consumption properties, and size). The obtained separation and detection results show that such detection technique can be used as an extremely low power consuming and space saving solution for CE detection with potential applications in environmental monitoring, process control, and various analytical measurements.

  18. Design of Low Power CMOS Read-Out with TDI Function for Infrared Linear Photodiode Array Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizcaino, Paul; Ramirez-Angulo, Jaime; Patel, Umesh D.

    2007-01-01

    A new low voltage CMOS infrared readout circuit using the buffer-direct injection method is presented. It uses a single supply voltage of 1.8 volts and a bias current of 1uA. The time-delay integration technique is used to increase the signal to noise ratio. A current memory circuit with faulty diode detection is used to remove dark current for background compensation and to disable a photodiode in a cell if detected as faulty. Simulations are shown that verify the circuit that is currently in fabrication in 0.5ym CMOS technology.

  19. De-Li-DAQ-2D - a new data acquisition system for position-sensitive neutron detectors with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Murashkevich, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    Software for a data acquisition system of modern one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors with delay-line readout, which includes a software interface to a new electronic module De-Li-DAQ-2D with a USB interface, is presented. The new system after successful tests on the stand and on several spectrometers of the IBR-2 reactor has been integrated into the software complex SONIX+ [1]. The De-Li- DAQ-2D module [2] contains an 8-channel time-code converter (TDC-GPX) with a time resolution of 80 ps, field programmable gate array (FPGA), 1 Gbyte histogram memory and high-speed interface with a fiber-optic communication line. A real count rate is no less than 106 events/s. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module is implemented in the NIM standard. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module can operate in two modes: histogram mode and list mode.

  20. Towards spark-proof gaseous pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridas, S.; Beuzekom, M. v.; Chan, H. W.; Graaf, H. v. d.; Hartjes, F.; Heijhoff, K.; Hessey, N. P.; Prodanovic, V.

    2016-11-01

    The micro-pattern gaseous pixel detector, is a promising technology for imaging and particle tracking applications. It is a combination of a gas layer acting as detection medium and a CMOS pixelated readout-chip. As a prevention against discharges we deposit a protection layer on the chip and then integrate on top a micromegas-like amplification structure. With this technology we are able to reconstruct 3D track segments of particles passing through the gas thanks to the functionality of the chip. We have turned a Timepix3 chip into a gaseous pixel detector and tested it at the SPS at Cern. The preliminary results are promising and within the expectations. However, the spark protection layer needs further improvement to make reliable detectors. For this reason, we have created a setup for spark-testing. We present the first results obtained from the lab-measurements along with preliminary results from the testbeam.

  1. GBT based readout in the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, J.; Byszuk, A. P.; Emschermann, D.; Kasinski, K.; Müller, W. F. J.; Schmidt, C. J.; Szczygiel, R.; Zabolotny, W. M.

    2017-02-01

    The CBM experiment at FAIR will use GBTX and Versatile Link based readout systems for several of its subdetectors. The paper describes the GBT based readout concept in CBM, emphasizing the common features among systems. Particular choices and features of the readout are motivated mainly by the requirements in the readout of the silicon tracking system (STS). Common developments like a common CBM readout board are presented. The prototype board provides full GBT functionality for all systems, can be interfaced to various prototype readout chains and be refined for later detector specific versions.

  2. Front-End Electronics for the Array Readout of a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector Towards Observation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, H.; Ikeno, M.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.

    2016-07-01

    Precise measurements of polarization patterns in cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide deep knowledge about the begin of the Universe. The GroundBIRD experiment aims to measure the CMB polarization by using microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays. The MKID is suited to multiplexing. One of our requirements is a MUX factor (the number of readout channels for a single wire pair) of at least 100. If we make frequency combs of the MKIDs with 2-MHz spacing, a bandwidth of 200 MHz satisfies 100 MUX. The analog electronics must consist of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), and local oscillator. We developed our own analog electronics board " RHEA." Two outputs/inputs of DAC/ADC with a 200-MHz clock provide an effective bandwidth of 200 MHz. The RHEA allows us to measure both the amplitude and phase responses of each MKID simultaneously. These data are continuously sampled at a high rate (e.g., 1 kSPS) and with no dead time. We achieved 12 and 14 bits resolution for ADC and DAC, respectively. This corresponds to achieve that our electronics achieved low noise: 1/1000 compared with the detector noise. We also achieved low power consumption compared with that of other electronics development for other experiments. Another important feature is that the board is completely separated from the digital part. Each user can choose their preferred field-programmable array. With the combination of the Kintex-7 evaluation kit from Xilinx, we demonstrated readout of MKID response.

  3. The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbon, P.; Alekseev, M.; Angerer, H.; Apollonio, M.; Birsa, R.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Busso, L.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Colantoni, M. L.; Costa, S.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, H.; Diaz, V.; Dibiase, N.; Duic, V.; Eyrich, W.; Faso, D.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Gerassimov, S.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Hagemann, R.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Joosten, R.; Ketzer, B.; Königsmann, K.; Kolosov, V. N.; Konorov, I.; Kramer, D.; Kunne, F.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Mann, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Mutter, A.; Nähle, O.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rebourgeard, P.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schröder, W.; Silva, L.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Svec, M.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Wollny, H.

    2008-08-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 106/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electronics based on the MAD4 amplifier-discriminator and the dead-time free F1 TDC chip. The project was completely designed and implemented in less than two years: The upgraded detector is in operation since the 2006 CERN SPS run. We present the photon detection design, constructive aspects and test studies to characterise the single photon response of the MAPMTs coupled to the read-out system as well as the detector performance based on the 2006 data.

  4. On-chip time resolved detection of quantum dot emission using integrated superconducting single photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Reithmaier, G; Lichtmannecker, S; Reichert, T; Hasch, P; Müller, K; Bichler, M; Gross, R; Finley, J J

    2013-01-01

    We report the routing of quantum light emitted by self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) into the optical modes of a GaAs ridge waveguide and its efficient detection on-chip via evanescent coupling to NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SSPDs). The waveguide coupled SSPDs primarily detect QD luminescence, with scattered photons from the excitation laser onto the proximal detector being negligible by comparison. The SSPD detection efficiency from the evanescently coupled waveguide modes is shown to be two orders of magnitude larger when compared with operation under normal incidence illumination, due to the much longer optical interaction length. Furthermore, in-situ time resolved measurements performed using the integrated detector show an average QD spontaneous emission lifetime of 0.95 ns, measured with a timing jitter of only 72 ps. The performance metrics of the SSPD integrated directly onto GaAs nano-photonic hardware confirms the strong potential for on-chip few-photon quantum optics using such semiconductor-superconductor hybrid systems.

  5. Pixel detectors in 3D technologies for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, G.; Demarteau, M.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Shenai, A.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the development of International Linear Collider vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics. Initial testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second embodiment of the prototype data-pushed readout concept developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  6. Noise analysis for infrared focal plane arrays CMOS readout integrated circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiamu; Ding, Ruijun; Chen, Honglei; Shen, Xiao; Liu, Fei

    2008-12-01

    With the development of the infrared focal plane detectors, the internal noises in the infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) CMOS readout integrated circuit gradually became an important factor of the development of the IRFPAs. The internal noises in IRFPAs CMOS readout integrated circuit are researched in this work. Part of the motivation for this work is to analyze the mechanism and influence of the internal noises in readout integrated circuit. And according to the signal transporting process, many kinds of internal noises are analyzed. According to the results of theory analysis, it is shown that 1/f noise, KTC noise and pulse switch noise have greater amplitude in frequency domain. These noises have seriously affected the performance of output signal. Also this work has frequency test on the signals of a readout integrated circuit chip which is using DI readout mode. After analyzing the frequency test results, it is shown that 1/f noises and pulse switch noises are the main components of the internal noises in IRFPAS CMOS readout integrated circuit and they are the noises which give a major impact to the output signal. In accordance with the type of noise, some design methods for noise suppression are put forward. And after the simulation of these methods with EDA software, the results show that noises have been reduced. The results of this work gave the referenced gist for improving the noise suppression design of IRFPAs CMOS readout integrated circuit.

  7. A fast, low-power, 6-bit SAR ADC for readout of strip detectors in the LHCb Upgrade experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.

    2014-07-01

    The readout of silicon strip sensors in the upgraded Tracker System of Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment will require a novel complex Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC will extract and digitise analogue signal from the sensor and subsequently will perform digital processing and serial data transmission. One of the key processing blocks, placed in each channel, will be an Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC). A prototype of fast, low-power 6-bit Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC was designed, fabricated and tested. The measurements of ADC prototypes confirmed simulation results showing excellent overall performance. In particular, very good resolution with Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB) 5.85 was obtained together with very low power consumption of 0.35 mW at 40 MS/s sampling rate. The results of the performed static and dynamic measurements confirm excellent ADC operation for higher sampling rates up to 80 MS/s.

  8. Development of the superconducting detectors and read-out for the X-IFU instrument on board of the X-ray observatory Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardi, L.; Akamatsu, H.; Bruijn, M. P.; den Hartog, R.; den Herder, J.-W.; Jackson, B.; Kiviranta, M.; van der Kuur, J.; van Weers, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected by ESA as its second large-class mission. The future European X-ray observatory will study the hot and energetic Universe with its launch foreseen in 2028. Microcalorimeters based on superconducting Transition-edge sensor (TES) are the chosen technology for the detectors array of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board of Athena. The X-IFU is a 2-D imaging integral-field spectrometer operating in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV). The detector consists of an array of 3840 TESs coupled to X-ray absorbers and read out in the MHz bandwidth using Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). The proposed design calls for devices with a high filling-factor, high quantum efficiency, relatively high count-rate capability and an energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV. The paper will review the basic principle and the physics of the TES-based microcalorimeters and present the state-of-the art of the FDM read-out.

  9. First results on light readout from the 1-ton ArDM liquid argon detector for dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ArDM Collaboration; Amsler, C.; Badertscher, A.; Boccone, V.; Bueno, A.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Creus, W.; Curioni, A.; Daniel, M.; Dawe, E. J.; Degunda, U.; Gendotti, A.; Epprecht, L.; Horikawa, S.; Kaufmann, L.; Knecht, L.; Laffranchi, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Lightfoot, P. K.; Lussi, D.; Lozano, J.; Marchionni, A.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Melgarejo, A.; Mijakowski, P.; Natterer, G.; Navas-Concha, S.; Otyugova, P.; de Prado, M.; Przewlocki, P.; Regenfus, C.; Resnati, F.; Robinson, M.; Rochet, J.; Romero, L.; Rondio, E.; Rubbia, A.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Strauss, T.; Ulbricht, J.; Viant, T.

    2010-11-01

    ArDM-1t is the prototype for a next generation WIMP detector measuring both the scintillation light and the ionization charge from nuclear recoils in a 1-ton liquid argon target. The goal is to reach a minimum recoil energy of 30 keVr to detect recoiling nuclei. In this paper we describe the experimental concept and present results on the light detection system, tested for the first time in ArDM on the surface at CERN. With a preliminary and incomplete set of PMTs, the light yield at zero electric field is found to be between 0.3-0.5 phe/keVee depending on the position within the detector volume, confirming our expectations based on smaller detector setups.

  10. A new DOI detector design using discrete crystal array with depth-dependent reflector patterns and single-ended readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Chaeyeong; Kang, Jihoon; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We developed a depth of interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector using depth-dependent reflector patterns in a discrete crystal array. Due to the different reflector patterns at depth, light distribution was changed relative to depth. As a preliminary experiment, we measured DOI detector module crystal identification performance. The crystal consisted of a 9×9 array of 2 mmx2 mmx20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals. The crystal array was optically coupled to a 64-channel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube with a 2 mmx2 mm anode size and an 18.1 mmx18.1 mm effective area. We obtained the flood image with an Anger-type calculation. DOI layers and 9×9 pixels were well distinguished in the obtained images. Preclinical PET scanners based on this detector design offer the prospect of high and uniform spatial resolution.

  11. On-chip, photon-number-resolving, telecommunication-band detectors for scalable photonic information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan A.; Fox, Anna E.; Linares, Antia Lamas; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Spring, Justin B.; Langford, Nathan K.; Walmsley, Ian A.; Gates, James C.; Smith, Peter G. R.

    2011-12-15

    Integration is currently the only feasible route toward scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number-resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to five photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2{+-}0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.

  12. Status of the CMS Phase I pixel detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spannagel, S.

    2016-09-01

    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a significantly reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These improvements allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.

  13. Invited article: The fast readout low noise camera as a versatile x-ray detector for time resolved dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure and diffraction studies of dynamic problems in materials science, chemistry, and catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiche, Jean-Claude; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Newton, Mark A.; Ferre, Gemma Guilera; Curfs, Caroline; Vaughan, Gavin; Homs, Alejandro; Carreiras, David Fernandez

    2007-09-01

    Originally conceived and developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) as an "area" detector for rapid x-ray imaging studies, the fast readout low noise (FReLoN) detector of the ESRF [J.-C. Labiche, ESRF Newsletter 25, 41 (1996)] has been demonstrated to be a highly versatile and unique detector. Charge coupled device (CCD) cameras at present available on the public market offer either a high dynamic range or a high readout speed. A compromise between signal dynamic range and readout speed is always sought. The parameters of the commercial cameras can sometimes be tuned, in order to better fulfill the needs of specific experiments, but in general these cameras have a poor duty cycle (i.e., the signal integration time is much smaller than the readout time). In order to address scientific problems such as time resolved experiments at the ESRF, a FReLoN camera has been developed by the Instrument Support Group at ESRF. This camera is a low noise CCD camera that combines high dynamic range, high readout speed, accuracy, and improved duty cycle in a single image. In this paper, we show its application in a quasi-one-dimensional sense to dynamic problems in materials science, catalysis, and chemistry that require data acquisition on a time scale of milliseconds or a few tens of milliseconds. It is demonstrated that in this mode the FReLoN can be applied equally to the investigation of rapid changes in long range order (via diffraction) and local order (via energy dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure) and in situations of x-ray hardness and flux beyond the capacity of other detectors.

  14. Invited article: The fast readout low noise camera as a versatile x-ray detector for time resolved dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure and diffraction studies of dynamic problems in materials science, chemistry, and catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Labiche, Jean-Claude; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Newton, Mark A.; Ferre, Gemma Guilera; Curfs, Caroline; Vaughan, Gavin; Homs, Alejandro; Carreiras, David Fernandez

    2007-09-15

    Originally conceived and developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) as an 'area' detector for rapid x-ray imaging studies, the fast readout low noise (FReLoN) detector of the ESRF [J.-C. Labiche, ESRF Newsletter 25, 41 (1996)] has been demonstrated to be a highly versatile and unique detector. Charge coupled device (CCD) cameras at present available on the public market offer either a high dynamic range or a high readout speed. A compromise between signal dynamic range and readout speed is always sought. The parameters of the commercial cameras can sometimes be tuned, in order to better fulfill the needs of specific experiments, but in general these cameras have a poor duty cycle (i.e., the signal integration time is much smaller than the readout time). In order to address scientific problems such as time resolved experiments at the ESRF, a FReLoN camera has been developed by the Instrument Support Group at ESRF. This camera is a low noise CCD camera that combines high dynamic range, high readout speed, accuracy, and improved duty cycle in a single image. In this paper, we show its application in a quasi-one-dimensional sense to dynamic problems in materials science, catalysis, and chemistry that require data acquisition on a time scale of milliseconds or a few tens of milliseconds. It is demonstrated that in this mode the FReLoN can be applied equally to the investigation of rapid changes in long range order (via diffraction) and local order (via energy dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure) and in situations of x-ray hardness and flux beyond the capacity of other detectors.

  15. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2016-01-12

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required to extract the information from the experiments that is needed to determine the stellar reaction rates. The tools developed through this part of the work will be made freely available for general use.

  16. Readout strategy of an electro-optical coupled PET detector for time-of-flight PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Olcott, P D; Levin, C S

    2013-10-21

    Combining PET with MRI in a single system provides clinicians with complementary molecular and anatomical information. However, existing integrated PET/MRI systems do not have time-of-flight (ToF) PET capabilities. This work describes an MRI-compatible front-end electronic system with ToF capabilities. The approach employs a fast arrival-time pickoff comparator to digitize the timing information, and a laser diode to drive a 10 m fiber-optic cable to optically transmit asynchronous timing information to a photodiode receiver readout system. The FWHM jitter of the comparator and this electo-optical link is 11.5 ps in response to a fast digital pulse. When configured with LYSO scintillation crystals and Hamamatsu MPPC silicon photo-multipliers the comparator and electro-optical link achieved a 511 keV coincidence time resolution of 254.7 ps +/- 8.0 ps FWHM with 3 × 3 × 20 mm(3) crystals and 166.5 +/- 2.5 ps FWHM with 3 × 3 × 5 mm(3) crystals.

  17. Readout strategy of an electro-optical coupled PET detector for time-of-flight PET/MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Olcott, P. D.; Levin, C. S.

    2013-10-01

    Combining PET with MRI in a single system provides clinicians with complementary molecular and anatomical information. However, existing integrated PET/MRI systems do not have time-of-flight (ToF) PET capabilities. This work describes an MRI-compatible front-end electronic system with ToF capabilities. The approach employs a fast arrival-time pickoff comparator to digitize the timing information, and a laser diode to drive a 10 m fiber-optic cable to optically transmit asynchronous timing information to a photodiode receiver readout system. The FWHM jitter of the comparator and this electo-optical link is 11.5 ps in response to a fast digital pulse. When configured with LYSO scintillation crystals and Hamamatsu MPPC silicon photo-multipliers the comparator and electro-optical link achieved a 511 keV coincidence time resolution of 254.7 ps +/- 8.0 ps FWHM with 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 crystals and 166.5 +/- 2.5 ps FWHM with 3 × 3 × 5 mm3 crystals.

  18. SAPHIRE: A New Flat-Panel Digital Mammography Detector With Avalanche Photoconductor and High-Resolution Field Emitter Readout

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    array of TFTs, simi- lar to that in existing AMFPI. The proposed detector is named SHARP-AMFPI scintillator-HARP active matrix flat-panel imager...the wavelength of the incident photon. It was found by Pai and Enck that the ESe and dependence of photogeneration in a-Se follow the Onsager ...mechanism.25 Onsager theory states that every absorbed photon creates a pair of thermalized carriers bound by their Coulombic attrac- tion. The initial

  19. Using ASD8 as readout of multianode photomultipliers for single photoelectron discrimination in the HERA-B RICH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariño, I.; Chmeissani, M.; Conde, P.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Miquel, R.; Peralta, D.; Sieiro, J.

    2001-01-01

    ASD8 is the analog front end chosen to read out the photodetectors of the HERA-B RICH. A test of 1791 boards was performed to study which were the best operating conditions, to make a quality assessment and to optimize the distribution of the boards on the RICH focal plane. Nevertheless, some drawbacks are apparent when a board designed for tracker detectors is employed to convert a photomultiplier signal.

  20. An alternate line erasure and readout (ALER) method for implementing slot-scan imaging technique with a flat-panel detector--initial experiences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinming; Shaw, Chris C; Altunbas, Mustafa C; Wang, Tianpeng

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates an electronic collimation method, referred to as the alternate line erasure and readout (ALER) technique, for implementing slot-scan digital radiography technique with an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) array based flat-panel detector. An amorphus selenium (a-Se) flat-panel detector was modified to implement the ALER technique for slot-scan imaging. A stepping-motor driven fore-collimator was mounted in front of an X-ray tube to generate a scanning X-ray fan beam. The scanning speed and magnification were adjusted to synchronize the fan beam motion with the image line readout rate. The image lines on the leading and trailing edges of the fan beam were tracked and alternately reset and read out, respectively. The former operation resulted in the erasure of the scatter signals accumulated in the leading edge image line prior to the arrival of the fan beam. The latter operation resulted in the acquisition of fan beam exposure data integrated in the trailing edge image line right after the fan beam passed. To demonstrate the scatter rejection capability of this technique, an anthropomorphic chest phantom was placed in PA position and scanned at a speed of 576 lines (8.0 cm)/s at 117 kVp and 32 mA. A tungsten bar is placed at the entrance side of the chest phantom to measure the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), scatter reduction factor (SRF), and contrast-to-noise ratio degradation factor (CNRDF) in the slot-scan images to evaluate the effectiveness of scatter rejection and the resultant improvement of image quality. SPR and CNRDF in the open-field images were also measured and used as the reference for comparison. A scatter reduction by 86.4 to 95.4% across lower lung and heart regions has been observed with slot-scan imaging. The CNRs have been found to be improved by a factor of 2 in the mediastinum areas over the open-field image as well.

