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Sample records for detector readout chip

  1. Radiation tolerance of prototype BTeV pixel detector readout chips

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2002-07-12

    High energy and nuclear physics experiments need tracking devices with increasing spatial precision and readout speed in the face of ever-higher track densities and increased radiation environments. The new generation of hybrid pixel detectors (arrays of silicon diodes bump bonded to arrays of front-end electronic cells) is the state of the art technology able to meet these challenges. We report on irradiation studies performed on BTeV pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Prototype pixel readout chip preFPIX2 has been developed at Fermilab for collider experiments and implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose up to 87 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been extensively measured.

  2. Characterization of edgeless pixel detectors coupled to Medipix2 readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliopuska, Juha; Tlustos, Lukas; Eränen, Simo; Virolainen, Tuula

    2011-08-01

    VTT has developed a straightforward and fast process to fabricate four-side buttable (edgeless) microstrip and pixel detectors on 6 in. (150 mm) wafers. The process relies on advanced ion implantation to activate the edges of the detector instead of using polysilicon. The article characterizes 150 μm thick n-on-n edgeless pixel detector prototypes with a dead layer at the edge below 1 μm. Electrical and radiation response characterization of 1.4×1.4 cm2 n-on-n edgeless detectors has been done by coupling them to the Medipix2 readout chips. The distance of the detector's physical edge from the pixels was either 20 or 50 μm. The leakage current of flip-chip bonded edgeless Medipix2 detector assembles were measured to be ˜90 nA/cm2 and no breakdown was observed below 110 V. Radiation response characterization includes X-ray tube and radiation source responses. The characterization results show that the detector's response at the pixels close to the physical edge of the detector depend dramatically on the pixel-to-edge distance.

  3. SALT, a dedicated readout chip for high precision tracking silicon strip detectors at the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kuczynska, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Upstream Tracker (UT) silicon strip detector, one of the central parts of the tracker system of the modernised LHCb experiment, will use a new 128-channel readout ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the UT sensors, perform digital signal processing and transmit a serial output data. The SALT is being designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analog front-end and fast (40 MSps) ultra-low power (<0.5 mW) 6-bit ADC in each channel. The prototype ASICs of important functional blocks, like analogue front-end, 6-bit SAR ADC, PLL, and DLL, were designed, fabricated and tested. A prototype of an 8-channel version of the SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities was also designed and fabricated. The architecture and design of the SALT, together with the selected preliminary tests results, are presented.

  4. Characterization of M-π-n CdTe pixel detectors coupled to HEXITEC readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, M. C.; Kalliopuska, J.; Pohjonen, H.; Andersson, H.; Nenonen, S.; Seller, P.; Wilson, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of the anode-side of an M-π-n CdTe diode, where the pn-junction is diffused into the detector bulk, produces large improvements in the spatial and energy resolution of CdTe pixel detectors. It has been shown that this fabrication technique produces very high inter-pixel resistance and low leakage currents are obtained by physical isolation of the pixels of M-π-n CdTe detectors. In this paper the results from M-π-n CdTe detectors stud bonded to a spectroscopic readout ASIC are reported. The CdTe pixel detectors have 250 μm pitch and an area of 5 × 5 mm2 with thicknesses of 1 and 2 mm. The polarization and energy resolution dependence of the M-π-n CdTe detectors as a function of detector thickness are discussed.

  5. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  6. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  7. TOT01, a time-over-threshold based readout chip in 180nm CMOS technology for silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Gryboś, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of the TOT01 prototype front-end ASIC for the readout of long silicon strip detectors in the STS (Silicon Tracking System) of the CBM experiment at FAIR - GSI. The deposited charge measurement is based on the Time-over-Threshold method which allows integration of a low-power ADC into each channel. The TOT01 chip comprises 30 identical channels and 1 test channel which is supplied with additional test pads. The major blocks of each channel are the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) with two switchable constant-current discharge circuits and additional test features. The architecture of the CSA core is based on the folded cascode. The input p-channel MOSFET device, biased at a drain current 500 μA, was optimized for 30 pF detector capacitance while keeping in mind the area constraints — W/L = 1800 μm / 0.180 μm. The main advantage of this solution is high gain (GBW = 1.2 GHz) and low power consumption at the same time. The amplifier is followed by the discriminator circuit. The discriminator allows for a global (multi-channel) differential threshold setting and independent compensation for the CSA output DC-level deviations in each channel by means of a 6-bit digital to analog converter (DAC). The output pulse of this processing chain is fed through a 31:1 multiplexer structure to the output of the chip for further processing. The TOT01 chip has been fabricated in the UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process (Europractice mini@sic). It has 78 pads, measures approximately 1.5x3.2 mm2 and dissipates 33 mW. The channels have 50 μm pitch and each consumes 1.05 mW of power. The chip has been successfully tested. Charge sensitivity parameters, noise performance and first X-ray acquisitions are presented.

  8. First look at the beam test results of the FPIX2 readout chip for the BTeV silicon pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Uplegger, L.; Appel, J.A.; Artuso, M.; Cardoso, G.; Cease, H.P.; Chiodini, G.; Christian, D.C.; Cinabro, D.A.; Coluccia, R.; Hoff, J.; Kwan, S.; Magni, S.; Mekkaoui, A.; Menasce, D.; Newsom, C.; Papavassiliou, V.; Schreiner, A.; Turqueti, M.A.; Yarema, R.; Wang, J.C.; /Fermilab /Syracuse U. /INFN, Lecce /Wayne State U. /INFN, Milan /Iowa U. /New Mexico State U.

    2004-11-01

    High energy and nuclear physics experiments need tracking devices with excellent spatial precision and readout speed in the face of ever-higher track densities and increased radiation environments. The new generation of hybrid pixel detectors (arrays of silicon diodes bump bonded to arrays of front-end electronic cells) is a technology able to meet these challenges. We report the first results of the BTeV silicon pixel detector beam test carried out at Fermilab in summer 2004. Tests were performed using a 120 GeV/c proton beam incident on a 6 planes pixel detector telescope. The last prototype developed for the BTeV experiment (FPIX2) is tested in the middle of the telescope. There is no external trigger and events were built using the time-stamp information provided by the readout chips.

  9. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzempek, P.

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC < PANDASTTReadoutChip >) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  10. The fine grained detector readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retière, F.; T2K/FGD Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    The Fine Grained Detector (FGD) readout electronics was designed to record a snapshot of the detector activity before, during and after the neutrino beam spill produced by the J-PARC accelerator complex in Tokai, Japan. The FGD is a key element of T2K near detector currently being constructed. It will act as an active target detecting charged particles produced within its scintillator bars. The original feature of the FGD electronics is to readout Multi-Pixel Photon Counters by recording waveforms using Switch Capacitor Array chips (AFTER ASIC) designed for T2K Time Projection Chamber. In these proceedings, we describe the architecture of the FGD electronics. Beam results show that the physics requirements are met or exceeded. The relatively slow sampling frequency of the AFTER ASIC does not impair the timing resolution significantly. In addition, the very good efficiency of the system for detecting Michel electrons produced by pions or muons decay has been demonstrated.

  11. Data encoding efficiency in pixel detector readout with charge information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Wang, Xinkang

    2016-04-01

    The average minimum number of bits needed for lossless readout of a pixel detector is calculated, in the regime of interest for particle physics where only a small fraction of pixels have a non-zero value per frame. This permits a systematic comparison of the readout efficiency of different encoding implementations. The calculation is compared to the number of bits used by the FE-I4 pixel readout chip of the ATLAS experiment.

  12. Characterization of Silicon Detector Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.

    2015-07-22

    Configuration and calibration of the front-end electronics typical of many silicon detector configurations were investigated in a lab activity based on a pair of strip sensors interfaced with FSSR2 read-out chips and an FPGA. This simple hardware configuration, originally developed for a telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, was used to measure thresholds and noise on individual readout channels and to study the influence that different configurations of the front-end electronics had on the observed levels of noise in the system. An understanding of the calibration and operation of this small detector system provided an opportunity to explore the architecture of larger systems such as those currently in use at LHC experiments.

  13. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  14. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  15. XAMPS Detectors Readout ASIC for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragone, A; Pratte, J.F.; Rehak, P.; Carini, G.A.; Herbst, R.; O'Connor, P.; Siddons, D.P.; /BNL, NSLS

    2008-12-18

    An ASIC for the readout of signals from X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) detectors to be used at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is presented. The X-ray Pump Probe (XPP) instrument, for which the ASIC has been designed, requires a large input dynamic range on the order of 104 photons at 8 keV with a resolution of half a photon FWHM. Due to the size of the pixel and the length of the readout line, large input capacitance is expected, leading to stringent requirement on the noise optimization. Furthermore, the large number of pixels needed for a good position resolution and the fixed LCLS beam period impose limitations on the time available for the single pixel readout. Considering the periodic nature of the LCLS beam, the ASIC developed for this application is a time-variant system providing low-noise charge integration, filtering and correlated double sampling. In order to cope with the large input dynamic range a charge pump scheme implementing a zero-balance measurement method has been introduced. It provides an on chip 3-bit coarse digital conversion of the integrated charge. The residual charge is sampled using correlated double sampling into analog memory and measured with the required resolution. The first 64 channel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated in TSMC CMOS 0.25 {micro}m technology. In this paper, the ASIC architecture and performances are presented.

  16. Dynamic X-ray direct conversion detector using a CdTe polycrystalline layer coupled to a CMOS readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arques, Marc; Renet, Sébastien; Brambilla, Andréa; Feuillet, Guy; Gasse, Adrien; Billon-Pierron, Nicolas; Jolliot, Muriel; Mathieu, Lydie; Rohr, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    A direct detection X-ray imager is presented. It uses polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) grown by close space sublimation technique for the X-ray photoconductor. A 15 mm×15 mm CdTe layer is connected to a 200×200 pixel readout CMOS by indium bumping. X-ray performance at 16 frames/s rate is measured. In particular a readout noise of 0.5 X-ray, an MTF of 50% at 4 lp/mm and a DQE of 20% at 4 lp/mm are obtained.

  17. Study and optimization of the spatial resolution for detectors with binary readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-09-01

    Using simulations and analytical approaches, we have studied single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout, which is often proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume. Our simulations considering several parameters (e.g. strip pitch) show that the detector geometry and an electronics parameter of the binary readout chips could be optimized for binary readout to offer an equivalent spatial resolution to the one with an analog readout. To understand the behavior as a function of simulation parameters, we developed analytical models that reproduce simulation results with a few parameters. The models can be used to optimize detector designs and operation conditions with regard to the spatial resolution.

  18. Fermilab silicon strip readout chip for BTev

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, Raymond; Hoff, Jim; Mekkaoui, Abderrezak; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Angeleri, Valentina; Manfredi, Pier Francesco; Ratti, Lodovico; Speziali, Valeria; /Fermilab /Bergamo U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U.

    2005-05-01

    A chip has been developed for reading out the silicon strip detectors in the new BTeV colliding beam experiment at Fermilab. The chip has been designed in a 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology for high radiation tolerance. Numerous programmable features have been added to the chip, such as setup for operation at different beam crossing intervals. A full size chip has been fabricated and successfully tested. The design philosophy, circuit features, and test results are presented in this paper.

  19. CHIPS Neutrino Detector Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Ramon; Vahle, Patricia; Chips Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The CHIPS R&D project is an effort to develop affordable megaton-scale neutrino detectors. The CHIPS strategy calls for submerging water Cherenkov detectors deep under water. The surrounding water acts as structural support, minimizing large initial investments in costly infrastructure, and serves as an overburden, shielding the detector from cosmic rays and eliminating the need for expensive underground construction. Additional cost savings will be achieved through photodetector development and optimization of readout geometry. In summer 2014 a small prototype of the CHIPS detector was deployed in the flooded Wentworth Mine Pit in Northern Minnesota. The detector has been recording data underwater throughout the fall and winter. In this talk, we will discuss lessons learned from the prototyping experience and the plans for submerging much larger detectors in future years.

  20. Readout of silicon strip detectors with position and timing information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Irmler, C.; Pernicka, M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-noise front-end amplifiers for silicon strip detectors are already available for decades, providing excellent signal-to-noise ratio and thus very precise spatial resolution, but at the cost of a long shaping time in the microsecond range. Due to occupancy and pile-up issues, modern experiments need much faster electronics. With submicron ASICs, adequate readout and data processing, it is possible to obtain not only spatial hit data, but also accurate timing information—a feature which is rarely exploited so far. We present the concept of a silicon vertex detector readout system intended for an upgrade of the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan). The APV25 front-end chip, originally developed for CMS at CERN, is used in a way where it delivers multiple samples along the shaped waveform, such that not only the analog pulse height, but also the timing of each particle hit can be determined. We developed a complete readout system including an FADC +Processor VME module which performs zero-suppression in FPGAs. The hit time measurement is also planned on the same module. As fast amplifiers are inherently more susceptible to noise, which largely depends on the load capacitance, the front-end chips should be located as close to the detector as possible. On the other hand, the material budget, especially in a low-energy electron-positron machine such as Belle, should be minimized. We tried to merge those demands with a fully functional "Flex_Module", where thinned APV25 readout chips are mounted on the silicon sensor.

  1. Development of a pixel readout chip for BTeV

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Christian et al.

    1998-11-01

    A description is given of the R&D program underway at Fermilab to develop a pixel readout ASIC appropriate for use at the Tevatron collider. Results are presentetd frOm tests performed on the first prototype pixel readout chip deigned at Fermilab, and a new readout architecture is described.

  2. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  3. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-01

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  4. Timepix3: a 65K channel hybrid pixel readout chip with simultaneous ToA/ToT and sparse readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; Plosila, J.; Westerlund, T.; Campbell, M.; De Gaspari, M.; Llopart, X.; Gromov, V.; Kluit, R.; van Beuzekom, M.; Zappon, F.; Zivkovic, V.; Brezina, C.; Desch, K.; Fu, Y.; Kruth, A.

    2014-05-01

    The Timepix3, hybrid pixel detector (HPD) readout chip, a successor to the Timepix \\cite{timepix2007} chip, can record time-of-arrival (ToA) and time-over-threshold (ToT) simultaneously in each pixel. ToA information is recorded in a 14-bit register at 40 MHz and can be refined by a further 4 bits with a nominal resolution of 1.5625 ns (640 MHz). ToT is recorded in a 10-bit overflow controlled counter at 40 MHz. Pixels can be programmed to record 14 bits of integral ToT and 10 bits of event counting, both at 40 MHz. The chip is designed in 130 nm CMOS and contains 256 × 256 pixel channels (55 × 55 μm2). The chip, which has more than 170 M transistors, has been conceived as a general-purpose readout chip for HPDs used in a wide range of applications. Common requirements of these applications are operation without a trigger signal, and sparse readout where only pixels containing event information are read out. A new architecture has been designed for sparse readout and can achieve a throughput of up to 40 Mhits/s/cm2. The flexible architecture offers readout schemes ranging from serial (one link) readout (40 Mbps) to faster parallel (up to 8 links) readout of 5.12 Gbps. In the ToA/ToT operation mode, readout is simultaneous with data acquisition thus keeping pixels sensitive at all times. The pixel matrix is formed by super pixel (SP) structures of 2 × 4 pixels. This optimizes resources by sharing the pixel readout logic which transports data from SPs to End-of-Column (EoC) using a 2-phase handshake protocol. To reduce power consumption in applications with a low duty cycle, an on-chip power pulsing scheme has been implemented. The logic switches bias currents of the analog front-ends in a sequential manner, and all front-ends can be switched in 800 ns. The digital design uses a mixture of commercial and custom standard cell libraries and was verified using Open Verification Methodology (OVM) and commercial timing analysis tools. The analog front-end and a

  5. FPIX2, the BTeV pixel readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Christian et al.

    2003-12-10

    A radiation tolerant pixel readout chip, FPIX2, has been developed at Fermilab for use by BTeV. Some of the requirements of the BTeV pixel readout chip are reviewed and contrasted with requirements for similar devices in LHC experiments. A description of the FPIX2 is given, and results of initial tests of its performance are presented, as is a summary of measurements planned for the coming year.

  6. The readout electronics for Plastic Scintillator Detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Yang, Haibo; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; JingZhe, Zhang; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Guoqing; Ma, Xinwen

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite, which launched in December 2015, is designed to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in the universe via the detection of the high-energy electrons and gamma-ray particles produced possibly by the annihilation of dark matter particles. Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of major part of the satellite payload, which is comprised of a crossed pair of layers with 41 plastic scintillator-strips, each read out from both ends by the same Hamamatsu R4443MOD2 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to extend linear dynamic range of detector, PMTs read out each plastic scintillator-strip separately with two dynode pickoffs. Therefore, the readout electronics system comprises of four Front-end boards to receive the pulses from 328 PMTs and implement charge measurement, which is based on the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip VA160, 16 bits ADC and FPGA. The electronics of the detector has been designed following stringent requirements on mechanical and thermal stability, power consumption, radiation hardness and double redundancy. Various experiments are designed and implemented to check the performance of the electronics, some excellent results has been achieved.According to experimental results analysis, it is proved that the readout electronics works well.

  7. Embedded controller for GEM detector readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Cieszewski, Radosław; Czarski, Tomasz; Dominik, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna L.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Scholz, Marek

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the embedded controller used for the multichannel readout system for the GEM detector. The controller is based on the embedded Mini ITX mainboard, running the GNU/Linux operating system. The controller offers two interfaces to communicate with the FPGA based readout system. FPGA configuration and diagnostics is controlled via low speed USB based interface, while high-speed setup of the readout parameters and reception of the measured data is handled by the PCI Express (PCIe) interface. Hardware access is synchronized by the dedicated server written in C. Multiple clients may connect to this server via TCP/IP network, and different priority is assigned to individual clients. Specialized protocols have been implemented both for low level access on register level and for high level access with transfer of structured data with "msgpack" protocol. High level functionalities have been split between multiple TCP/IP servers for parallel operation. Status of the system may be checked, and basic maintenance may be performed via web interface, while the expert access is possible via SSH server. System was designed with reliability and flexibility in mind.

  8. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczygiel, R.; Grybos, P.; Maj, P.

    2012-07-01

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm×4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40×32 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  9. FPHX: A New Silicon Strip Readout Chip for the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, James R.; Zimmerman, Tom N.; Yarema, Raymond J.; Kapustinsky, Jon S.; Brookes, Melynda L.; /LOS ALAMOS

    2009-01-01

    The FPHX chip is a silicon strip readout chip developed at Fermilab for use in the FVTX Detector of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. Each front end consists of an integrator which is AC coupled to a shaper, followed by a discriminator and a 3-bit analog-to-digital converter. The backend is a novel architecture in two stages that permits dead-timeless operation and high-speed readout with very low latency. A slow controller provides an interface for all on-chip programmable functions. This chip has been fabricated in the 0.25um TSMC process. All functionality including the analog front-end, the digital back-end, and the slow controller has been verified experimentally.

  10. XPAD3-S: A fast hybrid pixel readout chip for X-ray synchrotron facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangaud, Patrick; Basolo, Stephanie; Boudet, Nathalie; Berar, Jean-François; Chantepie, Benoît; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Delpierre, Pierre; Dinkespiler, Bernard; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie; Menouni, Mohsine; Morel, Christian

    2008-06-01

    At X-ray synchrotron facilities, scattering experiments require detectors with a large sensitive surface, an high count rate capability, a large counter dynamics, a fast readout system and an adjustable energy threshold. X-ray pixel chip with adaptable dynamics (XPAD3) is a new pixellized photon detector based on hybrid pixel technology, which provides low noise data readout at high speed. It is designed in 0.25 μm IBM technology and contains 9600 pixels (130 μm×130 μm) distributed into 80 columns of 120 elements each. Its features have been optimized to fulfill a count rate capability up to 10 +6 photons/pixel/s, an high dynamic range over 35 keV, a very low noise of 130e -, and a threshold adjustment well below 4 keV. Fast data readout below 2 ms/frame is expected. To meet these requirements, an innovative architecture has been designed that makes possible the readout the circuit during acquisition while preserving the precise setting of the thresholds all over the pixel array. The XPAD3 circuit can be bump-bonded with Si, CdTe, or GaAs sensors to optimize its detection efficiency at high X-ray energies. XPAD3 detector modules will be tiled together to form the XPIX detector with a 8 cm×12 cm sensitive area. We present first results obtained using a single-chip prototype of the XPAD3 detector.

  11. The readout chain for the bar PANDA MVD strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Di Pietro, V.; Kleines, H.; Goerres, A.; Riccardi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Sohlbach, H.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2015-02-01

    The bar PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment will study the strong interaction in annihilation reactions between an antiproton beam and a stationary gas jet target. The detector will comprise different sub-detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. The Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) as the innermost part of the tracking system will allow precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. For the readout of the double-sided silicon strip sensors a custom-made ASIC is being developed, employing the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique for digitization and utilize time-to-digital converters (TDC) to provide a high-precision time stamp of the hit. A custom-made Module Data Concentrator ASIC (MDC) will multiplex the data of all front-ends of one sensor towards the CERN-developed GBT chip set (GigaBit Transceiver). The MicroTCA-based MVD Multiplexer Board (MMB) at the off-detector site will receive and concentrate the data from the GBT links and transfer it to FPGA-based compute nodes for global event building.

  12. Test beam campaigns for the CMS Phase I Upgrade pixel readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spannagel, S.; CMS Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    The current CMS silicon pixel detector as the innermost component of the CMS experiment is performing well at LHC design luminosity, but would be subject to severe inefficiencies at LHC peak luminosities of 2 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. Therefore, an upgrade of the CMS pixel detector is planned, including a new readout chip. The chip design comprises additional on-chip buffer cells as well as high-speed data links and low-threshold comparators in the pixel cells. With these changes the upgraded pixel detector will be able to maintain or even improve the efficiency of the current detector at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. The effects of these design changes on e.g. position resolution and charge collection efficiency were studied in detail using a precision tracking telescope at the DESY test beam facilities. The high telescope track resolution enables precise studies of tracking efficiency, charge sharing and collection even within single pixel cells of the device under test. This publication focuses on the improved performance and capabilities of the new pixel readout chip and summarizes results from test beam campaigns with both unirradiated and irradiated devices. The functionality of the chip design with its improved charge threshold, redesigned data transmission and buffering scheme has been verified.

  13. Direct readout of gaseous detectors with tiled CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visschers, J. L.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; van der Graaf, H.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.; Timmermans, J.

    2007-03-01

    A coordinated design effort is underway, exploring the three-dimensional direct readout of gaseous detectors by an anode plate equipped with a tiled array of many CMOS pixel readout ASICs, having amplification grids integrated on their topsides and being contacted on their backside.

  14. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  15. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, S.W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies-imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution-will enable precision cosmological constraints and also awide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the AdvancedACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the AdvancedACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  16. A SPICE model for Si microstrip detectors and read-out electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Bacchetta, N.; Candelori, A.; Bisello, D. |; Calgarotto, C.; Paccagnella, A. |

    1996-06-01

    The authors have developed a SPICE model of silicon microstrip detector and its read-out electronics. The SPICE model of an AC-coupled single-sided polysilicon-biased silicon microstrip detector has been implemented by using a RC network containing up to 19 strips. The main parameters of this model have been determined by direct comparison with DC and AC measurements. The simulated interstrip and coupling impedance and phase angle are in good agreement with experimental results, up to a frequency of 1 MHz. The authors have used the PreShape 32 as the read-out chip for both the simulation and the measurements. It consists of a charge sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaper and a buffer. The SPICE parameters have been adjusted to fit the experimental results obtained for the configuration where every strip is connected to the read-out electronics and kept the same for the different read-out configurations they have considered. By adding 2 further capacitances simulating the parasitic contributions between the read-out channels of the PS32 chip, a satisfactory matching between the experimental data and the simulated curves has been reached on both rising and trailing edges of the signal. Such agreement deteriorates only for strips far from the strip where the signal has been applied.

  17. Development of arrays of Silicon Drift Detectors and readout ASIC for the SIDDHARTA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Bellotti, G.; Butt, A. D.; Fiorini, C.; Bombelli, L.; Giacomini, G.; Ficorella, F.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the development of new Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and readout electronics for the upgrade of the SIDDHARTA experiment. The detector is based on a SDDs array organized in a 4×2 format with each SDD square shaped with 64 mm2 (8×8) active area. The total active area of the array is therefore 32×16 mm2 while the total area of the detector (including 1 mm border dead area) is 34 × 18mm2. The SIDDHARTA apparatus requires 48 of these modules that are designed and manufactured by Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK). The readout electronics is composed by CMOS preamplifiers (CUBEs) and by the new SFERA (SDDs Front-End Readout ASIC) circuit. SFERA is a 16-channels readout ASIC designed in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, which features in each single readout channel a high order shaping amplifier (9th order Semi-Gaussian complex-conjugate poles) and a high efficiency pile-up rejection logic. The outputs of the channels are connected to an analog multiplexer for the external analog to digital conversion. An on-chip 12-bit SAR ADC is also included. Preliminary measurements of the detectors in the single SDD format are reported. Also measurements of low X-ray energies are reported in order to prove the possible extension to the soft X-ray range.

  18. Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, John; Kim, T.; Freytsis, M.; Button-Shafer, J.; Kadyk, J.; Vahsen, S.E.; Wenzel, W.A.

    2007-12-21

    Two layers of GEMs and the ATLAS Pixel Chip, FEI3, have been combined and tested as a prototype for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The double-layer GEM system amplifies charge with gain sufficient to detect all track ionization. The suitability of three gas mixtures for this application was investigated, and gain measurements are presented. A large sample of cosmic ray tracks was reconstructed in 3D by using the simultaneous timing and 2D spatial information from the pixel chip. The chip provides pixel charge measurement as well as timing. These results demonstrate that a double GEM and pixel combination, with a suitably modified pixel ASIC, could meet the stringent readout requirements of the ILC.

  19. A prototype scalable readout system for micro-pattern gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qi-Bin; Liu, Shu-Bin; Tian, Jing; Li, Cheng; Feng, Chang-Qing; An, Qi

    2016-08-01

    A scalable readout system (SRS) is designed to provide a general solution for different micro-pattern gas detectors in various applications. The system mainly consists of three kinds of modules: the ASIC card, the adapter card and the front-end card (FEC). The ASIC cards, mounted with particular ASIC chips, are designed for receiving detector signals. The adapter card is in charge of digitizing the output signals from several ASIC cards. The FEC, edged-mounted with the adapter, has field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based reconfigurable logic and I/O interfaces, allowing users to choose different ASIC cards and adapters for different experiments, which expands the system to various applications. The FEC transfers data through Gigabit Ethernet protocol realized by a TCP processor (SiTCP) IP core in FPGA. By assembling a flexible number of FECs in parallel through Gigabit Ethernet, the readout system can be tailored to specific sizes to adapt to the experiment scales and readout requirements. In this paper, two kinds of multi-channel ASIC chip, VA140 and AGET, are applied to verify the scalability of this SRS architecture. Based on this VA140 or AGET SRS, one FEC covers 8 ASIC (VA140) cards handling 512 detector channels, or 4 ASIC (AGET) cards handling 256 detector channels, respectively. More FECs can be assembled in crates to handle thousands of detector channels. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11222552)

  20. TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

  1. Noise evaluation of silicon strip super-module with ABCN250 readout chips for the ATLAS detector upgrade at the High Luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todome, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Clark, A.; Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; La Marra, D.; Perrin, E.; Weber, M.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Tojo, J.; Kono, T.; Hanagaki, K.; Hirose, M.; Homma, Y.; Sato, S.; Hara, K.; Sato, K.

    2016-09-01

    Toward High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the whole ATLAS inner tracker will be replaced, including the semiconductor tracker (SCT) which is the silicon micro strip detector for tracking charged particles. In development of the SCT, integration of the detector is the important issue. One of the concepts of integration is the "super-module" in which individual modules are assembled to produce the SCT ladder. A super-module prototype has been developed to demonstrate its functionality. One of the concerns in integrating the super-modules is the electrical coupling between each module, because it may increase intrinsic noise of the system. To investigate the electrical performance of the prototype, the new Data Acquisition (DAQ) system has been developed by using SEABAS. The electric performance of the super-module prototype, especially the input noise and random noise hit rate, was investigated by using SEABAS system.

  2. First implementation of the MEPHISTO binary readout architecture for strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.

    2001-04-01

    Today's front-end readout chips for multi-channel silicon strip detectors use pipeline-like structures for temporary storage of hit information until arrival of a trigger signal. This approach leads to large-area chips when long trigger latencies are necessary. The MEPHISTO architecture uses a different concept. Hit strips are identified in real time and only the relevant binary hit information is stored in FIFOs. For the typical occupancies in LHC detectors of ≈1 hit per clock cycle this architecture requires less than half the chip area of a typical binary pipeline. This reduces the system cost considerably. At a lower data rate, operation with very long trigger latencies or even without any trigger is possible due to the real-time data sparsification. The Mephisto II architecture is presented and the expected performance is discussed.

  3. High-flux ptychographic imaging using the new 55 µm-pixel detector ‘Lambda’ based on the Medipix3 readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, R. N. Wallentin, J.; Osterhoff, M.; Pennicard, D.; Zozulya, A.; Sprung, M.; Salditt, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Large Area Medipix-Based Detector Array (Lambda) has been used in a ptychographic imaging experiment on solar-cell nanowires. By using a semi-transparent central stop, the high flux density provided by nano-focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors can be fully exploited for high-resolution phase reconstructions. Suitable detection systems that are capable of recording high photon count rates with single-photon detection are instrumental for coherent X-ray imaging. The new single-photon-counting pixel detector ‘Lambda’ has been tested in a ptychographic imaging experiment on solar-cell nanowires using Kirkpatrick–Baez-focused 13.8 keV X-rays. Taking advantage of the high count rate of the Lambda and dynamic range expansion by the semi-transparent central stop, a high-dynamic-range diffraction signal covering more than seven orders of magnitude has been recorded, which corresponds to a photon flux density of about 10{sup 5} photons nm{sup −2} s{sup −1} or a flux of ∼10{sup 10} photons s{sup −1} on the sample. By comparison with data taken without the semi-transparent central stop, an increase in resolution by a factor of 3–4 is determined: from about 125 nm to about 38 nm for the nanowire and from about 83 nm to about 21 nm for the illuminating wavefield.

  4. A readout for large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Sean; Mazin, Benjamin A; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as transition edge sensors, but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper, we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry. This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research. Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible enough to be used for a variety of signal processing applications.

  5. READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B.; KARGAR, A.; HARRISON, M.J.; MCGREGOR, D.S.

    2006-10-29

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.

  6. A readout for large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Sean; Mazin, Benjamin A; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as transition edge sensors, but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper, we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry. This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research. Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible enough to be used for a variety of signal processing applications. PMID:22559560

  7. Digital readouts for large microwave low-temperature detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; Irwin, Kent D.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-04-01

    Over the last several years many different types of low-temperature detectors (LTDs) have been developed that use a microwave resonant circuit as part of their readout. These devices include microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID), microwave SQUID readouts for transition edge sensors (TES), and NIS bolometers. Current readout techniques for these devices use analog frequency synthesizers and IQ mixers. While these components are available as microwave integrated circuits, one set is required for each resonator. We are exploring a new readout technique for this class of detectors based on a commercial-off-the-shelf technology called software defined radio (SDR). In this method a fast digital to analog (D/A) converter creates as many tones as desired in the available bandwidth. Our prototype system employs a 100 MS/s 16-bit D/A to generate an arbitrary number of tones in 50 MHz of bandwidth. This signal is then mixed up to the desired detector resonant frequency (˜10 GHz), sent through the detector, then mixed back down to baseband. The baseband signal is then digitized with a series of fast analog to digital converters (80 MS/s, 14-bit). Next, a numerical mixer in a dedicated integrated circuit or FPGA mixes the resonant frequency of a specified detector to 0 Hz, and sends the complex detector output over a computer bus for processing and storage. In this paper we will report on our results in using a prototype system to readout a MKID array, including system noise performance, X-ray pulse response, and cross-talk measurements. We will also discuss how this technique can be scaled to read out many thousands of detectors.

  8. Fully digital readout of segmented solid state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, K. H.; Badura, E.; Bräuning, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Koch, K.; Kurz, N.; Märtin, R.; Minami, S.; Ott, W.; Spillmann, U.; Stöhlker, Th; Weber, G.; Weber, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the digital readout of semiconductor detectors in combination with digital filters was investigated. Both non-segmented high-purity germanium and segmented planar lithium-drifted silicon detectors were used. In each case, photons from a stationary americium (241Am) gamma source were detected. The resulting preamplifier output pulses were digitized at a fixed sampling frequency and stored entirely. Digital filters were applied to the stored waveforms to extract time and energy information. The performance of different digital filters was compared. The optimum energy resolution obtained was comparable with the value resulting from an analogue readout system based on standard nuclear instrumentation module and versatile module Europe bus electronics.

  9. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters with On-Chip dc-SQUID Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, S.; Ferring, A.; Fleischmann, A.; Wegner, M.; Enss, C.

    2016-07-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are low-temperature particle detectors that are typically read out by using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). But since MMCs are sensitive to the input circuitry and the noise performance of the SQUID, the energy resolution of MMCs have not yet reached their fundamental limit. A possible solution to overcome present limits is to maximize the flux coupling by minimizing parasitic inductance in the input circuit. To show the suitability of this approach, we realized a 64 pixel MMC detector array with integrated dc-SQUID readout, i.e., detector and SQUID are on the same chip. We observed an influence of the power dissipation of the SQUID on the detector temperature. We achieved a baseline energy resolution of Δ E_mathrm {FWHM} = 25 mathrm {eV} and Δ E_mathrm {FWHM} = 30 mathrm {eV} for X-rays with energies up to 6 mathrm {keV}.

  10. Balanced homodyne readout for quantum limited gravitational wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Fritschel, Peter; Evans, Matthew; Frolov, Valery

    2014-02-24

    Balanced homodyne detection is typically used to measure quantum-noise-limited optical beams, including squeezed states of light, at audio-band frequencies. Current designs of advanced gravitational wave interferometers use some type of homodyne readout for signal detection, in part because of its compatibility with the use of squeezed light. The readout scheme used in Advanced LIGO, called DC readout, is however not a balanced detection scheme. Instead, the local oscillator field, generated from a dark fringe offset, co-propagates with the signal field at the anti-symmetric output of the beam splitter. This article examines the alternative of a true balanced homodyne detection for the readout of gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO. Several practical advantages of the balanced detection scheme are described. PMID:24663746

  11. A vertically integrated pixel readout device for the Vertex Detector at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Christian, David; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    3D-Integrated Circuit technology enables higher densities of electronic circuitry per unit area without the use of nanoscale processes. It is advantageous for mixed mode design with precise analog circuitry because processes with conservative feature sizes typically present lower process dispersions and tolerate higher power supply voltages, resulting in larger separation of a signal from the noise floor. Heterogeneous wafers (different foundries or different process families) may be combined with some 3D integration methods, leading to the optimization of each tier in the 3D stack. Tracking and vertexing in future High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments involves construction of detectors composed of up to a few billions of channels. Readout electronics must record the position and time of each measurement with the highest achievable precision. This paper reviews a prototype of the first 3D readout chip for HEP, designed for a vertex detector at the International Linear Collider. The prototype features 20 x 20 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 64 x 64 elements and was fabricated in a 3-tier 0.18 {micro}m Fully Depleted SOI CMOS process at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory. The tests showed correct functional operation of the structure. The chip performs a zero-suppressed readout. Successive submissions are planned in a commercial 3D bulk 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process to overcome some of the disadvantages of an FDSOI process.

  12. Design of a low noise and high accuracy readout integrated circuit for infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong; Zhou, Hang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, a low noise and high accuracy readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for Infrared detectors is presented. The circuit is made up of capacitor trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA) and correlation double sampling (CDS) circuit. First, the accuracy, and injection efficiency of the CTIA structure which is used to convert the photo-current into voltage are fully discussed. The readout accuracy of weak current signal can be obviously improved by the using of CTIA. Then, the CDS structure with offset calibration technique is used to reduce the fixed pattern noise (FPN) of CTIA. Thus, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the designed readout circuit is improved. By utilizing the above two techniques, the influence of noise on this circuit was greatly reduced and the precision of the ROIC was improved. Besides, the design of amplifier in CTIA is discussed in more detail, which will bring about important effect on performance of the whole circuit. Simulation results at Cadence Spectre demonstrated that the readout circuit had reached the requirement of application. The final chip was fabricated with Chartered 0.35um standard CMOS process. Testing results show that the linearity of CTIA is 99%, and that the readout accuracy is 10-bit, while the detecting current varies from 10pA to 10nA. Furthermore, the infrared image is shown in this paper, which means that the ROIC has a good performance at the practical application.

  13. OLA, A low-noise bipolar amplifier for the readout of Silicon Drift Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, W.; Białas, W.; Bonazzola, G.; Bonvicini, V.; Ceretto, F.; Giubellino, P.; Idzik, M.; Prest, M.; Riccati, L.; Zampa, N.

    1995-11-01

    A very low noise, 32-channel preamplifier/shaper chip has been designed for the analogue readout of silicon detectors. The circuit has been optimised in view of the operation of Silicon Drift Detectors, which have very low capacitance and produce gaussian signals of σ up to ˜ 100 ns. The chip (OLA) has been designed and manufactured using the SHPi full-custom bipolar process by Tektronix. Each channel is composed by a preamplifier, a shaper and a symmetrical line driver, which allows to drive either a positive and a negative single ended output separately on 50 Ω impedance or a differential twisted pair. The intrinsic peaking time of the circuit is ˜ 60 ns, and the noise is below 250 electrons at zero input load capacitance. The power consumption is 2 mW/channel, mostly due to the output driver.

  14. CALORIC: A readout chip for high granularity calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, L.; Bonnard, J.; Manen, S.; Gay, P.; Soumpholphakdy, X.

    2011-07-01

    A very-front-end electronics has been developed to fulfil requirements for the next generation of electromagnetic calorimeters. The compactness of this kind of detector and its large number of channels (up to several millions) impose a drastic limitation of the power consumption and a high level of integration. The electronic channel proposed is first of all composed of a low-noise Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) able to amplify the charge delivered by a silicon diode up to 10 pC. Next, a two-gain shaping, based on a Gated Integration (G.I.), is implemented to cover the 15 bits dynamic range required: a high gain shaper processes signals from 4 fC (charge corresponding to the MIP) up to 1 pC, and a low gain filter handles charges up to 10 pC. The G.I. performs also the analog memorization of the signal until it is digitalized. Hence, the analog-to-digital conversion is carried out through a low-power 12-bit cyclic ADC. If the signal overloads the high-gain channel dynamic range, a comparator selects the low-gain channel instead. Moreover, an auto-trigger channel has been implemented in order to select and store a valid event over the noise. The timing sequence of the channel is managed by a digital IP. It controls the G.I. switches, generates all needed clocks, drives the ADC and delivers the final result over 12 bits. The whole readout channel is power controlled, which permits to reduce the consumption according to the duty cycle of the beam collider. Simulations have been performed with Spectre simulator on the prototype chip designed with the 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology from Austriamicrosystems. Results show a non-linearity better than 0.1% for the high-gain channel, and a non-linearity limited to 1% for the low-gain channel. The Equivalent Noise Charge referred to the input of the channel is evaluated to 0.4 fC complying with the MIP/10 limit. With the timing sequence of the International Linear Collider, which presents a duty cycle of 1%, the power

  15. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  16. Ultra-low-power radiation hard ADC for particle detector readout applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkola, E. O.; Swaminathan, V.; Sivakumar, B.; Barnaby, H. J.

    2013-04-01

    Radiation hard analog to digital converter (ADC) has been designed for future high energy physics experiments. The ADC has been designed in a commercial 130 nm CMOS process and it achieves 12-bit resolution, 25 MS/s sampling speed, 15 mW power consumption and hardness to at least 1.8 Megarad(Si) of total ionizing dose (TID). 16 ADC channels will be placed on one packaged silicon chip. The readout of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector in the planned High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is one possible application for this ADC.

  17. Novel concept of TDI readout circuit for LWIR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byunghyuck; Yoon, Nanyoung; Lee, Hee Chul; Kim, Choong-Ki

    2000-07-01

    Noise property is the prime consideration in readout circuit design. The output noise caused by the photon noise, which dominates total noise in BLIP detectors, is limited by the integration time that an element looks at a specific point in the scene. Large integration time leads to a low noise performance. Time-delay integration (TDI) is used to effectively increase the integration time and reduce the photon noise. However, it increases the number of dead pixels and requires large integration capacitors and low noise output stage of the readout circuit. In this paper, to solve these problems, we propose a new concept of readout circuit, which performs background suppression, cell-to-cell background current non-uniformity compensation, and dead pixel correction using memory, ADC, DAC, and current copier cell. In simulation results, comparing with the conventional TDI readout circuit, the integration capacitor size can be reduced to 1/5 and trans-impedance gain can be increased by five times. Therefore, the new TDI readout circuit does not require large area and low noise output stage. And the error of skimming current is less than 2%, and the fixed pattern noise induced by cell-to-cell background current variation is reduced to less than 1%.

  18. New Approach for 2D Readout of GEM Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hasell, Douglas K

    2011-10-29

    Detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplication (GEM) technology are becoming more and more widely used in nuclear and high energy physics and are being applied in astronomy, medical physics, industry, and homeland security. GEM detectors are thin, low mass, insensitive to magnetic fields, and can currently provide position resolutions down to {approx}50 microns. However, the designs for reconstructing the position, in two dimensions (2D), of the charged particles striking a GEM detector are often complicated to fabricate and expensive. The objective of this proposal is to investigate a simpler procedure for producing the two dimensional readout layer of GEM detectors using readily available printed circuit board technology which can be tailored to the detector requirements. We will use the established GEM laboratory and facilities at M.I.T. currently employed in developing GEM detectors for the STAR forward tracking upgrade to simplify the testing and evaluation of the new 2D readout designs. If this new design proves successful it will benefit future nuclear and high energy physics experiments already being planned and will similarly extend and simplify the application of GEM technology to other branches of science, medicine, and industry. These benefits would be not only in lower costs for fabrication but also it increased flexibility for design and application.

  19. Counting x-ray line detector with monolithically integrated readout circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, T.; Krüger, P.; Heuer, H.; Oppermann, M.; Torlee, H.; Meyendorf, N.

    2013-05-01

    The developed direct converting X-ray line detectors offer a number of advantages in comparison to other X-ray sensor concepts. Direct converting X-ray detectors are based on absorption of X-rays in semiconductor material, which leads to a generation of charge carriers. By applying high bias voltage charge carriers can be separated and with this the arising current pulse can be assessed by suitable readout integrated circuits (ICs) subsequently. The X-ray absorber itself is implemented as a diode based on GaAs to use it in the reverse direction. It exhibits low dark currents and can therefore be used at room temperatures. The GaAs absorber has a structured top electrode designed on variable bonding and high breakdown voltages. The implemented GaAs absorber exhibits a pixel size of 100 μm while the readout IC features fast dead-time-free readout, energy discrimination by two individually adjustable thresholds with 20 bit deep counters and radiation-hard design on chip level. These properties guarantee the application as fast and thus sensitive line detector for imaging processes. Another advantage of the imaging line detector is the cascadability of several sensor modules with 1024 pixels each. This property ensures that the 102.4 mm long sensor modules can be concatenated virtually with arbitrary length gaplessly. The readout ICs hitting radiation dose can be further minimized by implementing constructive steps to ensure longer lifetime of the sensor module. Furthermore, first results using the introduced sensor module for solid state X-ray detection are discussed.

  20. The FE-I4 Pixel Readout Chip and the IBL Module

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, Marlon; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Fang, Xiao-Chao; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Karagounis, Michael; Hans, Kruger; Kruth, Andre; Wermes, Norbert; Breugnon, Patrick; Fougeron, Denis; Gensolen, Fabrice; Menouni, Mohsine; Rozanov, Alexander; Beccherle, Roberto; Darbo, Giovanni; Caminada, Lea; Dube, Sourabh; Fleury, Julien; Gnani, Dario; /LBL, Berkeley /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Gottingen U. /SLAC

    2012-05-01

    FE-I4 is the new ATLAS pixel readout chip for the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector. Designed in a CMOS 130 nm feature size process, the IC is able to withstand higher radiation levels compared to the present generation of ATLAS pixel Front-End FE-I3, and can also cope with higher hit rate. It is thus suitable for intermediate radii pixel detector layers in the High Luminosity LHC environment, but also for the inserted layer at 3.3 cm known as the 'Insertable B-Layer' project (IBL), at a shorter timescale. In this paper, an introduction to the FE-I4 will be given, focusing on test results from the first full size FE-I4A prototype which has been available since fall 2010. The IBL project will be introduced, with particular emphasis on the FE-I4-based module concept.

  1. Coplanar interdigitated grid detector with single electrode readout

    DOEpatents

    Luke, Paul N.

    2001-01-01

    The coplanar interdigitated grid technique with single electrode readout provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional full-area planar electrode detectors and over coplanar interdigitated grid detectors which measure the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar grid electrodes. The signal from only one interdigitated grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. Only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used.

  2. A bio-inspired CMOS vision chip for edge detection using an offset-free column readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Suh, Sung-Ho; Kong, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Minho

    2005-06-01

    The noise problem, such as the fixed pattern noise (FPN) due to the process variation, should be considered when designing a vision chip. In this paper, we proposed an edge detection circuit based on biological retina using an offset-free column readout circuit (OFCRC) to reduce the FPN occurring in the photo-detector. The OFCRC consists of one source follower, one capacitor and five transmission gates. Thus, it is simpler than a conventional correlated double sampling (CDS) circuit. A vision chip for edge detection has been designed and fabricated using a 0.35μm 2-poly 4-metal CMOS process and its output characteristics have been investigated.

  3. A generic readout environment for prototype pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turqueti, Marcos; Rivera, Ryan; Prosser, Alan; Kwan, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Pixel detectors for experimental particle physics research have been implemented with a variety of readout formats and potentially generate massive amounts of data. Examples include the PSI46 device for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which implements an analog readout, the Fermilab FPIX2.1 device with a digital readout, and the Fermilab Vertically Integrated Pixel device. The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a data acquisition system flexible and powerful enough to meet the various needs of these devices to support laboratory test bench as well as test beam applications. The system is called CAPTAN (Compact And Programmable daTa Acquisition Node) and is characterized by its flexibility, versatility and scalability by virtue of several key architectural features. These include a vertical bus that permits the user to stack multiple boards, a gigabit Ethernet link that permits high speed communications to the system and a core group of boards that provide specific processing and readout capabilities for the system. System software based on distributed computing techniques supports an expandable network of CAPTANs. In this paper, we describe the system architecture and give an overview of its capabilities.

  4. Development of front-end readout electronics for silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yi; Su, Hong; Kong, Jie; Dong, Cheng-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Li; Li, Xiao-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Front-end readout electronics have been developed for silicon strip detectors at our institute. In this system an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) ATHED is used to realize multi-channel energy and time measurements. The slow control of ASIC chips is achieved by parallel port and the timing control signals of ASIC chips are implemented with the CPLD. The data acquisition is carried out with a PXI-DAQ card. The software has a user-friendly GUI developed with LabWindows/CVI in the Windows XP operating system. The test results show that the energy resolution is about 1.14% for alpha at 5.48 MeV and the maximum channel crosstalk of the system is 4.60%. The performance of the system is very reliable and is suitable for nuclear physics experiments.

  5. High-Resolution Mammography Detector Employing Optical Switching Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Katsutoshi; Sendai, Tomonari; Hosoi, Yuichi

    Conceiving a new detector structure, FUJIFILM Corporation has successfully put its invention of an X-ray detector employing "Optical Switching" into practical use. Since Optical Switching Technology allows an electrode structure to be easily designed, both high resolution of pixel pitch and low electrical noise readout have been achieved, which have consequently realized the world's smallest pixel size of 50×50 μm2 from a Direct-conversion FPD system as well as high DQE. The digital mammography system equipped with this detector enables to acquire high definition images while maintaining granularity. Its outstanding feature is to be able to acquire high-precision images of microcalcifications which is an important index in breast examination.

  6. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2004-05-18

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  7. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2006-12-12

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  8. Detector apparatus having a hybrid pixel-waveform readout system

    DOEpatents

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2014-10-21

    A gamma ray detector apparatus comprises a solid state detector that includes a plurality of anode pixels and at least one cathode. The solid state detector is configured for receiving gamma rays during an interaction and inducing a signal in an anode pixel and in a cathode. An anode pixel readout circuit is coupled to the plurality of anode pixels and is configured to read out and process the induced signal in the anode pixel and provide triggering and addressing information. A waveform sampling circuit is coupled to the at least one cathode and configured to read out and process the induced signal in the cathode and determine energy of the interaction, timing of the interaction, and depth of interaction.

  9. Review of hybrid pixel detector readout ASICs for spectroscopic X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabriga, R.; Alozy, J.; Campbell, M.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E. H. M.; Koenig, T.; Llopart, X.; Marchal, J.; Pennicard, D.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.; Zuber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor detector readout chips with pulse processing electronics have made possible spectroscopic X-ray imaging, bringing an improvement in the overall image quality and, in the case of medical imaging, a reduction in the X-ray dose delivered to the patient. In this contribution we review the state of the art in semiconductor-detector readout ASICs for spectroscopic X-ray imaging with emphasis on hybrid pixel detector technology. We discuss how some of the key challenges of the technology (such as dealing with high fluxes, maintaining spectral fidelity, power consumption density) are addressed by the various ASICs. In order to understand the fundamental limits of the technology, the physics of the interaction of radiation with the semiconductor detector and the process of signal induction in the input electrodes of the readout circuit are described. Simulations of the process of signal induction are presented that reveal the importance of making use of the small pixel effect to minimize the impact of the slow motion of holes and hole trapping in the induced signal in high-Z sensor materials. This can contribute to preserve fidelity in the measured spectrum with relatively short values of the shaper peaking time. Simulations also show, on the other hand, the distortion in the energy spectrum due to charge sharing and fluorescence photons when the pixel pitch is decreased. However, using recent measurements from the Medipix3 ASIC, we demonstrate that the spectroscopic information contained in the incoming photon beam can be recovered by the implementation in hardware of an algorithm whereby the signal from a single photon is reconstructed and allocated to the pixel with the largest deposition.

  10. Radiation Tolerance Studies of BTeV Pixel Readout Chip Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2001-09-11

    We report on several irradiation studies performed on BTeV preFPIX2 pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The preFPIX2 pixel readout chip has been implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose of 26 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been measured.

  11. R&D on a novel spectro-imaging polarimeter with Micromegas detectors and a Caliste readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attié, D.; Blondel, C.; Boilevin-Kayl, L.; Desforges, D.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gevin, O.; Jeanneau, F.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Peyaud, A.

    2015-07-01

    Micromegas detectors, part of the Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) family, are used in a very wide range of applications in the High Energy Physics community but also in astroparticle and neutrino physics. In most of the Micromegas applications the design of the detector vessel and the readout plane is extremely coupled. A way of dissociating these two components would be by separating the amplification structure and the detector volume from the readout plane and electronics. This is achieved with the so called piggyback Micromegas detectors. They open up new possibilities of applications in terms of adaptability to new electronics. In particular piggyback resistive Micromegas can be easily coupled to modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests have been carried out with a Medipix chip where the protection of the resistive layer has been proved. The results of very recent tests coupling piggyback Micromegas with the readout module of Caliste are presented. Caliste is a high performance spectro-imager with event time-tagging capability, able to detect photons between 2 keV and 250 keV in the context of a spatial micro spectro-imaging polarimetrer. In the current application, with the Piggyback Micromegas, we use the readout module only as the sensitive detector. We benefit of the good spatial resolution thanks to the high density readout pixels (~600 μm pixel pitch), to the low noise, to the low power and to the radiation hard integrated front-end IDEF-X electronics. The advantage of such a device is to have a high gain, low noise, low threshold, and robust detector operating at room temperature. This would be very attractive for spatial applications, for instance X-ray polarisation.

