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Sample records for detector system measured

  1. Pyroelectric detector development for the Radiation Measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.; Hanel, R. P.; Dominguez, D. E.; Valero, F. P. J.; Baumann, Hilary; Hansen, W. L.; Haller, E. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of high detectivity pyroelectric detectors developed for optimization of the radiation measurement system within the framework of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is described. These devices are intended to provide detectivities of up to about 10 exp 11 cm Hz exp 0.5/W with cooling to about 100 K required for the detector focal plane.

  2. Tunnel effect measuring systems and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  3. Tunnel effect measuring systems and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  4. An automatic measuring system for the lifetime testing of infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lan; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhu, Xianliang; Gong, Haimei

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, an automatic measuring system based on LABVIEW and PLC is introduced; it uses the mutual controls of Single-Chip computer (MCU) and LABVIEW to accomplish the electrical parameter measurements of infrared detectors. This system can realize the multiple parameter measurements of no less than 160 IR detectors, it can realize the collection and storage of results by the LABVIEW; and it can avoid the damage of the IR detector during the measurement. After thousands times of test, the results show that the system runs stably and it can meet the accurate parameter measurement of detector.

  5. Shaped scintillation detector systems for measurements of gamma ray flux anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Vette, J. I.; Stecker, F. W.; Eller, E. L.; Wildes, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    The detection efficiencies of cylindrical detectors for various gamma ray photon angular distributions were studied in the energy range from .10 Mev to 15 Mev. These studies indicate that simple detector systems on small satellites can be used to measure flux anisotropy of cosmic gamma rays and the angular distribution of albedo gamma rays produced in planetary atmospheres. The results indicate that flat cylindrical detectors are most suitable for measuring flux anisotropy because of their angular response function. A general method for calculating detection efficiencies for such detectors is presented.

  6. Development of a System for Measuring the Shape of β Spectra Using a Semiconductor Si Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bisch, C.; Mougeot, X.; Bé, M.-M.; Nourreddine, A.-M.

    2014-06-15

    A system for the measurement of beta energy spectra has been developed. It is based on a silicon semi-conductor detector operating at liquid nitrogen temperatures, under ultra high-vacuum. Monte-Carlo simulations were made to optimize the detection chamber and the source holder. Descriptions of the electronic and mechanical systems are included, as well as the first measured spectra.

  7. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  8. An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Yoon, T.; Loose, A.; Goetzke, L. W.; Zelevinsky, T.

    2013-09-15

    We have developed an atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) system to measure Kr in Xe at the part per trillion (ppt) level, a prerequisite for the sensitivity achievable with liquid xenon dark matter detectors beyond the current generation. Since Ar and Kr have similar laser cooling wavelengths, the apparatus has been tested with Ar to avoid contamination prior to measuring Xe samples. A radio-frequency plasma discharge generates a beam of metastable atoms which is optically collimated, slowed, and trapped using standard magneto-optical techniques. Based on the measured overall system efficiency of 1.2 × 10{sup −8} (detection mode), we expect the ATTA system to reach the design goal sensitivity to ppt concentrations of Kr in Xe in <2 h.

  9. Measurement of amorphous corundum layers by self-focusing optical coherence tomography system with matrix detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczewski, Slawomir; Salbut, Leszek

    We present detection of inhomogeneities in amorphous corundum layers by optical coherence tomography system with CMOS matrix detector. The presented setup is based on modified Twyman-Green interferometer with specially designed scanning module. The module consists of two beam directing mirrors, a beam splitter, an objective lens and it's illuminated by a high-power pig-tailed light emitting diode. The system is calibrated that the objective gives image of zero optical path difference plane in infinity. Due to this and because the matrix detector is placed in the focal plane of an imaging lens, therefore even if distance between the objective and the imaging lens changes during scanning process, the zero optical path difference plane is always in-focus. Hence the system focuses itself on imaged layers and there is no drop in transverse resolution coming from defocusing. In the paper we present, the idea of self-focusing tomographic system, its theoretical analysis and design aspects. Calibration of proposed system and its application for measurement of amorphous corundum layers are also presented. The measurements results show occurrences of the inhomogeneities in the investigated samples.

  10. Clinical Trials of a Urethral Dose Measurement System in Brachytherapy Using Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowerska, Natalka; Jackson, Michael; Lambert, Jamil; Yin, Yong Bai; Hruby, George; McKenzie, David R.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To report on the clinical feasibility of a novel scintillation detector system with fiberoptic readout that measures the urethral dose during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The clinical trial enrolled 24 patients receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment to the prostate. After the first 14 patients, three improvements were made to the dosimeter system design to improve clinical reliability: a dosimeter self-checking facility; a radiopaque marker to determine the position of the dosimeter, and a more robust optical extension fiber. Results: Improvements to the system design allowed for accurate dose measurements to be made in vivo. A maximum measured dose departure of 9% from the calculated dose was observed after dosimeter design improvements. Conclusions: Departures of the measured from the calculated dose, after improvements to the dosimetry system, arise primarily from small changes in patient anatomy. Therefore, we recommend that patient response be correlated with the measured in vivo dose rather than with the calculated dose.

  11. Multichannel reconfigurable measurement system for hot plasma diagnostics based on GEM-2D detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojenski, A. J.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K. T.; Byszuk, A.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Jablonski, S.; Juszczyk, B.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2015-12-01

    In the future magnetically confined fusion research reactors (e.g. ITER tokamak), precise determination of the level of the soft X-ray radiation of plasma with temperature above 30 keV (around 350 mln K) will be very important in plasma parameters optimization. This paper presents the first version of a designed spectrography measurement system. The system is already installed at JET tokamak. Based on the experience gained from the project, the new generation of hardware for spectrography measurements, was designed and also described in the paper. The GEM detector readout structure was changed to 2D in order to perform measurements of i.e. laser generated plasma. The hardware structure of the system was redesigned in order to provide large number of high speed input channels. Finally, this paper also covers the issue of new control software, necessary to set-up a complete system of certain complexity and perform data acquisition. The main goal of the project was to develop a new version of the system, which includes upgraded structure and data transmission infrastructure (i.e. handling large number of measurement channels, high sampling rate).

  12. SU-E-I-40: New Method for Measurement of Task-Specific, High-Resolution Detector System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Loughran, B; Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although generalized linear system analytic metrics such as GMTF and GDQE can evaluate performance of the whole imaging system including detector, scatter and focal-spot, a simplified task-specific measured metric may help to better compare detector systems. Methods: Low quantum-noise images of a neuro-vascular stent with a modified ANSI head phantom were obtained from the average of many exposures taken with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and with a Flat Panel Detector (FPD). The square of the Fourier Transform of each averaged image, equivalent to the measured product of the system GMTF and the object function in spatial-frequency space, was then divided by the normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) for each respective system to obtain a task-specific generalized signal-to-noise ratio. A generalized measured relative object detectability (GM-ROD) was obtained by taking the ratio of the integral of the resulting expressions for each detector system to give an overall metric that enables a realistic systems comparison for the given detection task. Results: The GM-ROD provides comparison of relative performance of detector systems from actual measurements of the object function as imaged by those detector systems. This metric includes noise correlations and spatial frequencies relevant to the specific object. Additionally, the integration bounds for the GM-ROD can be selected to emphasis the higher frequency band of each detector if high-resolution image details are to be evaluated. Examples of this new metric are discussed with a comparison of the MAF to the FPD for neuro-vascular interventional imaging. Conclusion: The GM-ROD is a new direct-measured task-specific metric that can provide clinically relevant comparison of the relative performance of imaging systems. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  13. A combined small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering detector for measurements on reactive systems.

    PubMed

    Vallenhag, Linda; Canton, Sophie E; Sondhauss, Peter; Haase, Dörthe; Ossler, Frederik

    2011-08-01

    A detector with high dynamic range designed for combined small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments has been developed. It allows measurements on single events and reactive systems, such as particle formation in flames and evaporation of levitating drops. The detector consists of 26 channels covering a region from 0.5° to 60° and it provides continuous monitoring of the sampled signal without readout dead time. The time resolution for fast single events is about 40 μs and for substances undergoing slower dynamics, the time resolution is set to 0.1 or 1 s with hours of continuous sampling. The detector has been used to measure soot particle formation in a flame, burning magnesium and evaporation of a toluene drop in a levitator. The results show that the detector can be used for many different applications with good outcomes and large potential.

  14. Software for Control and Measuring Instrumentation of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-telescope Fast Scintillator Detector System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, P. P.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Runtso, M. F.; Solodovnikov, A. A.

    Currently, the final stage of the ground tests for the technological detector of the high-energy gamma-ray telescope (GRT) GAMMA-400 are finished. The new space GRT will accept the gamma-rays with energy more than 400 MeV and is aimed to open our eyes for so-called "dark matter" problem in the Universe. The high-speed scintillation detectors system (SDS) is used one of the main GRT particle detectors and the good ground test measurements will let the future space mission to get the reliable data. This paper describes the software and hardware of the laboratory control and calibration systems for physical measurements of GRT STDS properties.

  15. High-resolution gamma-ray measurement systems using a compact electro- mechanically cooled detector system and intelligent software

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Neufeld, K.W.

    1995-09-27

    Obtaining high-resolution gamma-ray measurements using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the field has been of limited practicality due to the need to use and maintain a supply of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}). This same constraint limits high-resolution gamma measurements in unattended safeguards or treaty Verification applications. We are developing detectors and software to greatly extend the applicability of high-resolution germanium-based measurements for these situations.

  16. MINOS Detector Steel Magnetic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Trendler and Walter F. Jaskierny

    1999-03-03

    Magnetic measurements were made on one steel plate of the MINOS far detector. The conventionally used technique of measuring sense coil voltage induced by step changes in excitation current voltage was successful in providing stable, repeatable measurements. Measurements were made at several locations on the steel and the results are presented.

  17. Seismic intrusion detector system

    DOEpatents

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  18. Optical detector calibrator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

  19. A low cost fluorescence lifetime measurement system based on SPAD detectors and FPGA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franch, N.; Alonso, O.; Canals, J.; Vilà, A.; Dieguez, A.

    2017-02-01

    This work presents a low cost fluorescence life time measurement system, aimed at carrying out fast diagnostic tests through label detection in a portable system so it can be used in a medical consultation, within a short time span. The system uses Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC), measuring the arrival time of individual photons and building a histogram of those times, showing the fluorescence decay of the label which is characteristic of each fluorescent substance. The system is implemented using a Xilinx FPGA which controls the experiment and includes a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) to perform measurements with a resolution in the order of tenths of picoseconds. Also included are a laser diode and the driving electronics to generate short pulses as well as a HV-CMOS implemented Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) as a high gain sensor. The system is entirely configurable so it can easily be adapted to the target label molecule and measurement needs. The histogram is constructed within the FPGA and can then be read as convenient. Various performance parameters are also shown, as well as experimental measurements of a quantum dot fluorescence decay as a proof of concept.

  20. Modeling and measurement of the performance of a branched conduit sampling system in a mass spectrometer leak detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John M.

    1994-01-01

    In the leak testing of a large engineering system, one may distinguish three stages, namely leakage measurement by an overall enclosure, leak location, and leakage measurement by a local enclosure. Sniffer probes attached to helium mass spectrometer leak detectors are normally designed for leak location, a qualitative inspection technique intended to pinpoint where a leak is but not to quantify its rate of discharge. The main conclusion of the present effort is that local leakage measurement by a leak detector with a sniffer probe is feasible provided one has: (1) quantitative data on the performance of the mass separator cell (a device interior to the unit where the stream of fluid in the sample line branches); and (2) a means of stabilizing the mass transfer boundary layer that is created near a local leak site when a sniffer probe is placed in its immediate vicinity. Theoretical models of the mass separator cell are provided and measurements of the machine-specific parameters in the formulas are presented. A theoretical model of a porous probe end for stabilizing the mass transfer boundary is also presented.

  1. A dual-inlet, single detector relaxed eddy accumulation system for long-term measurement of mercury flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterwalder, S.; Fritsche, J.; Alewell, C.; Schmutz, M.; Nilsson, M. B.; Jocher, G.; Sommar, J.; Rinne, J.; Bishop, K.

    2016-02-01

    The fate of anthropogenic emissions of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere is influenced by the exchange of elemental Hg with the earth surface. This exchange holds the key to a better understanding of Hg cycling from local to global scales, which has been difficult to quantify. To advance research about land-atmosphere Hg interactions, we developed a dual-inlet, single detector relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system. REA is an established technique for measuring turbulent fluxes of trace gases and aerosol particles in the atmospheric surface layer. Accurate determination of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes has proven difficult due to technical challenges presented by extremely small concentration differences (typically < 0.5 ng m-3) between updrafts and downdrafts. We present an advanced REA design that uses two inlets and two pairs of gold cartridges for continuous monitoring of GEM fluxes. This setup reduces the major uncertainty created by the sequential sampling in many previous designs. Additionally, the instrument is equipped with a GEM reference gas generator that monitors drift and recovery rates. These innovations facilitate continuous, autonomous measurement of GEM flux. To demonstrate the system performance, we present results from field campaigns in two contrasting environments: an urban setting with a heterogeneous fetch and a boreal peatland during snowmelt. The observed average emission rates were 15 and 3 ng m-2 h-1, respectively. We believe that this dual-inlet, single detector approach is a significant improvement of the REA system for ultra-trace gases and can help to advance our understanding of long-term land-atmosphere GEM exchange.

  2. Measurement of NORM samples with CeBr3 detectors.

    PubMed

    Peyres, Virginia; Crespo, Teresa; Mejuto, Marcos; García-Toraño, Eduardo

    2017-02-14

    This paper discusses the use of CeBr3 detectors for the analysis of NORM samples. These detectors have a number of characteristics that make them suitable to field measurements: they can work at ambient temperatures, have better energy resolution than NaI(Tl) detectors for energies over 100keV and do not present the radioactive contamination typical of the lanthanum halides detectors. Results of the measurements made at the laboratory for three reference materials are compared to those made using a conventional HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer system. Spectra from both measurement systems are presented and discussed.

  3. The MUSE instrument detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

    2012-09-01

    The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 μm pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

  4. Lanthanum Bromide Detectors for Safeguards Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.

    2011-05-25

    Lanthanum bromide has advantages over other popular inorganic scintillator detectors. Lanthanum bromide offers superior resolution, and good efficiency when compared to sodium iodide and lanthanum chloride. It is a good alternative to high purity germanium detectors for some safeguards applications. This paper offers an initial look at lanthanum bromide detectors. Resolution of lanthanum bromide will be compared lanthanum chloride and sodium-iodide detectors through check source measurements. Relative efficiency and angular dependence will be looked at. Nuclear material spectra, to include plutonium and highly enriched uranium, will be compared between detector types.

  5. The HERA-B vertex detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, C.; Bräuer, M.; Glebe, T.; Hofmann, W.; Jagla, T.; Klefenz, F.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Pugatch, V.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sexauer, E.; Trunk, U.; Wanke, R.; Zurheide, F.; Abt, I.; Dressel, M.; Kisel, I.; Masciocchi, S.; Moshous, B.; Perschke, T.; Sang, M.; Schaller, S.; Wagner, W.

    2000-10-01

    The HERA-B experiment is being built to measure CP violation in the B-system using internal targets at the HERA proton storage ring at DESY. This paper presents an overview of its vertex detector which - apart from an additional superlayer - is realized by a system of 20 Roman pots containing seven superlayers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors that are operated at 10 mm distance from the proton beam in a high-radiation environment.

  6. Detectors in medical physics measuring dose by detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrowaili, Ziyad

    The doses were measured at the depth of 10 cm and at the maximum dose dmax for two energies 6 MV photon and 10 MV photon on Elekta machine. Measuring dose was done by using only two points and comparing the results with percentage depth dose (PDD) for the depth dose curve for both energies. In addition the doses were obtained by using three methods of detectors to measure the dose by using the ion chamber, Thermo luminescence, and films. The results obtained for three measurements agreed within 2% for 6 MV photon and 3% for 10 MV photon by using three different detectors in the clinic. Therefore, these detectors are stable and reliable to be used in clinical applications.

  7. A versatile detector system to measure the change states, mass compositions and energy spectra of interplanetary and magnetosphere ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1977-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring the mass and charge state composition as well as the energy spectra and angular distributions of 0.5 to 350 kev/charge ions in interplanetary space and in magnetospheres of planets such as Jupiter and earth. Electrostatic deflection combined with a time-of-flight and energy measurement allows three-parameter analysis of output signals from which the mass, charge states, and energy are determined. Post-acceleration by 30 kV extends the energy range of the detector system into the solar wind and magnetosphere plasma regime. Isotopes of H and He are easily resolved as are individual elements up to Ne and the dominant elements up to and including Fe. This instrument has an extremely large dynamic range in intensity and is sensitive to rare elements even in the presence of high intensity radiation, and is adapted for interplanetary, deep-space, and out-of-the-ecliptic missions, as well as for flights on spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and earth.

  8. Organ dose measurements from multiple-detector computed tomography using a commercial dosimetry system and tomographic, physical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Lindsey K.

    The technology of computed tomography (CT) imaging has soared over the last decade with the use of multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners that are capable of performing studies in a matter of seconds. While the diagnostic information obtained from MDCT imaging is extremely valuable, it is important to ensure that the radiation doses resulting from these studies are at acceptably safe levels. This research project focused on the measurement of organ doses resulting from modern MDCT scanners. A commercially-available dosimetry system was used to measure organ doses. Small dosimeters made of optically-stimulated luminescent (OSL) material were analyzed with a portable OSL reader. Detailed verification of this system was performed. Characteristics studied include energy, scatter, and angular responses; dose linearity, ability to erase the exposed dose and ability to reuse dosimeters multiple times. The results of this verification process were positive. While small correction factors needed to be applied to the dose reported by the OSL reader, these factors were small and expected. Physical, tomographic pediatric and adult phantoms were used to measure organ doses. These phantoms were developed from CT images and are composed of tissue-equivalent materials. Because the adult phantom is comprised of numerous segments, dosimeters were placed in the phantom at several organ locations, and doses to select organs were measured using three clinical protocols: pediatric craniosynostosis, adult brain perfusion and adult cardiac CT angiography (CTA). A wide-beam, 320-slice, volumetric CT scanner and a 64-slice, MDCT scanner were used for organ dose measurements. Doses ranged from 1 to 26 mGy for the pediatric protocol, 1 to 1241 mGy for the brain perfusion protocol, and 2-100 mGy for the cardiac protocol. In most cases, the doses measured on the 64-slice scanner were higher than those on the 320-slice scanner. A methodology to measure organ doses with OSL dosimeters received from CT

  9. Seal system with integral detector

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.

    1982-08-12

    A seal system is disclosed for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials. The seal is tamper-indicating, indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to bypass the seal, is unique and cost effective. The seal system is comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

  10. Seal system with integral detector

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a seal system for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials, which is tamper-indicating, which indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to by-pass the seal, which is unique and cost effective, said seal system comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

  11. Multichannel detectors for profile measurements in clinical proton fields

    SciTech Connect

    Nichiporov, Dmitri; Solberg, Keith; Hsi Wen; Wolanski, Mark; Mascia, Anthony; Farr, Jonathan; Schreuder, Andries

    2007-07-15

    Two beam profile measurement detectors have been developed at Indiana University Cyclotron Facility to address the need for a tool to efficiently verify dose distributions created with active methods of clinical proton beam delivery. The multipad ionization chamber (MPIC) has 128 ionization chambers arranged in one plane and is designed to measure lateral profiles in fields up to 38 cm in diameter. The MPIC pads have a 5 mm pitch for fields up to 20 cm in diameter and a 7 mm pitch for larger fields, providing the accuracy of field size determination about 0.5 mm. The multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) detector contains 122 small-volume ionization chambers stacked at a 1.82 mm step (water-equivalent) for depth-dose profile measurements. The MLIC detector can measure profiles up to 20 cm in depth, and determine the 80% distal dose fall-off with about 0.1 mm precision. Both detectors can be connected to the same set of electronics modules, which comprise the detectors' data acquisition system. The detectors have been tested in clinical proton fields produced with active methods of beam delivery such as uniform scanning and energy stacking. This article describes detector performance tests and discusses their results. The test results indicate that the MPIC and MLIC detectors can be used for dosimetric characterization of clinical proton fields. The detectors offer significant time savings during measurements in actively delivered beams compared with traditional measurements using a water phantom.

  12. Photon detector system

    DOEpatents

    Ekstrom, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

  13. Comparison measurements of DQE for two flat panel detectors: fluoroscopic detector vs. cone beam CT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt Benítez, Ricardo; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David

    2006-03-01

    The physical performance of two flat panel detectors (FPD) has been evaluated using a standard x-ray beam quality set by IEC, namely RQA5. The FPDs evaluated in this study are based on an amorphous silicon photodiode array that is coupled to a thallium-doped Cesium Iodide scintillator and to a thin film transistor (TFT) array. One detector is the PaxScan 2520 that is designed for fluoro imaging, and has a small dynamic range and a large image lag. The other detector is the PaxScan 4030CB that is designed for cone beam CT, and has a large dynamic range (>16-bit), a reduced image lag and many imaging modes. Varian Medical Systems manufactured both detectors. The linearity of the FPDs was investigated by using an ionization chamber and aluminum filtration in order to obtain the beam quality. Since the FPDs are used in fluoroscopic mode, image lag of the FPD was measured in order to investigate its effect on this study, especially its effect on DQE. The spatial resolution of the FPDs was determined by obtaining the pre-sampling modulation transfer function for each detector. A sharp edge was used in accordance to IEC 62220-1. Next, the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) was calculated for various exposures levels at RQA5 radiation quality. Finally, the DQE of each FPD was obtained with a modified version of the international standard set by IEC 62220-1. The results show that the physical performance in DQE and MTF of the PaxScan 4030CB is superior to that of PaxScan2520.

  14. A Chemiluminescence Detector for Ozone Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, H.; And Others

    An ozone detector was built and evaluated for its applicability in smog chamber studies. The detection method is based on reaction of ozone with ethylene and measurement of resultant chemiluminescence. In the first phase of evaluation, the detector's response to ozone was studied as a function of several instrument parameters, and optimum…

  15. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems. PMID:25302004

  16. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The twodimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

  17. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-19

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

  18. Novel detectors for traceable THz power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ralf; Bohmeyer, Werner; Kehrt, Mathias; Lange, Karsten; Monte, Christian; Steiger, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Several novel types of detectors for the measurement of electromagnetic radiation in the THz spectral range are described. Firstly, detectors based on pyroelectric foil coated with different absorbers have been developed focusing on the following features: high accuracy due to well-characterized absorption, high sensitivity, large area absorbers and frequency and polarization independence. A three-dimensional design with five absorptions gave an overall absorption of more than 98 %. Secondly, detectors based on pyroelectric foils with thin metal layers were realized. An absorption of 50 % can be obtained if the thickness of the layers is carefully adjusted. According to electromagnetic theory this degree of absorption is independent of the polarization and frequency of the radiation in a wide range from at least 20 GHz to 5 THz. The third type of detector is based on a new type of volume absorber with a polished front surface and a gold-coated back side. It is the absorber of choice of the standard power detector for disseminating the spectral power responsivity scale. This standard detector allows the application of a physical model to calculate its spectral responsivity in the range from 1 THz to 5 THz if the detector has been calibrated at one single frequency. Finally, a THz detector calibration facility was set up and is now in operation at PTB to calibrate detectors from customers with an uncertainty as low as 1.7 %.