  1. Charged-coupled device (CCD) detectors for Lab-on-a Chip (LOC) optical analysis.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Avraham; Kostov, Yordan; Bruck, Hugh A

    2013-01-01

    A critical element of any Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) is a detector; among the many detection approaches, optical detection is very widely used for biodetection. One challenge for advancing the development of LOC for biodetection has been to enhance the portability and lower the cost for Point-of-Care diagnostics, which has the potential to enhance the quality of healthcare delivery for underserved populations and for global health. We describe a simple and relatively low cost charged-coupled device (CCD)-based detector that can be integrated with a conventional microtiter plate or a portable LOC assay for various optical detection modalities including fluorescence, chemiluminescence, densitometry, and colorimetric assays. In general, the portable battery-operated CCD-based detection system consists of four modules: (1) a cooled CCD digital camera to monitor light emission, (2) a LOC or microtiter plate to perform assays, (3) a light source to illuminate the assay (such as electroluminescence (EL) or light emitting diode (LED)), and (4) a portable computer to acquire and analyze images. The configuration of the fluorescence detector presented here was designed to measure fluorogenic excitation at 490 nm and to monitor emission at 523 nm used for FITC detection.The LOC used for this detection system was fabricated with laminated object manufacturing (LOM) technology, and was designed to detection activity of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT-A) using a fluorogenic peptide substrate (SNAP-25) for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT-A) labeled with FITC. The limit of detection (LOD) for the CCD detector is 0.5 nM (25 ng/ml). The portable system is small and is powered by a 12 V source. The modular detector was designed with easily interchangeable LEDs, ELs, filters, lenses, and LOC, and can be used and adapted for a wide variety of densitometry, florescence and colorimetric assays.

  2. Thermopile Detector Arrays for Space Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Krueger, T. R.; McCann, T. A.; Chacon, R.; Jones, E. W.; Dickie, M. R.; Schofield, J. T.; McCleese, D. J.; Gaalema, S.

    2004-01-01

    Thermopile detectors are widely used in uncooled applications where small numbers of detectors are required, particularly in low-cost commercial applications or applications requiring accurate radiometry. Arrays of thermopile detectors, however, have not been developed to the extent of uncooled bolometer and pyroelectric/ferroelectric arrays. Efforts at JPL seek to remedy this deficiency by developing high performance thin-film thermopile detectors in both linear and two-dimensional formats. The linear thermopile arrays are produced by bulk micromachining and wire bonded to separate CMOS readout electronic chips. Such arrays are currently being fabricated for the Mars Climate Sounder instrument, scheduled for launch in 2005. Progress is also described towards realizing a two-dimensional thermopile array built over CMOS readout circuitry in the substrate.

  3. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; KANDASAMY,A.; GROSHOLZ,J.

    2002-07-08

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 {micro}m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed.

  4. Background identification system in MEG II experiment based on high-rate scintillation detector with SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, R.

    2017-02-01

    The MEG experiment has been searching for the lepton flavor violating process, μ+ arrow e+γ, which is a clear evidence of new physics models beyond the Standard Model. The upgrade experiment (MEG II) is currently being prepared to obtain one order higher branching ratio sensitivity Script B < 5.0 × 10‑14 by using the world's most intense muon beam up to ~108 μ+/s and upgraded detectors with considerably improved performance. One of the keys for the upgrade is to suppress the background rate which is significantly increased with the higher muon decay rate. In the MEG II experiment, the Radiative Decay Counter (RDC) will be newly introduced for active background identification. The RDC is able to identify the most dominant background due to photons from Radiative Muon Decay and improve the sensitivity by 22%. In this paper, the concept of the RDC and its development are described.

  5. Highly parallel SPAD detector for time-resolved lab-on-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Michele; Iori, Daniele; Pancheri, Lucio; Borghetti, Fausto; Pasquardini, Laura; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Gonzo, Lorenzo; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Stoppa, David

    2010-05-01

    Fluorescence lifetime detection is widely used in molecular biology to monitor many cell parameters (such as pH, ion concentrations, etc.) and for an early diagnosis of many pathologies. In a typical fluorescence lifetime experiment a pulsed laser is used to excite the fluorescent dyes and the emitted light is revealed by means of high sensitivity detectors, typically: intensified CCD, PMTs or Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs).In this contribute we present a SPAD detector module fabricated in a 0.35μm High Voltage CMOS technology to be used within a lab-on-chip system consisting of a micro-reactor array for bioaffinity assays based on fluorescence markers. The detector module, having a total area of 600 x 900 μm2, can be arranged to build a small pixel array to be directly coupled to the micro-reactors. No emission filters are needed, since the ultra-short laser pulse is cut off in the time domain. The module consists of a 10x10-SPAD array, where each SPAD cell is equipped with dedicated active quenching and recharging circuit. Each cell has a pitch of 26μm with a fill factor of 48%. The SPADs have been binned in order to realize a large photosensitive area detector exhibiting a reasonably low dark count rate (DCR) and reduced dead time, as required in a fast measurement system. A memory has also been implemented in order to enable only low DCR SPADs, so that a total DCR of about 100kHz can be achieved for the whole photosensitive area. The digital output generated by the SPAD array is sent to a time-discriminator stage which allows a time-gated detection of the incident light. Two time-windows have been implemented in this architecture. Their time width is controlled by an on-chip digital PLL locked to the external laser clock whereas the width of the time-windows can be set within the range 500ps-10ns with a resolution of 500ps. Photons detected within each time window are then counted by two 10-bits digital counters. Time-interleaved operation has been

  6. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, Robert E.; Sobotka, Lee G.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2015-12-29

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested and the performance characterized in a series of tests using particle beams with a variety of atomic numbers at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba facility (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required

  7. Fast Readout Architectures for Large Arrays of Digital Pixels: Examples and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors, particularly those designed and constructed for applications and experiments for high-energy physics, are commonly built implementing general readout architectures, not specifically optimized in terms of speed. High-energy physics experiments use bidimensional matrices of sensitive elements located on a silicon die. Sensors are read out via other integrated circuits bump bonded over the sensor dies. The speed of the readout electronics can significantly increase the overall performance of the system, and so here novel forms of readout architectures are studied and described. These circuits have been investigated in terms of speed and are particularly suited for large monolithic, low-pitch pixel detectors. The idea is to have a small simple structure that may be expanded to fit large matrices without affecting the layout complexity of the chip, while maintaining a reasonably high readout speed. The solutions might be applied to devices for applications not only in physics but also to general-purpose pixel detectors whenever online fast data sparsification is required. The paper presents also simulations on the efficiencies of the systems as proof of concept for the proposed ideas. PMID:24778588

  8. First Tests of a New Fast Waveform Digitizer for PMT Signal Read-out from Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelc, A. M.; Canci, N.; Cavanna, F.; Cortopassi, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Mini, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Romboli, A.; Segreto, E.; Acciarri, R.

    A new generation Waveform Digitizer board as been recently made available on the market by CAEN. The new board CAEN V1751 with 8 Channels per board, 10 bit, 1 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer (or 4 channel, 10 bit, 2 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer -Dual Edge Sampling mode) with threshold and Auto-Trigger capabilities provides an ideal (relatively low-cost) solution for reading signals from liquid Argon detectors for Dark Matter search equipped with an array of PMTs for the detection of scintillation light. The board was extensively used in real experimental conditions to test its usefulness for possible future uses and to compare it with a state of the art digital oscilloscope. As results, PMT Signal sampling at 1 or 2 GS/s is appropriate for the reconstruction of the fast component of the signal scintillation in Argon (characteristic time of about 4 ns) and the extended dynamic range, after a small customization, allows for the detection of signals in the range of energy needed. The bandwidth is found to be adequate and the intrinsic noise is very low.

  9. Potential for reducing the numbers of SiPM readout surfaces of laser-processed X'tal cube PET detectors.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-03-07

    We are developing a three-dimensional (3D) position-sensitive detector with isotropic spatial resolution, the X'tal cube. Originally, our design consisted of a crystal block for which all six surfaces were covered with arrays of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). In this paper, we examined the feasibility of reducing the number of surfaces on which a MPPC array must be connected with the aim of reducing the complexity of the system. We evaluated two kinds of laser-processed X'tal cubes of 3 mm and 2 mm pitch segments while varying the numbers of the 4 × 4 MPPC arrays down to two surfaces. The sub-surface laser engraving technique was used to fabricate 3D grids into a monolithic crystal block. The 3D flood histograms were obtained by the Anger-type calculation. Two figures of merit, peak-to-valley ratios and distance-to-width ratios, were used to evaluate crystal identification performance. Clear separation was obtained even in the 2-surface configuration for the 3 mm X'tal cube, and the average peak-to-valley ratios and the distance-to-width ratios were 6.7 and 2.6, respectively. Meanwhile, in the 2 mm X'tal cube, the 6-surface configuration could separate all crystals and even the 2-surface case could also, but the flood histograms were relatively shrunk in the 2-surface case, especially on planes parallel to the sensitive surfaces. However, the minimum peak-to-valley ratio did not fall below 3.9. We concluded that reducing the numbers of MPPC readout surfaces was feasible for both the 3 mm and the 2 mm X'tal cubes.

  10. Characterization of the FE-I4B pixel readout chip production run for the ATLAS Insertable B-layer upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, M.

    2013-03-01

    The Insertable B-layer (IBL) is a fourth pixel layer that will be added inside the existing ATLAS pixel detector during the long LHC shutdown of 2013 and 2014. The new four layer pixel system will ensure excellent tracking, vertexing and b-tagging performance in the high luminosity pile-up conditions projected for the next LHC run. The peak luminosity is expected to reach 3·1034 cm-2s-1with an integrated luminosity over the IBL lifetime of 300 fb-1 corresponding to a design lifetime fluence of 5·1015 neqcm-2 and ionizing dose of 250 Mrad including safety factors. The production front-end electronics FE-I4B for the IBL has been fabricated at the end of 2011 and has been extensively characterized on diced ICs as well as at the wafer level. The production tests at the wafer level were performed during 2012. Selected results of the diced IC characterization are presented, including measurements of the on-chip voltage regulators. The IBL powering scheme, which was chosen based on these results, is described. Preliminary wafer to wafer distributions as well as yield calculations are given.

  11. EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinapoli, Roberto; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Horisberger, Roland; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Schmid, Elmar; Schmitt, Bernd; Schreiber, Akos; Shi, Xintian; Theidel, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    EIGER is an advanced family of single photon counting hybrid pixel detectors, primarily aimed at diffraction experiments at synchrotrons. Optimization of maximal functionality and minimal pixel size (using a 0.25 μm process and conserving the radiation tolerant design) has resulted in 75×75 μm2 pixels. Every pixel comprises a preamplifier, shaper, discriminator (with a 6 bit DAC for threshold trimming), a configurable 4/8/12 bit counter with double buffering, as well as readout, control and test circuitry. A novel feature of this chip is its double buffered counter, meaning a next frame can be acquired while the previous one is being readout. An array of 256×256 pixels fits on a ˜2×2 cm2 chip and a sensor of ˜8×4 cm2 will be equipped with eight readout chips to form a module containing 0.5 Mpixel. Several modules can then be tiled to form larger area detectors. Detectors up to 4×8 modules (16 Mpixel) are planned. To achieve frame rates of up to 24 kHz the readout architecture is highly parallel, and the chip readout happens in parallel on 32 readout lines with a 100 MHz Double Data Rate clock. Several chips and singles (i.e. a single chip bump-bonded to a single chip silicon sensor) were tested both with a lab X-ray source and at Swiss Light Source (SLS) beamlines. These tests demonstrate the full functionality of the chip and provide a first assessment of its performance. High resolution X-ray images and "high speed movies" were produced, even without threshold trimming, at the target system frame rates (up to ˜24 kHz in 4 bit mode). In parallel, dedicated hardware, firmware and software had to be developed to comply with the enormous data rate the chip is capable of delivering. Details of the chip design and tests will be given, as well as highlights of both test and final readout systems.

  12. Front-end chip for Silicon Photomultiplier detectors with pico-second Time-of-Flight resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankova, V.; Briggl, K.; Chen, H.; Gil, A.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Shen, W.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.

    2016-07-01

    A mixed-mode readout Application Specific Integrated Circuit (STIC3) has been developed for high precision timing measurements with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) for medical imaging and particle physics applications. The STiC3 is a 64-channel chip, with fully differential analog front-end for cross-talk and electronic noise immunity. The time and charge information from the SiPM signals are encrypted into two time stamps generated by integrated Time to Digital Converter (TDC) modules with 50 ps time binning. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transferred to a PC via a 160 MBit/s serial link using an 8/10 bit encoding. The chip provides an input bias tuning in a range of 0-900 mV to compensate the breakdown voltage variation of individual SiPMs. The TDC jitter together with the digital part is around 37 ps. A Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of 213.6 ps FWHM has been obtained with 3.1 × 3.1 × 15m2 LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and Hamamatsu SiPM matrices (S12643-050CN(X)). Characterization measurements with the chip and its integration into the external plate of the EndoTOFPET-US prototype are presented.

  13. 60 GHz wireless data transfer for tracker readout systems—first studies and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmeier, S.; Berger, N.; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H. K.; Wiedner, D.

    2014-11-01

    To allow highly granular trackers to contribute to first level trigger decisions or event filtering, a fast readout system with very high bandwidth is required. Space, power and material constraints, however, pose severe limitations on the maximum available bandwidth of electrical or optical data transfers. A new approach for the implementation of a fast readout system is the application of a wireless data transfer at a carrier frequency of 60 GHz. The available bandwidth of several GHz allows for data rates of multiple Gbps per link. 60 GHz transceiver chips can be produced with a small form factor and a high integration level. A prototype transceiver currently under development at the University of Heidelberg is briefly described in this paper. To allow easy and fast future testing of the chip's functionality, a bit error rate test has been developed with a commercially available transceiver. Crosstalk might be a big issue for a wireless readout system with many links in a tracking detector. Direct crosstalk can be avoided by using directive antennas, linearly polarized waves and frequency channeling. Reflections from tracking modules can be reduced by applying an absorbing material like graphite foam. Properties of different materials typically used in tracking detectors and graphite foam in the 60 GHz frequency range are presented. For data transmission tests, links using commercially available 60 GHz transmitters and receivers are used. Studies regarding crosstalk and the applicability of graphite foam, Kapton horn antennas and polarized waves are shown.

  14. Front-end readout ASIC for charged particle counting with the RADEM instrument on the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Timo A.; Pâhlsson, Philip; Meier, Dirk; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Otnes Berge, Hans Kristian; Altan, Mehmet Akif; Ackermann, Jörg; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Azman, Suleyman; Talebi, Jahanzad; Olsen, Alf; Gheorghe, Codin; Steenari, David; Øya, Petter; Johansen, Tor Magnus; Maehlum, Gunnar

    2016-07-01

    The detector readout for the Radiation-hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) aboard the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) uses a custom-made application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC, model: IDE3466) for the charge signal readout from silicon radiation sensors. RADEM measures the total ionizing dose and dose rate for protons (5 MeV to 250 MeV), electrons (0.3 MeV to 40 MeV) and ions. RADEM has in total three chips of the same design: one chip for the proton and ion detector, one for the electron detector, and one for the directional detector. The ASIC has 36 chargesensitive pre-amplifiers (CSA), 36 counters of 22-bits each, and one analogue output for multiplexing the pulse heights from all channels. The counters count pulses from charged particles in the silicon sensors depending on the charge magnitude and the coincidence trigger pattern from the 36 channels. We have designed the ASIC in 0.35-μm CMOS process and an ASIC wafer lot has been manufactured at AMS. This article presents the ASIC design specifications and design validation results. The preliminary results from tests with bare chips indicate that the design meets the technical requirements.

  15. Integration of a Micro-Chip Amino Acid Chirality Detector into the MOD Instrument Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Grunthaner, Frank; Mathies, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The MOD (Mars Organic Detector) instrument concept consists of a sublimation apparatus for organic compound isolation connected to a microfabricated microfluidic analyzer containing a sipper, pumps and a separation channel for organic compound characterization. The target organic compounds are amino acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Solid samples are placed within the sublimation apparatus and heated to release organic compounds which sublime onto a cold finger. Half of the cold finger is coated with fluorescamine. which reacts with amino acids and other primary amines to generate an intense fluorescent derivative while the other half is uncoated and is used to directly detect PAH fluorescence, A capillary sipper is then used to dissolve and sample the labeled amino acids and integrated microfabricated pumps transport the labeled amino acids to the chip for analysis. The sample is separated using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) together with chiral dextrins to determine amino acid composition and chirality. During the grant period, the following steps have been completed toward the development of a robust instrument and chemistry.

  16. Development of novel on-chip, customer-design spiral biasing adaptor on for Si drift detectors and detector arrays for X-ray and nuclear physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    A novel on-chip, customer-design spiral biasing adaptor (SBA) has been developed. A single SBA is used for biasing a Si drift detector (SDD) and SDD array. The use of an SBA reduces the biasing current. This paper shows the calculation of the geometry of an SBA and an SDD to get the best drift field in the SDD and SDD array. Prototype SBAs have been fabricated to verify the concept. Electrical measurements on these SBAs are in agreement with the expectations. The new SDD array with an SBA can be used for X-ray detection and in nuclear physics experiments.

  17. Hit efficiency study of CMS prototype forward pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongwook; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author describes the measurement of the hit efficiency of a prototype pixel device for the CMS forward pixel detector. These pixel detectors were FM type sensors with PSI46V1 chip readout. The data were taken with the 120 GeV proton beam at Fermilab during the period of December 2004 to February 2005. The detectors proved to be highly efficient (99.27 {+-} 0.02%). The inefficiency was primarily located near the corners of the individual pixels.

  18. The SVX3D integrated circuit for dead-timeless silicon strip readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Milgrome, O.; Zimmerman, T.; Volobouev, I.; Ely, R. P.; Connolly, A.; Fish, D.; Affolder, T.; Sill, A.

    1999-10-01

    The revision D of the SVX3 readout IC has been fabricated in the Honeywell radiation-hard 0.8 μm bulk CMOS process, for instrumenting 712,704 silicon strips in the upgrade to the Collider Detector at Fermilab. This final revision incorporates new features and changes to the original architecture that were added to meet the goal of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes the features central to dead-timeless operation, and presents test data for un-irradiated and irradiated SVX3D chips.

  19. Application of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity as an external detector for zone electrophoresis in poly(dimethylsiloxane) chips.

    PubMed

    Koczka, Péter I; Bodoki, Ede; Gáspár, Attila

    2016-02-01

    In this work, lab-made PDMS microfluidic chips were matched to a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4) D) having external in-plane electrodes (eDAQ, Australia). The advantages of this type of C(4) D are the choice to reversibly place or remove the microchip onto/from the detector and to freely variate the position of the detection (separation length) on the microchip. The thickness of the bottom layer of the PDMS chip was optimized to achieve sensitive detection during the electrophoretic separation. PDMS chips with 100 μm bottom layer used with the C(4) D platform were tested by CZE of a mixture of seven anions and different types of real samples. Using split-flow pressure sample injection and effective length of 6.5 cm, the numbers of theoretical plates were in the range of 4000-6000 (63,000-93,000/m) and the LODs amounted to 3.66-14.7 μmol/L (0.13-2.26 μg/mL) for the studied anions.

  20. Focal plane infrared readout circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An infrared imager, such as a spectrometer, includes multiple infrared photodetectors and readout circuits for reading out signals from the photodetectors. Each readout circuit includes a buffered direct injection input circuit including a differential amplifier with active feedback provided through an injection transistor. The differential amplifier includes a pair of input transistors, a pair of cascode transistors and a current mirror load. Photocurrent from a photodetector can be injected onto an integration capacitor in the readout circuit with high injection efficiency at high speed. A high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for reading out infrared detectors with large capacitances can be achieved even when short exposure times are used. The effect of image lag can be reduced.

  1. Tracking performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector

    SciTech Connect

    Menasce, D.; et al.

    2013-06-01

    We present a comparative characterization of the performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector employing the standard CMS pixel readout chips. Measurements were carried out at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, FTBF, using protons of momentum 120 GeV/c tracked by a high-resolution pixel telescope. Particular attention was directed to the study of the charge-collection, the charge-sharing among adjacent pixels and the achievable position resolution. The performance of the single-crystal detector was excellent and comparable to the best available silicon pixel-detectors. The measured average detection-efficiency was near unity, ε = 0.99860±0.00006, and the position-resolution for shared hits was about 6 μm. On the other hand, the performance of the polycrystalline detector was hampered by its lower charge collection distance and the readout chip threshold. A new readout chip, capable of operating at much lower threshold (around 1 ke$-$), would be required to fully exploit the potential performance of the polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector.

  2. Gamma ray detector modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

  3. Large monolithic particle pixel-detector in high-voltage CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perić, I.; Takacs, C.

    2010-12-01

    A large monolithic particle pixel-detector implemented as system on a chip in a high-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology will be presented. The detector uses high-voltage n-well/p-substrate diodes as pixel-sensors. The diodes can be reversely biased with more than 60 V. In this way, depleted zones of about 10 μm thickness are formed, where the signal charges can be collected by drift. Due to fast charge collection in the strong electric-field zones, a higher radiation tolerance of the sensor is expected than in the case of the standard MAPS detectors. Simple pixel-readout electronics are implemented inside the n-wells. The readout is based on a source follower with one select- and two reset-transistors. Due to embedding of the pixel-readout electronics inside the collecting electrodes (n-wells) there are no insensitive zones within the pixel matrix. The detector chip contains a 128×128 matrix consisting of pixels of 21×21 μm2 -size. The diode voltages of one selected pixel-row are received at the bottom of the matrix by 128 eight-bit single-slope ADCs. All ADCs operate in parallel. The ADC codes are read out using eight LVDS 500 MBit/s output links. The readout electronics are designed to allow the readout of the whole pixel matrix in less than 50 μs. The total DC power consumption of the chip is 50 mW. All analog parts of the chip are implemented using radiation-hard layout techniques. Experimental results will be presented.