  12. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  13. A 32-channel charge readout IC for programmable, nonlinear quantization of multichannel detector data

    SciTech Connect

    Garverick, S.L.; Skrenes, L.; Baertsch, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    A Charge Readout Integrated Circuit (CRIC) which converts detector charges to digital codes is described. The CRIC provides 32 channels of circuitry needed to form charge-to-digital converters having a total dynamic range of 17 b comprised of 4 b of pre-amp gain control and a conversion range of 13 b. Each channel includes a switched-capacitor integrator, a double-sampling amplifier, a sampling comparator, and a 12-b digital latch, forming a pipeline from which a new conversion result is readout every 50 {mu}s. The data conversion scheme implements a programmable compression curve, which is stored as a look-up table in an off-chip, digital memory. In addition to the lookup table, data conversion requires an off-chip digital-to-analog converter, both of which may be shared by any number of CRIC`S. The CRIC was fabricated using a 3-{mu}m, n-well BiCMOS process, and occupies a die area of 5.1 mm {times} 7.5 mm. It operates at 10 MHz, consumes 440 mW from {+-}5-V supplies, and has a demonstrated input-referred noise performance of 2.2 {mu}V rms i.e., 1,400 e{sup {minus}} on 100 pF of shunt capacitance.

  14. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  15. GOSSIP: A vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a CMOS readout pixel array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M.; Heijne, E. H. M.; Llopart, X.; Colas, P.; Giganon, A.; Giomataris, Y.; Chefdeville, M.; Colijn, A. P.; Fornaini, A.; van der Graaf, H.; Kluit, P.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.; Schmitz, J.

    2006-05-01

    A small TPC has been read out by means of a Medipix2 chip as direct anode. A Micromegas foil was placed 50 μm above the chip, and electron multiplication occurred in the gap. With a He/isobutane 80/20 mixture, gas multiplication factors up to tens of thousands were achieved, resulting in an efficiency for detecting single electrons of better than 90%. With this new readout technology for gas-filled detectors we recorded many image frames containing 2D images with tracks from cosmic muons. Along these tracks, electron clusters were observed, as well as δ-rays. With a gas layer thickness of only 1 mm, the device could be applied as vertex detector, outperforming all Si-based detectors.

  16. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  17. TPC-like readout for thermal neutron detection using a GEM-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Biebel, O.; Zeitelhack, K.

    2016-07-01

    Spatial resolution of less than 200 μm is challenging for thermal neutron detection. A novel readout scheme based on the time-projection-chamber (TPC) concept is used in a gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detector [1]. Thermal neutrons are captured in a single 2 μm thick Boron-10 converter cathode and secondary Helium and Lithium ions are produced with a combined energy of 2.8 MeV. These ions have sufficient energy to form straight tracks of several mm length. With a time resolving 2-dimensional readout of 400 μm pitch in both directions, based on APV25 chips, the ions are tracked and their respective origin in the cathode converter foil is reconstructed. Using an Ar-CO2 93:7% gas mixture, a resolution of 100 μm (FWHM 235 μm) has been observed with a triple GEM-detector setup at the Garching neutron source (FRMII) for neutrons of 4.7 Å.

  18. Optical readout in a multi-module system test for the ATLAS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, Tobias; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Gerlach, Peter; Kersten, Susanne; Mättig, Peter; Nderitu Kirichu, Simon; Reeves, Kendall; Richter, Jennifer; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-09-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN, will be a pixel detector, which is presently under construction. The command messages and the readout data of the detector are transmitted over an optical data path. The readout chain consists of many components which are produced at several locations around the world, and must work together in the pixel detector. To verify that these parts are working together as expected a system test has been built up. It consists of detector modules, optoboards, optical fibres, Back of Crate cards, Readout Drivers, and control computers. In this paper, the system test setup and the operation of the readout chain are described. Also, some results of tests using the final pixel detector readout chain are given.

  19. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  20. The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector readout chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Gfall, I.; Irmler, C.; Valentan, M.

    2013-02-01

    The Silicon Vertex Detector of the future Belle II experiment at KEK (Japan) will consist of 6'' double-sided strip sensors. Those are read out by APV25 chips (originally developed for CMS) which are powered by DC/DC converters with low voltages tied to the sensor bias potentials. The signals are transmitted by cable links of about 12 meters. In the back-end, the data are digitized and processed by FADC modules with powerful FPGAs, which are also capable of precisely measuring the hit time of each particle in order to discard off-time background.

  1. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  2. Performance studies of a Micromegas detector with a pad readout geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düdder, A.; Lin, T.-H.; Neuhaus, F.; Schott, M.; Valderanis, C.

    2016-07-01

    The results of several performance studies of two prototype Micromegas pad detectors with two different coupling implementations between the resistive and the readout layer are presented. Both prototype detectors have an active area of 10 × 10cm2 and comprise 500 pads with a size of 5 × 4mm2. The first detector has a capacitive coupling between the resistive and the readout layer, as it is well known from Micromegas detectors with a strip readout. The second detector implements a resistive coupling between each readout pad and the resistive layer on top of it with a resistivity of 5 MΩ. In particular, the size of reconstructed charge clusters in both detector types is discussed and compared here for different drift- and amplification voltages.

  3. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    DOEpatents

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  4. Thermal Neutron Detectors with Discrete Anode Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,B.; Schaknowski, N.A., Smith, G.C., DeGeronimo, G., Vernon, E.O.

    2008-10-19

    A new two-dimensional thermal neutron detector concept that is capable of very high rates is being developed. It is based on neutron conversion in {sup 3}He in an ionization chamber (unity gas gain) that uses only a cathode and anode plane; there is no additional electrode such as a Frisch grid. The cathode is simply the entrance window, and the anode plane is composed of discrete pads, each with their own readout electronics implemented via application specific integrated circuits. The aim is to provide a new generation of detectors with key characteristics that are superior to existing techniques, such as higher count rate capability, better stability, lower sensitivity to background radiation, and more flexible geometries. Such capabilities will improve the performance of neutron scattering instruments at major neutron user facilities. In this paper, we report on progress with the development of a prototype device that has 48 x 48 anode pads and a sensitive area of 24cm x 24cm.

  5. Readout, first- and second-level triggers of the new Belle silicon vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Asano, Y.; Aso, T.; Bakich, A.; Browder, T.; Chang, M. C.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chidzik, S.; Dalseno, J.; Dowd, R.; Dragic, J.; Everton, C. W.; Fernholz, R.; Fujii, H.; Gao, Z. W.; Gordon, A.; Guo, Y. N.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Harada, Y.; Haruyama, T.; Hasuko, K.; Hayashi, K.; Hazumi, M.; Heenan, E. M.; Higuchi, T.; Hirai, H.; Hitomi, N.; Igarashi, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, K.; Iwaida, S.; Kaneko, J.; Kapusta, P.; Karawatzki, R.; Kasami, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koike, S.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kurashiro, H.; Kusaka, A.; Lesiak, T.; Limosani, A.; Lin, W. C.; Marlow, D.; Matsumoto, H.; Mikami, Y.; Miyake, H.; Moloney, G. R.; Mori, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakano, Y.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nozaki, S.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohno, F.; Okuno, S.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Ozaki, H.; Peak, L.; Pernicka, M.; Rosen, M.; Rozanska, M.; Sato, N.; Schmid, S.; Shibata, T.; Stamen, R.; Stanič, S.; Steininger, H.; Sumisawa, K.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takasaki, F.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Terazaki, H.; Tomura, T.; Trabelsi, K.; Trischuk, W.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Ueno, K.; Ueno, K.; Uozaki, N.; Ushiroda, Y.; Vahsen, S.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, M. Z.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yanai, H.; Yang, R.; Yasu, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Ziegler, T.; Žontar, D.

    2004-12-01

    A major upgrade of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD 2.0) of the Belle experiment at the KEKB factory was installed along with new front-end and back-end electronics systems during the summer shutdown period in 2003 to cope with higher particle rates, improve the track resolution and meet the increasing requirements of radiation tolerance. The SVD 2.0 detector modules are read out by VA1TA chips which provide "fast or" (hit) signals that are combined by the back-end FADCTF modules to coarse, but immediate level 0 track trigger signals at rates of several tens of a kHz. Moreover, the digitized detector signals are compared to threshold lookup tables in the FADCTFs to pass on hit information on a single strip basis to the subsequent level 1.5 trigger system, which reduces the rate below the kHz range. Both FADCTF and level 1.5 electronics make use of parallel real-time processing in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), while further data acquisition and event building is done by PC farms running Linux. The new readout system hardware is described and the first results obtained with cosmics are shown.

  6. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmeier, S.; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H. K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-09-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m2) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  7. A Pixel Readout Chip in 40 nm CMOS Process for High Count Rate Imaging Systems with Minimization of Charge Sharing Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Maj, Piotr; Grybos, P.; Szczgiel, R.; Kmon, P.; Drozd, A.; Deptuch, G.

    2013-11-07

    We present a prototype chip in 40 nm CMOS technology for readout of hybrid pixel detector. The prototype chip has a matrix of 18x24 pixels with a pixel pitch of 100 m. It can operate both in single photon counting (SPC) mode and in C8P1 mode. In SPC the measured ENC is 84 e rms (for the peaking time of 48 ns), while the effective offset spread is below 2 mV rms. In the C8P1 mode the chip reconstructs full charge deposited in the detector, even in the case of charge sharing, and it identifies a pixel with the largest charge deposition. The chip architecture and preliminary measurements are reported.

  8. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.; Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e- and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e- rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  9. Design of the low area monotonic trim DAC in 40 nm CMOS technology for pixel readout chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, A.; Szczygiel, R.; Maj, P.; Satlawa, T.; Grybos, P.

    2014-12-01

    The recent research in hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode focuses on nanometer or 3D technologies which allow making pixels smaller and implementing more complex solutions in each of the pixels. Usually single pixel in readout electronics for X-ray detection comprises of charge amplifier, shaper and discriminator that allow classification of events occurring at the detector as true or false hits by comparing amplitude of the signal obtained with threshold voltage, which minimizes the influence of noise effects. However, making the pixel size smaller often causes problems with pixel to pixel uniformity and additional effects like charge sharing become more visible. To improve channel-to-channel uniformity or implement an algorithm for charge sharing effect minimization, small area trimming DACs working in each pixel independently are necessary. However, meeting the requirement of small area often results in poor linearity and even non-monotonicity. In this paper we present a novel low-area thermometer coded 6-bit DAC implemented in 40 nm CMOS technology. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on the described design proving that under all conditions designed DAC is inherently monotonic. Presented DAC was implemented in the prototype readout chip with 432 pixels working in single photon counting mode, with two trimming DACs in each pixel. Each DAC occupies the area of 8 μm × 18.5 μm. Measurements and chips' tests were performed to obtain reliable statistical results.

  10. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, M. S. Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumor, D.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  11. Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grabas, H.; Oberla, E.; Attenkoffer, K.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J.; Genat, J. F.; May, E. N.; Varner, G. S.; Wetstein, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)

  12. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  13. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, T. A.; Anjos, J. C.; Azzi, G.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chimenti, P.; Costa, J. A.; Dornelas, T. I.; Farias, P. C. M. A.; Guedes, G. P.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Kemp, E.; Lima, H. P.; Machado, R.; Nóbrega, R. A.; Pepe, I. M.; Ribeiro, D. B. S.; Simas Filho, E. F.; Valdiviesso, G. A.; Wagner, S.

    2016-09-01

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  14. PACIFIC: the readout ASIC for the SciFi Tracker of the upgraded LHCb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazorra, J.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gascón, D.; Gómez, S.; Han, X.; Pillet, N.; Vandaele, R.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and will switch to a 40 MHz readout rate using a trigger-less software based system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with the higher detector occupancy and radiation damage. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed and a custom ASIC, called the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC), will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. This article presents an overview of the R&D for the PACIFIC. It is a 64-channel ASIC implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology, aiming at a radiation tolerant design with a power consumption below 10 mW per channel. It interfaces directly with the SiPM anode through a current mode input, and provides a configurable non-linear 2-bit per channel digital output. The SiPM signal is acquired by a current conveyor and processed with a fast shaper and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a three threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. Simulation and test results show the PACIFIC chip prototypes functioning well.

  15. ASICs in nanometer and 3D technologies for readout of hybrid pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, Piotr; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Szczygiel, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors working in a single photon counting mode are very attractive solutions for material science and medical X-ray imaging applications. Readout electronics of these detectors has to match the geometry of pixel detectors with an area of readout channel of 100 μm × 100 μm (or even less) and very small power consumption (a few tens of μW). New solutions of readout ASICs are going into directions of better spatial resolutions, higher data throughput and more advanced functionality. We report on the design and measurement results of two pixel prototype ASICs in nanometer technology and 3D technology which offer fast signal processing, low noise performance and advanced functionality per single readout pixel cell.

  16. First test results from a high-resolution CdZnTe pixel detector with VLSI readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Walter R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Burnham, Jill A.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kecman, Branislav; Matthews, Brian; Schindler, Steven M.; Fitzsimmons, Michael

    1999-10-01

    We are developing a CdZnTe pixel detector with a custom low- noise analog VLSI readout for use in the High-Energy Focusing Telescope balloon experiment, as well as for future space astronomy applications. The goal of the program is to achieve good energy resolution (< 1 keV FWHM at 60 keV) and low threshold in a sensor with approximately 500 micrometers pixels. We have fabricated several prototype detector assemblies with 2 mm thick, 680 by 650 micrometers pitch CdZnTe pixel sensors indium bump bonded a VLSI readout chip developed at Caltech. Each readout circuit in the 8 X 8 prototype is matched to the detector pixel size, and contains a preamplifier, shaping amplifiers, and a peak stretcher/discriminator. In the first 8 X 8 prototype, we have demonstrated the low-noise preamplifier by routing the output signals off-chip for shaping and pulse-height analysis. Pulse height spectra obtained using a 241Am source, collimated to illuminate a single pixel, show excellent energy resolution of 1.1 keV FWHM for the 60 keV line at room temperature. Line profiles are approximately Gaussian and dominated by electronic noise, however a small low energy tail is evident for the 60 keV line. We obtained slightly improved resolution of 0.9 keV FWHM at 60 keV by cooling the detector to 5 degree(s)C, near the expected balloon- flight operating temperature. Pulse height spectra obtained with the collimated source positioned between pixels show the effect of signal sharing for events occurring near the boundary. We are able to model the observed spectra using a Monte-Carlo simulation that includes the effects of photon interaction, charge transport and diffusion, pixel and collimator geometry, and electronic noise. By using the model to simulate the detector response to uncollimated radiation (including the effect of finite trigger threshold for reconstruction of the total energy of multi-pixel events), we find the energy resolution to be degraded by only 10% for full

  17. The TDCpix readout ASIC: A 75 ps resolution timing front-end for the NA62 Gigatracker hybrid pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, A.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonacini, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Poltorak, K.

    2013-12-01

    The TDCpix is a novel pixel readout ASIC for the NA62 Gigatracker detector. NA62 is a new experiment being installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Its Gigatracker detector shall provide on-beam tracking and time stamping of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. It will consist of three tracking stations, each with one hybrid pixel sensor. The peak flow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm2 for a total rate of about 0.75 GHz. Ten TDCpix chips will be bump-bonded to every silicon pixel sensor. Each chip shall perform time stamping of 100 M particle hits per second with a detection efficiency above 99% and a timing accuracy better than 200 ps rms for an overall three-station-setup time resolution of better than 150 ps. The TDCpix chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It will feature 45×40 square pixels of 300×300 μm2 and a complex End of Column peripheral region including an array of TDCs based on DLLs, four high speed serializers, a low-jitter PLL, readout and control circuits. This contribution will describe the complete design of the final TDCpix ASIC. It will discuss design choices, the challenges faced and some of the lessons learned. Furthermore, experimental results from the testing of circuit prototypes will be presented. These demonstrate the achievement of key performance figures such as a time resolution of the processing chain of 75 ps rms with a laser sent to the center of the pixel and the capability of time stamping charged particles with an overall resolution below 200 ps rms.

  18. Development of an ASIC for the readout and control of near-infrared large array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Dirk; Berge, Hans Kristian Otnes; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Altan, Mehmet A.; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Azman, Suleyman; Talebi, Jahanzad; Olsen, Alf; Øya, Petter; Paahlsson, Philip; Gheorghe, Codin; Maehlum, Gunnar

    2014-07-01

    The article describes the near infrared readout and controller ASIC (NIRCA) developed by Integrated Detector Electronics AS (IDEAS). The project aims at future astronomical science and Earth observation missions, where the ASIC will be used with image sensors based on mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe, or MCT). NIRCA is designed to operate from cryogenic temperatures (77 K) to higher than room temperature (328 K) and in a high radiation environment (LET > 60 MeVcm2/mg). The ASIC connects to the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) and delivers fully digitized data via serial digital output. The ASIC contains an analogue front-end (AFE) with 4 analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs) and programmable gain amplifiers with offset adjustment. The ADCs have a differential input swing of +/-2 V, 12-bit resolution, and a maximum sample rate of 3 MSps. The ASIC contains a programmable sequencer (microcontroller) to generate up to 40 digital signals for the ROIC and to control the analogue front-end and DACs on the chip. The ASIC has two power supply voltage regulators that provide the ROIC with 1.8 V and 3.3 V, and programmable 10-bit DACs to generate 16 independent reference and bias voltages from 0.3 V to 3 V. In addition NIRCA allows one to read 8 external digital signals, and monitor external and internal analogue signals including onchip temperature. NIRCA can be programmed and controlled via SPI interface for all internal functions and allows data forwarding from and to the ROIC SPI interface.

  19. Method for producing a hybridization of detector array and integrated circuit for readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process is explained for fabricating a detector array in a layer of semiconductor material on one substrate and an integrated readout circuit in a layer of semiconductor material on a separate substrate in order to select semiconductor material for optimum performance of each structure, such as GaAs for the detector array and Si for the integrated readout circuit. The detector array layer is lifted off its substrate, laminated on the metallized surface on the integrated surface, etched with reticulating channels to the surface of the integrated circuit, and provided with interconnections between the detector array pixels and the integrated readout circuit through the channels. The adhesive material for the lamination is selected to be chemically stable to provide electrical and thermal insulation and to provide stress release between the two structures fabricated in semiconductor materials that may have different coefficients of thermal expansion.

  20. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  1. Design and performance of the ABCD3TA ASIC for readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Lozano, M.; Martinez, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Rafi, J. M.; Ullan, M.; Johansen, L. G.; Mohn, B.; Oye, O.; Solberg, A. O.; Stugu, B.; Ciocio, A.; Ely, R.; Fadeyev, V.; Gilchriese, M.; Haber, C.; Siegrist, J.; Spieler, H.; Vu, C.; Bell, P. J.; Charlton, D. G.; Dowell, J. D.; Gallop, B. J.; Homer, R. J.; Jovanovic, P.; Mahout, G.; McMahon, T. J.; Wilson, J. A.; Barr, A. J.; Carter, J. R.; Goodrick, M. J.; Hill, J. C.; Lester, C. G.; Parker, M. A.; Robinson, D.; Anghinolfi, F.; Chesi, E.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Macpherson, A.; Pernegger, H.; Pritchard, T.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Weilhammer, P.; Bialas, W.; Dabrowski, W.; Dwuznik, M.; Toczek, B.; Koperny, S.; Bruckman, P.; Gadomski, S.; Gornicki, E.; Malecki, P.; Moszczynski, A.; Stanecka, E.; Szczygiel, R.; Turala, M.; Wolter, M.; Feld, L.; Ketterer, C.; Ludwig, J.; Meinhardt, J.; Runge, K.; Clark, A. G.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.; Ferrere, D.; La Marra, D.; Macina, D.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Mikulec, B.; Zsenei, A.; Bates, R. L.; Cheplakov, A.; Iwata, Y.; Ohsugi, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Terada, S.; Ujiie, N.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Allport, P. P.; Greenall, A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jones, T. J.; Smith, N. A.; Beck, G. A.; Carter, A. A.; Morris, J.; Morin, J.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Foster, J. M.; Pater, J.; Snow, S. W.; Thompson, R. J.; Atkinson, T. M.; Dick, B.; Fares, F.; Moorhead, G. F.; Taylor, G. N.; Andricek, L.; Bethke, S.; Hauff, D.; Kudlaty, J.; Lutz, G.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.; Schieck, J.; Colijn, A.-P.; Cornelissen, T.; Gorfine, G. W.; Hartjes, F. G.; Hessey, N. P.; de Jong, P.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Peeters, S. J. M.; van Eijk, B.; Nakano, I.; Tanaka, R.; Dorholt, O.; Danielsen, K. M.; Huse, T.; Sandaker, H.; Stapnes, S.; Kundu, N.; Nickerson, R. B.; Weidberg, A.; Bohm, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Stastny, J.; Broklova, Z.; Broz, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Kubik, P.; Reznicek, P.; Vorobel, V.; Wilhelm, I.; Cermák, P.; Chren, D.; Horazdovský, T.; Linhart, V.; Pospísil, S.; Sinor, M.; Solar, M.; Sopko, B.; Stekl, I.; Apsimon, R. J.; Batchelor, L. E.; Bizzell, J. P.; Falconer, N. G.; French, M. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Haywood, S. J.; Matson, R. M.; McMahon, S. J.; Morrissey, M.; Murray, W. J.; Phillips, P. W.; Tyndel, M.; Villani, E. G.; Cosgrove, D. P.; Dorfan, D. E.; Grillo, A. A.; Kachiguine, S.; Rosenbaum, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Wilder, M.; Akimoto, T.; Hara, K.; Tanizaki, K.; Bingefors, N.; Brenner, R.; Ekelof, T.; Eklund, L.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Costa, M. J.; Fuster, J.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Navarro, J. E.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Lacasta, C.; Llosa, G.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Modesto, P.; Sanchez, F. J.; Sospedra, L.; Vos, M.

    2005-11-01

    The ABCD3TA is a 128-channel ASIC with binary architecture for the readout of silicon strip particle detectors in the Semiconductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The chip comprises fast front-end and amplitude discriminator circuits using bipolar devices, a binary pipeline for first level trigger latency, a second level derandomising buffer and data compression circuitry based on CMOS devices. It has been designed and fabricated in a BiCMOS radiation resistant process. Extensive testing of the ABCD3TA chips assembled into detector modules show that the design meets the specifications and maintains the required performance after irradiation up to a total ionising dose of 10 Mrad and a 1-MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 2×10 14 n/cm 2, corresponding to 10 years of operation of the LHC at its design luminosity. Wafer screening and quality assurance procedures have been developed and implemented in large volume production to ensure that the chips assembled into modules meet the rigorous acceptance criteria.

  2. Readout electronics upgrade on ALICE/PHOS detector for Run 2 of LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Zhang, F.; Feng, W.; Huang, G.; Song, Z.; Yin, Z.; Zhou, D.

    2015-02-01

    The ALICE/PHOS detector is carrying out a major upgrade of its readout electronics for the RUN 2 of LHC (2015-2017). A new architecture based on the point to point link is developed. The event readout rate can achieve 30 kHz by replacing the old parallel GTL bus with DTC links. The communication stability of the interface between front-end electronic boards and readout concentrators is significantly improved. A new FPGA firmware is designed to be compatible with the upgraded ALICE trigger system and DATE software.

  3. FPIX2: A radiation-hard pixel readout chip for BTeV

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Christian et al.

    2000-12-11

    A radiation-hard pixel readout chip, FPIX2, is being developed at Fermilab for the recently approved BTeV experiment. Although designed for BTeV, this chip should also be appropriate for use by CDF and DZero. A short review of this development effort is presented. Particular attention is given to the circuit redesign which was made necessary by the decision to implement FPIX2 using a standard deep-submicron CMOS process rather than an explicitly radiation-hard CMOS technology, as originally planned. The results of initial tests of prototype 0.25{micro} CMOS devices are presented, as are plans for the balance of the development effort.

  4. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hyejin; Kang, Homan; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Lee, Ho-Young; Jeong, Dae Hong

    2015-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  5. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Hyejin; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Jeong, Dae Hong E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com; Kang, Homan; Lee, Yoon-Sik E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com; Lee, Ho-Young E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  6. A multiplex readout method for position sensitive boron coated straw neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao; Gong, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xuewu; Li, Yuanjing; Kang, Kejun

    2015-10-01

    A 1 m×1 m boron coated straw neutron detector is expected to be used to build the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument of the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) in Tsinghua University. A multiplex readout method based on summing circuits in columns and rows is studied for this large area position sensitive detector. In this method, the outputs of charge sensitive preamplifiers are combined by columns and rows at two ends of the detector, and then the shaped signals are sampled by flash ADCs. With the position reconstructed algorithm implemented in FPGA which analyzes the charge division and column and row number of signals, the 3-D position information of neutron events can be obtained. The position resolution and counting rate performance of this method are analyzed, and the comparison to the delay-line readout method is also given. With the multiplex readout method, the scale of readout electronics can be greatly reduced and a good position resolution can be reached. A readout electronics system for a detector module which consists 4 × 10 straw tubes is designed based on this method, and the test with neutron beam shows an average 3-D spatial resolution of 4 × 4 × 6.8mm3.

  7. A low-noise 64-channel front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, B.; Wei, T.; Gao, W.; Liu, H.; Hu, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the recent development of a 64-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a leakage current compensation circuit, a CR-RC shaper, two S-K filters, an inverse proportional amplifier, a peak-detect-and-hold circuit, a discriminator and trigger logic, a time sequence control circuit and a driving buffer. The readout ASIC is implemented in TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm×8.0 mm. The overall gain of the readout channel is 200 mV/fC, the power consumption is less than 8 mW/channel, the linearity error is less than 1%, the inconsistency among the channels is less than 2.86%, and the equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 66 e- at zero farad plus 14 e- per picofarad. By connecting this readout ASIC to an 8×8 pixel CdZnTe detector, we obtained an energy spectrum, the energy resolution of which is 4.5% at the 59.5 keV line of 241Am source.

  8. FDM Readout Assembly with Flexible, Superconducting Connection to Cryogenic kilo-Pixel TES Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruijn, M. P.; van der Linden, A. J.; Ridder, M. L.; van Weers, H. J.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a new fabrication process for a superconducting, flexible, and demountable connector to a kilo-pixel transition edge sensor. The demountable part contains planar coils for inductive coupling, in particular suited for AC-biased frequency domain multiplexed readout. A fixed connection to a chip with superconducting LC filters and SQUID readout is made by gold bump bonding with a connection resistance of 1.1 {× } 10^{-4} Ω . The Nb-based connecting lines on the flexible part show a superconducting transition around 7 K, which enables testing of connectors and LC filters in a simple L-He setup.

  9. Novel PbS detector chip pattern with extinction function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fengjin; Si, Junjie; Su, Xianjun; Lv, Yanqiu; Shi, Zhengfeng

    2015-10-01

    A novel chip pattern with extinction function in Lead salt detectors is specified. Lead Sulfide (PbS) polycrystalline film is prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CMD) on a transparent substrate, then a special figure and structure is saved by lithography techonology on the substrate. As a quaternion detector chip that made by PbS thin film for example in this paper, whose performance including signal, noise, weak-peaks and the uniformity of the chip are too poor to meet the detecting system at the initial stage of research, and the qualified ratio of chips is only 3% .This paper explains the reason why the performance and qualified ratio of chips were so poor, focuses on a novel chip pattern with extinction which avoided the disadvantages of traditional one. the novel chip pattern has been applied in detectors. The novel chip pattern is prepared with PbS thin film which both "extinction slice" and detector chip are based on a same substrate , which not only had absorbed the jumbled light , improved the uniformity and other performance of photosensitive elements, but also had left out the assembly diffculty and precision demand when a extinction slice assembly in the restricted space of inswept detector chip, omitted the production process of extinction slice and shorten the assembly process of the detectors, and the qualified ratio of chips had been improved from 3% to 98%.

  10. Counting rate enhancements in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with improved readout circuits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingyuan; Jia, Tao; Gu, Min; Wan, Chao; Zhang, Labao; Xu, Weiwei; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2014-04-01

    Counting rates of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors are usually estimated at hundreds of MHz by their kinetic-inductive reset time. This maximum is also limited by capacitor coupling effects in conventional readout circuits. In this Letter, we design and demonstrate an improved readout circuit that reduces the reset time and removes circuit limits. The counting rate at the 3 dB compression point is increased by four times for a large active area detector. We also discuss nonlinear dependences of the counting rate on the incident continuous-wave optical power and give a numerical model to explain our observations.

  11. A large dynamic range readout design for the plastic scintillator detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yongjie; Fang, Fang; Chen, Junling; Hu, Bitao

    2016-08-01

    A large dynamic range is required by the Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) of DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) to detect particles from electron to heavy ions with Z ≤ 20. To expand the dynamic range, the readout design based on the double-dynodes signal extraction from the photomultiplier tube has been proposed and adopted by PSD. To verify this design, a prototype detector module has been constructed and tested with cosmic ray and relativistic ion beam. The results match with the estimation and the readout unit could easily cover the required dynamic range of about 4 orders of magnitude.

  12. Characterisation of a radiation hard front-end chip for the vertex detector of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bakel, N.; Baumeister, D.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bulten, H. J.; Feuerstack-Raible, M.; Jans, E.; Ketel, T.; Klous, S.; Löchner, S.; Sexauer, E.; Smale, N.; Snoek, H.; Trunk, U.; Verkooijen, H.

    2003-08-01

    The Beetle is a 128 channel analog pipelined readout chip which is intended for use in the silicon vertex locator (VELO) of the LHCb experiment at CERN. The Beetle chip is specially designed to withstand high radiation doses. Two Beetle1.1 chips bonded to a silicon strip detector have been tested with minimum ionizing particles. The main goal was to measure the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the Beetle1.1 connected to a prototype VELO detector. Furthermore we investigated the general behaviour of the Beetle1.1. In this note we present the chip architecture, the measured (S/N) numbers as well as some characteristics (e.g. risetime, spillover) of the Beetle1.1 chip. Results from a total ionizing dose irradiation test are reported.

  13. VLSI readout for imaging with polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, Renato; Dulinski, Wojtek; Husson, D.; Klein, N.; Riester, J. L.; Schieber, Michael M.; Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Melekhov, L.; Nissenbaum, J.; Sanguinetti, S.

    1998-11-01

    Recently polycrystalline mercuric iodide have become available, for room temperature radiation detectors over large areas at low cost. Though the quality of this material is still under improvement, ceramic detectors have been already been successfully tested with dedicated low-noise, low-power mixed signal VLSI electronics which can be used for compact, imaging solutions. The detectors used are of different kinds: microstrips and pixels; of different sizes, up to about 1 square inch; and of different thickness, up to 600 microns. The properties of this first-generation detectors are quite uniform from one detector to another. Also for each single detector the response is quite uniform and no charge loss in the inter-electrode space have been detected. Because of the low cost and of the polycrystallinity, detectors can be potentially fabricated in any size and shape, using standard ceramic technology equipment, which is an attractive feature where low cost and large area applications are needed.

  14. A feasibility study of a data acquisition system for a silicon strip detector with a digital readout scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Mitsuo; Inaba, Susumu; Tanaka, Manobu

    1993-06-01

    We describe a prototype data acquisition system for a silicon strip detector, which has been developed in terms of a digital readout scheme. The system consists of a master timing generator, readout controller, and a detector emulator card on which we use custom VLSI shift registers with operating clock frequency of 30 MHz.

  15. A cylindrical GEM detector with analog readout for the BESIII experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, A.; Baldini, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Calcaterra, A.; Carassiti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotto, G.; Mori, F. De; Destefanis, M.; Dong, J.; Dong, M.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Hu, J. F.; Johansson, T.; Leng, C.; Li, H.; Liu, Z.; Maggiora, M.; Marcello, S.; Marciniewski, P.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Morello, G.; Ouyan, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Rivetti, A.; Rosner, C.; Savrié, M.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Wang, K.; Wang, L.; Wu, L.; Ji, X.; Ye, M.; Zallo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zotti, L.

    2016-07-01

    A cylindrical GEM detector with analog readout is under development for the upgrade of the Inner Tracker of the BESIII experiment at IHEP (Beijing). The new detector will match the requirements for momentum resolution (σpt /pt ~ 0.5 % at 1 GeV) and radial resolution (σxy ~ 120 μm) of the existing drift chamber and will improve significantly the spatial resolution along the beam direction (σz ~ 150 μm) with very small material budget (less than 1.5% of X0). With respect to the state of the art the following innovations will be deployed: a lighter mechanical structure based on Rohacell, a new XV anode readout plane with jagged strip layout to reduce the parasitic capacitance, and the use of the analogue readout inside a high intensity magnetic field to have good spatial resolution without increasing the number of channels.

  16. Design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gan; Tingcun, Wei; Wu, Gao; Yongcai, Hu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened front-end readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CdZnTe detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a CR-RC shaping amplifier, an analog output buffer, a fast shaper, and a discriminator. An 8-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35-μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.2 × 2.2 mm2. The input energy range is from 5 to 350 keV. For this 8-channel prototype ASIC, the measured electrical characteristics are as follows: the overall gain of the readout channel is 210 V/pC, the linearity error is less than 2%, the crosstalk is less than 0.36%, The equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 52.9 e- at zero farad plus 8.2 e- per picofarad, and the power consumption is less than 2.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement together with a CdZnTe detector, the energy resolution is 5.9% at the 59.5-keV line under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments show that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad(Si). Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project (No. 2011YQ040082), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11475136, 11575144, 61176094), and the Shaanxi Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2015JM1016).

  17. Design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gan; Tingcun, Wei; Wu, Gao; Yongcai, Hu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened front-end readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CdZnTe detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a CR-RC shaping amplifier, an analog output buffer, a fast shaper, and a discriminator. An 8-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35-μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.2 × 2.2 mm2. The input energy range is from 5 to 350 keV. For this 8-channel prototype ASIC, the measured electrical characteristics are as follows: the overall gain of the readout channel is 210 V/pC, the linearity error is less than 2%, the crosstalk is less than 0.36%, The equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 52.9 e‑ at zero farad plus 8.2 e‑ per picofarad, and the power consumption is less than 2.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement together with a CdZnTe detector, the energy resolution is 5.9% at the 59.5-keV line under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments show that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad(Si). Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project (No. 2011YQ040082), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11475136, 11575144, 61176094), and the Shaanxi Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2015JM1016).

  18. The capacitive division image readout: a novel imaging device for microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Conneely, T. M.; Leach, S. A.; Moore, L.

    2013-09-01

    The Capacitive Division Image Readout (C-DIR) is a simple and novel image readout for photon counting detectors offering major performance advantages. C-DIR is a charge centroiding device comprising three elements; (i) a resistive anode providing event charge localization, event current return path and electrical isolation from detector high voltage, (ii) a dielectric substrate which capacitively couples the event transient signal to the third element, (iii) the readout device; an array of capacitively coupled electrodes which divides the signal among the readout charge measurement nodes. The resistive anode and dielectric substrate constitute the rear interface of the detector and capacitively couple the signal to the external C-DIR readout device. The C-DIR device is a passive, multilayer printed circuit board type device comprising a matrix of isolated electrodes whose geometries define the capacitive network. C-DIR is manufactured using conventional PCB geometries and is straightforward and economical to construct. C-DIR's robustness and simplicity belie its performance advantages. Its capacitive nature avoids partition noise, the Poisson noise associated with collection of discrete charges. The dominant noise limiting position resolution is electronic noise. However C-DIR also presents a low input capacitance to the readout electronics, minimising this noise component thus maximising spatial resolution. Optimisation of the C-DIR pattern-edge geometry can provide ~90% linear dynamic range. We present data showing image resolution and linearity of the C-DIR device in a microchannel plate detector and describe various electronic charge measurement scheme designed to exploit the full performance potential of the C-DIR device.

  19. A Zinc Oxide Nanorod Ammonia Microsensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit on-a-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia sensor requires a post-process to etch the sacrificial layer, and to coat the sensitive film on the polysilicon electrodes. The sensitive film that is prepared by a hydrothermal method is made of zinc oxide. The sensor resistance changes when the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. Experiments show that the ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.5 mV/ppm at room temperature. PMID:22247656

  20. A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia sensor requires a post-process to etch the sacrificial layer, and to coat the sensitive film on the polysilicon electrodes. The sensitive film that is prepared by a hydrothermal method is made of zinc oxide. The sensor resistance changes when the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. Experiments show that the ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.5 mV/ppm at room temperature.

  1. Development of microwave kinetic inductance detectors and their readout system for LiteBIRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Ishino, H.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Mima, S.; Okamura, T.; Sato, N.; Tomaru, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yuasa, T.; Watanabe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Primordial gravitational waves generated by inflation have produced an odd-parity pattern B-mode in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. LiteBIRD (Light satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection) aims at detecting this B-mode polarization precisely. It requires about 2000 detectors capable of detecting a frequency range from 50 GHz to 250 GHz with ultra low noise. Superconducting detectors are suitable for this requirement. We have fabricated and tested microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) and developed a new readout system. We have designed antenna-coupled MKIDs. Quasi-particles are created by incident radiation and are detected as a change of the surface impedance of a superconductor strip. This change of the surface impedance is translated into the change of the resonant frequency of a microwave signal transmitted through the resonator. We also have developed a new readout system for MKIDs. The newly developed readout system is not only able to read out the amplitude and the phase data with the homodyne detection for multi-channels, but also provides a unique feature of tracking the resonant frequency of the target resonator. This mechanism enables us to detect signals with a large dynamic range. We report on the recent R&D status of the developing MKIDs and on the read-out system for LiteBIRD.

  2. An X-ray imaging device based on a GEM detector with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Cheng; Sun, Yong-Jie; Shao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray imaging device based on a triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detector, a fast delay-line circuit with 700 MHz cut-off frequency and two dimensional readout strips with 150 μm width on the top and 250 μm width on the bottom, is designed and tested. The localization information is derived from the propagation time of the induced signals on the readout strips. This device has a good spatial resolution of 150 μm and works stably at an intensity of 105 Hz/mm2 with 8 keV X-rays.

  3. Laboratory characterization of direct readout Si:Sb and Si:Ga infrared detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckelvey, Mark E.; Moss, Nicolas N.; Mcmurray, R. E., Jr.; Estrada, John A.; Goebel, John H.; Mccreight, Craig R.; Savage, Maureen L.; Junga, Frank; Whittemore, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of recent results obtained at Ames Research Center in performance evaluations of infrared detector arrays are presented. Antimony- and gallium-doped silicon direct readout 58x62 element hybrid devices from Ames' ongoing detector technology development program are described. The observed characteristics meet most of the performance goals specified by the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) instrument teams and compare favorably with the best performance reported for discrete non-integrating extrinsic silicon detectors. Initial results of radiation environment testing are reported, and non-ideal behavior demonstrated by these test devices is discussed.

  4. Design issues of a low cost lock-in amplifier readout circuit for an infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheepers, L.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    In the past, high resolution thermal sensors required expensive cooling techniques making the early thermal imagers expensive to operate and cumbersome to transport, limiting them mainly to military applications. However, the introduction of uncooled microbolometers has overcome many of earlier problems and now shows great potential for commercial optoelectric applications. The structure of uncooled microbolometer sensors, especially their smaller size, makes them attractive in low cost commercial applications requiring high production numbers with relatively low performance requirements. However, the biasing requirements of these microbolometers cause these sensors to generate a substantial amount of noise on the output measurements due to self-heating. Different techniques to reduce this noise component have been attempted, such as pulsed biasing currents and the use of blind bolometers as common mode reference. These techniques proved to either limit the performance of the microbolometer or increase the cost of their implementation. The development of a low cost lock-in amplifier provides a readout technique to potentially overcome these challenges. High performance commercial lock-in amplifiers are very expensive. Using this as a readout circuit for a microbolometer will take away from the low manufacturing cost of the detector array. Thus, the purpose of this work was to develop a low cost readout circuit using the technique of phase sensitive detection and customizing this as a readout circuit for microbolometers. The hardware and software of the readout circuit was designed and tested for improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the microbolometer signal. An optical modulation system was also developed in order to effectively identify the desired signal from the noise with the use of the readout circuit. A data acquisition and graphical user interface sub system was added in order to display the signal recovered by the readout circuit. The readout

  5. FITPix COMBO—Timepix detector with integrated analog signal spectrometric readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, M.; Kraus, V.; Georgiev, V.; Granja, C.

    2016-02-01

    The hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix has proven a powerful tool in radiation detection and imaging. Energy loss and directional sensitivity as well as particle type resolving power are possible by high resolution particle tracking and per-pixel energy and quantum-counting capability. The spectrometric resolving power of the detector can be further enhanced by analyzing the analog signal of the detector common sensor electrode (also called back-side pulse). In this work we present a new compact readout interface, based on the FITPix readout architecture, extended with integrated analog electronics for the detector's common sensor signal. Integrating simultaneous operation of the digital per-pixel information with the common sensor (called also back-side electrode) analog pulse processing circuitry into one device enhances the detector capabilities and opens new applications. Thanks to noise suppression and built-in electromagnetic interference shielding the common hardware platform enables parallel analog signal spectroscopy on the back side pulse signal with full operation and read-out of the pixelated digital part, the noise level is 600 keV and spectrometric resolution around 100 keV for 5.5 MeV alpha particles. Self-triggering is implemented with delay of few tens of ns making use of adjustable low-energy threshold of the particle analog signal amplitude. The digital pixelated full frame can be thus triggered and recorded together with the common sensor analog signal. The waveform, which is sampled with frequency 100 MHz, can be recorded in adjustable time window including time prior to the trigger level. An integrated software tool provides control, on-line display and read-out of both analog and digital channels. Both the pixelated digital record and the analog waveform are synchronized and written out by common time stamp.

  6. Buffer direct injection readout integrated circuit design for dual band infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Tang, Shiang-Feng; Lin, Wen-Jen

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes dual-mode buffer direct injection (BDI) and direct injection (DI) readout circuit design. The DI readout circuit has the advantage of being a simple circuit, requiring a small layout area, and low power consumption. The internal resistance of the photodetector will affect the photocurrent injection efficiency. We used a buffer amplifier to design the BDI readout circuit since it would reduce the input impedance and raise the injection efficiency. This paper will discuss and analyze the power consumption, injection efficiency, layout area, and circuit noise. The circuit is simulated using a TSMC 0.35 um Mixed Signal 2P4M CMOS 5 V process. The dimension of the pixel area is 30×30 μm. We have designed a 10×8 array for the readout circuit of the interlaced columns. The input current ranges from 1 nA to 10 nA, when the measurement current is 10 pA to 10 nA. The integration time was varied. The circuit output swing was 2 V. The total root mean square noise voltage was 4.84 mV. The signal to noise ratio was 52 dB, and the full chip circuit power consumption was 9.94 mW.

  7. Two-dimensional GEM imaging detector with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, G. P.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Vartsky, D.; Bar, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Marinho, P. R. B.

    2003-11-01

    A 100×100 mm 2 2D imaging detector, based on a triple-GEM gaseous multiplier, striped x- y readout anode and discrete delay-line readout, is presented. The fast (2.1 ns tap -1) delay-line circuit was designed to match the anode-charge signal profile, namely its rise-time and length. The detector's imaging capability was systematically studied in Ar/CO 2 (70/30) with 5.9 keV X-rays; x- y resolution of σ=0.05 and 0.1 mm for top and bottom anode strips, respectively, and integral non-linearity of ˜0.15% are demonstrated.

  8. READOUT ASIC FOR 3D POSITION-SENSITIVE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; VERNON, E.; ACKLEY, K.; DRAGONE, A.; FRIED, J.; OCONNOR, P.; HE, Z.; HERMAN, C.; ZHANG, F.

    2007-10-27

    We describe an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position-sensitive detectors. It was optimized for pixelated CZT sensors, and it measures, corresponding to an ionizing event, the energy and timing of signals from 121 anodes and one cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping, along with peak- and timing-detection. The cathode's timing can be measured in three different ways: the first is based on multiple thresholds on the charge amplifier's voltage output; the second uses the threshold crossing of a fast-shaped signal; and the third measures the peak amplitude and timing from a bipolar shaper. With its power of 2 mW per channel the ASIC measures, on a CZT sensor Connected and biased, charges up to 100 fC with an electronic resolution better than 200 e{sup -} rms. Our preliminary spectral measurements applying a simple cathode/mode ratio correction demonstrated a single-pixel resolution of 4.8 keV (0.72 %) at 662 keV, with the electronics and leakage current contributing in total with 2.1 keV.

  9. Fast SiPM Readout of the PANDA TOF Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, M.; Lehmann, A.; Motz, S.; Uhlig, F.

    2016-05-01

    For the identification of low momentum charged particles and for event timing purposes a barrel Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector surrounding the interaction point is planned for the PANDA experiment at FAIR . Since the boundary conditions in terms of available radial space and radiation length are quite strict the favored layout is a hodoscope composed of several thousand small scintillating tiles (SciTils) read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). A time resolution of well below 100 ps is aimed for. With the originally proposed 30 × 30 × 5 mm3 SciTils read out by two single 3 × 3 mm2 SiPMs at the rims of the scintillator the targeted time resolution can be just reached, but with a considerable position dependence across the scintillator surface. In this paper we discuss other design options to further improve the time resolution and its homogeneity. It will be shown that wide scintillating rods (SciRods) with a size of, e.g., 50 × 30 × 5 mm3 or longer and read out at opposite sides by a chain of four serially connected SiPMs a time resolution down to 50 ps can be reached without problems. In addition, the position dependence of the time resolution is negligible. These SciRods were tested in the laboratory with electrons of a 90Sr source and under real experimental conditions in a particle beam at CERN. The measured time resolutions using fast BC418 or BC420 plastic scintillators wrapped in aluminum foil were consistently between 45 and 75 ps dependent on the SciRod design. This is a significant improvement compared to the original SciTil layout.

  10. Optical readout of a triple-GEM detector by means of a CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafini, M.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Spiriti, E.

    2016-07-01

    In last years, the development of optical sensors has produced objects able to provide very interesting performance. Large granularity is offered along with a very high sensitivity. CMOS sensors with millions of pixels able to detect as few as two or three photons per pixel are commercially available and can be used to read-out the optical signals provided by tracking particle detectors. In this work the results obtained by optically reading-out a triple-GEM detector by a commercial CMOS sensor will be presented. A standard detector was assembled with a transparent window below the third GEM allowing the light to get out. The detector is supplied with an Ar/CF4 based gas mixture producing 650 nm wavelength photons matching the maximum quantum efficiency of the sensor.

  11. High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, Wolfgang

    2012-06-22

    In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications.The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the PCI Express interface is working, the SDRAM has been successfully tested and the SHARC

  12. Calibration methodology for a dual-ended readout silicon photomultiplier based depth-of-interaction PET detector module

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Wenze; McKisson, John E.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Lee, Seung Joon; Taylor, William Mark; Stepanyan, Armenak; Zorn, Carl J.

    2012-11-01

    We developed a novel calibration methodology for a PET detector with dual-ended readout of an LYSO array by two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). By introducing a detector gain balancing step in the calibration process, improved depth-of-interaction calibration uniformity and accuracy can be achieved. The entire calibration process has four steps: scintillation crystal array mappings for two SiPM readouts, detector gain balancing, energy calibration, and depth-of-interaction calibration. This document provides a detailed description on the detector calibration system setup.

  13. Mathematical modelling and study of the encoding readout scheme for position sensitive detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiaoguang; Zeng, Ming; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xuewu; Zhao, Ziran; Cheng, Jianping; Kang, Kejun

    2016-04-01

    Encoding readout methods based on different schemes have been successfully developed and tested with different types of position-sensitive detectors with strip-readout structures. However, how to construct an encoding scheme in a more general and systematic way is still under study. In this paper, we present a graph model for the encoding scheme. With this model, encoding schemes can be studied in a more systematic way. It is shown that by using an encoding readout method, a maximum of n (n - 1)/2 + 1 strips can be processed with n channels if n is odd, while a maximum of n (n - 2)/2 + 2 strips can be processed with n channels if n is even. Furthermore, based on the model, the encoding scheme construction problem can be translated into a problem in graph theory, the aim of which is to construct an Eulerian trail such that the length of the shortest subcycle is as long as possible. A more general approach to constructing the encoding scheme is found by solving the associated mathematical problem. In addition, an encoding scheme prototype has been constructed, and verified with MRPC detectors.

  14. Integrated USB based readout interface for silicon strip detectors of the ATLAS SCT module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, P.; Linhart, V.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.; Husak, M.

    2011-12-01

    An integrated portable USB based readout interface for the ATLAS semiconductor trackers (SCT) has been built. The ATLAS SCT modules are large area silicon strip detectors designed for tracking of high-energy charged particles resulting in collisions on Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN. These modules can be also used on small accelerators for medical or industry applications where a compact and configurable readout interface would be useful. A complete custom made PC-host software tool was written for Windows platform for control and DAQ with build-in online visualization. The new constructed interface provides integrated power, control and DAQ and configurable communication between the detector module and the controlling PC. The interface is based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and the high speed USB 2.0 standard. This design permits to operate the modules under high particle fluence while minimizing the dead time of the whole detection system. Utilization of the programmable device simplifies the operation and permits future expansion of the functionality without any hardware changes. The device includes the high voltage source for detector bias up to 500 V and it is equipped with number of devices for monitoring the operation and conditions of measurement (temperature, humidity, voltage). These features are particularly useful as the strip detector must be operated in a well controlled environment. The operation of the interface will be demonstrated on data measured with different particles from radiation sources.

  15. Time and position sensitive single photon detector for scintillator read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schössler, S.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Schmidt, L. Ph H.; Tittelmeier, K.; Czasch, A.; Dangendorf, V.; Jagutzki, O.

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a photon counting detector system for combined neutron and γ radiography which can determine position, time and intensity of a secondary photon flash created by a high-energy particle or photon within a scintillator screen. The system is based on a micro-channel plate photomultiplier concept utilizing image charge coupling to a position- and time-sensitive read-out anode placed outside the vacuum tube in air, aided by a standard photomultiplier and very fast pulse-height analyzing electronics. Due to the low dead time of all system components it can cope with the high throughput demands of a proposed combined fast neutron and dual discrete energy γ radiography method (FNDDER). We show tests with different types of delay-line read-out anodes and present a novel pulse-height-to-time converter circuit with its potential to discriminate γ energies for the projected FNDDER devices for an automated cargo container inspection system (ACCIS).

  16. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claus, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  17. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGES

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQmore » building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.« less

  18. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  19. Cobalt Oxide Nanosheet and CNT Micro Carbon Monoxide Sensor Integrated with Readout Circuit on Chip

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ching-Liang; Chen, Yen-Chi; Wu, Chyan-Chyi; Kuo, Chin-Fu

    2010-01-01

    The study presents a micro carbon monoxide (CO) sensor integrated with a readout circuit-on-a-chip manufactured by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and a post-process. The sensing film of the sensor is a composite cobalt oxide nanosheet and carbon nanotube (CoOOH/CNT) film that is prepared by a precipitation-oxidation method. The structure of the CO sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a sensing film. The sensor, which is of a resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs CO gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. The post-processing of the sensor includes etching the sacrificial layers and coating the sensing film. The advantages of the sensor include room temperature operation, short response/recovery times and easy post-processing. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the CO sensor is about 0.19 mV/ppm, and the response and recovery times are 23 s and 34 s for 200 ppm CO, respectively. PMID:22294897

  20. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R. T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A. J.; Moschovakos, P.; Nelson, A.; Ntekas, K.; Ruckman, L.; Russell, J.; Schernau, M.; Schlenker, S.; Su, D.; Valderanis, C.; Wittgen, M.; Yildiz, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.