  19. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  20. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  1. The Zero-Degree Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Howell, Leonard W.; Kouznetsov, Evgueni

    2006-01-01

    We will report on a detector system used for accelerator measurement of nuclear fragmentation cross sections. This system consists of two detector planes, each carrying a ring of 8 detectors. Each detector has 64 pads. These two detector planes are arranged facing each other so that the matching detector pads on each plane form a two element charged particle telescope. Each of these telescopes is capable of determining the elemental identity of nuclear fragments passing through it. The system is used to measure light fragment production in the presence of heavier fragments. We will present a detailed discussion of the 64-pad detector design, the substrate design. The front-end electronics used to read out the signals is based on a custom VLSI chip developed for the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter experiment which has been flown successfully twice in Antarctica. Each of these chips has 16 channels and each channel consists of a charge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaping amplifier and a track-and-hold circuit. The track-and-hold circuits are connected via a multiplexer to an output line driver. This allows the held signals to be presented, one-by-one via a common data line to a analog-to-digital converter. Because the output line driver can be placed in a high input impedance state when not in use, it is possible to daisy-change many chips on the same common data line. The front-end electronics and data readout scheme will be discussed in detail. The Zero Degree Detector has been used in several accelerator experiments conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory as well as at the HIMAC accelerator in Japan. We will show examples of data taken at these accelerator runs to demonstrate how the system works.

  2. Plastic scintillator detector for pulsed flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplun, A. A.; Taraskin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A neutron detector, providing charged particle detection capability, has been designed. The main purpose of the detector is to measure pulsed fluxes of both charged particles and neutrons during scientific experiments. The detector consists of commonly used neutron-sensitive ZnS(Ag) / 6LiF scintillator screens wrapping a layer of polystyrene based scintillator (BC-454, EJ-254 or equivalent boron loaded plastic). This type of detector design is able to log a spatial distribution of events and may be scaled to any size. Different variations of the design were considered and modelled in specialized toolkits. The article presents a review of the detector design features as well as simulation results.

  3. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  4. Instrumentation For Detector Spectral / Spatial Uniformity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Ronald W.; Bronson, Robert M.

    1989-09-01

    The information presented in this report describes an instrument which is used for precision measurements of detector spectral response and spatial response. Emphasis will be placed on detector spatial uniformity measurements. To allow spatial uniformity testing at selected wavelengths, an instrument was designed by applying existing spectral response instrumentation technology with the addition of special exit optics, a dual axis motorized positioning table, and supporting software. Supporting components consisted of a computer controlled radiometer and a monochromator with a high intensity light source attached. Spectral response is determined by measuring the wavelength response photosensitivity of a stationary specimen to the irradiance of a calibrated monochromatic light source over the wavelength range of interest at evenly spaced intervals. Data is presented in a pictorial format by graphing the RESPONSE versus the WAVELENGTH. Detector spatial response is determined by measuring the variation in photosensitivity over the surface of the test detector by moving the detector in an X,Y grid at evenly spaced intervals under a small monochromatic spot of light. Several versions of the instrument were built and test results are provided which represent data from the spatial uniformity testing of Ge, PbS, and PbSe detectors. Data acquired is presented as a 3-Dimensional surface map by plotting the RESPONSE versus the X POSITION versus the Y POSITION.

  5. Metal detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1970-01-01

    Signal voltage resulting from the disturbance of an electromagnetic field within the volume of a sensitive area is compared with a reference ac voltage for polarity information, which identifies the material. System output amplitude and polarity indicate approximate size and type of metal, respectively.

  6. In vivo measurement of lead in the bones of smelter workers using the four-element 'clover-leaf' geometry detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behinaein, Sepideh; Chettle, David R.; Atanackovic, Jovica; Egden, Lesley M.; Fleming, David E. B.; Nie, Linda H.; Richard, Norbert; Stever, Susan

    2011-02-01

    A total of 497 smelter employees from New Brunswick participated in a bone lead survey conducted by McMaster University in 2008 to examine the efficiency of lead exposure control programmes and a four-element 'clover-leaf' geometry detector system. Nearly 42% of the subjects had participated in both the previous surveys performed in 1994 and 1999. After developing the clover-leaf geometry system in 2006, the reliability of the system based on examining the consistency of four detectors and improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) was tested for the first time in 2008 by measuring lead levels of a large population that was occupationally exposed to lead. The Z test was used to study the distribution of the lead concentration calculated based on Kα and Kβ lead x-rays, where the results were broadly consistent with a normal distribution criterion, with relatively small means and standard deviations of between 1 and 2. The MDL of the clover-leaf geometry system was improved on average for tibia and calcaneus by a factor of 3.1 compared to the 1999 and 1994 surveys in which a conventional system (one detector) was used. Furthermore, by comparing the results of the three mentioned surveys, the 2008 results were found to represent the highest precision.

  7. SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS AS COSMIC RAYS DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Privitera, P.; Motloch, P.

    2014-08-10

    In a recent Letter, Jupiter is presented as an efficient detector for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), through measurement by an Earth-orbiting satellite of gamma rays from UHECRs showers produced in Jupiter's atmosphere. We show that this result is incorrect, due to erroneous assumptions on the angular distribution of shower particles. We evaluated other solar system objects as potential targets for UHECRs detection, and found that the proposed technique is either not viable or not competitive with traditional ground-based UHECRs detectors.

  8. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial

  9. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at

  10. Topological detector: measuring continuous dosimetric quantities with few-element detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaohui; Brivio, Davide; Sajo, Erno; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    A prototype topological detector was fabricated and investigated for quality assurance of radiation producing medical devices. Unlike a typical array or flat panel detector, a topological detector, while capable of achieving a very high spatial resolution, consists of only a few elements and therefore is much simpler in construction and more cost effective. The key feature allowing this advancement is a geometry-driven design that is customized for a specific dosimetric application. In the current work, a topological detector of two elements was examined for the positioning verification of the radiation collimating devices (jaws, MLCs, and blades etc). The detector was diagonally segmented from a rectangular thin film strip (2.5 cm  ×  15 cm), giving two contiguous but independent detector elements. The segmented area was the central portion of the strip measuring 5 cm in length. Under irradiation, signals from each detector element were separately digitized using a commercial multichannel data acquisition system. The center and size of an x-ray field, which were uniquely determined by the collimator positions, were shown mathematically to relate to the difference and sum of the two signals. As a proof of concept, experiments were carried out using slit x-ray fields ranging from 2 mm to 20 mm in size. It was demonstrated that, the collimator positions can be accurately measured with sub-millimeter precisions.

  11. Characterization of a cable-free system based on p-type MOSFET detectors for 'in vivo' entrance skin dose measurements in interventional radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, Maria Daniela; D'Andrea, Marco; Strigari, Lidia; D'Alessio, Daniela; Quagliani, Francesco; Santoni, Riccardo; Bosco, Alessia Lo

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: During radiological interventional procedures (RIP) the skin of a patient under examination may undergo a prolonged x-ray exposure, receiving a dose as high as 5 Gy in a single session. This paper describes the use of the OneDose{sup TM} cable-free system based on p-type MOSFET detectors to determine the entrance skin dose (ESD) at selected points during RIP. Methods: At first, some dosimetric characteristics of the detector, such as reproducibility, linearity, and fading, have been investigated using a C-arc as a source of radiation. The reference setting (RS) was: 80 kV energy, 40 cm Multiplication-Sign 40 cm field of view (FOV), current-time product of 50 mAs and source to skin distance (SSD) of 50 cm. A calibrated PMX III solid state detector was used as the reference detector and Gafchromic{sup Registered-Sign} films have been used as an independent dosimetric system to test the entire procedure. A calibration factor for the RS and correction factors as functions of tube voltage and FOV size have been determined. Results: Reproducibility ranged from 4% at low doses (around 10 cGy as measured by the reference detector) to about 1% for high doses (around 2 Gy). The system response was found to be linear with respect to both dose measured with the PMX III and tube voltage. The fading test has shown that the maximum deviation from the optimal reading conditions (3 min after a single irradiation) was 9.1% corresponding to four irradiations in one hour read 3 min after the last exposure. The calibration factor in the RS has shown that the system response at the kV energy range is about four times larger than in the MV energy range. A fifth order and fourth order polynomial functions were found to provide correction factors for tube voltage and FOV size, respectively, in measurement settings different than the RS. ESDs measured with the system after applying the proper correction factors agreed within one standard deviation (SD) with the corresponding ESDs

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy system with non-contact source and detector for in vivo multi-distance measurement of deep biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi; Tanikawa, Yukari; Okada, Eiji

    2013-03-01

    A non-contact near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) scanning system with a phosphor cell placed on the skin for in vivo measurement of biological tissue was developed and evaluated. Because the phosphor is excited by the light that propagates in the tissue, and the excitation light is cut by optical filters, the light that propagates in the tissue is selectively detected. The non-contact system was extended to create a scanning system that can flexibly change source positions with a galvano scanner. The optical scanning system was used for non-contact measurement of the human forearm muscle, and the dependence of optical-density change (ΔOD) caused by the upper-arm occlusion and release on source-detector distance was observed. The obtained ΔOD demonstrates the effectiveness of using this system for multi-distance human-forearm measurement. Furthermore, a human forehead was measured with the system. To extract a deep-layer signal, a surface-layer subtraction method with short-distance regression was applied to measured data. On the basis of the correlation with a simultaneously measured laser-Doppler flowmetry signal, it was confirmed that the deep-layer signal was successfully extracted. The extraction result demonstrates that the optical scanning system can be used as a multi-distance NIRS system for measuring the human brain activity at the forehead.

  13. Measurements of fast neutrons by bubble detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, F.; Martinez, H.; Leal, B.; Rangel, J.; Reyes, P. G.

    2013-07-03

    Neutron bubble detectors have been studied using Am-Be and D-D neuron sources, which give limited energy information. The Bubble Detector Spectrometer (BDS) have six different energy thresholds ranging from 10 KeV to 10 Mev. The number of bubbles obtained in each measurement is related to the dose (standardized response R) equivalent neutrons through sensitivity (b / {mu}Sv) and also with the neutron flux (neutrons per unit area) through a relationship that provided by the manufacturer. Bubble detectors were used with six different answers (0.11 b/ {mu}Sv, 0093 b/{mu}Sv, 0.14 b/{mu}Sv, 0.17 b/{mu}Sv, 0051 b/{mu}Sv). To test the response of the detectors (BDS) radiate a set of six of them with different energy threshold, with a source of Am-Be, placing them at a distance of one meter from it for a few minutes. Also, exposed to dense plasma focus Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II FPD) of ICN-UNAM, apparatus which produces fusion plasma, generating neutrons by nuclear reactions of neutrons whose energy emitting is 2.45 MeV. In this case the detectors were placed at a distance of 50 cm from the pinch at 90 Degree-Sign this was done for a certain number of shots. In both cases, the standard response is reported (Dose in {mu}Sv) for each of the six detectors representing an energy range, this response is given by the expression R{sub i}= B{sub i} / S{sub i} where B{sub i} is the number of bubbles formed in each and the detector sensitivity (S{sub i}) is given for each detector in (b / {mu}Sv). Also, reported for both cases, the detected neutron flux (n cm{sup -2}), by a given ratio and the response involves both standardized R, as the average cross section sigma. The results obtained have been compared with the spectrum of Am-Be source. From these measurements it can be concluded that with a combination of bubble detectors, with different responses is possible to measure the equivalent dose in a range of 10 to 100 {mu}Sv fields mixed neutron and gamma, and pulsed generated fusion

  14. Measurements of fast neutrons by bubble detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, F.; Leal, B.; Martınez, H.; Rangel, J.; Reyes, P. G.

    2013-07-01

    Neutron bubble detectors have been studied using Am-Be and D-D neuron sources, which give limited energy information. The Bubble Detector Spectrometer (BDS) have six different energy thresholds ranging from 10 KeV to 10 Mev. The number of bubbles obtained in each measurement is related to the dose (standardized response R) equivalent neutrons through sensitivity (b / μSv) and also with the neutron flux (neutrons per unit area) through a relationship that provided by the manufacturer. Bubble detectors were used with six different answers (0.11 b/ μSv, 0093 b/μSv, 0.14 b/μSv, 0.17 b/μSv, 0051 b/μSv). To test the response of the detectors (BDS) radiate a set of six of them with different energy threshold, with a source of Am-Be, placing them at a distance of one meter from it for a few minutes. Also, exposed to dense plasma focus Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II FPD) of ICN-UNAM, apparatus which produces fusion plasma, generating neutrons by nuclear reactions of neutrons whose energy emitting is 2.45 MeV. In this case the detectors were placed at a distance of 50 cm from the pinch at 90° this was done for a certain number of shots. In both cases, the standard response is reported (Dose in μSv) for each of the six detectors representing an energy range, this response is given by the expression Ri = Bi / Si where Bi is the number of bubbles formed in each and the detector sensitivity (Si) is given for each detector in (b / μSv). Also, reported for both cases, the detected neutron flux (n cm-2), by a given ratio and the response involves both standardized R, as the average cross section sigma. The results obtained have been compared with the spectrum of Am-Be source. From these measurements it can be concluded that with a combination of bubble detectors, with different responses is possible to measure the equivalent dose in a range of 10 to 100 μSv fields mixed neutron and gamma, and pulsed generated fusion devices.

  15. Ultracold neutron detector for neutron lifetime measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V.; Vassiljev, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ilyin, D.; Krivshich, A.; Serebrov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The gas-filled detector of ultracold neutrons has been designed and constructed for the spectrometer of the neutron lifetime measurements at the ILL, Grenoble, France. The detector has been successfully tested and is currently being used at this spectrometer. We could show that minimization of the ;wall; effect is a key factor to ensure efficient background suppression and to maximize the detection efficiency. This effect is primarily related to the composition of the gas mixture, which crucially depends on the neutron velocity spectrum.

  16. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N W; Mackenzie, A; Honey, I D

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm(-1) ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10(-5) mm(2) (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm(-1), with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm(-1), while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm(-1) for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and

  17. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, N. W.; Mackenzie, A.; Honey, I. D.

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm-1 ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10-5 mm2 (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm-1, with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm-1, while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm-1 for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and gave an in

  18. Performance of photomultiplier tubes and sodium iodide scintillation detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) and scintillation detector systems incorporating 50.8 by 1.27 cm NaI (T l) crystals was investigated to determine the characteristics of the photomultiplier tubes and optimize the detector geometry for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory. Background information on performance characteristics of PMT's and NaI (T l) detectors is provided, procedures for measurement of relevant parameters are specified, and results of these measurements are presented.

  19. Development of components for cost effective terahertz measurement system: terahertz quantum cascade laser and terahertz quantum well infrared photo-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosako, Iwao; Sekine, Norihiko; Patrashin, Mikhail; Yasuda, Hiroaki

    2007-09-01

    Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy have attracted a lot of attention in recent years, because monocycle terahertz radiation can be generated using an ultra-short pulse laser and semiconductor device technologies. The availability of monocycle terahertz radiation sources has encouraged innovative research and development activities worldwide in an extremely wide range of applications, from security to medical systems. However, the fundamental device technology, namely the semiconductor emitter, amplifier, modulator, focal plane array detector, and optical thin film among others, in the terahertz frequencies has not yet been fully established. Therefore, a measurement system in the terahertz range remains a costly alternative. We report in this paper our recent developments of a terahertz quantum cascade laser (THz-QCL) and a terahertz quantum well photo-detector (THz-QWIP). We believe that the combination of a semiconductor emitter (THz-QCL) and a semiconductor detector array (THz-QWIP) is a good choice for developing a cost-effective measurement system for a given terahertz range (from 1.5 THz to 5.0 THz), because both of these items are based on mass-production semiconductor fabrication techniques. We fabricated the THz-QCLs using a resonant longitudinal-optical phonon depopulation (RPD) scheme, which is made up of both a GaAs/AlGaAs material system and a GaSb/AlGaSb material system. The GaAs/AlGaAs THz-QCL has already successfully demonstrated a high peak power (about 30 milliwatts in pulsed operation) operation at 3.1 THz and a high operating temperature (123K). On the other hand, we have fabricated a THz-QWIP structure consisting of 20 periods of GaAs/Al 0.02Ga 0.98As quantum wells with a grating coupler on the top of detector devices, and successfully operated it at 3 THz with a responsivity of 13mA/W. We now believe we are ready to make a cost-effective measurement system, although both of the devices still require cryogenic coolers.

  20. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  1. Measurements of speed of response of high-speed visible and IR optical detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, H. E.; Osmundson, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for measuring speed of response of high speed visible and IR optical detectors to mode-locked Nd:YAG laser pulses is described. Results of measurements of response times of four detectors are presented. Three detectors that can be used as receivers in a 500-MHz optical communication system are tested.

  2. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems.

  3. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, Stephanie A.; Chiles, Marion M.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations.

  4. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, S.A.; Chiles, M.M.

    1994-05-31

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. 10 figs.

  5. General quantum constraints on detector noise in continuous linear measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Haixing

    2017-01-01

    In quantum sensing and metrology, an important class of measurement is the continuous linear measurement, in which the detector is coupled to the system of interest linearly and continuously in time. One key aspect involved is the quantum noise of the detector, arising from quantum fluctuations in the detector input and output. It determines how fast we acquire information about the system and also influences the system evolution in terms of measurement backaction. We therefore often categorize it as the so-called imprecision noise and quantum backaction noise. There is a general Heisenberg-like uncertainty relation that constrains the magnitude of and the correlation between these two types of quantum noise. The main result of this paper is to show that, when the detector becomes ideal, i.e., at the quantum limit with minimum uncertainty, not only does the uncertainty relation takes the equal sign as expected, but also there are two new equalities. This general result is illustrated by using the typical cavity QED setup with the system being either a qubit or a mechanical oscillator. Particularly, the dispersive readout of a qubit state, and the measurement of mechanical motional sideband asymmetry are considered.

  6. Ionization-chamber smoke detector system

    DOEpatents

    Roe, Robert F.

    1976-10-19

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system is designed to reduce false alarms caused by fluctuations in ambient temperature. Means are provided for periodically firing the gas discharge triode and each time recording the triggering voltage required. A computer compares each triggering voltage with its predecessor. The computer is programmed to energize an alarm if the difference between the two compared voltages is a relatively large value indicative of particulates in the measuring chamber and to disregard smaller differences typically resulting from changes in ambient temperature.

  7. Online electrochemical systems for continuous neurochemical measurements with low-potential mediator-based electrochemical biosensors as selective detectors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zipin; Hao, Jie; Xiao, Tongfang; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-08-07

    This study demonstrates a new strategy to develop online electrochemical systems (OECSs) for continuously monitoring neurochemicals by efficiently integrating in vivo microdialysis with an oxidase-based electrochemical biosensor with low-potential electron mediators to shuttle the electron transfer of the oxidases. By using thionine and xanthine oxidase (XOD) as examples of low-potential mediators and oxidases, respectively, we demonstrate that the use of low-potential mediators to shuttle the electron transfer of oxidases would offer a new approach to the development of oxidase-based biosensors with theoretical and technical simplicity. To construct the XOD-based biosensor, thionine was adsorbed onto carbon nanotubes and used to shuttle the electron transfer of XOD. The XOD-based biosensor was positioned into an electrochemical cell that was directly coupled with in vivo microdialysis to form an online electrochemical system (OECS) for continuous and selective measurements of the substrate of XOD (with hypoxanthine as an example). The OECS based on the low-potential mediators is highly selective against the species endogenously existing in the brain system, which is attributed to the low operation potential benefited from the low redox potentials of the mediators. Moreover, the OECS demonstrated here is stable and reproducible and could thus be envisaged to find some interesting applications in physiological and pathological investigations. This study essentially offers a new strategy to develop online electrochemical systems, which is of great importance in understanding the molecular basis of physiological and pathological events.

  8. Measurement of the relative width difference of the {B}^0-{overline{B}}^0 system with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the measurement of the relative width difference ΔΓ d /Γ d of the {B}^0-{overline{B}}^0 system using the data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in pp collisions at √{s}=7 TeV and √{s}=8 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 25.2 fb-1. The value of ΔΓ d /Γ d is obtained by comparing the decay-time distributions of B 0 → J/ ψK S and B 0 → J/ ψK *0(892) decays. The result is ΔΓ d /Γ d = (-0.1±1.1 (stat.)± 0.9 (syst.)) × 10-2. Currently, this is the most precise single measurement of ΔΓ d /Γ d . It agrees with the Standard Model prediction and the measurements by other experiments. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Measurement of the relative width difference of the $$ {B}^0\\hbox{-} {\\overline{B}}^0 $$ system with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; ...

    2016-06-14

    This study presents the measurement of the relative width difference ΔΓ d /Γ d of themore » $$ {B}^0\\hbox{-} {\\overline{B}}^0 $$ system using the data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV and √s=8 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 25.2 fb-1. The value of ΔΓ d /Γ d is obtained by comparing the decay-time distributions of B 0 → J/ψK S and B 0 → J/ψK *0(892) decays. The result is ΔΓ d /Γ d = (-0.1±1.1 (stat.)± 0.9 (syst.)) × 10-2. Currently, this is the most precise single measurement of ΔΓ d /Γ d . Finally, it agrees with the Standard Model prediction and the measurements by other experiments.« less

  10. Measurement of the relative width difference of the $ {B}^0\\hbox{-} {\\overline{B}}^0 $ system with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. 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C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-06-14

    This study presents the measurement of the relative width difference ΔΓ dd of the $ {B}^0\\hbox{-} {\\overline{B}}^0 $ system using the data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV and √s=8 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 25.2 fb-1. The value of ΔΓ dd is obtained by comparing the decay-time distributions of B 0 → J/ψK S and B 0 → J/ψK *0(892) decays. The result is ΔΓ dd = (-0.1±1.1 (stat.)± 0.9 (syst.)) × 10-2. Currently, this is the most precise single measurement of ΔΓ dd . Finally, it agrees with the Standard Model prediction and the measurements by other experiments.

  11. The detector system of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. P.; Bai, J. Z.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beavis, D.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Brown, R. L.; Butorov, I.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Carr, R.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, W. T.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M. J.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, X. H.; Chen, X. S.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chidzik, S.; Chow, K.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dong, L.; Dove, J.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fang, S. D.; Fu, J. Y.; Fu, Z. W.; Ge, L. Q.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gill, R.; Goett, J.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Gornushkin, Y. A.; Grassi, M.; Greenler, L. S.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hahn, R. L.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; He, Q.; He, W. S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hinrichs, P.; Ho, T. H.; Hoff, M.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, P. W.; Huang, X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiang, W. Q.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Joseph, J.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, C. Y.; Lai, W. C.; Lai, W. H.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. K. P.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, B.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, J.; Li, N. Y.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. F.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. B.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, J.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. X.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y. C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, A.; Luk, K. B.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, L. H.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Mayes, B.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Mohapatra, D.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Morgan, J. E.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Newsom, C.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngai, W. K.; Nie, Y. B.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pagac, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Patton, S.; Pearson, C.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Sands, W. R.; Seilhan, B.; Shao, B. B.; Shih, K.; Song, W. Y.; Steiner, H.; Stoler, P.; Stuart, M.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tagg, N.; Tam, Y. H.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tang, W.; Tang, X.; Taychenachev, D.; Themann, H.; Torun, Y.; Trentalange, S.; Tsai, O.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Virostek, S.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, L. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X. T.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Wenman, D. L.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Whitten, C. A.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. C.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, J.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, F. F.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xiang, S. T.; Xiao, Q.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, G.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Yip, K.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q. X.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. F.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zimmerman, S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of νbare oscillations over km-baselines. Subsequent data has provided the world's most precise measurement of sin2 2θ13 and the effective mass splitting Δ mee2. The experiment is located in Daya Bay, China where the cluster of six nuclear reactors is among the world's most prolific sources of electron antineutrinos. Multiple antineutrino detectors are deployed in three underground water pools at different distances from the reactor cores to search for deviations in the antineutrino rate and energy spectrum due to neutrino mixing. Instrumented with photomultiplier tubes, the water pools serve as shielding against natural radioactivity from the surrounding rock and provide efficient muon tagging. Arrays of resistive plate chambers over the top of each pool provide additional muon detection. The antineutrino detectors were specifically designed for measurements of the antineutrino flux with minimal systematic uncertainty. Relative detector efficiencies between the near and far detectors are known to better than 0.2%. With the unblinding of the final two detectors' baselines and target masses, a complete description and comparison of the eight antineutrino detectors can now be presented. This paper describes the Daya Bay detector systems, consisting of eight antineutrino detectors in three instrumented water pools in three underground halls, and their operation through the first year of eight detector data-taking.