  4. Superconducting tunnel junctions as direct detectors for submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufel, John Daniel

    This thesis presents measurements on the of performance of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) as direct detectors for submillimeter radiation. Over the past several decades, STJ's have been successfully implemented as energy-resolving detectors of X-ray and optical photons. This work extends their application to ultra-sensitive direct detection of photons near 100 GHz. The focus of this research is to integrate the detector with a readout that is sensitive, fast, and able to be scaled for use in large format arrays. We demonstrate the performance of a radio frequency single electron transistor (RF-SET) configured as a transimpedance current amplifier as one such readout. Unlike traditional semiconductor amplifiers, the RF-SET is compatible with cryogenic operation and naturally lends itself to frequency domain multiplexing. This research progressed to the invention of RF-STJ, whereby the same RF reflectometry as used in the RF-SET is applied directly to the detector junction. This results in a greatly simplified design that preserves many of the advantages of the RF-SET while achieving comparable sensitivity. These experiments culminate in calibration of the detector with an on-chip, mesoscopic noise source. Millimeter wave Johnson noise from a gold microbridge illuminates the detector in situ. This allows for direct measurement of the "optical" properties of the detector and its RF readout, including the response time, responsivity and sensitivity.

  5. EXCALIBUR: a small-pixel photon counting area detector for coherent X-ray diffraction - Front-end design, fabrication and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Willis, B.; Plackett, R.; Gimenez, E. N.; Spiers, J.; Ballard, D.; Booker, P.; Thompson, J. A.; Gibbons, P.; Burge, S. R.; Nicholls, T.; Lipp, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-03-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction experiments on synchrotron X-ray beamlines require detectors with high spatial resolution and large detection area. The read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX3 collaboration offers a small pixel size of 55 microns resulting in a very high spatial resolution when coupled to a direct X-ray conversion segmented silicon sensor. MEDIPIX3 assemblies present also the advantages of hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode: noiseless imaging, large dynamic range, extremely high frame rate. The EXCALIBUR detector is under development for the X-ray Coherence and Imaging Beamline I13 of the Diamond Light Source. This new detector consists of three modules, each with 16 MEDIPIX3 chips which can be read-out at 100 frames per second in continuous mode or 1000 frames per second in burst mode. In each module, the sensor is a large single silicon die covering 2 rows of 8 individual MEDIPIX3 read-out chips and provides a continuous active detection region within a module. Each module includes 1 million solder bumps connecting the 55 microns pixels of the silicon sensor to the 55 microns pixels of the 16 MEDIPIX3 read-out chips. The detection area of the 3-module EXCALIBUR detector is 115 mm × 100 mm with a small 6.8 mm wide inactive region between modules. Each detector module is connected to 2 FPGA read-out boards via a flexi-rigid circuit to allow a fully parallel read-out of the 16 MEDIPIX3 chips. The 6 FPGA read-out boards used in the EXCALIBUR detector are interfaced to 6 computing nodes via 10Gbit/s fibre-optic links to maintain the very high frame-rate capability. The standard suite of EPICS control software is used to operate the detector and to integrate it with the Diamond Light Source beamline software environment. This article describes the design, fabrication and characterisation of the MEDIPIX3-based modules composing the EXCALIBUR detector.

  6. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Study of a multi-wire proportional chamber with a cathode strip and delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li-Ying; Li, Qi-Te; Faisal, Q.; Ge, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Ye, Yan-Lin

    2009-05-01

    The design principle for a multi-wire proportional chamber with a cathode strip and delay-line readout is described. A prototype chamber of a size of 10 cm ×10 cm was made together with the readout electronics circuit. A very clean signal with very low background noise was obtained by applying a transformer between the delay-line and the pre-amplifier in order to match the resistance. Along the anode wire direction a position resolution of less than 0.5 mm was achieved with a 55Fe-5.9 keV X ray source. The simple structure, large effective area and high position resolution allow the application of a gas chamber of this kind to many purposes.

  7. Proceedings of PIXEL98 -- International pixel detector workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1998-08-01

    Experiments around the globe face new challenges of more precision in the face of higher interaction rates, greater track densities, and higher radiation doses, as they look for rarer and rarer processes, leading many to incorporate pixelated solid-state detectors into their plans. The highest-readout rate devices require new technologies for implementation. This workshop reviewed recent, significant progress in meeting these technical challenges. Participants presented many new results; many of them from the weeks--even days--just before the workshop. Brand new at this workshop were results on cryogenic operation of radiation-damaged silicon detectors (dubbed the Lazarus effect). Other new work included a diamond sensor with 280-micron collection distance; new results on breakdown in p-type silicon detectors; testing of the latest versions of read-out chip and interconnection designs; and the radiation hardness of deep-submicron processes.

  8. Photon counting readout pixel array in 0.18-μm CMOS technology for on-line gamma-ray imaging of 103palladium seeds for permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldan, A. H.; Karim, K. S.; Reznik, A.; Caldwell, C. B.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2008-03-01

    Permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) brachytherapy technique was recently introduced as an alternative to high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and involves the permanent implantation of radioactive 103Palladium seeds into the surgical cavity of the breast for cancer treatment. To enable accurate seed implantation, this research introduces a gamma camera based on a hybrid amorphous selenium detector and CMOS readout pixel architecture for real-time imaging of 103Palladium seeds during the PBSI procedure. A prototype chip was designed and fabricated in 0.18-μm n-well CMOS process. We present the experimental results obtained from this integrated photon counting readout pixel.

  9. SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

  10. The Belle II SVD data readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmeier, R.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Bulla, L.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cervenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doleźal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyś, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnićka, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Lueck, T.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2017-02-01

    The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.

  11. Compensated digital readout family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David E.; Skow, Michael

    1991-01-01

    ISC has completed test on an IC which has 32 channels of amplifiers, low pass anti-aliasing filters, 13-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with non-uniformity correction per channel and a digital multiplexer. The single slope class of A/D conversion is described, as are the unique variations required for incorporation of this technique for use with on-focal plane detector readout electronics. This paper describes the architecture used to implement the digital on-focal plane signal processing functions. Results from measured data on a test IC are presented for a circuit containing these functions operating at a sensor frame rate of 1000 hertz.

  12. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  13. Module production for the Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siado Castaneda, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    For Run 2 the Large Hadron Collider will run at a much higher instantaneous luminosity, which requires an upgrade of the CMS pixel detector. The detector consists of rectangular silicon sensors, segmented into 100 μm by 150 μm pixels, bonded to readout chips, with one sensor and a 8x2 array of readout chips forming a module. Due to its high granularity and good spatial resolution, about 10 μm for a single hit, the pixel detector is used for track reconstruction, pileup mitigation, and b-quark tagging in many physics analyses. Being the innermost sub-detector of CMS it receives the most radiation damage, and therefore needs to be replaced most often. For the phase 1 upgrade an additional disk in the forward region and increased buffer space in the readout chip will improve the pixel performance by increasing efficiency and reducing fake rates. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln is one of the two sites where modules are being assembled. This talk features the steps of the assembly process as well as challenges encountered and overcome during production of over 500 modules. The CMS Collaboration.

  14. Enhancements to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) Multiplexer Readout and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, J.; Benford, D. J.; Buchanan, E. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rebar, J.; Shafer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark 111 system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided hooks in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark 111 system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

  15. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy ( eV on keV) and time resolution ( 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  16. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  17. Pixel architectures in a HV-CMOS process for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degerli, Y.; Godiot, S.; Guilloux, F.; Hemperek, T.; Krüger, H.; Lachkar, M.; Liu, J.; Orsini, F.; Pangaud, P.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, design details and simulation results of new pixel architectures designed in LFoundry 150 nm high voltage CMOS process in the framework of the ATLAS high luminosity inner detector upgrade are presented. These pixels can be connected to the FE-I4 readout chip via bump bonding or glue and some of them can also be tested without a readout chip. Negative high voltage is applied to the high resistivity (> 2 kΩ .cm) substrate in order to deplete the deep n-well charge collection diode, ensuring good charge collection and radiation tolerance. In these pixels, the front-end has been implemented inside the diode using both NMOS and PMOS transistors. The pixel pitch is 50 μm × 250 μm for all pixels. These pixels have been implemented in a demonstrator chip called LFCPIX.

  18. Preliminary test data using the MOS DRO with Si:In detector material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, A. M.; Britt, J. P.; Joyce, R. R.; Probst, R. G.; Gates, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The initial testing performed on the Hughes Metal Oxide Semiconductor Direct Readout (MOS DRO) with a Si:In extrinsic infrared array is described. The testing to date was of a screening nature and the results are primarily qualitative rather than quantitative. At a later date the performance optimization phase will be initiated. An encouraging result is that this response is strongly dependent on the detector temperature, to the extent that thermal transients introduced during the chip readout will affect the performance. A responsivity of 1 A/W at 2.2 microns with a bias of 15 volts, which is well below what is optimum bias, was obtained.

  19. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in silicon for the future LHCb vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomerotski, A.; Buytart, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; Greening, E.; John, M.; Mapelli, A.; Leflat, A.; Li, Y.; Romagnoli, G.; Verlaat, B.

    2013-04-01

    The extreme radiation dose received by vertex detectors at the Large Hadron Collider dictates stringent requirements on their cooling systems. To be robust against radiation damage, sensors should be maintained below -20°C and at the same time, the considerable heat load generated in the readout chips and the sensors must be removed. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in a silicon plane in thermal contact with the readout chips is an attractive option. In this paper, we present the first results of microchannel prototypes with circulating, two-phase CO2 and compare them to simulations. We also discuss a practical design of upgraded VELO detector for the LHCb experiment employing this approach.

  20. Ultra-Compact, Superconducting Spectrometer-on-a-Chip at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Bradford, Charles M.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.; Swenson, Loren; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; O'Brient, Roger C.; Padin, Stephen; Shirokoff, Erik D.; McKenney, Christopher; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose V.; Barry, Peter; Doyle, Simon; Mauskopf, Philip; Llombart, Nuria; Kovacs, Attila; Marrone, Dan P.

    2013-01-01

    Small size, wide spectral bandwidth, and highly multiplexed detector readout are required to develop powerful multi-beam spectrometers for high-redshift observations. Currently available spectrometers at these frequencies are large and bulky. The grating sizes for these spectrometers are prohibitive. This fundamental size issue is a key limitation for space-based spectrometers for astrophysics applications. A novel, moderate-resolving-power (R-700), ultra-compact spectrograph-on-a-chip for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths is the solution.

  1. Detector Arrays for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Brambora, Clifford K.; Derro, Rebecca; Engler, Chuck; Fox, Ori; Garrison, Matthew B.; Henegar, Greg; Hill, robert J.; Johnson, Thomas; Lindler, Don J.; Manthripragada, Sridhar S.; Marshall, Ceryl; Mott, Brent; Parr, Thomas M.; Roher, Wayne D.; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin B.; Smith, Miles; Waczynski, Augustyn; Wen, Yiting; Wilson, Donna; Xia-Serafino, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) incorporates two 5 micron cutoff (lambda(sub co) = 5 microns) 2048x2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG sensor chip assemblies. These detector arrays, and the two Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuits that control them, are operated in space at T approx. 37 K. In this article, we provide a brief introduction to NIRSpec, its detector subsystem (DS), detector readout in the space radiation environment, and present a snapshot of the developmental status of the NIRSpec DS as integration and testing of the engineering test unit begins.

  2. Proton beam characterisation of a prototype thin-tile plastic scintillator detector with SiPM readout for use in fast-neutron tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, R.; Jakubek, J.; Prokopovich, D.; Uher, J.

    2012-02-01

    We present details of the construction and characterisation of a prototype thin-tile plastic scintillation detector for use in a multi-layer Fast Neutron Tracker. Scintillation light is read out using solid-state silicon photomultiplier detectors (SiPMs). The Tracker consists of alternating scintillator and Timepix detector layers. The scintillator tile provides a hydrogen-rich target, in which impinging fast neutrons produce recoil protons. The energies lost by protons in the plastic scintillator are measured and recoil protons exiting the scintillator are tracked in the Timepix detector. The combination of signals from the scintillator and Timepix provides information to reconstruct the energy or direction of the impinging neutron, using calculations based on the kinematics of the elastic neutron scattering. Three prototype scintillation detectors were constructed, using either a pair of 3 × 3 mm sensitive area SPMMicro3035 SiPMs from SensL or a pair of MAPD-3n SiPMs from Zecotek. The detector performances were characterised using a mono-energetic proton beam. An absolute energy calibration was measured at 3, 4 and 5 MeV proton energies with good linearity. The best measured energy resolution was 29.8% at 5 MeV. Spatial uniformity was assessed by measuring the response across the detector face. Finally, the tile detector's ability to provide a trigger for Timepix acquisition in the stack configuration was demonstrated for single and double neutron recoil events using a DT neutron source. The SiPM-based design was found to be well-suited for the application of the multi-layer fast neutron tracker.

  3. Avalanche current read-out circuit for low jitter parallel photon timing.

    PubMed

    Crotti, M; Rech, I; Gulinatti, A; Ghioni, M

    2013-08-01

    We propose a novel circuit for single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) current read-out, for photon timing applications. The circuit consists of a single transistor trans-impedance amplifier with a GHz bandwidth: the feedback loop fixes the SPAD anode voltage and allows us to obtain a high time resolution with a very high equivalent current threshold (almost 700 μA). The trans-impedance stage is followed by a low pass filter that reduces the crosstalk of other on-chip detectors and makes the designed structure suitable for multi-detector systems. The discrete components prototype presented in this letter achieves a state-of-art resolution of 34.4 ps FWHM, presents negligible crosstalk between the different pixels and opens the way for the development of an integrated structure with a large number of channels.

  4. Development of a low-noise, 4th-order readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors in gamma spectrometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Su, Lin; Wei, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ran; Hu, Yann

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an ASIC readout circuit development, which aims to achieve low noise. In order to compensate the leakage current and improve gain, a dual-stage CSA has been utilized. A 4th-order high-linearity shaper is proposed to obtain a Semi-Gaussian wave and further decrease the noise induced by the leakage current. The ASIC has been designed and fabricated in a standard commercial 2P4M 0.35 μm CMOS process. Die area of one channel is about 1190 μm×147 μm. The input charge range is 1.8 fC. The peaking time can be adjusted from 1 μs to 3 μs. Measured ENC is about 55e- (rms) at input capacitor of 0 F. The gain is 271 mV/fC at the peaking time of 1 μs.

  5. High-contrast X-ray micro-tomography of low attenuation samples using large area hybrid semiconductor pixel detector array of 10 × 5 Timepix chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, J.; Krejci, F.; Bartl, B.; Dudak, J.; Kuba, J.; Kvacek, J.; Zemlicka, J.

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide excellent imaging properties such as unlimited dynamic range, high spatial resolution, high frame rate and energy sensitivity. Nevertheless, a limitation in the use of these devices for imaging has been the small sensitive area of a few square centimetres. In the field of microtomography we make use of a large area pixel detector assembled from 50 Timepix edgeless chips providing fully sensitive area of 14.3 × 7.15 cm2. We have successfully demonstrated that the enlargement of the sensitive area enables high-quality tomographic measurements of whole objects with high geometrical magnification without any significant degradation in resulting reconstructions related to the chip tilling and edgeless sensor technology properties. The technique of micro-tomography with the newly developed large area detector is applied for samples formed by low attenuation, low contrast materials such a seed from Phacelia tanacetifolia, a charcoalified wood sample and a beeswax seal sample.

  6. Advanced power analysis methodology targeted to the optimization of a digital pixel readout chip design and its critical serial powering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, S.; Orfanelli, S.; Karagounis, M.; Hemperek, T.; Christiansen, J.; Placidi, P.

    2017-02-01

    A dedicated power analysis methodology, based on modern digital design tools and integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework developed within RD53 collaboration, is being used to guide vital choices for the design and optimization of the next generation ATLAS and CMS pixel chips and their critical serial powering circuit (shunt-LDO). Power consumption is studied at different stages of the design flow under different operating conditions. Significant effort is put into extensive investigations of dynamic power variations in relation with the decoupling seen by the powering network. Shunt-LDO simulations are also reported to prove the reliability at the system level.

  7. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Katja

    2017-02-01

    The CMS experiment features a pixel detector with three barrel layers and two discs per side, corresponding to an active silicon area of 1 m2. The detector delivered high-quality data during LHC Run 1. However, the CMS pixel detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1 ·1034cm-2s-1 . It is expected that the instantaneous luminosity will increase and reach twice the design value before Long Shutdown 3, scheduled for 2023. Under such conditions, the present readout chip would suffer from data loss due to buffer overflow, leading to significant inefficiencies of up to 16%. The CMS collaboration is presently constructing a new pixel detector to replace the present device during the winter shutdown 2016/2017. The design of this new detector will be outlined, the construction status summarized and the performance described.

  8. BESIII ETOF upgrade readout electronics commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Zhuang; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wu, Zhi; Heng, Yue-Kun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Ping; Ji, Xiao-Lu; Li, Cheng; Sun, Wei-Jia; Wang, Si-Yu; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    It is proposed to upgrade the endcap time-of-flight (ETOF) of the Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) with a multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), aiming at an overall time resolution of about 80 ps. After completing the entire readout electronics system, some experiments, such as heat radiation, radiation hardness and large-current beam tests, have been carried out to confirm the reliability and stability of the readout electronics. An on-detector test of the readout electronics has also been performed with the beam at the BEPCII E3 line. The test results indicate that the readout electronics system fulfills its design requirements. Supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences (1G201331231172010)

  9. Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The pixel tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is the innermost sub-detector, located close to the collision point, and is used for reconstruction of the tracks and vertices of charged particles. The present pixel detector was designed to work efficiently with the maximum instantaneous luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm‑2 s‑1. In 2017 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to deliver a peak luminosity reaching up to 2 × 1034 cm‑2 s‑1, increasing the mean number of primary vertices to 50. Due to the radiation damage and significant data losses due to high occupancy in the readout chip of the pixel detector, the present system must be replaced by a new one in an extended end-of-year shutdown during winter 2016/2017 in order to maintain the excellent tracking and other physics performances. The main new features of the upgraded pixel detector are a ultra-light mechanical design with four barrel layers and three end-cap disks, digital readout chip with higher rate capability and a new cooling system. In this document, we discuss the motivations for the upgrade, the design, and technological choices made, the status of the construction of the new detector and the future plans for the installation and commissioning.

  10. Some studies of avalanche photodiode readout of fast scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Holl, I.; Lorenz, E.; Natkaniez, S.; Renker, D.; Schmelz, C. |; Schwartz, B.

    1995-08-01

    Photomultipliers (PMs) are the classical readout element for scintillation detectors in high energy particle physics, nuclear physics, medical physics, industrial radiation monitors etc. Here, large area avalanche photodiodes with high performance, narrow operation tolerances and high reliability have recently become available. The authors report on some tests of their performance in the readout of fast scintillators.

  11. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, Darryl D.; Elliott, John P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins porjecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array.

  12. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, D.D.; Elliott, J.P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins projecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array. 5 figs.

  13. A PET detector module with monolithic crystal, single end readout, SiPM array and high depth-of-interaction resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, R.; Yang, C.

    2016-08-01

    Depth of interaction (DOI) technology can improve the spatial resolution of nuclear medicine imaging system which uses scintillation detectors such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this paper, a prototype detector module with DOI capability is established to make complementary characteristic tests on an existing method and to improve the experimental performance using the same method. We investigate the gamma incident surface and incident angle effects on the positioning method with our model in simulations and evaluate its 3-D positioning results in experiment. It shows that the positioning results are highly affected by the gamma incident surface and incident angle. The 137Cs energy resolution is 12.1% and the DOI resolution is estimated at 2.26 mm in average by our detector in experiment.