  1. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGES

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R. T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A. J.; et al

    2016-01-25

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all ofmore » these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. In conclusion, we will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.« less

  2. An instrumentation amplifier based readout circuit for a dual element microbolometer infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waal, D. J.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    The infrared band is widely used in many applications to solve problems stretching over very diverse fields, ranging from medical applications like inflammation detection to military, security and safety applications employing thermal imaging in low light conditions. At the heart of these optoelectrical systems lies a sensor used to detect incident infrared radiation, and in the case of this work our focus is on uncooled microbolometers as thermal detectors. Microbolometer based thermal detectors are limited in sensitivity by various parameters, including the detector layout and design, operating temperature, air pressure and biasing that causes self heating. Traditional microbolometers use the entire membrane surface for a single detector material. This work presents the design of a readout circuit amplifier where a dual detector element microbolometer is used, rather than the traditional single element. The concept to be investigated is based on the principle that both elements will be stimulated with a similar incoming IR signal and experience the same resistive change, thus creating a common mode signal. However, such a common mode signal will be rejected by a differential amplifier, thus one element is placed within a negative resistance converter to create a differential mode signal that is twice the magnitude of the comparable single mode signal of traditional detector designs. An instrumentation amplifier is used for the final stage of the readout amplifier circuit, as it allows for very high common mode rejection with proper trimming of the Wheatstone bridge to compensate for manufacturing tolerance. It was found that by implementing the above, improved sensitivity can be achieved.

  3. Position dependent spatial and spectral resolution measurement of distributed readout superconducting imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijmering, R. A.; Verhoeve, P.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Martin, D. D. E.; Wigmore, J. K.; Jerjen, I.; Venn, R.; Groot, P. J.

    2008-04-01

    We present direct measurements of spatial and spectral resolution of cryogenic distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs). The spatial and spectral resolutions have been experimentally determined by scanning a 10μm spot of monochromatic visible light across the detector. The influences of the photon energy, bias voltage, and absorber length and width on the spatial and spectral resolutions have been examined. The confinement of quasiparticles in the readout sensors (superconducting tunnel junctions) as well as the detector's signal amplitude can be optimized by tuning the bias voltage, thereby improving both the spatial and spectral resolutions. Changing the length of the absorber affects the spatial and spectral resolutions in opposite manner, making it an important parameter to optimize the DROID for the application at hand. The results have been used to test expressions for photon energy, position, and spatial and spectral resolutions which have been derived by using an existing one-dimensional model. The model is found to accurately describe the experimental data, but some limitations have been identified. In particular, the model's assumption that the two sensors have identical response characteristics and noise, the approximation of the detailed quasiparticle dynamics in the sensors by border conditions, and the use of a one-dimensional diffusion process is not always adequate.

  4. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  5. Development of a readout technique for the high data rate BTeV pixel detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley K Hall et al.

    2001-11-05

    The pixel detector for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab provides digitized data from approximately 22 million silicon pixel channels. Portions of the detector are six millimeters from the beam providing a substantial hit rate and high radiation dose. The pixel detector data will be employed by the lowest level trigger system for track reconstruction every beam crossing. These requirements impose a considerable constraint on the readout scheme. This paper presents a readout technique that provides the bandwidth that is adequate for high hit rates, minimizes the number of radiation hard components, and satisfies all other design constraints.

  6. A SiPM-based TOF-PET detector with high speed digital DRS4 readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronzhin, A.; Albrow, M.; Los, S.; Martens, M.; Murat, P.; Ramberg, E.; Kim, H.; Chen, C.-T.; Kao, C.-M.; Niessen, K.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Mazzillo, M.; Carbone, B.; Condorelli, G.; Fallica, G.; Piana, A.; Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.; Ritt, S.

    2013-03-01

    We have developed γ-ray detectors with good time resolution, to supplement positron emission tomography (PET) with time of flight (TOF) for better localization of the positron annihilation. This will improve the quality of medical images and reduce exposure times. We report results of LYSO scintillating crystals (3×3×15 mm3) irradiated with a 22Na source and coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout with a waveform digitizer. Improved time resolution, 188 ps FWHM, was obtained with the signal trimmed by a clipping capacitance.

  7. A silicon photomultiplier readout for time of flight neutron spectroscopy with {gamma}-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pietropaolo, A.; Gorini, G.; Festa, G.; Andreani, C.; De Pascale, M. P.; Reali, E.; Grazzi, F.; Schooneveld, E. M.

    2009-09-15

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a recently developed photosensor used in particle physics, e.g., for detection of minimum ionizing particles and/or Cherenkov radiation. Its performance is comparable to that of photomultiplier tubes, but with advantages in terms of reduced volume and magnetic field insensitivity. In the present study, the performance of a gamma ray detector made of an yttrium aluminum perovskite scintillation crystal and a SiPM-based readout is assessed for use in time of flight neutron spectroscopy. Measurements performed at the ISIS pulsed neutron source demonstrate the feasibility of {gamma}-detection based on the new device.

  8. Molecular beacon modified sensor chips for oligonucleotide detection with optical readout.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiang; Wesner, Daniel; Schönherr, Holger; Nöll, Gilbert

    2014-12-01

    Three different surface bound molecular beacons (MBs) were investigated using surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) as an optical readout technique. While MB1 and MB2, both consisting of 36 bases, differed only in the length of the linker for surface attachment, the significantly longer MB3, consisting of 56 bases, comprised an entirely different sequence. For sensor chip preparation, the MBs were chemisorbed on gold via thiol anchors together with different thiol spacers. The influence of important parameters, such as the length of the MBs, the length of the linker between the MBs and the gold surface, the length and nature of the thiol spacers, and the ratio between the MBs and the thiol spacers was studied. After hybridization with the target, the fluorophore of the longer MB3 was oriented close to the surface, and the shorter MBs were standing more or less upright, leading to a larger increase in fluorescence intensity. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a homogeneous distribution of the MBs on the surface. The sensor chips could be used for simple and fast detection of target molecules with a limit of detection in the larger picomolar range. The response time was between 5 and 20 min. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish between fully complementary and singly mismatched targets. While rinsing with buffer solution after hybridization with target did not result in any signal decrease, complete dehybridization could be carried out by intense rinsing with pure water. The MB modified sensor chips could be prepared in a repeatable manner and reused many times without significant decrease in performance.

  9. Calibration Scheme for Large Kinetic Inductance Detector Arrays Based on Readout Frequency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisigello, L.; Yates, S. J. C.; Murugesan, V.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) provides a way to build large ground-based sub-mm instruments such as NIKA and A-MKID. For such instruments, therefore, it is important to understand and characterize the response to ensure good linearity and calibration over a wide dynamic range. We propose to use the MKID readout frequency response to determine the MKID responsivity to an input optical source power. A signal can be measured in a KID as a change in the phase of the readout signal with respect to the KID resonant circle. Fundamentally, this phase change is due to a shift in the KID resonance frequency, in turn due to a radiation induced change in the quasiparticle number in the superconducting resonator. We show that the shift in resonant frequency can be determined from the phase shift by using KID phase versus frequency dependence using a previously measured resonant frequency. Working in this calculated resonant frequency, we gain near linearity and constant calibration to a constant optical signal applied in a wide range of operating points on the resonance and readout powers. This calibration method has three particular advantages: first, it is fast enough to be used to calibrate large arrays, with pixel counts in the thousands of pixels; second, it is based on data that are already necessary to determine KID positions; third, it can be done without applying any optical source in front of the array.

  10. Prototype of a front-end readout ASIC designed for the Water Cherenkov Detector Array in LHAASO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Wu, W.; Liu, J.; Liang, Y.; Qin, J.; Yu, L.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2015-03-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory is in the R&D phase, in which the Water Cherenkov Detector Array is an important part. The signals of Photo-Multiplier Tubes would vary from single photo electron to 4000 photo electrons, and both high precision charge and time measurement is required. To simplify the signal processing chain, the charge-to-time conversion method is employed. A prototype of the front-end readout ASIC is designed and fabricated in Chartered 0.35 μ m CMOS technology, which integrates time disctrimination and converts the input charge information to pulse widths. With Time-to-Digital Converters, both time and charge can be digitized at the same time. We have conducted initial tests on this chip, and the results indicate that a time resolution better than 0.5 ns is achieved over the full dynamic range (1 ~ 4000 photo electrons, corresponding to 0.75 ~ 3000 pC with the threshold of 0.188 pC); the charge resolution is better than 1% with large input amplitudes (500 ~ 4000 photo electrons), and remains better than 15% with a 1 photo electron input amplitude, which is beyond the application requirement.

  11. Tests of gases in a mini-TPC with pixel chip readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahsen, S.; Oliver-Mallory, K.; Lopez-Thibodeaux, M.; Kadyk, J.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.

    2014-02-01

    Gases for potential use as targets for directional dark matter detection were tested in a prototype detector using two sequential Gas Electron Multipliers, or GEMs. The sensitive volume consists of a mini-TPC of 12 cm length and 7.5 cm diameter. An FEI3 pixel chip, developed for the ATLAS experiment, was used to produce spatial measurements with high resolution. An Fe55 source produced photoelectrons by X-ray conversions in the sensitive volume, and images of these were recorded by the chip. Spatial resolution plots are shown for the gases, which include the practical electron range of the photoelectrons and the effects of diffusion in the mini-TPC. Avalanche gain and gain resolution measurements were made for the four gases tested, at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures: Ar(70)/CO2(30), CF4, He(80)/CF4(20) and He(80)/isobutane(20).

  12. Interpolating cathode pad readout in gas proportional detectors for high multiplicity particle tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, B.; Radeka, V.; Smith, G.C.; O`Brien, E.

    1992-02-01

    Experiments which are planned for the Superconducting Super Collider and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider will involve interactions in which detectors will need to identify and localize hundreds or even thousands of particle tracks simultaneously. Most types of conventional position sensitive, proportional detectors with projective geometry are not able to unravel the individual tracks in these environments. We have been investigating several forms of sub-divided cathode readout to address this problem. We report here on geometric charge division using chevron shaped cathode pads which lie in rows underneath each anode wire. Investigations have quantified the non-linear effects due to avalanche angular localization, and how these become negligible with proper design of the pad. Differential nm-linearity of {plus_minus}5%, and position resolution in the region of 50{mu}m rms, have been achieved.

  13. Interpolating cathode pad readout in gas proportional detectors for high multiplicity particle tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, B.; Radeka, V.; Smith, G.C.; O'Brien, E.

    1992-02-01

    Experiments which are planned for the Superconducting Super Collider and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider will involve interactions in which detectors will need to identify and localize hundreds or even thousands of particle tracks simultaneously. Most types of conventional position sensitive, proportional detectors with projective geometry are not able to unravel the individual tracks in these environments. We have been investigating several forms of sub-divided cathode readout to address this problem. We report here on geometric charge division using chevron shaped cathode pads which lie in rows underneath each anode wire. Investigations have quantified the non-linear effects due to avalanche angular localization, and how these become negligible with proper design of the pad. Differential nm-linearity of {plus minus}5%, and position resolution in the region of 50{mu}m rms, have been achieved.

  14. Cryogenic phonon-scintillation detectors with PMT readout for rare event search experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Lin, J.; Mikhailik, V. B.; Kraus, H.

    2016-06-01

    Cryogenic phonon-scintillation detectors (CPSD) for rare event search experiments require reliable, efficient and robust photon detectors that can resolve individual photons in a scintillation event. We report on a cryogenic detector containing a scintillating crystal, equipped with an NTD-Ge phonon sensor and a photon detector based on a low-temperature photomultiplier tube (PMT) that is powered by a Cockcroft-Walton generator. Here we present results from the characterisation of two detector modules, one with CaWO4, the other with CaMoO4 as scintillator. The energy resolutions (FWHM) at 122.1 keV for the scintillation/PMT channel are 19.9% and 29.7% respectively for CaWO4 and CaMoO4 while the energy resolutions (FWHM) for the phonon channels are 2.17 keV (1.8%) and 0.97 keV (0.79%). These characteristics compare favourably with other CPSDs currently used in cryogenic rare-event search experiments. The detection module with PMT readout benefits from the implementation of a well-understood, reliable, and commercially available component and improved time resolution, while retaining the major advantages of conventional CPSD, such as high sensitivity, resolving power and discrimination ability.

  15. CZT detectors with 3D readout for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, James L.; Pelling, Michael R.; Skelton, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing 10 mm thick CZT detectors with 3-D readout for ~100 keV to ~1.5 MeV gamma-rays. Multiple-site gamma-ray interactions are fully measured, i.e., the energy and 3-D position of each site are determined. Spatial resolution is 1 mm FWHM. Anode pixel readout with 1 mm pitch is used for x- and y-positions and charge drift times for z-positions. Drift time measurements are triggered by the cathode signal and end when each interaction site's charge cloud reaches an anode pixel. Post-event processing corrects for signal loss due to charge trapping and accurately determines gamma-ray energies, with a goal of 1% energy resolution at 662 keV. Compton kinematic analysis can identify the initial interaction site in most cases as well as constrain the incident gamma-ray direction. Tests were made with a prototype detector, measuring 10 x 10 x 10 mm3 and operated at 1000 V bias. The measured drift time resolution of 25 nsec FWHM at 662 keV and 60 nsec at 122 keV corresponds to z-position resolution of 0.25 and 0.60 mm FWHM, respectively. The technique is described and results of modeling and tests are presented.

  16. World's Cheapest Readout Electronics for Kinetic Inductance Detector by Using RedPitaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, N.; Jeong, H.; Choi, J.; Ishitsuka, H.; Mima, S.; Nagasaki, T.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic inductance detector (KID) is a cutting-edge superconducting detector. The number of KID developers is growing. Most of them have switched from their previous study to superconducting technologies. Therefore, infrastructures for the fabrication of KIDs and cooling systems for their tests have already been established. However, readout electronics have to be newly prepared. Neither a commercial system nor low-cost standard electronics are available despite various attempts to create a standard one. We suggest the use of RedPitaya as readout electronics for the initial step of KID development, which is low cost (≈ 400 USD) and easy to set up. The RedPitaya consists of an all-programmable FPGA-CPU module and a dual-channel 14 bit DAC (ADC) to generate (measure) fast analog signals with 125 MSpS. Each port can be synchronized in-phase or quadrature-phase, and functions for generating and sampling analog signal are prepared. It is straightforward to construct vector network analyzer-like logic by using a combination of these default functions. Up-conversion and down-conversion of its frequency range are also possible by using commercial equipment, i.e., mixers, couplers, and a local oscillator. We implemented direct down-conversion logic on the RedPitaya, and successfully demonstrated KID signal measurements.

  17. Free-Space optical interconnects for cable-less readout in particle physics detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, John; Kwan, Simon; Moretti, Tony; Sugg, Alan; Prosser, Alan; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Particle physics detectors utilize readout data links requiring a complicated network of copper wires or optical fibers. These links are both massive and costly. Upgrades to such detectors may require additional bandwidth to be provisioned with limited space available to route new cables or fibers. In contrast, free-space optical interconnects will offer cable-less readout, thereby resulting in significant reductions of material and labor. A collaborative effort between Fermilab and Vega Wave Systems is pursuing the development of a unique free-space optical link design that utilizes the transparency of silicon at wavelengths including 1310 nm and multiple wavelengths used in standard telecommunications applications such as coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). The first step in the pursuit of that design is a proof that the concept may be viable. To that end, experiments have been performed to characterize the bit error rate performance of a prototype link over a free-space optical path and through doped silicon at multi-gigabit rates. These experiments have demonstrated that operation within acceptable bit error rates is possible using single and multiple wavelength transmission arrangements.

  18. Preliminary demonstration of an IonCCD as an alternative pixelated anode for direct MCP readout in a compact MS-based detector.

    PubMed

    Hadjar, Omar; Fowler, William K; Kibelka, Gottfried; Schnute, William C

    2012-02-01

    We report on the preliminary testing of a new position-sensitive detector (PSD) by combining a microchannel plate (MCP) and a charge-sensitive pixilated anode with a direct readout based on charge-coupled detector (CCD) technology, which will be referred to as IonCCD (Hadjar et al. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 22(4):612-623, 2011; Johnson et al. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 22(8):1388-1394, 2011; Hadjar et al. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 22(10):1872-1884, 2011). This work exploits the recently discovered electron detection capability of the IonCCD (Hadjar et al. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 22(4):612-623, 2011), allowing it to be used directly behind an MC. This MCP-IonCCD configuration potentially obviates the need for electro-optical ion detector systems (EOIDs), which typically feature a relatively difficult-to-implement 5-kV power source as well as a phosphorus screen behind the MCP for conversion of electrons to photons prior to signal generation in a photosensitive CCD. Thus, the new system (MCP-IonCCD) has the potential to be smaller, simpler, more robust, and more cost efficient than EOID-based technologies in many applications. The use of the IonCCD as direct MCP readout anode, as opposed to its direct use as an ion detector, will benefit from the instant three-to-four-order-of-magnitude gain of the MCP with virtually no additional noise. The signal/noise gain can be used for either sensitivity or speed enhancement of the detector. The speed enhancement may motivate the development of faster IonCCD readout speeds (currently at 2.7 ms) to achieve the 2 kHz frame rate for which the IonCCD chip was designed, a must for transient signal applications. The presented detector exhibits clear potential not only as a trace analysis detector in scan-free mass spectrometry and electron spectroscopy but also as a compact detector for photon and particle imaging applications.

  19. Lithographically patterned magnetic calorimeter X-ray detectors with integrated SQUID readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, B. L.; Irwin, K. D.; Hilton, G. C.; Pappas, D. P.; Ullom, J. N.; Huber, M. E.

    2004-03-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and performance of a fully lithographically patterned magnetic microcalorimeter X-ray detector. The detector is fabricated on the same chip as a low-noise SQUID that measures the change in the magnetic sensor film's magnetization as the film is heated by absorbed X-rays. Our proof-of-principle detectors use a 100 μm×100 μm-2 μm paramagnetic Au:Er film coupled to a low-noise on-chip SQUID via a meandering superconducting pickup loop that also provides the magnetic field bias to the film. Absorption of 6 keV X-rays in the film causes heating on the order of 1 mK with a decay time of 1 ms or less, the fastest reported using a magnetic calorimeter. However, the resolution is currently poor due to poor Au:Er film properties and non-optimized coupling to the SQUID. We describe the design and fabrication of this device and present measurements of the heat capacity, decay time constant and effective thermal conductance of the microcalorimeter as a function of temperature. Because the SQUID and calorimeter are lithographically patterned on the same substrate, this technology can be readily applied to the fabrication of arrays of multiplexed magnetic microcalorimeter detectors.

  20. Electrochemical and optical detectors for capillary and chip separations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaomi; Li, Ling; Weber, Stephen G.

    2007-01-01

    In separations in capillaries or on chips, the most predominant detectors outside of the field of proteomics are electrochemical (EC) and optical. These detectors operate in the μM to pM range on nL peak volumes with ms time resolution. The driving forces for improvement are different for the two classes of detectors. With EC detectors, there are two limitations that the field is trying to overcome. One is the ever-present surface of the electrode which, while often advantageous for its catalytic or adsorptive properties, is also frequently responsible for changes in sensitivity over time. The other is the decoupling of the electrical systems that operate electrokinetic separations from the system operating the detector. With optical detectors, there are similarly a small number of important limitations. One is the need to bring the portability (size, weight and power requirements) of the detection system into the range of EC detectors. The other is broadening and simplifying the applications of fluorescence detection, as it almost always involves derivatization. Limitations aside, the ability to make detector electrodes and focused laser beams of the order of 1 μm in size, and the rapid time response of both detectors has vaulted capillary and chip separations to the forefront of small sample, fast, low mass-detection limit analysis. PMID:18167508

  1. Simulation of digital pixel readout chip architectures with the RD53 SystemVerilog-UVM verification environment using Monte Carlo physics data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, E.; Marconi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Placidi, P.; Hemperek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and verification framework developed by the RD53 collaboration is a powerful tool for global architecture optimization and design verification of next generation hybrid pixel readout chips. In this paper the framework is used for studying digital pixel chip architectures at behavioral level. This is carried out by simulating a dedicated, highly parameterized pixel chip description, which makes it possible to investigate different grouping strategies between pixels and different latency buffering and arbitration schemes. The pixel hit information used as simulation input can be either generated internally in the framework or imported from external Monte Carlo detector simulation data. The latter have been provided by both the CMS and ATLAS experiments, featuring HL-LHC operating conditions and the specifications related to the Phase 2 upgrade. Pixel regions and double columns were simulated using such Monte Carlo data as inputs: the performance of different latency buffering architectures was compared and the compliance of different link speeds with the expected column data rate was verified.

  2. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is ``time stamped'' by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA . This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  3. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    DOE PAGES

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J. -Y.

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, whichmore » allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.« less

  4. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    PubMed Central

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W.W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C.Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is “time stamped” by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc. PMID:27134641

  5. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J. -Y.

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  6. Cross strip anode readouts for microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Cooney, M.; Raffanti, R.; Varner, G.; Siegmund, O.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (eg. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. The PXS anode is a set of orthogonal conducting strips (80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital (ADC) converter at 50MHz. All of the 160 ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T). Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated < 20 microns FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 the our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). This detector design could then be modified for individual flight opportunities with a higher level of confidence than

  7. Integrated Micro-Chip Amino Acid Chirality Detector for MOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Botta, O.; Kminek, G.; Grunthaner, F.; Mathies, R.

    2001-01-01

    Integration of a micro-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer with a sublimation-based extraction technique, as used in the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), for the in-situ detection of amino acids and their enantiomers on solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Study of the VMM1 read-out chip in a neutron irradiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Fanourakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kokkoris, M.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Papageorgiou, K.; Tsipolitis, G.

    2016-05-01

    Within 2015, the LHC operated close to the design energy of √s = 13-14 TeV delivering instantaneous luminosities up to Script L = 5 × 1033 cm-2s-1. The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade in 2018/19 will introduce the MicroMEGAS detectors in the area of the small wheel at the end caps. Accompanying new electronics are designed and built such as the VMM front end ASIC, which provides energy, timing and triggering information and allows fast data read-out. The first VMM version (VMM1) has been widely produced and tested in various test beams, whilst the second version (VMM2) is currently being tested. This paper focuses on the VMM1 single event upset studies and more specifically on the response of the configuration registers under harsh radiation environments. Similar conditions are expected at Run III with Script L = 2 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and a mean of 55 interactions per bunch crossing. Two VMM1s were exposed in a neutron irradiation environment using the TANDEM Van Der Graaff accelerator at NSCR Demokritos, Athens, Greece. The results showed a rate of SEU occurrences at a measured cross section of (4.1±0.8)×10-14 cm2/bit for each VMM. Consequently, when extrapolating this value to the luminosity expected in Run III, the occurrence is roughly 6 SEUs/min in all the read-out system comprising 40,000 VMMs installed during the Phase-I upgrade.

  9. Study of the VMM1 read-out chip in a neutron irradiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Fanourakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kokkoris, M.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Papageorgiou, K.; Tsipolitis, G.

    2016-05-01

    Within 2015, the LHC operated close to the design energy of √s = 13–14 TeV delivering instantaneous luminosities up to Script L = 5 × 1033 cm‑2s‑1. The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade in 2018/19 will introduce the MicroMEGAS detectors in the area of the small wheel at the end caps. Accompanying new electronics are designed and built such as the VMM front end ASIC, which provides energy, timing and triggering information and allows fast data read-out. The first VMM version (VMM1) has been widely produced and tested in various test beams, whilst the second version (VMM2) is currently being tested. This paper focuses on the VMM1 single event upset studies and more specifically on the response of the configuration registers under harsh radiation environments. Similar conditions are expected at Run III with Script L = 2 × 1034 cm‑2s‑1 and a mean of 55 interactions per bunch crossing. Two VMM1s were exposed in a neutron irradiation environment using the TANDEM Van Der Graaff accelerator at NSCR Demokritos, Athens, Greece. The results showed a rate of SEU occurrences at a measured cross section of (4.1±0.8)×10‑14 cm2/bit for each VMM. Consequently, when extrapolating this value to the luminosity expected in Run III, the occurrence is roughly 6 SEUs/min in all the read-out system comprising 40,000 VMMs installed during the Phase-I upgrade.

  10. A novel readout module for single photon solid state detectors (SiPMD, GAPD, MPPC, MAPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Huna, Z.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper a novel, Readout Module (RM) for Single Photon Detector (SiPD has been described. The electronics design is based on the concept of virtual instrumentation RM consists of SiPD preamplifier, shaping amplifier, discriminator, multi channel analyzer and control module connected to a PC through the USB bus and of PC application software. The RM can be used for investigation of different types of SiPD with maximum biasing voltage 90 V and maximal current 2 mA. The RM has fast digital output for triggering and 12 bit internal ADC for output digitizing. The RM uses USB bus as a power supply. It could be very useful for laboratory experiment. The small size of module allows easy integration of few modules into multi-channel system that can be used for PET application. (authors)

  11. Si Memory Chip as a Sensitive Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    William Quam

    2008-03-01

    A novel neutron detector is based on semiconductor technology. A boron-containing film is an integral part of the semiconductor device and is in physical contact with the charge-storage medium (CSM). The CSM is a proprietary cell design known as MirrorBit{trademark}, which is different from conventional memory designs such as SRAM or DRAM. The design doubles the resolution and sensitivity in the array. This enables a highly effective detection of the secondary particles, {sup 7}Li and {sup 4}He, produced due to neutron capture by {sup 10}B in the device. Other approaches using semiconductor materials for neutron detection have employed single-diode detectors that require off-system preamplifiers to filter and condition the signal. There are several advantages to this non-volatile detector, one being that it requires no power for detection and retains the signal until reset. Further, this detector, a semiconductor chip, can be seamlessly integrated into other systems. Finally, the semiconductor manufacturing process on which the detector is based will allow for a high-volume and low-cost alternative to current detectors. MirrorBit{trademark} chips were exposed to neutron flux and the signals recorded. Detailed results from this experiment will be described in this presentation.

  12. On the dynamic two-dimensional charge diffusion of the interpolating readout structure employed in the MicroCAT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, H.; Besch, H. J.; Menk, R. H.; Orthen, A.; Sarvestani, A.; Walenta, A. H.; Walliser, H.

    2002-04-01

    An essential part of the MicroCAT detector is its interpolating readout concept. A theoretical description of the charge diffusion process on the two-dimensional resistive readout structure and its influence on the position reconstruction is carried out. The corresponding inhomogeneous, time-dependent diffusion equation, with the geometric boundary conditions of the readout cells taken properly into account, is solved numerically. Signals realistically distributed in space and time are used as input to simulate the detector response. The time development of two-dimensional charge distributions is investigated. Charge losses to neighbouring cells and distortions due to the linear four-node-encoding algorithm used for reconstructing the impact position of a photon are considered. Since the thermal noise of the resistive layer leads to a limited position accuracy, the spatial resolution is calculated as a function of the integration time, the event position and the gas gain for different resistivities of the readout structure. The time dependence of the simulated signals allows an estimation of the expected rate capability of a given readout structure. In order to verify the theoretical predictions a measurement using an injection of charge pulses in known positions was performed.

  13. Prototyping the read-out chain of the CBM Microvertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, P.; Wiebusch, M.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Deveaux, M.; Koziel, M.; Michel, J.; Milanovic, B.; Müntz, C.; Tischler, T.; Stroth, J.

    2016-03-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) Experiment at the future FAIR (Darmstadt/Germany) will study the phase diagram of hadronic matter in the regime of highest net-baryon densities. The fixed target experiment will explore the nuclear fireballs created in violent heavy ion reactions with a rich number of probes. To reconstruct the decay topologies of open-charm particles as well as to track low-momentum particles, an ultra-light and precise Microvertex Detector (MVD) is required. The necessary performance in terms of spatial resolution, material budget and rate capability will be reached by equipping the MVD with highly granular, radiation-hard CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (CPS) developped at IPHC Strasbourg, which are operated in the target vacuum of the experiment. This contribution introduces the concept of the MVD and puts a focus on the latest results obtained from the R&D of the electronics and read-out chain of the device. Moreover, we briefly introduce the PRESTO project, which realises a prototype of a full size quadrant of an MVD detector station.

  14. Reflow flip-chip bonding technology for infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue; Lin, Chun; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Ding, Rui-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Based on the self-alignment principle, a new reflow flip-chip bonding technology for infrared detectors is proposed. By optimizing the dimensions between the under bump metallization (UBM) and the indium bump, 10 µm tall spherical indium balls are achieved firstly. Then the technical parameters of heating temperature and surface pre-treatment are discussed. Thereafter, a new reflow flip-chip bonding technology is applied to the infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) and it results in a 6.7% of the total bad pixel percentage which is dramatically decreased compared with the thermo-compression one of 41.9%. The deduced fatigue life of the IRFPA bonded by the new reflow flip-chip bonding technology is four times longer than that of the thermo-compression one.

  15. Characterization of direct readout Si:Sb and Si:Ga infrared detector arrays for space-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckelvey, Mark E.; Mccreight, Craig R.; Goebel, John H.; Moss, Nicolas N.; Savage, Maureen L.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary test results from the evaluation of Si:Sb and Si:Ga 58 x 62-element infrared detector arrays are presented. These devices are being characterized under background conditions and readout rates representative of operation in orbiting, crogenically-cooled infrared observatories. The arrays are hybridized to silicon direct-readout multiplexers which allow random-access and nondestructive readout. Array performance optimization is being conducted with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readoaut electronics system. Preliminary Si:Sb measurements indicate a sense node capacitance of 0.06 pF, peak (28-micron) responsivity above 3 A/W at 2V bias, read noise of 130 rms e(-), dark current approximately 10 e(-)/s, and a well capacity greater than 10 to the 5th e(-). The limited test data available on the performance of the Si:Ga array are also discussed.

  16. A programmable, low noise, multichannel asic for readout of pixelated amorphous silicon arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, R. J.

    1998-08-01

    Pixelated amorphous silicon arrays used for detecting X-rays have a number of special requirements for the readout electronics. Because the pixel detector is a high density array, custom integrated circuits are very desirable for reading out the column signals and addressing the rows of pixels to be read out. In practice, separate chips are used for readout and addressing. This paper discusses a custom integrated circuit for processing the analog column signals. The chip has 32 channels of low noise integrators followed by sample and hold circuits which perform a correlated double sample. The chip has several programmable features including gain, bandwidth, and readout configuration.

  17. Preliminary validation results of an ASIC for the readout and control of near-infrared large array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâhlsson, Philip; Meier, Dirk; Otnes Berge, Hans Kristian; Øya, Petter; Steenari, David; Olsen, Alf; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Altan, Mehmet A.; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Talebi, Jahanzad; Azman, Suleyman; Gheorghe, Codin; Ackermann, Jörg; Mæhlum, Gunnar

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present initial test results of the Near Infrared Readout and Controller ASIC (NIRCA), designed for large area image sensors under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Norwegian Space Center. The ASIC is designed to read out image sensors based on mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe, or MCT) operating down to 77 K. IDEAS has developed, designed and initiated testing of NIRCA with promising results, showing complete functionality of all ASIC sub-components. The ASIC generates programmable digital signals to clock out the contents of an image array and to amplify, digitize and transfer the resulting pixel charge. The digital signals can be programmed into the ASIC during run-time and allows for windowing and custom readout schemes. The clocked out voltages are amplified by programmable gain amplifiers and digitized by 12-bit, 3-Msps successive approximation register (SAR) analogue-to-digital converters (ADC). Digitized data is encoded using 8-bit to 10-bit encoding and transferred over LVDS to the readout system. The ASIC will give European researchers access to high spectral sensitivity, very low noise and radiation hardened readout electronics for astronomy and Earth observation missions operating at 77 K and room temperature. The versatility of the chip makes the architecture a possible candidate for other research areas, or defense or industrial applications that require analog and digital acquisition, voltage regulation, and digital signal generation.

  18. Measuring Io's Lava Eruption Temperatures with a Novel Infrared Detector and Digital Readout Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ashley; Gunapala, Sarath; Rafol, B., Sir; Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David Z.

    2016-10-01

    One method of determining lava eruption temperature of Io's dominant silicate lavas is by measuring radiant flux at two or more wavelengths and fitting a black-body thermal emission function. Only certain styles of volcanic activity are suitable, those where thermal emission is from a restricted range of surface temperatures close to eruption temperature. Such processes include [1] large lava fountains; [2] fountaining in lava lakes; and [3] lava tube skylights. Problems that must be overcome are (1) the cooling of the lava between data acquisitions at different wavelengths; (2) the unknown magnitude of thermal emission, which often led to detector saturation; and (3) thermal emission changing on a shorter timescale than the observation integration time. We can overcome these problems by using the HOT-BIRD detector [4] and an advanced digital readout circuit [5]. We have created an instrument model that allows different instrument parameters (including mirror diameter, number of signal splits, exposure duration, filter band pass, and optics transmissivity) to be tested so as to determine eruption detectability. We find that a short-wavelength infrared instrument on an Io flyby mission can achieve simultaneity of observations by splitting the incoming signal for all relevant eruption processes and obtain data fast enough to remove uncertainties in accurate determination of the highest lava surface temperatures exposed. Observations at 1 and 1.5 μm are sufficient to do this. Lava temperature determinations are also possible with a visible wavelength detector [3] so long as data at different wavelengths are obtained simultaneously and integration time is very short. This is especially important for examining the thermal emission from lava tube skylights [3] due to rapidly-changing viewing geometry during close flybys. References: [1] Davies et al., 2001, JGR, 106, 33079-33104. [2] Davies et al., 2011, GRL, 38, L21308. [3] Davies et al., 2016, Icarus, in press. [4

  19. A 12-bit SAR ADC integrated on a multichannel silicon drift detector readout IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, F.; Bellotti, G.; Fiorini, C.

    2016-07-01

    A 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) addressed to Silicon-Drift Detectors (SDDs) multichannel readout ASICs for X- and gamma-ray applications is presented. Aiming at digitizing output multiplexed data from the upstream analog filters banks, the converter must ensure 11-bit accuracy and a sampling frequency of about 5 MS/s. The ADC architecture is the charge-redistribution (CR) successive-approximation register (SAR). A fully differential topology has also been chosen for better rejection of common-mode noise and disturbances. The internal DAC is made of binary-scaled capacitors, whose bottom plates are switched by the SAR logic to perform the binary search of the analog input value by means of the monotonic switching scheme. The A/D converter is integrated on SFERA, a multichannel ASIC fabricated in a standard CMOS 0.35 μm 3.3 V technology and it occupies an area of 0.42 mm2. Simulated static performance shows monotonicity over the whole input-output characteristic. The description of the circuit topology and of inner blocks architectures together with the experimental characterization is here presented.

  20. Design of readout integrated circuit structure for single and dual band infrared detector with variable integration time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Shiu, Shiuan-Shuo; Liu, Yi-Ting; Tang, Shiang-Feng; Lin, Wen-Jen

    2011-08-01

    This paper proposes two kinds of readout integrated circuits for column and row interlaced dual-band infrared detectors. The experiments were simulated using TSMC 0.35μm Mixed Signal 2P4M CMOS process and operated at 3MHz clock rate. The pixel dimensions for two kinds of readout integrated circuits were also 30×30μm. The mid-wave and long-wave sense current was set from 1nA to 2nA and 6nA to 8nA, respectively. We designed a 40x16 array for the columns interlace readout circuit. The output voltage swing was 2.8V. The frame rate was 4.68kFPS. The total power consumption was less than 17.6mW. We also designed a 20x32 array for the row interlace readout circuit. The output voltage swing was 2.8V. The frame rate was 2.67kFPS. The total power consumption was less than 11.4mW. The power consumption increased when the column interlace frame rate reached the row interlace frame rate. The row interlace can decrease the layout area by sharing the column stage circuit, but the frame rate will drop to half of the single band frame rate.

  1. Cross strip anode readouts for large format, photon counting microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes of the detector and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Raffanti, Rick; Cooney, Michael; Cumming, Harley; Varner, Gary; Seljak, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. Laboratory versions of PXS electronics have demonstrated < 20 μm FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector and electronics from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). The first ASICs designed for this program have been fabricated and are undergoing testing. We present the latest progress on these ASIC designs and performance and show imaging results from the new 50 x 50 mm XS detector.

  2. Diagnostic Analysis of Silicon Strips Detector Readout in the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker Module Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocio, Alessandra; ATLAS SCT Collaboration

    2004-10-31

    The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) Collaboration is currently in the production phase of fabricating and testing silicon strips modules for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider being built at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. A small but relevant percentage of ICs developed a new set of defects after being mounted on hybrids that were not detected in the wafer screening. To minimize IC replacement and outright module failure, analysis methods were developed to study IC problems during the production of SCT modules. These analyses included studying wafer and hybrid data correlations to finely tune the selection of ICs and tests to utilize the ability to adjust front-end parameters of the IC in order to reduce the rejection and replacement rate of fabricated components. This paper will discuss a few examples of the problems encountered during the production of SCT hybrids and modules in the area of ICs performance, and will demonstrate the value of the flexibility built into the ABCD3T chip.

  3. A large acceptance scintillator detector with wavelength shifting fibre readout for search of η-nucleus bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betigeri, M. G.; Biswas, P. K.; Budzanowski, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Jahn, R.; Guha, S.; Hawranek, P.; Jain, B. K.; Jawale, S. B.; Jha, V.; Kilian, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Kirillov, Da.; Kirillov, Di.; Kolev, D.; Kravcikova, M.; Kutsarova, T.; Lesiak, M.; Lieb, J.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Martinska, G.; Nedev, S.; Piskunov, N.; Prasuhn, D.; Protić, D.; Ritman, J.; von Rossen, P.; Roy, B. J.; Shukla, P.; Sitnik, I.; Siudak, R.; Tsenov, R.; Ulicny, M.; Urban, J.; Vankova, G.; GEM Collaboration

    2007-07-01

    A large acceptance scintillator detector with wavelength shifting optical fibre readout has been designed and built to detect the decay particles of η-nucleus bound system (the so-called η-mesic nuclei), namely, protons and pions. The detector, named as ENSTAR detector, consists of 122 pieces of plastic scintillator of various shapes and sizes, which are arranged in a cylindrical geometry to provide particle identification, energy loss and coarse position information for these particles. A solid angle coverage of ˜95% of total 4 π is obtained in the present design of the detector. Monte Carlo phase space calculations performed to simulate the formation and decay of η-mesic nuclei suggest that its decay particles, the protons and pions are emitted with an opening angle of 150±20∘, and with energies in the range of 25-300 and 225-450 MeV, respectively. The detailed GEANT simulations show that ˜80 % of the decay particles (protons and pions) can be detected within ENSTAR. Several test measurements using alpha source, cosmic-ray muons, etc. have been carried out to study the response of ENSTAR scintillator pieces. The in-beam tests of fully assembled detector with proton beam of momentum 870 MeV/c from the Cooler synchrotron COSY have been performed. The test results show that the scintillator fibre design chosen for the detector has performed satisfactorily well. The present article describes the detector design, simulation studies, construction details and test results.

  4. Evaluation of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters for cone-beam CT imaging of the head.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jennifer; Sisniega, Alejandro; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Dang, Hao; Stayman, J Webster; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassillis E; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2016-08-21

    The effects of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and dose were characterized for a new CBCT system developed for point-of-care imaging of the head, with potential application to diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and stroke. A detector performance model was extended to include the effects of detector readout gain on electronic digitization noise. The noise performance for high-gain (HG), low-gain (LG), and dual-gain (DG) detector readout was evaluated, and the benefit associated with HG mode in regions free from detector saturation was quantified. Such benefit could be realized (without detector saturation) either via DG mode or by incorporation of a bowtie filter. Therefore, three bowtie filters were investigated that varied in thickness and curvature. A polyenergetic gain correction method was developed to equalize the detector response between the flood-field and projection data in the presence of a bowtie. The effect of bowtie filters on dose, scatter-to-primary ratio, contrast, and noise was quantified in phantom studies, and results were compared to a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to characterize x-ray scatter and dose distributions in the head. Imaging in DG mode improved the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by ~15% compared to LG mode at a dose (D 0, measured at the center of a 16 cm CTDI phantom) of 19 mGy. MC dose calculations agreed with CTDI measurements and showed that bowtie filters reduce peripheral dose by as much as 50% at the same central dose. Bowtie filters were found to increase the CNR per unit square-root dose near the center of the image by ~5-20% depending on bowtie thickness, but reduced CNR in the periphery by ~10-40%. Images acquired at equal CTDIw with and without a bowtie demonstrated a 24% increase in CNR at the center of an anthropomorphic head phantom. Combining a thick bowtie filter with a short arc (180°  +  fan angle) scan centered

  5. Evaluation of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters for cone-beam CT imaging of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jennifer; Sisniega, Alejandro; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Dang, Hao; Webster Stayman, J.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassillis E.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and dose were characterized for a new CBCT system developed for point-of-care imaging of the head, with potential application to diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and stroke. A detector performance model was extended to include the effects of detector readout gain on electronic digitization noise. The noise performance for high-gain (HG), low-gain (LG), and dual-gain (DG) detector readout was evaluated, and the benefit associated with HG mode in regions free from detector saturation was quantified. Such benefit could be realized (without detector saturation) either via DG mode or by incorporation of a bowtie filter. Therefore, three bowtie filters were investigated that varied in thickness and curvature. A polyenergetic gain correction method was developed to equalize the detector response between the flood-field and projection data in the presence of a bowtie. The effect of bowtie filters on dose, scatter-to-primary ratio, contrast, and noise was quantified in phantom studies, and results were compared to a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to characterize x-ray scatter and dose distributions in the head. Imaging in DG mode improved the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by ~15% compared to LG mode at a dose (D 0, measured at the center of a 16 cm CTDI phantom) of 19 mGy. MC dose calculations agreed with CTDI measurements and showed that bowtie filters reduce peripheral dose by as much as 50% at the same central dose. Bowtie filters were found to increase the CNR per unit square-root dose near the center of the image by ~5–20% depending on bowtie thickness, but reduced CNR in the periphery by ~10–40%. Images acquired at equal CTDIw with and without a bowtie demonstrated a 24% increase in CNR at the center of an anthropomorphic head phantom. Combining a thick bowtie filter with a short arc (180°  +  fan angle) scan

  6. Evaluation of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters for cone-beam CT imaging of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jennifer; Sisniega, Alejandro; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Dang, Hao; Webster Stayman, J.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassillis E.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and dose were characterized for a new CBCT system developed for point-of-care imaging of the head, with potential application to diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and stroke. A detector performance model was extended to include the effects of detector readout gain on electronic digitization noise. The noise performance for high-gain (HG), low-gain (LG), and dual-gain (DG) detector readout was evaluated, and the benefit associated with HG mode in regions free from detector saturation was quantified. Such benefit could be realized (without detector saturation) either via DG mode or by incorporation of a bowtie filter. Therefore, three bowtie filters were investigated that varied in thickness and curvature. A polyenergetic gain correction method was developed to equalize the detector response between the flood-field and projection data in the presence of a bowtie. The effect of bowtie filters on dose, scatter-to-primary ratio, contrast, and noise was quantified in phantom studies, and results were compared to a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to characterize x-ray scatter and dose distributions in the head. Imaging in DG mode improved the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by ~15% compared to LG mode at a dose (D 0, measured at the center of a 16 cm CTDI phantom) of 19 mGy. MC dose calculations agreed with CTDI measurements and showed that bowtie filters reduce peripheral dose by as much as 50% at the same central dose. Bowtie filters were found to increase the CNR per unit square-root dose near the center of the image by ~5-20% depending on bowtie thickness, but reduced CNR in the periphery by ~10-40%. Images acquired at equal CTDIw with and without a bowtie demonstrated a 24% increase in CNR at the center of an anthropomorphic head phantom. Combining a thick bowtie filter with a short arc (180°  +  fan angle) scan centered

  7. Evaluation of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters for cone-beam CT imaging of the head.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jennifer; Sisniega, Alejandro; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Dang, Hao; Stayman, J Webster; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassillis E; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2016-08-21

    The effects of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and dose were characterized for a new CBCT system developed for point-of-care imaging of the head, with potential application to diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and stroke. A detector performance model was extended to include the effects of detector readout gain on electronic digitization noise. The noise performance for high-gain (HG), low-gain (LG), and dual-gain (DG) detector readout was evaluated, and the benefit associated with HG mode in regions free from detector saturation was quantified. Such benefit could be realized (without detector saturation) either via DG mode or by incorporation of a bowtie filter. Therefore, three bowtie filters were investigated that varied in thickness and curvature. A polyenergetic gain correction method was developed to equalize the detector response between the flood-field and projection data in the presence of a bowtie. The effect of bowtie filters on dose, scatter-to-primary ratio, contrast, and noise was quantified in phantom studies, and results were compared to a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to characterize x-ray scatter and dose distributions in the head. Imaging in DG mode improved the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by ~15% compared to LG mode at a dose (D 0, measured at the center of a 16 cm CTDI phantom) of 19 mGy. MC dose calculations agreed with CTDI measurements and showed that bowtie filters reduce peripheral dose by as much as 50% at the same central dose. Bowtie filters were found to increase the CNR per unit square-root dose near the center of the image by ~5-20% depending on bowtie thickness, but reduced CNR in the periphery by ~10-40%. Images acquired at equal CTDIw with and without a bowtie demonstrated a 24% increase in CNR at the center of an anthropomorphic head phantom. Combining a thick bowtie filter with a short arc (180°  +  fan angle) scan centered

  8. Energy and Timing Measurement with Time-Based Detector Readout for PET Applications: Principle and Validation with Discrete Circuit Components.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xishan; Lan, Allan K; Bircher, Chad; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Yinong; Shao, Yiping

    2011-06-11

    A new signal processing method for PET application has been developed, with discrete circuit components to measure energy and timing of a gamma interaction based solely on digital timing processing without using an amplitude-to-digital convertor (ADC) or a constant fraction discriminator (CFD). A single channel discrete component time-based readout (TBR) circuit was implemented in a PC board. Initial circuit functionality and performance evaluations have been conducted. Accuracy and linearity of signal amplitude measurement were excellent, as measured with test pulses. The measured timing accuracy from test pulses reached to less than 300 ps, a value limited mainly by the timing jitter of the prototype electronics circuit. Both suitable energy and coincidence timing resolutions (~18% and ~1.0 ns) have been achieved with 3 × 3 × 20 mm(3) LYSO scintillator and photomultiplier tube-based detectors. With its relatively simple circuit and low cost, TBR is expected to be a suitable front-end signal readout electronics for compact PET or other radiation detectors requiring the reading of a large number of detector channels and demanding high performance for energy and timing measurement.

  9. Design of a 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for front-end readout of 32-channel CZT detector imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Tingcun; Li, Bo; Guo, Panjie; Hu, Yongcai

    2015-06-01

    A 12-bit 1MS/s SAR-ADC for the front-end readout of a 32-channel CZT detector imaging system is presented. In order to improve the performances of the ADC, several techniques are proposed. First, a novel offset cancellation method for comparator is proposed, in which no any capacitor is introduced in the signal pathway, thus it has faster operation speed than traditional one. Second, the architecture of unit capacitor array is adopted in the charge-redistribution DAC to reduce the capacitor mismatch. Third, the radiation-hardened ability is enhanced through circuit and layout design. The prototype chip was fabricated using a TSMC 0.35 um 2P4M CMOS process. At a 3.3/5 V power supply, the proposed SAR-ADC achieves 67.64 dB SINAD at 1MS/s, consumes 10 mW power and occupies a core area of 1180×1080 um2.

  10. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Yao, Rutao; Ma, Tianyu

    2008-12-01

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In

  11. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Yiping; Yao Rutao; Ma Tianyu

    2008-12-15

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In

  12. Fabrication of Tunnel Junctions For Direct Detector Arrays With Single-Electron Transistor Readout Using Electron-Beam Lithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Rhee, K. W.; Teufel, J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the fabrication of small aluminum tunnel junctions for applications in astronomy. Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions with integrated single-electron transistor readout have the potential for photon-counting sensitivity at sub-millimeter wavelengths. The junctions for the detector and single-electron transistor can be made with electron-beam lithography and a standard self-aligned double-angle deposition process. However, high yield and uniformity of the junctions is required for large-format detector arrays. This paper will describe how measurement and modification of the sensitivity ratio in the resist bilayer was used to greatly improve the reliability of forming devices with uniform, sub-micron size, low-leakage junctions.

  13. Array of virtual Frisch-grid CZT detectors with common cathode readout and pulse-height correction

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, E.U.; Fochuk, P.M.; Fuerstnau, M.; Gul, R.; Hossain, A.; Jones, F.; Kim, K.; Kopach, O.V.; Taggart, R.; Yang, G.; Ye, Z.; Xu, L.; and James, R.B.

    2010-08-01

    We present our new results from testing 15-mm-long virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors with a common-cathode readout for correcting pulse-height distortions. The array employs parallelepiped-shaped CdZnTe (CZT) detectors of a large geometrical aspect ratio, with two planar contacts on the top and bottom surfaces (anode and cathode) and an additional shielding electrode on the crystal's sides to create the virtual Frisch-grid effect. We optimized the geometry of the device and improved its spectral response. We found that reducing to 5 mm the length of the shielding electrode placed next to the anode had no adverse effects on the device's performance. At the same time, this allowed corrections for electron loss by reading the cathode signals to obtain depth information.

  14. Fabrication of an Absorber-Coupled MKID Detector and Readout for Sub-Millimeter and Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and farinfrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of lambda/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5µm thick silicon membrane, and 380µm thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  15. Fabrication of an Absorber-Coupled MKID Detector and Readout for Sub-Millimeter and Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and far-infrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of lambda/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5 micrometer thick silicon membrane, and 380 micrometer thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  16. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Parallel readout of two-element CdZnTe detectors with real-time digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhubin, Shi; Linjun, Wang; Kaifeng, Qin; Jiahua, Min; Jijun, Zhang; Xiaoyan, Liang; Jian, Huang; Ke, Tang; Yiben, Xia

    2010-12-01

    Readout electronics, especially digital electronics, for two-element CdZnTe (CZT) detectors in parallel are developed. The preliminary results show the detection efficiency of the two-element CZT detectors in parallel with analog electronics is as many as 1.8 and 2.1 times the single ones, and the energy resolution (FWHM) is limited by that of the single one by the means of analog electronics. However, the digital method for signal processing will be sufficiently better by contrast with an analog method especially in energy resolution. The energy resolution by the means of digital electronics can be improved by about 26.67%, compared to that only with analog electronics, while their detection efficiency is almost the same. The cause for this difference is also discussed.

  17. Monte Carlo code G3sim for simulation of plastic scintillator detectors with wavelength shifter fiber readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, P. K.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed description of a compact Monte Carlo simulation code "G3sim" for studying the performance of a plastic scintillator detector with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout is presented. G3sim was developed for optimizing the design of new scintillator detectors used in the GRAPES-3 extensive air shower experiment. Propagation of the blue photons produced by the passage of relativistic charged particles in the scintillator is treated by incorporating the absorption, total internal, and diffuse reflections. Capture of blue photons by the WLS fibers and subsequent re-emission of longer wavelength green photons is appropriately treated. The trapping and propagation of green photons inside the WLS fiber is treated using the laws of optics for meridional and skew rays. Propagation time of each photon is taken into account for the generation of the electrical signal at the photomultiplier. A comparison of the results from G3sim with the performance of a prototype scintillator detector showed an excellent agreement between the simulated and measured properties. The simulation results can be parametrized in terms of exponential functions providing a deeper insight into the functioning of these versatile detectors. G3sim can be used to aid the design and optimize the performance of scintillator detectors prior to actual fabrication that may result in a considerable saving of time, labor, and money spent.