  12. Secondary-neutron-yield measurements by current-mode detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary deuterium--tritium (DT) neutrons from pure-deuterium inertial confinement fusion targets can be used to diagnose the fuel areal density. Single-hit detectors like LaNSA at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory or MEDUSA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) saturate for fairly low secondary DT- and primary DD-neutron yields. These detectors are not suitable for the high-yield, direct-drive implosion experiments currently carried out on the 30 kJ, 60 beam OMEGA laser system or for future cryogenic-capsule experiments on OMEGA. The status of several current-mode detectors (e.g., a single scintillator and a photomultiplier tube) now being developed at LLE for secondary-neutron-yield measurements is described.

  13. Minefield reconnaissance and detector system

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.T.; Cave, S.P.; Creager, J.D.; Johnson, C.M.; Mathes, J.B.; Smith, K.J.

    1994-04-26

    A multi-sensor system is described for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like. A remote sensor platform has a plurality of metal detector sensors and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors. The remote sensor platform is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit and signals from the remote sensor platform are sent to the processing and control unit where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps to obtain a probability score for each of the pluralities of sensors. These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step by comparing score sets to a probability table which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess for controlling a marker device to mark the location of found objects. 7 figures.

  14. Minefield reconnaissance and detector system

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Millard T.; Cave, Steven P.; Creager, James D.; Johnson, Charles M.; Mathes, John B.; Smith, Kirk J.

    1994-01-01

    A multi-sensor system (10) for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like. A remote sensor platform (12) has a plurality of metal detector sensors (22) and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors (24). The remote sensor platform (12) is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit (14) and signals from the remote sensor platform (12) are sent to the processing and control unit (14) where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps (34, 36) to obtain a probability "score" for each of the pluralities of sensors (22, 24). These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step (38) by comparing score sets to a probability table (130) which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess (40) for controlling a marker device (76) to mark the location of found objects.

  15. Flux measurements using the BATSE spectroscopic detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Bernard

    1993-01-01

    Among the Compton Gama-Ray Observatory instruments, the BATSE Spectroscopic Detectors (SD) have the distinction of being able to detect photons of energies less than about 20 keV. This is an interesting energy range for the examination of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's). In fact, Sco X-1, the prototype LMXB, is easily seen even in the raw BATSE spectroscopic data. The all-sky coverage afforded by these detectors offers a unique opportunity to monitor this source over time periods never before possible. The aim of this investigation was to test a number of ways in which both continous and discrete flux measurements can be obtained using the BATSE spectroscopic datasets. A instrumental description of a SD can be found in the Compton Workshop of Apr. 1989, this report will deal only with methods which can be used to analyze its datasets. Many of the items discussed below, particularly in regard to the earth occultation technique, have been developed, refined, and applied by the BATSE team to the reduction of BATSE LAD data. Code written as part of this project utilizes portions of that work. The following discussions will first address issues related to the reduction of SD datasets using the earth occultation technique. It will then discuss methods for the recovery of the flux history of strong sources while they are above the earth's limb. The report will conclude with recommended reduction procedures.

  16. Rubicon - a New Diode Array Detector System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, T.; Rudolph, R.; Tug, H.

    A photon-counting system with a 512-channel parallel output digital image tube is presented. Electronics developed separately for each detector channel as well as data aquisition are optimized for low power consumption and high counting rates. This detector, characterized by wide dynamic range, very low noise and high photometric accuracy, is especially suitable for spectrophotometry and calibrations.

  17. Detector system for the angular distribution measurement of 12C + 12C elastic scattering at 200-400A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Terashima, S.; Guo, C. L.; Tanihata, I.; Le, X. Y.; Wang, T. F.; Zhang, X. H.; Sun, Z. Y.; Duan, L. M.; Hu, R. J.; Lu, C. G.; Ma, P.

    2016-10-01

    To obtain the angular distributions of 12C + 12C elastic scatterings with the incident energies of 200-400A MeV for the study of three-body forces, a detector system was constructed at second Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL2) of Institute of Modern Physics (IMP). This system was composed of five plastic scintillation detectors with two read-outs for each detector, a Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) and a 4×4 CsI(Tl) array. The 12C beam with the incident energy of 200A MeV on a natural carbon target was used to test this detector system. It is found that the plastic scintillation detector can give the good energy loss (Δ E) and time of flight (TOF) signals, it can also reflect the position information of scattered 12C events. MWPC can precisely provide the trajectories of scattered particles. This system has a very good particle identification ability and can clearly distinguish the scattered 12C particles from the fragments. It can be used for the study of the three-body forces effect for high energy heavy-ion scattering.

  18. Modeling and design of multiple buried junctions detectors for color systems development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Annick; Sou, Gerard; Ben Chouikha, Mohamed; Sedjil, Mohamed; Lu, Guo N.; Alquie, George

    2000-04-01

    Two novel integrated optical detectors called BDJ detector and BTJ detector have been developed in our laboratory. These two detectors have different applications: the BDJ detector elaborated in CMOS process can be used for wavelength or light flux detection while the BTJ detector based on a bipolar structure gives the trichromatics components of a light. To develop microsystems, we need simulation tools as SPICE model. So, we have elaborated a physical mode, proposed a parameters extraction method and study influence of different parameters for BDJ detectors. Simulations and measurements have validated these models. More, we prose a design of BTJ detectors for developing new color imaging systems.

  19. Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

    1999-02-01

    We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++ [1], GAMANL [2], GRPANL [3]and MGAU [4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

  20. Automatic control and detector for three-terminal resistance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1976-10-26

    A device is provided for automatic control and detection in a three-terminal resistance measuring instrument. The invention is useful for the rapid measurement of the resistivity of various bulk material with a three-terminal electrode system. The device maintains the current through the sample at a fixed level while measuring the voltage across the sample to detect the sample resistance. The three-electrode system contacts the bulk material and the current through the sample is held constant by means of a control circuit connected to a first of the three electrodes and works in conjunction with a feedback controlled amplifier to null the voltage between the first electrode and a second electrode connected to the controlled amplifier output. An A.C. oscillator provides a source of sinusoidal reference voltage of the frequency at which the measurement is to be executed. Synchronous reference pulses for synchronous detectors in the control circuit and an output detector circuit are provided by a synchronous pulse generator. The output of the controlled amplifier circuit is sampled by an output detector circuit to develop at an output terminal thereof a D.C. voltage which is proportional to the sample resistance R. The sample resistance is that segment of the sample between the area of the first electrode and the third electrode, which is connected to ground potential.

  1. The detector system of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    An, F. P.

    2015-12-15

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of ν¯e oscillations over km-baselines. Subsequent data has provided the world's most precise measurement of sin 213 and the effective mass splitting Δm2ee. The experiment is located in Daya Bay, China where the cluster of six nuclear reactors is among the world's most prolific sources of electron antineutrinos. Multiple antineutrino detectors are deployed in three underground water pools at different distances from the reactor cores to search for deviations in the antineutrino rate and energy spectrum due to neutrino mixing. Instrumented with photomultiplier tubes, the water pools serve as shielding against natural radioactivity from the surrounding rock and provide efficient muon tagging. Arrays of resistive plate chambers over the top of each pool provide additional muon detection. The antineutrino detectors were specifically designed for measurements of the antineutrino flux with minimal systematic uncertainty. Relative detector efficiencies between the near and far detectors are known to better than 0.2%. With the unblinding of the final two detectors’ baselines and target masses, a complete description and comparison of the eight antineutrino detectors can now be presented. This study describes the Daya Bay detector systems, consisting of eight antineutrino detectors in three instrumented water pools in three underground halls, and their operation through the first year of eight detector data-taking.

  2. The detector system of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    DOE PAGES

    An, F. P.

    2015-12-15

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of ν¯e oscillations over km-baselines. Subsequent data has provided the world's most precise measurement of sin 22θ13 and the effective mass splitting Δm2ee. The experiment is located in Daya Bay, China where the cluster of six nuclear reactors is among the world's most prolific sources of electron antineutrinos. Multiple antineutrino detectors are deployed in three underground water pools at different distances from the reactor cores to search for deviations in the antineutrino rate and energy spectrum due to neutrinomore » mixing. Instrumented with photomultiplier tubes, the water pools serve as shielding against natural radioactivity from the surrounding rock and provide efficient muon tagging. Arrays of resistive plate chambers over the top of each pool provide additional muon detection. The antineutrino detectors were specifically designed for measurements of the antineutrino flux with minimal systematic uncertainty. Relative detector efficiencies between the near and far detectors are known to better than 0.2%. With the unblinding of the final two detectors’ baselines and target masses, a complete description and comparison of the eight antineutrino detectors can now be presented. This study describes the Daya Bay detector systems, consisting of eight antineutrino detectors in three instrumented water pools in three underground halls, and their operation through the first year of eight detector data-taking.« less

  3. A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

  4. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  5. Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Perone, Sam P.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Kimmons, James F.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical detection system is described comprising in combination: (a) a multielement, microelectrode array detector containing means for acquiring a plurality of signals; (b) electronic means for receiving said signals and converting said signals into a readout or display providing information with respect to the nature and concentration of elements present in a solution being tested. Also described is the means of making the above described microelectrode detector.

  6. Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Perone, Sam P.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Kimmons, James F.

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical detection system is described comprising in combination: (a) a multielement, microelectrode array detector containing means for acquiring a plurality of signals; (b) electronic means for receiving said signals and converting said signals into a readout or display providing information with respect to the nature and concentration of elements present in a solution being tested. Also described is the means of making the above described microelectrode detector.

  7. 47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... measuring equipment employing a peak detector function, properly adjusted for such factors as pulse... measuring equipment employing a peak detector function, properly adjusted for such factors as pulse... correction factor may be needed to determine the total peak emission level. The instruction manual...

  8. 47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... measuring equipment employing a peak detector function, properly adjusted for such factors as pulse... measuring equipment employing a peak detector function, properly adjusted for such factors as pulse... device, e.g., the total peak power level. Note that the use of a pulse desensitization correction...

  9. 47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... measuring equipment employing a peak detector function, properly adjusted for such factors as pulse... measuring equipment employing a peak detector function, properly adjusted for such factors as pulse... a pulse desensitization correction factor may be needed to determine the total peak emission...

  10. Novel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Measurements Using Phoswich Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, James H.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.

    2003-09-30

    The PNNL has developed an Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) for the CTBT to measure four radio-xenon isotopes using a beta-gamma coincidence counting detector. A novel method to measure beta-gamma coincidences using a phoswich detector with state-of-the-art pulse shape discrimination techniqueses has been investigated.

  11. He Puff System For Dust Detector Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    B. Rais, C.H. Skinner A.L. Roquemore

    2010-10-01

    Local detection of surface dust is needed for the safe operation of next-step magnetic fusion devices such as ITER. An electrostatic dust detector, based on a 5 cm x 5 cm grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 50 V, has been developed to detect dust on remote surfaces and was successfully tested for the first time on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). We report on a helium puff system that clears residual dust from this detector and any incident debris or fibers that might cause a permanent short circuit. The entire surface of the detector was cleared of carbon particles by two consecutive helium puffs delivered by three nozzles of 0.45 mm inside diameter. The optimal configuration was found to be with the nozzles at an angle of 30o with respect to the surface of the detector and a helium backing pressure of 6 bar. __________________________________________________

  12. Radioxenon detector calibration spike production and delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; Cameron, Ian M.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kriss, Aaron A.; Lidey, Lance S.; Mendez, Jennifer M.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Riedmann, Robin A.

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Beta-Gamma coincidence radioxenon detectors must be calibrated for each of the four-radioxenon isotopes (135Xe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 131mXe). Without a proper calibration, there is potential for the misidentification of the amount of each isotope detected. It is important to accurately determine the amount of each radioxenon isotope, as the ratios can be used to distinguish between an anthropogenic source and a nuclear explosion. We have developed a xenon calibration system (XeCalS) that produces calibration spikes of known activity and pressure for field calibration of detectors. The activity concentrations of these calibration spikes are measured using a beta-gamma coincidence detector and a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. We will present the results from the development and commissioning of XeCalS, along with the future plans for a portable spike implementation system.

  13. Predictive modeling of infrared detectors and material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkie, Benjamin

    Detectors sensitive to thermal and reflected infrared radiation are widely used for night-vision, communications, thermography, and object tracking among other military, industrial, and commercial applications. System requirements for the next generation of ultra-high-performance infrared detectors call for increased functionality such as large formats (> 4K HD) with wide field-of-view, multispectral sensitivity, and on-chip processing. Due to the low yield of infrared material processing, the development of these next-generation technologies has become prohibitively costly and time consuming. In this work, it will be shown that physics-based numerical models can be applied to predictively simulate infrared detector arrays of current technological interest. The models can be used to a priori estimate detector characteristics, intelligently design detector architectures, and assist in the analysis and interpretation of existing systems. This dissertation develops a multi-scale simulation model which evaluates the physics of infrared systems from the atomic (material properties and electronic structure) to systems level (modulation transfer function, dense array effects). The framework is used to determine the electronic structure of several infrared materials, optimize the design of a two-color back-to-back HgCdTe photodiode, investigate a predicted failure mechanism for next-generation arrays, and predict the systems-level measurables of a number of detector architectures.

  14. High precision detector robot arm system

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  15. Modularized compact positron emission tomography detector for rapid system development.

    PubMed

    Xi, Daoming; Liu, Xiang; Zeng, Chen; Liu, Wei; Li, Yanzhao; Hua, Yuexuan; Mei, Xiongze; Kim, Heejong; Xiao, Peng; Kao, Chien-Min; Xie, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    We report the development of a modularized compact positron emission tomography (PET) detector that outputs serial streams of digital samples of PET event pulses via an Ethernet interface using the UDP/IP protocol to enable rapid configuration of a PET system by connecting multiple such detectors via a network switch to a computer. Presently, the detector is [Formula: see text] in extent (excluding I/O connectors) and contains an [Formula: see text] array of [Formula: see text] one-to-one coupled lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate/silicon photomultiplier pixels. It employs cross-wire and stripline readouts to merge the outputs of the 216 detector pixels to 24 channels. Signals at these channels are sampled using a built-in 24-ch, 4-level field programmable gate arrays-only multivoltage threshold digitizer. In the computer, software programs are implemented to analyze the digital samples to extract event information and to perform energy qualification and coincidence filtering. We have developed two such detectors. We show that all their pixels can be accurately discriminated and measure a crystal-level energy resolution of 14.4% to 19.4% and a detector-level coincidence time resolution of 1.67 ns FWHM. Preliminary imaging results suggests that a PET system based on the detectors can achieve an image resolution of [Formula: see text].

  16. The NOνA Far Detector Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zálešák, Jaroslav; Biery, Kurt; Guglielmo, Gerald; Habig, Alec; Illingworth, Robert; Kasahara, Susan; Kwarciany, Rick; Lu, Qiming; Lukhanin, Gennadiy; Magill, Stephen; Mathis, Mark; Meyer, Holger; Moren, Adam; Mualem, Leon; Muether, Mathew; Norman, Andrew; Paley, Jonathan; Perevalov, Denis; Piccoli, Luciano; Rechenmacher, Ronald; Shanahan, Peter; Suter, Louise; Waldron, Abigail

    2014-06-01

    The NOνA experiment is a long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to make measurements to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino mixing parameters and CP violation in the neutrino sector. In order to make these measurements the NOνA collaboration has designed a highly distributed, synchronized, continuous digitization and readout system that is able to acquire and correlate data from the Fermilab accelerator complex (NuMI), the NOνA near detector at the Fermilab site and the NOνA far detector which is located 810 km away at Ash River, MN. This system has unique properties that let it fully exploit the physics capabilities of the NOνA detector. The design of the NOνA DAQ system and its capabilities are discussed in this paper.

  17. The GEM Detector projective alignment simulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.; Belser, F.C.; Holdener, F.R.; Roeben, M.D.; Paradiso, J.A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pier-Amory, J.

    1993-07-09

    Precision position knowledge (< 25 microns RMS) of the GEM Detector muon system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is an important physics requirement necessary to minimize sagitta error in detecting and tracking high energy muons that are deflected by the magnetic field within the GEM Detector. To validate the concept of the sagitta correction function determined by projective alignment of the muon detectors (Cathode Strip Chambers or CSCs), the basis of the proposed GEM alignment scheme, a facility, called the ``Alignment Test Stand`` (ATS), is being constructed. This system simulates the environment that the CSCs and chamber alignment systems are expected to experience in the GEM Detector, albeit without the 0.8 T magnetic field and radiation environment. The ATS experimental program will allow systematic study and characterization of the projective alignment approach, as well as general mechanical engineering of muon chamber mounting concepts, positioning systems and study of the mechanical behavior of the proposed 6 layer CSCs. The ATS will consist of a stable local coordinate system in which mock-ups of muon chambers (i.e., non-working mechanical analogs, representing the three superlayers of a selected barrel and endcap alignment tower) are implemented, together with a sufficient number of alignment monitors to overdetermine the sagitta correction function, providing a self-consistency check. This paper describes the approach to be used for the alignment of the GEM muon system, the design of the ATS, and the experiments to be conducted using the ATS.

  18. Data acquisition system for segmented reactor antineutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hons, Z.; Vlášek, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition system used for data readout from the PMT channels of a segmented detector of reactor antineutrinos with active shielding. Theoretical approach to the data acquisition is described and two possible solutions using QDCs and digitizers are discussed. Also described are the results of the DAQ performance during routine data taking operation of DANSS. DANSS (Detector of the reactor AntiNeutrino based on Solid Scintillator) is a project aiming to measure a spectrum of reactor antineutrinos using inverse beta decay (IBD) in a plastic scintillator. The detector is located close to an industrial nuclear reactor core and is covered by passive and active shielding. It is expected to have about 15000 IBD interactions per day. Light from the detector is sensed by PMT and SiPM.

  19. Parametric modelling of cardiac system multiple measurement signals: an open-source computer framework for performance evaluation of ECG, PCG and ABP event detectors.

    PubMed

    Homaeinezhad, M R; Sabetian, P; Feizollahi, A; Ghaffari, A; Rahmani, R

    2012-02-01

    The major focus of this study is to present a performance accuracy assessment framework based on mathematical modelling of cardiac system multiple measurement signals. Three mathematical algebraic subroutines with simple structural functions for synthetic generation of the synchronously triggered electrocardiogram (ECG), phonocardiogram (PCG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals are described. In the case of ECG signals, normal and abnormal PQRST cycles in complicated conditions such as fascicular ventricular tachycardia, rate dependent conduction block and acute Q-wave infarctions of inferior and anterolateral walls can be simulated. Also, continuous ABP waveform with corresponding individual events such as systolic, diastolic and dicrotic pressures with normal or abnormal morphologies can be generated by another part of the model. In addition, the mathematical synthetic PCG framework is able to generate the S4-S1-S2-S3 cycles in normal and in cardiac disorder conditions such as stenosis, insufficiency, regurgitation and gallop. In the PCG model, the amplitude and frequency content (5-700 Hz) of each sound and variation patterns can be specified. The three proposed models were implemented to generate artificial signals with varies abnormality types and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), for quantitative detection-delineation performance assessment of several ECG, PCG and ABP individual event detectors designed based on the Hilbert transform, discrete wavelet transform, geometric features such as area curve length (ACLM), the multiple higher order moments (MHOM) metric, and the principal components analysed geometric index (PCAGI). For each method the detection-delineation operating characteristics were obtained automatically in terms of sensitivity, positive predictivity and delineation (segmentation) error rms and checked by the cardiologist. The Matlab m-file script of the synthetic ECG, ABP and PCG signal generators are available in the Appendix.

  20. Thermal lens detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Bernd S.; Faubel, Werner N.; Ache, Hans-Joachim

    1997-07-01

    The characteristics and the performance of a thermal lens detector, which uses a double-beam absorption scheme, were studied in a capillary electrophoresis system with various types of toxic pollutants, e.g., pesticides. The setup of the detector system was miniaturized using the smallest diverging path lengths between the cell and the pinhole (4 mm). The probe laser beam (He:Ne laser, 633 nm) and the excitation beam (Ar+ ion laser, 364, 457, 488, and 514 nm) with a crossed setup were directed by mirrors into two microscope objectives that focused the beam to a 5-micrometers waist inside the capillary. The detection volume was on the order of 75 nl when a 75-micrometers capillary was employed. The change in intensity of the probe beam was detected by a photodiode behind a pinhole, which was protected with different band-pass interference filters. The excitation laser can be used in the multiline order. Micellar electrokinetic methods are used for pesticide separation. The performance of the detector in capillary electrophoresis was assessed with various types of capillaries and compared with a conventional absorption detector. The limit of detection is at least one order of magnitude better than it is with the absorption detector.

  1. Method and system for improved resolution of a compensated calorimeter detector

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for a depleted uranium calorimeter detector used in high energy physics experiments. In a depleted uranium calorimeter detector, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined and the output response of the calorimeter detector is compensated so that the ratio of the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a lepton to the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a hadron of the same energy as the lepton is approximately equal to 1. In the present invention, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined as a function of time and the hadron content of the response of the calorimeter detector is inferred based upon the time structure of the energy pulse measured by the calorimeter detector. The energy measurement can be corrected based on the inference of the hadron content whereby the resolution of the calorimeter can be improved.

  2. Solar irradiance measurements by means of optical fibers and silicon detectors.

    PubMed

    Corrons, A; Pons, A

    1979-08-15

    An experimental system has been constructed for the continuous measurement of solar irradiance using silicon diode detectors not directly exposed to solar radiation. The received incident solar radiation is conducted from the roof of the building to the detectors by an optical fiber. An electronic computer receives the signal and processes it, introducing the necessary corrections to calculate the total solar irradiance in W m(-2). The system measures with a proved accuracy to better than 3%.

  3. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOEpatents

    McFee, M.C.; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a ''shield plate'' or shell, and an opposing ''source plate'' containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects. 3 figures.

  4. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOEpatents

    Mc Fee, Matthew C.; Kirkham, Tim J.; Johnson, Tippi H.

    1994-01-01

    A device for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a "shield plate" or shell, and an opposing "source plate" containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects.

  5. Cross Section Measurements Using the Zero Degree Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. J.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Heilbronn, L.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Zero Degree Detector (ZDD) is an instrument that has been used in accelerator exposures to measure the angular dependence of particles produced in heavy ion fragmentation experiments. The ZDD uses two identical layers of pixelated silicon detectors that make coincident measurements over the active area of the instrument. The angular distribution of secondary particle produced in nuclear interactions for several heavy ions: and target materials will be presented along with performance characteristic of the instrument.

  6. Atmospheric Neutron Measurements using a Small Scintillator Based Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, Merlin; Pearce, Mark; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishizu, Sumito; Jackson, Miranda; Kamae, Tune; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kawano, Takafumi; Kiss, Mozsi; Moretti, Elena; Yanagida, Takayuki; Chauvin, Maxime; Mikhalev, Victor; Rydstrom, Stefan; Takahashi, Hiromitsu

    PoGOLino is a standalone scintillator-based neutron detector designed for balloon-borne missions. Its main purpose is to provide data of the neutron flux in 2 different energy ranges in the high altitude / high latitude region where the highest neutron flux in the atmosphere is found. Furthermore the influence of the Solar activity upon the neutron environment in this region is relatively strong. As a result both short and long term time fluctuations are strongest in this region. At high altitudes neutrons can form a source of background for balloon-borne scientific measurements. They can furthermore form a major source for single event upsets in electronics. A good understanding of the high altitude / high latitude neutron environment is therefore important. Measurements of the neutron environment in this region are however lacking. PoGOLino contains two 5 mm thick Lithium Calcium Aluminium Fluoride (LiCAF) scintillators used for neutron detection. The LiCAF crystals are sandwiched between 2 Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) scintillating crystals, which serve to veto signals produced by gamma-rays and charged particles. The veto system makes measurements of the neutron flux possible even in high radiation environments. One LiCAF detector is shielded with polyethylene while the second remains unshielded, making the detectors sensitive in different energy ranges. The choice of a scintillator crystals as the detection material ensures a high detection efficiency while keeping the instrument small, robust and light weight. The full standalone cylindrical instrument has a radius of 120 mm, a height of 670 mm and a total mass of 13 kg, making it suitable as a piggy back mission. PoGOLino was successfully launched on March 20th 2013 from the Esrange Space Center in Northern Sweden to an altitude of 30.9 km. A detailed description of the detector design is presented, along with results of of the flight. The neutron flux measured during flight is compared to predictions based

  7. Background measurements from balloon-born imaging CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jonathan A.; Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloser, Peter F.; Stahle, Carl M.; Parker, Bradford H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.