  14. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  15. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  16. Prototype AEGIS: A Pixel-Array Readout Circuit for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barber, H. Bradford; Augustine, F. L.; Furenlid, L.; Ingram, C. M.; Grim, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor detector arrays made of CdTe/CdZnTe are expected to be the main components of future high-performance, clinical nuclear medicine imaging systems. Such systems will require small pixel-pitch and much larger numbers of pixels than are available in current semiconductor-detector cameras. We describe the motivation for developing a new readout integrated circuit, AEGIS, for use in hybrid semiconductor detector arrays, that may help spur the development of future cameras. A basic design for AEGIS is presented together with results of an HSPICE™ simulation of the performance of its unit cell. AEGIS will have a shaper-amplifier unit cell and neighbor pixel readout. Other features include the use of a single input power line with other biases generated on-board, a control register that allows digital control of all thresholds and chip configurations and an output approach that is compatible with list-mode data acquisition. An 8×8 prototype version of AEGIS is currently under development; the full AEGIS will be a 64×64 array with 300 μm pitch. PMID:26345126

  17. 4 pi direction sensitive gamma imager with RENA-3 readout ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yanfeng; Li, Wen; Yanoff, Brian; Gordon, Jeffrey; Castleberry, Donald

    2007-09-01

    A 4π direction-sensitive gamma imager is presented, using a 1 cm 3 3D CZT detector from Yinnel Tech and the RENA-3 readout ASIC from NOVA R&D. The measured readout system electronic noise is around 4-5 keV FWHM for all anode channels. The measured timing resolution between two channels within a single ASIC is around 10 ns and the resolution is 30 ns between two separate ASIC chips. After 3D material non-uniformity and charge trapping corrections, the measured single-pixel-event energy resolution is around 1% for Cs-137 at 662 keV using a 1 cm 3 CZT detector from Yinnel Tech with an 8 x 8 anode pixel array at 1.15 mm pitch. The energy resolution for two pixel events is 2.9%. A 10 uCi Cs-137 point source was moved around the detector to test the image reconstruction algorithms and demonstrate the source direction detection capability. Accurate source locations were reconstructed with around 200 two-pixel events within a total energy window +/-10 keV around the 662 keV full energy peak. The angular resolution FWHM at four of the five positions tested was between 0.05-0.07 steradians.

  18. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Popov, Vladimir E.

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  19. Focal plane infrared readout circuit with automatic background suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Shaw, Timothy J. (Inventor); Wrigley, Chris J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A circuit for reading out a signal from an infrared detector includes a current-mode background-signal subtracting circuit having a current memory which can be enabled to sample and store a dark level signal from the infrared detector during a calibration phase. The signal stored by the current memory is subtracted from a signal received from the infrared detector during an imaging phase. The circuit also includes a buffered direct injection input circuit and a differential voltage readout section. By performing most of the background signal estimation and subtraction in a current mode, a low gain can be provided by the buffered direct injection input circuit to keep the gain of the background signal relatively small, while a higher gain is provided by the differential voltage readout circuit. An array of such readout circuits can be used in an imager having an array of infrared detectors. The readout circuits can provide a high effective handling capacity.

  20. The Zero-Degree Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Howell, Leonard W.; Kouznetsov, Evgueni

    2006-01-01

    We will report on a detector system used for accelerator measurement of nuclear fragmentation cross sections. This system consists of two detector planes, each carrying a ring of 8 detectors. Each detector has 64 pads. These two detector planes are arranged facing each other so that the matching detector pads on each plane form a two element charged particle telescope. Each of these telescopes is capable of determining the elemental identity of nuclear fragments passing through it. The system is used to measure light fragment production in the presence of heavier fragments. We will present a detailed discussion of the 64-pad detector design, the substrate design. The front-end electronics used to read out the signals is based on a custom VLSI chip developed for the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter experiment which has been flown successfully twice in Antarctica. Each of these chips has 16 channels and each channel consists of a charge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaping amplifier and a track-and-hold circuit. The track-and-hold circuits are connected via a multiplexer to an output line driver. This allows the held signals to be presented, one-by-one via a common data line to a analog-to-digital converter. Because the output line driver can be placed in a high input impedance state when not in use, it is possible to daisy-change many chips on the same common data line. The front-end electronics and data readout scheme will be discussed in detail. The Zero Degree Detector has been used in several accelerator experiments conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory as well as at the HIMAC accelerator in Japan. We will show examples of data taken at these accelerator runs to demonstrate how the system works.

  1. Optical links for detector instrumentation: on-detector multi-wavelength silicon photonic transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnick, D.; Skwierawski, P.; Schneider, M.; Eisenblätter, L.; Weber, M.

    2017-03-01

    We report on our recent progress in developing an optical transmission system based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to enhance the read-out data rate of future particle detectors. The design and experimental results of the prototype of a monolithically integrated multi-wavelength transmitter are presented as well as temperature studies of electro-optic modulators. Furthermore, we show the successful permanent coupling of optical fibers to photonic chips, which is an essential step towards packaging of the opto-electronic components.

  2. Development and evaluation of a practical method to measure the Depth of Interaction function for a single side readout PET detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringhini, G.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Stojkovic, A.; Paganoni, M.; Auffray, E.

    2016-11-01

    In small animal and organ dedicated PET scanners, the knowledge of depth of interaction (DOI) of the gamma ray along the main axis of the scintillator is a fundamental information in order to avoid parallax error and to achieve high performances in terms of spatial resolution. Recently we developed a new method to obtain the DOI function for a single side readout PET module, recirculating the scintillation light in the matrix by means of a mirror placed on top of the module. In a complete PET scanner, periodical DOI calibrations have to be performed to prevent time dependent miscalibrations and performance degradations. The current DOI calibration relies on a coincidence system between the module and an external scintillator to provide a priori the DOI information and it is clearly not feasible in a real system without unpractical disassemblies of the scanner. In this paper we develop instead a fast and precise calibration method based on uniform irradiation of the scintillators. Three irradiation modalities are presented, in particular one where the source is placed on top of the module, one with the source placed on one side of the module and one that exploits the internal radioactivity of the scintillator. The three different procedures are evaluated and the calibration method is validated by comparing the information provided by the coincidence setup.

  3. The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hauptman, John

    2006-10-27

    I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification.

  4. Amplitude distributions of dark counts and photon counts in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with the HEMT readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaygorsky, J.; Słysz, W.; Shouten, R.; Dorenbos, S.; Reiger, E.; Zwiller, V.; Sobolewski, Roman

    2017-01-01

    We present a new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) by integrating them with a low-noise cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor and a high-load resistor. The integrated sensors are designed to get a better understanding of the origin of dark counts triggered by the detector, as our scheme allows us to distinguish the origin of dark pulses from the actual photon pulses in SSPDs. The presented approach is based on a statistical analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded trains of the SSPD photoresponse transients. It also enables to obtain information on energy of the incident photons, as well as demonstrates some photon-number-resolving capability of meander-type SSPDs.

  5. A prototype of radiation imaging detector using silicon strip sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Hyun, H. J.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, H. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Kyeryung; Kim, Y. I.; Park, H.; Son, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a strip sensor with a single photon counting data acquisition system based on VA1 readout chips to study the feasibility of a silicon microstrip detector for medical application. The sensor is an AC-coupled single-sided microstrip sensor and the active area of the sensor is 32.0 mm×32.0 mm with a thickness of 380 μm. The sensor has 64 readout strips with a pitch of 500 μm. The sensor was biased at 45 V and the experiment was performed at room temperature. Two silicon strip sensors were mounted perpendicularly one another to get two-dimensional position information with a 5 mm space gap. Two low noise analog ASICs, VA1 chips, were used for signal readout of the strip sensor. The assembly of sensors and readout electronics was housed in an Al light-tight box. A CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal and a 2-in. photomultiplier tube were used to trigger signal events. The data acquisition system was based on a 64 MHz FADC and control softwares for the PC-Linux platform. Imaging tests were performed by using a lead phantom with a 90Sr radioactive source and a 45 MeV proton beam at Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science in Seoul, respectively. Results of the S/ N ratio measurement and phantom images are presented.

  6. Integrated readout electronics for the PbWO{sub 4} photon spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Alley, G.T.; Awes, T.

    1995-12-31

    The PbWO{sub 4} calorimeter of the ALICE detector is designed to detect the prompt photons to provide direct information on the partonic, early phases of the heavy-ion interaction. The goal is to measure all the photons over a large enough solid angle to reconstruct both {pi}{sup 0}`s and {eta}`s. A proposed readout system for the ALICE PbWO{sub 4} photon spectrometer is presented. In one proposed implementation, light will be detected from each end of the crystals by PIN photodiodes and this signal will be amplified by charge-sensitive amplifiers. The 73,728 channel readout system will accept the preamplifier signals and deliver digitized data to the data collection modules. A readout board will consist of 8-channel, custom front-end chips which form energy and timing signals, and board-level control and communication circuits. Many of the subcircuits proposed for this spectrometer have been developed for use in other applications. The performance of these circuits is shown.

  7. Development of a Detector Control System for the ATLAS Pixel detector in the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, N.; Karagounis, M.; Kersten, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2016-11-01

    The upgrade of the LHC to the HL-LHC requires a new ITk detector. The innermost part of this new tracker is a pixel detector. The University of Wuppertal is developing a new DCS to monitor and control this new pixel detector. The current concept envisions three parallel paths of the DCS. The first path, called security path, is hardwired and provides an interlock system to guarantee the safety of the detector and human beings. The second path is a control path. This path is used to supervise the entire detector. The control path has its own communication lines independent from the regular data readout for reliable operation. The third path is for diagnostics and provides information on demand. It is merged with the regular data readout and provides the highest granularity and most detailed information. To reduce the material budget, a serial power scheme is the baseline for the pixel modules. A new ASIC used in the control path is in development at Wuppertal for this serial power chain. A prototype exists already and a proof of principle was demonstrated. Development and research is ongoing to guarantee the correct operation of the new ASIC in the harsh environment of the HL-LHC. The concept for the new DCS will be presented in this paper. A focus will be made on the development of the DCS chip, used for monitoring and control of pixel modules in a serial power chain.

  8. Fast Multiplexed Readout of Xmon Qubits Part I: Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sank, Daniel; Jeffrey, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Kelly, J.; Chen, Y.; Roushan, P.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Realization of a surface code quantum computer requires fast scalable qubit readout. Previous systems have shown accurate readout in continuous wave mode. This neglects the transient response time which is crucial for the operation of the surface code and for measurement accuracy in the presence of finite qubit T1. We have designed a readout system, based on an integrated band pass filter, which achieves very fast transient response while maintaining long qubit T1. Our design uses separate readout resonators for each qubit. This allows individual qubit readout with frequency multiplexing while preventing correlated measurement errors. By connecting each resonator to a single filter the device requires zero additional on chip area and no extra control lines. We present design considerations, theory of operation, and physical layout of the device. With high fidelity gates this system forms the final element needed for a surface code cell.

  9. Test-beam results of a silicon pixel detector with Time-over-Threshold read-out having ultra-precise time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglieri Rinella, G.; Cortina Gil, E.; Fiorini, M.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Albarran, M. E. Martin; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Tiuraniem, S.; Velghe, B.

    2015-12-01

    A time-tagging hybrid silicon pixel detector developed for beam tracking in the NA62 experiment has been tested in a dedicated test-beam at CERN with 10 GeV/c hadrons. Measurements include time resolution, detection efficiency and charge sharing between pixels, as well as effects due to bias voltage variations. A time resolution of less than 150 ps has been measured with a 200 μm thick silicon sensor, using an on-pixel amplifier-discriminator and an end-of-column DLL-based time-to-digital converter.

  10. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Cruciani, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-01

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm2 are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm2 silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σE = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  11. Development of low mass optical readout for high data bandwidth systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.; DeLurgio, P.; Drake, G.; Fernando, W.; Lopez, D.; Salvachua-Ferrando, B.; Stanek, R.

    2010-10-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory the High Energy Physics and Center for Nanoscale Materials Divisions are working on a project to develop a new generation of detector readout using high speed data transfer optical devices that can be implemented in particle physics or for long distances. Free-space communications devices offer the potential for reductions in mass, power, and cost of data paths for on-board trigger and readout of tracking detectors. The project involves three areas of study: light modulation, the design and construction of MEMS optical devices, and the control systems for maintaining precise laser light positioning. We demonstrate an optical link in air over one meter and with low error rate at 1 Gb/s. We demonstrate steering of an optical beam over a meter with a precision of 5 micrometers utilizing a MEMS mirror and reflected light in the feedback loop. For early testing, light modulation tests with a fiber link using Li-Niobate modulators and a data generation and error checking chip are done at 1 Gb/s. Many companies and universities are developing modulators which will be incorporated into CMOS chips. We are doing radiation hardness studies for one of the materials involved. Laser light will need to be steered on to and kept centered on the detector in the presence of thermal or mechanical motion, etc. This steering will be controlled by MEMS mirrors. Polycrystalline and crystalline silicon based mirror designs are being studied. We review the current status of the project and outline plans for the future development of the system.

  12. Study of indium and solder bumps for the BTeV Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Simon W Kwan et al.

    2003-11-05

    The pixel detector proposed for the BTeV experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron will use bump-bonding technology based on either Indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have studied the strength of the bumps by visual inspection of the bumps bonding silicon sensor modules to dummy chips made out of glass. The studies were done before and after thermal cycles, exposed to intense irradiation, and with the assemblies glued to a graphite substrate. We have also carried out studies on effects of temperature changes on both types of bump bonds by observing the responses of single-chip pixel detectors to an Sr{sup 90} source. We report the results from these studies and our plan to measure the effect of cryogenic temperatures on the bumps.

  13. General concept of high-performance amperometric detector for microfluidic (bio)analytical chips.

    PubMed

    Amatore, Christian; Da Mota, Nicolas; Sella, Catherine; Thouin, Laurent

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we established theoretically that amperometric detector arrays consisting of a series of parallel band microelectrodes placed on the wall of a microchannel may offer excellent analytical detection performances when implemented onto microfluidic (bio)analytical devices after the separative stages. In combination with the concentration imprinting strategies reported in a previous work, these exceptional performances may be extended to nonelectroactive or poorly diffusing analytes. Using an array of electrodes instead of a large single band allows the whole core of the channel to be probed though keeping an excellent time resolution. Thus, analytes with close retention times may be characterized individually with a resolution which eventually outpaces that of spectroscopic detections. Such important advantages may be obtained only through a complete understanding of the complex coupling between diffusional and convective transport of molecules in microfluidic solutions near an electrochemical detector. As a consequence, the conditions underlying the theoretical data presented in this work have been selected after optimizing procedures rooted on previous theoretical analyses. They will be fully disclosed in a series of further works that will also establish the experimental performances of such amperometric detectors and validate the present concept.

  14. Measurement of parameters of scintillating bars with wavelength-shifting fibres and silicon photomultiplier readout for the SHiP Muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, W.; Blondel, A.; Calcaterra, A.; Jacobsson, R.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurochka, V.; Lanfranchi, G.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Montanari, A.; Noah Messomo, E.; Saputi, A.; Tosi, N.

    2017-03-01

    The light yield and the time resolution of different types of 3 m long scintillating bars instrumented with wavelength shifting fibres and read out by different models of silicon photomultipliers have been measured at a test beam at the T9 area at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The results obtained with different configurations are presented. A time resolution better than 800 ps, constant along the bar length within 20%, and a light yield of 0~ 14 (70) photoelectrons are obtained for bars 3 m long, ~ 4.5 (5) cm wide and 2 (0.7) cm thick. These results nicely match the requirements for the Muon Detector of the SHiP experiment.

  15. High Speed Buffered Injection Readout for Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, B.; Shaw, T.; Eastwood, M.; Green, R. O.

    1998-01-01

    Design and operation of a high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for readout of infrared detectors with large detector capacitance is presented. Image lag related to abrupt transitions of signal currents is analyzed.

  16. Design and Testing of Kinetic Inductance Detectors Made of Titanium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, P.; Leduc, H. G.; Yates, S. J. C.; Lankwarden, Y. J. Y.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2012-05-01

    To use highly resistive material for Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID), new designs have to be done, in part due to the impedance match needed between the KID chip and the whole 50 ohms readout circuit. Chips from two new hybrid designs, with an aluminum throughline coupled to titanium nitride microresonators, have been measured and compared to a TiN only chip. In the hybrid chips, parasitic temperature dependent box resonances are absent. The dark KID properties have been measured in a large set of resonators. A surprisingly long lifetime, up to 5.6 ms is observed in a few KIDs. For the other more reproducible devices, the mean electrical Noise Equivalent Power is 5.4 10-19 W.Hz1/2.

  17. Characterization of high resolution CMOS monolithic active pixel detector in SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. I.; Arai, Y.; Glab, S.; Idzik, M.; Kapusta, P.; Miyoshi, T.; Takeda, A.; Turala, M.

    2015-05-01

    Novel CMOS monolithic pixel detectors designed at KEK and fabricated at Lapis Semiconductor in 0.2 μm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology are presented. A thin layer of silicon oxide separates high and low resistivity silicon layers, allowing for optimization of design of detector and readout parts. Shallow wells buried under the oxide in the detector part screen the entire pixel electronics from electrical field applied to the detector. Several integration type SOI pixel detectors have been developed with pixel sizes 8-20 μm. The general features of 14 × 14 μm2 detectors designed on different wafers (CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p) were measured and compared. The detector performance was studied under irradiation with visible and infra-red laser, and also X-ray ionizing source. Using X-rays from an Am-241 source the noise of readout electronics was measured at different working conditions, showing the ENC in the range of 88-120 e-. The pixel current was calculated from average DC pedestal shift while varying the pixel integration time. The operation of the detector was studied under partial and full depletion conditions. The effects of temperature and detector bias voltage on noise and leakage current were studied. Characteristics of an ADC integrated in the front-end chip are also presented.

  18. Detecting noise with shot noise using on-chip photon detector.

    PubMed

    Jompol, Y; Roulleau, P; Jullien, T; Roche, B; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Glattli, D C

    2015-01-27

    The high-frequency radiation emitted by a quantum conductor presents a rising interest in quantum physics and condensed matter. However, its detection with microwave circuits is challenging. Here, we propose to use the photon-assisted shot noise for on-chip radiation detection. It is based on the low-frequency current noise generated by the partitioning of photon-excited electrons and holes, which are scattered inside the conductor. For a given electromagnetic coupling to the radiation, the photon-assisted shot noise response is shown to be independent on the nature and geometry of the quantum conductor used for the detection, up to a Fano factor, characterizing the type of scattering mechanism. Ordered in temperature or frequency range, from few tens of mK or GHz to several hundred of K or THz respectively, a wide variety of conductors can be used like Quantum Point Contacts (this work), diffusive metallic or semi-conducting films, graphene, carbon nanotubes and even molecule, opening new experimental opportunities in quantum physics.

  19. Uncooled digital IRFPA-family with 17μm pixel-pitch based on amorphous silicon with massively parallel Sigma-Delta-ADC readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, D.; Hochschulz, F.; Würfel, D.; Lerch, R.; Geruschke, T.; Wall, S.; Heß, J.; Wang, Q.; Vogt, H.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an advanced digital IRFPA-family developed by Fraunhofer IMS. The IRFPA-family compromises the two different optical resolutions VGA (640 ×480 pixel) and QVGA (320 × 240 pixel) by using a pin-compatible detector board. The uncooled IRFPAs are designed for thermal imaging applications in the LWIR (8 .. 14μm) range with a full-frame frequency of 30 Hz and a high thermal sensitivity. The microbolometer with a pixel-pitch of 17μm consists of amorphous silicon as the sensing layer. By scaling and optimizing our previous microbolometer technology with a pixel-pitch of 25μm we enhance the thermal sensitivity of the microbolometer. The microbolometers are read out by a novel readout architecture which utilizes massively parallel on-chip Sigma-Delta-ADCs. This results in a direct digital conversion of the resistance change of the microbolometer induced by incident infrared radiation. To reduce production costs a chip-scale-package is used as vacuum package. This vacuum package consists of an IR-transparent window with an antireflection coating and a soldering frame which is fixed by a wafer-to-chip process directly on top of the CMOS-substrate. The chip-scale-package is placed onto a detector board by a chip-on-board technique. The IRFPAs are completely fabricated at Fraunhofer IMS on 8" CMOS wafers with an additional surface micromachining process. In this paper the architecture of the readout electronics, the packaging, and the electro-optical performance characterization are presented.

  20. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.; Colas, P.; Consiglio, L.; Dafni, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Deaconu, C.; De Lellis, G.; Descombes, T.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Druitt, G.; Eggleston, R.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Galán, J.; Galati, G.; García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Gentile, V.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giomataris, Y.; Guerrero, N.; Guillaudin, O.; Guler, A. M.; Harton, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Hedges, M. T.; Iguaz, F. J.; Ikeda, T.; Jaegle, I.; Kadyk, J. A.; Katsuragawa, T.; Komura, S.; Kubo, H.; Kuge, K.; Lamblin, J.; Lauria, A.; Lee, E. R.; Lewis, P.; Leyton, M.; Loomba, D.; Lopez, J. P.; Luzón, G.; Mayet, F.; Mirallas, H.; Miuchi, K.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Monacelli, P.; Monroe, J.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, H.; Ochi, A.; Papevangelou, T.; Parker, J. D.; Phan, N. S.; Pupilli, F.; Richer, J. P.; Riffard, Q.; Rosa, G.; Santos, D.; Sawano, T.; Sekiya, H.; Seong, I. S.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Sugiyama, A.; Taishaku, R.; Takada, A.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Thorpe, T. N.; Tioukov, V.; Tomita, H.; Umemoto, A.; Vahsen, S. E.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshimoto, M.; Zayas, E.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  2. The electronics readout and the DAQ system of the DRAGO Anger Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gola, A.; Fiorini, C.; Porro, M.; Zanchi, M.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the DRAGO project, supported by Italian INFN, is the development of a high-resolution, compact γ-ray imager, based on the Anger Camera principle. In this configuration, the light generated by a unique scintillator is read by an array of 77 Silicon Drift Detectors. In order to locate the position of interaction of the photon inside the scintillator, it is necessary to make an amplification and filtering of the detector signals followed by a processing of the acquired data. The electronics readout and processing system can be divided in two separate parts: the analog front end and the DAQ board. The analog front end is composed of 80 readout channels divided in 10 CMOS chips, produced in the 0.35 μm AMS technology, each one processing 8 channels. Each analog channel of the circuit includes a low-noise preamplifier, a sixth-order semigaussian shaping amplifier with four selectable peaking times from 1.8 μs up to 6 μs, a peak stretcher and a baseline holder. The energy resolution measured using a single channel of the chip with a Silicon Drift Detector Droplet (SD 3) is of 128 eV FWHM at 6 keV with the detector cooled at -20 °C. The 8 analog channels of the chip are multiplexed to a single analog output and fed to the acquisition system. For each γ event, this system performs the A/D conversion of all the signals of the array and sends them to a host PC, where the position reconstruction algorithm is executed. The DAQ board contains 10 ADCs, each one dedicated to a single ASIC of the analog section and having a resolution of 13 bit (ENOB). The burst conversion rate of the 10 ADCs together is 50 Ms/s resulting in a dead time of about 2 μs/event. The converted data are stored in a FIFO memory, for buffering, and then are transferred to the host PC via a USB 2.0 interface, which allows an event rate of more than 40k events/s for the whole Anger Camera, compatible with the application.