  18. A readout system-on-chip for a cubic kilometer submarine neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Provost, H.; Moudden, Y.; Anvar, S.; Château, F.; Gautard, V.; Louis, F.; Ménager, K.; Vallage, B.; Zonca, E.

    2011-12-01

    This contribution reports on the read-out system of the future KM3NeT undersea network of several thousands of synchronized optical detecting nodes. Each node embeds a specifically designed fully integrated communicating system based on Xilinx FPGA SoC technology. It runs the VxWorks real-time OS and DAQ software designed within the Ice middleware framework resulting in a highly flexible, controllable and scalable distributed application. Clock distribution and delay calibration over customized fixed latency gigabit Ethernet links enable synchronous time stamping of events with nanosecond precision.

  19. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-01-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5.3 mm × 6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μW. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μW. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e−RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature. PMID:26744545

  20. Characterization and performance of monolithic detector blocks with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout for PET imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro; Sarasola Martín, Icíar; Cañadas, Mario; de Acilu, Paz García; Cuypers, Robin; Manuel Pérez, José; Willmott, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We are developing a human brain PET scanner prototype compatible with MRI based on monolithic scintillator crystals, APD matrices and a dedicated ASIC front-end readout. In this work we report on the performance of individual detector modules and on the operation of such modules in PET coincidence. Results will be presented on the individual characterization of detector blocks and its ASIC front-end readout, with measured energy resolutions of 13% full-width half-maximum (FWHM) at 511 keV and spatial resolutions of the order of 2 mm FWHM. First results on PET coincidence performance indicate spatial resolutions as good as 2.1 mm FWHM for SSRB/FBP reconstruction of tomographic data obtained using a simple PET demonstrator based on a pair of monolithic detector blocks with ASIC readout.

  1. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16 ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1992-10-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here, emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application.

  2. A new fast and large area neutron detector using a novel image plate readout technique.

    PubMed

    Schillinger, B; Baumann, J; Gebele, H; Schaetzing, R; Schaller, H; Schuster, M

    2004-10-01

    At Agfa Medical Imaging Systems, a new type of image plate scanner is being developed. Instead of scanning the irradiated image plate with a single laser and reading the luminescence information with a single light collector and photomultiplier, the new system employs a whole line of laser diodes and a set of CCD line sensors. This technique allows for virtually unlimited detection areas and a very fast readout.

  3. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This conference poster reviews the Indium hybridization of the large format TES bolometer arrays. We are developing a key technology to enable the next generation of detectors. That is the Hybridization of Large Format Arrays using Indium bonded detector arrays containing 32x40 elements which conforms to the NIST multiplexer readout architecture of 1135 micron pitch. We have fabricated and hybridized mechanical models with the detector chips bonded after being fully back-etched. The mechanical support consists of 30 micron walls between elements Demonstrated electrical continuity for each element. The goal is to hybridize fully functional array of TES detectors to NIST readout.

  4. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  5. Single-event upset tests on the readout electronics for the pixel detectors of the PANDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, G.; Balossino, I.; Calvo, D.; De Mori, F.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Marcello, S.; Mignone, M.; Wheadon, R.; Zotti, L.; Candelori, A.; Mattiazzo, S.; Silvestrin, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) of the future PANDA experiment is the closest one to the interaction point and therefore the sensor and its electronics are the most exposed to radiation. The Total Ionizing Dose (TID) issue has been addressed by the use of a deep-submicron technology (CMOS 0.13 μm) for the readout ASICs. While this technology is very effective in reducing radiation induced oxide damage, it is also more sensitive to Single Event Upset (SEU) effects due to their extremely reduced dimensions. This problem has to be addressed at the circuit level and generally leads to an area penalty. Several techniques have been proposed in literature with different trade-off between level of protection and cell size. A subset of these techniques has been implemented in the PANDA SPD ToPiX readout ASIC prototypes, ranging from DICE cells to triple redundancy. Two prototypes have been tested with different ion beams at the INFN-LNL facility in order to measure the SEU cross section. Comparative results of the SEU test will be shown, together with an analysis of the SEU tolerance of the various protection schemes and future plans for the SEU protection strategy which will be implemented in the next ToPiX prototype.

  6. Conceptual design of the TRACE detector readout using a compact, dead time-less analog memory ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliaga, R. J.; Herrero-Bosch, V.; Capra, S.; Pullia, A.; Dueñas, J. A.; Grassi, L.; Triossi, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Gadea, R.; González, V.; Hüyük, T.; Sanchís, E.; Gadea, A.; Mengoni, D.

    2015-11-01

    The new TRacking Array for light Charged particle Ejectiles (TRACE) detector system requires monitorization and sampling of all pulses in a large number of channels with very strict space and power consumption restrictions for the front-end electronics and cabling. Its readout system is to be based on analog memory ASICs with 64 channels each that sample a 1 μs window of the waveform of any valid pulses at 200 MHz while discarding any other signals and are read out at 50 MHz with external ADC digitization. For this purpose, a new, compact analog memory architecture is described that allows pulse capture with zero dead time in any channel while vastly reducing the total number of storage cells, particularly for large amounts of input channels. This is accomplished by partitioning the typical Switched Capacitor Array structure into two pipelined, asymmetric stages and introducing FIFO queue-like control circuitry for captured data, achieving total independence between the capture and readout operations.

  7. A cryo-amplifier working in a double loop-flux locked loop scheme for SQUID readout of TES detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrioli, Guido; Bastia, Paolo; Piro, Luigi; Macculi, Claudio; Colasanti, Luca

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we report on a novel SQUID readout scheme, called Double Loop-Flux Locked loop (DL-FLL), that we are investigating in the frame of ASI and ESA technological development contracts. This scheme is based on the realization of a cryogenic amplifier which is used in order to readout TES detectors in the Frequency Division Multiplexing technique, where high loop-gain is required up to few MHz. Loop-gain in feedback systems is, usually, limited by the propagation delay of the signals traveling in the loop because of the distance between the feedback loop elements. This problem is particularly evident in the case of SQUID systems, where the elements of the feedback loop are placed both at cryogenic and room temperature. To solve this issue we propose a low power dissipation cryo-amplifier capable to work at cryogenic temperatures so that it can be placed close to the SQUID realizing a local cryogenic loop. The adoption of the DL-FLL scheme allows to simplify considerably the cryo-amplifier which, being AC-coupled, don't require the features of a precision DC-coupled amplifier and can be made with a limited number of electronic components and with a consequent reduction of power dissipation.

  8. Time resolution of time-of-flight detector based on multiple scintillation counters readout by SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Nishimura, M.; Ootani, W.; Rossella, M.; Shirabe, S.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2016-08-01

    A new timing detector measuring ∼ 50 MeV / c positrons is under development for the MEG II experiment, aiming at a time resolution σt ∼ 30 ps. The resolution is expected to be achieved by measuring each positron time with multiple counters made of plastic scintillator readout by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the time resolution for ∼ 50 MeV / c positrons using prototype counters. Counters with dimensions of 90 × 40 × 5mm3 readout by six SiPMs (three on each 40 × 5mm2 plane) were built with SiPMs from Hamamatsu Photonics and AdvanSiD and tested in a positron beam at the DAΦNE Beam Test Facility. The time resolution was found to improve nearly as the square root of the number of counter hits. A time resolution σt = 26.2 ± 1.3 ps was obtained with eight counters with Hamamatsu SiPMs. These results suggest that the design resolution is achievable in the MEG II experiment.

  9. A programmable energy efficient readout chip for a multiparameter highly integrated implantable biosensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawito, M.; Richter, H.; Stett, A.; Burghartz, J. N.

    2015-11-01

    In this work an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for an implantable electrochemical biosensor system (SMART implant, Stett et al., 2014) is presented. The ASIC drives the measurement electrodes and performs amperometric measurements for determining the oxygen concentration, potentiometric measurements for evaluating the pH-level as well as temperature measurements. A 10-bit pipeline analog to digital (ADC) is used to digitize the acquired analog samples and is implemented as a single stage to reduce power consumption and chip area. For pH measurements, an offset subtraction technique is employed to raise the resolution to 12-bits. Charge integration is utilized for oxygen and temperature measurements with the capability to cover current ranges between 30 nA and 1 μA. In order to achieve good performance over a wide range of supply and process variations, internal reference voltages are generated from a programmable band-gap regulated circuit and biasing currents are supplied from a wide-range bootstrap current reference. To accommodate the limited available electrical power, all components are designed for low power operation. Also a sequential operation approach is applied, in which essential circuit building blocks are time multiplexed between different measurement types. All measurement sequences and parameters are programmable and can be adjusted for different tissues and media. The chip communicates with external unites through a full duplex two-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), which receives operational instructions and at the same time outputs the internally stored measurement data. The circuit has been fabricated in a standard 0.5-μm CMOS process and operates on a supply as low as 2.7 V. Measurement results show good performance and agree with circuit simulation. It consumes a maximum of 500 μA DC current and is clocked between 500 kHz and 4 MHz according to the measurement parameters. Measurement results of the on-chip ADC show a

  10. The ToPiX v4 prototype for the triggerless readout of the PANDA silicon pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, G.; Calvo, D.; De Remigis, P.; Mignone, M.; Olave, J.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Zotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    ToPiX v4 is the prototype for the readout of the silicon pixel sensors for the Micro Vertex Detector of the PANDA experiment. ToPiX provides position, time and energy measurement of the incoming particles and is designed for the triggerless environment foreseen in PANDA. The prototype includes 640 pixels with a size of 100 × 100 μm2, a 160 MHz time stamp distribution circuit to measure both particle arrival time and released energy (via ToT technique) and the full control logic. The ASIC is designed in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology with SEU protection techniques for the digital parts.

  11. Software interface for high-speed readout of particle detectors based on the CoaXPress communication standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejtmánek, M.; Neue, G.; Voleš, P.

    2015-06-01

    This article is devoted to the software design and development of a high-speed readout application used for interfacing particle detectors via the CoaXPress communication standard. The CoaXPress provides an asymmetric high-speed serial connection over a single coaxial cable. It uses a widely available 75 Ω BNC standard and can operate in various modes with a data throughput ranging from 1.25 Gbps up to 25 Gbps. Moreover, it supports a low speed uplink with a fixed bit rate of 20.833 Mbps, which can be used to control and upload configuration data to the particle detector. The CoaXPress interface is an upcoming standard in medical imaging, therefore its usage promises long-term compatibility and versatility. This work presents an example of how to develop DAQ system for a pixel detector. For this purpose, a flexible DAQ card was developed using the XILINX Spartan 6 FPGA. The DAQ card is connected to the framegrabber FireBird CXP6 Quad, which is plugged in the PCI Express bus of the standard PC. The data transmission was performed between the FPGA and framegrabber card via the standard coaxial cable in communication mode with a bit rate of 3.125 Gbps. Using the Medipix2 Quad pixel detector, the framerate of 100 fps was achieved. The front-end application makes use of the FireBird framegrabber software development kit and is suitable for data acquisition as well as control of the detector through the registers implemented in the FPGA.

  12. Design of readout IC for photoelectron detector of short-wave high frequency IRFPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pan; Ding, Rui-jun; Chen, Guo-qiang; Chen, Honglei

    2013-01-01

    Design of readout-integrated circuit(ROIC) with high frequency and low signal for 512×256 short wavelength(SW) inferred-focal-plane-arrays(IRFPAs) is presented. The ROIC with high performance in frame rate can integrate and read out the low signal. An analog signal chain, which contains CTIA, CDS module, amplifier of charge and complementary output stage, can satisfy the high frequency and low signal application. A reliable digital control structure of IRFPA ROIC is presented, with which the integral voltage of arbitrary contiguous or noncontiguous lines, rather than regular lines, can be selected to readout. The simulation and verification are completed both before and after completing the layout. The circuit's structure and operation principle are analyzed under the environment of mix-signal, and the result shows that the output dynamic range is over 2.5V, the charge capacity is more than 1Me-, the frame rate is 250Hz, the linearity within useful dynamic range is above 99.9 percent.

  13. STIS ASIC charge-amp and voltage discriminator for MAMA detector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Edward H.; Smeins, Larry G.; Stechman, John M.

    1993-11-01

    The continuing effort to improve detectors for low light applications has resulted in the development of imaging photon counting detectors. One such device is the MAMA (Multi- Anode Microchannel Array) detector fabricated by Ball Aerospace. This paper provides a brief overview of the STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) MAMA detector and a detailed description of the analog signal processing electronics. The analog signal processing circuit is built using two unique Ball Aerospace and Communications Group (BACG) designed ASICs (application specific integrated circuits). Each MAMA detector analog signal processing channel uses a pair of the ASICs. The first is a charge to voltage amplifier and the second a voltage discriminator. The amplifier has lower noise and higher speed than previous BACG designs. Its first stage gain bandwidth is 10 GHz with an equivalent input noise voltage of about 1 nV per root hertz. It has a single ended input and differential output to drive the voltage discriminator. The voltage discriminator ASIC has differential input and single ended, CMOS compatible, output. The system has a 120 ns pulse pair resolution with 21 ns amplitude dependent timing uncertainty. Calculated false event rate, for prototype devices, is 1 count in 107 sec with 100 pF detector capacitance and a 20,000 electron threshold. Counting rates greater than 1 million per second per channel can be accommodated. Both ASICs have much lower power consumption than previous discrete designs. The ASIC process used allows the fabrication of extremely robust devices while reducing the total number of parts.

  14. The Detector and Readout Systems of the Micro-X High Resolution Microcalorimeter X-Ray Imaging Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikus, P.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Ewin, A. J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Galeazzi, M.; Hilton, G.; Irwin, K. D.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leman, S. W.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Rutherford, J. M.; Trowbridge, S. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Micro-X sounding rocket experiment will deploy an imaging transition-edge-sensor (TES) microcalorimeter spectrometer to observe astrophysical sources in the 0.2-3.0 keV band. The instrument has been designed at a systems level, and the first items of flight hardware are presently being built. In the first flight, planned for January 2011, the spectrometer will observe a recently discovered Silicon knot in the Puppis-A supernova remnant. Here we describe the design of the Micro-X science instrument, focusing on the instrument's detector and detector assembly. The current design of the 2-dimensional spectrometer array contains 128 close-packed pixels with a pitch of 600 μm. The conically approximated Wolter-1 mirror will map each of these pixels to a 0.95 arcmin region on the sky; the field of view will be 11.4 arcmin. Targeted energy resolution of the TESs is about 2 eV over the full observing band. A SQUID time-division multiplexer (TDM) will read out the array. The detector time constants will be engineered to approximately 2 ms to match the TDM, which samples each pixel at 32.6 kHz, limited only by the telemetry system of the rocket. The detector array and two SQUID stages of the TDM readout system are accommodated in a lightweight Mg enclosure, which is mounted to the 50 mK stage of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. A third SQUID amplification stage is located on the 1.6 K liquid He stage of the cryostat. An on-board 55-Fe source will fluoresce a Ca target, providing 3.69 and 4.01 keV calibration lines that will not interfere with the scientifically interesting energy band.

  15. Development of high data readout rate pixel module and detector hybridization at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Sergio Zimmermann et al.

    2001-03-20

    This paper describes the baseline design and a variation of the pixel module to handle the data rate required for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. The present prototype has shown good electrical performance characteristics. Indium bump bonding is proven to be capable of successful fabrication at 50 micron pitch on real detectors. For solder bumps at 50 micron pitch, much better results have been obtained with the fluxless PADS processed detectors. The results are adequate for our needs and our tests have validated it as a viable technology.

  16. Use of internal scintillator radioactivity to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bircher, Chad; Shao Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors that use a dual-ended-scintillator readout to measure depth-of-interaction (DOI) must have an accurate DOI function to provide the relationship between DOI and signal ratios to be used for detector calibration and recalibration. In a previous study, the authors used a novel and simple method to accurately and quickly measure DOI function by irradiating the detector with an external uniform flood source; however, as a practical concern, implementing external uniform flood sources in an assembled PET system is technically challenging and expensive. In the current study, therefore, the authors investigated whether the same method could be used to acquire DOI function from scintillator-generated (i.e., internal) radiation. The authors also developed a method for calibrating the energy scale necessary to select the events within the desired energy window. Methods: The authors measured the DOI function of a PET detector with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators. Radiation events originating from the scintillators' internal Lu-176 beta decay were used to measure DOI functions which were then compared with those measured from both an external uniform flood source and an electronically collimated external point source. The authors conducted these studies with several scintillators of differing geometries (1.5 x 1.5 and 2.0 x 2.0 mm{sup 2} cross-section area and 20, 30, and 40 mm length) and various surface finishes (mirror-finishing, saw-cut rough, and other finishes in between), and in a prototype array. Results: All measured results using internal and external radiation sources showed excellent agreement in DOI function measurement. The mean difference among DOI values for all scintillators measured from internal and external radiation sources was less than 1.0 mm for different scintillator geometries and various surface finishes. Conclusions: The internal radioactivity of LYSO scintillators can be used

  17. Characterisation of an electron collecting CdTe strip sensor using the MYTHEN readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbracht-Leong, S.; Bergamaschi, A.; Greiffenberg, D.; Peake, D.; Rassool, R.; Schmitt, B.; Toyokawa, H.; Sobbott, B.

    2015-01-01

    MYTHEN is a single photon counting hybrid strip X-ray detector that has found application in x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) experiments at synchrotrons worldwide. Originally designed to operate with hole collecting silicon sensors, MYTHEN is suited for detecting X-rays above 5 keV, however many PD beamlines have been designed for energies above 50 keV where silicon sensors have an efficiency of only few percent. In order to adapt MYTHEN to meet these energies the absorption efficiency of the sensor must be substantially increased. Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) has an absorption efficiency approximately 30 times that of silicon at 50 keV, and is therefore a very promising replacement candidate for silicon. Furthermore, the large dynamic range of the pre-amplifier of MYTHEN and its double polarity capability has enabled the characterisation of an electron collecting Schottky type CdTe sensor. A CdTe MYTHEN system has undergone a series of characterisation experiments including stress test of bias and radiation induced polarizations. The performance of this system will be presented and discussed.

  18. Design of integrated readout circuit with enhanced capacitance mechanism for dual-band infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Shiu, Shiuan-Shuo; Liu, Yi-Ting; Tang, Shiang-Feng; Lin, Wen-Jen

    2011-10-01

    This study proposes a solution for an excessive dark current by a sharing capacitor, which avoids output signal distortion due to integration voltage saturation. Integration capacitance can be changed by adding a switch in the pixel circuit, which will increase the capacitance by two times the original. This circuit also provides output functions of either single-band or dual-band by switching to different sensor. This integrated readout circuit design adopts the TSMC 0.35um 2P4M CMOS 5V process, run on a 5V power supply and operated at a 3MHz clock rate. The dual-band pixel circuit uses an interlace structure, the pixel circuit areas of the two wavelengths are both 30um x 30um. The mid-wave and long-wave sensor currents are from 1nA to 2nA and 6nA to 8nA, respectively, and output swing is 2.8V.

  19. Fast Imaging Detector Readout Circuits with In-Pixel ADCs for Fourier Transform Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D.; Blavier, J-F.; Cunningham, T.; Hancock, B.; Key, R.; Pannell, Z.; Sander, S.; Seshadri, S.; Sun, C.; Wrigley, C.

    2011-01-01

    Focal plane arrays (FPAs) with high frame rates and many pixels benefit several upcoming Earth science missions including GEO-CAPE, GACM, and ACE by enabling broader spatial coverage and higher spectral resolution. FPAs for the PanFTS, a high spatial resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and a candidate instrument for the GEO-CAPE mission are the focus of the developments reported here, but this FPA technology has the potential to enable a variety of future measurements and instruments. The ESTO ACT Program funded the developed of a fast readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on an innovative in-pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC features 60 ?m pixels, a 14-bit ADC in each pixel and operates at a continuous frame rate of 14 kHz consuming only 1.1 W of power. The ROIC outputs digitized data completely eliminating the bulky, power consuming signal chains needed by conventional FPAs. The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC has been fabricated in CMOS and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current version is designed to be hybridized with PIN photodiode arrays via indium bump bonding for light detection in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. However, the ROIC design incorporates a small photodiode in each cell to permit detailed characterization of the ROICperformance without the need for hybridization. We will describe the essential features of the ROIC design and present results of ROIC performance measurements.

  20. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Design and test of a Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber with Long readout-strip (LMRPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong-Jie; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Shao, Ming; Zhao, Yan-E.; Chen, Hong-Fang

    2009-02-01

    A new kind (two end readout) of Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber with long readout-strip (LMRPC) is developed to be used at the large-area Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at mid-rapidity at RHIC/STAR experiment for Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurement. The LMRPC has an active area of 87 cm × 17 cm, 10 gas gaps of 250 μm arranged in 2 stacks, with readout strips of 2.5 cm wide and 90 cm long. The considerations in LMRPC design related to its performance are discussed in this paper. The cosmic ray test results of a prototype LMRPC show a detection efficiency >95% and the time resolution ~70 ps.

  1. A drift detector system with anode and cathode readout in the GlueX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, V V; Somov, S V; Pentchev, L; Zihlmann, B

    2015-01-01

    A drift detector system designed to detect charged particle tracks in the GlueX experiment dedicated to study the nature of confinement is described. The key design features of the drift chambers associated with the requirement of a minimum material budget in the path of secondary particles are presented. The spatial resolution and the detection efficiency have been measured with cosmic rays using the automatic data acquisition system.

  2. TGV32: A 32-channel preamplifier chip for the multiplicity vertex detector at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.; Frank, S.S.

    1997-12-31

    The TGV32, a 32-channel preamplifier-multiplicity discriminator chip for the Multiplicity Vertex Detector (MVD) at PHENIX, is a unique silicon preamplifier in that it provides both an analog output for storage in an analog memory and a weighted summed-current output for conversion to a channel multiplicity count. The architecture and test results of the chip are presented. Details about the design of the preamplifier, discriminator, and programmable digital-analog converters (DACs) performance as well as the process variations are presented. The chip is fabricated in a 1.2-{micro}m, n-well, CMOS process.

  3. A reference voltage in capacitor-resister hybrid SAR ADC for front-end readout system of CZT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liu; Tingcun, Wei; Bo, Li; Lifeng, Yang; Yongcai, Hu

    2016-01-01

    An on-chip reference voltage has been designed in capacitor-resister hybrid SAR ADC for CZT detector with the TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. The voltage reference has a dynamic load since using variable capacitors and resistances, which need a large driving ability to deal with the current related to the time and sampling rate. Most of the previous articles about the reference for ADC present only the bandgap part for a low temperature coefficient and high PSRR. However, it is not enough and overall, it needs to consider the output driving ability. The proposed voltage reference is realized by the band-gap reference, voltage generator and output buffer. Apart from a low temperature coefficient and high PSRR, it has the features of a large driving ability and low power consumption. What is more, for CZT detectors application in space, a radiation-hardened design has been considered. The measurement results show that the output reference voltage of the buffer is 4.096 V. When the temperature varied from 0 to 80 °C, the temperature coefficient is 12.2 ppm/°C. The PSRR was -70 dB @ 100 kHz. The drive current of the reference can reach up to 10 mA. The area of the voltage reference in the SAR ADC chip is only 449 × 614 μm2. The total power consumption is only 1.092 mW. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project (No. 2011YQ040082), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376034), and the Shaanxi Province Science and Technology Innovation Project (No. 2015KTZDGY03-03).

  4. Radiation hardness of optoelectronic components for the optical readout of the ATLAS inner detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, S.; Ishii, K.; Itoh, M.; Sakemi, Y.; Su, D. S.; Su, T. T.; Teng, P. K.; Yoshida, H. P.

    2011-04-01

    Optical links are used for data transmission of the ATLAS inner detector in a radiation hazard environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The radiation tolerance is studied for the opto-electronics of GaAs VCSEL and epitaxial Si PIN with 30 and 70 MeV protons at CYRIC. High speed Si and GaAs PIN photo-diodes are also investigated for upgrade to super-LHC. The annealing of GaAs VCSEL by charge injection is characterized. The GaAs devices show approximately linear degradations to fluence. The dependence on proton energy is compared to the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss calculations.

  5. Performance of the BGO endcap calorimeter with phototriode readout for the CMD-2 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, D.N.; Akhmetshin, R.R.; Beschastnov, P.M.; Fedorenko, V.E.; Pyata, E.E.; Smakhtin, V.P.; Yudin, Yu.V.; Shlegel, V.N.; Vasiliev, Ya.V.

    1995-08-01

    The endcap calorimeter of the CMD-2 detector for the VEPP-2M collider is described. The calorimeter contains 680 BGO crystals read out by vacuum phototriodes. Charge sensitive preamplifiers are placed directly on the phototriodes for the best noise performance. The calorimeter was installed during the last year. Calibration by cosmic rays showed the energy equivalent of the electronic noise to be about 0.9 MeV during operation in a 1 T magnetic field which corresponds to the design value.

  6. Segmented scintillation detectors with silicon photomultiplier readout for measuring antiproton annihilations

    SciTech Connect

    Sótér, A.; Todoroki, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Barna, D.; Horváth, D.; Hori, M.

    2014-02-15

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN constructed segmented scintillators to detect and track the charged pions which emerge from antiproton annihilations in a future superconducting radiofrequency Paul trap for antiprotons. A system of 541 cast and extruded scintillator bars were arranged in 11 detector modules which provided a spatial resolution of 17 mm. Green wavelength-shifting fibers were embedded in the scintillators, and read out by silicon photomultipliers which had a sensitive area of 1 × 1 mm{sup 2}. The photoelectron yields of various scintillator configurations were measured using a negative pion beam of momentum p ≈ 1 GeV/c. Various fibers and silicon photomultipliers, fiber end terminations, and couplings between the fibers and scintillators were compared. The detectors were also tested using the antiproton beam of the AD. Nonlinear effects due to the saturation of the silicon photomultiplier were seen at high annihilation rates of the antiprotons.

  7. A novel single-ended readout depth-of-interaction PET detector fabricated using sub-surface laser engraving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, H.; Sakai, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Hakamata, K.; Shimizu, K.; Yamashita, T.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel scintillation detector design for positron emission tomography (PET), which has depth of interaction (DOI) capability and uses a single-ended readout scheme. The DOI detector contains a pair of crystal bars segmented using sub-surface laser engraving (SSLE). The two crystal bars are optically coupled to each other at their top segments and are coupled to two photo-sensors at their bottom segments. Initially, we evaluated the performance of different designs of single crystal bars coupled to photomultiplier tubes at both ends. We found that segmentation by SSLE results in superior performance compared to the conventional method. As the next step, we constructed a crystal unit composed of a 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 crystal bar pair, with each bar containing four layers segmented using the SSLE. We measured the DOI performance by changing the optical conditions for the crystal unit. Based on the experimental results, we then assessed the detector performance in terms of the DOI capability by evaluating the position error, energy resolution, and light collection efficiency for various crystal unit designs with different bar sizes and a different number of layers (four to seven layers). DOI encoding with small position error was achieved for crystal units composed of a 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 LYSO bar pair having up to seven layers, and with those composed of a 2  ×  2  ×  20 mm3 LYSO bar pair having up to six layers. The energy resolution of the segment in the seven-layer 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 crystal bar pair was 9.3%-15.5% for 662 keV gamma-rays, where the segments closer to the photo-sensors provided better energy resolution. SSLE provides high geometrical accuracy at low production cost due to the simplicity of the crystal assembly. Therefore, the proposed DOI detector is expected to be an attractive choice for practical small-bore PET systems dedicated to imaging of the brain

  8. A novel single-ended readout depth-of-interaction PET detector fabricated using sub-surface laser engraving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, H.; Sakai, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Hakamata, K.; Shimizu, K.; Yamashita, T.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel scintillation detector design for positron emission tomography (PET), which has depth of interaction (DOI) capability and uses a single-ended readout scheme. The DOI detector contains a pair of crystal bars segmented using sub-surface laser engraving (SSLE). The two crystal bars are optically coupled to each other at their top segments and are coupled to two photo-sensors at their bottom segments. Initially, we evaluated the performance of different designs of single crystal bars coupled to photomultiplier tubes at both ends. We found that segmentation by SSLE results in superior performance compared to the conventional method. As the next step, we constructed a crystal unit composed of a 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 crystal bar pair, with each bar containing four layers segmented using the SSLE. We measured the DOI performance by changing the optical conditions for the crystal unit. Based on the experimental results, we then assessed the detector performance in terms of the DOI capability by evaluating the position error, energy resolution, and light collection efficiency for various crystal unit designs with different bar sizes and a different number of layers (four to seven layers). DOI encoding with small position error was achieved for crystal units composed of a 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 LYSO bar pair having up to seven layers, and with those composed of a 2  ×  2  ×  20 mm3 LYSO bar pair having up to six layers. The energy resolution of the segment in the seven-layer 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 crystal bar pair was 9.3%–15.5% for 662 keV gamma-rays, where the segments closer to the photo-sensors provided better energy resolution. SSLE provides high geometrical accuracy at low production cost due to the simplicity of the crystal assembly. Therefore, the proposed DOI detector is expected to be an attractive choice for practical small-bore PET systems dedicated to imaging of the brain

  9. A novel front-end chip for a human PET scanner based on monolithic detector blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarasola, I.; Rato Mendes, P.; Cuerdo, R.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Cela, J. M.; Oller, J. C.; Romero, L.; Pérez, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner based on avalanche photodiodes (APD), monolithic LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and a dedicated readout chip. All these components allow operation inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner with the aim of building a PET/MRI hybrid imaging system for clinical human brain studies. Previous work verified the functional performance of our first chip (VATA240) based on a leading edge comparator and the principle of operation of our radiation sensors, which are capable of providing reconstructed images of positron point sources with spatial resolutions of 2.1 mm FWHM. The new VATA241 chip presented in this work has been designed with the aim of reducing the coincidence window of our final PET scanner by implementing an on-chip constant fraction discriminator (CFD), as well as providing a better robustness for its implementation in the full-scale PET scanner. Results from the characterization of the VATA241 chip are presented, together with the first results on coincidence performance, validating the new design for our application.

  10. Precision muon tracking detectors and read-out electronics for operation at very high background rates at future colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Nowak, S.; Richter, R.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Schwegler, Ph.

    2016-07-01

    The experience of the ATLAS MDT muon spectrometer shows that drift-tube chambers provide highly reliable precision muon tracking over large areas. The ATLAS muon chambers are exposed to unprecedentedly high background of photons and neutrons induced by the proton collisions. Still higher background rates are expected at future high-energy and high-luminosity colliders beyond HL-LHC. Therefore, drift-tube detectors with 15 mm tube diameter (30 mm in ATLAS), optimised for high rate operation, have been developed for such conditions. Several such full-scale sMDT chambers have been constructed with unprecedentedly high sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 10 μm. The chamber design and assembly methods have been optimised for large-scale production, reducing considerably cost and construction time while maintaining the high mechanical accuracy and reliability. Tests at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN showed that the rate capability of sMDT chambers is improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to the MDT chambers. By using read-out electronics optimised for high counting rates, the rate capability can be further increased.

  11. Characterization results of the JUNGFRAU full scale readout ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozzanica, A.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brueckner, M.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jungmann-Smith, J.; Maliakal, D.; Mezza, D.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, C.; Schaedler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

    2016-02-01

    The two-dimensional pixel detector JUNGFRAU is designed for high performance photon science applications at free electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. It is developed for the SwissFEL currently under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. The detector is a hybrid pixel detector with a charge integration readout ASIC characterized by single photon sensitivity and a low noise performance over a dynamic range of 104 12 keV photons. Geometrically, a JUNGFRAU readout chip consists of 256×256 pixels of 75×75 μm2. The chips are bump bonded to 320 μm thick silicon sensors. Arrays of 2×4 chips are tiled to form modules of 4×8 cm2 area. Several multi-module systems with up to 16 Mpixels per system will be delivered to the two end stations at SwissFEL. The JUNGFRAU full scale readout ASIC and module design are presented along with characterization results of the first systems. Experiments from fluorescence X-ray, visible light illumination, and synchrotron irradiation are shown. The results include an electronic noise of ~50 electrons r.m.s., which enables single photon detection energies below 2 keV and a noise well below the Poisson statistical limit over the entire dynamic range. First imaging experiments are also shown.

  12. Submillisecond X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy from a pixel array detector with fast dual gating and no readout dead-time.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingteng; Dufresne, Eric M; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Maj, Piotr; Narayanan, Suresh; Deptuch, Grzegorz W; Szczygiel, Robert; Sandy, Alec

    2016-05-01

    Small-angle scattering X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) studies were performed using a novel photon-counting pixel array detector with dual counters for each pixel. Each counter can be read out independently from the other to ensure there is no readout dead-time between the neighboring frames. A maximum frame rate of 11.8 kHz was achieved. Results on test samples show good agreement with simple diffusion. The potential of extending the time resolution of XPCS beyond the limit set by the detector frame rate using dual counters is also discussed.

  13. Trigger Data Serializer ASIC chip for the ATLAS New Small Wheel sTGC Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangting; Wang, Jinhong; Guan, Liang; Sang, Ziru; Chapman, John; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie

    2015-04-01

    The small-strip thin-gap chambers (sTGC) will be used as the trigger device for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS new small wheel (nSW) muon detector. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip is needed to collect digital signals from both pad and strip detectors and serialize the outputs to the circuitry located on the rim of the nSW. The large number of input channels (128 differential input channels), short time available to prepare and transmit trigger data (<100 ns), high speed output data rate (4.8 Gbps), harsh radiation environment (about 300 kRad), and low power consumption (<1 W) impose great challenges for the design of this ASIC chip using the IBM 130 nm CMOS process. We will present our design and test results based on the prototype chip we build.

  14. On-chip chalcogenide glass waveguide-integrated mid-infrared PbTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Z.; Singh, V.; Kita, D.; Monmeyran, C.; Becla, P.; Su, P.; Li, J.; Huang, X.; Kimerling, L. C.; Hu, J.; Richardson, K.; Tan, D. T. H.; Agarwal, A.

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an on-chip polycrystalline PbTe photoconductive detector integrated with a chalcogenide glass waveguide. The device is monolithically fabricated on silicon, operates at room-temperature, and exhibits a responsivity of 1.0 A/W at wavelengths between 2.1 and 2.5 μm.

  15. Development and commissioning of the HARDROC based readout for the INO-ICAL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Gaur, Ankit; Phogat, Aman; Rafik, Md.; Naimuddin, Md.

    2016-10-01

    Glass based Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are going to be used as an active element in the Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) experiment at the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO), which is being constructed to study atmospheric neutrinos. Though the RPC detector operational parameters are more or less finalized, the readout electronics is being developed using various technologies. The ICAL experiment will consist of about 29,000 RPC detectors of 2 m × 2 m in size with each detector having 64 readout channels both in the X and Y directions. The present study focusses on multi-channel electronics based on SiGe 350 nm technology as an option for the INO-ICAL RPC detectors. The study includes commissioning and usage of frontend application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) HARDROC chip in which 64 channels are handled independently to perform zero suppression. We present first testbench results using the HARDROC chip with the aim to use it finally in the ICAL experiment.

  16. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  17. A data acquisition system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanu, A. R.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.

    2015-04-01

    We present a data acquisition (DAQ) system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors using the delay-line method for readout. The DAQ system consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) as the main data processor and our time-to-digital (TDC) mezzanine card for making time measurements. We developed the TDC mezzanine card around the Acam TDC-GPX ASIC and it features four independent stop channels referenced to a common start, a typical timing resolution of ~81 ps, and a 17-bit measurement range, and is compliant with the VITA 57.1 standard. For our DAQ system, we have chosen the Xilinx SP601 development kit which features a single Spartan 6 FPGA, 128 MB of DDR2 memory, and a serial USB interface for communication. Output images consist of 1024×1024 square pixels, where each pixel has a 32-bit depth and corresponds to a time difference of 162 ps relative to its neighbours. When configured for a 250 ns acquisition window, the DAQ can resolve periodic event rates up to 1.8×106 Hz without any loses and will report a maximum event rate of 6.11×105 Hz for events whose arrival times follow Poisson statistics. The integral and differential non-linearities have also been measured and are better than 0.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Unlike commercial units, our DAQ system implements the delay-line image reconstruction algorithm entirely in hardware and is particularly attractive for its modularity, low cost, ease of integration, excellent linearity, and high throughput rate.

  18. High resolution 1280×1024, 15 μm pitch compact InSb IR detector with on-chip ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesher, O.; Pivnik, I.; Ilan, E.; Calalhorra, Z.; Koifman, A.; Vaserman, I.; Oiknine Schlesinger, J.; Gazit, R.; Hirsh, I.

    2009-05-01

    Over the last decade, SCD has developed and manufactured high quality InSb Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), which are currently used in many applications worldwide. SCD's production line includes many different types of InSb FPA with formats of 320x256, 480x384 and 640x512 elements and with pitch sizes in the range of 15 to 30 μm. All these FPAs are available in various packaging configurations, including fully integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assemblies (DDCA) with either closed-cycle Sterling or open-loop Joule-Thomson coolers. With an increasing need for higher resolution, SCD has recently developed a new large format 2-D InSb detector with 1280x1024 elements and a pixel size of 15μm. The InSb 15μm pixel technology has already been proven at SCD with the "Pelican" detector (640x512 elements), which was introduced at the Orlando conference in 2006. A new signal processor was developed at SCD for use in this mega-pixel detector. This Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) is designed for, and manufactured with, 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The migration from 0.5 to 0.18 μm CMOS technology supports SCD's roadmap for the reduction of pixel size and power consumption and is in line with the increasing demand for improved performance and on-chip functionality. Consequently, the new ROIC maintains the same level of performance and functionality with a 15 μm pitch, as exists in our 20 μm-pitch ROICs based on 0.5μm CMOS technology. Similar to Sebastian (SCD ROIC with A/D on chip), this signal processor also includes A/D converters on the chip and demonstrates the same level of performance, but with reduced power consumption. The pixel readout rate has been increased up to 160 MHz in order to support a high frame rate, resulting in 120 Hz operation with a window of 1024×1024 elements at ~130 mW. These A/D converters on chip save the need for using 16 A/D channels on board (in the case of an analog ROIC) which would operate at 10 MHz and consume about 8Watts A Dewar has been

  19. Commissioning of the read-out driver (ROD) card for the ATLAS IBL detector and upgrade studies for the pixel Layers 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Falchieri, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Travaglini, R.; Chen, S.-P.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hauck, S.; Kugel, A.

    2014-11-01

    The higher luminosity that is expected for the LHC after future upgrades will require better performance by the data acquisition system, especially in terms of throughput. In particular, during the first shutdown of the LHC collider in 2013/14, the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be equipped with a fourth layer - the Insertable B-Layer or IBL - located at a radius smaller than the present three layers. Consequently, a new front end ASIC (FE-I4) was designed as well as a new off-detector chain. The latter is composed mainly of two 9U-VME cards called the Back-Of-Crate (BOC) and Read-Out Driver (ROD). The ROD is used for data and event formatting and for configuration and control of the overall read-out electronics. After some prototyping samples were completed, a pre-production batch of 5 ROD cards was delivered with the final layout. Actual production of another 15 ROD cards is ongoing in Fall 2013, and commissioning is scheduled in 2014. Altogether 14 cards are necessary for the 14 staves of the IBL detector, one additional card is required by the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), and additional spare ROD cards will be produced for a total of 20 boards. This paper describes some integration tests that were performed and our plan to test the production of the ROD cards. Slices of the IBL read-out chain have been instrumented, and ROD performance is verified on a test bench mimicking a small-sized final setup. This contribution will report also one view on the possible adoption of the IBL ROD for ATLAS Pixel Detector Layer 2 (firstly) and, possibly, in the future, for Layer 1.

  20. Measurements of Si hybrid CMOS x-ray detector characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, Stephen D.; Falcone, Abe D.; Burrows, David N.; Cook, Robert; Bai, Yibin; Farris, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in contention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and Swift). However their bucket-brigade readout architecture, which transfers charge across the chip with discrete component readout electronics, results in clockrate limited readout speeds that cause pileup (saturation) of bright sources and an inherent susceptibility to radiation induced displacement damage that limits mission lifetime. In contrast, HCDs read pixels with low power, on-chip multiplexer electronics in a random access fashion. Faster frame rates achieved with multi-output readout design will allow the next generation's larger effective area telescopes to observe bright sources free of pileup. Radiation damaged lattice sites effect a single pixel instead of an entire row. Random access, multi-output readout will allow for novel readout modes such as simultaneous bright-source-fast/whole-chip-slow readout. In order for HCDs to be useful as X-Ray detectors, they must show noise and energy resolution performance similar to CCDs while retaining advantages inherent to HCDs. We will report on readnoise, conversion gain, and energy resolution measurements of an X-Ray enhanced Teledyne HAWAII-1RG (H1RG) HCD and describe techniques of H1RG data reduction.

  1. Integrated heterodyne interferometer with on-chip modulators and detectors.

    PubMed

    Cole, David B; Sorace-Agaskar, Cheryl; Moresco, Michele; Leake, Gerald; Coolbaugh, Douglas; Watts, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first on-chip heterodyne interferometer fabricated on a 300-mm CMOS compatible process that exhibits root-mean-square (RMS) position noise on the order of 2 nm. Measuring 1 mm by 6 mm, the interferometer is also, to our knowledge, the smallest heterodyne interferometer demonstrated to date and will surely impact numerous interferometric and metrology applications, including displacement measurement, laser Doppler velocimetry and vibrometry, Fourier transform spectroscopy, imaging, and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). Here we present preliminary results that demonstrate the displacement mode. PMID:26125376

  2. Pixel readout electronics for LHC and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanquart, L.; Bonzom, V.; Comes, G.; Delpierre, P.; Fischer, P.; Hausmann, J.; Keil, M.; Lindner, M.; Meuser, S.; Wermes, N.

    2000-01-01

    The demanding requirements for pixel readout electronics for high-energy physics experiments and biomedical applications are reviewed. Some examples of the measured analog performance of prototype chips are given. The readout architectures of the PIxel Readout for the ATlas Experiment (PIRATE) chip suited for LHC experiments and of the Multi Picture Element Counter (MPEC) counting chip targeted for biomedical applications are presented. First results with complete chip-sensor assemblies are also shown.

  3. Bi-content micro-collagen chip provides contractility-based biomechanical readout for phenotypic drug screening with expanded and profiled targets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Zhou, Lyu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yonghui; Chen, Huijun; Du, Yanan

    2015-09-01

    Phenotypic screening has regained momentum in the pharmaceutical industry owing to its success over target-based screening. Most phenotypic screening relies on nonspecific biochemical readouts regarding cellular viability, which hampers the discovery of novel drug mechanisms of action (MOAs). Here we present a Contractility-based bi-Content micro-Collagen Chip (3CChip), which establishes cellular contractility as a biomechanics-related phenotype for drug screening. Bi-content analysis of cell contractility (imaged by iPhone) and viability suggests that the label-free contractility-based analysis exhibits superior sensitivity to compounds targeting contractile elements (e.g. focal adhesion, cytoskeleton), resulting in a enlarged target pool for drug assessment. Six typical readout patterns of drug response are summarized according to the relative positions of the contraction/viability curves, and drug targets are profiled into three categories (biomechanical, biochemical and housekeeping) by 3CChip, which will benefit subsequent target identification. The simple-to-use and effective 3CChip offers a robust platform for micro-tissue-based functional screening and may lead to a new era of mechanism-informed phenotypic drug discovery. PMID:26219255

  4. Medipix2 parallel readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.

    2003-08-01

    A fast parallel readout system based on a PCI board has been developed in the framework of the Medipix collaboration. The readout electronics consists of two boards: the motherboard directly interfacing the Medipix2 chip, and the PCI board with digital I/O ports 32 bits wide. The device driver and readout software have been developed at low level in Assembler to allow fast data transfer and image reconstruction. The parallel readout permits a transfer rate up to 64 Mbytes/s. http://medipix.web.cern ch/MEDIPIX/

  5. Simulation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose from 137 Cs Gammas Using a Si Timepix Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Empl, Anton; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The TimePix readout chip is a hybrid pixel detector with over 65k independent pixel elements. Each pixel contains its own circuitry for charge collection, counting logic, and readout. When coupled with a Silicon detector layer, the Timepix chip is capable of measuring the charge, and thus energy, deposited in the Silicon. Measurements using a NIST traceable 137Cs gamma source have been made at Johnson Space Center using such a Si Timepix detector, and this data is compared to simulations of energy deposition in the Si layer carried out using FLUKA.

  6. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Performance testing of a long-strip two-end readout multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Yi; Luo, Ming; Li, Yuan-Jing; Cheng, Jian-Ping

    2009-02-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a new generation of gas detector with good timing and spacial resolution, whose technique is widely applied in some recent high energy (nuclear) physics experiments. In this letter, we report a long-strip two-end readout MRPC and its test beam performance. The measurements show that the long-strip performs a transmission line characteristic and the impedance is independent of the length of strip. The MRPC module we developed is presented to gain a timing resolution of ~80 ps and a spacial resolution of ~6.4 mm. The possible application of the MRPC is also discussed.

  7. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Two-Dimensional Read-Out Boards for Sub-Atomic Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David; Majka, Richard

    2010-10-22

    We report results from research aimed at developing and demonstrating production of 2-D readout structures for GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) charged particle tracking chambers at Tech-Etch. Readout boards of two types, bi-planar and single plane, were fabricated and evaluated. The results show that Tech-Etch can produce suitable boards of either type however the single plane board has a number of advantages both in production and use that will likely make it the preferred choice for GEM tracking chambers.

  8. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Two-Dimensional Read-Out Boards for Sub-Atomic Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David; Majka, Richard

    2010-10-22

    Tech-Etch has considerable experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products including production of GEM foils. The required precision and production process for 2-D readout boards is similar to that developed for GEM foil production. Additionally, Tech-Etch has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven National Laboratory, MIT and Yale University) that can help design and evaluate the performance of the readout boards produced at Tech-Etch. Since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, optimized for a particular customer's requirements. We report results from research aimed at developing and demonstrating production of 2-D readout structures for GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) charged particle tracking chambers at Tech-Etch. Readout boards of two types, bi-planar and single plane, were fabricated and evaluated. The results show that Tech-Etch can produce suitable boards of either type however the single plane board has a number of advantages both in production and use that will likely make it the preferred choice for GEM tracking chambers.

  9. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  10. Toward VIP-PIX: A Low Noise Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Use in the Next Generation of PET Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Puigdengoles, Carles; Lorenzo, Gianluca De; Martínez, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    VIP-PIX will be a low noise and low power pixel readout electronics with digital output for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. The proposed pixel will be part of a 2D pixel-array detector for various types of nuclear medicine imaging devices such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners, Compton gamma cameras, and positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanners. Each pixel will include a SAR ADC that provides the energy deposited with 10-bit resolution. Simultaneously, the self-triggered pixel which will be connected to a global time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 1 ns resolution will provide the event’s time stamp. The analog part of the readout chain and the ADC have been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology and characterized with an external test pulse. The power consumption of these parts is 200 μW from a 2.5 V supply. It offers 4 switchable gains from ±10 mV/fC to ±40 mV/fC and an input charge dynamic range of up to ±70 fC for the minimum gain for both polarities. Based on noise measurements, the expected equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 65 e− RMS at room temperature. PMID:24187382

  11. Toward VIP-PIX: A Low Noise Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Use in the Next Generation of PET Scanners.

    PubMed

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Puigdengoles, Carles; Lorenzo, Gianluca De; Martínez, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    VIP-PIX will be a low noise and low power pixel readout electronics with digital output for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. The proposed pixel will be part of a 2D pixel-array detector for various types of nuclear medicine imaging devices such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners, Compton gamma cameras, and positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanners. Each pixel will include a SAR ADC that provides the energy deposited with 10-bit resolution. Simultaneously, the self-triggered pixel which will be connected to a global time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 1 ns resolution will provide the event's time stamp. The analog part of the readout chain and the ADC have been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology and characterized with an external test pulse. The power consumption of these parts is 200 μW from a 2.5 V supply. It offers 4 switchable gains from ±10 mV/fC to ±40 mV/fC and an input charge dynamic range of up to ±70 fC for the minimum gain for both polarities. Based on noise measurements, the expected equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 65 e(-) RMS at room temperature.

  12. Fluoroscopic x-ray demonstrator using a CdTe polycrystalline layer coupled to a CMOS readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arques, M.; Renet, S.; Brambilla, A.; Feuillet, G.; Gasse, A.; Billon-Pierron, N.; Jolliot, M.; Mathieu, L.; Rohr, P.

    2010-04-01

    Dynamic X-ray imagers require large surface, fast and highly sensitive X-ray absorbers and dedicated readout electronics. Monocrystalline photoconductors offer the sensitivity, speed, and MTF performances. Polycristalline photoconductors offer the large surface at a moderate cost. The challenge for them is to maintain the first performances at a compatible level with the medical applications requirements. This work has been focused on polycristalline CdTe grown by Close Space Sublimation (CSS) technique. This technique offers the possibility to grow large layers with a high material evaporation yield. This paper presents the results obtained with an image demonstrator using 350μm thick CdTe_css layers coupled to a CMOS readout circuit with Indium bumping. The present demonstrator has 200 x 200 pixels, with a pixel pitch of 75μm ×75μm. A total image surface of 15mm × 15mm has then been obtained. The ASIC works in an integration mode, i.e. each pixel accumulates the charges coming from the CdTe layer on a capacitor, converting them to a voltage. Single images as well as video sequences have been obtained. X-ray performance at 16 frames per second rate is measured. In particular a readout noise of 0.5 X ray, an MTF of 50% at 4 lp/mm and a DQE of 20% at 4lp/mm and 600 nGy are obtained. Although present demonstrator surface is moderate, it demonstrates that high performance can be expected from this assembly concept and its interest for medical applications.

  13. All-in-one readout electronics for the Belle-II Central Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Nanae; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Yoshihito; Saito, Masatoshi; Shimazaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Manobu; Uchida, Tomohisa; Uno, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    For the Belle-II experiment at KEK, a Central Drift Chamber (CDC) with readout electronics is required to be upgraded to cope with the design luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2 s-1. Not only the readout electronics will be completely replaced, but also the wire chamber itself. The new readout electronics system must handle higher trigger rates with less dead time. The front-end electronics are located close to detector and send digitized signal through optical fibers. The Amp-Shaper-Discriminator chips, FADC and FPGA are assembled on a single board. This paper will give an overview of the Belle-II CDC and present results of the performance of the readout board in a test beam.

  14. Sub-micro-liter Electrochemical Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism Detector for Lab-on-a-Chip System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fiorini, Paolo; Peeters, Sara; Majeed, Bivragh; Sterken, Tom; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Hayashi, Miho; Yaku, Hidenobu; Yamashita, Ichiro

    2012-04-01

    A sub-micro-liter single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) detector for lab-on-a-chip applications is developed. This detector enables a fast, sensitive, and selective SNP detection directly from human blood. The detector is fabricated on a Si substrate by a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor/micro electro mechanical systems (CMOS/MEMS) process and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molding. Stable and reproducible measurements are obtained by implementing an on-chip Ag/AgCl electrode and encapsulating the detector. The detector senses the presence of SNPs by measuring the concentration of pyrophosphoric acid generated during selective DNA amplification. A 0.5-µL-volume detector enabled the successful performance of the typing of a SNP within the ABO gene using human blood. The measured sensitivity is 566 pA/µM.