    2003-03-01

    We report detector characteristics and background measurements from two prototype imaging CdZnTe (CZT) detectors flown on a scientific balloon payload in May 2001. The detectors are both platinum-contact 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm CZT crystals, each with a 4 × 4 array of pixels tiling the anode. One is made from IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT, the other from eV Products high-pressure Bridgman CZT. Both detectors were mounted side-by-side in a flip-chip configuration and read out by a 32-channel IDE VA/TA ASIC preamp/shaper. We enclosed the detectors in the same 40o field-of-view collimator used in our previously-reported September 2000 flight. I-V curves for the detectors are diode-like, and we find that the platinum contacts adhere significantly better to the CZT surfaces than gold to previosu detectors. The detectors and instrumentation performed well in a 20-hour balloon flight on 23/24 May 2001. Although we discovered a significant instrumental background component in flight, it was possible to measure and subtract this component from the spectra. The resulting IMARAD detector background spectrum reaches ~5×10-3 counts cm-2s-1keV-1 at 100 keV and has a power-law index of ~2 at hgih energies. The eV Products detector has a similar spectrum, although there is more uncertainty in the enregy scale because of calibration complications.

  8. Comparison of an electro-optical system and photo-conducting antenna employed as detectors of pulsed terahertz radiation by means of a new method for measuring spectral width

    SciTech Connect

    Grachev, Ya V; Osipova, M O; Bespalov, V G

    2014-12-31

    Two detection systems, electro-optical system and photoconducting system, are tested by the method suggested previously for determining the boundaries of broadband terahertz radiation in time-domain spectroscopy. From a series of measurements the error in determining the operation ranges is calculated. The terahertz spectrometer with an electro-optical detector based on a ZnTe (110) crystal of thickness 2 mm has the operation spectral range of 0.059 – 1.092 THz. The detector utilizing an iPCA-21-05-1000-800-h photo-conducting antenna with the same source of signal demonstrates a wider operation band ranging from 0.017 to 1.6 THz. The method developed makes it possible to experimentally compare the parameters of the considered terahertz spectrometers obtained under the same quality of adjustment. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Measuring the Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos with the MINOS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Radovic, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It measures the flux from the predominately muon neutrino NuMI beam first 1 km from beam start and then again 735 km later using a pair of steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. The comparison of measured neutrino energy spectra at our Far Detector with the prediction based on our Near Detector measurement allows for a measurement of the parameters which define neutrino oscillations. This thesis will describe the most recent measurement of muon neutrino disappearance in the NuMI muon neutrino beam using the MINOS experiment.

  10. Absolute efficiency measurements with the 10B based Jalousie detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modzel, G.; Henske, M.; Houben, A.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.; Schweika, W.

    2014-04-01

    The 10B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for 3He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the 3He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new 10B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75-50% for neutron energies of 10-100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV).

  11. Measurement of Resonance Inteaction In The NOMAD Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib; NOMAD Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Resonance interaction is one of the most important neutrino interaction modes for neutrino oscillation experiments in few-GeV energy region. This talk presents the measurement of charged current resonance production from the NOMAD data, which is the most precise resonance measurement so far. Future prospects of such measurements in the proposed high-resolution LBNF near detector will be outlined.

  12. Monte Carlo simulated corrections for beam commissioning measurements with circular and MLC shaped fields on the CyberKnife M6 System: a study including diode, microchamber, point scintillator, and synthetic microdiamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Noll, J. M.; Masi, L.; Satariano, N.; Russo, S.

    2017-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate correction factors for output factor (OF), percentage depth-dose (PDD), and off-axis ratio (OAR) measurements with the CyberKnife M6 System. These include the first such data for the InCise MLC. Simulated detectors include diodes, air-filled microchambers, a synthetic microdiamond detector, and point scintillator. Individual perturbation factors were also evaluated. OF corrections show similar trends to previous studies. With a 5 mm fixed collimator the diode correction to convert a measured OF to the corresponding point dose ratio varies between  ‑6.1% and  ‑3.5% for the diode models evaluated, while in a 7.6 mm  ×  7.7 mm MLC field these are  ‑4.5% to  ‑1.8%. The corresponding microchamber corrections are  +9.9% to  +10.7% and  +3.5% to  +4.0%. The microdiamond corrections have a maximum of  ‑1.4% for the 7.5 mm and 10 mm collimators. The scintillator corrections are  <1% in all beams. Measured OF showed uncorrected inter-detector differences  >15%, reducing to  <3% after correction. PDD corrections at d  >  d max were  <2% for all detectors except IBA Razor where a maximum 4% correction was observed at 300 mm depth. OAR corrections were smaller inside the field than outside. At the beam edge microchamber OAR corrections were up to 15%, mainly caused by density perturbations, which blurs the measured penumbra. With larger beams and depths, PTW and IBA diode corrections outside the beam were up to 20% while the Edge detector needed smaller corrections although these did vary with orientation. These effects are most noticeable for large field size and depth, where they are dominated by fluence and stopping power perturbations. The microdiamond OAR corrections were  <3% outside the beam. This paper provides OF corrections that can be used for commissioning new CyberKnife M6 Systems and retrospectively checking estimated

  13. A new neutron time-of-flight detector for fuel-areal-density measurements on OMEGA.

    PubMed

    Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C J; Marshall, K L; Romanofsky, M; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Stoeckl, C

    2014-11-01

    A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector for fuel-areal-density measurements in cryogenic DT implosions was installed on the OMEGA Laser System. The nTOF detector has a cylindrical thin-wall, stainless-steel, 8-in.-diam, 4-in.-thick cavity filled with an oxygenated liquid xylene scintillator. Four gated photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with different gains are used to measure primary DT and D2 neutrons, down-scattered neutrons in nT and nD kinematic edge regions, and to study tertiary neutrons in the same detector. The nTOF detector is located 13.4 m from target chamber center in a well-collimated line of sight. The design details of the nTOF detector, PMT optimization, and test results on OMEGA will be presented.

  14. A new neutron time-of-flight detector for fuel-areal-density measurements on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Glebov, V. Yu. Forrest, C. J.; Marshall, K. L.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J.; Stoeckl, C.

    2014-11-15

    A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector for fuel-areal-density measurements in cryogenic DT implosions was installed on the OMEGA Laser System. The nTOF detector has a cylindrical thin-wall, stainless-steel, 8-in.-diam, 4-in.-thick cavity filled with an oxygenated liquid xylene scintillator. Four gated photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with different gains are used to measure primary DT and D{sub 2} neutrons, down-scattered neutrons in nT and nD kinematic edge regions, and to study tertiary neutrons in the same detector. The nTOF detector is located 13.4 m from target chamber center in a well-collimated line of sight. The design details of the nTOF detector, PMT optimization, and test results on OMEGA will be presented.

  15. Position Ring System using Anger Type Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Joel S. Karp, principal investigator

    2004-12-14

    The overall objective of our project was to develop PET scanners and imaging techniques that achieve high performance and excellent image quality. Our approach was based upon 3-D imaging (no septa) with position-sensitive Anger-logic detectors, whereby the encoding ratio of resolution elements to number of photo-multiplier tube channels is very high. This design led to a series of PET systems that emphasized cost-effectiveness and practicality in a clinical environment.

  16. Gamma detectors in explosives and narcotics detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Zubarev, E. V.; Krasnoperov, A. V.; Porohovoi, S. Yu.; Rapatskii, V. L.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Sadovskii, A. B.; Salamatin, A. V.; Salmin, R. A.; Slepnev, V. M.; Andreev, E. I.

    2013-11-01

    Gamma detectors based on BGO crystals were designed and developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These detectors are used in explosives and narcotics detection systems. Key specifications and design features of the detectors are presented. A software temperature-compensation method that makes it possible to stabilize the gamma detector response and operate the detector in a temperature range from -20 to 50°C is described.

  17. Low-Power Multi-Aspect Space Radiation Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave; Freeman, Jon C.; Burkebile, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of all of these detector technologies will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the deep space radiation field.

  18. ITS detector testbed system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Edmond C. P.

    1999-03-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) implemented all over the world, has become an important and practical traffic management technique. Among all ITS subsystems, the detection system plays an integral element that provides all the necessary environmental information to the ITS infrastructure. This paper describes the ITS Detector testbed design, currently being implemented with these potential ITS applications on the State Highway 6 in College Station, Texas to provide a multi-sensor, multi-source fusion environment that utilizes both multi-sensor and distributed sensor system testing environment.

  19. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/temperature/humidity (FIFH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the Kennedy

  20. Laser angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.; Wilbert, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a laser angle measurement system is described. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the mode. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. Optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures are included, and the results of a demonstration test are given.

  1. The LUCID detector ATLAS luminosity monitor and its electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manghi, F. Lasagni

    2016-07-01

    In 2015 LHC is starting a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely rebuilt, both the detector and the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics features a new read-out board (LUCROD) for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and a revisited LUMAT board for combination of signals from the two detectors. This note describes the new board design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  2. First results from electrical qualification measurements on DEPFET pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Petra; Andricek, Ladislav; Lauf, Thomas; Lechner, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Reiffers, Jonas; Richter, Rainer; Schaller, Gerhard; Schnecke, Martina; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Stefanescu, Alexander; Strüder, Lothar; Treis, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    We report on the first results from a new setup for electrical qualification measurements of DEPFET pixel detector matrices. In order to measure the transistor properties of all pixels, the DEPFET device is placed into a benchtest setup and electrically contacted via a probecard. Using a switch matrix, each pixel of the detector array can be addressed individually for characterization. These measurements facilitate to pre-select the best DEPFET matrices as detector device prior to the mounting of the matrix and allow to investigate topics like the homogeneity of transistor parameters on device, wafer and batch level in order to learn about the stability and reproducibility of the production process. Especially with regard to the detector development for the IXO Wide Field Imager (WFI), this yield learning will be an important tool. The first electrical qualification measurements with this setup were done on DEPFET macropixel detector flight hardware, which will form the FPAs of the Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (MIXS) on board of the 5th ESA cornerstone mission BepiColombo. The DEPFET array consists of 64×64 macropixel for which the transfer, output and clear characteristics were measured.

  3. Infrared Detector System with Controlled Thermal Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal infrared detector system includes a heat sink, a support member, a connection support member connecting the support member to the heat sink and including a heater unit is reviewed. An infrared detector element is mounted on the support member and a temperature signal representative of the infrared energy contacting the support member can then be derived by comparing the temperature of the support member and the heat sink. The temperature signal from a support member and a temperature signal from the connection support member can then be used to drive a heater unit mounted on the connection support member to thereby control the thermal conductance of the support member. Thus, the thermal conductance can be controlled so that it can be actively increased or decreased as desired.

  4. PHENIX Muon Tracking Detector Gas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Pisani, R. P.; Tretiakov, G.; Trofimov, V.

    2007-07-01

    The Muon Tracking Detector Gas System was designed and fabricated to supply Ar+30% CO 2+20% CF 4 mixture to the PHENIX [K. Adcox, S.S. Adler, M. Aizam, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 499 (2003) 669.] [1]. Muon Tracking (MuTr) chambers located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Nation Lab (BNL). The gas system purpose is to provide gas at the requested mixture at a constant controlled pressure and at various flow rates. The system can do this while monitoring the mixture's temperature, pressure, flow rate, and CO 2, oxygen, and moisture content. A custom computer data acquisition system collects and logs the gas system operating parameters. This system can also be alarmed to provide automatic responses to undesired system conditions.

  5. Plasma detector for TEA CO2 laser pulse measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; Yamanaka, M.; Mitsuishi, A.; Fujita, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Iwasaki, T.; Takai, M.

    1983-10-01

    Laser-pulse evolution can be detected by measuring the emf generated by fast electrons in a laser-produced plasma when the laser radiation is focused onto a solid metal target in a vacuum. Using this phenomenon a 'plasma detector' is constructed, and its characteristics for the TEA CO2 laser radiation of intensity 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 10th W/sq cm are investigated experimentally. The plasma detector operates at room temperature and is strong against laser damages. For the evacuated plasma detector down to 0.1 torr, a maximum output voltage of 90 V and a rise time shorter than 1 ns are observed. The plasma detector, therefore, can be used as a power monitor for laser pulses and as a trigger voltage source.

  6. Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seongtae; Baldelomar, Edwin; Park, Kwangjune; Sosebee, Mark; White, Andy; Yu, Jaehoon

    2011-06-01

    The High Energy Physics group of the University of Texas at Arlington has been developing gas electron multiplier detectors to use them as sensitive gap detectors in digital hadron calorimeters for the International Linear Collider, a future high energy particle accelerator. For this purpose, we constructed numerous GEM detectors that employ double GEM layers. In this study, two kinds of prototype GEM detectors were tested; one with 28×28 cm2 active area double GEM structure with a 3 mm drift gap, a 1 mm transfer gap and a 1 mm induction gap and the other with two 3×3 cm2 GEM foils in the amplifier stage with a 5 mm drift gap, a 2 mm transfer gap and a 1 mm induction gap. The detectors' characteristics from exposure to high-energy charged particles and other radiations were measured using cosmic rays and 55Fe radioactive source. From the 55Fe tests, we observed two well separated characteristic X-ray emission peaks and confirmed the detectors' functionality. We also measured chamber gains to be over 6000 at a high voltage of 395 V across each GEM electrode. The responses to cosmic rays show the spectra that fit well to Landau distributions as expected from minimum ionizing particles.

  7. ELECTRICAL AEROSOL DETECTOR (EAD) MEASUREMENTS AT THE ST. LOUIS SUPERSITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Model 3070A Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD) measures a unique aerosol parameter called total aerosol length. Reported as mm/cm3, aerosol length can be thought of as a number concentration times average diameter, or simply as d1 weighting. This measurement falls between nu...

  8. Determining MTF of digital detector system with Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eun Seon; Lee, Hyung Won; Nam, Sang Hee

    2005-04-01

    We have designed a detector based on a-Se(amorphous Selenium) and done simulation the detector with Monte Carlo method. We will apply the cascaded linear system theory to determine the MTF for whole detector system. For direct comparison with experiment, we have simulated 139um pixel pitch and used simulated X-ray tube spectrum.

  9. 14 CFR 27.1195 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... detector systems. Each turbine engine powered rotorcraft must have approved quick-acting fire detectors in numbers and locations insuring prompt detection of fire in the engine compartment which cannot be...

  10. Spillage detector for liquid chromatography systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, M. J.; Fulton, D. S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A spillage detector device for use in conjunction with fractionation of liquid chromatography systems which includes a spillage recieving enclosure beneath the fractionation area is described. A sensing device having a plurality of electrodes of alternating polarity is mounted within the spillage recieving enclosure. Detection circuitry, responsive to conductivity between electrodes, is operatively connected to the sensing device. The detection circuitry feeds into the output circuitry. The output circuit has relaying and switching circuitry directed to a solenoid, an alarm system and a pump. The solenoid is connected to the pliable conduit of the chromatography system. The alarm system comprises an audio alarm and a visual signal. A 115-volt power system interconnected with the pump, the solenoid, the sensing device, and the detection and output circuitry.

  11. Measurement and simulation of the segmented Germanium-Detector's Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Shadi

    This paper presents the methods to determine the detection efficiency of the segmented germanium detector. Two methods are given for the investigating the detection efficiency of the semiconductor segmented-germanium detector. Experimental measurements using radioactive sources are reported. The radioactive sources, which were involved, can give us the opportunity to cover the photon energy ranging up to hundreds of keV. A useful compilation is included of the latest values of the emission rates per decay for the following radioactive sources: 241Am and 133Ba. The second method, the simulation of the efficiency is involved for comparison purposes. A good agreement between the measurements and the simulation is obtained.

  12. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-08-10

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  13. Photon Detection Systems for Modern Cherenkov Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, B.; Britting, A.; Cowie, E.; Eyrich, W.; Hoek, M.; Keri, T.; Lehmann, A.; Montgomery, R.; Uhlig, F.

    Modern experiments in hadronic physics require detector systems capable of identifying and reconstructing all final-state particle and their momentum vectors. The ANDA experiment at FAIR and the CLAS 12 experiment and Jefferson Laboratory both plan to use imaging Cherenkov counters for particle identification. CLAS 12 will feature a Ring Imaging CHerenkov counter (RICH), while ANDA plans to construct Cherenkov counters relying on the Detections of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC). These detectors require high-rate, single-photon capable light detection systems with sufficient granularity and position resolution. Several candidate systems are available, ranging from multi-anode photomultiplier tubes to micro-channel plate systems to silicon photomultipliers. Each of these detection solutions has particular advantages and disadvantages. Detailed studies of the rate dependence, cross-talk, time-resolution and position resolution fro a range of commercially available photon detection solutions are presented and evaluated on their applicability to the ANDA and CLAS12 Cherenkov counters.

  14. Portable radiation detector and mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Eakle, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    A portable radiation detector and mapping system (RADMAPS) has been developed to detect, locate, and plot nuclear radiation intensities on commercially available digital maps and other images. The field unit records gamma-ray spectra or neutron signals together with positions from a global positioning system (GPS) on flash memory cards. The recorded information is then transferred to a laptop computer for spectral data analyses and then georegistered graphically on maps, photographs, etc. RADMAPS integrates several existing technologies to produce a preprogrammable field unit uniquely suited for each survey, as required. The system records spectra from a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector or an enriched {sup 6}Li doped glass neutron scintillator. Standard Geographic Information System (GIS) software installed in a lap-top, complete with CD-ROM supporting digitally imaged maps, permits the characterization of nuclear material in the field when the presence of such material is not otherwise documented. This paper gives the results of a typical site survey of the Savannah River site (SRS) using RADMAPS. The ability to provide rapid field data should be of use in treaty verification, safeguards, decontamination, and nuclear weapons dismantlement.

  15. Status of the CMS Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, Andre; Hwong, Yi Ling; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K.; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Michal; Cristian Spataru, Andrei; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a CERN multi-purpose experiment that exploits the physics of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Detector Control System (DCS) is responsible for ensuring the safe, correct and efficient operation of the experiment, and has contributed to the recording of high quality physics data. The DCS is programmed to automatically react to the LHC operational mode. CMS sub-detectors’ bias voltages are set depending on the machine mode and particle beam conditions. An operator provided with a small set of screens supervises the system status summarized from the approximately 6M monitored parameters. Using the experience of nearly two years of operation with beam the DCS automation software has been enhanced to increase the system efficiency by minimizing the time required by sub-detectors to prepare for physics data taking. From the infrastructure point of view the DCS will be subject to extensive modifications in 2012. The current rack mounted control PCs will be replaced by a redundant pair of DELL Blade systems. These blade servers are a high-density modular solution that incorporates servers and networking into a single chassis that provides shared power, cooling and management. This infrastructure modification associated with the migration to blade servers will challenge the DCS software and hardware factorization capabilities. The on-going studies for this migration together with the latest modifications are discussed in the paper.

  16. Fast range measurement of spot scanning proton beams using a volumetric liquid scintillator detector

    PubMed Central

    Hui, CheukKai; Robertson, Daniel; Alsanea, Fahed; Beddar, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Accurate confirmation and verification of the range of spot scanning proton beams is crucial for correct dose delivery. Current methods to measure proton beam range using ionization chambers are either time-consuming or result in measurements with poor spatial resolution. The large-volume liquid scintillator detector allows real-time measurements of the entire dose profile of a spot scanning proton beam. Thus, liquid scintillator detectors are an ideal tool for measuring the proton beam range for commissioning and quality assurance. However, optical artefacts may decrease the accuracy of measuring the proton beam range within the scintillator tank. The purpose of the current study was to 1) develop a geometric calibration system to accurately calculate physical distances within the liquid scintillator detector, taking into account optical artefacts; and 2) assess the accuracy, consistency, and robustness of proton beam range measurement using the liquid scintillator detector with our geometric calibration system. The range of the proton beam was measured with the calibrated liquid scintillator system and was compared to the nominal range. Measurements were made on three different days to evaluate the setup robustness from day to day, and three sets of measurements were made for each day to evaluate the consistency from delivery to delivery. All proton beam ranges measured using the liquid scintillator system were within half a millimeter of the nominal range. The delivery-to-delivery standard deviation of the range measurement was 0.04 mm, and the day-to-day standard deviation was 0.10 mm. In addition to the accuracy and robustness demonstrated by these results when our geometric calibration system was used, the liquid scintillator system allowed the range of all 94 proton beams to be measured in just two deliveries, making the liquid scintillator detector a perfect tool for range measurement of spot scanning proton beams. PMID:27274863

  17. Leakage current measurements of a pixelated polycrystalline CVD diamond detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, R. M.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Cunnigham, L.; Stehl, C.; Berderman, E.; Rahim, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diamond has several desirable features when used as a material for radiation detection. With the invention of synthetic growth techniques, it has become feasible to look at developing diamond radiation detectors with reasonable surface areas. Polycrystalline diamond has been grown using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique by the University of Augsburg and detector structures fabricated at the James Watt Nanofabrication Centre (JWNC) in the University of Glasgow in order to produce pixelated detector arrays. The anode and cathode contacts are realised by depositing gold to produce ohmic contacts. Measurements of I-V characteristics were performed to study the material uniformity. The bias voltage is stepped from -1000V to 1000V to investigate the variation of leakage current from pixel to pixel. Bulk leakage current is measured to be less than 1nA.

  18. Development of detector technologies for neutron beta decay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Cude-Woods, Chris; Young, Albert; Los Alamos UCN Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    In the past year we have developed two detector technologies for neutron beta decay measurements. The first is designed specifically to detect the recoil proton from neutron decay. In particular, the PERKEO III experiments planned for the Institut Laue Langevin require detectors with active area greater than about 600 cm2 area to achieve the targeted statistical sensitivity. We have developed an implementation of transmission foil detectors utilizing free standing foils of roughly 100 nm thickness and 700 cm2 area, coated with LiF converting crystal. These foils are placed in an accelerating electric field geometry to first accelerate the protons to 30 kV and then convert them to an electron shower which can be detected with conventional semiconductor or scintillator detectors. We've also begun development of technology that is designed to detect charged particles from neutron-capture reaction on 10B. The UCNtau experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratories requires non-magnetic neutron sensors that can be used to measure the density of neutrons in a magnetic trap. We are employing a multilayer surface detector recently developed at Los Alamos for the UCN flux monitoring, adapting it for a compact, 1 cm2 detector and ultralow dark rates. The detector consists of 10B on ZnS scintillating sheet that will be adhered to both faces of an acrylic plate with scintillating optical fibers embedded into it. The optical fibers will be coupled to 2, Hamamatsu micro-PMTs for coincident detection of a neutron event.

  19. Validation of an analytical method for simultaneous high-precision measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment plants using a gas chromatography-barrier discharge detector system.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Raffaella; Caivano, Marianna; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Mancini, Ignazio M; Bianco, Giuliana; Caniani, Donatella

    2017-01-13

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) emit CO2 and N2O, which may lead to climate change and global warming. Over the last few years, awareness of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from WWTPs has increased. Moreover, the development of valid, reliable, and high-throughput analytical methods for simultaneous gas analysis is an essential requirement for environmental applications. In the present study, an analytical method based on a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a barrier ionization discharge (BID) detector was developed for the first time. This new method simultaneously analyses CO2 and N2O and has a precision, measured in terms of relative standard of variation RSD%, equal to or less than 6.6% and 5.1%, respectively. The method's detection limits are 5.3ppmv for CO2 and 62.0ppbv for N2O. The method's selectivity, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification were good at trace concentration levels. After validation, the method was applied to a real case of N2O and CO2 emissions from a WWTP, confirming its suitability as a standard procedure for simultaneous GHG analysis in environmental samples containing CO2 levels less than 12,000mg/L.