  3. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to the surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer, a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as early performance tests using cosmic rays and beam data will be presented.

  4. SPICE evaluation of the S/N ratio for Si microstrip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Nardi, F.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.

    1999-10-01

    SPICE simulations of ac-coupled single-sided Si microstrip detectors connected to the PreShape 32 read-out chip have been performed in order to determine the geometrical characteristics (i.e., the strip pitch p and width w) which maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. All of the resistive and capacitive elements of the detector have been determined as a function of the w/p ratio by considering experimental and simulated data available in literature. The SPICE model the authors propose in this work takes into account all the main noise sources in the detector and read-out electronics. The minimum ionizing particle current signal shape has been introduced in the simulations. Two read-out configurations (every strip or every second strip) have been investigated for 6.4- and 12.8-cm-long detectors. The equivalent noise charge as determined by the simulations has been compared with analytical calculations, in order to determine the limits and the corrections to a simplified analytical noise model. Finally, general guidelines for the detector design have been proposed, based on the simulation results.

  5. Narrow bandgap semiconducting silicides: Intrinsic infrared detectors on a silicon chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of CrSi2, LaSi2, and ReSi2 were grown on silicon substrates. Normal incidence optical transmittance and reflectance measurements were made as a function of wavelength. It was demonstrated that LaSi2 is a metallic conductor, but that CrSi2 and ReSi2 are, in fact, narrow bandgap semiconductors. For CrSi2, the complex index of refraction was determined by computer analysis of the optical data. From the imaginary part, the optical absorption coefficient was determined as a function of photon energy. It was shown that CrSi2 possesses an indirect forbidden energy gap of slightly less than 0.31 eV, and yet it is a very strong absorber of light above the absorption edge. On the other hand, the ReSi2 films exhibit an absorption edge in the vicinity of 0.2 eV. Measurements of the thermal activation energy of resistivity for ReSi2 indicate a bandgap of 0.18 eV. It is concluded that the semiconducting silicides merit further investigation for development as new silicon-compatible infrared detector materials.

  6. Characterization of the CDMS Ionization Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Arran

    2007-10-01

    Current cosmological models predict that a large portion of the total mass of the universe, about eighty percent, consists of putative dark matter. Theory predicts this dark matter may be in the form of particles constantly passing through the Earth. A class of these particles may interact with ordinary matter, earning the name weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) aims to directly detect the existence of WIMPs. CDMS has designed ZIP (Z-dependent Ionization & Phonon) detectors which measure phonon production and ionization of an interaction, making it possible to determine the interacting particle. The low-energy threshold of the ZIP detectors is determined by the signal-to-noise ratio of the ionization readout. A characterization of the signal-to-noise ratio of the ionization readout, along with possible modifications for improved sensitivity will be presented.

  7. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lösel, Philipp; Atlas Muon Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Resistive strip Micromegas detectors have been tested extensively as small detectors of about 10×10 cm2 in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100 kHz/cm2 and above. Tracking resolution well below 100 μm has been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3 m2 in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1 m2 detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 μm was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRMF) using two 4×2.2 m2 large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. A segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6 mm×93 mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by eleven 93 mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips. This allows for mapping of homogeneity in pulse height and efficiency, determination of signal propagation along the 1 m long anode strips and calibration of the position of the anode strips.

  8. Silicon pixel detector prototyping in SOI CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Roma; Bugiel, Szymon; Idzik, Marek; Kapusta, Piotr; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2016-12-01

    The Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS is one of the most advanced and promising technology for monolithic pixel detectors design. The insulator layer that is implemented inside the silicon crystal allows to integrate sensors matrix and readout electronic on a single wafer. Moreover, the separation of electronic and substrate increases also the SOI circuits performance. The parasitic capacitances to substrate are significantly reduced, so the electronic systems are faster and consume much less power. The authors of this presentation are the members of international SOIPIX collaboration, that is developing SOI pixel detectors in 200 nm Lapis Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage SOI CMOS. This work shows a set of advantages of SOI technology and presents possibilities for pixel detector design SOI CMOS. In particular, the preliminary results of a Cracow chip are presented.

  9. FASTBUS readout system for the CDF DAQ upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.; Areti, H.; Black, D.

    1993-11-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) at the Collider Detector at Fermilab is currently being upgraded to handle a minimum of 100 events/sec for an aggregate bandwidth that is at least 25 Mbytes/sec. The DAQ System is based on a commercial switching network that has interfaces to VME bus. The modules that readout the front end crates (FASTBUS and RABBIT) have to deliver the data to the VME bus based host adapters of the switch. This paper describes a readout system that has the required bandwidth while keeping the experiment dead time due to the readout to a minimum.

  10. Narrow bandgap semiconducting silicides: Intrinsic infrared detectors on a silicon chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Work done during the final report period is presented. The main technical objective was to achieve epitaxial growth on silicon of two semiconducting silicides, ReSi2 and CrSi2. ReSi2 thin films were grown on (001) silicon wafers by vacuum evaporation of rhenium onto hot substrates in ultrahigh vacuum. The preferred epitaxial relationship was found to be ReSi2(100)/Si(001) with ReSi2(010) parallel to Si(110). The lattice matching consists of a common unit mesh of 120 A(sup 2) area, and a mismatch of 1.8 percent. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of rotation twins corresponding to two distinct but equivalent azimuthal orientations of the common unit mesh. MeV He(+) backscattering spectrometry revealed a minimum channeling yield of 2 percent for an approximately 1,500 A thick film grown at 650 C. Although the lateral dimension of the twins is on the order of 100 A, there is a very high degree of alignment between the ReSi2(100) and the Si(001) planes. Highly oriented films of CrSi2 were grown on (111) silicon substrates, with the matching crystallographic faces being CrSi2(001)/Si(111). The reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of the films consist of sharp streaks, symmetrically arranged. The predominant azimuthal orientation of the films was determined to be CrSi2(210) parallel to Si(110). This highly desirable heteroepitaxial relationship has been obtained previously by others; it may be described with a common unit mesh of 51 A(sup 2) and mismatch of 0.3 percent. RHEED also revealed the presence of limited film regions of a competing azimuthal orientation, CrSi2(110) parallel to Si(110). A channeling effect for MeV He(+) ions was not found for this material. Potential commercial applications of this research may be found in silicon-integrated infrared detector arrays. Optical characterizations showed that semiconducting ReSi2 is a strong absorber of infrared radiation, with the adsorption constant increasing above 2 x

  11. 3D sensitive voxel detector of ionizing radiation based on Timepix device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, P.; Jakubek, J.; Vykydal, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors are evolving towards higher segmentation geometries from 0D (single pad) over 1D (strip) to 2D (pixel) detectors. Each step has brought up substantial expansion in the field of applications. The next logical step in this evolution is to design a 3D, i.e. voxel detector. The voxel detector can be constructed from 2D volume element detectors arranged in layers forming a 3D matrix of sensitive elements — voxels. Such detectors can effectively record tracks of energetic particles. By proper analysis of these tracks it is possible to determine the type, direction and energy of the primary particle. One of the prominent applications of such device is in the localization and identification of gamma and neutron sources in the environment. It can be also used for emission and transmission radiography in many fields where standard imagers are currently utilized. The qualitative properties of current imagers such as: spatial resolution, efficiency, directional sensitivity, energy sensitivity and selectivity (background suppression) can be improved. The first prototype of a voxel detector was built using a number of Timepix devices. Timepix is hybrid semiconductor detector consisting of a segmented semiconductor sensor bump-bonded to a readout chip. Each sensor contains 256x256 square pixels of 55 μm size. The voxel detector prototype was successfully tested to prove the concept functionality. The detector has a modular architecture with a daisy chain connection of the individual detector layers. This permits easy rearrangement due to its modularity, while keeping a single readout system for a variable number of detector layers. A limitation of this approach is the relatively large inter-layer distance (4 mm) compared to the pixel thickness (0.3 mm). Therefore the next step in the design is to decrease the space between the 2D detectors.

  12. Megapixel digital InSb detector for midwave infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkedy, Lior; Markovitz, Tuvy; Calahorra, Zipi; Hirsh, Itay; Shtrichman, Itay

    2011-06-01

    Since the late 1990s Semiconductor devices (SCDs) has developed and manufactured a variety of InSb two-dimensional (2D) focal plane arrays (FPAs) that were implemented in many infrared (IR) systems and applications. SCD routinely manufactures both analog and digital InSb FPAs with array formats of 320×256, 480×384, and 640×512 elements, and pitch size in the range 15 to 30 μm. These FPAs are available in many packaging configurations, including fully integrated detector-Dewar-cooler-assembly, with either closed-cycle Stirling or open-loop Joule-Thomson coolers. In response to a need for very high resolution midwave IR (MWIR) detectors and systems, SCD has developed a large format 2D InSb detector with 1280×1024 elements and pixel size of 15 μm. A digital readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is coupled by flip-chip bonding to the megapixel InSb array. The ROIC is fabricated in CMOS 0.18-μm technology, that enables the small pixel circuitry and relatively low power generation at the focal plane. The digital ROIC has an analog to digital (A/D) converter per-channel and allows for full frame readout at a rate of 100 Hz. Such on-chip A/D conversion eliminates the need for several A/D converters with fairly high power consumption at the system level. The digital readout, together with the InSb detector technology, lead to a wide linear dynamic range and low residual nonuniformity, which is stable over a long period of time following a nonuniformity correction procedure. A special Dewar was designed to withstand harsh environmental conditions while minimizing the contribution to the heat load of the detector. The Dewar together with the low power ROIC, enable a megapixel detector with overall low size, weight, and power with respect to comparable large format detectors. A variety of applications with this detector make use of different cold shields with different f-number and spectral filters. In this paper we present actual performance characteristics of the

  13. Characterization of Pixelated Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Detectors for Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Sharma, Dharma; Ramsey, Brian; Seller, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Comparisons of charge sharing and charge loss measurements between two pixelated Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors are discussed. These properties along with the detector geometry help to define the limiting energy resolution and spatial resolution of the detector in question. The first detector consists of a 1-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe sputtered with a 4x4 array of pixels with pixel pitch of 750 microns (inter-pixel gap is 100 microns). Signal readout is via discrete ultra-low-noise preamplifiers, one for each of the 16 pixels. The second detector consists of a 2-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe sputtered with a 16x16 array of pixels with a pixel pitch of 300 microns (inter-pixel gap is 50 microns). This crystal is bonded to a custom-built readout chip (ASIC) providing all front-end electronics to each of the 256 independent pixels. These detectors act as precursors to that which will be used at the focal plane of the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. With a telescope focal length of 6 meters, the detector needs to have a spatial resolution of around 200 microns in order to take full advantage of the HERO angular resolution. We discuss to what degree charge sharing will degrade energy resolution but will improve our spatial resolution through position interpolation.

  14. CMOS buried multi-junction (BMJ) detector for bio-chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guo-Neng; Courcier, Thierry; Mamdy, Bastien; Feruglio, Sylvain; Charette, Paul G.; Aimez, Vincent; Romain, Olivier; Pittet, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The CMOS buried multi-junction (BMJ) detector with multiple outputs has distinct spectral responses that may be exploited for applications such as bio-chemical analysis. We tackle here dark current issue by identifying different components inside the detector structure. The identification methods are based on the observation of bias and temperature dependence, as well as measurements of test detector chip integrating different design variations. Surface thermal generation may become predominant when the detector size shrinks, thus causing dark current degradation. To prevent this effect, we propose a low-sized detector structure with passivation of all its surrounding Si/SiO2 interface areas. Also for the detector readout, we present a multi-channel charge-amplifier architecture with noise analysis. Effects of noise coming from amplifiers and related to the coupled detector's dynamic conductances are illuminated. To pick up weak signals, synchronous detection can be implemented. A BDJ (Buried Double Junction) detector chip designed with a switched-phase architectural approach gives a minimum detectable signal of 15μlx@555nm or 1μlx@555nm at 27°C or - 10°C, for an integration time of 3s or 45s respectively.

  15. Development of the protocol of the interface of data exchange with the GBTX chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkin, O. V.; Normanov, D. D.; Ivanov, P. Ya

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the interface of data exchange with the GBTX chip for the CBM experiment is considered. The interface generates a data package, consisting of the digital codes of signal amplitude, signal superposition in peak detector, signal arrival time and channel number, wherein the event has occurred, all these codes being generated by the readout blocks of IC. The created data package is coded according to the 8b/10b format for transferring to the GBTX chip. The packages register of controlling data (warnings on error and desynchronization) are generated for a correct exchange (correspondence) under the GBTX protocol. The adjustment of the quantity of channels, generating data packages and being connected to the GBTX chip, is possible. The interface has been designed according to the 180 nm CMOS technology of UMC.

  16. Characterization of CdTe sensors with Schottky contacts coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors for X-ray science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Tate, M. W.; Shanks, K. S.; Philipp, H. T.; Weiss, J. T.; Purohit, P.; Chamberlain, D.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Gruner, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we present characterizations of CdTe sensors hybridized with two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods < 150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128 × 128 pixel array with (150 μm)2 pixels.

  17. Noiseless imaging detector for adaptive optics with kHz frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John V.; McPhate, Jason; Mikulec, Bettina; Tremsin, Anton; Clark, Allan; Siegmund, Oswald

    2004-10-01

    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation AO wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused MCP read out by four multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ("Medipix2") with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 512 x 512 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting) and can be read out at 1kHz frame rates. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 nanoseconds. When used in a Shack-Hartman style wavefront sensor, it should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest. A three year development effort for this detector technology has just been funded as part of the first Adaptive Optics Development Program managed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

  18. Measurements of Ultra-Fast single photon counting chip with energy window and 75 μm pixel pitch with Si and CdTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Kasinski, K.; Koziol, A.; Krzyzanowska, A.; Kmon, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.

    2017-03-01

    Single photon counting pixel detectors become increasingly popular in various 2-D X-ray imaging techniques and scientific experiments mainly in solid state physics, material science and medicine. This paper presents architecture and measurement results of the UFXC32k chip designed in a CMOS 130 nm process. The chip consists of about 50 million transistors and has an area of 9.64 mm × 20.15 mm. The core of the IC is a matrix of 128 × 256 pixels of 75 μm pitch. Each pixel contains a CSA, a shaper with tunable gain, two discriminators with correction circuits and two 14-bit ripple counters operating in a normal mode (with energy window), a long counter mode (one 28-bit counter) and a zero-dead time mode. Gain and noise performance were verified with X-ray radiation and with the chip connected to Si (320 μm thick) and CdTe (750 μ m thick) sensors.

  19. First results of the front-end ASIC for the strip detector of the PANDA MVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagli, T.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Calvo, D.; Di Pietro, V.; Lai, A.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Wheadon, R.; Zambanini, A.

    2017-03-01

    PANDA is a key experiment of the future FAIR facility and the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) is the innermost part of its tracking system. PASTA (PAnda STrip ASIC) is the readout chip for the strip part of the MVD. The chip is designed to provide high resolution timestamp and charge information with the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. Its architecture is based on Time to Digital Converters with analog interpolators, with a time bin width of 50 ps. The chip implements Single Event Upset (SEU) protection techniques for its digital parts. A first full-size prototype with 64 channels was produced in a commercial 110 nm CMOS technology and the first characterizations of the prototype were performed.

  20. First fabrication of full 3D-detectors at SINTEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Thor-Erik; Kok, Angela; Hansen, Trond A.; Lietaer, Nicolas; Mielnik, Michal; Storås, Preben; Da'Via, Cinzia; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Parker, Sherwood

    2009-03-01

    3D-detectors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire substrates have drawn great interests for high energy physics and medical imaging applications. Since its introduction by C. Kenney et al in 1995, many laboratories have begun research on different 3D-detector structures to simplify and industrialise the fabrication process. SINTEF MiNaLab joined the 3D collaboration in 2006 and started the first 3D fabrication run in 2007. This is the first step in an effort to fabricate affordable 3D-detectors in small to medium size production volumes. The first run was fully completed in February 2008 and preliminary results are promising. Good p-n junction characteristics have been shown on selected devices at the chip level with a leakage current of less than 0.5 nA per pixel. Thus SINTEF is the second laboratory in the world after the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility that has succeeded in demonstrating full 3D-detectors with active edge. A full 3D-stacked detector system were formed by bump-bonding the detectors to the ATLAS readout electronics, and successful particle hit maps using an Am-241 source were recorded. Most modules, however, showed largely increased leakage currents after assembly, which is due to the active edge and p-spray acting as part of the total chip pn-junction and not as a depletion stop. This paper describes the first fabrication and the encountered processing issues. The preliminary measurements on both the individual detector chips and the integrated 3D-stacked modules are discussed. A new lot has now been started on p-type wafers, which offers a more robust configuration with the active edge acting as depletion stop instead of part of the pn-junction.

  1. Fine Grained Silicon-Tungsten Calorimetry for a Linear Collider Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.; Frey, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Graf, N.; Haller, G.; Milgrome, O.; Radeka, V.; /Brookhaven

    2006-02-08

    A fine grained silicon-tungsten calorimeter is ideal for use as the electromagnetic calorimeter in a linear collider detector optimized for particle-flow reconstruction. We are designing a calorimeter that is based on readout chips which are bump bonded to the silicon wafers that serve as the active medium in the calorimeter. By using integrated electronics we plan to demonstrate that fine granularity can be achieved at a reasonable price. Our design minimizes the gap between tungsten layers leading to a small Moliere radius, an important figure of merit for particle-flow detectors. Tests of the silicon detectors to be used in a test beam prototype as well as timing measurements based on similar silicon detectors are discussed.

  2. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment, structured in a lantern shape, consists of four layers of ladders, fabricated from two to five silicon sensors. The APV25 readout ASIC chips are mounted on one side of the ladder to minimize the signal path for reducing the capacitive noise; signals from the sensor backside are transmitted to the chip by bent flexible fan-out circuits. The ladder is assembled using several dedicated jigs. Sensor motion on the jig is minimized by vacuum chucking. The gluing procedure provides such a rigid foundation that later leads to the desired wire bonding performance. The full ladder with electrically functional sensors is consistently completed with a fully developed assembly procedure, and its sensor offsets from the design values are found to be less than 200 μm. The potential functionality of the ladder is also demonstrated by the radioactive source test.

  3. Low-noise low-power readout electronics circuit development in standard CMOS technology for 4 K applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merken, Patrick; Souverijns, Tim; Putzeys, Jan; Creten, Ybe; Van Hoof, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the framework of the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) project IMEC designed the Cold Readout Electronics (CRE) for the Ge:Ga far-infrared detector array. Key specifications for this circuit were high linearity, low power consumption and low noise at an operating temperature of 4.2K. We have implemented this circuit in a standard CMOS technology which guarantees high yield and uniformity, and design portability. A drawback of this approach is the anomalous behavior of CMOS transistors at temperatures below 30-40K. These cryogenic phenomena disturb the normal functionality of commonly used circuits. We were able to overcome these problems and developed a library of digital and analog building blocks based on the modeling of cryogenic behavior, and on adapted design and layout techniques. We will present the design of the 18 channel CRE circuit, its interface with the Ge:Ga sensor, and its electrical performance. We will show how the library that was developed for PACS served as a baseline for the designs used in the Darwin-far-infrared detector array, where a cryogenic 180 channel, 30μm pitch, Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) for flip-chip integration was developed. Other designs and topologies for low noise and low power applications will be equally presented.