  15. Effects of reflector and crystal surface on the performance of a depth-encoding PET detector with dual-ended readout

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Silin; Yang, Yongfeng Cherry, Simon R.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Depth encoding detectors are required to improve the spatial resolution and spatial resolution uniformity of small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, as well as dedicated breast and brain scanners. Depth of interaction (DOI) can be measured by using dual-ended readout of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays with position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes. Inter-crystal reflectors and crystal surface treatments play important roles in determining the performance of dual-ended detectors. In this paper, the authors evaluated five LSO arrays made with three different intercrystal reflectors and with either polished or unpolished crystal surfaces. Methods: The crystal size in all arrays was 1.5 mm, which is typical of the detector size used in small animal and dedicated breast scanners. The LSO arrays were measured with dual-ended readout and were compared in terms of flood histogram, energy resolution, and DOI resolution performance. Results: The four arrays using enhanced specular reflector (ESR) and Toray reflector provided similar quality flood histograms and the array using Crystal Wrap reflector gave the worst flood histogram. The two arrays using ESR reflector provided the best energy resolution and the array using Crystal Wrap reflector yielded the worst energy resolution. All arrays except the polished ESR array provided good DOI resolution ranging from 1.9 mm to 2.9 mm. DOI resolution improved as the gradient in light collection efficiency with depth (GLCED) increased. The geometric mean energies were also calculated for these dual-ended readout detectors as an alternative to the conventional summed total energy. It was shown that the geometric mean energy is advantageous in that it provides more uniform photopeak amplitude at different depths for arrays with high GLCED, and is beneficial in event selection by allowing a fixed energy window independent of depth. A new method of DOI calculation that improved the linearity

  16. An Efficient, FPGA-Based, Cluster Detection Algorithm Implementation for a Strip Detector Readout System in a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E. (Editor); Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photoelectron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  17. Invited Review Article: Physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Leman, Steven W.

    2012-09-15

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models.

  18. An efficient, FPGA-based, cluster detection algorithm implementation for a strip detector readout system in a Time Projection Chamber polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E.; Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photo- electron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  19. Development FD-SOI MOSFET Amplifiers for Integrated Read-Out Circuit of Superconducting-Tunnel-Junction Single-Photon-Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kiuchi, Kenji; et al.

    2015-07-27

    We proposed a new high-resolution single-photon infrared spectrometer for search for radiative decay of cosmic neutrino background (Cν#23;B). The superconducting-tunnel-junctions(STJs) are used as a single-photon counting device. Each STJ consists of Nb/Al/AlxOy/Al/Nb layers, and their thicknesses are optimized for the operation temperature at 370 mK cooled by a 3He sorption refrigerator. Our STJs achieved the leak current 250 pA, and the measured data implies that a smaller area STJ fulfills our requirement. FD-SOI MOSFETs are employed to amplify the STJ signal current in order to increase signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). FD-SOI MOSFETs can be operated at cryogenic temperature of 370 mK, which reduces the noise of the signal amplification system. FD-SOI MOSFET characteristics are measured at cryogenic temperature. The Id-Vgs curve shows a sharper turn on with a higher threshold voltage and the Id-Vds curve shows a nonlinear shape in linear region at cryogenic temperature. Taking into account these effects, FD-SOI MOSFETs are available for read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The bias voltage for STJ detectors is 0.4 mV, and it must be well stabilized to deliver high performance. We proposed an FD-SOI MOSFET-based charge integrated amplifier design as a read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The requirements for an operational amplifier used in the amplifier is estimated using SPICE simulation. The op-amp is required to have a fast response (GBW ≥ #21;100 MHz), and it must have low power dissipation as compared to the cooling power of refrigerator.

  20. MEPHISTO - a 128-channel front end chip with real time data sparsification and multi-hit capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Comes, G.; Krüger, H.

    1999-07-01

    The MEPHISTO chip uses a novel binary architecture to achieve a high speed readout for multichannel detectors, like silicon strip detectors or MSGCs. The architecture is an alternative to existing designs with raw data pipelines as are commonly used in particle physics applications. The chip receives 128 digital input signals from an analog front end chip at a rate of up to 80 MHz. The hit pattern is sparsified in real time and only the addresses and interaction times of hits are stored temporarily in FIFOs. Multiple hits per event are possible. A trigger selects interesting events for readout. All other hits are automatically discarded. Untriggered readout at high rates is also possible. The occupied chip area depends on the average data rate which can be very small in many applications. Very compact designs with up to ten times less first level storage can therefore be realized.

  1. X-ray imaging using a 320 x 240 hybrid GaAs pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Irsigler, R.; Andersson, J.; Alverbro, J.

    1999-06-01

    The authors present room temperature measurements on 200 {micro}m thick GaAs pixel detectors, which were hybridized to silicon readout circuits. The whole detector array contains 320 x 240 square shaped pixel with a pitch of 38 {micro}m and is based on semi-insulating liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs material. After fabricating and dicing, the detector chips were indium bump flip chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration and finally evaluated. This readout chip was originally designed for the readout of flip chip bonded infrared detectors, but appears to be suitable for X-ray applications as well. A bias voltage between 50 V and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector at room temperature. The detector array did respond to x-ray radiation by an increase in current due to production of electron hole pairs by the ionization processes. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard X-ray source for dental imaging. The new X-ray hybrid detector was analyzed with respect to its imaging properties. Due to the high absorption coefficient for X-rays in GaAs and the small pixel size, the sensor shows a high modulation transfer function up to the Nyquist frequency.

  2. A digital readout system for the CMS Phase I Pixel Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, R.

    2015-04-01

    The Phase I Upgrade to the CMS Pixel Detector at the LHC features a new 400 Mb/s digital readout system. This new system utilizes upgraded custom ASICs, PSI46digv2.1 Read Out Chips and Token Bit Manager for data packaging, new optical links and changes to the Front End Drivers. We are reporting on the new architecture of the full readout chain, the new schema for data encoding/transmission, and the results of preliminary testing of the new optical components.

  3. Proposal for a shift register approach to RPC calorimeter readout for test beam, cosmics, and sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D. G.

    2004-09-28

    Resistive Plate Chambers for Hadronic Particle-Flow calorimetry will have a large number of pixels. We present tests of a system for readout with parallel vertical shift registers, somewhat like that used in CCD imaging. In our case we discriminate on the signal immediately after amplification and shaping, and only shift single bits. We discuss the issues involved in a particular model for using off-the-shelf commercial chips for readout on a moderate scale. We have a 32 channel prototype in operation on an RPC, and we describe tests with the amplifiers etc leading up to this. The prototype is an example of a layout for the chips to be mounted on the readout pad for an RPC to make a thin assembly. Comparisons to other systems are made for cost scaling, modes of operation, etc. This particular implementation uses analog delay instead of a digital pipeline, and has no clock on the board during detector live time. This RPC readout system could be implemented quickly. Production of this system should have minimal start-up costs and minimal start-up times. One advantage of the present system would be to provide readout of large numbers of channels on a short development time scale at low cost. This would allow initial tuning of the reconstruction and analysis software in a test beam before other readout systems are ready. It also provides risk management by development of another technology at small additional cost.

  4. Super-framing technique based on digital readout for infrared thermal image systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Libin

    2014-11-01

    Photo current integration is the key to improve the performance of a thermal imaging system. By integrating the photo current in the capacitance, the signal-to-noise ratio of the system is greatly improved. Theoretically, the maximum integration time of a thermal imaging system is the frame time of the system. However, due to the low well capacity of the readout integrated circuit, the integration time of the photo current is often shorter than the frame time of the system. To increase the well capacity of the readout circuit is one of the main research topics in thermal imaging system. The super-framing technique can overcome the restriction by reading-out the detector signal in a rate higher than the frame rate and then integrating the signal outside the IRFPA. As the signal integration is carried out outside the pixel, the integration time is no longer restricted. The key of the super-framing technique is the transmission of the signal in high readout rate. The digital readout circuit by integrating the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) array on the readout circuit chip becomes more and more popular with the development of CMOS technologies. Since the digital signal can be transferred outside the chip in a GS/s rate without any concern on noise and distortion, the super-framing technique based on digital readout circuit is advantageous over the analog solution.

  5. Frequency and sensitivity tunable microresonator array for high-speed quantum processor readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskinson, Emile; Whittaker, J. D.; Swenson, L. J.; Volkmann, M. H.; Spear, P.; Altomare, F.; Berkley, A. J.; Bumble, B.; Bunyk, P.; Day, P. K.; Eom, B. H.; Harris, R.; Hilton, J. P.; Johnson, M. W.; Kleinsasser, A.; Ladizinsky, E.; Lanting, T.; Oh, T.; Perminov, I.; Tolkacheva, E.; Yao, J.

    Frequency multiplexed arrays of superconducting microresonators have been used as detectors in a variety of applications. The degree of multiplexing achievable is limited by fabrication variation causing non-uniform shifts in resonator frequencies. We have designed, implemented and characterized a superconducting microresonator readout that incorporates two tunable inductances per detector, allowing independent control of each detector frequency and sensitivity. The tunable inductances are adjusted using on-chip programmable digital-to-analog flux converters, which are programmed with a scalable addressing scheme that requires few external lines.

  6. On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of single-photon detectors

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Faraz; Mower, Jacob; Harris, Nicholas C.; Bellei, Francesco; Dane, Andrew; Lee, Catherine; Hu, Xiaolong; Kharel, Prashanta; Marsili, Francesco; Assefa, Solomon; Berggren, Karl K.; Englund, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Photonic-integrated circuits have emerged as a scalable platform for complex quantum systems. A central goal is to integrate single-photon detectors to reduce optical losses, latency and wiring complexity associated with off-chip detectors. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) are particularly attractive because of high detection efficiency, sub-50-ps jitter and nanosecond-scale reset time. However, while single detectors have been incorporated into individual waveguides, the system detection efficiency of multiple SNSPDs in one photonic circuit—required for scalable quantum photonic circuits—has been limited to <0.2%. Here we introduce a micrometer-scale flip-chip process that enables scalable integration of SNSPDs on a range of photonic circuits. Ten low-jitter detectors are integrated on one circuit with 100% device yield. With an average system detection efficiency beyond 10%, and estimated on-chip detection efficiency of 14–52% for four detectors operated simultaneously, we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first on-chip photon correlation measurements of non-classical light. PMID:25575346

  7. Optical Readout of Micro-Accelerometer Code Features

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.; Polosky, Marc A.; Shagam, Richard N.; Sullivan, Charles T.

    1999-07-08

    Micromachine accelerometers offer a way to enable critical functions only when a system encounters a particular acceleration environment. This paper describes the optical readout of a surface micromachine accelerometer containing a unique 24-bit code. The readout uses waveguide-based optics, which are implemented as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The PIC is flip-chip bonded over the micromachine, for a compact package. The shuttle moves 500 {micro}m during readout, and each code element is 17 {micro}m wide. The particular readout scheme makes use of backscattered radiation from etched features in the accelerometer shuttle. The features are etched to create corner reflectors that return radiation back toward the source for a one bit. For a zero bit, the shuttle is not etched, and the radiation scatters forward, away from the detector. This arrangement provides a large signal difference between a one and zero signal, since the zero signal returns virtually no signal to the detector. It is thus superior to schemes that interrogate the code vertically, which have a limited contrast between a one and a zero. Experimental results are presented for mock shuttle features etched into a silicon substrate. To simulate the shuttle moving under a fixed PIC, a commercially available waveguide source was scanned over the mock code.

  8. Design of Low Power CMOS Read-Out with TDI Function for Infrared Linear Photodiode Array Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizcaino, Paul; Ramirez-Angulo, Jaime; Patel, Umesh D.

    2007-01-01

    A new low voltage CMOS infrared readout circuit using the buffer-direct injection method is presented. It uses a single supply voltage of 1.8 volts and a bias current of 1uA. The time-delay integration technique is used to increase the signal to noise ratio. A current memory circuit with faulty diode detection is used to remove dark current for background compensation and to disable a photodiode in a cell if detected as faulty. Simulations are shown that verify the circuit that is currently in fabrication in 0.5ym CMOS technology.

  9. De-Li-DAQ-2D - a new data acquisition system for position-sensitive neutron detectors with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Murashkevich, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    Software for a data acquisition system of modern one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors with delay-line readout, which includes a software interface to a new electronic module De-Li-DAQ-2D with a USB interface, is presented. The new system after successful tests on the stand and on several spectrometers of the IBR-2 reactor has been integrated into the software complex SONIX+ [1]. The De-Li- DAQ-2D module [2] contains an 8-channel time-code converter (TDC-GPX) with a time resolution of 80 ps, field programmable gate array (FPGA), 1 Gbyte histogram memory and high-speed interface with a fiber-optic communication line. A real count rate is no less than 106 events/s. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module is implemented in the NIM standard. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module can operate in two modes: histogram mode and list mode.

  10. Front-End Electronics for the Array Readout of a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector Towards Observation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, H.; Ikeno, M.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.

    2016-07-01

    Precise measurements of polarization patterns in cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide deep knowledge about the begin of the Universe. The GroundBIRD experiment aims to measure the CMB polarization by using microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays. The MKID is suited to multiplexing. One of our requirements is a MUX factor (the number of readout channels for a single wire pair) of at least 100. If we make frequency combs of the MKIDs with 2-MHz spacing, a bandwidth of 200 MHz satisfies 100 MUX. The analog electronics must consist of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), and local oscillator. We developed our own analog electronics board " RHEA." Two outputs/inputs of DAC/ADC with a 200-MHz clock provide an effective bandwidth of 200 MHz. The RHEA allows us to measure both the amplitude and phase responses of each MKID simultaneously. These data are continuously sampled at a high rate (e.g., 1 kSPS) and with no dead time. We achieved 12 and 14 bits resolution for ADC and DAC, respectively. This corresponds to achieve that our electronics achieved low noise: 1/1000 compared with the detector noise. We also achieved low power consumption compared with that of other electronics development for other experiments. Another important feature is that the board is completely separated from the digital part. Each user can choose their preferred field-programmable array. With the combination of the Kintex-7 evaluation kit from Xilinx, we demonstrated readout of MKID response.

  11. Performance of the new Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator chip for the ATLAS MDT chambers at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Matteis, M.; Resta, F.; Richter, R.; Kroha, H.; Fras, M.; Zhao, Y.; Danielyan, V.; Abovyan, S.; Baschirotto, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Detector requires new electronics for the readout of the MDT drift tubes. The first processing stage, the Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator (ASD), determines the performance of the readout for crucial parameters like time resolution, gain uniformity, efficiency and noise rejection. An 8-channel ASD chip, using the IBM 130 nm CMOS 8RF-DM technology, has been designed, produced and tested. The area of the chip is 2.2 × 2.9 mm2 size. We present results of detailed measurements as well as a comparison with simulation results of the chip behavior at three different levels of detail.

  12. Pixel detectors in 3D technologies for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, G.; Demarteau, M.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Shenai, A.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the development of International Linear Collider vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics. Initial testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second embodiment of the prototype data-pushed readout concept developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  13. Millisecond readout CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Mark; McCurnin, Thomas W.; Stradling, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a fast-scanning CCD readout system to record a 1024 X 256 pixel image and transport the image to a recording station within 1 ms of the experimental event. The system is designed to have a dynamic range of greater than 1000 with adequate sensitivity to read single-electron excitations of a CRT phosphor when amplified by a microchannel plate image intensifier. This readout camera is intended for recording images from oscilloscopes, streak, and framing cameras. The sensor is a custom CCD chip, designed by LORAL Aeroneutronics. This CCD chip is designed with 16 parallel output ports to supply the necessary image transfer speed. The CCD is designed as an interline structure to allow fast clearing of the image and on-chip fast sputtering. Special antiblooming provisions are also included. The camera is designed to be modular and to allow CCD chips of other sizes to be used with minimal reengineering of the camera head.

  14. Millisecond readout CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, M.; McCurnin, T. W.; Stradling, G.

    We have developed a prototype of a fast-scanning CCD readout system to record a 1024 x 256 pixel image and transport the image to a recording station within 1 ms of the experimental event. The system is designed to have a dynamic range of greater than 1000 with adequate sensitivity to read single-electron excitations of a CRT phosphor when amplified by a microchannel plate image intensifier. This readout camera is intended for recording images from oscilloscopes, streak, and framing cameras. The sensor is a custom CCD chip, designed by LORAL Aeroneutronics. This CCD chip is designed with 16 parallel output ports to supply the necessary image transfer speed. The CCD is designed as an interline structure to allow fast clearing of the image and on-chip fast shuttering. Special antiblooming provisions are also included. The camera is designed to be modular and to allow CCD chips of other sizes to be used with minimal reengineering of the camera head.

  15. On-chip Fabrication of High Performance Nanostructured ZnO UV Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alenezi, Mohammad R.; Henley, Simon J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-02-01

    Developing rationally controlled bottom-up device fabrication processes is essential for the achievement of high performance optimal devices. We report a controlled, seedless and site-selective hydrothermal technique to fabricate high-performance nanostructured ZnO UV-detectors directly on-chip. We demonstrate that by controlling the nanowire growth process, via tuning the experimental parameters such as the concentration of reactants and the growth time, and by introducing a refresh of the growth solution, the device structure efficiency can be enhanced to significantly improve its performance. The on-chip fabricated bridging nanosyringe ultraviolet detector demonstrates improved sensitivity (~105), nanowatts detectability, and ultrafast response-time (90 ms) and recovery-time (210 ms). The improvement in response-time and recovery-time is attributed to the unique nanowire-nanowire junction barrier dominated resistance and the direct contact between ZnO and Au electrodes. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity and nanowatts detectability of the bridging nanosyringe device are due to the reduction in dimensionality and ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio. This work paves the way toward low cost, large scale, low temperature, seedless and site-selective fabrication of high performance ZnO nanowire sensors on flexible and transparent substrates.

  16. High quantum-efficiency photon-number-resolving detector for photonic on-chip information processing.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Brice; Mennea, Paolo L; Lita, Adriana E; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Spring, Justin B; Humphreys, Peter C; Mirin, Richard P; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo

    2013-09-23

    The integrated optical circuit is a promising architecture for the realization of complex quantum optical states and information networks. One element that is required for many of these applications is a high-efficiency photon detector capable of photon-number discrimination. We present an integrated photonic system in the telecom band at 1550 nm based on UV-written silica-on-silicon waveguides and modified transition-edge sensors capable of number resolution and over 40 % efficiency. Exploiting the mode transmission failure of these devices, we multiplex three detectors in series to demonstrate a combined 79 % ± 2 % detection efficiency with a single pass, and 88 % ± 3 % at the operating wavelength of an on-chip terminal reflection grating. Furthermore, our optical measurements clearly demonstrate no significant unexplained loss in this system due to scattering or reflections. This waveguide and detector design therefore allows the placement of number-resolving single-photon detectors of predictable efficiency at arbitrary locations within a photonic circuit - a capability that offers great potential for many quantum optical applications. PMID:24104153

  17. X-ray tests of a microchannel plate detector and amorphous silicon pixel array readout for neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, R. M.; Street, R.; Feller, B.; Fraser, G. W.; Watterson, J. I. W.; Lanza, R. C.; Dowson, J.; Ross, D.; Martindale, A.; Abbey, A. F.; Vernon, D.

    2007-03-01

    High-performance large area imaging detectors for fast neutrons in the 5-14 MeV energy range do not exist at present. The aim of this project is to combine microchannel plates or MCPs (or similar electron multiplication structures) traditionally used in image intensifiers and X-ray detectors with amorphous silicon (a-Si) pixel arrays to produce a composite converter and intensifier position sensitive imaging system. This detector will provide an order of magnitude improvement in image resolution when compared with current millimetre resolution limits obtained using phosphor or scintillator-based hydrogen rich converters. In this study we present the results of the initial experimental evaluation of the prototype system. This study was carried out using a medical X-ray source for the proof of concept tests, the next phase will involve neutron imaging tests. The hybrid detector described in this study is a unique development and paves the way for large area position sensitive detectors consisting of MCP or microsphere plate detectors and a-Si or polysilicon pixel arrays. Applications include neutron and X-ray imaging for terrestrial applications. The technology could be extended to space instrumentation for X-ray astronomy.

  18. Integrated readout of organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/6LiF for segmented antineutrino detectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Monahan, James; Bowden, Nathaniel S.

    2010-11-01

    Antineutrino detection using inverse beta decay conversion has demonstrated the capability to measure nuclear reactor power and fissile material content for nuclear safeguards. Current efforts focus on aboveground deployment scenarios, for which highly efficient capture and identification of neutrons is needed to measure the anticipated antineutrino event rates in an elevated background environment. In this submission, we report on initial characterization of a new scintillation-based segmented design that uses layers of ZnS:Ag/{sup 6}LiF and an integrated readout technique to capture and identify neutrons created in the inverse beta decay reaction. Laboratory studies with multiple organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/{sup 6}LiF configurations reliably identify {sup 6}Li neutron captures in 60 cm-long segments using pulse shape discrimination.

  19. Precision tracking with a single gaseous pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridas, S.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N. P.; de Jong, P.; Kluit, R.

    2015-09-01

    The importance of micro-pattern gaseous detectors has grown over the past few years after successful usage in a large number of applications in physics experiments and medicine. We develop gaseous pixel detectors using micromegas-based amplification structures on top of CMOS pixel readout chips. Using wafer post-processing we add a spark-protection layer and a grid to create an amplification region above the chip, allowing individual electrons released above the grid by the passage of ionising radiation to be recorded. The electron creation point is measured in 3D, using the pixel position for (x, y) and the drift time for z. The track can be reconstructed by fitting a straight line to these points. In this work we have used a pixel-readout-chip which is a small-scale prototype of Timepix3 chip (designed for both silicon and gaseous detection media). This prototype chip has several advantages over the existing Timepix chip, including a faster front-end (pre-amplifier and discriminator) and a faster TDC which reduce timewalk's contribution to the z position error. Although the chip is very small (sensitive area of 0.88 × 0.88mm2), we have built it into a detector with a short drift gap (1.3 mm), and measured its tracking performance in an electron beam at DESY. We present the results obtained, which lead to a significant improvement for the resolutions with respect to Timepix-based detectors.

  20. Development of the superconducting detectors and read-out for the X-IFU instrument on board of the X-ray observatory Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardi, L.; Akamatsu, H.; Bruijn, M. P.; den Hartog, R.; den Herder, J.-W.; Jackson, B.; Kiviranta, M.; van der Kuur, J.; van Weers, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected by ESA as its second large-class mission. The future European X-ray observatory will study the hot and energetic Universe with its launch foreseen in 2028. Microcalorimeters based on superconducting Transition-edge sensor (TES) are the chosen technology for the detectors array of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board of Athena. The X-IFU is a 2-D imaging integral-field spectrometer operating in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV). The detector consists of an array of 3840 TESs coupled to X-ray absorbers and read out in the MHz bandwidth using Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). The proposed design calls for devices with a high filling-factor, high quantum efficiency, relatively high count-rate capability and an energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV. The paper will review the basic principle and the physics of the TES-based microcalorimeters and present the state-of-the art of the FDM read-out.

  1. Status of the CMS Phase I pixel detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spannagel, S.

    2016-09-01

    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a significantly reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These improvements allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.

  2. Invited article: The fast readout low noise camera as a versatile x-ray detector for time resolved dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure and diffraction studies of dynamic problems in materials science, chemistry, and catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Labiche, Jean-Claude; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Newton, Mark A.; Ferre, Gemma Guilera; Curfs, Caroline; Vaughan, Gavin; Homs, Alejandro; Carreiras, David Fernandez

    2007-09-15

    Originally conceived and developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) as an 'area' detector for rapid x-ray imaging studies, the fast readout low noise (FReLoN) detector of the ESRF [J.-C. Labiche, ESRF Newsletter 25, 41 (1996)] has been demonstrated to be a highly versatile and unique detector. Charge coupled device (CCD) cameras at present available on the public market offer either a high dynamic range or a high readout speed. A compromise between signal dynamic range and readout speed is always sought. The parameters of the commercial cameras can sometimes be tuned, in order to better fulfill the needs of specific experiments, but in general these cameras have a poor duty cycle (i.e., the signal integration time is much smaller than the readout time). In order to address scientific problems such as time resolved experiments at the ESRF, a FReLoN camera has been developed by the Instrument Support Group at ESRF. This camera is a low noise CCD camera that combines high dynamic range, high readout speed, accuracy, and improved duty cycle in a single image. In this paper, we show its application in a quasi-one-dimensional sense to dynamic problems in materials science, catalysis, and chemistry that require data acquisition on a time scale of milliseconds or a few tens of milliseconds. It is demonstrated that in this mode the FReLoN can be applied equally to the investigation of rapid changes in long range order (via diffraction) and local order (via energy dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure) and in situations of x-ray hardness and flux beyond the capacity of other detectors.

  3. Optimal conditions for high-fidelity dispersive readout of a qubit with a photon-number-resolving detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrii

    2016-03-01

    We determine the optimal parameters for a simple and efficient scheme of dispersive readout of a qubit. Depending on the qubit state (ground or excited), the resonance of a cavity is shifted either to the red or to the blue side. Qubit state is inferred by detecting the photon number transmitted through the cavity. It turns out that this kind of detection provides better measurement fidelity than the detection of the presence or absence of photons only. We show that radiating the cavity on either of the frequencies it shifts to results in a suboptimal measurement. The optimal frequency of the probe photons is determined, as well as the optimal ratio of the shift to the resonator leakage. It is shown that to maximize the fidelity of a long-lasting measurement, it is sufficient to use the parameters optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio in the photon count. One can reach 99% fidelity for a single-shot measurement in various physical realizations of the scheme.

  4. A multielement Ge detector with complete spectrum readout for x-ray fluorescence microprobe and microspectroscopy (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Mark L.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rarback, Harvey

    1995-02-01

    Multielement Ge and Si(Li) detectors have been used in recent years to improve the increase count rate capability and to improve the solid-angle efficiency in fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Such systems have typically been equipped with one or more single-channel analyzers (SCAs) for each detector element. Such SCA-based electronics are sufficient when only the counts in one or two well-resolved peaks are of interest. For the fluorescence (XRF) microprobe at beamline X-26A at the NSLS, SCA-based electronics were not a satisfactory solution for two reasons: (1) for XRF experiments, the entire fluorescence spectrum is required; (2) for micro-XAS studies of trace elements in complex systems, the fluorescence peak often sits on a significant background or partially overlaps another fluorescence peak, requiring software background subtraction or peak deconvolution. An electronics system which permits collection of the entire fluorescence spectrum from each detector element has been designed. The system is made cost-effective by the use of analog multiplexors, reducing the number of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and multichannel analyzers (MCAs) required. The system was manufactured by Canberra Industries and consists of: (1) a 13 element Ge detector (11 mm diameter detector elements), (2) 13 NIM spectroscopy amplifiers with programmable gains, (3) four analog multiplexors with maximum of eight inputs each, (4) four ADCs with programmable offsets and gains and 800 ns conversion time, and (5) two MCAs with Ethernet communications ports and two ADC inputs each. The amplifiers have shaping times which are adjustable from 0.5 to 12 μs. The analog multiplexors were modified to perform pileup rejection. The analog multiplexing does not significantly reduce the count rate capability of the system, even at the shortest amplifier shaping times. The average detector resolution is 170 eV at 12 μs shaping time and 200 eV at 4 μs shaping time. The maximum

  5. Compact, Low-power and Precision Timing Photodetector Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.; Schwiening, Jochen; Vavra, Jaroslav; /SLAC

    2011-06-14

    Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and single-photon detection requires a digitizer capable of integrated recording of dense arrays of sensor elements with high analog bandwidth (precision timing) and large record depth, in a cost-effective, compact and low-power way. Simply stated, one cannot do better than having a high-fidelity 'oscilloscope on a chip' for every sensor channel. A firs version of the Buffered Large Analog Bandwidth (BLAB1) ASIC has been designed based upon the lessons learned from the development of the Large Analog Bandwidth Recorder and Digitizer with Ordered Readout (LABRADOR) ASIC. While this LABRADOR ASIC has been very successful and forms the readout basis of a generation of new, large-scale radio neutrino detectors, its limited sampling depth is a major drawback. To address this shortcoming, a prototype intended for photodetector readout has been designed and fabricated with 64k deep sampling at multi-GSa/s operation. An evaluation system has been constructed for instrumentation of Time-Of-Propagation (TOP) and focusing DIRC prototypes and test results will be reported.

  6. Thermopile Detector Arrays for Space Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Krueger, T. R.; McCann, T. A.; Chacon, R.; Jones, E. W.; Dickie, M. R.; Schofield, J. T.; McCleese, D. J.; Gaalema, S.

    2004-01-01

    Thermopile detectors are widely used in uncooled applications where small numbers of detectors are required, particularly in low-cost commercial applications or applications requiring accurate radiometry. Arrays of thermopile detectors, however, have not been developed to the extent of uncooled bolometer and pyroelectric/ferroelectric arrays. Efforts at JPL seek to remedy this deficiency by developing high performance thin-film thermopile detectors in both linear and two-dimensional formats. The linear thermopile arrays are produced by bulk micromachining and wire bonded to separate CMOS readout electronic chips. Such arrays are currently being fabricated for the Mars Climate Sounder instrument, scheduled for launch in 2005. Progress is also described towards realizing a two-dimensional thermopile array built over CMOS readout circuitry in the substrate.

  7. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; KANDASAMY,A.; GROSHOLZ,J.

    2002-07-08

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 {micro}m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed.

  8. The Gridpix Detector: History and Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Graaf, Harry; Aarnink, Tom; Aarts, Arno; van Bakel, Niels; Berbee, Edward; Berkien, Ad; van Beuzekom, Martin; Bosma, Marten; Campbell, Michael; Chefdeville, Max; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Fornaini, Alessandro; Fransen, Martin; Giganon, Arnaud; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gotink, Wim; de Groot, Nicolo; Hartjes, Fred; van der Heijden, Bas; Hessey, Nigel; Jansweijer, Peter; Konig, Adriaan; Koppert, Wilco; Llopart, Xavi; de Nooij, Lucie; van der Putten, Sipho; Rövekamp, Joop; Salm, Cora; Bello, D. San Segundo; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Smits, Sander; Timmermans, Jan; Verkooijen, Hans; Visschers, Jan; Visser, Jan; Wijnen, Thei; Wyrsch, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    In 2000, the requirements for a large TPC for experiments at a new linear collider were formulated. Both the GEM and Micromegas gas amplification systems had matured, such that they could be practically applied. With the Medipix chip, a pixel-segmented anode readout became possible, offering an unprecedented level of granularity and sensitivity. The single electron sensitive device is a digital detector capable to record and transfer all information of the primary ionization, provided that it can be made discharge proof.

  9. Characterization of the FE-I4B pixel readout chip production run for the ATLAS Insertable B-layer upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, M.

    2013-03-01

    The Insertable B-layer (IBL) is a fourth pixel layer that will be added inside the existing ATLAS pixel detector during the long LHC shutdown of 2013 and 2014. The new four layer pixel system will ensure excellent tracking, vertexing and b-tagging performance in the high luminosity pile-up conditions projected for the next LHC run. The peak luminosity is expected to reach 3·1034 cm-2s-1with an integrated luminosity over the IBL lifetime of 300 fb-1 corresponding to a design lifetime fluence of 5·1015 neqcm-2 and ionizing dose of 250 Mrad including safety factors. The production front-end electronics FE-I4B for the IBL has been fabricated at the end of 2011 and has been extensively characterized on diced ICs as well as at the wafer level. The production tests at the wafer level were performed during 2012. Selected results of the diced IC characterization are presented, including measurements of the on-chip voltage regulators. The IBL powering scheme, which was chosen based on these results, is described. Preliminary wafer to wafer distributions as well as yield calculations are given.

  10. Front-end chip for Silicon Photomultiplier detectors with pico-second Time-of-Flight resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankova, V.; Briggl, K.; Chen, H.; Gil, A.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Shen, W.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.

    2016-07-01

    A mixed-mode readout Application Specific Integrated Circuit (STIC3) has been developed for high precision timing measurements with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) for medical imaging and particle physics applications. The STiC3 is a 64-channel chip, with fully differential analog front-end for cross-talk and electronic noise immunity. The time and charge information from the SiPM signals are encrypted into two time stamps generated by integrated Time to Digital Converter (TDC) modules with 50 ps time binning. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transferred to a PC via a 160 MBit/s serial link using an 8/10 bit encoding. The chip provides an input bias tuning in a range of 0-900 mV to compensate the breakdown voltage variation of individual SiPMs. The TDC jitter together with the digital part is around 37 ps. A Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of 213.6 ps FWHM has been obtained with 3.1 × 3.1 × 15m2 LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and Hamamatsu SiPM matrices (S12643-050CN(X)). Characterization measurements with the chip and its integration into the external plate of the EndoTOFPET-US prototype are presented.

  11. Fast readout architectures for large arrays of digital pixels: examples and applications.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, A

    2014-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors, particularly those designed and constructed for applications and experiments for high-energy physics, are commonly built implementing general readout architectures, not specifically optimized in terms of speed. High-energy physics experiments use bidimensional matrices of sensitive elements located on a silicon die. Sensors are read out via other integrated circuits bump bonded over the sensor dies. The speed of the readout electronics can significantly increase the overall performance of the system, and so here novel forms of readout architectures are studied and described. These circuits have been investigated in terms of speed and are particularly suited for large monolithic, low-pitch pixel detectors. The idea is to have a small simple structure that may be expanded to fit large matrices without affecting the layout complexity of the chip, while maintaining a reasonably high readout speed. The solutions might be applied to devices for applications not only in physics but also to general-purpose pixel detectors whenever online fast data sparsification is required. The paper presents also simulations on the efficiencies of the systems as proof of concept for the proposed ideas.

  12. Fast Readout Architectures for Large Arrays of Digital Pixels: Examples and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors, particularly those designed and constructed for applications and experiments for high-energy physics, are commonly built implementing general readout architectures, not specifically optimized in terms of speed. High-energy physics experiments use bidimensional matrices of sensitive elements located on a silicon die. Sensors are read out via other integrated circuits bump bonded over the sensor dies. The speed of the readout electronics can significantly increase the overall performance of the system, and so here novel forms of readout architectures are studied and described. These circuits have been investigated in terms of speed and are particularly suited for large monolithic, low-pitch pixel detectors. The idea is to have a small simple structure that may be expanded to fit large matrices without affecting the layout complexity of the chip, while maintaining a reasonably high readout speed. The solutions might be applied to devices for applications not only in physics but also to general-purpose pixel detectors whenever online fast data sparsification is required. The paper presents also simulations on the efficiencies of the systems as proof of concept for the proposed ideas. PMID:24778588

  13. First Tests of a New Fast Waveform Digitizer for PMT Signal Read-out from Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelc, A. M.; Canci, N.; Cavanna, F.; Cortopassi, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Mini, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Romboli, A.; Segreto, E.; Acciarri, R.

    A new generation Waveform Digitizer board as been recently made available on the market by CAEN. The new board CAEN V1751 with 8 Channels per board, 10 bit, 1 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer (or 4 channel, 10 bit, 2 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer -Dual Edge Sampling mode) with threshold and Auto-Trigger capabilities provides an ideal (relatively low-cost) solution for reading signals from liquid Argon detectors for Dark Matter search equipped with an array of PMTs for the detection of scintillation light. The board was extensively used in real experimental conditions to test its usefulness for possible future uses and to compare it with a state of the art digital oscilloscope. As results, PMT Signal sampling at 1 or 2 GS/s is appropriate for the reconstruction of the fast component of the signal scintillation in Argon (characteristic time of about 4 ns) and the extended dynamic range, after a small customization, allows for the detection of signals in the range of energy needed. The bandwidth is found to be adequate and the intrinsic noise is very low.

  14. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, Robert E.; Sobotka, Lee G.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2015-12-29

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested and the performance characterized in a series of tests using particle beams with a variety of atomic numbers at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba facility (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required

  15. Basic capillary microfluidic chip and highly sensitive optical detector for point of care application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Mingjin

    applications of lab-on-a-chip (LOC), portable bio-detection system and POC diagnostic system. The size of this detector is smaller than the existing miniaturized detector of the size 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm. The fluorescence dye 5-Carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM) dissolved into the solvent DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) and diluted with DI water was used as the testing solution samples. The prototype has been tested to prove a remarkable sensitivity at pico-scale molar, around 1.08 pM, which is the highest sensitivity by now. It is higher than the current limit of detection at 1.96 nm, which will be presented in detail in the latter section.

  16. Potential for reducing the numbers of SiPM readout surfaces of laser-processed X’tal cube PET detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-03-01

    We are developing a three-dimensional (3D) position-sensitive detector with isotropic spatial resolution, the X’tal cube. Originally, our design consisted of a crystal block for which all six surfaces were covered with arrays of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). In this paper, we examined the feasibility of reducing the number of surfaces on which a MPPC array must be connected with the aim of reducing the complexity of the system. We evaluated two kinds of laser-processed X’tal cubes of 3 mm and 2 mm pitch segments while varying the numbers of the 4 × 4 MPPC arrays down to two surfaces. The sub-surface laser engraving technique was used to fabricate 3D grids into a monolithic crystal block. The 3D flood histograms were obtained by the Anger-type calculation. Two figures of merit, peak-to-valley ratios and distance-to-width ratios, were used to evaluate crystal identification performance. Clear separation was obtained even in the 2-surface configuration for the 3 mm X’tal cube, and the average peak-to-valley ratios and the distance-to-width ratios were 6.7 and 2.6, respectively. Meanwhile, in the 2 mm X’tal cube, the 6-surface configuration could separate all crystals and even the 2-surface case could also, but the flood histograms were relatively shrunk in the 2-surface case, especially on planes parallel to the sensitive surfaces. However, the minimum peak-to-valley ratio did not fall below 3.9. We concluded that reducing the numbers of MPPC readout surfaces was feasible for both the 3 mm and the 2 mm X’tal cubes.

  17. Design and test of data acquisition systems for the Medipix2 chip based on PC standard interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, Viviana; Marzeddu, Roberto; Piredda, Giuseppina; Randaccio, Paolo

    2005-07-01

    We describe two readout systems for hybrid detectors using the Medipix2 single photon counting chip, developed within the Medipix Collaboration. The Medipix2 chip (256×256 pixels, 55 μm pitch) has an active area of about 2 cm 2 and is bump-bonded to a pixel semiconductor array of silicon or other semiconductor material. The readout systems we are developing are based on two widespread standard PC interfaces: parallel port and USB (Universal Serial Bus) version 1.1. The parallel port is the simplest PC interface even if slow and the USB is a serial bus interface present nowadays on all PCs and offering good performances.

  18. Integration of a Micro-Chip Amino Acid Chirality Detector into the MOD Instrument Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Grunthaner, Frank; Mathies, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The MOD (Mars Organic Detector) instrument concept consists of a sublimation apparatus for organic compound isolation connected to a microfabricated microfluidic analyzer containing a sipper, pumps and a separation channel for organic compound characterization. The target organic compounds are amino acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Solid samples are placed within the sublimation apparatus and heated to release organic compounds which sublime onto a cold finger. Half of the cold finger is coated with fluorescamine. which reacts with amino acids and other primary amines to generate an intense fluorescent derivative while the other half is uncoated and is used to directly detect PAH fluorescence, A capillary sipper is then used to dissolve and sample the labeled amino acids and integrated microfabricated pumps transport the labeled amino acids to the chip for analysis. The sample is separated using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) together with chiral dextrins to determine amino acid composition and chirality. During the grant period, the following steps have been completed toward the development of a robust instrument and chemistry.

  19. Semiconductor arrays with multiplexer readout for gamma-ray imaging: results for a 48 × 48 Ge array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, H. B.; Augustine, F. L.; Barrett, H. H.; Dereniak, E. L.; Matherson, K. L.; Meyers, T. J.; Perry, D. L.; Venzon, J. E.; Woolfenden, J. M.; Young, E. T.

    1994-12-01

    We are developing a new kind of gamma-ray imaging device that has sub-millimeter spatial resolution and excellent energy resolution. The device is composed of a slab of semiconductor detector partitioned into an array of detector cells by photolithography and connected to a monolithic circuit chip called a multiplexer (MUX) for readout. Our application is for an ultra-high-resolution SPECT system for functional brain imaging using an injected radiotracer. We report here on results obtained with a Hughes 48 × 48 Ge PIN-photodiode array with MUX readout, originally developed as an infrared focal-plane-array imaging sensor. The device functions as an array of individual gamma-ray detectors with minimal interpixel crosstalk. Linearity of energy response is excellent up to at least 140 keV. The array exhibits excellent energy resolution, ˜ 2 keV at ≤ 140 keV or 1.5% FWHM at 140 keV. The energy resolution is dominated by MUX readout noise and so should improve with MUX optimization for gamma-ray detection. The spatial resolution of the 48 × 48 Ge array is essentially the same as the pixel spacing, 125 μm. The quantum efficiency is limited by the thin Ge detector (0.25 mm), but this approach is readily applicable to thicker Ge detectors and room-temperature semiconductor detectors such as CdTe, HgI 2 and CdZnTe.

  20. Hodoscope readout system

    DOEpatents

    Lee, L.Y.

    1973-12-01

    A readout system has been provided for reading out a radiation multidetector device with a reduced number of signal sensors. A radiation hodoscope, such as an array of scintillation counters, multiwire proportional counter array, or a set of multidetectors which do not receive signals simultaneously, is divided into equal numbered groups. A first group of signal terminals is connected to the equal numbered groups of detectors so that a signal from any one of the detectors of a group will be fed to one of the first group of terminals. A second group of signal terminals is connected to the detector groups so that a signal from a particular numbered detector of each of the detector groups is connected to one of the second group of terminals. Both groups of signal terminals are, in turn, coupled to signal sensors so that when a signal is simultaneously observed in one of the first group of terminals and one of the second group of tenniinals the specific detector detecting a radiation event is determined. The sensors are arranged in such a manner that a binary code is developed from their outputs which can be stored in a digital storage means according to the location of the event in the multidetector device. (Official Gazette)

  1. Application of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity as an external detector for zone electrophoresis in poly(dimethylsiloxane) chips.

    PubMed

    Koczka, Péter I; Bodoki, Ede; Gáspár, Attila

    2016-02-01

    In this work, lab-made PDMS microfluidic chips were matched to a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4) D) having external in-plane electrodes (eDAQ, Australia). The advantages of this type of C(4) D are the choice to reversibly place or remove the microchip onto/from the detector and to freely variate the position of the detection (separation length) on the microchip. The thickness of the bottom layer of the PDMS chip was optimized to achieve sensitive detection during the electrophoretic separation. PDMS chips with 100 μm bottom layer used with the C(4) D platform were tested by CZE of a mixture of seven anions and different types of real samples. Using split-flow pressure sample injection and effective length of 6.5 cm, the numbers of theoretical plates were in the range of 4000-6000 (63,000-93,000/m) and the LODs amounted to 3.66-14.7 μmol/L (0.13-2.26 μg/mL) for the studied anions. PMID:26531885

  2. Application of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity as an external detector for zone electrophoresis in poly(dimethylsiloxane) chips.

    PubMed

    Koczka, Péter I; Bodoki, Ede; Gáspár, Attila

    2016-02-01

    In this work, lab-made PDMS microfluidic chips were matched to a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4) D) having external in-plane electrodes (eDAQ, Australia). The advantages of this type of C(4) D are the choice to reversibly place or remove the microchip onto/from the detector and to freely variate the position of the detection (separation length) on the microchip. The thickness of the bottom layer of the PDMS chip was optimized to achieve sensitive detection during the electrophoretic separation. PDMS chips with 100 μm bottom layer used with the C(4) D platform were tested by CZE of a mixture of seven anions and different types of real samples. Using split-flow pressure sample injection and effective length of 6.5 cm, the numbers of theoretical plates were in the range of 4000-6000 (63,000-93,000/m) and the LODs amounted to 3.66-14.7 μmol/L (0.13-2.26 μg/mL) for the studied anions.

  3. Hit efficiency study of CMS prototype forward pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongwook; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author describes the measurement of the hit efficiency of a prototype pixel device for the CMS forward pixel detector. These pixel detectors were FM type sensors with PSI46V1 chip readout. The data were taken with the 120 GeV proton beam at Fermilab during the period of December 2004 to February 2005. The detectors proved to be highly efficient (99.27 {+-} 0.02%). The inefficiency was primarily located near the corners of the individual pixels.

  4. Upgrade of the Belle Silicon Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Belle SVD Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    The Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) was inaugurated in 1999 and has delivered excellent physics results since then, which were, for example, recognized in the Nobel Prize award 2008 to Kobayashi and Masukawa. An overall luminosity of 895 fb -1 has been recorded as of December 2008, and the present system will be running until 1 ab -1 is achieved. After that, a major upgrade is foreseen for both the KEK-B machine and the Belle detector. Already in 2004, the Letter of Intent for KEK Super B Factory was published. Intermediate steps of upgrade were considered for the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD), which performs very well but already got close to its limit regarding the occupancy in the innermost layer and dead time. Eventually it was decided to keep the existing SVD2 system until 1 ab -1 and completely replace the silicon detector as well as its readout system for Super-Belle. The future SVD will be composed of double-sided silicon sensors as the present detector, but equipped with faster readout electronics, namely the APV25 chips originally made for CMS at CERN. Moreover, it will be enlarged by two additional layers and equipped with a double layer of DEPFET pixel detectors surrounding the beam pipe. The silicon sensors will be fabricated from 6 in. wafers (compared to the current 4 in. types) and the readout chain will be completely replaced, including front-end, repeaters and the back-end electronics in the counting house.

  5. Focal plane infrared readout circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An infrared imager, such as a spectrometer, includes multiple infrared photodetectors and readout circuits for reading out signals from the photodetectors. Each readout circuit includes a buffered direct injection input circuit including a differential amplifier with active feedback provided through an injection transistor. The differential amplifier includes a pair of input transistors, a pair of cascode transistors and a current mirror load. Photocurrent from a photodetector can be injected onto an integration capacitor in the readout circuit with high injection efficiency at high speed. A high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for reading out infrared detectors with large capacitances can be achieved even when short exposure times are used. The effect of image lag can be reduced.

  6. TwinGrid: A wafer post-processed multistage Micro Patterned Gaseous Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilevych, Y.; Carballo, V. M. Blanco; Chefdeville, M.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Timmermans, J.

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a new multistage Micro Patterned Gaseous Detector (MPGD) made by wafer post-processing. The device consists of a double metal grid supported by SU-8 structures on top of a Timepix chip. The detector has been operated with He/iC 4H 10 and Ar/iC 4H 10 gas mixtures. Cosmic rays as well as 55Fe decay events have been recorded using the Timepix chip in 2D and 3D readout modes. The detector can be operated like a Micromegas (high field close to the chip) or like a GEM (amplification stage followed by a low extraction field). This approach for manufacturing GEM-like radiation imaging detectors allows for precise dimensional control and considerable geometrical design freedom.

  7. Gamma ray detector modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

  8. EXCALIBUR: a small-pixel photon counting area detector for coherent X-ray diffraction - Front-end design, fabrication and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Willis, B.; Plackett, R.; Gimenez, E. N.; Spiers, J.; Ballard, D.; Booker, P.; Thompson, J. A.; Gibbons, P.; Burge, S. R.; Nicholls, T.; Lipp, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-03-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction experiments on synchrotron X-ray beamlines require detectors with high spatial resolution and large detection area. The read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX3 collaboration offers a small pixel size of 55 microns resulting in a very high spatial resolution when coupled to a direct X-ray conversion segmented silicon sensor. MEDIPIX3 assemblies present also the advantages of hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode: noiseless imaging, large dynamic range, extremely high frame rate. The EXCALIBUR detector is under development for the X-ray Coherence and Imaging Beamline I13 of the Diamond Light Source. This new detector consists of three modules, each with 16 MEDIPIX3 chips which can be read-out at 100 frames per second in continuous mode or 1000 frames per second in burst mode. In each module, the sensor is a large single silicon die covering 2 rows of 8 individual MEDIPIX3 read-out chips and provides a continuous active detection region within a module. Each module includes 1 million solder bumps connecting the 55 microns pixels of the silicon sensor to the 55 microns pixels of the 16 MEDIPIX3 read-out chips. The detection area of the 3-module EXCALIBUR detector is 115 mm × 100 mm with a small 6.8 mm wide inactive region between modules. Each detector module is connected to 2 FPGA read-out boards via a flexi-rigid circuit to allow a fully parallel read-out of the 16 MEDIPIX3 chips. The 6 FPGA read-out boards used in the EXCALIBUR detector are interfaced to 6 computing nodes via 10Gbit/s fibre-optic links to maintain the very high frame-rate capability. The standard suite of EPICS control software is used to operate the detector and to integrate it with the Diamond Light Source beamline software environment. This article describes the design, fabrication and characterisation of the MEDIPIX3-based modules composing the EXCALIBUR detector.

  9. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Study of a multi-wire proportional chamber with a cathode strip and delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li-Ying; Li, Qi-Te; Faisal, Q.; Ge, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Ye, Yan-Lin

    2009-05-01

    The design principle for a multi-wire proportional chamber with a cathode strip and delay-line readout is described. A prototype chamber of a size of 10 cm ×10 cm was made together with the readout electronics circuit. A very clean signal with very low background noise was obtained by applying a transformer between the delay-line and the pre-amplifier in order to match the resistance. Along the anode wire direction a position resolution of less than 0.5 mm was achieved with a 55Fe-5.9 keV X ray source. The simple structure, large effective area and high position resolution allow the application of a gas chamber of this kind to many purposes.

  10. SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

  11. Proceedings of PIXEL98 -- International pixel detector workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1998-08-01

    Experiments around the globe face new challenges of more precision in the face of higher interaction rates, greater track densities, and higher radiation doses, as they look for rarer and rarer processes, leading many to incorporate pixelated solid-state detectors into their plans. The highest-readout rate devices require new technologies for implementation. This workshop reviewed recent, significant progress in meeting these technical challenges. Participants presented many new results; many of them from the weeks--even days--just before the workshop. Brand new at this workshop were results on cryogenic operation of radiation-damaged silicon detectors (dubbed the Lazarus effect). Other new work included a diamond sensor with 280-micron collection distance; new results on breakdown in p-type silicon detectors; testing of the latest versions of read-out chip and interconnection designs; and the radiation hardness of deep-submicron processes.

  12. Compensated digital readout family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David E.; Skow, Michael

    1991-01-01

    ISC has completed test on an IC which has 32 channels of amplifiers, low pass anti-aliasing filters, 13-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with non-uniformity correction per channel and a digital multiplexer. The single slope class of A/D conversion is described, as are the unique variations required for incorporation of this technique for use with on-focal plane detector readout electronics. This paper describes the architecture used to implement the digital on-focal plane signal processing functions. Results from measured data on a test IC are presented for a circuit containing these functions operating at a sensor frame rate of 1000 hertz.

  13. Au@Pt nanoparticle encapsulated target-responsive hydrogel with volumetric bar-chart chip readout for quantitative point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi; Guan, Zhichao; Jia, Shasha; Lei, Zhichao; Lin, Shuichao; Zhang, Huimin; Ma, Yanli; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2014-11-10

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) with the advantages of speed, simplicity, portability, and low cost is critical for the measurement of analytes in a variety of environments where access to laboratory infrastructure is lacking. While qualitative POCTs are widely available, quantitative POCTs present significant challenges. Here we describe a novel method that integrates an Au core/Pt shell nanoparticle (Au@PtNP) encapsulated target-responsive hydrogel with a volumetric bar-chart chip (V-Chip) for quantitative POCT. Upon target introduction, the hydrogel immediately dissolves and releases Au@PtNPs, which can efficiently catalyze the decomposition of H2 O2 to generate a large volume of O2 to move of an ink bar in the V-Chip. The concentration of the target introduced can be visually quantified by reading the traveling distance of the ink bar. This method has the potential to be used for portable and quantitative detection of a wide range of targets without any external instrument.