  20. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2006-09-21

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume (~570 cm3, ~3 kg, 140% or larger) germanium detectors for field applications. We are using a new generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers for operating the very largest volume germanium detectors with absolutely no maintenance or liquid nitrogen requirements. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed five years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (NEM). The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be utilized. These mechanically cooled germanium detector systems being developed here will provide the largest, most sensitive detectors possible for use with the RASA. To provide such systems, the appropriate technical fundamentals are being researched. Mechanical cooling of germanium detectors has historically been a difficult endeavor. The success or failure of mechanically cooled germanium detectors stems from three main technical issues: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors affect one another. There is a particularly crucial relationship between vacuum and temperature. These factors will be experimentally studied both separately and together to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system for field use. Using this knowledge, a series of mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems are being designed and fabricated. Our collaborators

  1. Order-sorting filter transmittance measured with an array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaney, James B.; Bradley, Scott E.; Bly, Vincent T.; Ewin, Audrey J.; La, Anh T.

    1993-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of the spectrally and spatially variant transmittance of a linear variable order-sorting filter in a manner that closely resembles its conditions of actual use is described. The transmittance of a prototype order-sorting filter was measured in the 400- to 880-nm wavelength region by illuminating it with the output beam of a spectrophotometer while the filter was attached to the front of a 30 x 32 pixel silicon array detector. The filter was designed to be used in the output beam of a grating spectrometer to prevent the dispersal of higher diffracted orders onto an array detector. Areas of the filter that were spatially matched to the corresponding detector pixel column had measured peak transmittances of about 90 percent that were uniform to within +/- 1.5 percent along a given column. Transmittances for incident wavelengths shorter than the desired bandpass, corresponding to the order overlap region, were measured in the 0.003 range. Line spread function measurements made with the array detector indicated no significant beam spreading caused by inserting the filter into the beam.

  2. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-07-28

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume germanium detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~ 1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be reliably utilized.

  3. A simple liquid detector for radiopharmaceutical processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alexoff, D.L.; Hallaba, K.; Schlyer, D.; Ferrieri, R.

    1995-03-01

    Sensing the presence of liquids in tubing and vessels in radiochemical processing equipment provides information important to the remote or automatic control of the production of clinical doses of radiopharmaceuticals. Although modern commercial automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis machines do not usually include liquid presence as a measured process variable, earlier more complex automated synthesis devices did; and the inclusion of such feedback can increase system reliability and simplify trouble-shooting tasks carried out by computer software or human operators. Commercial liquid level detectors are often designed for large-scale industrial processes and are therefore too large or expensive to be useful in many radiochemical hardware systems. An inexpensive miniature optical liquid detector originally by Kramer and Fuchs has been duplicated here for use in monitoring the presence of liquids in teflon tubing (1/16 in. O.D.) in an enriched oxygen-18 water recovery system.

  4. Qubit Measurement with a Nonlinear Cavity Detector Beyond Linear Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflamme, Catherine; Clerk, Aashish

    2012-02-01

    We consider theoretically the use of a driven, nonlinear superconducting microwave cavity to measure a coupled superconducting qubit. This is similar to setups studied in recent experiments.ootnotetextM. Hatridge et al. Phys.Rev.B, 83,134501 (2011)^,ootnotetextF.R. Ong et al. PRL 106,167002 (2011) In a previous work, we demonstrated that for weak coupling (where linear response theory holds) one misses the quantum limit on QND detection in this system by a large factor proportional to the parametric gain.ootnotetextC. Laflamme and A.A. Clerk, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033803 (2011) Here we calculate measurement backaction beyond linear response by using an approximate mapping to a detuned degenerate parametric amplifier having both linear and dispersive couplings to the qubit. We find surprisingly that the backaction dephasing rate is far more sensitive to corrections beyond linear response than the detector response. Thus, increasing the coupling strength can significantly increase the efficiency of the measurement. We interpret this behavior in terms of the non-Gaussian photon number fluctuations of the nonlinear cavity. Our results have applications to quantum information processing and quantum amplification with superconducting microwave circuits.

  5. The detector calibration system for the CUORE cryogenic bolometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, Jeremy S.; Dally, Adam; Davis, Christopher J.; Ejzak, Larissa; Lenz, Daniel; Lim, Kyungeun E.; Heeger, Karsten M.; Maruyama, Reina H.; Nucciotti, Angelo; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Wise, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and other rare events. The CUORE detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operated underground at 10 mK in a dilution refrigerator at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Candidate events are identified through a precise measurement of their energy. The absolute energy response of the detectors is established by the regular calibration of each individual bolometer using gamma sources. The close-packed configuration of the CUORE bolometer array combined with the extensive shielding surrounding the detectors requires the placement of calibration sources within the array itself. The CUORE Detector Calibration System is designed to insert radioactive sources into and remove them from the cryostat while respecting the stringent heat load, radiopurity, and operational requirements of the experiment. This paper describes the design, commissioning, and performance of this novel source calibration deployment system for ultra-low-temperature environments.

  6. Neutron detector simultaneously measures fluence and dose equivalent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, R. F.; Dyer, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Neutron detector acts as both an area monitoring instrument and a criticality dosimeter by simultaneously measuring dose equivalent and fluence. The fluence is determined by activation of six foils one inch below the surface of the moderator. Dose equivalent is determined from activation of three interlocked foils at the center of the moderator.

  7. Development of large-area CZT detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Joergensen, Carl C.; Westergaard, Niels J.; Jonasson, Per; van Pamelen, Mike A.; Reglero, Victor; Eyles, Christopher J.; Neubert, Torsten

    1999-10-01

    DSRI has initiated a development program of CZT x-ray and gamma ray detectors employing strip readout techniques. A dramatic improvement of the energy response was found operating the detectors as so-called drift detectors. For the electronic readout, modern ASIC chips were investigated. Modular design and the low power electronics will make large area detectors using the drift strip method feasible. The performance of a prototype CZT system will be presented and discussed.

  8. Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) measurement techniques for lenses and linear detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnabel, J. J., Jr.; Kaishoven, J. E., Jr.; Tom, D.

    1984-01-01

    Application is the determination of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for linear detector arrays. A system set up requires knowledge of the MTF of the imaging lens. Procedure for this measurement is described for standard optical lab equipment. Given this information, various possible approaches to MTF measurement for linear arrays is described. The knife edge method is then described in detail.

  9. A micromegas detector for {sup 222}Rn emanations measurements

    SciTech Connect

    García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Irastorza, I. G.; Mirallas, H.

    2013-08-08

    The {sup 222}Rn emanation has significant contribution in the overall background for rare event searches experiments. In order to measure this emanations a high sensitivity detector has been designed. The detection method is based on the electrostatic collection of the {sup 222}Rn daughters on a Micromegas detector. Using a chamber with a volume of 21.2 l for the collection of {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po progeny of {sup 222}Rn and a 12 × 12cm{sup 2} pixelized Micromegas for the α detection. The advantages of the Micromegas detectors are the low intrinsic radioactivity and the track reconstruction of the α’s, having excellent capabilities for event discrimination.

  10. Measurement of radon progenies using the Timepix detector.

    PubMed

    Bulanek, Boris; Jilek, Karel; Cermak, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    After an introduction of Timepix detector, results of these detectors with silicon and cadmium telluride detection layer in assessment of activity of short-lived radon decay products are presented. They were collected on an open-face filter by means of one-grab sampling method from the NRPI radon chamber. Activity of short-lived radon decay products was estimated from measured alpha decays of 218,214Po. The results indicate very good agreement between the use of both Timepix detectors and an NRPI reference instrument, continuous monitor Fritra 4. Low-level detection limit for EEC was estimated to be 41 Bq m(-3) for silicon detection layer and 184 Bq m(-3) for CdTe detection layer, respectively.

  11. DLTS measurement of energetic levels, generated in silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosetti, M.; Croitoru, N.; Furetta, C.; Leroy, C.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Redaelli, M.; Rizzatti, M.; Seidman, A.

    1995-02-01

    DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were performed on irradiated Si detectors to record data on the energetic levels traps generated by neutrons. For moderate fluences (φ) of neutrons ( φ < 10 12 n cm -2) electron and hole trap levels have been detected. Four electron trap levels were found for both FZ (float zone) and MCZ (magnetic Czochralsky) types of Si detectors but only two hole trap levels in FZ and one in MCZ detectors. This indicates that the type of silicon has an influence on the traps generated by irradiation. From the values obtained for the relative concentration of E1 centers in MCZ and FZ detectors, it results that the E1 centers are oxygen and not vacancy limited. Since the concentration of the E2, E3, and E4 levels are larger in FZ than in MCZ detectors, it may be assumed that the "gettering effect" can control the formation of deeper traps. Filling pulses were applied for various voltages and at the flat band filling voltage, maximum ratio of {N t}/{N} of the E1 center was achieved. This may indicate that the concentration of E1 centers, near the p +-n interface, can be larger than in the rest of the junction.

  12. Evolution in boron-based GEM detectors for diffraction measurements: from planar to 3D converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, Giorgia; Perelli Cippo, Enrico; Croci, Gabriele; Muraro, Andrea; Schooneveld, Erik; Scherillo, Antonella; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Birch, Jens; Claps, Gerardo; Murtas, Fabrizio; Rebai, Marica; Tardocchi, Marco; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    The so-called ‘3He-crisis’ has motivated the neutron detector community to undertake an intense R&D programme in order to develop technologies alternative to standard 3He tubes and suitable for neutron detection systems in future spallation sources such as the European spallation source (ESS). Boron-based GEM (gas electron multiplier) detectors are a promising ‘3He-free’ technology for thermal neutron detection in neutron scattering experiments. In this paper the evolution of boron-based GEM detectors from planar to 3D converters with an application in diffraction measurements is presented. The use of 3D converters coupled with GEMs allows for an optimization of the detector performances. Three different detectors were used for diffraction measurements on the INES instrument at the ISIS spallation source. The performances of the GEM-detectors are compared with those of conventional 3He tubes installed on the INES instrument. The conceptual detector with the 3D converter used in this paper reached a count rate per unit area of about 25% relative to the currently installed 3He tube. Its timing resolution is similar and the signal-to-background ratio (S/B) is 2 times lower.

  13. Neutron emission measurement at the HL-2A tokamak device with a liquid scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xufei; Chen, Zhongjing; Peng, Xingyu; Yuan, Xi; Zhang, Xing; Cui, Zhiqiang; Du, Tengfei; Hu, Zhimeng; Li, Tao; Fan, Tieshuan Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Gorini, Giuseppe; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2014-10-15

    Neutron emission measurement at the HL-2A tokamak device with a liquid scintillation detector is described. The detector was placed at a location with little structure material in the field of view, and equipped with a gain monitoring system which could provide the possibility to evaluate the gain variation as well as to correct for the detector response. Time trace of the neutron emissivity was obtained and it was consistent with the result of a standard {sup 235}U fission chamber. During the plasma discharge the neutron yield could vary by about four orders of magnitude and the fluctuation of the detector gain was up to about 6%. Pulse height spectrum of the liquid scintillation detector was constructed and corrected with the aid of the gain monitoring system, and the correction was found to be essential for the assessment of the neutron energy spectrum. This successful measurement offered experience and confidence for the application of liquid scintillation detectors in the upcoming neutron camera system.

  14. Unattended Sensor System With CLYC Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Myjak, Mitchell J.; Becker, Eric M.; Gilbert, Andrew J.; Hoff, Jonathan E.; Knudson, Christa K.; Landgren, Peter C.; Lee, Samantha F.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Pfund, David M.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Smart, John E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Torres-Torres, Carlos R.; Wiseman, Clinton G.

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a next-generation unattended sensor for detecting anomalous radiation sources. The system combines several technologies to reduce size and weight, increase battery lifetime, and improve decision-making capabilities. Sixteen Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillators allow for gamma-ray spectroscopy and neutron detection in the same volume. Low-power electronics for readout, high voltage bias, and digital processing reduce the total operating power to 1.3 W. Computationally efficient analysis algorithms perform spectral anomaly detection and isotope identification. When an alarm occurs, the system transmits alarm information over a cellular modem. In this paper, we describe the overall design of the unattended sensor, present characterization results, and compare the performance to stock NaI:Tl and 3He detectors.

  15. Prototype detectors for measuring poloidal magnetic flux with an ion beam probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, T. P.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P. J.; Kile, T. D.

    2016-10-01

    Development of a detector and associated techniques to determine the localized magnetic flux, and therefore poloidal magnetic field and current density profile, in an axisymmetric plasma device is underway. This will provide invaluable information on equilibrium, transport and stability studies of fusion plasmas. A singly charged ion beam is injected into the plasma and the detector located outside the plasma measures doubly charged ions created within a cm-scale sample volume of the plasma. The ions are split into beamlets at the detector. The toroidal angle of the beam's velocity is determined by measuring the fraction of the beamlets that strike detection plates and wires. The corresponding angle is used to determine the beam's toroidal velocity component. Due to canonical momentum conservation, that toroidal velocity is proportional to the poloidal flux function in the sample volume. We have built several prototype detectors and measured the angle of a 45 keV potassium ion beam. The cross-section of the plasma that can be studied will be maximized and system costs will be minimized if the detector has a direct view of the plasma and is operated close to it. However, this subjects the detector to noise due to UV-induced photoelectrons and plasma particles. We have conducted experiments that demonstrate reductions of this noise to facilitate measurement of ion beam signals. Experimental and design results will be presented. This work is supported by US DoE Award No. DE-SC0006077.

  16. Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a configurable detector of positive operator-valued measures.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Branderhorst, Matthijs P A; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik B; Smith, Brian J; Walmsley, Ian A

    2009-02-27

    We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures. The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting positive operator-valued measures can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude, and phase, allowing thus not only detection but also preparation of exotic quantum states. Experimental tomographic reconstructions of classical benchmark states are presented as a demonstration of the detector capabilities.

  17. Ultra-violet light-emitting diode calibration system for timing large area scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, P. Yu; Runtso, M. F.; Naumov, P. P.; Maklyaev, E. F.; Kaplin, V. A.; Fomin, V. S.; Razzhivin, I. S.; Melikyan, Yu A.

    2017-01-01

    Timing large area plastic scintillation detectors are developing for the space gamma-ray telescopes now. For the in-flight calibration of these detectors the use of ultra-violet light-emitting diode, irradiating the 1 m long detector module at the center of its lateral side is suggested. The results of the measurements show the possibility of this calibration system implementation as for amplitude as for timing properties monitoring.

  18. Solid-state detector and optical system for microchip analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Kamei, Toshihiro; Scherer, James R.; Street, Robert A.

    2005-03-15

    A miniaturized optical excitation and detector system is described for detecting fluorescently labeled analytes in electrophoretic microchips and microarrays. The system uses miniature integrated components, light collection, optical fluorescence filtering, and an amorphous a-Si:H detector for detection. The collection of light is accomplished with proximity gathering and/or a micro-lens system. Optical filtering is accomplished by integrated optical filters. Detection is accomplished utilizing a-Si:H detectors.

  19. In-orbit demonstration of a magnetic measurement system for space-borne gravitational wave detectors with a CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    Future space observatories for gravitational radiation such as eLISA require instrumentation capable of measuring magnetic fields with low-noise conditions at millihertz frequencies. The reason is that the main scientific payload can only operate successfully if the magnetic environment meets certain strict low-frequency requirements. Whit this purpose, a simplified version of the proposed magnetic measurement system for eLISA has been developed for a six-unit CubeSat called ^{3}Cat-2, which will make it possible to improve the technology readiness level (TRL) of the instrument. The special feature of the experiment is that the magnetic sensors integrated in the payload are magnetically shielded to low-frequency fluctuations by using a small cylindrical permalloy enclosure. This will allow the in-flight noise characterization of the system under the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Therefore, the ^{3}Cat-2 CubeSat will offer the opportunity to measure the capability of our instrument and will guide the progress towards the improved magnetic measurement system for eLISA. This talk will describe the principal characteristics and implementation of the on-board payload.

  20. DT High Energy Measurements and Comparison of Multiple Spectra in a He-4 Gas Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Hannah E.; Zhu, Ting; Gokhale, Sasmit; Parker, Cody; Richard, Andrea; Massey, Thomas; Baciak, James E.; Enqvisst, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron spectroscopy is important for a variety of applications to nuclear energy, national security, and basic science research. Currently, organic scintillator neutron detectors are used as a diagnostic tool for neutron spectroscopy in DT fusion research. However, these neutron measurements generate contaminants in common organics from deuteron or carbon break-up that affects the light output spectrum. A potential solution to this problem is to use a He-4 fast neutron gas scintillator detector system. He-4 has excellent gamma rejection due to a low charge density, pulse shape discrimination, and lower light yield and deposited energy from gamma interactions. The detector will also not degrade due to high intensity background gamma radiation. The detector was irradiated with 14.1 MeV neutrons at the Edwards Accelerator Lab at Ohio University. We report on the effectiveness of the He-4 detector system to measure the resulting high energy neutrons and compare this spectrum to other neutron spectra taken with this detector.

  1. Charge detector for the measurement of ionic solutes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingcheng; Chen, Yongjing; Mori, Masanobu; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Azad, Abul K; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Srinivasan, Kannan

    2010-02-01

    We describe a flow-through ionic charge detector in the form of a three-compartmented system. A central water channel is separated from two outer channels bearing water (or a dilute electrolyte) by a cation-exchange membrane (CEM) and an anion-exchange membrane (AEM). Independent fluid input/output ports address all channels. One platinum electrode is put in each outer channel. When the AEM-side electrode is positive with respect to the CEM-side electrode and voltage (approximately 1-10 V) is applied, the observed background current is from the transport of H(+)/OH(-) through the CEM/AEM to the negative/positive electrodes, respectively. The H(+) and OH(-) are generated by the ionization of water, in part aided by the electric field. If an electrolyte (X(+)Y(-)) is injected in to the central channel, X(+) and Y(-) migrate through the CEM and AEM to the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, and generate a current pulse. The integrated area of the current signal (coulombs) elicited by this electrolyte injection is dependent on a number of variables, the most important being the central channel residence time and the applied voltage (V(app)); these govern the transport of the injected electrolyte to/through the membranes. Other parameters include electrode placement, fluid composition, and outer channel flow rates. For strong electrolytes, depending on the operating conditions, the current peak area (hereinafter called the measured charge signal, Q(m)) can both be less or more than the charge represented by the electrolyte injected (Q(i)). Q(m) is less than Q(i) if transport to/through the membranes is subquantitative. Q(m) can be greater than Q(i) at higher V(app). At constant V(app) more voltage is dropped across the membranes as the central channel becomes more conductive and water dissociation at the membrane surface is enhanced. Effectively, the membranes experience a greater applied voltage as the central channel becomes more conductive. The resulting

  2. SU-E-T-246: Detector Selection for Small Field Measurements, a Comparative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sigler, M; Pavord, D; Irwin, J; Kriminski, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare commercially available detectors for small field dosimetry. Methods: PTW (Freiburg, Germany) diode E, PTW microDiamond, and SunNuclear (Melbourne, FL) Edge detector were used to measure output factors, PDD, and profiles on a Varian iX linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) using 6MV and 18MV photon beams. The water tank was set to 100cm SSD. Centering profiles at 5cm and 20cm depth confirmed an offset <0.1mm. High resolution PDD (0.1mm) aligned the collecting volume at water surface. For setup and linearity verification, PDD and profiles were matched to annual measurements, which were performed with an A1SL ion chamber.Scans were taken for 6X and 18X, for 10cmx10cm, 10cmx2cm, 10cmx1cm, and 10cmx0.5cm fields. Profiles were measured at Dmax (6X=1.5cm, 18X=3.5cm), 5cm, 10cm, and 20cm depths. All fields used 10cmx10cm jaws with the MLC defining the field in the X-direction. PDDs used 2mm step size and 0.2s discrete collecting time. Profiles used 1mm step size and a 0.4s discrete collecting time. Results: The PTW diode E and Edge detector exhibit centering stability, but all detectors require vertical shifts from Vendor defined vertical alignment. Output factor measurements reveal good agreement between detectors. The Edge detector demonstrates the sharpest penumbra and the closest consistent match to ion chamber measurements in the out of field regions for 6MV (3.2%). Each detector provides comparable curve quality for PDDs, with a maximum difference across detectors giving a standard deviation of 0.6% at 30cm depth, 18X, and 10cmx0.5cm. Profiles match closely across all detectors, depths, energies, and field sizes. The microDiamond detector produces the largest penumbra width, largest deviation from ion chamber dose in the tail region for 6MV, and exhibits centering instability. Conclusion: Based on our findings, the Edge detector was chosen for stereotactic measurements. The PTW diode E is an acceptable alternative.

  3. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  4. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    SciTech Connect

    Lombigit, L. Yussup, N. Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2015-04-29

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  5. The fluid systems for the SLD Cherenkov ring imaging detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H.; Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dolinsky, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; McCulloch, M.; McShurley, D.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.J.; Peterson, H.; Ratcliff, B.; Reif, R.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Shaw, H.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Vavra, J.; Watt, R.; Weber, T.; Williams, S.H.; Baird, K.; Jacques, P.; Kalelkar, M.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Word, G.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Yellin, S.; Ben-David, R.; Manly, S.; Snyder, J.; Turk, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Liu, X.; Schneider, M.; Williams, D.A.; Coller, J.; Shank, J.T.; Whitaker, J.S.; d`Oliveira, A.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, A.K.S.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stockdale, I.; Wilson, R.J.

    1992-10-01

    We describe the design and operation of the fluid delivery, monitor and control systems for the SLD barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID). The systems deliver drift gas (C{sub 2}H{sub 6} + TMAE), radiator gas (C{sub 5}F{sub 12} + N{sub 2}) and radiator liquid (C{sub 6}F{sub 14}). Measured critical quantities such as electron lifetime in the drift gas and ultra-violet (UV) transparencies of the radiator fluids, together with the operational experience, are also reported.

  6. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Longo; H. R. Gustafson: Durga Rajaram; Turgun Nigmanov

    2010-04-16

    Proton radiography has become an important tool for predicting the performance of stockpiled nuclear weapons. Current proton radiography experiments at LANSCE are confined to relatively small targets on the order of centimeters in size because of the low beam energy. LANL scientists have made radiographs with 12 and 24 GeV protons produced by the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These energies are in the range required for hydrotest radiography. The design of a facility for hydrotest radiography requires knowledge of the cross sections for producing high-energy particles in the forward direction, which are incorporated into the Monte Carlo simulation used in designing the beam and detectors. There are few existing measurements of neutron production cross sections for proton-nuclei interactions in the 50 GeV range, and almost no data exist for forward neutron production, especially for heavy target nuclei. Thus the data from the MIPP EMCAL and HCAL, for which our group was responsible, are critical to proton radiography. Since neutrons and photons cannot be focused by magnets, they cause a background “fog” on the images. This problem can be minimized by careful design of the focusing system and detectors. The purpose of our research was to measure forward production of neutrons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. The forward-going particles carry most of the energy from a high-energy proton interaction, so these are the most important to proton radiography. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration. Our group was responsible for designing and building the E907 forward neutron and photon calorimeters. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grants, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. The MIPP experiment accumulated a large amount of data in the first run that ended in early 2006. Our group has

  7. Digital Pulse Shape Analysis with Phoswich Detectors to Simplify Coincidence Measurements of Radioactive Xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, Wolfgang; Tan, Hui; Warburton, William K.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2005-08-31

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty establishes a network of monitoring stations to detect radioactive Xenon in the atmosphere from nuclear weapons testing. One such monitoring system is the Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which uses a complex arrangement of separate beta and gamma detectors to detect beta-gamma coincidences from the Xe isotopes of interest. The coincidence measurement is very sensitive, but the large number of detectors and photomultiplier tubes require careful calibration which makes the system hard to use. It has been suggested that beta-gamma coincidences could be detected with only a single photomultiplier tube and electronics channel by using a phoswich detector consisting of optically coupled beta and gamma detectors (Ely, 2003). In that work, rise time analysis of signals from a phoswich detector was explored as a method to determine if interactions occurred in either the beta or the gamma detector or in both simultaneously. However, this approach was not able to detect coincidences with the required sensitivity or to measure the beta and gamma energies with sufficient precision for Xenon monitoring. In this paper, we present a new algorithm to detect coincidences by pulse shape analysis of the signals from a BC-404/CsI(Tl) phoswich detector. Implemented on fast digital readout electronics, the algorithm achieves clear separation of beta only, gamma only and coincidence events, accurate measurement of both beta and gamma energies, and has an error rate for detecting coincidences of less than 0.1%. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and light collection were performed to optimize design parameters for a replacement detector module for the ARSA system, obtaining an estimated coincidence detection efficiency of 82-92% and a background rejection rate better than 99%. The new phoswich/pulse shape analysis method is thus suitable to simplify the existing ARSA

  8. Iterative optimisation of Monte Carlo detector models using measurements and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, O.; Leone, D.