  4. The Phase1 CMS Pixel detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavolaro, V. R.

    2016-12-01

    The pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be replaced in an extended end-of-year shutdown during winter 2016/2017 with an upgraded one able to cope with peak instantaneous luminosities beyond the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. Under the conditions expected in the coming years, which will see an increase of a factor two in instantaneous luminosity, the present system would experience a dynamic inefficiency caused mainly by data losses due to buffer overflows. The Phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector, described in this paper, will operate at full efficiency at an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2 s-1 and beyond, thanks to a new readout chip. The new detector will feature one additional tracking point both in the barrel and in the forward regions, while reducing the material budget as a result of a new CO2 cooling system and optimised layout of the services. In this paper, the design and the technological choices of the Phase I detector will be reviewed and the status of the construction of the detector and the performance of its components will be discussed.

  5. A bonding study toward the quality assurance of Belle-II silicon vertex detector modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K. H.; Jeon, H. B.; Park, H.; Uozumi, S.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaia, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-09-01

    A silicon vertex detector (SVD) for the Belle-II experiment comprises four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), assembled in a ladder-like structure. Each ladder module of the outermost SVD layer has four rectangular and one trapezoidal DSSDs supported by two carbon-fiber ribs. In order to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio and minimize material budget, a novel chip-on-sensor "Origami" method has been employed for the three rectangular sensors that are sandwiched between the backward rectangular and forward (slanted) trapezoidal sensors. This paper describes the bonding procedures developed for making electrical connections between sensors and signal fan-out flex circuits (i.e., pitch adapters), and between pitch adapters and readout chips as well as the results in terms of the achieved bonding quality and pull force.

  6. Improved Space Object Observation Techniques Using CMOS Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Hinze, A.; Schlatter, P.; Silha, J.; Peltonen, J.; Santti, T.; Flohrer, T.

    2013-08-01

    CMOS-sensors, or in general Active Pixel Sensors (APS), are rapidly replacing CCDs in the consumer camera market. Due to significant technological advances during the past years these devices start to compete with CCDs also for demanding scientific imaging applications, in particular in the astronomy community. CMOS detectors offer a series of inherent advantages compared to CCDs, due to the structure of their basic pixel cells, which each contain their own amplifier and readout electronics. The most prominent advantages for space object observations are the extremely fast and flexible readout capabilities, feasibility for electronic shuttering and precise epoch registration, and the potential to perform image processing operations on-chip and in real-time. Presently applied and proposed optical observation strategies for space debris surveys and space surveillance applications had to be analyzed. The major design drivers were identified and potential benefits from using available and future CMOS sensors were assessed. The major challenges and design drivers for ground-based and space-based optical observation strategies have been analyzed. CMOS detector characteristics were critically evaluated and compared with the established CCD technology, especially with respect to the above mentioned observations. Similarly, the desirable on-chip processing functionalities which would further enhance the object detection and image segmentation were identified. Finally, the characteristics of a particular CMOS sensor available at the Zimmerwald observatory were analyzed by performing laboratory test measurements.

  7. A real-time spectrum acquisition system design based on quantum dots-quantum well detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Guo, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the structure characteristics of quantum dots-quantum well photodetector with response wavelength range from 400 nm to 1000 nm. It has the characteristics of high sensitivity, low dark current and the high conductance gain. According to the properties of the quantum dots-quantum well photodetectors, we designed a new type of capacitive transimpedence amplifier (CTIA) readout circuit structure with the advantages of adjustable gain, wide bandwidth and high driving ability. We have implemented the chip packaging between CTIA-CDS structure readout circuit and quantum dots detector and tested the readout response characteristics. According to the timing signals requirements of our readout circuit, we designed a real-time spectral data acquisition system based on FPGA and ARM. Parallel processing mode of programmable devices makes the system has high sensitivity and high transmission rate. In addition, we realized blind pixel compensation and smoothing filter algorithm processing to the real time spectrum data by using C++. Through the fluorescence spectrum measurement of carbon quantum dots and the signal acquisition system and computer software system to realize the collection of the spectrum signal processing and analysis, we verified the excellent characteristics of detector. It meets the design requirements of quantum dot spectrum acquisition system with the characteristics of short integration time, real-time and portability.

  8. Development and performance of a gamma-ray imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, J. L.; Hernanz, M.; Álvarez, J. M.; La Torre, M.; Álvarez, L.; Karelin, D.; Lozano, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Ullán, M.; Cabruja, E.; Martínez, R.; Chmeissani, M.; Puigdengoles, C.

    2012-09-01

    In the last few years we have been working on feasibility studies of future instruments in the gamma-ray range, from several keV up to a few MeV. The innovative concept of focusing gamma-ray telescopes in this energy range, should allow reaching unprecedented sensitivities and angular resolution, thanks to the decoupling of collecting area and detector volume. High sensitivities are essential to perform detailed studies of cosmic explosions and cosmic accelerators, e.g., Supernovae, Classical Novae, Supernova Remnants (SNRs), Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), Pulsars, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In order to achieve the needed performance, a gamma-ray imaging detector with mm spatial resolution and large enough efficiency is required. In order to fulfill the combined requirement of high detection efficiency with good spatial and energy resolution, an initial prototype of a gamma-ray imaging detector based on CdTe pixel detectors is being developed. It consists of a stack of several layers of CdTe detectors with increasing thickness, in order to enhance the gamma-ray absorption in the Compton regime. A CdTe module detector lies in a 11 x 11 pixel detector with a pixel pitch of 1mm attached to the readout chip. Each pixel is bump bonded to a fan-out board made of alumina (Al2O3) substrate and routed to the corresponding input channel of the readout ASIC to measure pixel position and pulse height for each incident gamma-ray photon. We will report the main features of the gamma-ray imaging detector performance such as the energy resolution for a set of radiation sources at different operating temperatures.

  9. Design and performance of the new cathode readout proportional chambers in LASS

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, G.; Aston, D.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1980-10-01

    The design and construction of a new proportional chamber system for the LASS spectrometer are discussed. This system consists of planar and cylindrical chambers employing anode wire and cathode strip readout techniques. The good timing characteristics of anode readout combine with the excellent spatial resolution of cathode readout to provide powerful and compact detectors. Preliminary resolution data are presented along with operating characteristics of the various devices.

  10. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, L.; Bloch, I.; Edwards, S.; Friedrich, C.; Gregor, I.-M.; Jones, T.; Lacker, H.; Pyatt, S.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Wilson, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive used initially between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). However, this glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for possible use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, thermal conduction and shear strength. Samples were thermally cycled, radiation hardness and corrosion resistance were also determined. These investigations led to the exclusion of three UV cure glues as well as the glue pad. Three UV cure glues were found to be possible better alternatives than silver loaded glue. Results from electrical tests of first prototype modules constructed using these glues are presented.

  11. SPIDR: a read-out system for Medipix3 & Timepix3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, Henk; van der Heijden, B.; Muñoz, J. I.; Kulis, S.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.

    2015-12-01

    The realisation of the Timepix3 chip opened the way for new opportunities in research areas such as particle tracking with both semiconductor sensors and gas filled time projection chambers, electron microscopy and imaging mass spectrometry. To exploit the full capability of the Timepix3 chip, Nikhef developed a compact read-out system, called SPIDR that can deal with the high data output of 80 Mhits per chip per second. The main read-out board connects to both 10 Gb Ethernet and 1 Gb Ethernet devices. The latter obviously at a reduced rate. The main board connects to individual chip-carrier boards via a standard FMC connector. The system is designed such that support for other readout chips is foreseen via reprogramming of the FPGA. Besides the Timepix3 chip also the Medipix3 chip is currently supported. Both the main board and the chip carrier boards are cooled, via the housing and a fan to obtain a stable temperature of around 40 ± 0.2 °C for the Timepix3 chips. We will present the system and the results obtained with the LHCb beam telescope at CERN and proton radiography data obtained with a time projection chamber based on GEM technology.

  12. ``The Read-Out Driver'' ROD card for the Insertable B-layer (IBL) detector of the ATLAS experiment: commissioning and upgrade studies for the Pixel Layers 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Chen, S. P.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Gabrielli, A.; Hauck, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Lama, L.; Morettini, P.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2014-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC foresees the insertion of an innermost silicon layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL). The IBL read-out system will be equipped with new electronics. The Readout-Driver card (ROD) is a VME board devoted to data processing, configuration and control. A pre-production batch has been delivered for testing with instrumented slices of the overall acquisition chain, aiming to finalize strategies for system commissioning. In this paper system setups and results will be described, as well as preliminary studies on changes needed to adopt the ROD for the ATLAS Pixel Layers 1 and 2.

  13. Readout electronics for LGAD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, O.; Franch, N.; Canals, J.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Vilà, A.; Diéguez, A.; Carulla, M.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ASIC fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology from AMS with the very front-end electronics used to readout LGAD sensors is presented as well as its experimental results. The front-end has the typical architecture for Si-strip readout, i.e., preamplification stage with a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) followed by a CR-RC shaper. Both amplifiers are based on a folded cascode structure with a PMOS input transistor and the shaper only uses passive elements for the feedback stage. The CSA has programmable gain and a configurable input stage in order to adapt to the different input capacitance of the LGAD sensors (pixelated, short and long strips) and to the different input signal (depending on the gain of the LGAD). The fabricated prototype has an area of 0.865 mm × 0.965 mm and includes the biasing circuit for the CSA and the shaper, 4 analog channels (CSA+shaper) and programmable charge injection circuits included for testing purposes. Noise and power analysis performed during simulation fixed the size of the input transistor to W/L = 860 μm/0.2 μm. The shaping time is fixed by design at 1 us and, in this ASIC version, the feedback elements of the shaper are passive, which means that the area of the shaper can be reduced using active elements in future versions. Finally, the different gains of the CSA have been selected to maintain an ENC below 400 electrons for a detector capacitor of 20 pF, with a power consumption of 150 μ W per channel.

  14. High accuracy gaseous x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.C.

    1983-11-01

    An outline is given of the design and operation of high accuracy position-sensitive x-ray detectors suitable for experiments using synchrotron radiation. They are based on the gas proportional detector, with position readout using a delay line; a detailed examination is made of factors which limit spatial resolution. Individual wire readout may be used for extremely high counting rates.

  15. Design of a ballistic fluxon qubit readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna; Fedorov, Arkady; Shnirman, Alexander; Il'ichev, Evgeny; Schön, Gerd

    2007-11-01

    A detailed design is given for a flux qubit readout using ballistic fluxons. In this scheme, fluxons propagate through an underdamped Josephson transmission line (JTL) coupled to the qubit, whose state affects the fluxon propagation time. For strong qubit-JTL coupling, and far from the symmetry point, a qubit can be measured with fidelity greater than 99% and measurement time of 4 ns. The readout circuit requires additional rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) interface circuitry to launch and receive the delayed flux solitons. The parameters of this driver and receiver have been optimized to produce low fluxon speed at launch and impedance matching at the receiver. The delayed solitons are compared to a reference line using a detector with time resolution of better than 16 ps. Both the JTL and RSFQ interface were designed for the Nb 30 A cm-2 process developed at VTT, Finland, with postdeposition of the Al qubit at IPHT, Germany.

  16. Direct charge sharing observation in single-photon-counting pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, G.; Maiorino, M.; Blanchot, G.; Chmeissani, M.; Garcia, J.; Lozano, M.; Martinez, R.; Puigdengoles, C.; Ullan, M.

    2007-04-01

    In photon-counting imaging devices, charge sharing can limit the detector spatial resolution and contrast, as multiple counts can be induced in adjacent pixels as a result of the spread of the charge cloud generated from a single X-ray photon of high energy in the detector bulk. Although debated for a long time, the full impact of charge sharing has not been completely assessed. In this work, the importance of charge sharing in pixellated CdTe and silicon detectors is studied by exposing imaging devices to different low activity sources. These devices are made of Si and CdTe pixel detector bump-bonded to Medipix2 single-photon-counting chips with a 55 μm pixel pitch. We will show how charge sharing affects the spatial detector resolution depending on incident particle type (alpha, beta and gamma), detector bias voltage and read-out chip threshold. This study will give an insight on the impact on the design and operation of pixel detectors coupled to photon-counting devices for imaging applications.

  17. A radiation-tolerant electronic readout system for portal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östling, J.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.

    2004-06-01

    A new electronic portal imaging device, EPID, is under development at the Karolinska Institutet and the Royal Institute of Technology. Due to considerable demands on radiation tolerance in the radiotherapy environment, a dedicated electronic readout system has been designed. The most interesting aspect of the readout system is that it allows to read out ˜1000 pixels in parallel, with all electronics placed outside the radiation beam—making the detector more radiation resistant. In this work we are presenting the function of a small prototype (6×100 pixels) of the electronic readout board that has been tested. Tests were made with continuous X-rays (10-60 keV) and with α particles. The results show that, without using an optimised gas mixture and with an early prototype only, the electronic readout system still works very well.

  18. Construction of the Phase I Forward Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neylon, Ashton; Bartek, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. The original CMS detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1 . The LHC has already started to exceed this luminosity causing the CMS pixel detector to see a dynamic inefficiency caused by data losses due to buffer overflows. For this reason the CMS Collaboration has been building an upgraded pixel detector which is scheduled for installation during an extended year end technical stop during winter 2016/2017. The phase 1 upgrade includes four barrel layers and three forward disks, providing robust tracking and vertexing for LHC luminosities up to 2 x 1034 cm-2s-1 . The upgrade incorporates new readout chips, front-end electronics, DC-DC powering, and dual-phase CO2 cooling to achieve performance exceeding that of the present detector with a lower material budget. This contribution will review the design and technology choices of the Phase I detector and discuss the status of the detector. The challenges and difficulties encountered during the construction will also be presented, as well as the lessons learned for future upgrades. National Science Foundation.

  19. A portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE with dual top-bottom capacitive coupled contactless conductivity detector in replaceable cell cartridge.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Kambiz; Ying, Jasmine Yuen Shu; Hauser, Peter C; de Rooij, Nico F; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    A new design for a compact portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE and dual capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (dC(4) D) is described. The instrument is battery powered with total dimension of 14 × 25 × 8 cm(3) (w × l × h), and weighs 1.2 kg. The device consists of a front electrophoresis compartment which has the chip holder and the chip, the associated high-voltage electrodes for electrophoresis injection and separation and the detector. The detection cell is integrated into the device housing with an exchangeable plug-and-play cartridge format. The design of the dC(4) D cell has been optimized for maximum performance. The cartridge includes the top-bottom excitation and pick up electrodes incorporated into the cell and connected to push-pull self-latching pins that are insulated with plastic. The metal frame of the cartridge is grounded completely to eliminate electronic interferences. The cartridge is designed to clamp a thin fluidic chip at the detection point. The cartridges are replaceable whereby different cartridges have different detection electrode configurations to employ according to the sensitivity or resolution needed in the specific analytical application. The second compartment consists of all the electronics, data acquisition card, high-voltage modules of up to ±5 kV both polarity, and batteries for 10 h of operation. The improved detector performance is illustrated by the electrophoresis analysis of six cations (NH4 (+) , K(+) , Ca(2+) , Na(+) , Mg(2+) , Li(+) ) with a detection limit of approximately 5 μM and the analysis of the anions (Br(-) , Cl(-) , NO2 (-) , NO3 (-) , SO4 (2-) , F(-) ) with a detection limit of about 3 μM. Analytical capabilities of the instrument for food and medical applications were evaluated by simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic acids in fruit juice and inorganic cations and anions in rabbit blood samples and human urine samples are also demonstrated.

  20. A 130 nm ASIC prototype for the NA62 Gigatracker readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Marchetto, F.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.

    2011-09-01

    One of the most challenging detectors of the NA62 experiment is the silicon tracker, called Gigatracker. It consists of three hybrid silicon pixel stations, each one covering an area of 27 mm×60 mm. While the maximum pixel size is fairly large, 300 μm×300 μm the system has to sustain a very high particle rate, 1.5 MHz/mm 2, which corresponds to 800 MHz for each station. To obtain an efficient tracking with such a high rate the required track timing resolution is 150 ps (rms). Therefore the front-end ASIC should provide for each pixel a 200 ps time measurement capability, thus leading to the requirement of time walk compensation and very compact TDCs. Moreover, Single Event Upset protection has to be implemented in order to protect the digital circuitry. An ASIC prototype has been realized in CMOS 130 nm technology, containing three pixel columns. The chip performs the time walk compensation by a Constant Fraction Discriminator circuit, while the time measurement is performed by a Time to Amplitude Converter based TDC, both of them implemented on each pixel cell. The End of Column circuit containing only digital logic is responsible for the data readout from the pixel cell. The whole chip works with a system clock of 160 MHz and the digital logic is SEU protected by the use of Hamming codes. The detailed architecture of the ASIC prototype and test results are presented.

  1. Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin; Kwarciany, Rick; Miao, Chyi-Chiang; Partridge, Richard; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Wang, Jigang; /Brown U. /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.

  2. Interconnect and bonding techniques for pixelated X-ray and gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Veale, M. C.; Duarte, D. D.; Bell, S. J.; Wilson, M. D.; Lipp, J. D.; Seller, P.

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade, the Detector Development Group at the Technology Department of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), U.K., established a variety of fabrication and bonding techniques to build pixelated X-ray and γ-ray detector systems such as the spectroscopic X-ray imaging detector HEXITEC [1]. The fabrication and bonding of such devices comprises a range of processes including material surface preparation, photolithography, stencil printing, flip-chip and wire bonding of detectors to application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC). This paper presents interconnect and bonding techniques used in the fabrication chain for pixelated detectors assembled at STFC. For this purpose, detector dies (~ 20× 20 mm2) of high quality, single crystal semiconductors, such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) are cut to the required thickness (up to 5mm). The die surfaces are lapped and polished to a mirror-finish and then individually processed by electroless gold deposition combined with photolithography to form 74× 74 arrays of 200 μ m × 200 μ m pixels with 250 μ m pitch. Owing to a lack of availability of CZT wafers, lithography is commonly carried out on individual detector dies which represents a significant technical challenge as the edge of the pixel array and the surrounding guard band lies close to the physical edge of the crystal. Further, such detector dies are flip-chip bonded to readout ASIC using low-temperature curing silver-loaded epoxy so that the stress between the bonded detector die and the ASIC is minimized. In addition, this reduces crystalline modifications of the detector die that occur at temperature greater than 150\\r{ }C and have adverse effects on the detector performance. To allow smaller pitch detectors to be bonded, STFC has also developed a compression cold-weld indium bump bonding technique utilising bumps formed by a photolithographic lift-off technique.

  3. Front-end electronics for DEPFET pixel detectors at SuperBelle (BELLE II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Hans; Depfet Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    This article gives an overview of the front-end electronics development for the DEPFET pixel vertex detector at the Super KEK-B experiment (BELLE II). The planned upgrade of the KEK-B factory will lead to a peak luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2 s-1. This increase in luminosity (×50 compared to the existing experiment) will make high demands on the performance of the vertex detector. The proposed two layer vertex detector consists of 'all-silicon' modules: the read-out and control ASICs will be bump bonded on the rigid edges of the DEPFET substrate whereas in the region of the active pixel matrix the substrate will be thinned down to 50 μm. The front-end electronics is subdivided in three different ASIC types: one chip will provide up to 20 V output swing for the control voltages of the DEPFET matrix (SWITCHER), the current signals are being digitized by a multichannel ADC chip (DCD) and the processing of the digital data and module control functionality is implemented in a data handling chip (DHP). An overview of the module concept and the status of the developments including results of current prototype chips will be given.

  4. Improvement of Event Synchronization in the ATLAS Pixel Readout Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Logan; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As the LHC continues in Run2, the B-Layer still uses the Atlas-SiROD Pixel readout system initially developed for Run 1. The higher luminosity occurring during Run 2 results in higher occupancy causing increased desynchronization errors in the Pixel Readout. In order to ensure lasting operation of the B-Layer until it is replaced after Run 3, changes were made to the firmware and software to add debug capabilities to identify when the errors are crossing certain thresholds and change the internal control logic accordingly. These features also allow for better debugging of the Event Counter Reset addition to the firmware. This talk will focus on the features implemented and measurements to demonstrate the positive impact on the Pixel DAQ system. A Pixel front-end chip emulator which can be used for readout system development beyond Run 3 will also be discussed. Presenter is Logan Adams, University of Washington.

  5. STiC — a mixed mode silicon photomultiplier readout ASIC for time-of-flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harion, T.; Briggl, K.; Chen, H.; Fischer, P.; Gil, A.; Kiworra, V.; Ritzert, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Shen, W.; Stankova, V.

    2014-02-01

    STiC is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the readout of silicon photomultipliers. The chip has been designed to provide a very high timing resolution for time-of-flight applications in medical imaging and particle physics. It is dedicated in particular to the EndoToFPET-US project, which is developing an endoscopic PET detector combined with ultrasound imaging for early pancreas and prostate cancer detection. This PET system aims to provide a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a time-of-flight resolution of 200 ps FWHM. The analog frontend of STiC can use either a differential or single ended connection to the SiPM. The time and energy information of the detector signal is encoded into two time stamps. A special linearized time-over-threshold method is used to obtain a linear relation between the signal charge and the measured signal width, improving the energy resolution. The trigger signals are digitized by an integrated TDC module with a resolution of less than 20 ps. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transfered over a 160 MBit/s serial link using 8/10 bit encoding. First coincidence measurements using a 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm3 LYSO crystal and a S10362-33-50 Hamamtsu MPPC show a coincidence time resolution of less than 285 ps. We present details on the chip design as well as first characterization measurements.