  14. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  15. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector: Design, preproduction, and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, T.; Aoki, M.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Behari, S.; Benjamin, D.; Bisello, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Burghard, A.; Busetto, G.; Cabrera, S.; Canepa, A.; Cardoso, G.; Chertok, M.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Derylo, G.; Fang, I.; Feng, E. J.; Fernandez, J. P.; Flaugher, B.; Freeman, J.; Galtieri, L.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Gorelov, I.; Haber, C.; Hale, D.; Hara, K.; Harr, R.; Hill, C.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hoff, J.; Holbrook, B.; Hong, S. C.; Hrycyk, M.; Hsiung, T. H.; Incandela, J.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, K. K.; Junk, T.; Kahkola, H.; Karjalainen, S.; Kim, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kong, D. J.; Krieger, B.; Kruse, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Lander, R.; Landry, T.; Lauhakangas, R.; Lee, J.; Lu, R.-S.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Mandelli, E.; Manea, C.; Maksimovic, P.; Merkel, P.; Min, S. N.; Moccia, S.; Nakano, I.; Naoumov, D.; Nelson, T.; Nord, B.; Novak, J.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Orlov, Y.; Osterberg, K.; Pantano, D.; Pavlicek, V.; Pellett, D.; Pursley, J.; Riipinen, P.; Schuyler, B.; Seidel, S.; Shenai, A.; Soha, A.; Stuart, D.; Tanaka, R.; Tavi, M.; Von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, Z.; Watje, P.; Weber, Marc; Wester, W.; Yamamoto, K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.; Yao, W.; Yarema, R.; Yun, J. C.; Zetti, F.; Zimmerman, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2006-01-01

    A new silicon microstrip detector was designed by the CDF collaboration for the proposed high-luminosity operation of the Tevatron pp¯ collider (Run IIb). The detector is radiation-tolerant and will still be functional after exposure to particle fluences of 1014 1-MeV equivalent neutrons/cm2 and radiation doses of 20 MRad. The detector will maintain or exceed the performance of the current CDF silicon detector throughout Run IIb. It is based on an innovative silicon "supermodule" design. Critical detector components like the custom radiation-hard SVX4 readout chip, the beryllia hybrids and mini-port (repeater) cards, and the silicon sensors fulfill their specifications and were produced with high yields. The design goals and solutions of the CDF Run IIb silicon detector are described, and the performance of preproduction modules is presented in detail. Results relevant for the development of future silicon systems are emphasized.

  16. Enhancements to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) Multiplexer Readout and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, J.; Benford, D. J.; Buchanan, E. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rebar, J.; Shafer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark 111 system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided hooks in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark 111 system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

  17. Ultra-Compact, Superconducting Spectrometer-on-a-Chip at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Bradford, Charles M.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.; Swenson, Loren; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; O'Brient, Roger C.; Padin, Stephen; Shirokoff, Erik D.; McKenney, Christopher; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose V.; Barry, Peter; Doyle, Simon; Mauskopf, Philip; Llombart, Nuria; Kovacs, Attila; Marrone, Dan P.

    2013-01-01

    Small size, wide spectral bandwidth, and highly multiplexed detector readout are required to develop powerful multi-beam spectrometers for high-redshift observations. Currently available spectrometers at these frequencies are large and bulky. The grating sizes for these spectrometers are prohibitive. This fundamental size issue is a key limitation for space-based spectrometers for astrophysics applications. A novel, moderate-resolving-power (R-700), ultra-compact spectrograph-on-a-chip for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths is the solution.

  18. High-contrast X-ray micro-tomography of low attenuation samples using large area hybrid semiconductor pixel detector array of 10 × 5 Timepix chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, J.; Krejci, F.; Bartl, B.; Dudak, J.; Kuba, J.; Kvacek, J.; Zemlicka, J.

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide excellent imaging properties such as unlimited dynamic range, high spatial resolution, high frame rate and energy sensitivity. Nevertheless, a limitation in the use of these devices for imaging has been the small sensitive area of a few square centimetres. In the field of microtomography we make use of a large area pixel detector assembled from 50 Timepix edgeless chips providing fully sensitive area of 14.3 × 7.15 cm2. We have successfully demonstrated that the enlargement of the sensitive area enables high-quality tomographic measurements of whole objects with high geometrical magnification without any significant degradation in resulting reconstructions related to the chip tilling and edgeless sensor technology properties. The technique of micro-tomography with the newly developed large area detector is applied for samples formed by low attenuation, low contrast materials such a seed from Phacelia tanacetifolia, a charcoalified wood sample and a beeswax seal sample.

  19. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  20. Design of a monolithic multichannel front-end readout ASIC for PET imaging based on scintillation crystals read out by photodetectors at both ends

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, W.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the design techniques of a monolithic multichannel front-end readout chip integrated with both high-accuracy TDC and high-resolution ADC for the PET using LYSO(Ce) crystals read out by MCP PMT at both ends. In the front-end readout chain, a regulated cascade (RGC) preamplifier is employed in every channel for amplifying the current signals generated from MCP detector. A gain-adjustment stage, an integrator and a pulse shaper are employed for pulse height analysis which changes the width of the pulses. A discriminator is placed after the preamplifier to generate triggers. These triggers are sent to a sub-nanosecond TDC for measurement and digitizing. The peak values of the shaped pulses are digitized by a multichannel time-based ADC for measurement. Three prototype chips are designed in AMS 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. In the front-end readout prototype chip, the dynamic range, the linearity, and the power dissipation are optimized. The input dynamic range from few fC to more than 100 pC can be achieved. The analog output range of the front-end readout circuits is from 1.2 V to 3.2 V. The shaping time is 280 ns and the power dissipation is reduced to less than 15 mW. In the TDC chip based on a DLL array, the RMS jitter and the peak-to-peak jitter of the used DLL are reduced to 7 ps and 21 ps, respectively. The bin size of the TDC has been reduced to 71 ps with a reference clock of 100 MHz. In the multichannel time-based ADC chip, a maximum resolution of 12 bits, a sampling rate of {approx}1 MS/s, and the power dissipation of 3 mW deg. 0.2 mW/channel are achieved. (authors)

  1. Deployment of the CMS Tracker AMC as backend for the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzinger, G.

    2016-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector of the CMS experiment at CERN will be replaced with an upgraded version at the beginning of 2017 with the new detector featuring an additional barrel- and end-cap layer resulting in an increased number of fully digital read-out links running at 400 Mbps. New versions of the PSI46 Read-Out Chip and Token Bit Manager have been developed to operate at higher rates and reduce data loss. Front-End Controller and Front-End Driver boards, based on the μTCA compatible CMS Tracker AMC, a variant of the FC7 card, are being developed using different mezzanines to host the optical links for the digital read-out and control system. An overview of the system architecture is presented, with details on the implementation, and first results obtained from test systems.

  2. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  3. A CMOS compatible Microbulk Micromegas-like detector using silicon oxide as spacer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Carballo, V. M.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Lu, J.; Schmitz, J.

    2011-02-01

    We present a new Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) fabricated with nonpolymeric materials. The device structure is similar to a Microbulk Micromegas design, consisting of a punctured metal grid supported by a continuous perforated insulating structure. In this detector, the supporting structure is made out of silicon oxide. Devices were tested in He/ iC 4H 10 (80/20) and Ar/ iC 4H 10 (80/20) gas mixtures under 55Fe irradiation. Gas gain of 20,000 and energy resolution below 13% FWHM were achieved. The CMOS compatibility of the fabrication process has been studied in Timepix chips as well as individual 0.13-μm technology CMOS transistors. Complete detectors have been fabricated on top of Timepix chips. In an Ar/ iC 4H 10 (80/20) gas mixture 55Fe decay events were recorded operating the Timepix chip in 2D readout mode.

  4. Detector Arrays for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Brambora, Clifford K.; Derro, Rebecca; Engler, Chuck; Fox, Ori; Garrison, Matthew B.; Henegar, Greg; Hill, robert J.; Johnson, Thomas; Lindler, Don J.; Manthripragada, Sridhar S.; Marshall, Ceryl; Mott, Brent; Parr, Thomas M.; Roher, Wayne D.; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin B.; Smith, Miles; Waczynski, Augustyn; Wen, Yiting; Wilson, Donna; Xia-Serafino, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) incorporates two 5 micron cutoff (lambda(sub co) = 5 microns) 2048x2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG sensor chip assemblies. These detector arrays, and the two Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuits that control them, are operated in space at T approx. 37 K. In this article, we provide a brief introduction to NIRSpec, its detector subsystem (DS), detector readout in the space radiation environment, and present a snapshot of the developmental status of the NIRSpec DS as integration and testing of the engineering test unit begins.

  5. A linear monolithic 4-6 on silicon IR detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandamme, J.; Vermeiren, J.; Zogg, H.; Masek, J.; Fabbricotti, M.

    1992-12-01

    A linear array of monolithically grown PbTe and PbSnSe detectors on (111)-Si for MWIR and TIR imaging applications was designed and processed. The array consists of a staggered row of 2 by 128 detectors on a 100 micrometers pitch. The readout circuitry, integrated on the Si substrate consists of a COS multiplexer with a direct injection input stage, a charge reduction stage and charge to voltage conversion stage for each individual detector. This XDI (MultipeXed Direct Injection) circuit also allows for on-chip nonuniformity compensation with a switched capacitor network.

  6. Avalanche current read-out circuit for low jitter parallel photon timing.

    PubMed

    Crotti, M; Rech, I; Gulinatti, A; Ghioni, M

    2013-08-01

    We propose a novel circuit for single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) current read-out, for photon timing applications. The circuit consists of a single transistor trans-impedance amplifier with a GHz bandwidth: the feedback loop fixes the SPAD anode voltage and allows us to obtain a high time resolution with a very high equivalent current threshold (almost 700 μA). The trans-impedance stage is followed by a low pass filter that reduces the crosstalk of other on-chip detectors and makes the designed structure suitable for multi-detector systems. The discrete components prototype presented in this letter achieves a state-of-art resolution of 34.4 ps FWHM, presents negligible crosstalk between the different pixels and opens the way for the development of an integrated structure with a large number of channels.

  7. Development of edgeless TSV X-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajlić, M.; Zhang, J.; Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Fritzsch, T.; Wilke, M.; Zoschke, K.; Graafsma, H.

    2016-02-01

    We report about the activity and progress on the development of TSV edgeless detectors at DESY. One part of the development is Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology for the Medipix3RX readout chip (ROC). TSV technology is a concept of connecting readout chips to readout electronics. Instead of wire-bonding which introduces a large dead area, TSV enables connection through the ROC itself. By replacing wire-bonding with TSV, the dead space between detector modules will be reduced from around 7 mm to only 1.6 mm. The thickness of the wafer will be 200 μ m, with a via diameter of 60 μ m. Inside of the via, a 5 μ m thick copper layer will be used as a conducting layer. On the back side of the chip a Redistribution Layer (RDL) will be deposited. For the RDL structure, 5 μ m thick copper with 40 μ m wide conductive lines will be used. Bump bonding of the sensor plus ROC assembly to ceramic readout board will be optimized in terms of material and bonding temperature. The second part of the project is the development of the edgeless sensor units using active edge sensor technology. Active edge sensors have been simulated with Synopsys TCAD for different polarities including p-on-n, p-on-p, n-on-p and n-on-n with p-spray or p-stop for different thicknesses from 150 μ m to 500 μ m. Results show that the bending of the electric field close to the active edge is leading to image distortion on the sensor edge. In addition, the current design of active-edge sensors shows very poor radiation hardness. We are currently working on the development of a radiation hard active-edge sensor with optimized imaging quality. The final goal of this development is to make Large Area Medipix Detector (LAMBDA) with TSV edgeless units.

  8. Development of a low-noise, 4th-order readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors in gamma spectrometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Su, Lin; Wei, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ran; Hu, Yann

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an ASIC readout circuit development, which aims to achieve low noise. In order to compensate the leakage current and improve gain, a dual-stage CSA has been utilized. A 4th-order high-linearity shaper is proposed to obtain a Semi-Gaussian wave and further decrease the noise induced by the leakage current. The ASIC has been designed and fabricated in a standard commercial 2P4M 0.35 μm CMOS process. Die area of one channel is about 1190 μm×147 μm. The input charge range is 1.8 fC. The peaking time can be adjusted from 1 μs to 3 μs. Measured ENC is about 55e- (rms) at input capacitor of 0 F. The gain is 271 mV/fC at the peaking time of 1 μs.

  9. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  10. The cryogenic readout system with GaAs JFETs for multi-pixel cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibi, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nagata, H.; Ikeda, H.; Fujiwara, M.

    2010-11-01

    Our purpose is to realize a multi-pixel sub-millimeter/terahertz camera with the superconductor - insulator - superconductor photon detectors. These detectors must be cooled below 1 K. Since these detectors have high impedance, signal amplifiers of each pixel must be setting aside of them for precise signal readout. Therefore, it is desirable that the readout system work well even in cryogenic temperature. We selected the n-type GaAs JFETs as cryogenic circuit elements. From our previous studies, the n-type GaAs JFETs have good cryogenic properties even when those power dissipations are low. We have designed several kinds of integration circuits (ICs) and demonstrated their performance at cryogenic temperature. Contents of ICs are following; AC coupled trans-impedance amplifiers, voltage distributors for suppressing input offset voltage of AC coupled CTIAs, multiplexers with sample-and holds, and shift-registers for controlling multiplex timing. The power dissipation of each circuit is 0.5 to 3 micro watts per channel. We also have designed and manufactured 32-channel multi-chip-modules with these ICs. These modules can make 32- channel input photo current signals into one or two serial output voltage signal(s). Size of these is 40mm x 30mm x 2mm and estimated total power dissipation is around 400 micro watts.

  11. Prototype AEGIS: A Pixel-Array Readout Circuit for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barber, H. Bradford; Augustine, F. L.; Furenlid, L.; Ingram, C. M.; Grim, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor detector arrays made of CdTe/CdZnTe are expected to be the main components of future high-performance, clinical nuclear medicine imaging systems. Such systems will require small pixel-pitch and much larger numbers of pixels than are available in current semiconductor-detector cameras. We describe the motivation for developing a new readout integrated circuit, AEGIS, for use in hybrid semiconductor detector arrays, that may help spur the development of future cameras. A basic design for AEGIS is presented together with results of an HSPICE™ simulation of the performance of its unit cell. AEGIS will have a shaper-amplifier unit cell and neighbor pixel readout. Other features include the use of a single input power line with other biases generated on-board, a control register that allows digital control of all thresholds and chip configurations and an output approach that is compatible with list-mode data acquisition. An 8×8 prototype version of AEGIS is currently under development; the full AEGIS will be a 64×64 array with 300 μm pitch. PMID:26345126

  12. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aoki; N. Bacchetta; S. Behari et al.

    2004-02-25

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology. Single sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  13. A PET detector module with monolithic crystal, single end readout, SiPM array and high depth-of-interaction resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, R.; Yang, C.

    2016-08-01

    Depth of interaction (DOI) technology can improve the spatial resolution of nuclear medicine imaging system which uses scintillation detectors such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this paper, a prototype detector module with DOI capability is established to make complementary characteristic tests on an existing method and to improve the experimental performance using the same method. We investigate the gamma incident surface and incident angle effects on the positioning method with our model in simulations and evaluate its 3-D positioning results in experiment. It shows that the positioning results are highly affected by the gamma incident surface and incident angle. The 137Cs energy resolution is 12.1% and the DOI resolution is estimated at 2.26 mm in average by our detector in experiment.

  14. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, D.D.; Elliott, J.P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins projecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array. 5 figs.

  15. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, Darryl D.; Elliott, John P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins porjecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array.

  16. Single photon counting pixel detectors for synchrotron radiation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokawa, H.; Broennimann, Ch.; Eikenberry, E. F.; Henrich, B.; Kawase, M.; Kobas, M.; Kraft, P.; Sato, M.; Schmitt, B.; Suzuki, M.; Tanida, H.; Uruga, T.

    2010-11-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI an X-ray single photon counting pixel detector (PILATUS) based on the hybrid-pixel detector technology was developed in collaboration with SPring-8. The detection element is a 320 or 450 μm thick silicon sensor forming pixelated pn-diodes with a pitch of 172 μm×172 μm. An array of 2×8 custom CMOS readout chips are indium bump-bonded to the sensor, which leads to 33.5 mm×83.8 mm detective area. Each pixel contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, a single level discriminator and a 20 bit counter. This design realizes a high dynamic range, short readout time of less than 3 ms, a high framing rate of over 200 images per second and an excellent point-spread function. The maximum counting rate achieves more than 2×10 6 X-rays/s/pixel.

  17. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  18. D-Zero muon readout electronics design

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M.; Vaniev, V.

    1996-11-01

    The readout electronics designed for the D{null} Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D{null} Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed.

  19. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Popov, Vladimir E.

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  20. Focal plane infrared readout circuit with automatic background suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Shaw, Timothy J. (Inventor); Wrigley, Chris J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A circuit for reading out a signal from an infrared detector includes a current-mode background-signal subtracting circuit having a current memory which can be enabled to sample and store a dark level signal from the infrared detector during a calibration phase. The signal stored by the current memory is subtracted from a signal received from the infrared detector during an imaging phase. The circuit also includes a buffered direct injection input circuit and a differential voltage readout section. By performing most of the background signal estimation and subtraction in a current mode, a low gain can be provided by the buffered direct injection input circuit to keep the gain of the background signal relatively small, while a higher gain is provided by the differential voltage readout circuit. An array of such readout circuits can be used in an imager having an array of infrared detectors. The readout circuits can provide a high effective handling capacity.

  1. The Zero-Degree Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Howell, Leonard W.; Kouznetsov, Evgueni

    2006-01-01

    We will report on a detector system used for accelerator measurement of nuclear fragmentation cross sections. This system consists of two detector planes, each carrying a ring of 8 detectors. Each detector has 64 pads. These two detector planes are arranged facing each other so that the matching detector pads on each plane form a two element charged particle telescope. Each of these telescopes is capable of determining the elemental identity of nuclear fragments passing through it. The system is used to measure light fragment production in the presence of heavier fragments. We will present a detailed discussion of the 64-pad detector design, the substrate design. The front-end electronics used to read out the signals is based on a custom VLSI chip developed for the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter experiment which has been flown successfully twice in Antarctica. Each of these chips has 16 channels and each channel consists of a charge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaping amplifier and a track-and-hold circuit. The track-and-hold circuits are connected via a multiplexer to an output line driver. This allows the held signals to be presented, one-by-one via a common data line to a analog-to-digital converter. Because the output line driver can be placed in a high input impedance state when not in use, it is possible to daisy-change many chips on the same common data line. The front-end electronics and data readout scheme will be discussed in detail. The Zero Degree Detector has been used in several accelerator experiments conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory as well as at the HIMAC accelerator in Japan. We will show examples of data taken at these accelerator runs to demonstrate how the system works.

  2. The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hauptman, John

    2006-10-27

    I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification.

  3. PETA4: a multi-channel TDC/ADC ASIC for SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, I.; Fischer, P.; Ritzert, M.

    2013-12-01

    The PETA4 ASIC is the latest member of a family of chips targeted mainly at the readout of Silicon Photomultipliers in PET, with possible use in other detector applications. PETA4 houses 36 channels on a 5 × 5mm2 die and is fabricated in the UMC 180nm technology. It uses bump bonds with a convenient pitch of ≈ 270μm to allow the construction of very compact modules at moderate substrate cost. The chip requires nearly no external components by integrating everything (PLL loop filter, bandgap reference, bias DACs,...) on chip. Power consumption is <= 40mW per channel, depending on digital speed and bias settings. Every channel has two independent frontends: an established differential amplifier which has shown to be insensitive to pickup in the target application of PET/MRI, and a single-ended frontend with very low input impedance (Zin ≈ 7Ω) for high channel count operation. A fast discriminator with tunable threshold and a noise of <= 300μV self-triggers time stamping with a bin width of 50ps as well as an integrator with programmable integration time. The amplitude signal is converted by a ≈ 9-bit SAR ADC. After conversion, events with sufficient amplitude are queued for serial readout. The previous chip version PETA3 has achieved a CRT time resolution of ≈ 200ps when reading out scintillation light from a 3 × 3×5mm3 LYSO crystal coupled at room temperature to a 3 × 3mm2 SiPM from FBK. Energy resolution for LYSO is ≈ 12.5%FWHM. LYSO crystals of 1.3mm size could be clearly identified with SiPMs of 4 × 4mm2 when using a light spreader. The architecture of PETA4 and its performance in the lab and with SiPMs will be presented.

  4. Integrated readout electronics for the PbWO{sub 4} photon spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Alley, G.T.; Awes, T.

    1995-12-31

    The PbWO{sub 4} calorimeter of the ALICE detector is designed to detect the prompt photons to provide direct information on the partonic, early phases of the heavy-ion interaction. The goal is to measure all the photons over a large enough solid angle to reconstruct both {pi}{sup 0}`s and {eta}`s. A proposed readout system for the ALICE PbWO{sub 4} photon spectrometer is presented. In one proposed implementation, light will be detected from each end of the crystals by PIN photodiodes and this signal will be amplified by charge-sensitive amplifiers. The 73,728 channel readout system will accept the preamplifier signals and deliver digitized data to the data collection modules. A readout board will consist of 8-channel, custom front-end chips which form energy and timing signals, and board-level control and communication circuits. Many of the subcircuits proposed for this spectrometer have been developed for use in other applications. The performance of these circuits is shown.

  5. Performance of an LPD prototype detector at MHz frame rates under Synchrotron and FEL radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Angelsen, C.; Coughlan, J.; French, M.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Turcato, M.; Carini, G. A.; Chollet, M.; Herrmann, S. C.; Lemke, H. T.; Nelson, S.; Song, S.; Weaver, M.; Zhu, D.; Meents, A.; Fischer, P.

    2013-11-01

    A MHz frame rate X-ray area detector (LPD — Large Pixel Detector) is under development by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory for the European XFEL. The detector will have 1 million pixels and allows analogue storage of 512 images taken at 4.5 MHz in the detector front end. The LPD detector has 500 μm thick silicon sensor tiles that are bump bonded to a readout ASIC. The ASIC's preamplifier provides relatively low noise at high speed which results in a high dynamic range of 105 photons over an energy range of 5-20 keV. Small scale prototypes of 32 × 256 pixels (LPD 2-Tile detector) and 256 × 256 pixels (LPD supermodule detector) are now available for X-ray tests. The performance of prototypes of the detector is reported for first tests under synchrotron radiation (PETRA III at DESY) and Free-Electron-Laser radiation (LCLS at SLAC). The initial performance of the detector in terms of signal range and noise, radiation hardness and spatial and temporal response are reported. The main result is that the 4.5 MHz sampling detection chain is reliably working, including the analogue on-chip memory concept. The detector is at least radiation hard up to 5 MGy at 12 keV. In addition the multiple gain concept has been demonstrated over a dynamic range to 104 at 12 keV with a readout noise equivalent to < 1 photon rms in its most sensitive mode.

  6. Study of indium and solder bumps for the BTeV Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Simon W Kwan et al.

    2003-11-05

    The pixel detector proposed for the BTeV experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron will use bump-bonding technology based on either Indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have studied the strength of the bumps by visual inspection of the bumps bonding silicon sensor modules to dummy chips made out of glass. The studies were done before and after thermal cycles, exposed to intense irradiation, and with the assemblies glued to a graphite substrate. We have also carried out studies on effects of temperature changes on both types of bump bonds by observing the responses of single-chip pixel detectors to an Sr{sup 90} source. We report the results from these studies and our plan to measure the effect of cryogenic temperatures on the bumps.

  7. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Cruciani, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-01

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm2 are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm2 silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σE = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  8. Low-background direct readout array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Mccreight, C. R.; Anderson, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The development and evaluation of an integrated array of antimony-doped silicon detectors is described. The spectral range of extrinsic silicon-integrated arrays useful for low-background IR astronomical applications is extended to about 31 microns with this development. The 58 x 62-element array is accessed by a direct readout multiplexer. The device is evaluated with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readout electronics system in a low-background test dewar. Acceptance testing indicates single-pixel NEPs in the mid-10 to the -18th W/sq rt Hz range, and good global uniformity statistics.

  9. Demountable readout technologies for optical image intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2007-04-01

    We describe a generic microchannel plate intensifier design for use with a variety of demountable readout devices manufactured using standard multi-layer PCB techniques. We present results obtained using a 50 Ω multi-element design optimized for high speed operation and a four electrode multi-layer device developed from the wedge and strip anode with enhanced image resolution. The benefits of this intensifier design are discussed and a project to develop a detector system for bio-medical applications using a demountable readout device with integrated multi-channel ASIC-based electronics is announced.

  10. VO II-based microbolometer uncooled infrared focal plane arrays with CMOS readout integrated circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiqu; Yi, Xinjian

    2005-11-01

    Thin films of vanadium dioxide (VO II) were selected for microbolometers. The thin films were fabricated with a novel method mainly including ion-sputtering and annealing. It is found that the electrical properties of these thin films can be controlled by adjusting the time of ion-sputtering and annealing. A standard microbolometer pixel structure of micro-bridge has been applied. Two-dimensional arrays of microbolometers have been fabricated on silicon integrated circuit wafers using a surface micromachining technique. A new type of on-chip readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for 32×32 pixel bolometric detector arrays has been designed and fabricated using a 1.5μm double metal poly complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. The readout circuit consists of three stages, which provides low noise, a highly stable detector bias, high photon current injection efficiency, high gain, and high speed. Several prototypes of 32×32 pixel bolometric detector arrays have been designed and fabricated. These arrays consist of detectors with lateral dimensions of 50μm 50μm, and each bolometric detector is on a 100μm pitch. The results of measurement show that the fabricated uncooled infrared focal plane arrays (UIRFPAs) have excellent performance. The frame rate is 50Hz, the pixel operability is above 96%, the responsivity (R) @ f/1 value is up to 15000V/W, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) @ f/1 and 30Hz is about 50mK, and the average power dissipation is only 24.7mW. The results indicate that the technology of fabricating these 32×32 UIRFPAs has potential to be utilized for fabricating low cost and large-scale UIRFPAs.

  11. Development of a Si:As blocked impurity band detector for far IR detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezcan, Deniz S.; Putzeys, Jan; De Munck, Koen; Souverijns, Tim; Merken, Patrick; Fiorini, Paolo; Van Hoof, Chris; Dartois, Thierry; Israbian, Claude; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Stegmaier, Jutta; Grözinger, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; De Moor, Piet

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a linear array of Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) far infrared detectors and of the related Cryogenic Readout Electronics (CRE). It is part of the ESA DARWIN project which aims at the study of exoplanets by means of null interferometry and requires high performance infrared detector arrays in the 6 18μm range. Si:As BIB detectors have been fabricated on an infrared transparent Silicon substrate enabling backside illumination. The buried contact, the active and the blocking layers are deposited by epitaxy; the doping profile is controlled by adjusting the growth parameters. Access to the buried contact is provided by anisotropic silicon etch of V-grooves in the epi layers. Spray coating of photoresist is used for the lithography of the wafers with high topography. The CRE is composed of an input stage based on an integrating amplifier in AC coupled feedback with selectable integrator capacitors, of a sample and hold stage which provides isolation between input and sampling capacitance, and of an output buffer with multiplexing switch. The readout is optimized for low noise with minimum operating temperature of 4K. Linear arrays made of 42 and 88 detectors and having 30μm pixel pitch with various active areas are fabricated. Detector arrays are coupled to the CRE by Indium bumps using flip-chip technology. Measurements on the readout show reduced noise, good linearity and dynamic range. First detector characterization results are presented.

  12. A concept for the readout of multichannel detectors by using analog signal transmission via optical fibres coupled to a fast CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, R.; Lorenz, E.; Rose, J.

    2000-06-01

    Recent developments in the field of electro-optical components allowed one to transform fast analog electrical signals into fast light pulses in a wide dynamic range and to send them via optical fibres over relatively long distances with very low time dispersion and amplitude losses. Here we propose to use the analog signal fibre transmission technique in combination with fast CCDs for the data acquisition of multichannel detectors as, for example, for the read out of imaging cameras of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Hundreds of signal channels can be read out by using commercially available single CCD module in fast gated mode. The latter can provide high amplitude resolution and an acquisition rate of up to a few hundred Hz. Such a system can provide significantly lower costs compared to traditionally used amplitude digitizing systems. .

  13. Dedicated multichannel readout ASIC coupled with single crystal diamond for dosimeter application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, A.; Falco, M. D.; De Notaristefani, F.; Galasso, M.; Marinelli, M.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Tortora, L.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports on the tests of a low-noise, multi-channel readout integrated circuit used as a readout electronic front-end for a diamond multi-pixel dosimeter. The system is developed for dose distribution measurement in radiotherapy applications. The first 10-channel prototype chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 um CMOS process. Every channel includes a charge integrator with a 10 pF capacitor and a double slope A/D converter. The diamond multi-pixel detector, based on CVD synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diodes, is made by a 3 × 3 sensor matrix. The overall device has been tested under irradiation with 6 MeV radio therapeutic photon beams at the Policlinico ``Tor Vergata'' (PTV) hospital. Measurements show a 20 fA RMS leakage current from the front-end input stage and a negligible dark current from the diamond detector, a stable temporal response and a good linear behaviour as a function of both dose and dose rate. These characteristics were common to each tested channel.

  14. Beam test results of the BTeV silicon pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2000-09-28

    The authors have described the results of the BTeV silicon pixel detector beam test. The pixel detectors under test used samples of the first two generations of Fermilab pixel readout chips, FPIX0 and FPIX1, (indium bump-bonded to ATLAS sensor prototypes). The spatial resolution achieved using analog charge information is excellent for a large range of track inclination. The resolution is still very good using only 2-bit charge information. A relatively small dependence of the resolution on bias voltage is observed. The resolution is observed to depend dramatically on the discriminator threshold, and it deteriorates rapidly for threshold above 4000e{sup {minus}}.

  15. Narrow bandgap semiconducting silicides: Intrinsic infrared detectors on a silicon chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Work done during the final report period is presented. The main technical objective was to achieve epitaxial growth on silicon of two semiconducting silicides, ReSi2 and CrSi2. ReSi2 thin films were grown on (001) silicon wafers by vacuum evaporation of rhenium onto hot substrates in ultrahigh vacuum. The preferred epitaxial relationship was found to be ReSi2(100)/Si(001) with ReSi2(010) parallel to Si(110). The lattice matching consists of a common unit mesh of 120 A(sup 2) area, and a mismatch of 1.8 percent. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of rotation twins corresponding to two distinct but equivalent azimuthal orientations of the common unit mesh. MeV He(+) backscattering spectrometry revealed a minimum channeling yield of 2 percent for an approximately 1,500 A thick film grown at 650 C. Although the lateral dimension of the twins is on the order of 100 A, there is a very high degree of alignment between the ReSi2(100) and the Si(001) planes. Highly oriented films of CrSi2 were grown on (111) silicon substrates, with the matching crystallographic faces being CrSi2(001)/Si(111). The reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of the films consist of sharp streaks, symmetrically arranged. The predominant azimuthal orientation of the films was determined to be CrSi2(210) parallel to Si(110). This highly desirable heteroepitaxial relationship has been obtained previously by others; it may be described with a common unit mesh of 51 A(sup 2) and mismatch of 0.3 percent. RHEED also revealed the presence of limited film regions of a competing azimuthal orientation, CrSi2(110) parallel to Si(110). A channeling effect for MeV He(+) ions was not found for this material. Potential commercial applications of this research may be found in silicon-integrated infrared detector arrays. Optical characterizations showed that semiconducting ReSi2 is a strong absorber of infrared radiation, with the adsorption constant increasing above 2 x

  16. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to the surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer, a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as early performance tests using cosmic rays and beam data will be presented.

  17. SPICE evaluation of the S/N ratio for Si microstrip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Nardi, F.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.

    1999-10-01

    SPICE simulations of ac-coupled single-sided Si microstrip detectors connected to the PreShape 32 read-out chip have been performed in order to determine the geometrical characteristics (i.e., the strip pitch p and width w) which maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. All of the resistive and capacitive elements of the detector have been determined as a function of the w/p ratio by considering experimental and simulated data available in literature. The SPICE model the authors propose in this work takes into account all the main noise sources in the detector and read-out electronics. The minimum ionizing particle current signal shape has been introduced in the simulations. Two read-out configurations (every strip or every second strip) have been investigated for 6.4- and 12.8-cm-long detectors. The equivalent noise charge as determined by the simulations has been compared with analytical calculations, in order to determine the limits and the corrections to a simplified analytical noise model. Finally, general guidelines for the detector design have been proposed, based on the simulation results.

  18. Results from first beam tests for the development of a RICH detector for CBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschke, J.; Höhne, C.

    2011-05-01

    In the CBM experiment at FAIR, electrons will be identified using a gaseous RICH detector positioned behind a system of silicon tracking stations. The concept of the RICH detector foresees an array of Multianode Photomultipliers (MAPMTs) as photodetector. First beam test data with a 2 GeV proton beam were recorded to investigate the Cherenkov light detection with a 64 channel Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMT. In the beam test a proximity focusing setup with a solid radiator was used together with a new self triggered readout electronics based on the n-XYTER ADC chip. The results of this beam test demonstrate that the new front end electronics is suited for the readout of the Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMT. It could be demonstrated that this MAPMT is able to detect single Cherenkov photons. Uncorrelated noise could be well separated from the signal using available timing information. The recorded number of MAPMT hits per beam event is consistent with the expectations.

  19. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lösel, Philipp; ATLAS Muon Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Resistive strip Micromegas detectors have been tested extensively as small detectors of about 10×10 cm2 in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100 kHz/cm2 and above. Tracking resolution well below 100 μm has been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3 m2 in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1 m2 detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 μm was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRMF) using two 4×2.2 m2 large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. A segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6 mm×93 mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by eleven 93 mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips. This allows for mapping of homogeneity in pulse height and efficiency, determination of signal propagation along the 1 m long anode strips and calibration of the position of the anode strips.

  20. Improved low frequency stability of bolometric detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.; Devlin, M.; Lange, A.E. . Dept. of Physics); Sato, S. . Dept. of Physics); Beeman, J.W.; Haller, E.E. . Center for Advanced Materials)

    1990-04-01

    The authors have developed an AC bridge readout system that greatly improves the low-frequency stability of bolometric detectors. The readout can be implemented with a simple circuit appropriate for use in space applications. Using a matched pair of detectors in the readout, the authors have achieved system noise within a factor of two of the fundamental noise limit of the detectors at frequencies as low as 10 mHz. The low frequency stability of the readout system allows slower, more sensitive detectors to be used in many applications, and facilitates observing strategies that are well-suited to space-borne observations.

  1. Development of a radiation-hardened SRAM with EDAC algorithm for fast readout CMOS pixel sensors for charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X.; Li, B.; Chen, N.; Wang, J.; Zheng, R.; Gao, W.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2014-08-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) are attractive for use in the innermost particle detectors for charged particle tracking due to their good trade-off between spatial resolution, material budget, radiation hardness, and readout speed. With the requirements of high readout speed and high radiation hardness to total ionizing dose (TID) for particle tracking, fast readout CPS are composed by integrating a data compression block and two SRAM IP cores. However, the radiation hardness of the SRAM IP cores is not as high as that of the other parts in CPS, and thus the radiation hardness of the whole CPS chip is lowered. Especially, when CPS are migrated into 0.18-μm processes, the single event upset (SEU) effects should be also considered besides TID and single event latchup (SEL) effects. This paper presents a radiation-hardened SRAM with enhanced radiation hardness to SEU. An error detection and correction (EDAC) algorithm and a bit-interleaving storage strategy are adopted in the design. The prototype design has been fabricated in a 0.18-μm process. The area of the new SRAM is increased 1.6 times as compared with a non-radiation-hardened SRAM due to the integration of EDAC algorithm and the adoption of radiation hardened layout. The access time is increased from 5 ns to 8 ns due to the integration of EDAC algorithm. The test results indicate that the design satisfy requirements of CPS for charged particle tracking.

  2. A low noise high readout speed 512×128 ROIC for shortwave InGaAs FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, SongLei; Huang, Zhangcheng; Chen, Yu; Tang, Hengjing; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2015-03-01

    A low noise high readout speed 512×128 readout Integrated circuit (ROIC) based on capacitance trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA) is designed in this paper. The ROIC is flip-chip bonded with Indium bumps to InGaAs detectors which cutoff wavelength is 1.7μm, as a hybrid structure (InGaAs FPA). The ROIC with 30μm pixel pitch and 50fF integrated capacitance, is fabricated in 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process. The results show that output noise is about 3.0E-4V which equivalent readout noise is 95e-, output voltage swing is better than 2.5V; the dynamic range of InGaAs FPA reaches 69.7dB@2ms, and the power dissipation is about 175mw. The peak detectivity of InGaAs FPA reaches 2E12cmHz1/2w-1 at 300K without TEC cooling.

  3. Hybridization of a sigma-delta-based CMOS hybrid detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, K. E.; Stoffel, N. C.; Douglas, B.; Maloney, C. W.; Raisanen, A. D.; Ashe, B.; Figer, D. F.; Tamagawa, T.; Halpern, B.; Ignjatovic, Zeljko

    2010-07-01

    The Rochester Imaging Detector Laboratory, University of Rochester, Infotonics Technology Center, and Jet Process Corporation developed a hybrid silicon detector with an on-chip sigma-delta (ΣΔ) ADC. This paper describes the process and reports the results of developing a fabrication process to robustly produce high-quality bump bonds to hybridize a back-illuminated detector with its ΣΔ ADC. The design utilizes aluminum pads on both the readout circuit and the photodiode array with interconnecting indium bumps between them. The development of the bump bonding process is discussed, including specific material choices, interim process structures, and final functionality. Results include measurements of bond integrity, cross-wafer uniformity of indium bumps, and effects of process parameters on the final product. Future plans for improving the bump bonding process are summarized.

  4. Implementation of the Timepix ASIC in the Scalable Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupberger, M.; Desch, K.; Kaminski, J.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the development of electronics hardware, FPGA firmware and software to provide a flexible multi-chip readout of the Timepix ASIC within the framework of the Scalable Readout System (SRS). The system features FPGA-based zero-suppression and the possibility to read out up to 4×8 chips with a single Front End Concentrator (FEC). By operating several FECs in parallel, in principle an arbitrary number of chips can be read out, exploiting the scaling features of SRS. Specifically, we tested the system with a setup consisting of 160 Timepix ASICs, operated as GridPix devices in a large TPC field cage in a 1 T magnetic field at a DESY test beam facility providing an electron beam of up to 6 GeV. We discuss the design choices, the dedicated hardware components, the FPGA firmware as well as the performance of the system in the test beam.

  5. Asynchronous data readout system for multichannel ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. Y.; Atkin, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The data readout system of multichannel data-driven ASIC, requiring high-speed (320 Mb/s) output data serialization is described. Its structure, based on a limited number of FIFO blocks, provides a lossless data transfer. The solution has been realized as a separate test IP block in the prototyped 8 channel ASIC, intended for the muon chamber of CBM experiment at FAIR. The block was developed for the UMC 0.18 μm MMRF CMOS process and prototyped via Europractice. Main parameters of the chip are given.

  6. Development of a read out driver for ATLAS micromegas based on the Scalable Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibell, A.

    2014-01-01

    With future LHC luminosity upgrades, part of the ATLAS muon spectrometer has to be changed, to cope with the increased flux of uncorrelated neutron and gamma particles. Micromegas detectors were chosen as precision tracker for the New Small Wheels, that will replace the current Small Wheel muon detector stations during the LHC shutdown foreseen for 2018. To read out these detectors together with all other ATLAS subsystems, a readout driver was developed to integrate these micromegas detectors into the ATLAS data acquisition infrastructure. The readout driver is based on the Scalable Readout System, and its tasks include trigger handling, slow control, event building and data transmission to the high-level readout systems. This article describes the layout and functionalities of this readout driver and its components, as well as a test of its functionalities in the cosmic ray facility of Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich.

  7. A reconfigurable image tube using an external electronic image readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    We have designed and built a sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) intensifier for optical/NUV photon counting applications suitable for 18, 25 and 40 mm diameter formats. The intensifier uses an electronic image readout to provide direct conversion of event position into electronic signals, without the drawbacks associated with phosphor screens and subsequent optical detection. The Image Charge technique is used to remove the readout from the intensifier vacuum enclosure, obviating the requirement for additional electrical vacuum feedthroughs and for the readout pattern to be UHV compatible. The charge signal from an MCP intensifier is capacitively coupled via a thin dielectric vacuum window to the electronic image readout, which is external to the sealed intensifier tube. The readout pattern is a separate item held in proximity to the dielectric window and can be easily detached, making the system easily reconfigurable. Since the readout pattern detects induced charge and is external to the tube, it can be constructed as a multilayer, eliminating the requirement for narrow insulator gaps and allowing it to be constructed using standard PCB manufacturing tolerances. We describe two readout patterns, the tetra wedge anode (TWA), an optimized 4 electrode device similar to the wedge and strip anode (WSA) but with a factor 2 improvement in resolution, and an 8 channel high speed 50 ohm device, both manufactured as multilayer PCBs. We present results of the detector imaging performance, image resolution, linearity and stability, and discuss the development of an integrated readout and electronics device based on these designs.

  8. Characterization of Pixelated Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Detectors for Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Sharma, Dharma; Ramsey, Brian; Seller, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Comparisons of charge sharing and charge loss measurements between two pixelated Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors are discussed. These properties along with the detector geometry help to define the limiting energy resolution and spatial resolution of the detector in question. The first detector consists of a 1-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe sputtered with a 4x4 array of pixels with pixel pitch of 750 microns (inter-pixel gap is 100 microns). Signal readout is via discrete ultra-low-noise preamplifiers, one for each of the 16 pixels. The second detector consists of a 2-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe sputtered with a 16x16 array of pixels with a pixel pitch of 300 microns (inter-pixel gap is 50 microns). This crystal is bonded to a custom-built readout chip (ASIC) providing all front-end electronics to each of the 256 independent pixels. These detectors act as precursors to that which will be used at the focal plane of the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. With a telescope focal length of 6 meters, the detector needs to have a spatial resolution of around 200 microns in order to take full advantage of the HERO angular resolution. We discuss to what degree charge sharing will degrade energy resolution but will improve our spatial resolution through position interpolation.

  9. Effects of high energy protons on the E771 silicon microstrip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Antoniazzi, L.; Arenton, M.; Ballagh, C.; Bingham, H.; Blankman, A.; Block, M.; Boden, A.; Borodin, S.; Budagov, J.; Cao, Z. L.; Cataldi, G.; Chen, T. Y.; Clark, K.; Cline, D.; Conetti, S.; Cooper, M.; Corti, G.; Cox, B.; Creti, P.; Dukes, E.; Durandet, C.; Elia, V.; Erwin, A.; Fortney, L.; Golovatyuk, S.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Haire, M.; Hanlet, P.; He, M.; Introzzi, G.; Jenkins, M.; Jennings, J.; Judd, D.; Kaeding, T.; Kononenko, W.; Kowald, W.; lanza, A.; Lau, K.; Liguori, G.; Lys, J.; Mazur, P.; McManus, A.; Misawa, S.; Mo, G.; Murphy, T.; Nelson, K.; Newcomer, M.; Panareo, M.; Ramachandran, S.; Recagni, M.; Rhoades, J.; Segal, J.; Selove, W.; Smith, R.; Spiegel, L.; Sun, J.; Tokar, S.; Torre, P.; Trischuk, J.; Trojak, T.; Tsyganov, E.; Turnbull, L.; VanBerg, R.; Wagoner, D.; Wang, C.; Wang, H. C.; Wei, C.; Yang, W.; Yao, N.; Zhang, N.; Zhang, S. N.; Zou, B.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon strip detector (SSD) system for use in very high rate experiments has been operated in Experiment E771 (Cox, 1989) at the Fermi National Accelerator laboratory. The detector electronics were designed (Swoboda, 1990; Bowden, 1990; Zimmerman, 1989; Christian, 1991) to meet the specific needs of Fermilab experiment E771 using ASIC chip sets where commercial circuits were not suitable. The electronics for the SSD were designed to operate at rates up to 60 Mhz and were operated at interaction rates up to 10 7 interaction/sec (beam rates of 2 × 10 8 proton/sec). In addition to being very fast, the detector for the 1991 run was very compact with 10000 channels of active detector in a volume fo 5cm × 5cm × 10cm. An expansion of the system to 16000 channels is planned for the next Fermilab fixed target run. The strip pitch ranged from 25 μ m in the center of the detector near the target to 100 μ m pitch at the most downstream, outer edges of the detector. The readout is a latch design with pipelined readout and appears to have single strip efficiencies of ≈ 75% even in the presence of a high radiation dose (∽ 10 14 protons/cm 2) and high leakage currents(≈ 1 nA/strip). The detector and associated amplifier electronics has presently been operated at 17° C and is designed to operate as low as 8° C.

  10. 3D sensitive voxel detector of ionizing radiation based on Timepix device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, P.; Jakubek, J.; Vykydal, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors are evolving towards higher segmentation geometries from 0D (single pad) over 1D (strip) to 2D (pixel) detectors. Each step has brought up substantial expansion in the field of applications. The next logical step in this evolution is to design a 3D, i.e. voxel detector. The voxel detector can be constructed from 2D volume element detectors arranged in layers forming a 3D matrix of sensitive elements — voxels. Such detectors can effectively record tracks of energetic particles. By proper analysis of these tracks it is possible to determine the type, direction and energy of the primary particle. One of the prominent applications of such device is in the localization and identification of gamma and neutron sources in the environment. It can be also used for emission and transmission radiography in many fields where standard imagers are currently utilized. The qualitative properties of current imagers such as: spatial resolution, efficiency, directional sensitivity, energy sensitivity and selectivity (background suppression) can be improved. The first prototype of a voxel detector was built using a number of Timepix devices. Timepix is hybrid semiconductor detector consisting of a segmented semiconductor sensor bump-bonded to a readout chip. Each sensor contains 256x256 square pixels of 55 μm size. The voxel detector prototype was successfully tested to prove the concept functionality. The detector has a modular architecture with a daisy chain connection of the individual detector layers. This permits easy rearrangement due to its modularity, while keeping a single readout system for a variable number of detector layers. A limitation of this approach is the relatively large inter-layer distance (4 mm) compared to the pixel thickness (0.3 mm). Therefore the next step in the design is to decrease the space between the 2D detectors.

  11. A Triggerless readout system for the bar PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemens, M.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    One of the physics goals of the future bar PANDA experiment at FAIR is to research newly discovered exotic states. Because the detector response created by these particles is very similar to the background channels, a new type of data readout had to be developed, called "triggerless" readout. In this concept, each detector subsystem preprocesses the signal, so that in a later stage, high-level phyiscs constraints can be applied to select events of interest. A dedicated clock source using a protocol called SODANET over optical fibers ensures proper synchronisation between the components. For this new type of readout, a new way of simulating the detector response also needed to be developed, taking into account the effects of pile-up caused by the 20 MHz interaction rate.

  12. CMOS buried multi-junction (BMJ) detector for bio-chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guo-Neng; Courcier, Thierry; Mamdy, Bastien; Feruglio, Sylvain; Charette, Paul G.; Aimez, Vincent; Romain, Olivier; Pittet, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The CMOS buried multi-junction (BMJ) detector with multiple outputs has distinct spectral responses that may be exploited for applications such as bio-chemical analysis. We tackle here dark current issue by identifying different components inside the detector structure. The identification methods are based on the observation of bias and temperature dependence, as well as measurements of test detector chip integrating different design variations. Surface thermal generation may become predominant when the detector size shrinks, thus causing dark current degradation. To prevent this effect, we propose a low-sized detector structure with passivation of all its surrounding Si/SiO2 interface areas. Also for the detector readout, we present a multi-channel charge-amplifier architecture with noise analysis. Effects of noise coming from amplifiers and related to the coupled detector's dynamic conductances are illuminated. To pick up weak signals, synchronous detection can be implemented. A BDJ (Buried Double Junction) detector chip designed with a switched-phase architectural approach gives a minimum detectable signal of 15μlx@555nm or 1μlx@555nm at 27°C or - 10°C, for an integration time of 3s or 45s respectively.

  13. A Planar, Chip-Based, Dual-Beam Refractometer Using an Integrated Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Light Source and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Veneman, P. Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence emission from an Alq3/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C60 OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions, a “sample” and “reference” channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) which might influence sensor response. The dual beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (ΔR.I.) between 10−2 and 10−3 R.I. units could be detected for single channel operation, with sensitivity increased to ΔR.I. ≈ 10−4 units when the dual beam configuration is employed. PMID:20218580

  14. Low power analog readout front-end electronics for time and energy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleczek, R.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the design and measurements of an analog front-end readout electronics dedicated for silicon microstrip detectors with relatively large capacitance of the order of tens pF for time and energy measurements of incoming pulses. The front-end readout electronics is required to process input pulses with an average rate of 150 kHz/channel with low both power consumption and noise at the same time. In the presented solution the single channel is built of two different parallel processing paths: fast and slow. The fast path includes the fast CR-RC shaper with the peaking time tp=40 ns and is optimized to determine the input charge arrival time. The slow path, which consists of the slow CR-(RC)2 shaper with the peaking time tp=80 ns, is dedicated for low noise accurate energy measurement. The analog front-end electronics was implemented in UMC 180 nm CMOS technology as a prototype ASIC AFE. The AFE chip contains 8 channels with the size of 58 μm×1150 μm each. It has low power dissipation Pdiss=3.1 mW per single channel. The article presents the details of the front-end architecture and the measurement results.

  15. Beam test characterization of CMS silicon pixel detectors for the phase-1 upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korol, I.

    2015-10-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector forms the innermost part of the CMS tracking system and is critical to track and vertex reconstruction. Being in close proximity to the beam interaction point, it is exposed to the highest radiation levels in the silicon tracker. In order to preserve the tracking performance with the LHC luminosity increase which is foreseen for the next years, the CMS collaboration has decided to build a new pixel detector with four barrel layers mounted around a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution. Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking efficiency and position resolution before and after irradiation with 24 GeV protons from the CERN Proton Synchroton equivalent to the fluence expected after 500 fb-1 of integrated luminosity in the fourth layer of the pixel tracker. High efficiency and an excellent position resolution have been observed which are well maintained even after the proton irradiation. The results are well described by the CMS pixel detector simulation.

  16. The LAMBDA photon-counting pixel detector and high-Z sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.; Tolbanov, O.; Zarubin, A.; Tyazhev, A.; Shelkov, G.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-12-01

    Many X-ray experiments at third-generation synchrotrons benefit from using single-photon-counting detectors, due to their high signal-to-noise ratio and potential for high-speed measurements. LAMBDA (Large Area Medipix3-Based Detector Array) is a pixel detector system based on the Medipix3 readout chip. It combines the features of Medipix3, such as a small pixel size of 55 μm and flexible functionality, with a large tileable module design consisting of 12 chips (1536 × 512 pixels) and a high-speed readout system capable of running at 2000 frames per second. To enable high-speed experiments with hard X-rays, the LAMBDA system has been combined with different high-Z sensor materials. Room-temperature systems using GaAs and CdTe systems have been produced and tested with X-ray tubes and at synchrotron beamlines. Both detector materials show nonuniformities in their raw image response, but the pixel yield is high and the uniformity can be improved by flat-field correction, particularly in the case of GaAs. High-frame-rate experiments show that useful information can be gained on millisecond timescales in synchrotron experiments with these sensors.