    2015-04-01

    This work proposes a new technique to optimise the Monte Carlo models of radiation detectors, offering the advantage of a significantly lower user effort and therefore an improved work efficiency compared to the prior techniques. The method consists of four steps, two of which are iterative and suitable for automation using scripting languages. The four steps consist in the acquisition in the laboratory of measurement data to be used as reference; the modification of a previously available detector model; the simulation of a tentative model of the detector to obtain the coefficients of a set of linear equations; the solution of the system of equations and the update of the detector model. Steps three and four can be repeated for more accurate results. This method avoids the "try and fail" approach typical of the prior techniques.

  9. Precise Measurement of Drift Velocities in Active-Target Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Louis

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear experiments with radioactive beams are needed to improve our understanding of nuclei structure far from stability. Radioactive beams typically have low beam rates, but active-target detectors can compensate for these low beam rates. In active-target detectors that are also Time-Projection Chambers (TPC), ionized electrons drift through an electric fieldto a detection device to imagethe trajectory of charged-particle ionization tracks within the chamber's gas volume. The measurement of the ionized electrons' drift velocity is crucial for the accurate imaging of these tracks. In order to measure this drift velocity, we will use a UV laser and photo-sensitive foil in a the ND-Cubedetector we are developing, periodically releasingelectrons from the foil at a known timesand a known distance from the electron detector, thereby precisely measuring the drift velocity in situ. We have surveyed several materials to find a material that will work well with typical solid-state UV lasers on the market. We plan to determine the best material and thickness of the foil to maximize the number of photoelectrons. The precision that will be afforded by this measurement of the drift velocity will allow us to eliminate a source of systematic uncertainty.

  10. Medusa: a sample preconcentration and GC/MS detector system for in situ measurements of atmospheric trace halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin R; Weiss, Ray F; Salameh, Peter K; Tanhua, Toste; Greally, Brian R; Mühle, Jens; Simmonds, Peter G

    2008-03-01

    Significant changes have occurred in the anthropogenic emissions of many compounds related to the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols within the past 20 years and many of their atmospheric abundances have responded dramatically. Additionally, there are a number of related natural compounds with underdetermined source or sink budgets. A new instrument, Medusa, was developed to make the high frequency in situ measurements required for the determination of the atmospheric lifetimes and emissions of these compounds. This automated system measures a wide range of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds involved in ozone depletion and/or climate forcing, from the very volatile perfluorocarbons (PFCs, e.g., CF(4) and CH(3)CF(3)) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs, e.g., CH(3)CF(3)) to the higher-boiling point solvents (such as CH(3)Cl(3) and CCl(2)=CCl(2)) and CHBr(3). A network of Medusa systems worldwide provides 12 in situ ambient air measurements per day of more than 38 compounds of part per trillion mole fractions and precisions up to 0.1% RSD at the five remote field stations operated by the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). This custom system couples gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MSD) with a novel scheme for cryogen-free low-temperature preconcentration (-165 degrees C) of analytes from 2 L samples in a two-trap process using HayeSep D adsorbent.

  11. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  12. Evaluation of detectors for the small field measurements used for clinical radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Miljenko

    Advanced radiation therapy treatments with very small field sizes are complex. Increasingly higher doses delivered in single or few fractions are being commonly used for the treatments of the small target volume. Absolute or relative small field dosimetry is difficult due to radiation transport. Therefore it is very important to understand characteristics of the small field, detector selection as well as correction factors that have to be taken into account for the accurate measurements. Reducing uncertainty in relative dose measurement and modeling dose on treatment planning systems are factors contributing to the accuracy of the small field radiation treatments. Several challenges in small field dosimetry arise because of the lack of lateral charge particle equilibrium as well as the occlusion of the direct photon beam source and collimator settings. Presence of low-density media in irradiation geometry does complicate dosimetry even more. All those conditions are representing the challenge when it comes to dosimetric measurements. Size and construction are crucial when it comes to choice of the detector. Depending on beam energy, resolving the beam profile and penumbra for the small field sizes are a challenge and practically impossible with detectors commonly used in clinics. With decreasing field size and due to changes in particle spectrum, variations in radiological parameters have to be taken into account. To measure percent depth dose, tissue maximum ratios, tissue phantom ratios as well as output factors for the small field size experimental studies and Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted to determine appropriate detectors for the measurements. The primary goal of Specific Aim 1 was experimental quantification of the performance parameters for single detectors used for dosimetric verification of the small fields in radiotherapy. The proposed method and qualitative value for appropriate detectors selection defined by field size has been set. The

  13. Recent developments on the STAR detector system at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Wieman, H.; Adams, D.L.; Added, N.

    1997-12-01

    The STAR detector system is designed to provide tracking, momentum analysis and particle identification for many of the mid-rapidity charged particles produced in collisions at the RHIC collider. A silicon vertex detector (SVT) provides three layers of tracking near the interaction point. This is followed by the main time projection chamber (TPC), which continues tracking out to 200 cm radial distance from the interaction region. The detector design also includes an electromagnetic calorimeter, various trigger detectors, and radial TPCs in the forward region. The entire system is enclosed in a 0.5 T solenoid magnet. A progress report is given for the various components of the STAR detector system. The authors report on the recent developments in the detector proto-typing and construction, with an emphasis on the main TPC, recent TPC cosmic ray testing and shipping to Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  14. Silicon Detector System and Noise Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan Ho; Kyung, Richard

    2012-03-01

    We can postulate that dark matter are WIMPS, more specifically, Majorana particles called neutralinos floating through space. Upon neutralino-neutralino annihilation, they create a greater burst of other particles into space: these being all kinds of particles including anti-deuterons which are the indications of the existence of dark matter. For the development of the silicon detector, many factors including noise, shaping times and leakage current are considered. It is also an object of this study to find out factors affected by parallel noise such as leakage current and parallel resistance. High noise is not desirable, so we tried to avoid noise because it blurs the accurate readings that measure the x-ray signatures by adding a passivation material. We searched for the optimal resolution at which the FWHM is at a minimum at a specific shaping time, and for this, we used different shaping times to find the optimal resolution. Results shows where the paint/passivation material affects, and when is the best shaping time for the resolution measurement.

  15. A framework of modeling detector systems for computed tomography simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, H.; Kim, D.; Kim, S. H.; Kam, S.; Jeon, H.; Nam, J.; Kim, H. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ultimate development in computed tomography (CT) technology may be a system that can provide images with excellent lesion conspicuity with the patient dose as low as possible. Imaging simulation tools have been cost-effectively used for these developments and will continue. For a more accurate and realistic imaging simulation, the signal and noise propagation through a CT detector system has been modeled in this study using the cascaded linear-systems theory. The simulation results are validated in comparisons with the measured results using a laboratory flat-panel micro-CT system. Although the image noise obtained from the simulations at higher exposures is slightly smaller than that obtained from the measurements, the difference between them is reasonably acceptable. According to the simulation results for various exposure levels and additive electronic noise levels, x-ray quantum noise is more dominant than the additive electronic noise. The framework of modeling a CT detector system suggested in this study will be helpful for the development of an accurate and realistic projection simulation model.

  16. Systematic Comparison of the MINOS Near and Far Detector Readout Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, Anatael

    2005-06-22

    The MINOS experiment is a neutrino oscillation baseline experiment intending to use high resolution L/E neutrinos to measure the atmospheric neutrino oscillations parameters to unprecedented precision. Two detectors have been built to realize the measurements, a Near detector, located about 1km downstream from the beam target at the Fermi Laboratory, and a Far detector, located at 736km, at the Soudan Laboratory. The technique relies on the Near detector to measure the un-oscillated neutrino spectrum, while the Far detector measures the neutrino spectrum once oscillated. The comparison between the two measurements is expected to allow MINOS to measure Δm2 beyond 10% precision level. The Near and Far detectors have been built similarly to minimize possible systematic effects. Both detectors have been endowed with different readout systems, as the beam event rates are very different. The MINOS calibration detector (CalDet), installed at CERN, was instrumented with both readout systems such that they can simultaneously measure and characterize the energy deposition (response and event topology) of incident known particle from test-beams. This thesis presents the investigations to quantify the impact of the performance of both readout systems on the MINOS results using the measurements obtained with CalDet. The relative comparison of the responses of both readout systems have been measured to be consistent with being identical within a systematic uncertainty of 0.6%. The event topologies have been found to be negligibly affected. In addition, the performance of the detector simulations have been thoroughly investigated and validated to be in agreement with data within similar level of uncertainties.

  17. Earth radiation budget measurement from a spinning satellite: Conceptual design of detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Suomi, V. E.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design, sensor characteristics, sensor performance and accuracy, and spacecraft and orbital requirements for a spinning wide-field-of-view earth energy budget detector were investigated. The scientific requirements for measurement of the earth's radiative energy budget are presented. Other topics discussed include the observing system concept, solar constant radiometer design, plane flux wide FOV sensor design, fast active cavity theory, fast active cavity design and error analysis, thermopile detectors as an alternative, pre-flight and in-flight calibration plane, system error summary, and interface requirements.

  18. A large detector for cosmic ray abundance and energy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, C.

    A large aperture, balloon borne cosmic ray detector was designed to measure the energy spectra of individual cosmic ray species with Z greater than 8 in the energy range 0.3GeV/N to 400GeV/N. The energy dependence of the abundance spectrum extending up to such high energies will provide valuable data for determining the nature of the origin and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. The properties of cosmic ray nuclei and the interpretation of the energy dependence of the abundance spectrum are discussed. The design and response of the BUGS IV cosmic ray detector are described. The measurement techniques used are gas scintillation, gas proportional scintillation and Cerenkov radiation from both gases and solids. The light collection properties of the detector and several experimental investigations of the light collection efficiency of the drift chamber region are described. The expected signals from the gas scintillation and gas Cerenkov emissions are predicted and the choice of a suitable scintillating gas mixture for minimizing the uncertainty in the charge and energy measurements is considered. The theoretical aspects of electron drift and diffusion in gases and several experimental investigations on the electron drift in the BUGS IV drift chamber are given. Also some preliminary results from a uniform field drift chamber are included which demonstrate the sensitivity of the electron drift velocity in inert gas mixtures to water vapor contamination. The expected overall performance of BUGS IV and the results of an experimental simulation of the parachute landing of the detector are given.

  19. A robust approach to measuring the detective quantum efficiency of radiographic detectors in a clinical setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael C.; Kim, H. K.; Henry, J. R.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2012-03-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely accepted as a primary measure of x-ray detector performance in the scientific community. A standard method for measuring the DQE, based on IEC 62220-1, requires the system to have a linear response meaning that the detector output signals are proportional to the incident x-ray exposure. However, many systems have a non-linear response due to characteristics of the detector, or post processing of the detector signals, that cannot be disabled and may involve unknown algorithms considered proprietary by the manufacturer. For these reasons, the DQE has not been considered as a practical candidate for routine quality assurance testing in a clinical setting. In this article we described a method that can be used to measure the DQE of both linear and non-linear systems that employ only linear image processing algorithms. The method was validated on a Cesium Iodide based flat panel system that simultaneously stores a raw (linear) and processed (non-linear) image for each exposure. It was found that the resulting DQE was equivalent to a conventional standards-compliant DQE with measurement precision, and the gray-scale inversion and linear edge enhancement did not affect the DQE result. While not IEC 62220-1 compliant, it may be adequate for QA programs.

  20. Characterizing X-ray detectors for prototype digital breast tomosynthesis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-s.; Park, H.-s.; Park, S.-J.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Lee, D.; Choi, Y.-W.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-03-01

    The digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system is a newly developed 3-D imaging technique that overcomes the tissue superposition problems of conventional mammography. Therefore, it produces fewer false positives. In DBT system, several parameters are involved in image acquisition, including geometric components. A series of projections should be acquired at low exposure. This makes the system strongly dependent on the detector's characteristic performance. This study compares two types of x-ray detectors developed by the Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI). The first prototype DBT system has a CsI (Tl) scintillator/CMOS based flat panel digital detector (2923 MAM, Dexela Ltd.), with a pixel size of 0.0748 mm. The second uses a-Se based direct conversion full field detector (AXS 2430, analogic) with a pixel size of 0.085 mm. The geometry of both systems is same, with a focal spot 665.8 mm from the detector, and a center of rotation 33 mm above the detector surface. The systems were compared with regard to modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and a new metric, the relative object detectability (ROD). The ROD quantifies the relative performance of each detector at detecting specified objects. The system response function demonstrated excellent linearity (R2>0.99). The CMOS-based detector had a high sensitivity, while the Anrad detector had a large dynamic range. The higher MTF and noise power spectrum (NPS) values were measured using an Anrad detector. The maximum DQE value of the Dexela detector was higher than that of the Anrad detector with a low exposure level, considering one projection exposure for tomosynthesis. Overall, the Dexela detector performed better than did the Anrad detector with regard to the simulated Al wires, spheres, test objects of ROD with low exposure level. In this study, we compared the newly developed prototype DBT system with two different types of x

  1. Proof of concept demonstration for coherent beam pattern measurements of KID detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kristina K.; Baryshev, Andrey M.; Jellema, Willem; Yates, Stephen J. C.; Ferrari, Lorenza; Baselmans, Jochem J. A.

    2016-07-01

    Here we summarize the initial results from a complex field radiation pattern measurement of a kinetic inductance detector instrument. These detectors are phase insensitive and have thus been limited to scalar, or amplitude-only, beam measurements. Vector beam scans, of both amplitude and phase, double the information received in comparison to scalar beam scans. Scalar beam measurements require multiple scans at varying distances along the optical path of the receiver to fully constrain the divergence angle of the optical system and locate the primary focus. Vector scans provide this information with a single scan, reducing the total measurement time required for new systems and also limiting the influence of system instabilities. The vector scan can be taken at any point along the optical axis of the system including the near-field, which makes beam measurements possible for large systems at high frequencies where these measurements may be inconceivable to be tested in-situ. Therefore, the methodology presented here should enable common heterodyne analysis for direct detector instruments. In principle, this coherent measurement strategy allows phase dependent analysis to be performed on any direct-detect receiver instrument.

  2. Measurement of the atmospheric muon flux with the NEMO Phase-1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Bersani, A.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brunoldi, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carminati, G.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Marzo, C.; De Rosa, G.; De Ruvo, G.; De Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galatà, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Giovanetti, G.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovsky, V.; Lattuada, D.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Marinelli, A.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Piattelli, P.; Piombo, D.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sciliberto, D.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Vecchi, M.; Vicini, P.; Wischnewski, R.

    2010-05-01

    The NEMO Collaboration installed and operated an underwater detector including prototypes of the critical elements of a possible underwater km 3 neutrino telescope: a four-floor tower (called Mini-Tower) and a Junction Box. The detector was developed to test some of the main systems of the km 3 detector, including the data transmission, the power distribution, the timing calibration and the acoustic positioning systems as well as to verify the capabilities of a single tridimensional detection structure to reconstruct muon tracks. We present results of the analysis of the data collected with the NEMO Mini-Tower. The position of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) is determined through the acoustic position system. Signals detected with PMTs are used to reconstruct the tracks of atmospheric muons. The angular distribution of atmospheric muons was measured and results compared to Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  4. Improved detectors for the new muon g-2 measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damhorst, Gregory

    2009-10-01

    A precision measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) is one of the most promising efforts for the detection of new physics beyond the standard model. A new proposal to perform the measurement at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory promises to reduce uncertainty in the measurement from 0.54 ppm to 0.14 ppm, improving the measurement's power in discriminating various extensions to the standard model. To accomplish this greater precision, the new g-2 measurement will require improved detectors and data acquisition techniques. Calorimeters made of tungsten and scintillating fiber (SciFi) will be used for the detection of weak decay electrons. This design is preferred over the grooved lead/SciFi calorimeters used in past g-2 measurements for its simple assembly and smaller radiation length. Photons produced in the scintillation process will be directed to photomultipliers for electronic readout through foil-lined acrylic light guides which must concentrate photons with minimal loss within a limited available space. The challenge of developing an optimal detector design is being addressed by the University of Illinois Nuclear Physics Group through Monte Carlo simulations and tests of prototype calorimeters and light guides. Significant aspects of this project include determining optimal calorimeter module size, light guide geometry, and photomultiplier style.

  5. Measurement of the relative width difference of the B0 - B$\\bar{B}$0 system with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.

    2016-06-14

    This paper presents the measurement of the relative width difference ΔΓdd of the B0 - B$\\bar{B}$0 system using the data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in pp collisions at √s=7TeV and √s=8 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 25.2 fb-1. The value of ΔΓdd is obtained by comparing the decay-time distributions of B° → J/ψKS and B° → J/ψK*°(892) decays. The result is ΔΓdd = (-0.1±1.1 (stat.)± 0.9 (syst.)) × 10-2. Currently, this is the most precise single measurement of ΔΓd/Γd. It agrees with the Standard Model prediction and the measurements by other experiments.

  6. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    DOEpatents

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  7. Measurement of the K meson lifetime with the KLOE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KLOE Collaboration; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Beltrame, P.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Bowring, D.; Branchini, P.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ceradini, F.; Chi, S.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; de Lucia, E.; de Santis, A.; de Simone, P.; de Zorzi, G.; dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; di Domenico, A.; di Donato, C.; di Falco, S.; di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D.; Martini, M.; Massarotti, P.; Mei, W.; Meola, S.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Spadaro, T.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Xu, G.

    2005-10-01

    We present a measurement of the K lifetime using the KLOE detector. From a sample of ˜4×10KK pairs following the reaction ee→ϕ→KK we select ˜15×10K→πππ decays tagged by K→ππ events. From a fit of the proper time distribution we find τ=(50.92±0.17±0.25) ns. This is the most precise measurement of the K lifetime performed to date.

  8. New Detector System for Super Heavy Elements Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieloch, A.; Sosin, Z.; Bańka, P.; Gonciarz, A.; Péter, J.; Drouart, A.; Dayras, R.; Łojek, K.; Stodel, Ch.; Adamczyk, M.; Avez, B.; Lasko, P.; Zosiak, Ł.; Kozik, T.; Alamanos, N.; Gillibert, A.; Grévy, S.; Hanappe, F.; Hannachi, F.; Hue, R.; Khouaja, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Manduci, L.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Politi, G.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Stuttgé, L.; Vandamme, Ch.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Piasecki, E.; Trzcińska, A.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Kisielewski, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kordyasz, A.; Błocki, J.

    A new detector system dedicated for very/super heavy elements (VHE/SHE) detection that decay by spontaneous fission is presented. Such a decay mode of nuclei can be found e.g. in the region of Z≈100 (Fermium). Future experiments realized in the frame of French-Polish collaboration at the cyclotrons in GANIL and in the Heavy Ion Laboratory (HIL), University of Warsaw, is described. The results of test measurements made in the HIL for reactions 20Ne(8 A.MeV)+120Sn, 179Au are presented.

  9. Methodology to measure fundamental performance parameters of x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Falko; Ruetten, Walter; Wischmann, Hans-Aloys; Geiger, Bernhard; Spahn, Martin F.; Bastiaens, Raoul J. M.; Ducourant, Thierry

    2001-06-01

    To judge the potential benefit of a new x-ray detector technology and to be able to compare different technologies, some standard performance measurements must be defined. In addition to technology-related parameters which may influence weight, shape, image distortions and readout speed, there are fundamental performance parameters which directly influence the achievable image quality and dose efficiency of x-ray detectors. A standardization activity for detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for static detectors is already in progress. In this paper we present a methodology for noise power spectrum (NPS), low frequency drop (LFD) and signal to electronic noise ratio (SENR), and the influence of these parameters on DQE. The individual measurement methods are described in detail with their theoretical background and experimental procedure. Corresponding technical phantoms have been developed. The design of the measurement methods and technical phantoms is tuned so that only minimum requirements are placed on the detector properties. The measurement methods can therefore be applied to both static and dynamic x-ray systems. Measurement results from flat panel imagers and II/TV systems are presented.

  10. Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

    2008-10-10

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

  11. System to quantify gamma-ray radial energy deposition in semiconductor detectors

    DOEpatents

    Kammeraad, Judith E.; Blair, Jerome J.

    2001-01-01

    A system for measuring gamma-ray radial energy deposition is provided for use in conjunction with a semiconductor detector. The detector comprises two electrodes and a detector material, and defines a plurality of zones within the detecting material in parallel with the two electrodes. The detector produces a charge signal E(t) when a gamma-ray interacts with the detector. Digitizing means are provided for converting the charge signal E(t) into a digitized signal. A computational means receives the digitized signal and calculates in which of the plurality of zones the gamma-ray deposited energy when interacting with the detector. The computational means produces an output indicating the amount of energy deposited by the gamma-ray in each of the plurality of zones.

  12. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Tata Inst. /Dubna, JINR /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /St. Petersburg, INP /Arizona U. /Florida State U. /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Boston U. /Northeastern U. /Brookhaven /Washington U., Seattle /Minsk, Inst. Nucl. Problems

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  13. Testing a Light-weight Compact Gamma Ray Detector for Measuring Snow Water Equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiet, E., II; Solie, D. J.; Sturm, M.

    2014-12-01

    The use of gamma ray to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) trace back to the 1970s during the Soviet Union hydrology program. Over the years research has shown that gamma detectors could be used to monitor SWE, and their use significantly expanded. In the 1980s several airborne campaigns were launched in North America to measure SWR; these gamma flights are still in use today. However, these airborne flights require a twin-engine aircraft and a detector with a computer that weighs 250 kg, which is unsuitable for use with unmanned airborne systems (UAS), our primary interest. Here we describe results of tests of a compact gamma detector weighing 2 kg. The envisioned deployment of this detector is on a small quad-copter UAS that can hover low over remote clearings in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Such a technique may allow SWE estimates in places that otherwise would be difficult to measure. We tested the detector over snow and water bodies and found for SWE between 0 and 50 cm a sensitivity of ± 2 cm SWE, which is sufficient to resolve any significant snowfall in the region. In this presentation we will discuss our preliminary results and our future strategy for deploying the sensor on a UAS.