  6. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Sherwood I.

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  7. Development of an ASIC for Si/CdTe detectors in a radioactive substance visualizing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harayama, Atsushi; Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Sato, Goro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2014-11-01

    We report on the recent development of a 64-channel analog front-end ASIC for a new gamma-ray imaging system designed to visualize radioactive substances. The imaging system employs a novel Compton camera which consists of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors. The ASIC is intended for the readout of pixel/pad detectors utilizing Si/CdTe as detector materials, and covers a dynamic range up to 1.4 MeV. The readout chip consists of 64 identical signal channels and was implemented with X-FAB 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Each channel contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, a pole-zero cancellation circuit, a low-pass filter, a comparator, and a sample-hold circuit, along with a Wilkinson-type A-to-D converter. We observed an equivalent noise charge of 500 e- and a noise slope of 5 e-/pF (r.m.s.) with a power consumption of 2.1 mW per channel. The chip works well when connected to Schottky CdTe diodes, and delivers spectra with good energy resolution, such as 12 keV (FWHM) at 662 keV and 24 keV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV.

  8. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade Development

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu,Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard; Szelezniak, Michal; Sun, Xiangming

    2008-01-28

    We report on the development and prototyping efforts undertaken with the goal of producing a micro-vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL. We present the basic detector requirements and show a sensor development path, conceptual mechanical design candidates and readout architecture. Prototyping and beam test results with current generation MimoSTAR-2 sensors and a readout system featuring FPGA based on-the-fly hit finding and data sparsification are also presented.

  9. Scintillation counter with WLS fiber readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukin, D. A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Serednyakov, S. I.

    1997-02-01

    The parameters of a cylindrical scintillation counter of 126 mm in diameter and 370 mm in length with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout are presented. The fibers are glued into machined grooves along the scintillator. Light from both ends of the WLS fibers is transmitted to separate photomultipliers by 1 m long clear optical fibers. The average total signal, collected from both sides of the counter is equivalent to 8 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle. The described cylindrical scintillation counter is a part of inner system of collider detector SND.

  10. ARTICLES: Optoelectronic readout with an injection laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, Vu V.; Eliseev, P. G.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Mikaelyan, T. T.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Sokolov, S. N.

    1982-09-01

    An investigation was made of the possibility of utilizing an injection heterolaser in optical devices for data retrieval. An injection laser was used both as a source and detector of its own radiation reflected from a data carrier (optoelectronic readout). The influence of the reflected radiation was due to quasisteady modulation of the Q factor of the resonator, which was accompanied by modulation of the voltage across the laser diode. A study was made of the influence of the pump current on the useful signal and it was found that this current was related to the differential resistance of the laser diode.

  11. Design of integrated and networked multidimensional grating digital readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li; Xu, Hui; Xiu, Guoyi

    2008-10-01

    The grating digital readout is the key measurement feedback device of the numerical control system and base of the equipment manufacturing industry. With the development of the complex machining, the multi-axis linkage is a new direction of the numerical control system, which needs the multidimensional measurement. Based on all digital grating moiré fringe subdivision theory, the paper introduces the design of integrated and networked multidimensional grating digital readout with an embedded system-on-chip ZA7V that is a complete field configurable system-on-chip with a 32- bit ARM7TDMI processor core, a programmable logic matrix, a robust memory subsystem and a high-performance dedicated internal bus. Networked functions include Ethernet interface, CAN bus interface, USB bus interface and GPRS interface so that the grating digital readout can access the device network, workshop network, intranet network and Internet. The simulation results and experimental data prove that the realization of the integrated and networked multidimensional grating digital readout. It will be widely used in the numerical control system and machining center.

  12. Polycrystalline Mercuric Iodide Films on CMOS Readout Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hartsough, Neal E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Nygard, Einar; Malakhov, Nail; Barber, William C.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan

    2009-01-01

    We have created high-resolution x-ray imaging devices using polycrystalline mercuric iodide (HgI2) films grown directly onto CMOS readout chips using a thermal vapor transport process. Images from prototype 400×400 pixel HgI2-coated CMOS readout chips are presented, where the pixel grid is 30 μm × 30 μm. The devices exhibited sensitivity of 6.2 μC/Rcm2 with corresponding dark current of ∼2.7 nA/cm2, and a 80 μm FWHM planar image response to a 50 μm slit aperture. X-ray CT images demonstrate a point spread function sufficient to obtain a 50 μm spatial resolution in reconstructed CT images at a substantially reduced dose compared to phosphor-coated readouts. The use of CMOS technology allows for small pixels (30 μm), fast readout speeds (8 fps for a 3200×3200 pixel array), and future design flexibility due to the use of well-developed fabrication processes. PMID:20161098

  13. Development of a pixel sensor with fine space-time resolution based on SOI technology for the ILC vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shun; Togawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Ryoji; Mori, Teppei; Yamada, Miho; Arai, Yasuo; Tsuboyama, Toru; Hanagaki, Kazunori

    2017-02-01

    We have been developing a new monolithic pixel sensor with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector system. The SOI monolithic pixel detector is realized using standard CMOS circuits fabricated on a fully depleted sensor layer. The new SOI sensor SOFIST can store both the position and timing information of charged particles in each 20×20 μm2 pixel. The position resolution is further improved by the position weighted with the charges spread to multiple pixels. The pixel also records the hit timing with an embedded time-stamp circuit. The sensor chip has column-parallel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuits and zero-suppression logic for high-speed data readout. We are designing and evaluating some prototype sensor chips for optimizing and minimizing the pixel circuit.

  14. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The advance of new detector technologies combined with enhanced fabrication methods has resulted in an increase in development of large format arrays. The next generation of scientific instruments will utilize detectors containing hundreds to thousands of elements providing a more efficient means to conduct large area sky surveys. Some notable detectors include a 32x32 x-ray microcalorimeter for Constellation-X, an infrared bolometer called SAFIRE to fly on the airborne observatory SOFIA, and the sub-millimeter bolometer SCUBA-2 to be deployed at the JCMT which will use more than 10,000 elements for two colors, each color using four 32x40 arrays. Of these detectors, SCUBA-2 is farthest along in development and uses indium hybridization to multiplexers for readout of the large number of elements, a technology that will be required to enable the next generation of large format arrays. Our current efforts in working toward large format arrays have produced GISMO, the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter observer. GISMO is a far infrared instrument to be field tested later this year at the IRAM 30 meter telescope in Spain. GISMO utilizes transition edge sensor (TES) technology in an 8x16 filled array format that allows for typical fan-out wiring and wire-bonding to four 1x32 NIST multiplexers. GISMO'S electrical wiring is routed along the tops of 30 micron walls which also serve as the mechanical framework for the array. This architecture works well for the 128 element array, but is approaching the limit for routing the necessary wires along the surface while maintaining a high fill factor. Larger format arrays will benefit greatly from making electrical connections through the wafer to the backside, where they can be hybridized to a read-out substrate tailored to handling the wiring scheme. The next generation array we are developing is a 32x40 element array on a pitch of 1135 microns that conforms to the NIST multiplexer, already developed for the SCUBA-2

  15. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Siwak, N. P.; Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R.; Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K.

    2014-10-06

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  16. Chronopixels: particle detector R&D for the ATLAS phase 2 upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christian; Baker, Keith; Barker, Thomas; Baltay, Charles; Sinev, Nikolai; Brau, Jim; Strom, David; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The pixel detector comprises the innermost part of the ATLAS detector. Its proximity to the interaction point together with its micrometer resolution allow for impact parameter determination and vertex fitting. This proximity however exposes it also to the highest radiation fluences and particle densities. The latter poses a challenge in inferring particle tracks from hit pixels, while the former leads to progressive radiation damage of the pixel detector itself. These problems will worsen after the LHC's third long shutdown in 2025 when it will operate in high luminosity mode at about five times the current instantaneous luminosity. These conditions will require the pixel detector to be replaced by one staffed with pixel modules capable of enduring the harsher radiation environment, and with finer granularity to cope with the increased pileup. Several efforts in the community are on their way to produce such a pixel module. We are presenting here the current status of our R&D on such a pixel module: The Chronopixel for ATLAS phase 2, a fully monolithic active pixel sensor in CMOS technology. Sensing and readout electronics are included in each pixel here. As such it does not require expensive and labor intensive bump-bonding to a separate readout chip, reducing cost and material in the pixel detector. We gratefully acknowledge support by the Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics.

  17. Characterisation of the NA62 GigaTracker end of column readout ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noy, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Fiorini, M.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Martin, E.; Morel, M.; Perktold, L.; Riedler, P.

    2011-01-01

    The architecture and characterisation of the End Of Column demonstrator readout ASIC for the NA62 GigaTracker hybrid pixel detector is presented. This ASIC serves as a proof of principle for a pixel chip with 1800 pixels which must perform time stamping to better than 200 ps (RMS), provide 300 μm pitch position information and operate with a dead-time of 1% or less for 800 MHz-1 GHz beam rate. The demonstrator ASIC comprises a full test column with 45 pixels alongside other test structures. The timewalk correction mechanism employed is measurement of the time-over-threshold, coupled with an off-detector look-up table. The time to digital converter is a delay locked loop with 32 contributing delay cells fed with a 320 MHz to yield a nominal bin size of 97 ps. Recently, P-in-N sensors have been bump-bonded to the ASIC and characterisation of these assemblies has begun.

  18. Point-source reconstruction with a sparse light-sensor array for optical TPC readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, G.; Richards, M.; Bennieston, A. J.; Ramachers, Y. A.

    2011-07-01

    A reconstruction technique for sparse array optical signal readout is introduced and applied to the generic challenge of large-area readout of a large number of point light sources. This challenge finds a prominent example in future, large volume neutrino detector studies based on liquid argon. It is concluded that the sparse array option may be ruled out for reasons of required number of channels when compared to a benchmark derived from charge readout on wire-planes. Smaller-scale detectors, however, could benefit from this technology.

  19. Development of 3D-DDTC pixel detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Darbo, Giovanni; Gemme, Claudia; La Rosa, Alessandro; Pernegger, Heinz; Piemonte, Claudio; Povoli, Marco; Ronchin, Sabina; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2011-04-01

    We report on the development of n-on-p, 3D Double-Side Double Type Column (3D-DDTC) pixel detectors fabricated at FBK-irst (Trento, Italy) and oriented to the ATLAS upgrade. The considered fabrication technology is simpler than that required for full 3D detectors with active edge, but the detector efficiency and radiation hardness critically depend on the columnar electrode overlap and should be carefully evaluated. The first assemblies of these sensors (featuring 2, 3, or 4 columns per pixel) with the ATLAS FEI3 read-out chip have been tested in laboratory. Selected results from the electrical and functional characterization with radioactive sources are discussed here.

  20. AUTHENTIC: a very low-cost infrared detector and camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansi, Mike V.; Brookfield, Martin; Porter, Stephen G.; Edwards, Ivan; Bold, Brendon; Shannon, John; Lambkin, Paul; Mathewson, Alan

    2003-01-01

    An Oxide over Titanium metal resistance bolometer technology developed by NMRC, Ireland) has been transferred to the X-FAB UK CMOS foundry at Plymouth, UK. Prototypes of the bolometers have been manufactured in the X-FAB production facility and tests show performance comparable with the NMRC prototypes. The bolometer design has been integrated with a CMOS read-out chip and the first wafers are currently being packaged for evaluation. The development of a low cost thermal imaging camera using the detector is under way. We present an overview of the detector and camera design, together with preliminary results from the detector test programme. The work is partly funded by the European Union IST programme.

  1. UV CCD detectors for WUVS spectrographs of WSO-UV project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugarov, Andrey; Sachkov, Mikhail; Savanov, Igor; Jaeger, Andreas; Jerram, Paul

    WUVS (WSO-UV Ultra Violet Spectrographs) consists of two high resolution spectrographs (R=50000) covering the Far-UV range of 115-176 nm and the Near-UV range of 174-310 nm, and a long-slit spectrograph (R=1000) covering the wavelength range of 115-305 nm. CCDs for WUVS will be optimized to operate at low level signals. CCD chips with no AR coating for FUV range (<200 nm) and AR coating for NUV range (>200 nm) will be manufactured by e2v company using the enhanced backthinned process. Detectors will operate at the temperature of 173 K with 600 s standard integration time. CCD detectors are optimized for low read-out noise (less than 3e-) and low dark current. The main parameters of WUVS detector subsystems are described.

  2. Common Readout Unit (CRU) - A new readout architecture for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, J.; Khan, S. A.; Mukherjee, S.; Paul, R.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently going for a major upgrade in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of the upcoming high luminosity run, scheduled to start in the year 2021. The high interaction rate and the large event size will result in an experimental data flow of about 1 TB/s from the detectors, which need to be processed before sending to the online computing system and data storage. This processing is done in a dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU), proposed for data aggregation, trigger and timing distribution and control moderation. It act as common interface between sub-detector electronic systems, computing system and trigger processors. The interface links include GBT, TTC-PON and PCIe. GBT (Gigabit transceiver) is used for detector data payload transmission and fixed latency path for trigger distribution between CRU and detector readout electronics. TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control via Passive Optical Network) is employed for time multiplex trigger distribution between CRU and Central Trigger Processor (CTP). PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is the high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard for bulk data transport between CRU boards and processors. In this article, we give an overview of CRU architecture in ALICE, discuss the different interfaces, along with the firmware design and implementation of CRU on the LHCb PCIe40 board.

  3. An Integrated Imaging Detector of Polarization and Spectral Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.; Thompson, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of image detector has been designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The Integrated Dual Imaging Detector (IDID) consists of a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a charge-coupled device (CCD), with signal-analysis circuitry and analog-to-digital converters, all integrated on a silicon chip. It should be capable of 1:10(exp 4) polarization discrimination. The IDID should simplify the design and operation of imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmospheric and solar research. Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved 512 x 1024-pixel imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 6) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout of both images at 10 million pixels per second each; (4) on-chip analog signal processing to produce polarization maps in real time; (5) on-chip 10-bit A/D conversion. When used with a lithium-niobate Fabry-Perot etalon or other color filter that can encode spectral information as polarization, the IDID can collect and analyze simultaneous images at two wavelengths. Precise photometric analysis of molecular or atomic concentrations in the atmosphere is one suggested application. When used in a solar telescope, the IDID will charge the polarization, which can then be converted to maps of the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface.

  4. Spatial distribution of the optogalvanic signal in a microplasma detector for lab-on-a-chip gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, A.; Berglund, M.

    2016-07-01

    Gas sensors are characterized by their sensitivity and selectivity. This is preferably combined with versatility, where the selectivity can be altered, without complex modifications and whiteout losing sensitivity. If aimed at lab-on-a-chip applications, the sensor also must be able to analyze small samples. Today, sensors combining selectivity and versatility for chip-level gas analysis are scarce; however, this paper investigates how miniaturized optogalvanic spectroscopy can fill this gap. By studying the spatial distribution of the optogalvanic signal inside a microplasma, it is shown that the signal is generated in the minuscule gas volume of the sheath surrounding the plasma probe that collects it. Nevertheless, a strong and stable spectroscopic signal can be extracted from the sheath, and the sample concentrations can be calculated using straightforward plasma theory. The minimum detectable absorption and the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of the system are estimated to be less than 1.4  ×  10-9 Hz-0.5 and 2.8  ×  10-9 cm-1 Hz-0.5, respectively, without cavity enhancement. Combined with inherited versatility from absorption spectroscopy and the capability of handling sub-nanogram samples, this makes optogalvanic spectrometry an excellent candidate for future lab-on-a-chip gas analyzers.

  5. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  6. A low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepegoz, Murat; Toprak, Alperen; Akin, Tayfun

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a new, low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs. The readout circuits of the microbolometer detectors contain parallel readout channels whose outputs are driven and multiplexed on large bus capacitances in order to form the output of the readout circuit. High number of opamps used in the readout channel array and large output capacitances that these opamps should drive necessitates the use of high output current capacity structures, which results in large power dissipation. This paper proposes two new methods in order to decrease the power dissipation of the readout circuits for uncooled thermal FPAs. The first method is called the readout channel group concept, where the readout channel array is separated into groups in order to decrease the load capacitance seen by the readout channel output. The second method utilizes a special opamp architecture where the output current driving capacity can be digitally controlled. This method enables efficient use of power by activating the high output current driving capacity only during the output multiplexing. The simulations show that using these methods results in a power dissipation reduction of 80% and 91% for the readout channels optimized for a single output 384x288 FPA operating at 25 fps and for a two-output 640x480 FPA operating at 30 fps, respectively.

  7. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  8. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  9. MIRI/JWST detector characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Stacey N.; Ressler, M. E.; Alberts, Stacey; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Morrison, Jane E.; García-Marín, Macarena; Fox, Ori; Rieke, G. H.; Glasse, Alistair C.; Wright, G. S.; Hines, Dean C.; Bouchet, P.; Dicken, D.

    2016-07-01

    We report on tests of the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) focal plane electronics (FPE) and detectors conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The goals of these tests are to: characterize the performance of readout modes; establish subarray operations; characterize changes to performance when switching between subarrays and/or readout modes; fine tune detector settings to mitigate residual artifacts; optimize anneal effectiveness; and characterize persistence. The tests are part of a continuing effort to support the MIRI pipeline development through better understanding of the detector behavior. An extensive analysis to determine the performance of the readout modes was performed. We report specifically on the comparison of the fast and slow readout modes and subarray tests.

  10. New Detector Developments for Future UV Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Klaus; Kappelmann, Norbert

    Ultraviolet (UV) astronomy is facing “dark ages”: After the shutdown of the Hubble Space Tele-scope only the WSO/UV mission will be operable in the UV wavelength region with efficient instruments. Improved optics and detectors are necessary for future successor missions to tackle new scientific goals. This drives our development of microchannel plate (MCP) UV-detectors with high quantum efficiency, high spatial resolution and low-power readout electronics. To enhance the quantum efficiency and the lifetime of the MCP detectors we are developing new cathodes and new anodes for these detectors. To achieve high quantum efficiency, we will use caesium-activated gallium nitride as semitransparent photocathodes with a much higher efficiency than default CsI/CsTe cathodes in this wavelength range. The new anodes will be cross-strip anodes with 64 horizontal and 64 vertical electrodes. This type of anode requires a lower gain and leads to an increased lifetime of the detector, compared to MCP detectors with other anode types. The heart of the new developed front-end-electronic for such type of anode is the so called “BEETLE chip”, which was designed by the MPI für Kernphysik Heidelberg for the LHCb ex-periment at CERN. This chip provides 128 input channels with charge-sensitive preamplifiers and shapers. Our design of the complete front-end readout electronics enables a total power con-sumption of less than 10 W. The MCP detector is intrinsically solar blind, single photon counting and has a very low read-out noise. To qualify this new type of detectors we are presently planning to build a small UV telescope for the usage on the German Technology Experimental Carrier (TET). Furthermore we are involved in the new German initiative for a Public Telescope, a space telescope equipped with an 80 cm mirror. One of the main instruments will be a high-resolution UV-Echelle Spectrograph that will be built by the University of Tübingen. The launch of this mission is

  11. Fast photon detection for the COMPASS RICH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbon, P.; Alekseev, M.; Angerer, H.; Apollonio, M.; Birsa, R.; Bordalo, P.; Bradainante, F.; Bressan, A.; Busso, L.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Colantoni, M. L.; Costa, S.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, H.; Diaz, V.; Dibiase, N.; Duic, V.; Eyrich, W.; Faso, D.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Gerassimov, S.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Hagemann, R.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Joosten, R.; Ketzer, B.; Königsmann, K.; Kolosov, V. N.; Konorov, I.; Kramer, D.; Kunne, F.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Mann, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Mutter, A.; Nähle, O.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rebourgeard, P.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schröder, W.; Silva, L.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Svec, M.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Wollny, H.

    2007-10-01

    Particle identification at high rates is a central aspect of many present and future experiments in high-energy particle physics. The COMPASS experiment at the SPS accelerator at CERN uses a large scale Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH) to identify pions, kaons and protons in a wide momentum range. For the data taking in 2006, the COMPASS RICH has been upgraded in the central photon detection area (25% of the surface) with a new technology to detect Cherenkov photons at very high count rates of several 10s per channel and a new dead-time free read-out system, which allows trigger rates up to 100 kHz. The Cherenkov photons are detected by an array of 576 visible and ultra-violet sensitive multi-anode photomultipliers with 16 channels each. Lens telescopes of fused silica lenses have been designed and built to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the individual photomultipliers. The read-out electronics of the PMTs is based on the MAD4 amplifier-discriminator chip and the dead-time free high resolution F1-TDC. The 120 ps time resolution of the digital card guarantees negligible background from uncorrelated physical events. In the outer part of the detector, where the particle rates are lower, the present multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) with Cesium Iodide photo-cathodes have been upgraded with a new read-out electronic system based on the APV preamplifier and shaper ASIC with analog pipeline and sampling ADCs. The project was fully designed and implemented in the period November 2004 until May 2006. The upgraded detector showed an excellent performance during the 2006 data taking: the number of detected Cherenkov photons per ring was increased from 14 to above 60 at saturation. The time resolution was improved from about 3 microseconds to about one nanosecond which allows an excellent suppression of the background photons from uncorrelated events.