  17. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment, structured in a lantern shape, consists of four layers of ladders, fabricated from two to five silicon sensors. The APV25 readout ASIC chips are mounted on one side of the ladder to minimize the signal path for reducing the capacitive noise; signals from the sensor backside are transmitted to the chip by bent flexible fan-out circuits. The ladder is assembled using several dedicated jigs. Sensor motion on the jig is minimized by vacuum chucking. The gluing procedure provides such a rigid foundation that later leads to the desired wire bonding performance. The full ladder with electrically functional sensors is consistently completed with a fully developed assembly procedure, and its sensor offsets from the design values are found to be less than 200 μm. The potential functionality of the ladder is also demonstrated by the radioactive source test.

  18. Low-noise monolithic bipolar front-end for silicon drift detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, W.; Bialas, W.; Bonazzola, G.; Bonvicini, W.; Casati, L.; Ceretto, F.; Giubellino, P.; Prest, M.; Riccati, L.; Zampa, N.

    1999-01-01

    A very low noise, 32-channel preamplifier/shaper chip has been designed for the analogue readout of silicon detectors. The circuit has been optimized in view of the operation of silicon drift detectors, which have very low capacitance and produce gaussian signals of σ of few tens of ns. The chip (OLA) has been designed and manufactured using the SHPi full-custom bipolar process by Tektronix. Each channel is composed by a preamplifier, a shaper and a symmetrical line driver, which allows to drive either a positive and a negative single ended output separately on 50 Ω impedance or a differential twisted pair. The intrinsic peaking time of the circuit is ˜60 ns, and the noise is below 250 electrons at zero input load capacitance. The power consumption is 2 mW/channel, mostly due to the output driver.

  19. A bonding study toward the quality assurance of Belle-II silicon vertex detector modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K. H.; Jeon, H. B.; Park, H.; Uozumi, S.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaia, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-09-01

    A silicon vertex detector (SVD) for the Belle-II experiment comprises four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), assembled in a ladder-like structure. Each ladder module of the outermost SVD layer has four rectangular and one trapezoidal DSSDs supported by two carbon-fiber ribs. In order to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio and minimize material budget, a novel chip-on-sensor "Origami" method has been employed for the three rectangular sensors that are sandwiched between the backward rectangular and forward (slanted) trapezoidal sensors. This paper describes the bonding procedures developed for making electrical connections between sensors and signal fan-out flex circuits (i.e., pitch adapters), and between pitch adapters and readout chips as well as the results in terms of the achieved bonding quality and pull force.

  20. SiPM application for a detector for UHE neutrinos tested at Sphinx station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, M.; Atakisi, I. O.; Chiodi, G.; Denizli, H.; Ferrarotto, F.; Kaya, M.; Yilmaz, A.; Recchia, L.; Russ, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present the preliminary test results of the prototype detector, working at Sphinx Observatory Center, Jungfraujoch (~3800 m a.s.l.) HFSJG - Switzerland. This prototype detector is designed to measure large zenith angle showers produced by high energy neutrino interactions in the Earth crust. This station provides us an opportunity to understand if the prototype detector works safely (or not) under hard environmental conditions (the air temperature changes between -25 °C and -5 °C). The detector prototype is using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) produced by SensL and DRS4 chip as read-out part. Measurements at different temperature at fixed bias voltage (~29.5 V) were performed to reconstruct tracks by Time Of Flight.

  1. Fine Grained Silicon-Tungsten Calorimetry for a Linear Collider Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.; Frey, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Graf, N.; Haller, G.; Milgrome, O.; Radeka, V.; /Brookhaven

    2006-02-08

    A fine grained silicon-tungsten calorimeter is ideal for use as the electromagnetic calorimeter in a linear collider detector optimized for particle-flow reconstruction. We are designing a calorimeter that is based on readout chips which are bump bonded to the silicon wafers that serve as the active medium in the calorimeter. By using integrated electronics we plan to demonstrate that fine granularity can be achieved at a reasonable price. Our design minimizes the gap between tungsten layers leading to a small Moliere radius, an important figure of merit for particle-flow detectors. Tests of the silicon detectors to be used in a test beam prototype as well as timing measurements based on similar silicon detectors are discussed.

  2. The pixel detector for the CMS phase-II upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, M. E.

    2015-04-01

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires a major pixel detector R&D effort to develop both readout chip and sensor that are capable to withstand unprecedented extremely high radiation. The target integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, that the HL-LHC is expected to deliver over about 10 years of operation, translates into a hadron fluence of 2×1016 1 MeV eq.n. / cm2, or equivalently 10 MGy of radiation dose in silicon, at about 3 cm from the interaction region where the first layer of the pixel detector could be located. The CMS collaboration has undertaken two baseline sensor R&D programs on thin n-on-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. Together with the ATLAS collaboration it has also been established a common R&D effort for the development of the readout chip in the 65 nm CMOS technology. Status, progresses, and prospects of the CMS R&D effort are presented and discussed in this article.

  3. Improved Space Object Observation Techniques Using CMOS Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Hinze, A.; Schlatter, P.; Silha, J.; Peltonen, J.; Santti, T.; Flohrer, T.

    2013-08-01

    CMOS-sensors, or in general Active Pixel Sensors (APS), are rapidly replacing CCDs in the consumer camera market. Due to significant technological advances during the past years these devices start to compete with CCDs also for demanding scientific imaging applications, in particular in the astronomy community. CMOS detectors offer a series of inherent advantages compared to CCDs, due to the structure of their basic pixel cells, which each contain their own amplifier and readout electronics. The most prominent advantages for space object observations are the extremely fast and flexible readout capabilities, feasibility for electronic shuttering and precise epoch registration, and the potential to perform image processing operations on-chip and in real-time. Presently applied and proposed optical observation strategies for space debris surveys and space surveillance applications had to be analyzed. The major design drivers were identified and potential benefits from using available and future CMOS sensors were assessed. The major challenges and design drivers for ground-based and space-based optical observation strategies have been analyzed. CMOS detector characteristics were critically evaluated and compared with the established CCD technology, especially with respect to the above mentioned observations. Similarly, the desirable on-chip processing functionalities which would further enhance the object detection and image segmentation were identified. Finally, the characteristics of a particular CMOS sensor available at the Zimmerwald observatory were analyzed by performing laboratory test measurements.

  4. Silicon PIN diode hybrid arrays for charged particle detection: Building blocks for vertex detectors at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.; Gaalema, S.; Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.

    1989-05-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of solid state detectors have long been used in visible and infrared systems. Hybrid arrays with separately optimized detector and readout substrates have been extensively developed for infrared sensors. The characteristics and use of these infrared readout chips with silicon PIN diode arrays produced by MICRON SEMICONDUCTOR for detecting high-energy particles are reported. Some of these arrays have been produced in formats as large as 512 /times/ 512 pixels; others have been radiation hardened to total dose levels beyond 1 Mrad. Data generation rates of 380 megasamples/second have been achieved. Analog and digital signal transmission and processing techniques have also been developed to accept and reduce these high data rates. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Design and performance of the new cathode readout proportional chambers in LASS

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, G.; Aston, D.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1980-10-01

    The design and construction of a new proportional chamber system for the LASS spectrometer are discussed. This system consists of planar and cylindrical chambers employing anode wire and cathode strip readout techniques. The good timing characteristics of anode readout combine with the excellent spatial resolution of cathode readout to provide powerful and compact detectors. Preliminary resolution data are presented along with operating characteristics of the various devices.

  6. Design and testing of an all-digital readout integrated circuit for infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Michael; Berger, Robert; Colonero, Curtis; Gregg, Mark; Model, Joshua; Mooney, Daniel; Ringdahl, Eric

    2005-08-01

    The digital focal plane array (DFPA) project demonstrates the enabling technologies necessary to build readout integrated circuits for very large infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs). Large and fast FPAs are needed for a new class of spectrally diverse sensors. Because of the requirement for high-resolution (low noise) sampling, and because of the sample rate needed for rapid acquisition of high-resolution spectra, it is highly desirable to perform analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion right at the pixel level. A dedicated A/D converter located under every pixel in a one-million-plus element array, and all-digital readout integrated circuits will enable multi- and hyper-spectral imaging systems with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution and wide area coverage. DFPAs provide similar benefits to standard IR imaging systems as well. We have addressed the key enabling technologies for realizing the DFPA architecture in this work. Our effort concentrated on demonstrating a 60-micron footprint, 14-bit A/D converter and 2.5 Gbps, 16:1 digital multiplexer, the most basic components of the sensor. The silicon test chip was fabricated in a 0.18-micron CMOS process, and was designed to operate with HgxCd1-xTe detectors at cryogenic temperatures. Two A/D designs, one using static logic and one using dynamic logic, were built and tested for performance and power dissipation. Structures for evaluating the bit-error-rate of the multiplexer on-chip and through a differential output driver were implemented for a complete performance assessment. A unique IC probe card with fixtures to mount into an evacuated, closed-cycle helium dewar were also designed for testing up to 2.5 Gbps at temperatures as low as 50 K.

  7. ``The Read-Out Driver'' ROD card for the Insertable B-layer (IBL) detector of the ATLAS experiment: commissioning and upgrade studies for the Pixel Layers 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Chen, S. P.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Gabrielli, A.; Hauck, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Lama, L.; Morettini, P.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2014-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC foresees the insertion of an innermost silicon layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL). The IBL read-out system will be equipped with new electronics. The Readout-Driver card (ROD) is a VME board devoted to data processing, configuration and control. A pre-production batch has been delivered for testing with instrumented slices of the overall acquisition chain, aiming to finalize strategies for system commissioning. In this paper system setups and results will be described, as well as preliminary studies on changes needed to adopt the ROD for the ATLAS Pixel Layers 1 and 2.

  8. The L3 silicon microvertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciarri, M.; Adam, A.; Adriani, O.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Baksay, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Baur, W.; Bay, A.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Bertucci, B.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Bobbink, G. J.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bosetti, M.; Brooks, M. L.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Camps, C.; Caria, M.; Castellini, G.; Castello, R.; Checcuccl, B.; Chen, A.; Coan, T. E.; Commichau, V.; DiBitonto, D.; Ding, J.; Duinker, P.; Djambazov, L.; Easo, S.; Extermann, P.; Fiandrini, E.; Gabbanini, A.; Goldstein, J.; Gougas, A.; Hangarter, K.; Hauviller, C.; Herve, A.; Hofer, M.; Hofer, T.; Hou, S.; Josa, M. I.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kim, D.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirst, H.; Kornis, J.; Krastev, V. R.; Ladron, P.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lecomte, P.; Lee, D. M.; Leiste, R.; Lejeune, E.; Lin, W. T.; Lohmann, W.; Marin, A.; Massetti, R.; Mills, G. B.; Nowak, H.; Okle, M.; Passaleva, G.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perrin, E.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Richeux, J.-P.; Santocchia, A.; Siedling, R.; Sachwitz, M.; Schmitz, P.; Schöneich, B.; Servoli, L.; Subham, K.; Susinno, G. F.; Terza, G.; Tesi, M.; Thompson, T.; Tonisch, F.; Toth, J.; Trowitzsch, G.; Viertel, G.; Tuchscherer, H.; Vogt, H.; Wang, S.; Waldmeier, S.; Weill, R.; Xu, J.; Yeh, S. C.; Zhou, B.; Zilizi, G.

    1994-12-01

    The design and construction of the silicon strip microvertex detector (SMD) of the L3 experiment at LEP are described. We present the sensors, readout electronics, data acquisition system, mechanical assembly and support, displacement monitoring systems and radiation monitoring system of the recently installed double-sided, double-layered SMD. This detector utilizes novel and sophisticated techniques for its readout.

  9. Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin; Kwarciany, Rick; Miao, Chyi-Chiang; Partridge, Richard; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Wang, Jigang; /Brown U. /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.

  10. STiC — a mixed mode silicon photomultiplier readout ASIC for time-of-flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harion, T.; Briggl, K.; Chen, H.; Fischer, P.; Gil, A.; Kiworra, V.; Ritzert, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Shen, W.; Stankova, V.

    2014-02-01

    STiC is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the readout of silicon photomultipliers. The chip has been designed to provide a very high timing resolution for time-of-flight applications in medical imaging and particle physics. It is dedicated in particular to the EndoToFPET-US project, which is developing an endoscopic PET detector combined with ultrasound imaging for early pancreas and prostate cancer detection. This PET system aims to provide a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a time-of-flight resolution of 200 ps FWHM. The analog frontend of STiC can use either a differential or single ended connection to the SiPM. The time and energy information of the detector signal is encoded into two time stamps. A special linearized time-over-threshold method is used to obtain a linear relation between the signal charge and the measured signal width, improving the energy resolution. The trigger signals are digitized by an integrated TDC module with a resolution of less than 20 ps. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transfered over a 160 MBit/s serial link using 8/10 bit encoding. First coincidence measurements using a 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm3 LYSO crystal and a S10362-33-50 Hamamtsu MPPC show a coincidence time resolution of less than 285 ps. We present details on the chip design as well as first characterization measurements.

  11. Simulation of the dynamic inefficiency of the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartók, M.

    2015-05-01

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost part of the CMS Tracker. It therefore has to prevail in the harshest environment in terms of particle fluence and radiation. There are several mechanisms that may decrease the efficiency of the detector. These are mainly caused by data acquisition (DAQ) problems and/or Single Event Upsets (SEU). Any remaining efficiency loss is referred to as the dynamic inefficiency. It is caused by various mechanisms inside the Readout Chip (ROC) and depends strongly on the data occupancy. In the 2012 data, at high values of instantaneous luminosity the inefficiency reached 2% (in the region closest to the interaction point) which is not negligible. In the 2015 run higher instantaneous luminosity is expected, which will result in lower efficiencies; therefore this effect needs to be understood and simulated. A data-driven method has been developed to simulate dynamic inefficiency, which has been shown to successfully simulate the effects.

  12. Interconnect and bonding techniques for pixelated X-ray and gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Veale, M. C.; Duarte, D. D.; Bell, S. J.; Wilson, M. D.; Lipp, J. D.; Seller, P.

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade, the Detector Development Group at the Technology Department of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), U.K., established a variety of fabrication and bonding techniques to build pixelated X-ray and γ-ray detector systems such as the spectroscopic X-ray imaging detector HEXITEC [1]. The fabrication and bonding of such devices comprises a range of processes including material surface preparation, photolithography, stencil printing, flip-chip and wire bonding of detectors to application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC). This paper presents interconnect and bonding techniques used in the fabrication chain for pixelated detectors assembled at STFC. For this purpose, detector dies (~ 20× 20 mm2) of high quality, single crystal semiconductors, such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) are cut to the required thickness (up to 5mm). The die surfaces are lapped and polished to a mirror-finish and then individually processed by electroless gold deposition combined with photolithography to form 74× 74 arrays of 200 μ m × 200 μ m pixels with 250 μ m pitch. Owing to a lack of availability of CZT wafers, lithography is commonly carried out on individual detector dies which represents a significant technical challenge as the edge of the pixel array and the surrounding guard band lies close to the physical edge of the crystal. Further, such detector dies are flip-chip bonded to readout ASIC using low-temperature curing silver-loaded epoxy so that the stress between the bonded detector die and the ASIC is minimized. In addition, this reduces crystalline modifications of the detector die that occur at temperature greater than 150\\r{ }C and have adverse effects on the detector performance. To allow smaller pitch detectors to be bonded, STFC has also developed a compression cold-weld indium bump bonding technique utilising bumps formed by a photolithographic lift-off technique.

  13. Superconducting THz Camera with GaAs-JFET Cryogenic Readout Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Hibi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Naruse, Masato; Noguchi, Takashi; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Nagata, Hirohisa; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ariyoshi, Seiichiro; Otani, Chiko; Nitta, Tom; Qi-jun, Yao, Fujiwara, Mikio

    2009-12-01

    We describe the development of large format array of superconducting tunnel junction detectors that is readout by SONY GaAs-JFET cryogenic integrated circuits. High quality SIS photon detectors have high dynamic impedance that can be readout by low gate leakage GaAs-JFET circuits. Our imaging array design, with niobium SIS photon detectors and GaAs-JFET cryogenics electronics, uses integrating amplifiers, multiplexers and shift-registers to readout large number of pixels that is similar to CMOS digital cameras. We have designed and fabricated GaAs-JFET cryogenic integrated circuits, such as AC-coupled capacitive trans-impedance amplifier, multiplexers with sample-and-holds and shift-registers, for 32-channel readout module. The Advanced Technology Center of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan have started extensive development program for large format array of SIS photon detectors.

  14. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  15. Development of an ASIC for Si/CdTe detectors in a radioactive substance visualizing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harayama, Atsushi; Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Sato, Goro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2014-11-01

    We report on the recent development of a 64-channel analog front-end ASIC for a new gamma-ray imaging system designed to visualize radioactive substances. The imaging system employs a novel Compton camera which consists of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors. The ASIC is intended for the readout of pixel/pad detectors utilizing Si/CdTe as detector materials, and covers a dynamic range up to 1.4 MeV. The readout chip consists of 64 identical signal channels and was implemented with X-FAB 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Each channel contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, a pole-zero cancellation circuit, a low-pass filter, a comparator, and a sample-hold circuit, along with a Wilkinson-type A-to-D converter. We observed an equivalent noise charge of ~500 e- and a noise slope of ~5 e-/pF (r.m.s.) with a power consumption of 2.1 mW per channel. The chip works well when connected to Schottky CdTe diodes, and delivers spectra with good energy resolution, such as ~12 keV (FWHM) at 662 keV and ~24 keV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV.

  16. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Sherwood I.

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  17. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Siwak, N. P.; Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R.; Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K.

    2014-10-06

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  18. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwak, N. P.; Fan, X. Z.; Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K.; Ghodssi, R.

    2014-10-01

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  19. rf-SQUID qubit readout using a fast flux pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Douglas A.; Longobardi, Luigi; Patel, Vijay; Chen, Wei; Lukens, James E.

    2007-11-01

    We report on development of a set-up for measuring intrawell dynamics in a Nb-based rf-SQUID qubit described by a double well potential, by rapidly tilting the potential, allowing escape to the adjacent well with high probability for an excited state but low probability for the ground state. The rapid tilt of the double well potential is accomplished via a readout flux pulse inductively coupled to the qubit from a microstrip transmission line on a separate chip suspended above the qubit chip. The readout pulse is analogous to the current bias pulse used to readout phase qubits and hysteretic dc-SQUID magnetometers. The coupling between the transmission line and the qubit is carefully controlled via a window in the ground plane between the signal conductor of the microstrip and the qubit loop. Since the high frequency transmission lines are on a separate chip, they can be independently characterized and reused for different qubit samples. Clean flux pulses as short as 5 ns with rise times of 0.5 ns have been coupled to the qubit to measure escape rates higher than 108 s-1, the lifetime of the excited state, and coherent oscillations between the ground and excited states within the same well.

  20. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade Development

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu,Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard; Szelezniak, Michal; Sun, Xiangming

    2008-01-28

    We report on the development and prototyping efforts undertaken with the goal of producing a micro-vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL. We present the basic detector requirements and show a sensor development path, conceptual mechanical design candidates and readout architecture. Prototyping and beam test results with current generation MimoSTAR-2 sensors and a readout system featuring FPGA based on-the-fly hit finding and data sparsification are also presented.

  1. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The advance of new detector technologies combined with enhanced fabrication methods has resulted in an increase in development of large format arrays. The next generation of scientific instruments will utilize detectors containing hundreds to thousands of elements providing a more efficient means to conduct large area sky surveys. Some notable detectors include a 32x32 x-ray microcalorimeter for Constellation-X, an infrared bolometer called SAFIRE to fly on the airborne observatory SOFIA, and the sub-millimeter bolometer SCUBA-2 to be deployed at the JCMT which will use more than 10,000 elements for two colors, each color using four 32x40 arrays. Of these detectors, SCUBA-2 is farthest along in development and uses indium hybridization to multiplexers for readout of the large number of elements, a technology that will be required to enable the next generation of large format arrays. Our current efforts in working toward large format arrays have produced GISMO, the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter observer. GISMO is a far infrared instrument to be field tested later this year at the IRAM 30 meter telescope in Spain. GISMO utilizes transition edge sensor (TES) technology in an 8x16 filled array format that allows for typical fan-out wiring and wire-bonding to four 1x32 NIST multiplexers. GISMO'S electrical wiring is routed along the tops of 30 micron walls which also serve as the mechanical framework for the array. This architecture works well for the 128 element array, but is approaching the limit for routing the necessary wires along the surface while maintaining a high fill factor. Larger format arrays will benefit greatly from making electrical connections through the wafer to the backside, where they can be hybridized to a read-out substrate tailored to handling the wiring scheme. The next generation array we are developing is a 32x40 element array on a pitch of 1135 microns that conforms to the NIST multiplexer, already developed for the SCUBA-2

  2. EMIR high-dynamic range readout modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, Miguel; Gago, Fernando; Garzón, Francisco; Díaz, José J.; Barreto, Mary; Patrón, Jesús; González-Fenández, Carlos; Hammersley, Peter L.; López, Luis; Castro, Nieves

    2012-07-01

    EMIR is the NIR imager and multiobject spectrograph being built as a common user instrument for the GTC and it is currently entering in the integration and verification phase at system level. EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the IAC. In this paper we describe the readout modes of EMIR detector, a Hawaii2 FPA, after two full calibrations campaigns. Besides the standard set of modes (reset-read, CDS, Fowler, Follow-up the ramp), the modified SDSU-III hardware and home made software will also offer high dynamic range readout modes, which will improve the ability of the instrument to sound densely populated areas which often are made of objects with large differences in brightness. These new high dynamic range modes are: single readout with very short integration time, window mode and combination of both. The results show that the new modes behave linearly with different exposition times, improve the maximum frame rate and increase the saturation limit in image mode for EMIR instrument.

  3. Development of a novel pixel-level signal processing chain for fast readout 3D integrated CMOS pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Torheim, O.; Hu-Guo, C.; Degerli, Y.; Hu, Y.

    2013-03-01

    In order to resolve the inherent readout speed limitation of traditional 2D CMOS pixel sensors, operated in rolling shutter readout, a parallel readout architecture has been developed by taking advantage of 3D integration technologies. Since the rows of the pixel array are zero-suppressed simultaneously instead of sequentially, a frame readout time of a few microseconds is expected for coping with high hit rates foreseen in future collider experiments. In order to demonstrate the pixel readout functionality of such a pixel sensor, a 2D proof-of-concept chip including a novel pixel-level signal processing chain was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology. The functionalities of this chip have been verified through experimental characterization.

  4. Characterisation of the NA62 GigaTracker end of column readout ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noy, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Fiorini, M.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Martin, E.; Morel, M.; Perktold, L.; Riedler, P.

    2011-01-01

    The architecture and characterisation of the End Of Column demonstrator readout ASIC for the NA62 GigaTracker hybrid pixel detector is presented. This ASIC serves as a proof of principle for a pixel chip with 1800 pixels which must perform time stamping to better than 200 ps (RMS), provide 300 μm pitch position information and operate with a dead-time of 1% or less for 800 MHz-1 GHz beam rate. The demonstrator ASIC comprises a full test column with 45 pixels alongside other test structures. The timewalk correction mechanism employed is measurement of the time-over-threshold, coupled with an off-detector look-up table. The time to digital converter is a delay locked loop with 32 contributing delay cells fed with a 320 MHz to yield a nominal bin size of 97 ps. Recently, P-in-N sensors have been bump-bonded to the ASIC and characterisation of these assemblies has begun.

  5. Jefferson Laboratory Hall A SuperBigBite spectrometer GEM readout scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camsonne, Alexandre; Hall A SuperBigBite Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The SuperBigBite spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory in Hall A will rely on Gas Electron Multiplier trackers to achieve the required luminosity for large momentum transfer experiments. The readout electronics is based on the APV25 ASIC and the INFN VME board Multi Purpose Digitizer (MPD) Board. By using the optical readout of readout of the boards, all boards can be readout in parallel effectively increasing the data bandwidth for one crate by more than a factor of 10. With such scheme the readout of several samples become possible and background rejection can be applied to reduce the large quantity of data due to the high occupancy of detector before it is recorded. This special readout scheme based on the JLab electronics will be presented along with the online data reduction strategy for the GEM data.

  6. An Integrated Imaging Detector of Polarization and Spectral Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.; Thompson, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of image detector has been designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The Integrated Dual Imaging Detector (IDID) consists of a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a charge-coupled device (CCD), with signal-analysis circuitry and analog-to-digital converters, all integrated on a silicon chip. It should be capable of 1:10(exp 4) polarization discrimination. The IDID should simplify the design and operation of imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmospheric and solar research. Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved 512 x 1024-pixel imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 6) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout of both images at 10 million pixels per second each; (4) on-chip analog signal processing to produce polarization maps in real time; (5) on-chip 10-bit A/D conversion. When used with a lithium-niobate Fabry-Perot etalon or other color filter that can encode spectral information as polarization, the IDID can collect and analyze simultaneous images at two wavelengths. Precise photometric analysis of molecular or atomic concentrations in the atmosphere is one suggested application. When used in a solar telescope, the IDID will charge the polarization, which can then be converted to maps of the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface.

  7. UV CCD detectors for WUVS spectrographs of WSO-UV project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugarov, Andrey; Sachkov, Mikhail; Savanov, Igor; Jaeger, Andreas; Jerram, Paul

    WUVS (WSO-UV Ultra Violet Spectrographs) consists of two high resolution spectrographs (R=50000) covering the Far-UV range of 115-176 nm and the Near-UV range of 174-310 nm, and a long-slit spectrograph (R=1000) covering the wavelength range of 115-305 nm. CCDs for WUVS will be optimized to operate at low level signals. CCD chips with no AR coating for FUV range (<200 nm) and AR coating for NUV range (>200 nm) will be manufactured by e2v company using the enhanced backthinned process. Detectors will operate at the temperature of 173 K with 600 s standard integration time. CCD detectors are optimized for low read-out noise (less than 3e-) and low dark current. The main parameters of WUVS detector subsystems are described.

  8. PIXSCAN: Pixel detector CT-scanner for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpierre, P.; Debarbieux, F.; Basolo, S.; Berar, J. F.; Bonissent, A.; Boudet, N.; Breugnon, P.; Caillot, B.; Cassol Brunner, F.; Chantepie, B.; Clemens, J. C.; Dinkespiler, B.; Khouri, R.; Koudobine, I.; Mararazzo, V.; Meessen, C.; Menouni, M.; Morel, C.; Mouget, C.; Pangaud, P.; Peyrin, F.; Rougon, G.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Valton, S.; Vigeolas, E.

    2007-02-01

    The PIXSCAN is a small animal CT-scanner based on hybrid pixel detectors. These detectors provide very large dynamic range of photons counting at very low detector noise. They also provide high counting rates with fast image readout. Detection efficiency can be optimized by selecting the sensor medium according to the working energy range. Indeed, the use of CdTe allows a detection efficiency of 100% up to 50 keV. Altogether these characteristics are expected to improve the contrast of the CT-scanner, especially for soft tissues, and to reduce both the scan duration and the absorbed dose. A proof of principle has been performed by assembling into a PIXSCAN-XPAD2 prototype the photon counting pixel detector initially built for detection of X-ray synchrotron radiations. Despite the relatively large pixel size of this detector (330×330 μm 2), we can present three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of mice at good contrast and spatial resolution. A new photon counting chip (XPAD3) is designed in sub-micronique technology to achieve 130×130 μm 2 pixels. This improved circuit has been equipped with an energy selection circuit to act as a band-pass emission filter. Furthermore, the PIXSCAN-XPAD3 hybrid pixel detectors will be combined with the Lausanne ClearPET scanner demonstrator. CT image reconstruction in this non-conventional geometry is under study for this purpose.

  9. Common Readout Unit (CRU) - A new readout architecture for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, J.; Khan, S. A.; Mukherjee, S.; Paul, R.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently going for a major upgrade in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of the upcoming high luminosity run, scheduled to start in the year 2021. The high interaction rate and the large event size will result in an experimental data flow of about 1 TB/s from the detectors, which need to be processed before sending to the online computing system and data storage. This processing is done in a dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU), proposed for data aggregation, trigger and timing distribution and control moderation. It act as common interface between sub-detector electronic systems, computing system and trigger processors. The interface links include GBT, TTC-PON and PCIe. GBT (Gigabit transceiver) is used for detector data payload transmission and fixed latency path for trigger distribution between CRU and detector readout electronics. TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control via Passive Optical Network) is employed for time multiplex trigger distribution between CRU and Central Trigger Processor (CTP). PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is the high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard for bulk data transport between CRU boards and processors. In this article, we give an overview of CRU architecture in ALICE, discuss the different interfaces, along with the firmware design and implementation of CRU on the LHCb PCIe40 board.

  10. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm‑2s‑1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb‑1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  11. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  12. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  13. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  14. A low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepegoz, Murat; Toprak, Alperen; Akin, Tayfun

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a new, low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs. The readout circuits of the microbolometer detectors contain parallel readout channels whose outputs are driven and multiplexed on large bus capacitances in order to form the output of the readout circuit. High number of opamps used in the readout channel array and large output capacitances that these opamps should drive necessitates the use of high output current capacity structures, which results in large power dissipation. This paper proposes two new methods in order to decrease the power dissipation of the readout circuits for uncooled thermal FPAs. The first method is called the readout channel group concept, where the readout channel array is separated into groups in order to decrease the load capacitance seen by the readout channel output. The second method utilizes a special opamp architecture where the output current driving capacity can be digitally controlled. This method enables efficient use of power by activating the high output current driving capacity only during the output multiplexing. The simulations show that using these methods results in a power dissipation reduction of 80% and 91% for the readout channels optimized for a single output 384x288 FPA operating at 25 fps and for a two-output 640x480 FPA operating at 30 fps, respectively.

  15. 3 mega-pixel InSb detector with 10μm pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershon, G.; Albo, A.; Eylon, M.; Cohen, O.; Calahorra, Z.; Brumer, M.; Nitzani, M.; Avnon, E.; Aghion, Y.; Kogan, I.; Ilan, E.; Shkedy, L.

    2013-06-01

    SCD has developed a new 1920x1536 / 10 μm digital Infrared detector for the MWIR window named Blackbird. The Blackbird detector features a Focal Plane Array (FPA) that incorporates two technological building blocks developed over the past few years. The first one is a 10 μm InSb pixel based on the matured planar technology. The second building block is an innovative 10 μm ReadOut Integrated Circuit (ROIC) pixel. The InSb and the ROIC arrays are connected using Flip-Chip technology by means of indium bumps. The digital ROIC consists a matrix of 1920x1536 pixels and has an analog to digital (A/D) converter per-channel (total of 1920x2 A/Ds). It allows for full frame readout at a high frame rate of up to 120 Hz. Such an on-chip A/D conversion eliminates the need for several A/D converters with fairly high power consumption at the system level. The ROIC power consumption at maximum bandwidth is less than 400 mW. It features a wide range of pixel-level functionality such as several conversion gain options and a 2x2 pixel binning. The ROIC design makes use of the advanced and matured CMOS technology, 0.18 μm, which allows for high functionality and relatively low power consumption. The FPA is mounted on a Cold-Finger by a specially designed ceramic substrate. The whole assembly is housed in a stiffened Dewar that withstands harsh environmental conditions while minimizing the environment heat load contribution to the heat load of the detector. The design enables a 3-megapixel detector with overall low size, weight, and power (SWaP) with respect to comparable large format detectors. In this work we present in detail the characteristic performance of the new Blackbird detector.

  16. Common read-out receiver card for ALICE Run2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, H.; Kebschull, U.

    2013-12-01

    ALICE at CERN LHC uses custom FPGA-based computer plug-in cards as interface between the optical detector read-out link and the PC clusters of Data Acquisition (DAQ) and High-Level Trigger (HLT). The cards used at DAQ and HLT during Run1 have been developed as independent projects and are now facing similar problems with obsolete major interfaces and limited link speeds and processing capabilities. A new common card has been developed to enable the upgrade of the read-out chain towards higher link rates while providing backward compatibility with the current architecture. First prototypes could be tested successfully and raised interest from other collaborations.

  17. MIRI/JWST detector characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Stacey N.; Ressler, M. E.; Alberts, Stacey; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Morrison, Jane E.; García-Marín, Macarena; Fox, Ori; Rieke, G. H.; Glasse, Alistair C.; Wright, G. S.; Hines, Dean C.; Bouchet, P.; Dicken, D.

    2016-07-01

    We report on tests of the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) focal plane electronics (FPE) and detectors conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The goals of these tests are to: characterize the performance of readout modes; establish subarray operations; characterize changes to performance when switching between subarrays and/or readout modes; fine tune detector settings to mitigate residual artifacts; optimize anneal effectiveness; and characterize persistence. The tests are part of a continuing effort to support the MIRI pipeline development through better understanding of the detector behavior. An extensive analysis to determine the performance of the readout modes was performed. We report specifically on the comparison of the fast and slow readout modes and subarray tests.

  18. Analysis of high frame rate readout circuit for near-infrared InGaAs focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhangcheng; Chen, Yu; Huang, Songlei; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2013-09-01

    High frame rate imaging for applications such as meteorological forecast, motion target tracking require high-speed Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC). In order to achieve 10 KHz of frame rate, this paper analyzes the bandwidth of Capacitive-feedback Trans-Impedance Amplifier (CTIA) in ROIC which is the dominant bandwidth-limiting node when interfaced with large InGaAs detector pixel capacitance of about 10pF. A small-signal model is presented to study the relationship between integration capacitance, detector capacitance, transconductance and CTIA bandwidth. Calculation and simulation results show explicitly how the series resistance at the interface restricts the frame rate of Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). In order to achieve low-noise performance at a high frame rate, this paper describes an optimal solution in ROIC design. A prototype ROIC chip (DL7) has been fabricated with 0.5-μm mixed signal CMOS process and interfaced with InGaAs detector arrays. Test results show that frame rate is above 10 KHz and ROIC noise is around 270 e-, near identical to the design value.

  19. New Detector Developments for Future UV Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Klaus; Kappelmann, Norbert

    Ultraviolet (UV) astronomy is facing “dark ages”: After the shutdown of the Hubble Space Tele-scope only the WSO/UV mission will be operable in the UV wavelength region with efficient instruments. Improved optics and detectors are necessary for future successor missions to tackle new scientific goals. This drives our development of microchannel plate (MCP) UV-detectors with high quantum efficiency, high spatial resolution and low-power readout electronics. To enhance the quantum efficiency and the lifetime of the MCP detectors we are developing new cathodes and new anodes for these detectors. To achieve high quantum efficiency, we will use caesium-activated gallium nitride as semitransparent photocathodes with a much higher efficiency than default CsI/CsTe cathodes in this wavelength range. The new anodes will be cross-strip anodes with 64 horizontal and 64 vertical electrodes. This type of anode requires a lower gain and leads to an increased lifetime of the detector, compared to MCP detectors with other anode types. The heart of the new developed front-end-electronic for such type of anode is the so called “BEETLE chip”, which was designed by the MPI für Kernphysik Heidelberg for the LHCb ex-periment at CERN. This chip provides 128 input channels with charge-sensitive preamplifiers and shapers. Our design of the complete front-end readout electronics enables a total power con-sumption of less than 10 W. The MCP detector is intrinsically solar blind, single photon counting and has a very low read-out noise. To qualify this new type of detectors we are presently planning to build a small UV telescope for the usage on the German Technology Experimental Carrier (TET). Furthermore we are involved in the new German initiative for a Public Telescope, a space telescope equipped with an 80 cm mirror. One of the main instruments will be a high-resolution UV-Echelle Spectrograph that will be built by the University of Tübingen. The launch of this mission is

  20. A germanium hybrid pixel detector with 55μm pixel size and 65,000 channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennicard, D.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Sarajlic, M.; Smoljanin, S.; Zuvic, M.; Lampert, M. O.; Fritzsch, T.; Rothermund, M.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide high performance through a combination of direct detection, a relatively small pixel size, fast readout and sophisticated signal processing circuitry in each pixel. For X-ray detection above 20 keV, high-Z sensor layers rather than silicon are needed to achieve high quantum efficiency, but many high-Z materials such as GaAs and CdTe often suffer from poor material properties or nonuniformities. Germanium is available in large wafers of extremely high quality, making it an appealing option for high-performance hybrid pixel X-ray detectors, but suitable technologies for finely pixelating and bump-bonding germanium have not previously been available. A finely-pixelated germanium photodiode sensor with a 256 by 256 array of 55μm pixels has been produced. The sensor has an n-on-p structure, with 700μm thickness. Using a low-temperature indium bump process, this sensor has been bonded to the Medipix3RX photoncounting readout chip. Tests with the LAMBDA readout system have shown that the detector works successfully, with a high bond yield and higher image uniformity than comparable high-Z systems. During cooling, the system is functional around -80°C (with warmer temperatures resulting in excessive leakage current), with -100°C sufficient for good performance.

  1. Design of a 10-bit segmented current-steering digital-to-analog converter in CMOS 65 nm technology for the bias of new generation readout chips in high radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, G.; Loddo, F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Pacher, L.; Pantano, D.; Tamma, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new pixel front end chip for HL-LHC experiments in CMOS 65nm technology is under development by the CERN RD53 collaboration together with the Chipix65 INFN project. This work describes the design of a 10-bit segmented current-steering Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) to provide a programmable bias current to the analog blocks of the circuit. The main requirements are monotonicity, good linearity, limited area consumption and radiation hardness up to 10 MGy. The DAC was prototyped and electrically tested, while irradiation tests will be performed in Autumn 2015.

  2. On-chip IR spectral sensors by superconducting detector arrays. Semiannual report {number_sign} 2, 18 January 1995--18 July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner, D.B.; Carangelo, R.M.; Kung, P.J.

    1995-09-29

    The overall objective of Phase 2 is to bring this new spectrometer-on-a-chip technology concept to a sufficiently mature stage of development that it can attract commercial support and be carried to market. The specific technical missions of the Phase 2 program are those for the Project Tasks listed below. These mission objectives are: (1) to establish and prove-out the fabrication processing of silicon wafers into arrays of interference-filter plates; (2) to demonstrate that the linear-array HTS detector technology can be scaled up into square arrays of sufficient size and performance to meet the design requirements developed in the Phase 1 effort; (3) to expand the view of the technology so as to see it in a full engineering-systems context, and thus ensure that at the earliest stage possible conflicts can be resolved, thus a systems design can be accomplished that will realistically encompass all the interacting components; (4) to demonstrate, by fabrication and testing, that the components in this systems design can be combined and will deliver the functionality (e.g., spectral region, bandwidth, and resolution) predicted by the design, and in the context of one or two simple emission-line-spectroscopy prototype applications; (5) to identify and resolve conflicts in the design and fabrication methods/processes such that the new spectrometer can meet the desired goal of multiple applications potential. A brief description of each of these 5 tasks is given along with the progress made on each.

  3. Design and Fabrication of the KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantoni, I.; Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of the Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution project is the development of light detectors with large active area and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS using phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors. The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double read-out of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work, we present the design and the fabrication process, starting from the silicon wafer arriving to the single chip. The Al thin films (40 nm) are evaporated on high-quality, high-resistivity (>10 k Ω cm) Si(100) substrates using an electron beam evaporator in a high-vacuum chamber. Detectors are patterned in direct-write mode, using electron beam lithography , positive tone resist poly-methyl methacrylate and lift-off process. Finally the wafer is diced into 20 × 20 mm^2 chips and assembled in a holder OFHC copper (oxygen-free high conductivity) using PTFE supports.

  4. Sub-10ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.

    2009-02-20

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit time spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly-integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device.

  5. Sensor development for the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Horisberger, R.; Kaufmann, R.; Rohe, T.; Roy, A.

    2002-06-01

    The CMS experiment which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will contain a pixel detector which provides in its final configuration three space points per track close to the interaction point of the colliding beams. Because of the harsh radiation environment of the LHC, the technical realization of the pixel detector is extremely challenging. The readout chip as the most damageable part of the system is believed to survive a particle fluence of 6×10 14 neq/ cm2 (All fluences are normalized to 1 MeV neutrons and therefore all components of the hybrid pixel detector have to perform well up to at least this fluence. As this requires a partially depleted operation of the silicon sensors after irradiation-induced type inversion of the substrate, an "n in n" concept has been chosen. In order to perform IV-tests on wafer level and to hold accidentally unconnected pixels close to ground potential, a resistive path between the pixels has been implemented by the openings in the p-stop implants surrounding every pixel cell. A prototype of such sensors has been produced by two different companies and especially the properties of these resistors have extensively been tested before and after irradiation.

  6. 3D Medipix2 detector characterization with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, E. N.; Maneuski, D.; Mac Raighne, A.; Parkes, C.; Bates, R.; O'Shea, V.; Fleta, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Alianelli, L.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2011-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) photodiode detectors offer advantages over standard planar photodiodes in a wide range of applications. The main advantage of these sensors for X-ray imaging is their reduced charge sharing between adjacent pixels, which could improve spatial and spectral resolution. However, a drawback of 3D sensors structures is the loss of detection efficiency due to the presence in the pixel structure of heavily doped electrode columns which are insensitive to X-ray. In this work two types of 3D silicon detectors: n-type wafer with hole collecting readout-columns (N-TYPE) and p-type wafer with electron collecting readout-columns (P-TYPE), bump-bounded to a Medipix2 read-out chip were characterized with a 14.5 keV micro-focused X-ray beam from a synchrotron. Measurements of the detection efficiency and the charge sharing were performed at different bias voltages and Medipix2 energy thresholds and compared with those of a standard planar silicon sensor.

  7. Plug and measure - a chip-to-world interface for photonic lab-on-a-chip applications.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Tobias Nils; Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Llobera, Andreu

    2016-08-16

    The integration of detection mechanisms with microfluidics may be one of the most promising routes towards widespread application of Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) devices. Photonic detection methods like in the so-called Photonic Lab-on-a-Chip (PhLoC) have advantages such as being non-invasive, easy to sterilize and highly sensitive even with short integration times and thus allow in situ monitoring and quantification of biological and chemical processes. The readout of such detection methods usually requires special training of potential users, as in most cases they are confronted with the need of establishing fiber-optics connections to and from the PhLoC and/or rely on the use of complex laboratory equipment. Here, we present a low-cost and robust chip-to-world interface (CWI), fabricated by CO2-laser machining, facilitating the non-expert use of PhLoCs. Fiber-optics with standard SMA-connectors (non-pigtailed) and PhLoCs can be plugged into the CWI without the need for further adjustments. This standardization bestows great versatility on the interface, providing a direct link between PhLoCs and a wide range of light sources and photo-detectors. The ease-of-use of the proposed simple plug mechanism represents a step forward in terms of user-friendliness and may lead PhLoC devices to practical applications. PMID:27428056

  8. Plug and measure - a chip-to-world interface for photonic lab-on-a-chip applications.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Tobias Nils; Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Llobera, Andreu

    2016-08-16

    The integration of detection mechanisms with microfluidics may be one of the most promising routes towards widespread application of Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) devices. Photonic detection methods like in the so-called Photonic Lab-on-a-Chip (PhLoC) have advantages such as being non-invasive, easy to sterilize and highly sensitive even with short integration times and thus allow in situ monitoring and quantification of biological and chemical processes. The readout of such detection methods usually requires special training of potential users, as in most cases they are confronted with the need of establishing fiber-optics connections to and from the PhLoC and/or rely on the use of complex laboratory equipment. Here, we present a low-cost and robust chip-to-world interface (CWI), fabricated by CO2-laser machining, facilitating the non-expert use of PhLoCs. Fiber-optics with standard SMA-connectors (non-pigtailed) and PhLoCs can be plugged into the CWI without the need for further adjustments. This standardization bestows great versatility on the interface, providing a direct link between PhLoCs and a wide range of light sources and photo-detectors. The ease-of-use of the proposed simple plug mechanism represents a step forward in terms of user-friendliness and may lead PhLoC devices to practical applications.

  9. System architecture of Detector Control and safety for the ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrère, D.; Kersten, S.

    2011-04-01

    In the current ATLAS Upgrade plan a new Inner Detector (ID) based upon silicon sensor technology is being considered. The operational monitoring and control of the ID will be very demanding. The Detector Control System (DCS) is a common tool that is essential for the operational safety of a system. Even at this early stage the DCS system architecture has to be defined such that it is well integrated and optimized for its later implementation and use. For example the DCS diagnostics for the front-end (FE) chips is a serious option being considered that needs an early requirement and specification definition. In addition one of the main constraints is the service reuse between the service patch panels of the ATLAS ID and the counting room that limits the number of electrical lines to be reused. Conceptual differences in terms of readout architecture and layout have been identified between the strip and the pixel detector that lead to two distinct architectures. Nevertheless, the limitation of available electrical lines going to the counting room as well as the low material budget requirements inside the ID volume are two major constraints that lead the ID to consider an on-detector radiation hard integrated circuitry for the slow control. At this stage of the project, the definitions of the logical actions and protocol for the ADCs of such a chip are still being specified. In addition the experience gained from the current ID will be essential for the guidance of tuning the future DCS architecture in the coming years.

  10. Integration of light and atom optics on an atom chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilzbach, Marco; Domokos, Peter; Fernholz, Thomas; Folman, Ron; Groth, Sönke; Haase, Albrecht; Hock, Christian; Horak, Peter; Klappauf, Bruce; Schwarz, Michael; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2004-05-01

    The whole business of quantum computing with neutral atoms requires accurate preparation and control of their quantum states. The envisioned procedure of preparing and operating an atom chip quantum processor involves two main tools at all its stages: quasi-static electro-magnetic fields to provide taylored potentials for trapping and guiding atomic qubits and light optical elements for initialisation, gate operation and read-out. Our vision is to implement microoptics directly on the atom chip. A large scale quantum processor will probably involve microscale structures such as waveguides or photonic crystals. As a final goal even the light sources themselves (diode lasers) might be integrated on the chip. The miniaturisation of optical elements already is a rapidly growing field driven by the telecommunication boom. We hope to adapt these techniques to develope an atom optical toolbox for Quantum Information Processing. Our first experiments aim at the detection of few or even single atoms in miniaturized traps using optical fibres. Two single mode fibres will be mounted on an atom chip with a small gap between the facets. Light that is sent through the fibres will be absorbed by the atoms leading to a decreased output intensity. In order to enhance the coupling between light and atom, the two fibres should form a cavity. Each time an atom enters the cavity, the output intensity will decrease. Here we present our ongoing experiments, where we try to build a fibre cavity on a chip serving as a single atom detector. The concepts will be introduced, theoretical estimates for expectable signals will be presented and first setups will be shown. Beyond this we will discuss future perspectives of this technology.

  11. FASTBUS Readout Controller card for high speed data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, S. Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Areti, V.H.; Foster, G.W.; Joshi, U.; Treptow, K. )

    1991-10-01

    This article describes a FASTBUS Readout Controller (FRC) for high speed data acquisition in FASTBUS based systems. The controller has two main interfaces: to FASTBUS and to a Readout Port. The FASTBUS interface performs FASTBUS master and slave operations at a maximum transfer rate exceeding 40 MBytes/s. The Readout Port can be adapted for a variety of protocols. Currently, it will be interfaced to a VME bus based processor with a VSB port. The on-board LR33000 embedded processor controls the readout, executing a list of operations download into its memory. It scans the FASTBUS modules and stores the data in a triple port DRAM (TPDRAM), through one of the Serial Access Memory (SAM) ports of the (TPDRAM). Later, it transfers this data to the readout port using the other SAM. The FRC also supports serial communication via RS232 and Ethernet interfaces. This device is intended for use in the data acquisition system at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Tracker Readout ASIC for Proton Computed Tomography Data Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert P.; DeWitt, Joel; Holcomb, Cole; Macafee, Scott; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F.-W.; Steinberg, David

    2014-01-01

    A unique CMOS chip has been designed to serve as the front-end of the tracking detector data acquisition system of a pre-clinical prototype scanner for proton computed tomography (pCT). The scanner is to be capable of measuring one to two million proton tracks per second, so the chip must be able to digitize the data and send it out rapidly while keeping the front-end amplifiers active at all times. One chip handles 64 consecutive channels, including logic for control, calibration, triggering, buffering, and zero suppression. It outputs a formatted cluster list for each trigger, and a set of field programmable gate arrays merges those lists from many chips to build the events to be sent to the data acquisition computer. The chip design has been fabricated, and subsequent tests have demonstrated that it meets all of its performance requirements, including excellent low-noise performance. PMID:24653525

  13. Digital radiography using amorphous selenium: photoconductively activated switch (PAS) readout system.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Nikita; Komljenovic, Philip T; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, John A

    2008-03-01

    A new amorphous selenium (a-Se) digital radiography detector is introduced. The proposed detector generates a charge image in the a-Se layer in a conventional manner, which is stored on electrode pixels at the surface of the a-Se layer. A novel method, called photoconductively activated switch (PAS), is used to read out the latent x-ray charge image. The PAS readout method uses lateral photoconduction at the a-Se surface which is a revolutionary modification of the bulk photoinduced discharge (PID) methods. The PAS method addresses and eliminates the fundamental weaknesses of the PID methods--long readout times and high readout noise--while maintaining the structural simplicity and high resolution for which PID optical readout systems are noted. The photoconduction properties of the a-Se surface were investigated and the geometrical design for the electrode pixels for a PAS radiography system was determined. This design was implemented in a single pixel PAS evaluation system. The results show that the PAS x-ray induced output charge signal was reproducible and depended linearly on the x-ray exposure in the diagnostic exposure range. Furthermore, the readout was reasonably rapid (10 ms for pixel discharge). The proposed detector allows readout of half a pixel row at a time (odd pixels followed by even pixels), thus permitting the readout of a complete image in 30 s for a 40 cm x 40 cm detector with the potential of reducing that time by using greater readout light intensity. This demonstrates that a-Se based x-ray detectors using photoconductively activated switches could form a basis for a practical integrated digital radiography system. PMID:18404939

  14. The CDFII Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2004-07-23

    The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

  15. Capacitive micropressure sensors with underneath readout circuit using a standard CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shihchen; Dai, Chingliang; Chiou, Jinghung; Chang, Peizen

    2001-08-01

    A capacitive micropressure sensor with readout circuits on a single chip is fabricated using commercial 0.35micrometers CMOS process technology and post-processing. The main break through feature of the chip is the positioning of its readout circuits under the pressure sensor, allowing the chip to be smaller. Post-processing included anisotropic dry etching and wet etching to remove the sacrificial layer, and the use of PECVD nitride to seal the etching holes of the pressure sensor. The sacrificial layer was the metal 3 layer of the standard 0.35 micrometers CMOS process. In addition, the readout circuit is divided into analog and digital parts, with the digital part being an alternate coupled RS flip- flop with four inverters that sharpened the output wave. Moreover, the analog part is employed switched capacitor methodology. The pressure sensor contained an 8 X 8 sensing cells array, and the total area of the pressure sensor chip is 2mmx2 mm. In addition to illustrating the design and fabrication of the capacitive pressure sensor, this investigation demonstrates the simulation and testing results of the readout circuit.

  16. Readout circuit design of the retina-like CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fengmei; Song, Shengyu; Bai, Tingzhu; Cao, Nan

    2015-02-01

    Readout circuit is designed for a special retina-like CMOS image sensor. To realize the pixels timing drive and readout of the sensor, the Altera's Cyclone II FPGA is used as a control chip. The voltage of the sensor is supported by a voltage chip initialized by SPI with AVR MCU system. The analog image signal outputted by the sensor is converted to digital image data by 12-bits A/D converter ADS807 and the digital data is memorized in the SRAM. Using the Camera-link image grabber, the data stored in SRAM is transformed to image shown on PC. Experimental results show the circuit works well on retina-like CMOS timing drive and image readout and images can be displayed properly on the PC.