  14. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, A.C.; Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R.; Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  15. Detector to detector corrections: A comprehensive experimental study of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small radiotherapy beams

    SciTech Connect

    Azangwe, Godfrey Grochowska, Paulina; Izewska, Joanna; Meghzifene, Ahmed; Georg, Dietmar; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Lechner, Wolfgang; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Yajima, Kaori; Gouldstone, Clare; Sharpe, Peter; Palmans, Hugo

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive set of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small beams, for a wide range of real time and passive detectors. The detector specific correction factors determined in this study may be potentially useful as a reference data set for small beam dosimetry measurements. Methods: Dose response of passive and real time detectors was investigated for small field sizes shaped with a micromultileaf collimator ranging from 0.6 × 0.6 cm{sup 2} to 4.2 × 4.2 cm{sup 2} and the measurements were extended to larger fields of up to 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. Measurements were performed at 5 cm depth, in a 6 MV photon beam. Detectors used included alanine, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), stereotactic diode, electron diode, photon diode, radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPLDs), radioluminescence detector based on carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C), organic plastic scintillators, diamond detectors, liquid filled ion chamber, and a range of small volume air filled ionization chambers (volumes ranging from 0.002 cm{sup 3} to 0.3 cm{sup 3}). All detector measurements were corrected for volume averaging effect and compared with dose ratios determined from alanine to derive a detector correction factors that account for beam perturbation related to nonwater equivalence of the detector materials. Results: For the detectors used in this study, volume averaging corrections ranged from unity for the smallest detectors such as the diodes, 1.148 for the 0.14 cm{sup 3} air filled ionization chamber and were as high as 1.924 for the 0.3 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber. After applying volume averaging corrections, the detector readings were consistent among themselves and with alanine measurements for several small detectors but they differed for larger detectors, in particular for some small ionization chambers with volumes larger than 0.1 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: The results demonstrate

  16. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilishin, Stefan L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

  17. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors.

    PubMed

    Danilishin, Stefan L; Khalili, Farid Ya

    2012-01-01

    The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

  18. Highly versatile computer-controlled television detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalata, K.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of a television detector system which has been designed to accommodate a wide range of applications. It is currently being developed for use in X-ray diffraction, X-ray astrophysics, and electron microscopy, but it is also well suited for astronomical observations. The image can be integrated in a large, high-speed memory system, in the memory of a computer system, or the target of the TV tube or CCD array. The detector system consists of a continuously scanned, intensified SIT vidicon with scan and processing electronics which generate a digital image that is integrated in the detector memory. Attention is given to details regarding the camera system, scan control and image processing electronics, the memory system, and aspects of detector performance.

  19. Measurements of W/Z production with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Köneke, Karsten; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2013-10-21

    W and Z boson production have been measured in the electron, muon and tau decay channels at the LHC with the ATLAS detector. Total and differential cross sections, defined in terms of the decay lepton kinematics, have been measured as a function of rapidity and transverse momentum. Ratios of the cross sections demonstrate sensitivity to lepton universality. The kinematic distributions constrain parton densities and QCD calculations, including resummations of soft gluon radiation and the matching of NLO matrix elements (or high multiplicity tree-level matrix elements) to parton shower approximations. The polarization of W bosons is also measured, as, for the first time, is the polarization of the tau lepton in W → τν decays.

  20. Laser system for testing radiation imaging detector circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycka, Weronika; Kasinski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Performance and functionality of radiation imaging detector circuits in charge and position measurement systems need to meet tight requirements. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly test sensors as well as read-out electronics. The major disadvantages of using radioactive sources or particle beams for testing are high financial expenses and limited accessibility. As an alternative short pulses of well-focused laser beam are often used for preliminary tests. There are number of laser-based devices available on the market, but very often their applicability in this field is limited. This paper describes concept, design and validation of laser system for testing silicon sensor based radiation imaging detector circuits. The emphasis is put on keeping overall costs low while achieving all required goals: mobility, flexible parameters, remote control and possibility of carrying out automated tests. The main part of the developed device is an optical pick-up unit (OPU) used in optical disc drives. The hardware includes FPGA-controlled circuits for laser positioning in 2 dimensions (horizontal and vertical), precision timing (frequency and number) and amplitude (diode current) of short ns-scale (3.2 ns) light pulses. The system is controlled via USB interface by a dedicated LabVIEW-based application enabling full manual or semi-automated test procedures.

  1. Object detection system using SPAD proximity detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Laurence; Raynor, Jeffrey M.; Henderson, Robert K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an object detection system based upon the use of multiple single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) proximity sensors operating upon the time-of-flight (ToF) principle, whereby the co-ordinates of a target object in a coordinate system relative to the assembly are calculated. The system is similar to a touch screen system in form and operation except that the lack of requirement of a physical sensing surface provides a novel advantage over most existing touch screen technologies. The sensors are controlled by FPGA-based firmware and each proximity sensor in the system measures the range from the sensor to the target object. A software algorithm is implemented to calculate the x-y coordinates of the target object based on the distance measurements from at least two separate sensors and the known relative positions of these sensors. Existing proximity sensors were capable of determining the distance to an object with centimetric accuracy and were modified to obtain a wide field of view in the x-y axes with low beam angle in z in order to provide a detection area as large as possible. Design and implementation of the firmware, electronic hardware, mechanics and optics are covered in the paper. Possible future work would include characterisation with alternative designs of proximity sensors, as this is the component which determines the highest achievable accur1acy of the system.

  2. Timing performance measurements of Si-PM-based LGSO phoswich detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Okumura, Satoshi; Yeom, Jung Yeol

    2016-06-01

    Since the timing resolution was significantly improved using silicon photomultipliers (Si-PMs) combined with fast scintillators, we expect that phoswich detectors will be used in future TOF-PET systems. However, no practical phoswich detector has been proposed for TOF-PET detectors. We conducted timing performance measurements of phoswich detectors comprised of two types of Ce-doped LGSO scintillators with different decay times coupled to Si-PMs and digitized the output signals using a high bandwidth digital oscilloscope. We prepared three types of LGSOs (LGSO-fast, LGSO-standard, and LGSO-slow) with different Ce concentrations. After measuring the decay time, the energy performance, and the timing performance of each LGSO, we conducted pulse shape analysis and timing resolution measurements for two versions of phoswich LGSOs: LGSO-standard/LGSO-fast and LGSO-slow/LGSO-fast combinations. The pulse shape spectra for a 10-mm-long crystal LGSO-slow/LGSO-fast combination showed good separation of the front and back crystals with a peak-to-valley ratio of 2.0. The timing resolutions for the 20-mm-long crystal LGSO-slow/LGSO-fast combination were ~300 ps FWHM. The timing resolutions for the phoswich LGSOs were slightly inferior than that measured with the individual LGSO fast, but the acquired timing resolution for the phoswich configuration, ~300 ps with a LGSO-slow/LGSO-fast combination, is adequate for TOF-PET systems. We conclude that LGSO phoswich detectors are promising for TOF-DOI-PET systems.

  3. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  4. Advanced Detector and Waveform Digitizer for Water Vapor DIAL Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor has become a major requirement for understanding moist-air processes. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is a technique best suited for the measurement of atmospheric water vapor. NASA Langley Research Center is continually developing improved DIAL systems. One aspect of current development is focused on the enhancement of a DIAL receiver by applying state-of-the-art technology in building a new compact detection system that will be placed directly on the DIAL receiver telescope. The newly developed detection system has the capability of being digitally interfaced with a simple personal computer, using a discrete input/output interface. This has the potential of transmitting digital data over relatively long distances instead of analog signals, which greatly reduces measurement noise. In this paper, we discuss some results from the new compact water vapor DIAL detection system which includes a silicon based avalanche photodiode (APD) detector, a 14-bit, 10-MHz waveform digitizer, a microcontroller and other auxiliary electronics. All of which are contained on a small printed-circuit-board. This will significantly reduce the weight and volume over the current CAMAC system and eventually will be used in a water vapor DIAL system on an unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) aircraft, or alternatively on an orbiting spacecraft.

  5. New method of the precise measurement for the thickness and bulk etch rate of the solid-state track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, S.; Yasuda, N.; Hasebe, N.; Doke, T.; Ota, S.; Ogura, K.

    2007-04-01

    New optical system with an optical displacement sensor has been developed to measure the local thickness of CR-39 track detector. It can be applied to measure locally the thicknesses of whole detector area for making a map of the amount of bulk etch. The accuracy of the thicknesses measurement was found to be ±0.2 μm using CR-39 detector. This accuracy is one order of magnitude higher than that of conventional methods, such as the Micrometer method, and is comparable to that of track size measurement under the optical microscope. It will also greatly improve the charge and mass resolutions of CR-39 detector that we can apply to measure galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) nuclei, especially the trans-iron nuclei (Z⩾30) in GCRs.

  6. DQE(f) of an amorphous-silicon flat-panel x-ray detector: detector parameter influences and measurement methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granfors, Paul R.; Aufrichtig, Richard

    2000-04-01

    We discuss how the frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency [DQE(f)] in a well-designed amorphous silicon flat panel detector is affected by several phenomena that reduce the DQE in other types of medical imaging detectors. The detector examined employs a CsI(Tl) scintillator and is designed for general diagnostic x-ray imaging applications. We consider DQE degradation due to incomplete x-ray absorption, secondary quantum noise, Swank factor, Lubberts effect, spatial variation in gain, noise aliasing, and additive system noise. The influences of detector design parameters on the frequency- and exposure-dependent DQE are also examined. We find that the DQE does not depend directly on MTF and that DQE is independent of exposure within the detector's operating range, except at the lowest exposures. Likewise the signal per absorbed x-ray, which contains the fill factor as one of several multiplicative components, does not affect DQE except at the lowest exposures. A methodology for determining DQE(f) from measurements of MTF(f), noise power spectrum (NPS), average signal, and x-ray exposure is presented. We find that it is important to incorporate several corrections in the NPS measurement procedure in order to obtain accurate results. These include corrections for lag, non-linearity, response variation from pixel to pixel, and use of a finite number of flat-field images. MTF, NPS, and DQE results are presented for a 41 X 41-cm2 flat panel detector designed for radiographic applications.

  7. Validation of high-throughput measurement system with microwave-assisted extraction, fully automated sample preparation device, and gas chromatography-electron capture detector for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in whale blubber.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Katsuhisa; Hamada, Noriaki; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro

    2009-02-01

    Validation of a high-throughput measurement system with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), fully automated sample preparation device (SPD), and gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in minke whale blubber was performed. PCB congeners accounting for > 95% of the total PCBs burden in blubber were efficiently extracted with a small volume (20 mL) of n-hexane using MAE due to simultaneous saponification and extraction. Further, the crude extract obtained by MAE was rapidly purified and automatically substituted to a small volume (1 mL) of toluene using SPD without using concentrators. Furthermore, the concentration of PCBs in the purified and concentrated solution was accurately determined by GC-ECD. Moreover, the result of accuracy test using a certified material (SRM 1588b; Cod liver oil) showed good agreement with the NIST certified concentration values. In addition, the method quantification limit of total-PCB in whale blubbers was 41 ng g(-1). This new measurement system for PCBs takes only four hours. Consequently, it indicated this method is the most suitable for the monitoring and screening of PCBs in the conservation of the marine ecosystem and safe distribution of foods.

  8. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... detector systems. (a) For each turbine engine powered rotorcraft and Category A reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, and for each Category B reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft with engines of more....1203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... detector systems. (a) For each turbine engine powered rotorcraft and Category A reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, and for each Category B reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft with engines of more....1203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  10. Hybrid Ion-Detector/Data-Acquisition System for a TOF-MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, William D., Jr.; Schultz, J. Albert; Vaughn, Valentine; McCully, Michael; Ulrich, Steven; Egan, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    A modified ion-detector/data-acquisition system has been devised to increase the dynamic range of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) that, previously, included a microchannel-plate detector and a data-acquisition system based on counting pulses and time-tagging them by use of a time-to-digital converter (TDC). The dynamic range of the TOF-MS was limited by saturation of the microchannel plate detector, which can handle no more than a few million counts per second. The modified system includes (1) a combined microchannel plate/discrete ion multiplier and (2) a hybrid data-acquisition system that simultaneously performs analog current or voltage measurements and multianode single-ion-pulse-counting time-of-flight measurements to extend the dynamic range of a TDC into the regime in which a mass peak comprises multiple ions arriving simultaneously at the detector. The multianode data are used to determine, in real time, whether the detector is saturated. When saturation is detected, the data-acquisition system selectively enables circuitry that simultaneously determines the ion-peak intensity by measuring the time profile of the analog current or voltage detector-output signal.

  11. Single crystal diamond detector measurements of deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium neutrons in Joint European Torus fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, C; Sundén, E Andersson; Binda, F; Croci, G; Ericsson, G; Giacomelli, L; Gorini, G; Griesmayer, E; Grosso, G; Kaveney, G; Nocente, M; Perelli Cippo, E; Rebai, M; Syme, B; Tardocchi, M

    2014-04-01

    First simultaneous measurements of deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium neutrons from deuterium plasmas using a Single crystal Diamond Detector are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed at JET with a dedicated electronic chain that combined high count rate capabilities and high energy resolution. The deposited energy spectrum from DD neutrons was successfully reproduced by means of Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response function and simulations of neutron emission from the plasma, including background contributions. The reported results are of relevance for the development of compact neutron detectors with spectroscopy capabilities for installation in camera systems of present and future high power fusion experiments.

  12. Single crystal diamond detector measurements of deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium neutrons in Joint European Torus fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cazzaniga, C. Gorini, G.; Nocente, M.; Sundén, E. Andersson; Binda, F.; Ericsson, G.; Croci, G.; Grosso, G.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Griesmayer, E.; Kaveney, G.; Syme, B.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-04-15

    First simultaneous measurements of deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium neutrons from deuterium plasmas using a Single crystal Diamond Detector are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed at JET with a dedicated electronic chain that combined high count rate capabilities and high energy resolution. The deposited energy spectrum from DD neutrons was successfully reproduced by means of Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response function and simulations of neutron emission from the plasma, including background contributions. The reported results are of relevance for the development of compact neutron detectors with spectroscopy capabilities for installation in camera systems of present and future high power fusion experiments.

  13. Chest wall thickness measurements of the LLNL and JAERI torso phantoms for germanium detector counting

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.H.; Hauck, B.M.

    1997-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute torso phantoms were developed to calibrate lung counting systems that are used to estimate plutonium and other radionuclides deposited in the lung. Originally, low energy photon counting systems consisted of phoswich detectors. The average chest wall thicknesses and individual measurement points of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory phantom and its overlay plates in the regions covered by these detectors were provided by the manufacturer. Germanium detectors are of a different size and are placed in different locations on the phantom so that the manufacturer`s data are no longer applicable for the locations of the germanium detectors on the phantom. The Human Monitoring Laboratory has re-evaluated the chest wall thickness of both the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute phantoms and their overlay plates for its germanium lung counting system. The measurements were made in the upper right, lower right, upper left, and lower left positions on the phantom`s torso plate above the lungs. The effective chest wall thicknesses (17 keV) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory torso plate are 1.46 cm, 1.43 cm, 1.66 cm, 1.48 cm, respectively. The manufacturer`s quoted average effective chest wall thickness for a pair of phoswich detectors is 1.63 cm. The measured effective chest wall thicknesses (17 keV) for the JAERI`s torso plate are 1.76 cm, 2.15 cm, 1.79 cm, 2.15 cm, respectively. The manufacturer`s quoted average chest wall thickness for an unspecified region of the chest is 1.50 cm. This paper presents effective chest wall thickness data for the phantoms with and without their overlay plates at 17 keV, 60 keV, 200 keV and 1,500 keV. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Conversion factor and uncertainty estimation for quantification of towed gamma-ray detector measurements in Tohoku coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, S.; Thornton, B.; Kamada, S.; Hirao, Y.; Ura, T.; Odano, N.

    2016-05-01

    Factors to convert the count rate of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to the concentration of radioactive cesium in marine sediments are estimated for a towed gamma-ray detector system. The response of the detector against a unit concentration of radioactive cesium is calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation considering the vertical profile of radioactive material measured in core samples. The conversion factors are acquired by integrating the contribution of each layer and are normalized by the concentration in the surface sediment layer. At the same time, the uncertainty of the conversion factors are formulated and estimated. The combined standard uncertainty of the radioactive cesium concentration by the towed gamma-ray detector is around 25 percent. The values of uncertainty, often referred to as relative root mean squat errors in other works, between sediment core sampling measurements and towed detector measurements were 16 percent in the investigation made near the Abukuma River mouth and 5.2 percent in Sendai Bay, respectively. Most of the uncertainty is due to interpolation of the conversion factors between core samples and uncertainty of the detector's burial depth. The results of the towed measurements agree well with laboratory analysed sediment samples. Also, the concentrations of radioactive cesium at the intersection of each survey line are consistent. The consistency with sampling results and between different lines' transects demonstrate the availability and reproducibility of towed gamma-ray detector system.

  15. Measurements of Si Hybrid CMOS X-Ray Detector Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, Stephen; Falcone, A.; Burrows, D.; Cook, R.

    2010-01-01

    The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in contention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and Swift). However their bucket-brigade readout architecture, which transfers charge across the chip with discrete component readout electronics, results in clockrate limited readout speeds that cause pileup (saturation) of bright sources and an inherent susceptibility to radiation induced displacement damage that limits mission lifetime. In contrast, HCDs read pixels with low power, on-chip multiplexer electronics in a random access fashion. Faster frame rates, achieved with multi-output readout design, will allow the next generation's larger effective area telescopes to observe bright sources free of pileup. Radiation damaged lattice sites effect a single pixel instead of an entire row. Random access, multi-output readout will allow for novel readout modes such as simultaneous bright-source-fast/whole-chip-slow readout. In order for HCDs to become useful X-Ray detectors, they must show noise and energy resolution performance similar to CCDs while retaining advantages inherent to HCDs. We will report on readnoise, conversion gain, and energy resolution measurements of X-Ray enhanced Teledyne HAWAII-1RG (H1RG) HCDs and describe techniques of H1RG data reduction.

  16. Measurements of Si hybrid CMOS x-ray detector characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, Stephen D.; Falcone, Abe D.; Burrows, David N.; Cook, Robert; Bai, Yibin; Farris, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in contention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and Swift). However their bucket-brigade readout architecture, which transfers charge across the chip with discrete component readout electronics, results in clockrate limited readout speeds that cause pileup (saturation) of bright sources and an inherent susceptibility to radiation induced displacement damage that limits mission lifetime. In contrast, HCDs read pixels with low power, on-chip multiplexer electronics in a random access fashion. Faster frame rates achieved with multi-output readout design will allow the next generation's larger effective area telescopes to observe bright sources free of pileup. Radiation damaged lattice sites effect a single pixel instead of an entire row. Random access, multi-output readout will allow for novel readout modes such as simultaneous bright-source-fast/whole-chip-slow readout. In order for HCDs to be useful as X-Ray detectors, they must show noise and energy resolution performance similar to CCDs while retaining advantages inherent to HCDs. We will report on readnoise, conversion gain, and energy resolution measurements of an X-Ray enhanced Teledyne HAWAII-1RG (H1RG) HCD and describe techniques of H1RG data reduction.

  17. Use of multielement detector systems with synchrotron x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.C.

    1981-07-01

    The extremely high intensity and pulsed structure of synchrotron radiation x-ray sources put very demanding requirements on associated x-ray detectors. In current detector systems, trade-offs must be made between the efficiency, energy resolution, counting rate capability and the spatial resolution. Two detector systems are described which illustrate the optimization of these parameters for different applications of synchrotron radiation. One system is a segmented 16 channel multiwire proportional chamber which is used for fluorescent EXAFS measurements. The other is a 30 element Si(Li) linear detector array which is used for digital angiography experiments. The characteristics of these systems are discussed and recent results obtained with them are presented.

  18. A heuristic approach to the quantum measurement problem: How to distinguish particle detectors from ordinary objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, R.

    2015-08-01

    Elementary particle detectors fall broadly into only two classes: phase-transformation devices, such as the bubble chamber, and charge-transfer devices like the Geiger-Müller tube. Quantum measurements are seen to involve transitions from a long-lived metastable state (e.g., superheated liquid or a gas of atoms between charged capacitor plates) to a thermodynamically stable condition. A detector is then a specially prepared object undergoing a metastable-to-stable transformation that is significantly enhanced by the presence of the measured particle, which behaves, in some sense, as the seed of a process of heterogeneous nucleation. Based on this understanding of the operation of a conventional detector, and using results of orthogonality-catastrophe theory, we argue that, in the thermodynamic limit, the pre-measurement Hamiltonian is not the same as that describing the detector during or after the interaction with a particle and, thus, that superpositions of pointer states (Schrödinger’s cats) are unphysical because their time evolution is ill defined. Examples of particle-induced changes in the Hamiltonian are also given for ordinary systems whose macroscopic parameters are susceptible to radiation damage, but are not modified by the interaction with a single particle.

  19. Measurement System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    System and methods are disclosed for fluid measurements which may be utilized to determine mass flow rates such as instantaneous mass flow of a fluid stream. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention may be utilized to compare an input mass flow to an output mass flow of a drilling fluid circulation stream. In one embodiment, a fluid flow rate is determined by utilizing a microwave detector in combination with an acoustic sensor. The acoustic signal is utilized to eliminate 2pi phase ambiguities in a reflected microwave signal. In another embodiment, a fluid flow rate may be determined by detecting a phase shift of an acoustic signal across two different predetermined transmission paths. A fluid density may be determined by detecting a calibrated phase shift of an acoustic signal through the fluid. In another embodiment, a second acoustic signal may be transmitted through the fluid to define a particular 2pi phase range which defines the phase shift. The present invention may comprise multiple transmitters/receivers operating at different frequencies to measure instantaneous fuel levels of cryogenic fuels within containers positioned in zero or near zero gravity environments. In one embodiment, a moveable flexible collar of transmitter/receivers may be utilized to determine inhomogenuities within solid rocket fuel tubes.

  20. Issues Involving Infrared Detector Material Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-28

    on the ferroelectric properties of thin film ferroelectric (211) Si substrate 1 1 1 1 Area 2 CdTe SiOx (211) Si substrate (110) direction 7 PZT...to develop textured template for growth of epitaxial thin film ferroelectric (TFFE) IR detectors on polyimide coated Si. The commercial TFFE has a...due to limitation of characterization capability on small sample spot on our ARL collaborator side. This project also involved a strong educational

  1. TFTR alpha extraction and measurement: Development and testing of advanced alpha detectors: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wehring, B.W.

    1988-02-15

    Advanced alpha-particle detectors made of heavy elements were investigated as alternatives to silicon surface-barrier detectors for the ''foil-neutralization technique'' of alpha-particle diagnostics in fusion reactors with high neutron backgrounds. From an extensive literature review, it was decided that HgI/sub 2/ would make a more suitable detector for alpha-particle diagnostics than other heavy element detectors such as CdTe. Thus, HgI/sub 2/ detectors were designed and fabricated. Experimental tests were performed to determine detector characteristics and detector responses to alpha particles. Radiation noise measurements were also performed using the North Carolina State University PULSTAR nuclear reactor for both the HgI/sub 2/ detectors and commercial Si(Au) surface barrier detectors. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Ultrasonic stress measurement using PC based and commercial flaw detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Auteliano A.; Bray, Don E.

    2000-09-01

    The determination of the stress field inside metallic parts is one of the most important challenges to the designer. Although the prediction of the stress distribution can be done by several numerical and empirical methods, the real stress value is almost always unknown. Several destructive and nondestructive techniques have been tested to accomplish this task, including the application of x rays, saw cut, neutron diffraction and so on, but none of them seems to have a suitable correlation between cost and applicability. Ultrasonic techniques have been used for flaw detection since the 1950s. The main application was in the identification of cracks and voids. In this work we present the application of ultrasound in the evaluation of a one-dimensional stress field using the longitudinal critically refracted waves (LCR). A new ultrasonic LCR probe is presented and its performance is evaluated using PC based instrumentation. Also, the LCR waves' sensitivity is verified using a low cost commercial flaw detector. The results show that the technique can be applied to quantify the magnitude of the stresses in bars, using either the PC based or the commercial flaw detector system, as long as the high sensitivity longitudinal critically refracted waves are used.