  12. A germanium hybrid pixel detector with 55μm pixel size and 65,000 channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennicard, D.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Sarajlic, M.; Smoljanin, S.; Zuvic, M.; Lampert, M. O.; Fritzsch, T.; Rothermund, M.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide high performance through a combination of direct detection, a relatively small pixel size, fast readout and sophisticated signal processing circuitry in each pixel. For X-ray detection above 20 keV, high-Z sensor layers rather than silicon are needed to achieve high quantum efficiency, but many high-Z materials such as GaAs and CdTe often suffer from poor material properties or nonuniformities. Germanium is available in large wafers of extremely high quality, making it an appealing option for high-performance hybrid pixel X-ray detectors, but suitable technologies for finely pixelating and bump-bonding germanium have not previously been available. A finely-pixelated germanium photodiode sensor with a 256 by 256 array of 55μm pixels has been produced. The sensor has an n-on-p structure, with 700μm thickness. Using a low-temperature indium bump process, this sensor has been bonded to the Medipix3RX photoncounting readout chip. Tests with the LAMBDA readout system have shown that the detector works successfully, with a high bond yield and higher image uniformity than comparable high-Z systems. During cooling, the system is functional around -80°C (with warmer temperatures resulting in excessive leakage current), with -100°C sufficient for good performance.

  13. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.; Carulla Areste, M.; Cavallaro, E.; Förster, F.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Terzo, S.; Vázquez Furelos, D.

    2016-11-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50 × 250 μm2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12-15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1016 neq/cm2, measured at -25°C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50 × 50 and 25 × 100 μm2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1-2 V before irradiation.

  14. Design and Fabrication of the KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantoni, I.; Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of the Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution project is the development of light detectors with large active area and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS using phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors. The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double read-out of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work, we present the design and the fabrication process, starting from the silicon wafer arriving to the single chip. The Al thin films (40 nm) are evaporated on high-quality, high-resistivity (>10 k Ω cm) Si(100) substrates using an electron beam evaporator in a high-vacuum chamber. Detectors are patterned in direct-write mode, using electron beam lithography , positive tone resist poly-methyl methacrylate and lift-off process. Finally the wafer is diced into 20 × 20 mm^2 chips and assembled in a holder OFHC copper (oxygen-free high conductivity) using PTFE supports.

  15. Submission of the first full scale prototype chip for upgraded ATLAS pixel detector at LHC, FE-I4A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Marlon; Arutinov, David; Beccherle, Roberto; Darbo, Giovanni; Dube, Sourabh; Elledge, David; Fleury, Julien; Fougeron, Denis; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gensolen, Fabrice; Gnani, Dario; Gromov, Vladimir; Jensen, Frank; Hemperek, Tomasz; Karagounis, Michael; Kluit, Ruud; Kruth, Andre; Mekkaoui, Abderrezak; Menouni, Mohsine; Schipper, Jan David; Wermes, Norbert; Zivkovic, Vladimir

    2011-09-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 0.25 μm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. The FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80×336 pixels, each 50×250 μm2, consisting of analog and digital sections. In the summer 2010, a first full scale prototype FE-I4A was submitted for an engineering run. This IC features the full scale pixel array as well as the complex periphery of the future full-size FE-I4. The FE-I4A contains also various extra test features which should prove very useful for the chip characterization, but deviate from the needs for standard operation of the final FE-I4 for IBL. In this paper, focus will be brought to the various features implemented in the FE-I4A submission, while also underlining the main differences between the FE-I4A IC and the final FE-I4 as envisioned for IBL.

  16. A novel readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with pad matrix anode layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Vladimir; Majewski, Stan; Welch, Benjamin L.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a new analog readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with a pad matrix anode layout. This new readout technique is the result of a modification of a technique previously developed at the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab, (V. Popov, US patent No: 6,747,263 B1) [V. Popov, S. Majewski, A.G. Weisenberger, Readout Electronics for Multianode Photomultiplier Tubes with Pad Matrix Anode Layout, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, IEEE 2003 Medical Imaging Conference Record, November 2003]. The new analog readout circuit provides the same analog conversion of matrix 2-D output into X and Y projective output with a significant reduction of analog outputs. The old readout network consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, and it provides decoupling of each anode output into two directions (one to X and one to Y coordinates), but a decoupling function that is carried out independent of photomultiplier tube gains nonuniformity. A newly developed readout network (US patent pending) also consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, but the new matrix includes an additional dumping resistor that provides an excess current from anode pad grounding. As a result, we subtract an extra current of high-gain pads in order to move the pads gain to an absolute minimum value for a given photomultiplier tube. This gain equalization procedure reduces image distortion related to gain nonuniformity. The new readout technique was used in several new radiation imaging detectors designed in the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab. It shows a visible readout uniformity and linearity improvement. The test results of an initial evaluation of this readout that is applied for data readout of four H8500 Hamamtsu PSPMT are presented.

  17. 3D Medipix2 detector characterization with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, E. N.; Maneuski, D.; Mac Raighne, A.; Parkes, C.; Bates, R.; O'Shea, V.; Fleta, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Alianelli, L.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2011-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) photodiode detectors offer advantages over standard planar photodiodes in a wide range of applications. The main advantage of these sensors for X-ray imaging is their reduced charge sharing between adjacent pixels, which could improve spatial and spectral resolution. However, a drawback of 3D sensors structures is the loss of detection efficiency due to the presence in the pixel structure of heavily doped electrode columns which are insensitive to X-ray. In this work two types of 3D silicon detectors: n-type wafer with hole collecting readout-columns (N-TYPE) and p-type wafer with electron collecting readout-columns (P-TYPE), bump-bounded to a Medipix2 read-out chip were characterized with a 14.5 keV micro-focused X-ray beam from a synchrotron. Measurements of the detection efficiency and the charge sharing were performed at different bias voltages and Medipix2 energy thresholds and compared with those of a standard planar silicon sensor.

  18. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  19. TRTViewer: The ATLAS TRT detector monitoring and diagnosticstool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, S. Yu.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The transition radiation tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS inner detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is designed to combine the drift tube tracker with the transition radiation detector, providing an important contribution to the charged particles precise momentum measurement and particle (mainly electron) identification. The TRT consists of a barrel section at small pseudorapidity (η) and two separate end-cap partitions at large η. The detector performance and its operational conditions were permanently monitored during all commissioning and data-taking stages using various software tools, one of which - TRTViewer - is described in the present paper. The TRTViewer is the dedicated program for monitoring the TRT raw data quality and detector performance at different hardware levels: individual straws, readout chips and electronic boards. The data analysis results can be presented on the event-by-event basis or in the form of color maps representing the operation parameters (efficiencies, timing, occupancy, etc.) according to the real geometrical position of the detector hardware elements. The paper describes the TRTViewer software package as the event displaying tool, raw data processor and histogram and operation parameters presenter, which works with the different sources of input information: raw data files, online monitoring histograms, offline analysis histograms and TRT DAQ Configuration database. The package proved to be one of the main instruments for the fast and effective TRT diagnostics during debugging and operation periods.

  20. The CDFII Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2004-07-23

    The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

  1. Detector Arrays For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Paper describes status of program for developing integrated infrared detectors for astronomy. Program covers variety of detectors, including extrinsic silicon, extrinsic germanium, and indium antimonide devices with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Paper notes for arrays to reach background noise limit in cryogenic telescope, continued reductions in readout noise and dark current needed.

  2. FASTBUS Readout Controller card for high speed data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, S. Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Areti, V.H.; Foster, G.W.; Joshi, U.; Treptow, K. )

    1991-10-01

    This article describes a FASTBUS Readout Controller (FRC) for high speed data acquisition in FASTBUS based systems. The controller has two main interfaces: to FASTBUS and to a Readout Port. The FASTBUS interface performs FASTBUS master and slave operations at a maximum transfer rate exceeding 40 MBytes/s. The Readout Port can be adapted for a variety of protocols. Currently, it will be interfaced to a VME bus based processor with a VSB port. The on-board LR33000 embedded processor controls the readout, executing a list of operations download into its memory. It scans the FASTBUS modules and stores the data in a triple port DRAM (TPDRAM), through one of the Serial Access Memory (SAM) ports of the (TPDRAM). Later, it transfers this data to the readout port using the other SAM. The FRC also supports serial communication via RS232 and Ethernet interfaces. This device is intended for use in the data acquisition system at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Gaseous photomultipliers for the readout of scintillators and detection Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peskov, V.; Borovik-Romanov, A.

    1993-11-01

    The latest achievements in the development of gaseous detectors for registering UV and visible photons are described. Possible modifications of their design for some particular applications such as the readout of crystal scintillators. noble liquids, fibers and for large area Cherenkov detectors are discussed.

  4. Design of a 10-bit segmented current-steering digital-to-analog converter in CMOS 65 nm technology for the bias of new generation readout chips in high radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, G.; Loddo, F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Pacher, L.; Pantano, D.; Tamma, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new pixel front end chip for HL-LHC experiments in CMOS 65nm technology is under development by the CERN RD53 collaboration together with the Chipix65 INFN project. This work describes the design of a 10-bit segmented current-steering Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) to provide a programmable bias current to the analog blocks of the circuit. The main requirements are monotonicity, good linearity, limited area consumption and radiation hardness up to 10 MGy. The DAC was prototyped and electrically tested, while irradiation tests will be performed in Autumn 2015.

  5. Readout circuit design of the retina-like CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fengmei; Song, Shengyu; Bai, Tingzhu; Cao, Nan

    2015-02-01

    Readout circuit is designed for a special retina-like CMOS image sensor. To realize the pixels timing drive and readout of the sensor, the Altera's Cyclone II FPGA is used as a control chip. The voltage of the sensor is supported by a voltage chip initialized by SPI with AVR MCU system. The analog image signal outputted by the sensor is converted to digital image data by 12-bits A/D converter ADS807 and the digital data is memorized in the SRAM. Using the Camera-link image grabber, the data stored in SRAM is transformed to image shown on PC. Experimental results show the circuit works well on retina-like CMOS timing drive and image readout and images can be displayed properly on the PC.

  6. The PAUCam readout electronics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2016-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with a wide field of view of 1 deg x 1 deg and up to 46 narrow and broad band filters. The camera is already installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain and successfully commissioned during the first period of 2015. The paper presents the main results from the readout electronics commissioning tests and include an overview of the whole readout electronics system, its configuration and current performance.

  7. The Triple GEM Detector Control System for CMS forward muon spectrometer upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abi. Akl, M.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Holme, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Khan, S. A.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F. R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M. M.; Lentdecker, G. De.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R. M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Shah, A. H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y. G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J. A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L. M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig. Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S. K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2017-02-01

    The CMS experiment at LHC will upgrade its forward muon spectrometer by incorporating Triple-GEM detectors. This upgrade referred to as GEM Endcap (GE1/1), consists of adding two back-to-back Triple-GEM detectors in front of the existing Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) in the innermost ring of the endcap muon spectrometer. Before the full installation of 144 detectors in 2019–2020, CMS will first install ten single chamber prototypes during the early 2017. This pre-installation is referred as the slice test. These ten detectors will be read-out by VFAT2 chips [1]. On-detector there is also a FPGA mezzanine card which sends VFAT2 data optically to the μTCA back-end electronics. The correct and safe operation of the GEM system requires a sophisticated and powerful online Detector Control System, able to monitor and control many heterogeneous hardware devices. The DCS system developed for the slice test has been tested with CMS Triple-GEM detectors in the laboratory. In this paper we describe the newly developed DCS system and present the first results obtained in the GEM assembly and quality assurance laboratory.

  8. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, M.

    2016-09-01

    During Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This included the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally, a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore, a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in the IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanical support and a CO2 based cooling system. This paper describes the improvements achieved during the maintenance of the existing Pixel Detector as well as the performance of the IBL during the construction and commissioning phase. Additionally, first results obtained during the LHC Run 2 demonstrating the distinguished tracking performance of the new Four Layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are presented.

  9. Measurement of MKID Performance with High-Speed and Wide-Band Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsu, Kenichi; Naruse, M.; Nitta, T.; Sekine, M.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Noguchi, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Kiuchi, H.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are being developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan to enable precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background. One of the features of MKIDs is scalability using a frequency-division multiplexing (FDMUX) readout scheme. A digital fast fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) is a good way to read out a number of resonance frequencies simultaneously and fully utilize the advantage of FDMUX of MKIDs. We have developed FFTS readout electronics using an ADC/DAC with 1 Gsps (sample per second) sampling rate and 270 MHz bandwidth. We measured the noise characteristics of a single MKID in the frequency range of 60 Hz-30 kHz with this readout system, and found the noise was almost equivalent to the noise measured by ordinary analog IQ down-converter readout. This indicates our FFTS electronics do not add any additional noise to the MKID readout system over the frequency range.

  10. The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Ackermann, K.; Aihara, H.; Aziz, T.; Bergauer, T.; Bozek, A.; Campbell, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Drasal, Z.; Frankenberger, A.; Gadow, K.; Gfall, I.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Higuchi, T.; Himori, S.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kiesling, C.; Kodys, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kvasnicka, P.; Marinas, C.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mibe, T.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Negishi, K.; Nakayama, H.; Natkaniec, Z.; Niebuhr, C.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Park, H.; Rao, K. K.; Ritter, M.; Rozanska, M.; Saito, T.; Sakai, K.; Sato, N.; Schmid, S.; Schnell, M.; Shimizu, N.; Steininger, H.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G.; Tsuboyama, T.; Ueno, K.; Uozumi, S.; Ushiroda, Y.; Valentan, M.; Yamamoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2 s-1 in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13 m2 and 223,744 channels-twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics.

  11. Fiber and crystals dual readout calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele; Franchino, Silvia; Lee, Sehwook

    2016-11-01

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main fluctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO4 crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realizing a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties of homogeneous media for the technique. Guidelines for additional developments on crystals will be also given. Finally we discuss the construction techniques that we have used to assemble our prototypes and give an overview of the ones that could be industrialized for the construction of a full hermetic calorimeter.

  12. Event building for free-streaming readout in the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolko, I. E.; Prokudin, M. S.; Zaitsev, Yu M.

    2017-01-01

    CBM is the first experiment gaining advantage of free-streaming triggerless readout system. All readout channels of the detector going to work in self triggered mode. Dedicated methods are developed to extract individual events (collisions) from continuous information stream rejecting noise. Efficiency of the methods depends on projectile energy, masses of colliding nucleons, interaction and accelerator frequencies. Quality control of the algorithms and comparison of the methods require special efforts.

  13. The effect of dead-timeless silicon strip readout at CDF II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolder, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hill, C.; Stuart, D.; Volobouev, I.

    2003-03-01

    The Run IIa CDF Silicon Upgrade has recently finished installation. The detector uses revision D of the SVX3 readout IC. This final revision incorporated new features in order to improve the potential of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes measurements of dead-timeless effects on silicon strip readout on the test bench. This paper also describes tests of the dynamic pedestal subtraction circuitry, which is shown to improve greatly the dead-timeless performance of the silicon systems.

  14. Plug and measure - a chip-to-world interface for photonic lab-on-a-chip applications.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Tobias Nils; Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Llobera, Andreu

    2016-08-16

    The integration of detection mechanisms with microfluidics may be one of the most promising routes towards widespread application of Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) devices. Photonic detection methods like in the so-called Photonic Lab-on-a-Chip (PhLoC) have advantages such as being non-invasive, easy to sterilize and highly sensitive even with short integration times and thus allow in situ monitoring and quantification of biological and chemical processes. The readout of such detection methods usually requires special training of potential users, as in most cases they are confronted with the need of establishing fiber-optics connections to and from the PhLoC and/or rely on the use of complex laboratory equipment. Here, we present a low-cost and robust chip-to-world interface (CWI), fabricated by CO2-laser machining, facilitating the non-expert use of PhLoCs. Fiber-optics with standard SMA-connectors (non-pigtailed) and PhLoCs can be plugged into the CWI without the need for further adjustments. This standardization bestows great versatility on the interface, providing a direct link between PhLoCs and a wide range of light sources and photo-detectors. The ease-of-use of the proposed simple plug mechanism represents a step forward in terms of user-friendliness and may lead PhLoC devices to practical applications.

  15. Similarities and differences of recent hybrid pixel detectors for X-ray and high energy physics developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, G.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Horisberger, R.; Johnson, I.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are being developed for both photon science and high energy physics. The article will cover similarities and differences in pixel detectors for both applications using two of the pixel detectors developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) as examples: the EIGER photon counting detector and the psi46dig chip, which has been developed for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) tracking pixel detector upgrade. EIGER is a single photon counting hybrid pixel detector for applications at synchrotron light sources in the energy range from a few to 25 keV. It is characterized by a small pixel size (75 × 75 μm2), high count rate capability (106 counts/pixel/s) and very high data rate, which reaches 6 Gb/s for a 256 × 256 pixel chip. The CMS pixel detector is designed to provide charge information from the pixels in the harsh radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider. The short time between bunches of 25 ns and the high event rate at luminosity up to 2 × 1034cm-2s-1 require a detector with high hit efficiency, with good timing resolution and the ability to retain timestamp information for the hits. The readout architecture is based on the transfer of hits from the pixels to the periphery, where the trigger validation is performed before data transfer. The data rates of the digitized output reach 160 Mb/s for a 52×80 pixel chip.The specific timing and rate requirements for the detectors, the analog performances (minimum threshold and noise), the power consumption and the radiation hardness will be compared. An overview on future developments based on mutual learning and common solutions will be discussed.

  16. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  17. Optimization of MKID noise performance via readout technique for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakon, Nicole G.; Schlaerth, James A.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matt I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    Detectors employing superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) can be read out by measuring changes in either the resonator frequency or dissipation. We will discuss the pros and cons of both methods, in particular, the readout method strategies being explored for the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) to be commissioned at the CSO in 2010. As predicted theoretically and observed experimentally, the frequency responsivity is larger than the dissipation responsivity, by a factor of 2-4 under typical conditions. In the absence of any other noise contributions, it should be easier to overcome amplifier noise by simply using frequency readout. The resonators, however, exhibit excess frequency noise which has been ascribed to a surface distribution of two-level fluctuators sensitive to specific device geometries and fabrication techniques. Impressive dark noise performance has been achieved using modified resonator geometries employing interdigitated capacitors (IDCs). To date, our noise measurement and modeling efforts have assumed an onresonance readout, with the carrier power set well below the nonlinear regime. Several experimental indicators suggested to us that the optimal readout technique may in fact require a higher readout power, with the carrier tuned somewhat off resonance, and that a careful systematic study of the optimal readout conditions was needed. We will present the results of such a study, and discuss the optimum readout conditions as well as the performance that can be achieved relative to BLIP.

  18. The trigger readout electronics for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12-bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  19. ALICE inner tracking system readout electronics prototype testing with the CERN ``Giga Bit Transceiver''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambach, J.; Rossewij, M. J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Vanat, T.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the LHC Run 3, which includes the construction of a new silicon pixel based Inner Tracking System (ITS). The ITS readout system consists of 192 readout boards to control the sensors and their power system, receive triggers, and deliver sensor data to the DAQ. To prototype various aspects of this readout system, an FPGA based carrier board and an associated FMC daughter card containing the CERN Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) chipset have been developed. This contribution describes laboratory and radiation testing results with this prototype board set.

  20. Planar Lithographed Superconducting LC Resonators for Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotermund, K.; Barch, B.; Chapman, S.; Hattori, K.; Lee, A.; Palaio, N.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Tran, C.

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments are increasing the number of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers to increase sensitivity. In order to maintain low thermal loading of the sub-Kelvin stage, the frequency-domain multiplexing (FDM) factor has to increase accordingly. FDM is achieved by placing TES bolometers in series with inductor-capacitor (LC) resonators, which select the readout frequency. The multiplexing factor can be raised with a large total readout bandwidth and small frequency spacing between channels. The inductance is kept constant to maintain a uniform readout bandwidth across detectors, while the maximum acceptable value is determined by bolometer stability. Current technology relies on commercially available ceramic chip capacitors. These have high scatter in their capacitance thereby requiring large frequency spacing. Furthermore, they have high equivalent series resistance (ESR) at higher frequencies and are time consuming and tedious to hand assemble via soldering. A solution lies in lithographed, planar spiral inductors (currently in use by some experiments) combined with interdigitated capacitors on a silicon (Si) substrate. To maintain reasonable device dimensions, we have reduced trace and gap widths of the LCs to 4 \\upmu m. We increased the inductance from 16 to 60 \\upmu H to achieve a higher packing density, a requirement for FDM systems with large multiplexing factors. Additionally, the Si substrate yields low ESR values across the entire frequency range and lithography makes mass production of LC pairs possible. We reduced mutual inductance between inductors by placing them in a checkerboard pattern with the capacitors, thereby increasing physical distances between adjacent inductors. We also reduce magnetic coupling of inductors with external sources by evaporating a superconducting ground plane onto the backside of the substrate. We report on the development of lithographed LCs in the 1-5 MHz range for use