  17. Dispersive Readout of a Few-Electron Double Quantum Dot with Fast rf Gate Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colless, J. I.; Mahoney, A. C.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Doherty, A. C.; Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C.; Reilly, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the dispersive charge-state readout of a double quantum dot in the few-electron regime using the in situ gate electrodes as sensitive detectors. We benchmark this gate sensing technique against the well established quantum point contact charge detector and find comparable performance with a bandwidth of ˜10MHz and an equivalent charge sensitivity of ˜6.3×10-3e/Hz. Dispersive gate sensing alleviates the burden of separate charge detectors for quantum dot systems and promises to enable readout of qubits in scaled-up arrays.

  18. Detector Arrays For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Paper describes status of program for developing integrated infrared detectors for astronomy. Program covers variety of detectors, including extrinsic silicon, extrinsic germanium, and indium antimonide devices with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Paper notes for arrays to reach background noise limit in cryogenic telescope, continued reductions in readout noise and dark current needed.

  19. Performance of Pixel-Readout Micro-Pixel Chamber with Analog-Readout System Used as X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, Hideaki; Ono, Kenichi; Uchiyama, Hideki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Matsumoto, Hironori; Hyodo, Yoshiaki; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Tanimori, Toru

    2007-12-01

    We developed an analog-readout system for a pixel-readout micro-pixel chamber (μ-PIC) to be used as an astronomical X-ray polarimeter, and demonstrated that the sensitivity of the new system reached up to that predicted by a simulation. A pixel-readout μ-PIC is a micro-pattern gaseous detector with a fine position resolution and good stability at sufficient gain operation, and is suited for astronomical X-ray polarimetry. However, as shown by Katagiri et al. (2007), the sensitivity to X-ray polarization was found to be statistically lower by a significant amount than that expected from the simulation of Ueno et al. [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 525 (2004) 28] because of the readout system and background produced by the scattering of the X-ray beam in air. We therefore developed a new readout system and carried out a beam test with aluminum tubes that reduced the background. As a result, we demonstrated that for collimated beams, the modulation factors, which are indicators of the sensitivity to X-ray polarization, were 0.24± 0.08 at 8 keV and 0.18± 0.07 at 15 keV in a neon-based gas mixture, and 0.18± 0.04 at 15 keV in an argon-based mixture. These values are consistent with those predicted by the simulation within errors.

  20. Hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Stephan

    2006-09-01

    The LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters use the pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) as a photo-sensitive device. Photo-electrons are produced in a semi-transparent multi-alkali photo-cathode (S20) and are accelerated by a voltage of 20 kV onto a pixelated silicon anode. The anode is bump-bonded to the LHCBPIX1 pixel readout chip which amplifies and digitises the anode signals at the LHC speed of 40 MHz. Using a demagnification of five, the effective pixel size at the HPD window is 2.5×2.5 mm2. Over the course of 18 months, 550 HPDs will undergo a quality-assurance programme to verify the specifications and to characterise the tubes. The tested parameters include the threshold and noise behaviour of the chip, the response to light emitting diode (LED) light, the demagnification of the electron optics, the leakage current and the depletion of the silicon sensor, the quality of the vacuum, the signal efficiency and the dark count rate. Results of tests of the first nine HPDs of the final design are presented and compared to the specifications.

  1. A 15 × 15 single photon avalanche diode sensor featuring breakdown pixels extraction architecture for efficient data readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Zhu, Hongbo; Nakura, Toru; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Asada, Kunihiro

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a breakdown pixels extraction architecture for single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) based faint light detection systems. The proposed extraction circuit detects the breakdown pixels and only their addresses are readout. Therefore, under the faint light environment, this SPAD-based sensor significantly improves the data readout efficiency. In addition, since the readout sequence is 4× faster than that of the conventional architecture in the dark condition, the proposed system does not need an independent on-chip event detection circuit that consumes additional area and power. A test-of-concept chip with a 15 × 15 SPAD pixels array was fabricated in a 0.18 µm 1P5M standard CMOS process and pinhole diffraction patterns were successfully captured thanks to the high sensitivity of the SPAD sensor. Under the faint light condition, a high-speed readout is verified by measurement and the robustness of the proposed architecture is successfully demonstrated.

  2. Measurement of MKID Performance with High-Speed and Wide-Band Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsu, Kenichi; Naruse, M.; Nitta, T.; Sekine, M.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Noguchi, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Kiuchi, H.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are being developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan to enable precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background. One of the features of MKIDs is scalability using a frequency-division multiplexing (FDMUX) readout scheme. A digital fast fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) is a good way to read out a number of resonance frequencies simultaneously and fully utilize the advantage of FDMUX of MKIDs. We have developed FFTS readout electronics using an ADC/DAC with 1 Gsps (sample per second) sampling rate and 270 MHz bandwidth. We measured the noise characteristics of a single MKID in the frequency range of 60 Hz-30 kHz with this readout system, and found the noise was almost equivalent to the noise measured by ordinary analog IQ down-converter readout. This indicates our FFTS electronics do not add any additional noise to the MKID readout system over the frequency range.

  3. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, M.

    2016-09-01

    During Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This included the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally, a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore, a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in the IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanical support and a CO2 based cooling system. This paper describes the improvements achieved during the maintenance of the existing Pixel Detector as well as the performance of the IBL during the construction and commissioning phase. Additionally, first results obtained during the LHC Run 2 demonstrating the distinguished tracking performance of the new Four Layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are presented.

  4. Advanced system on a chip microelectronics for spacecraft and science instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos P.

    2003-01-01

    instruments, etc. Common measurements that apply to many of these instruments are precise time interval measurement and high resolution read-out of solid state detectors. A precise time interval measurement chip was specially developed that achieves ˜100 ps (×10 improvement) time resolution at a power dissipation ˜20 mW (×50 improvement), dead time ˜1.5 μs (×20 improvement), and chip die size 5 mm×5 mm versus two 20 cm×20 cm doubled sided boards. This device is selected as a key enabling technology for several NASA particle, delay line imaging, and laser range finding instruments onboard (NASA Image, Messenger, etc. missions). Another device with universal application is radiation energy read-out from solid state detectors. Multi-channel low-power and end-to-end sensor input—digital output is key for the new generation instruments. The readout channel comprises of a Charge Sensitive Preamplifier with a target sensitivity of ˜1 KeV FWHM at 20 pf detector capacitance, a Shaper Amplifier with programmable time constant/gain, and an ADC. The read-out chip together with the precise time interval chip comprises the essential elements of a common particle spectroscopy instrument. To mention some more applications fast-signal acquisition—and digitization is a very useful function for a category of instrument such as mass spectroscopy and profile laser rangefinding. The single chip approach includes a high bandwidth preamplifier, fast sampling ˜5 ns, analog memory ˜10K locations, 12-bit ADC and serial/parallel I/Os. The wealth of the applications proves the advanced microelectronics field as a key enabling technology for the new millennium space exploration.

  5. Signal and noise of diamond pixel detectors at high radiation fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, J.-W.; Havranek, M.; Hügging, F.; Kagan, H.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.

    2012-09-01

    CVD diamond is an attractive material option for LHC vertex detectors mainly because of its strong radiation-hardness causal to its large band gap and strong lattice. In particular, pixel detectors operating close to the interaction point profit from tiny leakage currents and small pixel capacitances of diamond resulting in low noise figures when compared to silicon. On the other hand, the charge signal from traversing high energy particles is smaller in diamond than in silicon by a factor of about 2.2. Therefore, a quantitative determination of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of diamond in comparison with silicon at fluences in excess of 1015 neq cm-2, which are expected for the LHC upgrade, is important. Based on measurements of irradiated diamond sensors and the FE-I4 pixel readout chip design and performance, we determine the signal and the noise of diamond pixel detectors irradiated with high particle fluences. To characterize the effect of the radiation damage on the materials and the signal decrease, the change of the mean free path λe/h of the charge carriers is determined as a function of irradiation fluence. We make use of the FE-I4 pixel chip developed for ATLAS upgrades to realistically estimate the expected noise figures: the expected leakage current at a given fluence is taken from calibrated calculations and the pixel capacitance is measured using a purposely developed chip (PixCap). We compare the resulting S/N figures with those for planar silicon pixel detectors using published charge loss measurements and the same extrapolation methods as for diamond. It is shown that the expected S/N of a diamond pixel detector with pixel pitches typical for LHC, exceeds that of planar silicon pixels at fluences beyond 1015 particles cm-2, the exact value only depending on the maximum operation voltage assumed for irradiated silicon pixel detectors.

  6. A microbial oasis in the hypersaline Atacama subsurface discovered by a life detector chip: implications for the search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Parro, Victor; de Diego-Castilla, Graciela; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Blanco, Yolanda; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gómez, Felipe; Gómez, Manuel J; Rivas, Luis A; Demergasso, Cecilia; Echeverría, Alex; Urtuvia, Viviana N; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Postigo, Marina; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Chong-Díaz, Guillermo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-12-01

    The Atacama Desert has long been considered a good Mars analogue for testing instrumentation for planetary exploration, but very few data (if any) have been reported about the geomicrobiology of its salt-rich subsurface. We performed a Mars analogue drilling campaign next to the Salar Grande (Atacama, Chile) in July 2009, and several cores and powder samples from up to 5 m deep were analyzed in situ with LDChip300 (a Life Detector Chip containing 300 antibodies). Here, we show the discovery of a hypersaline subsurface microbial habitat associated with halite-, nitrate-, and perchlorate-containing salts at 2 m deep. LDChip300 detected bacteria, archaea, and other biological material (DNA, exopolysaccharides, some peptides) from the analysis of less than 0.5 g of ground core sample. The results were supported by oligonucleotide microarray hybridization in the field and finally confirmed by molecular phylogenetic analysis and direct visualization of microbial cells bound to halite crystals in the laboratory. Geochemical analyses revealed a habitat with abundant hygroscopic salts like halite (up to 260 g kg(-1)) and perchlorate (41.13 μg g(-1) maximum), which allow deliquescence events at low relative humidity. Thin liquid water films would permit microbes to proliferate by using detected organic acids like acetate (19.14 μg g(-1)) or formate (76.06 μg g(-1)) as electron donors, and sulfate (15875 μg g(-1)), nitrate (13490 μg g(-1)), or perchlorate as acceptors. Our results correlate with the discovery of similar hygroscopic salts and possible deliquescence processes on Mars, and open new search strategies for subsurface martian biota. The performance demonstrated by our LDChip300 validates this technology for planetary exploration, particularly for the search for life on Mars.

  7. A Microbial Oasis in the Hypersaline Atacama Subsurface Discovered by a Life Detector Chip: Implications for the Search for Life on Mars

    PubMed Central

    de Diego-Castilla, Graciela; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Blanco, Yolanda; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gómez, Felipe; Gómez, Manuel J.; Rivas, Luis A.; Demergasso, Cecilia; Echeverría, Alex; Urtuvia, Viviana N.; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Postigo, Marina; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Chong-Díaz, Guillermo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Atacama Desert has long been considered a good Mars analogue for testing instrumentation for planetary exploration, but very few data (if any) have been reported about the geomicrobiology of its salt-rich subsurface. We performed a Mars analogue drilling campaign next to the Salar Grande (Atacama, Chile) in July 2009, and several cores and powder samples from up to 5 m deep were analyzed in situ with LDChip300 (a Life Detector Chip containing 300 antibodies). Here, we show the discovery of a hypersaline subsurface microbial habitat associated with halite-, nitrate-, and perchlorate-containing salts at 2 m deep. LDChip300 detected bacteria, archaea, and other biological material (DNA, exopolysaccharides, some peptides) from the analysis of less than 0.5 g of ground core sample. The results were supported by oligonucleotide microarray hybridization in the field and finally confirmed by molecular phylogenetic analysis and direct visualization of microbial cells bound to halite crystals in the laboratory. Geochemical analyses revealed a habitat with abundant hygroscopic salts like halite (up to 260 g kg−1) and perchlorate (41.13 μg g−1 maximum), which allow deliquescence events at low relative humidity. Thin liquid water films would permit microbes to proliferate by using detected organic acids like acetate (19.14 μg g−1) or formate (76.06 μg g−1) as electron donors, and sulfate (15875 μg g−1), nitrate (13490 μg g−1), or perchlorate as acceptors. Our results correlate with the discovery of similar hygroscopic salts and possible deliquescence processes on Mars, and open new search strategies for subsurface martian biota. The performance demonstrated by our LDChip300 validates this technology for planetary exploration, particularly for the search for life on Mars. Key Words: Atacama Desert—Life detection—Biosensor—Biopolymers—In situ measurement. Astrobiology 11, 969–996. PMID:22149750

  8. The Effect of dead-timeless silicon strip readout at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    A. Affolder et al.

    2002-03-12

    The Run IIa CDF Silicon Upgrade has recently finished installation. The detector uses revision D of the SVX3 readout IC. This final revision incorporated new features in order to improve the potential of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes measurements of dead-timeless effects on silicon strip readout on the test bench. This paper also describes tests of the dynamic pedestal subtraction circuitry, which is shown to improve greatly the dead-timeless performance of the silicon systems.

  9. Development of uncooled focal plane detector arrays for smart IR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.; Reinhold, Olaf; Ringh, Ulf; Jansson, Christer

    1997-11-01

    This paper reports on the development of silicon microbolometer uncooled IR focal plane detector arrays at the Defence Science and Technology Organization (DSTO), in collaboration with the National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The detector arrays were designed by Electro-optic Sensor Design, which also provided specialist scientific advice on array fabrication. Detector arrays are prepared by monolithic processing at DSTO, using surface micromachining to achieve thermal isolation, and are integrated on-chip with a CMOS signal conditioning and readout microcircuit designed by FOA. The CMOS circuit incorporates 16-bit analog-to-digital conversion, and is described in more detail in an accompanying paper presented. The ultimate objective is to develop 'smart' focal plane arrays which have on-chip signal processing functions, giving a capability for decision making such as automatic target detection. The silicon microbolometer technology described in the paper was invented at DSTO, and is representative of core technology employed in many initiatives world-wide. A brief overview will be given of theoretical considerations which influence detector array design, followed by an outline of recent developments in array processing.

  10. Similarities and differences of recent hybrid pixel detectors for X-ray and high energy physics developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, G.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Horisberger, R.; Johnson, I.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are being developed for both photon science and high energy physics. The article will cover similarities and differences in pixel detectors for both applications using two of the pixel detectors developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) as examples: the EIGER photon counting detector and the psi46dig chip, which has been developed for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) tracking pixel detector upgrade. EIGER is a single photon counting hybrid pixel detector for applications at synchrotron light sources in the energy range from a few to 25 keV. It is characterized by a small pixel size (75 × 75 μm2), high count rate capability (106 counts/pixel/s) and very high data rate, which reaches 6 Gb/s for a 256 × 256 pixel chip. The CMS pixel detector is designed to provide charge information from the pixels in the harsh radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider. The short time between bunches of 25 ns and the high event rate at luminosity up to 2 × 1034cm-2s-1 require a detector with high hit efficiency, with good timing resolution and the ability to retain timestamp information for the hits. The readout architecture is based on the transfer of hits from the pixels to the periphery, where the trigger validation is performed before data transfer. The data rates of the digitized output reach 160 Mb/s for a 52×80 pixel chip.The specific timing and rate requirements for the detectors, the analog performances (minimum threshold and noise), the power consumption and the radiation hardness will be compared. An overview on future developments based on mutual learning and common solutions will be discussed.

  11. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  12. XPAD3: A new photon counting chip for X-ray CT-scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangaud, Patrick; Basolo, Stephanie; Boudet, Nathalie; Berar, Jean-François; Chantepie, Benoît; Delpierre, Pierre; Dinkespiler, Bernard; Hustache, Stephanie; Menouni, Mohsine; Morel, Christian

    2007-02-01

    The X-ray pixel chip with adaptable dynamics (XPAD3) circuit is the next generation of 2D X-ray photon counting imaging chip to be connected to a pixel sensor using the bump and flip-chip technologies. This circuit, designed in IBM 0.25 μm technology, contains 9600 pixels (130 μm×130 μm) distributed into 80 columns of 120 elements each. Its features have been improved to provide high-counting rate over 10 9 ph/pixel/mm 2, high-dynamic range over 60 keV, very low-noise detection level of 100e - rms, energy window selection and fast image readout less than 2 ms/frame. An innovative architecture has been designed in order to prevent the digital circuits from bothering the very sensitive analogue parts placed in their neighbourhood. This allows to read the chip during acquisition while conserving the precise setting of the thresholds over the pixel array. Finally, the aim of this development is to combine several XPAD3 to form the PIXSCAN detector.

  13. Planar Lithographed Superconducting LC Resonators for Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotermund, K.; Barch, B.; Chapman, S.; Hattori, K.; Lee, A.; Palaio, N.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Tran, C.

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments are increasing the number of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers to increase sensitivity. In order to maintain low thermal loading of the sub-Kelvin stage, the frequency-domain multiplexing (FDM) factor has to increase accordingly. FDM is achieved by placing TES bolometers in series with inductor-capacitor (LC) resonators, which select the readout frequency. The multiplexing factor can be raised with a large total readout bandwidth and small frequency spacing between channels. The inductance is kept constant to maintain a uniform readout bandwidth across detectors, while the maximum acceptable value is determined by bolometer stability. Current technology relies on commercially available ceramic chip capacitors. These have high scatter in their capacitance thereby requiring large frequency spacing. Furthermore, they have high equivalent series resistance (ESR) at higher frequencies and are time consuming and tedious to hand assemble via soldering. A solution lies in lithographed, planar spiral inductors (currently in use by some experiments) combined with interdigitated capacitors on a silicon (Si) substrate. To maintain reasonable device dimensions, we have reduced trace and gap widths of the LCs to 4 \\upmu m. We increased the inductance from 16 to 60 \\upmu H to achieve a higher packing density, a requirement for FDM systems with large multiplexing factors. Additionally, the Si substrate yields low ESR values across the entire frequency range and lithography makes mass production of LC pairs possible. We reduced mutual inductance between inductors by placing them in a checkerboard pattern with the capacitors, thereby increasing physical distances between adjacent inductors. We also reduce magnetic coupling of inductors with external sources by evaporating a superconducting ground plane onto the backside of the substrate. We report on the development of lithographed LCs in the 1-5 MHz range for use

  14. Photon-counting-intensified CID detector for space astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, Patrick F.; Norton, Timothy J.; Kimble, Randy A.

    1998-08-01

    We are developing a novel solar blind, high resolution, photon counting detector for applications in space UV astronomy. Our concept is to utilize a charge injection device (CID) as the readout stage behind a microchannel plate (MCP) intensifier. This detector will take advantage of the flexible readout options afforded by the addressable CID architecture to provide high local frame rates around bright features in an image. In this concept, the detector bandwidth can be used most efficiently, reading pixels around a bright star more frequently than those in a nearby dim cloud of gas, for example. The demonstration apparatus described in this paper incorporates a 25 mm diameter intensifier tube fiber optically coupled to a commercially available 30 frame-s(superscript -1), 512 X 512 pixel, progressive-scan CID2250 camera. The 10 MHz analog video from this camera is digitized and processed by a centroider module that calculates the position of each event in real time with subpixel precision, thus providing high spatial resolution limited by the MCPs. The pore-resolved images presented in this paper validate the intensified CID concept. We plan to incorporates custom driving electronics and an experimental CID with on-chip address decoders for high speed random access of detector subarrays of arbitrary size and location. Our goal is to demonstrate a solar-blind UV photon counter with 200-300 counts-s(superscript -1) point source and 3 X 10(superscript 5) counts-s(superscript -1) global rate capability with up to 4000 by 4000 elements.

  15. HEPS-BPIX, a single photon counting pixel detector with a high frame rate for the HEPS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Ning, Zhe; Lu, Yunpeng; Fan, Lei; Li, Huaishen; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Lan, Allan K.; Ouyang, Qun; Wang, Zheng; Zhu, Kejun; Chen, Yuanbo; Liu, Peng

    2016-11-01

    China's next generation light source, named the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS), is currently under construction. HEPS-BPIX (HEPS-Beijing PIXel) is a dedicated pixel readout chip that operates in single photon counting mode for X-ray applications in HEPS. Designed using CMOS 0.13 μm technology, the chip contains a matrix of 104×72 pixels. Each pixel measures 150 μm×150 μm and has a counting depth of 20 bits. A bump-bonded prototyping detector module with a 300-μm thick silicon sensor was tested in the beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A fast stream of X-ray images was demonstrated, and a frame rate of 1.2 kHz was proven, with a negligible dead time. The test results showed an equivalent noise charge of 115 e- rms after bump bonding and a threshold dispersion of 55 e- rms after calibration.

  16. VERITAS 2.0 a multi-channel readout ASIC suitable for the DEPFET arrays of the WFI for Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porro, Matteo; Bianchi, Davide; De Vita, Giulio; Herrmann, Sven; Wassatsch, Andreas; Bähr, Alexander; Bergbauer, Bettina; Meidinger, Norbert; Ott, Sabine; Treis, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    VERITAS 2.0 is a multi-channel readout ASIC for pnCCDs and DEPFET arrays. The main chip application is the readout of the DEPFET pixel arrays of the Wide Field Imager for the Athena mission. Every readout channel implements a trapezoidal weighting function and it is based on a fully differential architecture. VERITAS 2.0 is the first ASIC able to readout the DEPFETs both in source follower mode and in drain current mode. The drain readout should make it possible to achieve a processing time of about 2-3 μs/line with an electronics noise <= 5 electrons r.m.s.. The main concept and first measurements are presented.

  17. Conceptual design of a hybrid Ge:Ga detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parry, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    For potential applications in space infrared astronomy missions such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Large Deployable Reflector, integrated arrays of long-wavelength detectors are desired. The results of a feasibility study which developed a design for applying integrated array techniques to a long-wavelength (gallium-doped germanium) material to achieve spectral coverage between 30 and 200 microns are presented. An approach which builds up a two-dimensional array by stacking linear detector modules is presented. The spectral response of the Ge:Ga detectors is extended to 200 microns by application of uniaxial stress to the stack of modules. The detectors are assembled with 1 mm spacing between the elements. Multiplexed readout of each module is accomplished with integration sampling of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) switch chip. Aspects of the overall design, including the anticipated level of particle effects on the array in the space environment, a transparent electrode design for 200 microns response, estimates of optical crosstalk, and mechanical stress design calculations are included.

  18. CMOS-TDI detector technology for reconnaissance application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Reulke, Ralf; Jung, Melanie; Sengebusch, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    The Institute of Optical Sensor Systems (OS) at the Robotics and Mechatronics Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 30 years of experience with high-resolution imaging technology. This paper shows the institute's scientific results of the leading-edge detector design CMOS in a TDI (Time Delay and Integration) architecture. This project includes the technological design of future high or multi-spectral resolution spaceborne instruments and the possibility of higher integration. DLR OS and the Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems (IMS) in Duisburg were driving the technology of new detectors and the FPA design for future projects, new manufacturing accuracy and on-chip processing capability in order to keep pace with the ambitious scientific and user requirements. In combination with the engineering research, the current generation of space borne sensor systems is focusing on VIS/NIR high spectral resolution to meet the requirements on earth and planetary observation systems. The combination of large-swath and high-spectral resolution with intelligent synchronization control, fast-readout ADC (analog digital converter) chains and new focal-plane concepts opens the door to new remote-sensing and smart deep-space instruments. The paper gives an overview of the detector development status and verification program at DLR, as well as of new control possibilities for CMOS-TDI detectors in synchronization control mode.

  19. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, M.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2011-02-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly ( <0.5% X0 per station) in order to limit multiple scattering and beam hadronic interactions. The high rate and especially the high timing precision requirements are very demanding: two R&D options are ongoing and the corresponding prototype read-out chips have been recently designed and produced in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. One solution makes use of a constant fraction discriminator and on-pixel analogue-based time-to-digital-converter (TDC); the other comprises a delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction technique. The current status of the R&D program is overviewed and results from the prototype read-out chips test are presented.

  20. First measurements with a frame store PN-CCD X-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Bonerz, Stefan; Eckhardt, Rouven; Englhauser, Jakob; Hartmann, Robert; Hasinger, Günther; Holl, Peter; Krause, Norbert; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, Rainer; Soltau, Heike; Strüder, Lothar; Trümper, Joachim

    2003-10-01

    The PN-CCD camera on the XMM-Newton X-ray astronomy satellite is the most advanced X-ray spectrometer combining high quantum efficiency, high-speed readout and excellent energy resolution. According to the fullframe concept, the whole 6×6cm2 large CCD-chip area is used as image area, i.e. is sensitive and exposed to X-rays. The camera operates since January 2000 successfully in space without performance degradation. Based on the concept and technology development of the XMM-Newton PN-CCD, the `frame store PN-CCD', a further development of the detector has been proposed. For the new detector a frame store area is added, adjacent to the image area, to allow in parallel photon exposure in the image area and signal readout of the previous image in the frame store area. The concept and the new features of the device will be described here. This comprises in particular a reduced probability of out-of-time event occurrence, the optimization of electronic noise and charge transfer losses as well as a method to obtain a cleaner low-energy response. The first measurements with the new frame store PN-CCD are presented with focus on the above addressed detector parameters. It is planned to apply the device as focal plane instrument for the ROSITA mission that has the aim to extend the ROSAT all-sky survey towards higher energies.

  1. Microstrip electrode readout noise for load-dominated long shaping-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Kelsey; Cunnington, Taylor; Crosby, Sean; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Martinez-McKinney, Forest; Mistry, Khilesh; Schumm, Bruce A.; Spencer, Edwin; Taylor, Aaron; Wilder, Max

    2013-11-01

    In cases such as that of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), for which the beam-delivery and detector-occupancy characteristics permit a long shaping-time readout of the microstrip sensors, it is possible to envision long (∼1 meter) daisy-chained ‘ladders’ of fine-pitch sensors read out by a single front-end amplifier. In this study, a long shaping-time (∼2 μsec) front-end amplifier has been used to measure readout noise as a function of detector load. Comparing measured noise to that expected from lumped and distributed models of the load network, it is seen that network effects significantly mitigate the amount of readout noise contributed by the detector load. Further reduction in noise is demonstrated for the case that the sensor load is read out from its center rather than its end.

  2. Linear readout of object manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, SueYeon; Lee, Daniel D.; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2016-06-01

    Objects are represented in sensory systems by continuous manifolds due to sensitivity of neuronal responses to changes in physical features such as location, orientation, and intensity. What makes certain sensory representations better suited for invariant decoding of objects by downstream networks? We present a theory that characterizes the ability of a linear readout network, the perceptron, to classify objects from variable neural responses. We show how the readout perceptron capacity depends on the dimensionality, size, and shape of the object manifolds in its input neural representation.

  3. SuperB Muon Detector Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    The test objective is to optimize the muon identification in an experiment at a Super B Factory. To accomplish this, experimenters will study the muon identification capability of a detector with different iron configurations at different beam energies. The detector is a full scale prototype, composed of a stack of iron tiles. The segmentation of the iron allows the study of different configurations. Between the tiles, one or two extruded scintillator slabs can be inserted to test two different readout options; a Binary Readout and a Time Readout. In the Binary Readout option the two coordinates are given by the two orthogonal scintillator bars, and the spatial resolution is driven by the bar width. In the Time Readout option one coordinate is determined by the scintillator position and the other by the arrival time of the signal read with a TDC.

  4. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; Luppino, Gerard; Culver, Harry; Wollack, Edward; Content, David

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  5. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Moreno Barbosa, F.

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  6. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, F.; Moreno Barbosa, E.

    2014-11-01

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  7. A new interpolation arithmetic based readout signals process method for infrared imaging system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinyi; Yao, Suying; Zhao, Yiqiang

    2009-07-01

    A new readout signals process circuit for infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) applications is proposed. In the proposed structure the continuous-time current signals from the detector array are mirrored, amplified, integrated on the integration capacitors and changed to discrete analog voltage signals. Next, these voltage signals are amplified and modulated by a group of encoded signals from the column buses, then fed to a multiple-input analog adder to generate a single serial output data stream. The generated single serial data stream is transferred to the mitigate noise circuit and is converted to digital signals by the A/D converter. For very large format detector arrays applications the speed restriction of the time-multiplexing circuitry and the A/D converter will be released. Since no scan technique has been used, all the output signals from an entire row in the detector array have been readout simultaneously without loss of optical power, the scalability of the photon-signals, the readout efficiency and the accuracy of the imaging system will be improved. Theory analysis and experimental results show that the proposed idea is reasonable and efficient. The proposed readout method is a solid option for large format infrared detector arrays and highly integrated infrared imaging system applications. In addition, the proposed idea also can be used for other active and passive imaging readout integrated circuits.

  8. Low-cost fabrication of high efficiency solid-state neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia-Woei; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Weltz, Adam; English, Erik; Hella, Mona M.; Dahal, Rajendra; Lu, James J.-Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2016-05-01

    The development of high-efficiency solid state thermal neutron detectors at low cost is critical for a wide range of civilian and defense applications. The use of present neutron detector system for personal radiation detection is limited by the cost, size, weight and power requirements. Chip scale solid state neutron detectors based on silicon technology would provide significant benefits in terms of cost, volume, and allow for wafer level integration with charge preamplifiers and readout electronics. In this paper, anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers was used to replace deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) to produce microstructured neutron detectors with lower cost and compatibility with mass production. Deep trenches were etched by 30 wt% KOH at 85°C with a highest etch ratio of (110) to (111). A trench-microstructure thermal neutron detector described by the aforementioned processes was fabricated and characterized. The detector—which has a continuous p+-n junction diode—was filled with enriched boron (99% of 10B) as a neutron converter material. The device showed a leakage current of ~ 6.7 × 10-6 A/cm2 at -1V and thermal neutron detection efficiency of ~16.3%. The detector uses custom built charge pre-amplifier, a shaping amplifier, and an analogto- digital converter (ADC) for data acquisition.

  9. Performance of a Medipix3RX spectroscopic pixel detector with a high resistivity gallium arsenide sensor.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Elias; Koenig, Thomas; Zuber, Marcus; Cecilia, Angelica; Tyazhev, Anton; Tolbanov, Oleg; Procz, Simon; Fauler, Alex; Baumbach, Tilo; Fiederle, Michael

    2015-03-01

    High resistivity gallium arsenide is considered a suitable sensor material for spectroscopic X-ray imaging detectors. These sensors typically have thicknesses between a few hundred μm and 1 mm to ensure a high photon detection efficiency. However, for small pixel sizes down to several tens of μm, an effect called charge sharing reduces a detector's spectroscopic performance. The recently developed Medipix3RX readout chip overcomes this limitation by implementing a charge summing circuit, which allows the reconstruction of the full energy information of a photon interaction in a single pixel. In this work, we present the characterization of the first Medipix3RX detector assembly with a 500 μm thick high resistivity, chromium compensated gallium arsenide sensor. We analyze its properties and demonstrate the functionality of the charge summing mode by means of energy response functions recorded at a synchrotron. Furthermore, the imaging properties of the detector, in terms of its modulation transfer functions and signal-to-noise ratios, are investigated. After more than one decade of attempts to establish gallium arsenide as a sensor material for photon counting detectors, our results represent a breakthrough in obtaining detector-grade material. The sensor we introduce is therefore suitable for high resolution X-ray imaging applications.

  10. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for LHC Run-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernegger, H.

    2015-06-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller beam pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as the experience in its construction will be presented, focusing on adopted technologies, module and staves production, qualification of assembly procedure, integration of staves around the beam pipe and commissioning of the detector.

  11. Phase 1 Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector: Module Assembly and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish

    2014-03-01

    The CMS pixel detector is the innermost component of the all-silicon tracking system located closest to the interaction point and thus operates in a high-occupancy/high-radiation environment created by particle collisions. The performance of the current pixel detector has been excellent during Run 1 of the LHC. However, the foreseen increases of the instantaneous and integrated luminosities at the LHC necessitate an upgrade of the pixel detector in order to maintain the excellent tracking and physics performance of the CMS detector. The new pixel detector is expected to be installed during the extended end-of-year shutdown in 2016/17. The main new features of the upgraded pixel detector would be ultra-light mechanical design with four barrel layers and three end-caps on either side of the interaction point, digital readout chip with higher rate capability and new cooling system. These and other design improvements, along with the current status on module assembly and testing, will be discussed.

  12. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    SciTech Connect

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Di Domizio, S.; Castellano, M. G.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-31

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm{sup 2} are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σ{sub E} = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  13. A 32 mm  ×  32 mm  ×  22 mm monolithic LYSO:Ce detector with dual-sided digital photon counter readout for ultrahigh-performance TOF-PET and TOF-PET/MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Giacomo; Peet, Bart Jan; Tabacchini, Valerio; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2016-07-01

    New applications for positron emission tomography (PET) and combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently emerging, for example in the fields of neurological, breast, and pediatric imaging. Such applications require improved image quality, reduced dose, shorter scanning times, and more precise quantification. This can be achieved by means of dedicated scanners based on ultrahigh-performance detectors, which should provide excellent spatial resolution, precise depth-of-interaction (DOI) estimation, outstanding time-of-flight (TOF) capability, and high detection efficiency. Here, we introduce such an ultrahigh-performance TOF/DOI PET detector, based on a 32 mm  ×  32 mm  ×  22 mm monolithic LYSO:Ce crystal. The 32 mm  ×  32 mm front and back faces of the crystal are coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array, in so-called dual-sided readout (DSR) configuration. The fully digital detector offers a spatial resolution of ~1.1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM)/~1.2 mm mean absolute error, together with a DOI resolution of ~2.4 mm FWHM, an energy resolution of 10.2% FWHM, and a coincidence resolving time of 147 ps FWHM. The time resolution closely approaches the best results (135 ps FWHM) obtained to date with small crystals made from the same material coupled to the same DPC arrays, illustrating the excellent correction for optical and electronic transit time spreads that can be achieved in monolithic scintillators using maximum-likelihood techniques for estimating the time of interaction. The performance barely degrades for events with missing data (up to 6 out of 32 DPC dies missing), permitting the use of almost all events registered under realistic acquisition conditions. Moreover, the calibration procedures and computational methods used for position and time estimation follow recently made improvements that make them fast and practical, opening up realistic perspectives for using DSR monolithic

  14. A 40 GByte/s read-out system for GEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, M.; Carrel, J.; Dorenbosch, J.; Kapoor, V.

    1994-04-01

    The preliminary design of the read-out system for the GEM (Gammas, Electrons, Muons) detector at the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The system reads all digitized data from the detector data sources at a Level 1 trigger rate of up to 100 kHz. A total read-out bandwidth of 40 GBytes/s is available. Data are stored in buffers that are accessible for further event filtering by an on-line, processor farm. Data are transported to the farm only as they are needed by the higher-level trigger algorithms, leading to a reduced bandwidth requirement in the Data Acquisition System.

  15. Faraday Cup Array Integrated with a Readout IC and Method for Manufacture Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Christopher A. (Inventor); Hedgepath Gilchrist, Kristin (Inventor); Stoner, Brian R. (Inventor); Temple, Dorota (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A detector array and method for making the detector array. The array includes a substrate including a plurality of trenches formed therein, and includes a plurality of collectors electrically isolated from each other, formed on the walls of the trenches, and configured to collect charge particles incident on respective ones of the collectors and to output from said collectors signals indicative of charged particle collection. The array includes a plurality of readout circuits disposed on a side of the substrate opposite openings to the collectors. The readout circuits are configured to read charge collection signals from respective ones of the plurality of collectors.

  16. Characterization and performance of silicon n-in-p pixel detectors for the ATLAS upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigell, P.; Beimforde, M.; Gallrapp, Ch.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Pernegger, H.; Richter, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    The existing ATLAS tracker will be at its functional limit for particle fluences of 10 15 neq/cm2 (LHC). Thus for the upgrades at smaller radii like in the case of the planned Insertable B-Layer (IBL) and for increased LHC luminosities (super LHC) the development of new structures and materials which can cope with the resulting particle fluences is needed. n-in-p silicon devices are a promising candidate for tracking detectors to achieve these goals, since they are radiation hard, cost efficient and are not type inverted after irradiation. A n-in-p pixel production based on a MPP/HLL design and performed by CiS (Erfurt, Germany) on 300 μm thick Float-Zone material is characterised and the electrical properties of sensors and single chip modules (SCM) are presented, including noise, charge collection efficiencies, and measurements with MIPs as well as an 241Am source. The SCMs are built with sensors connected to the current ATLAS read-out chip FE-I3. The characterisation has been performed with the ATLAS pixel read-out systems, before and after irradiation with 24 GeV/ c protons. In addition preliminary testbeam results for the tracking efficiency and charge collection, obtained with a SCM, are discussed.

  17. Modeling and stress analysis of large format InSb focal plane arrays detector under thermal shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Wen; Meng, Qing-Duan; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Yu, Qian; Lv, Yan-Qiu; Si, Jun-Jie

    2013-09-01

    Higher fracture probability, appearing in large format InSb infrared focal plane arrays detector under thermal shock loadings, limits its applicability and suitability for large format equipment, and has been an urgent problem to be solved. In order to understand the fracture mechanism and improve the reliability, three dimensional modeling and stress analysis of large format InSb detector is necessary. However, there are few reports on three dimensional modeling and simulation of large format InSb detector, due to huge meshing numbers and time-consuming operation to solve. To solve the problems, basing on the thermal mismatch displacement formula, an equivalent modeling method is proposed in this paper. With the proposed equivalent modeling method, employing the ANSYS software, three dimensional large format InSb detector is modeled, and the maximum Von Mises stress appearing in InSb chip dependent on array format is researched. According to the maximum Von Mises stress location shift and stress increasing tendency, the adaptability range of the proposed equivalent method is also derived, that is, for 16 × 16, 32 × 32 and 64 × 64 format, its adaptability ranges are not larger than 64 × 64, 256 × 256 and 1024 × 1024 format, respectively. Taking 1024 × 1024 InSb detector as an example, the Von Mises stress distribution appearing in InSb chip, Si readout integrated circuits and indium bump arrays are described, and the causes are discussed in detail. All these will provide a feasible research plan to identify the fracture origins of InSb chip and reduce fracture probability for large format InSb detector.

  18. Low background signal readout electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, I.; Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-08-17

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed with a background goal of < 3 count/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a tonne-scale experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This talk will discuss the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  19. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, Ian; Rielage, Keith Robert; Elliott, Steven Ray; Xu, Wenqin; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed. The DEMONSTRATOR has a background goal of < 3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a one tonne experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This paper discusses the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  20. EUV detectors based on AlGaN-on-Si Schottky photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, P. E.; Duboz, J.-Y.; De Moor, P.; Minoglou, K.; John, J.; Srivastava, P.; Semond, F.; Frayssinet, E.; BenMoussa, A.; Giordanengo, B.; Van Hoof, C.; Mertens, R.

    2011-05-01

    Photodetectors designed for the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) range with the Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) active layer are reported. AlGaN layers were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on Si(111) wafers. Different device structures were designed and fabricated, including single pixel detectors and 2D detector arrays. Sensitivity in different configurations was demonstrated, including front- and backside illumination. The latter was possible after integration of the detector chips with dedicated Si-based readouts using high-density In bump arrays and flip-chip bonding. In order to avoid radiation absorption in silicon, the substrate was removed, leaving a submicron-thin membrane of AlGaN active layer suspended on top of an array of In bumps. Optoelectrical characterization was performed using different UV light sources, also in the synchrotron beamlines providing radiation down to the EUV range. The measured cut-off wavelength of the active layer used was 280 nm, with a rejection ratio of the visible radiation above 3 orders of magnitude. Spectral responsivity and quantum efficiency values

  1. Development of TORCH readout electronics for customised MCPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Fohl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; Van Dijk, M.

    2016-04-01

    The TORCH detector is being developed for low-momentum particle identification, combining time-of-flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve charged particle pi/K/p separation up to 10 GeV/c over a flight distance of 10m. This requires a timing resolution of 70 ps for single photons. Based on an existing scalable design, production and testing of a TORCH readout system has been undertaken over the past year, and a novel customized Micro Channel Plate (MCP) photomultiplier device with 128-channels has been instrumented. This paper will report on the development of the readout system which is being used to measure time-of-flight in a test-beam, and its performance. We will also discuss the communication and data alignment between the TORCH system and the TimePix3 telescope in order to provide track reconstruction.

  2. The timing upgrade project of the TOTEM Roman Pots detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, M.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the upgrade project developed by the TOTEM Collaboration to measure the time of flight (TOF) of the protons in the vertical Roman Pot detectors. The physics program that the upgraded system aims to accomplish will be addressed. Simulation studies allowed us to define a geometry of the sensor such that the detection inefficiency due to the pile-up of the particles in the same electrode is low even with a small amount of read-out channels. The measurement of the protons TOF with ~ 50 ps time resolution requires the development of several challenging technological solutions. The arrival time of the protons will be measured by scCVD diamond detectors, for which a dedicated fast and low-noise electronics for the signal amplification has been designed. Indeed, while diamond sensors have the advantage of higher radiation hardness, lower noise and faster signal than silicon sensors, the amount of charge released in the medium is lower. The sampling of the waveform is performed at a rate up to 10 GS/s with the SAMPIC chip. The sampled waveforms are then analysed offline where optimal algorithms can be implemented to reduce the time walk effects. The clock distribution system, based on the Universal Picosecond Timing System developed at GSI, is optimized in order to have a negligible uncertainty on the TOF measurement. Finally an overview of the control system which will interface the timing detectors to the experiment DAQ is given.

  3. Irradiation of the CLARO-CMOS chip, a fast ASIC for single-photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fiorini, M.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Luppi, E.; Maino, M.; Malaguti, R.; Pessina, G.; Tomassetti, L.

    2015-07-01

    The CLARO-CMOS is a prototype ASIC that allows fast photon counting with low power consumption, built in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. It is intended to be used as a front-end readout for the upgraded LHCb RICH detectors. In this environment, assuming 10 years of operation at the nominal luminosity expected after the upgrade, the ASIC must withstand a total fluence of about 6×1012 1 MeV neq/cm2 and a total ionising dose of 400 krad. Long term stability of the electronics front-end is essential and the effects of radiation damage on the CLARO-CMOS performance must be carefully studied. This paper describes results of multi-step irradiation tests with protons up to the dose of ~8 Mrad, including measurement of single event effects during irradiation and chip performance evaluation before and after each irradiation step.

  4. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oide, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run 1 of the LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface in order to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules, and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is the fourth layer of the Run 2 Pixel Detector, and it was installed at a radius of 3.3 cm in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and the new smaller-radius beam pipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance is expected to improve through the reduction of pixel size. As well, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system were adopted. An overview of the IBL project as well as the experience in its construction is presented, focusing on adopted technologies, module and staves production, qualification of assembly procedure, integration of staves around the beam pipe, and commissioning of the detector.

  5. Architecture of a modular, multichannel readout system for dense electrochemical biosensor microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramfos, Ioannis; Blionas, Spyridon; Birbas, Alexios

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of a modular, multichannel readout system for dense electrochemical microarrays, targeting Lab-on-a-Chip applications, is presented. This approach promotes efficient component reusability through a hybrid multiplexing methodology, maintaining high levels of sampling performance and accuracy. Two readout modes are offered, which can be dynamically interchanged following signal profiling, to cater for both rapid signal transitions and weak current responses. Additionally, functional extensions to the described architecture are discussed, which provide the system with multi-biasing capabilities. A prototype integrated circuit of the proposed architecture’s analog core and a supporting board were implemented to verify the working principles. The system was evaluated using standard loads, as well as electrochemical sensor arrays. Through a range of operating conditions and loads, the prototype exhibited a highly linear response and accurately delivered the readout of input signals with fast transitions and wide dynamic ranges.

  6. Design of readout circuit for microcantilever-based ripple uncooled infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junmin; Chen, Zhongjian; Lu, Wengao; Zhang, Yacong; Lei, Ke; Zhao, Baoying

    2009-07-01

    A readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for uncooled microcantilever infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) based on capacitive readout is proposed. The ROIC is optimized according to noise modeling and analysis to reduce noise. An experimental chip of 16×16 FPAs readout circuit has been designed and fabricated using 0.35um CMOS technology. The measurement results showed that the power dissipation is 16.5mW from a 5V supply voltage at 50Hz frame rate, the linearity is 99.2% at the typical mode; the uniformity is larger than 97% and the equivalent noise charge (ENC) is below 150e. It is believed that the ROIC has a great potential in the applications of large-scale micro-cantilever-based uncooled IRFPAs.

  7. Direct conversion Si and CdZnTe detectors for digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shi; Tümer, Tümay O.; Maeding, Dale; Mainprize, James; Mawdsley, Gord; Yaffe, Martin J.; Gordon, Eli E.; Hamilton, William J.

    2000-07-01

    Hybrid pixel detector arrays that convert X-rays directly into charge signals are under development at NOVA for application to digital mammography. This technology also has wide application possibilities in other fields of radiology or in industrial imaging, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and nondestructive inspection (NDI). These detectors have potentially superior properties compared to either emulsion-based film-screen systems which has nonlinear response to X-rays, or phosphor-based detectors in which there is an intermediate step of X-ray to light photon conversion (Feig and Yaffe, Radiol. Clinics North America 33 (1995) 1205-1230). Potential advantages of direct conversion detectors are high quantum efficiencies (QE) of 98% or higher (for 0.3 mm thick CdZnTe detector with 20 keV X-rays), improved contrast, high sensitivity and low intrinsic noise. These factors are expected to contribute to high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The prototype hybrid pixel detector developed has 50×50 μm pixel size, and is designed to have linear response to X-rays, and can support a dynamic range up to 14 bits. Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is measured on a 1-mm silicon detector system where 10% or better modulations are obtained at 10 lp/mm spatial frequency. Preliminary DQE measurements of the same detector yields a value of 75% at zero spatial frequency. In this paper, we report results obtained from our first full size prototype readout ASIC chips hybridized with both silicon and CdZnTe detector arrays and present preliminary MTF and DQE measurement results as well as some test images.

  8. Development of Portable Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the “Contractor”) and Sense Holdings, Inc. (the “Participant”) was for the development of hand-held detectors with high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of explosives, toxic industrial chemicals and materials, and other materials of interest for security applications. The two parties built a series of demonstration and prototype handheld sensors based upon micoelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with electronic readout.

  9. The LHCb detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, H.

    2013-12-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, with its installation scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will transform the data acquisition and processing architecture to a triggerless readout at 40 MHz with subsequent software-based event selection in a CPU farm. In this contribution, an overview of the detector technology options under consideration and the associated challenges is given and selected highlights of the ongoing R&D programme are presented.

  10. DAQ hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has been extended by about 12 million pixels thanks to the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented along with newly designed readout hardware to support high bandwidth for data readout and calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the readout boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the readout bandwidth for the two outermost barrel layers of the ATLAS Pixel Detector. We present the IBL readout hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  11. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb-Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  12. Evaluation of a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector array with a synchrotron X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponchut, C.; Visschers, J. L.; Fornaini, A.; Graafsma, H.; Maiorino, M.; Mettivier, G.; Calvet, D.

    2002-05-01

    A photon-counting hybrid pixel detector (Medipix-1) has been characterized using a synchrotron X-ray source. The detector consists of a readout ASIC with 64×64 independent photon-counting cells of 170×170 μm 2 pitch, bump-bonded to a 300 μm thick silicon sensor, read out by a PCIbus-based electronics, and a graphical user interface (GUI) software. The intensity and the energy tunability of the X-ray source allow characterization of the detector in the time, space, and energy domains. The system can be read out on external trigger at a frame rate of 100 Hz with 3 ms exposure time per frame. The detector response is tested up to more than 7×10 5 detected events/pixel/s. The point-spread response shows <2% crosstalk between neighboring pixels. Fine scanning of the detector surface with a 10 μm beam reveals no loss in sensitivity between adjacent pixels as could result from charge sharing in the silicon sensor. Photons down to 6 keV can be detected after equalization of the thresholds of individual pixels. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of photon-counting hybrid pixel detectors and particularly of the Medipix-1 chip for a wide range of X-ray imaging applications, including those using synchrotron X-ray beams.

  13. Readout upgrade, hardware and software, for the ALICE Data Acquisition program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, F.; Chapeland, S.; Denes, E.; Frauman, M.; Soós, C.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Diviá, R.; Fuchs, U.; Makhlyueva, I.; Roukoutakis, F.; Schossmaier, K.; Telesca, A.; Rodriguez Navarro, D.; Vande Vyvre, P.; von Haller, B.; Alice Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    ALICE [experiment web site, May 10, 2009 ] (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main aim of the experiment is to study the behavior of strongly interaction matter and quark gluon plasma. The ALICE DAQ (Data Acquisition) system has been deployed and used intensively during the commissioning of the experiment. This paper will present the evolution of one particular area of the system: the detector readout. The data produced by each detector are received by DATE [ALICE data acquisition web site, May 10, 2009 ] (ALICE Data Acquisition program) using PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) based card called D-RORC [web site, May 10, 2009 ] (DAQ Readout Receiver Card). Of the order of 400 of these cards are installed in the PCs of the DAQ farm, and they are connected by optical links called DDL [web site, May 10, 2009 ] (Detector Data Link) to the detector readout electronics. The D-RORC is controlled by the readout software, part of the DATE program that reads the events coming from these cards. We will present the results obtained during the performance tests of the new release of the D-RORC, PCI Express, in development at CERN. The paper will review the working principles of the D-RORC, its use by the readout software and the benefits in using PCI Express instead PCI-X. It will also introduce the work in progress for the new release of the readout software towards the next hardware platform based on 64-bit computer architecture and DDLs based on 10G Ethernet.

  14. An inexpensive vehicle speed detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Low-power minicomputer can plug into automobile cigarette lighter. It measures time it takes observed car to travel premeasured distance and provides immediate readout of speed. Potentially, detector could be manufactured for less than $200 per unit and would have very low maintenance cost.

  15. Status report of the upgrade of the CMS muon system with Triple-GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F. R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M. M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R. M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y. G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Masod, R.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J. A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohamed, S.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L. M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shah, A. H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S. K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-07-01

    For the High Luminosity LHC CMS is planning to install new large size Triple-GEM detectors, equipped with a new readout system in the forward region of its muon system (1.5 < | η | < 2.2). In this note we report on the status of the project, the main achievements regarding the detectors as well as the electronics and readout system.

  16. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  17. Analysis of the readout of a high rate MWPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerini, P.; Grion, N.; Rui, R.; Sheffer, G.; Openshaw, R.

    1990-06-01

    An analytical method to reduce the raw data supplied by a high-speed multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) is presented. The results obtained with the MWPC and the associated readout system, LeCroy PCOS III, when monitoring a high-intensity flux of positive pions delivered by the M11 channel at TRIUMF are discussed. The method allows the flux intensity, the beam envelope and the detector efficiency to be determined with little uncertainty (few %) at intense particle beams ( > 10 7 particles/s).

  18. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  19. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Timmer, P.

    2013-02-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ~ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( < 2 ns) and Time over Threshold. A PROM block provides unique identification to the chip. The chip communicates with the control electronics via an I2C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  20. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehrani, N. Alipour; Arfaoui, S.; Benoit, M.; Dannheim, D.; Dette, K.; Hynds, D.; Kulis, S.; Perić, I.; Petrič, M.; Redford, S.; Sicking, E.; Valerio, P.

    2016-07-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor, where efficiencies of greater than 99% have been achieved at -60 V substrate bias, with a single hit resolution of 6.1 μm . Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.