  3. Python based integration of GEM detector electronics with JET data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Cieszewski, Radosław; Czarski, Tomasz; Dalley, Simon; Hogben, Colin; Jakubowska, Katarzyna L.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Scholz, Marek; Shumack, Amy

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the system integrating the dedicated measurement and control electronic systems for Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors with the Control and Data Acquisition system (CODAS) in the JET facility in Culham, England. The presented system performs the high level procedures necessary to calibrate the GEM detector and to protect it against possible malfunctions or dangerous changes in operating conditions. The system also allows control of the GEM detectors from CODAS, setting of their parameters, checking their state, starting the plasma measurement and to reading the results. The system has been implemented using the Python language, using the advanced libraries for implementation of network communication protocols, for object based hardware management and for data processing.

  4. Measurement of fluid motion using antipodal nToF detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Gary; Bionta, Richard; Caggiano, Jac; Eckart, Mark; Hartouni, Ed; Hatarik, Robert; Kilkenny, Joe; Moore, Alastair; Sayre, Daniel; Yeamans, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The mid-2016 implementation of a neutron time-of-flight (nToF) detector in the northern hemisphere of the NIF experimental areas has provided an approximately antipodal detector pair configuration. In addition to enabling the first measurements of neutron spectra in the northern hemisphere of the NIF Target Bay, this configuration enables the most sensitive measurement of north/south fluid motion during neutron production in inertial confinement fusion implosions. We present the status and initial results of measurements using the NIF antipodal nToF system. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Elastic scattering measurement for the system 17O + 58Ni at Coulomb barrier energies with silicon strip detectors exploiting ASIC electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Molini, P.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, C.; Manea, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Di Meo, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Boiano, A.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Parascandolo, L.; Sandoli, M.; Soramel, F.; Stroe, L.; Toniolo, N.; Veronese, F.

    2013-03-01

    The quasi elastic scattering of a 17O projectile from a 58Ni target has been studied at beam energies ranging from 42.5 to 55.0 MeV in 2.5 MeV steps. The total reaction cross sections were derived from the measured angular distributions by using an optical model fit within the coupled-channel code FRESCO. These cross sections are very similar to those measured for 17F (loosely bound by 0.6 MeV), mirror nucleus of 17O (tightly bound by 4.14 MeV). This outcome points out that, in this energy range, the small binding energy of the 17F valence proton has negligible influence onto the reactivity of such a loosely bound projectile, contrary to simple expectations, and to what observed for other loosely bound nuclei. The reaction dynamics seems to be influenced mainly by the Coulomb interaction which is similar for both mirror projectiles.

  6. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  7. Infrastructure Needs to Support Unattended and Remote Detector Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trombka, Jacob; McClanahan, Timothy; Floyd, Samuel

    2002-10-01

    The use of unattended and remote detection systems for use in telemedicine, teleforensics and applications to operations in homeland security and nuclear non proliferation programs will require the development of portable detector systems and public information network systems. With the availability of such networks, the deployment of relatively inexpensive sensor systems can be achieved.

  8. Detector driver systems and photometric estimates for RIMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, Vicki L.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Lyness, Eric I.; Muench, Marius; Robinson, Frederick D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Capone, John I.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2014-07-01

    The Rapid infrared IMAger-Spectrometer (RIMAS) is a rapid gamma-ray burst afterglow instrument that will provide photometric and spectroscopic coverage of the Y, J, H, and K bands. RIMAS separates light into two optical arms, YJ and HK, which allows for simultaneous coverage in two photometric bands. RIMAS utilizes two 2048 x 2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe (HAWAII-2RG) detectors along with a Spitzer Legacy Indium- Antimonide (InSb) guiding detector in spectroscopic mode to position and keep the source on the slit. We describe the software and hardware development for the detector driver and acquisition systems. The HAWAII- 2RG detectors simultaneously acquire images using Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc. driver, timing, and processing boards with two C++ wrappers running assembly code. The InSb detector clocking and acquisition system runs on a National Instruments cRIO-9074 with a Labview user interface and clocks written in an easily alterable ASCII file. We report the read noise, linearity, and dynamic range of our guide detector. Finally, we present RIMAS's estimated instrument efficiency in photometric imaging mode (for all three detectors) and expected limiting magnitudes. Our efficiency calculations include atmospheric transmission models, filter models, telescope components, and optics components for each optical arm.

  9. Thermal crosstalk simulation and measurement of linear terahertz detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weizhi; Huang, Zehua; Wang, Jun; Li, Mingyu; Gou, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2015-11-01

    Thermal simulation of differently structured linear terahertz detector arrays (TDAs) based on lithium tantalate was performed by finite element analysis (FEA). Simulation results revealed that a relatively simple TDA structure can have good thermal insulation, i.e., low thermal crosstalk effect (TCE), between adjacent pixels, which was thus selected for the real fabrication of TDA sample. Current responsivity (Ri) of the sample for a 2.52 THz source was measured to be 6.66 × 10-6 A/W and non-uniformity (NU) of Ri was 4.1%, showing good performance of the sample. TCE test result demonstrated that small TCE existed in the sample, which was in good agreement with the simulation results.

  10. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino composition with the IMB-3 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, D.; Becker-Szendy, R.; Bratton, C.B.; Cady, D.R.; Claus, R.; Dye, S.T.; Gajewski, W.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T.J.; Halverson, P.G.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Kropp, W.R.; Learned, J.G.; LoSecco, J.M.; McGrew, C.; Matsuno, S.; Matthews, J.; Mudan, M.S.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sinclair, D.; Sobel, H.W.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Svoboda, R.; Thornton, G.; van der Velde, J.C. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 The University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 University College, London, WC1E F6BT, United Kingdom Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio 44115 The University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 Lousiana State University, Baton Rouge, Lousisiana 70803 The University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742)

    1991-05-20

    The atmospheric neutrino flux is measured using a 3.4-kt yr exposure of the IMB-3 detector. Single-ring events are classified as showering or nonshowering using the geometry of the {hacek C}erenkov pattern. A simulation of neutrino interactions and three models of atmospheric neutrino production are used to predict the composition of the sample. Showering-nonshowering character is strongly correlated with the flavor of the neutrino parent. In the lepton momentum range {ital p}{lt}1500 MeV/{ital c}, we find that nonshowering events comprise (41{plus minus}3{plus minus}2syst)% of the total. The fraction expected is (51{plus minus}5(syst))%.

  11. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  16. Radiation detection system using semiconductor detector with differential carrier trapping and mobility

    DOEpatents

    Whited, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in relatively thick semiconductor radiation detectors, such as HgI.sub.2, which exhibit significant hole trapping. Two amplifiers are used: the first measures the charge collected and the second the contribution of the electrons to the charge collected. The outputs of the two amplifiers are utilized to unfold the total charge generated within the detector in response to a radiation event.

  17. An analytical light distribution model in the optical system of a scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey; Skachkov, E. V.; Belyaev, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes an analytical light distribution model in the optical system of a scintillation detector. The model can be useful for scintillation detector development since it allows to make quick calculations with different parameters. Comparison of the analytical model and Geant4 calculation results has been done. The comparison of the analytical model calculation results and experimental measurements have been done. Both comparisons show model validity and a capability to be used in the research.

  18. Development of a Detector Control System for the ATLAS Pixel detector in the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, N.; Karagounis, M.; Kersten, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2016-11-01

    The upgrade of the LHC to the HL-LHC requires a new ITk detector. The innermost part of this new tracker is a pixel detector. The University of Wuppertal is developing a new DCS to monitor and control this new pixel detector. The current concept envisions three parallel paths of the DCS. The first path, called security path, is hardwired and provides an interlock system to guarantee the safety of the detector and human beings. The second path is a control path. This path is used to supervise the entire detector. The control path has its own communication lines independent from the regular data readout for reliable operation. The third path is for diagnostics and provides information on demand. It is merged with the regular data readout and provides the highest granularity and most detailed information. To reduce the material budget, a serial power scheme is the baseline for the pixel modules. A new ASIC used in the control path is in development at Wuppertal for this serial power chain. A prototype exists already and a proof of principle was demonstrated. Development and research is ongoing to guarantee the correct operation of the new ASIC in the harsh environment of the HL-LHC. The concept for the new DCS will be presented in this paper. A focus will be made on the development of the DCS chip, used for monitoring and control of pixel modules in a serial power chain.

  19. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    DOEpatents

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  20. Design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dally, Adam

    2013-04-01

    CUORE, the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events, is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with an active mass of 206 kg of ^130Te. The detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operating at 10 mK. The signature of 0νββ decay is an excess of events at the Q-value of 2528 keV. Understanding the energy response is critical for event identification, but this presents many challenges. The detector requires ultra-low background radiation, vacuum compatible materials, and cryogenic temperatures. Individual energy calibration of the bolometers is achieved by placing radioactive sources between detectors inside the cryostat. A source deployment and thermalization system that meets the background and thermal requirements of the CUORE experiment has been developed. This talk will discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system.

  1. Interactive display system having a matrix optical detector

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard

    2007-01-23

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. An image beam is projected across the inlet face laterally and transversely for display on the outlet face. An optical detector including a matrix of detector elements is optically aligned with the inlet face for detecting a corresponding lateral and transverse position of an inbound light spot on the outlet face.

  2. Measurement of photoelectron yield of the CDEX-10 liquid argon detector prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qing-Hao; Yue, Qian; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Lin, Shin-Ted; Tang, Chang-Jian; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Ming; Zhu, Jing-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is a low background experiment at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) designed to directly detect dark matter with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In the second phase, CDEX-10, which has a 10 kg germanium array detector system, a liquid argon (LAr) anti-Compton active shielding and cooling system is proposed. To study the properties of the LAr detector, a prototype with an active volume of 7 liters of liquid argon was built and operated. The photoelectron yields, as a critically important parameter for the prototype detector, have been measured to be 0.051-0.079 p.e./keV for 662 keV γ rays at different positions. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation results has provided a reasonable understanding and determination of the important parameters such as the surviving fraction of the excimers, the absorption length for 128 nm photons in liquid argon, the reflectivity of Teflon and so on.

  3. Photon counting detector for the personal radiography inspection system "SIBSCAN"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, E. A.; Baru, S. E.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Leonov, V. V.; Oleynikov, V. P.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    X-ray detectors operating in the energy integrating mode are successfully used in many different applications. Nevertheless the direct photon counting detectors, having the superior parameters in comparison with the integrating ones, are rarely used yet. One of the reasons for this is the low value of the electrical signal generated by a detected photon. Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based scintillation counters have a high detection efficiency, high electronic gain and compact dimensions. This makes them a very attractive candidate to replace routinely used detectors in many fields. More than 10 years ago the digital scanning radiography system based on multistrip ionization chamber (MIC) was suggested at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The detector demonstrates excellent radiation resistance and parameter stability after 5 year operations and an imaging of up to 1000 persons per day. Currently, the installations operate at several Russian airports and at subway stations in some cities. At the present time we design a new detector operating in the photon counting mode, having superior parameters than the gas one, based on scintillator - SiPM assemblies. This detector has close to zero noise, higher quantum efficiency and a count rate capability of more than 5 MHz per channel (20% losses), which leads to better image quality and improved detection capability. The suggested detector technology could be expanded to medical applications.

  4. SU-E-T-641: Proton Range Measurements Using a Geometrically Calibrated Liquid Scintillator Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C; Robertson, D; Alsanea, F; Beddar, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a geometric calibration method to accurately calculate physical distances within a liquid scintillator detector and to assess the accuracy, consistency, and robustness of proton beam range measurements when using a liquid scintillator detector system with the proposed geometric calibration process. Methods: We developed a geometric calibration procedure to accurately convert pixel locations in the camera frame into physical locations in the scintillator frame. To ensure accuracy, the geometric calibration was performed before each experiment. The liquid scintillator was irradiated with spot scanning proton beams of 94 energies in two deliveries. A CCD camera was used to capture the two-dimensional scintillation light profile of each of the proton energies. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate the proton range from the acquired images. The measured range was compared to the nominal range to assess the accuracy of the detector. To evaluate the robustness of the detector between each setup, the experiments were repeated on three different days. To evaluate the consistency of the measurements between deliveries, three sets of measurements were acquired for each experiment. Results: Using this geometric calibration procedure, the proton beam ranges measured using the liquid scintillator system were all within 0.3mm of the nominal range. The average difference between the measured and nominal ranges was −0.20mm. The delivery-to-delivery standard deviation of the proton range measurement was 0.04mm, and the setup-to-setup standard deviation of the measurement was 0.10mm. Conclusion: The liquid scintillator system can measure the range of all 94 beams in just two deliveries. With the proposed geometric calibration, it can measure proton range with sub-millimeter accuracy, and the measurements were shown to be consistent between deliveries and setups. Therefore, we conclude that the liquid scintillator

  5. Highly sensitive simple homodyne phase detector for ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, John; Suslov, Alexey; Yong, Grace; Boatner, Lynn A.; Svitelskiy, Oleksiy

    2016-04-01

    We have designed and built a modern versatile research-grade instrument for ultrasound pulse-echo probing of the elastic properties of a wide range of materials under laboratory conditions. The heart of the instrument lies in an AD8302 microchip: a gain and phase detector from Analog Devices, Inc. To construct the device, we have implemented a schematic that utilizes the homodyne principle for signal processing instead of the traditional superheterodyne approach. This design allows one to measure phase shifts with high precision and linearity over the entire range of 0°-360°. The system is simple in construction and usage; it makes ultrasound measurements easily accessible to a broad range of researchers. It was tested by measuring the temperature dependence of the ultrasound speed and attenuation in a KTa0.92Nb0.08O3 (KTN) single crystal at a frequency of ˜40 MHz. The tests were performed in the vicinity of the ferroelectric transitions where the large variations of the speed and attenuation demand a detector with outstanding characteristics. The described detector has a wide dynamic range and allows for measuring in a single run over the whole temperature range of the ferroelectric transitions, rather than just in limited intervals available previously. Moreover, due to the wide dynamic range of the gain measurements and high sensitivity this instrument was able to reveal previously unresolvable features associated with the development of the ferroelectric transitions of KTN crystals.

  6. Highly sensitive simple homodyne phase detector for ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, John; Suslov, Alexey; Yong, Grace; Boatner, Lynn A; Svitelskiy, Oleksiy

    2016-04-01

    We have designed and built a modern versatile research-grade instrument for ultrasound pulse-echo probing of the elastic properties of a wide range of materials under laboratory conditions. The heart of the instrument lies in an AD8302 microchip: a gain and phase detector from Analog Devices, Inc. To construct the device, we have implemented a schematic that utilizes the homodyne principle for signal processing instead of the traditional superheterodyne approach. This design allows one to measure phase shifts with high precision and linearity over the entire range of 0°-360°. The system is simple in construction and usage; it makes ultrasound measurements easily accessible to a broad range of researchers. It was tested by measuring the temperature dependence of the ultrasound speed and attenuation in a KTa0.92Nb0.08O3 (KTN) single crystal at a frequency of ∼40 MHz. The tests were performed in the vicinity of the ferroelectric transitions where the large variations of the speed and attenuation demand a detector with outstanding characteristics. The described detector has a wide dynamic range and allows for measuring in a single run over the whole temperature range of the ferroelectric transitions, rather than just in limited intervals available previously. Moreover, due to the wide dynamic range of the gain measurements and high sensitivity this instrument was able to reveal previously unresolvable features associated with the development of the ferroelectric transitions of KTN crystals.

  7. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Shultis, John K.; Rice, Blake B.; McNeil, Walter J.; Solomon, Clell J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Bellinger, Steven L.

    2010-12-21

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  8. The digital trigger system for the RED-100 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, P. P. Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.

    2015-12-15

    The system for forming a trigger for the liquid xenon detector RED-100 is developed. The trigger can be generated for all types of events that the detector needs for calibration and data acquisition, including the events with a single electron of ionization. In the system, a mechanism of event detection is implemented according to which the timestamp and event type are assigned to each event. The trigger system is required in the systems searching for rare events to select and keep only the necessary information from the ADC array. The specifications and implementation of the trigger unit which provides a high efficiency of response even to low-energy events are considered.

  9. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2008-03-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  10. Development of a proton Computed Tomography detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naimuddin, Md.; Coutrakon, G.; Blazey, G.; Boi, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Erdelyi, B.; Hedin, D.; Johnson, E.; Krider, J.; Rukalin, V.; Uzunyan, S. A.; Zutshi, V.; Fordt, R.; Sellberg, G.; Rauch, J. E.; Roman, M.; Rubinov, P.; Wilson, P.

    2016-02-01

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantegeous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  11. Helium cooling systems for large superconducting physics detector magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.

    The large superconducting detector magnets used for high energy physics experiments are virtually all indirectly cooled. In general, these detector magnets are not cryogenically stabilized. Therefore, there are a number of choices for cooling large indirectly cooled detector magnets. These choices include; 1) forced two-phase helium cooling driven by the helium refrigerator J-T circuit, 2) forced two-phase helium cooling driven by a helium pump, and 3) a peculation gravity feed cooling system which uses liquid helium from a large storage dewar. The choices for the cooling of a large detector magnet are illustrated by applying these concepts to a 4.2 meter diameter 0.5 tesla thin superconducting solenoid for an experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  12. Prototype Radiation Detector Positioning System For The Automated Nondestructive Assay Of Uf6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.

    2011-08-07

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of efficiency and assay accuracy. This paper describes an approach denoted the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) that supports 100% cylinder verification, provides volume-averaged cylinder enrichment assay, and reduces inspector manpower needs. To allow field measurements to be collected to validate data collection algorithms, a prototype radiation detector positioning system was constructed. The system was designed to accurately position an array of radiation detectors along the length of a cylinder to measure UF6 enrichment. A number of alternative radiation shields for the detectors were included with the system. A collimated gamma-ray spectrometer module that allows translation of the detectors in the surrounding shielding to adjust the field of view, and a collimating plug in the end to further reduce the low-energy field of view, were also developed. Proof-of-principle measurements of neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures, using moderated neutron detectors and large-volume spectrometers in a fixed-geometry, portal-like configuration, supported an early assessment of the viability of the concept. The system has been used successfully on two testing campaigns at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant to scan over 30 product cylinders. This paper will describe the overall design of the detector positioning system and

  13. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Hashemian, R.; Kreps, A.; Oberling, M.; Pearson, T.; Sahoo, H.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system.

  14. Bolometric detector systems for IR and mm-wave space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, S. E.; Lange, A. E.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Hristov, V.; Bock, J. J.; DelCastillo, H. M.; Beeman, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Griffin, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent developments in bolometric detector systems for millimeter and submillimeter wave space astronomy are described. Current technologies meet all the requirements for the high frequency instrument onboard the cosmic background radiation anisotropy satellite/satellite for the measurement of background anisotropies (COBRAS/SAMBA) platform. It is considered that the technologies that are currently being developed will significantly reduce the effective time constant and/or the cooling requirements of bolometric detectors. These technologies lend themselves to the fabrication of the large format arrays required for the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Space Telescope (FIRST). The scientific goals and detector requirements of the COBRAS/SAMBA platform that will use infrared bolometers are reviewed and the baseline detector system is described, including the feed optics, the infrared filters, the cold amplifiers and the warm readout electronics.

  15. Measurement of a high electrical quality factor in a niobium resonator for a gravitational radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical quality factors of a 10-g niobium resonator were measured at 4.4 K and were found to be 8.1 x 10 to the 6th, and 3.8 x 10 to the 6th, respectively. The value for the electrical quality factor is high enough for a system operating at 50 mK at a sensitivity level of one phonon. The resonator's low damping properties make it suitable for use as a transducer for a cryogenic three-mode gravitational radiation detector. A practical design is given for the mounting of the resonator on a 2400-kg aluminum-bar detector. Projections are made for the sensitivity of a 2400-kg bar instrumented as a three-mode system with this resonator inductively coupled to a SQUID.

  16. HPGe well-type detectors for neutron activation measurements on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bertalot, L.; Damiani, M.; Esposito, B.; Lagamba, L.; Podda, S.; Batistoni, P.; De Felice, P.; Biagini, R.

    1997-01-01

    We describe an improvement of the neutron activation system in operation on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) tokamak for the measurement of the total neutron yield. A HPGe well-type detector (200 cm{sup 3} active volume) is used to detect the photoemission from neutron activated samples ({sup 115m}In336.2 keV {gamma} rays from DD neutrons on indium for FTU). Due to their high geometrical efficiency, HPGe well-type detectors are particularly suited to the FTU low-level activity measurements. A particular effort has been devoted to the calibration of the measuring system. In particular, a multi-{gamma} calibration source (59{endash}1332 keV energy range) with a density of 7.31 g/cm{sup 3} consisting of a stack of indium foils has been prepared. This assures that the shape and volume of the calibration source are the same as those of the samples used in the actual measurements. The full-energy-peak efficiency at the {sup 115m}In336.2 keV line is 0.197 with an overall uncertainty of 2{percent} (1{sigma}). For a better characterization of the detector response as a function of the sample density, a further calibration source with the same geometry has been prepared in a gel aqueous solution (density {approximately}1 g/cm{sup 3}). The calibration curves for the well-type detector at the two different density values are compared. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of portal detectors of a steel factory. Comparison of measured and simulated response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takoudis, G.; Xanthos, S.; Clouvas, A.; Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Potiriadis, C.

    2007-09-01

    Metal scrap is widely used in steel production. Millions of tons of scrap metal are traded each year worldwide; hence, both national and international authorities have shown an increasing interest in the probing and detection of radioactivity contamination in scrap metal. In order to minimize and/or avoid economical losses and material contamination, portal monitors have been installed at the entrance point of installations of many steel industries. Portal monitors typically consist of large organic scintillation detectors. The purpose of this study is to simulate such detectors and compare simulation results with experimental measurements in order to understand, calibrate and effectively use the detectors' response. Monte Carlo simulations of these systems demonstrate the assumptions that have to be made for optimal matching of measured and simulated results. As it was reported in previous studies, we observed a difference between measured and experimental values next to the light guide. In this work, we propose a transition area near the boundary surface of the scintillator and the light guide; this results in a good qualitative and quantitative agreement of measured and simulated results. This study will also define a guideline for later portal monitor simulations and a reliable estimation of the portals' efficiency.

  18. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2017-02-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixelated luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two-pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cherenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fuzed quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All new and upgraded sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Results on their commissioning and essential characteristics using data since the start-up of LHC will be presented.

  19. Sub-micro-liter Electrochemical Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism Detector for Lab-on-a-Chip System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fiorini, Paolo; Peeters, Sara; Majeed, Bivragh; Sterken, Tom; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Hayashi, Miho; Yaku, Hidenobu; Yamashita, Ichiro

    2012-04-01

    A sub-micro-liter single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) detector for lab-on-a-chip applications is developed. This detector enables a fast, sensitive, and selective SNP detection directly from human blood. The detector is fabricated on a Si substrate by a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor/micro electro mechanical systems (CMOS/MEMS) process and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molding. Stable and reproducible measurements are obtained by implementing an on-chip Ag/AgCl electrode and encapsulating the detector. The detector senses the presence of SNPs by measuring the concentration of pyrophosphoric acid generated during selective DNA amplification. A 0.5-µL-volume detector enabled the successful performance of the typing of a SNP within the ABO gene using human blood. The measured sensitivity is 566 pA/µM.

  20. Development of a modular directional and spectral neutron detection system using solid-state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltz, A.; Torres, B.; McElwain, L.; Dahal, R.; Huang, J.; Bhat, I.; Lu, J.; Danon, Y.

    2015-08-01

    A detection system using room-temperature, microstructured solid-state thermal neutron detectors with very low leakage current has been developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) with the ability to provide positional and spectral information about an unknown neutron source. The Directional and Spectral Neutron Detection System (DSNDS) utilizes a set of small-but-scalable, zero-bias solid-state thermal neutron detectors which have demonstrated high thermal neutron efficiency and adequate gamma insensitivity. The DSNDS can gather spectral information about an unknown neutron source with a relatively small number of detectors, simplifying the detector electronics and minimizing cost; however, the DSNDS is modular in design, providing the capability to increase the detection efficiency and angular resolution. The system used in this paper was comprised of a stack of five high-density polyethylene (HDPE) disks with a thickness of 5 cm and a diameter of 30 cm, the middle disk containing 16 detectors positioned as one internal (moderated) and one external (unmoderated) ring of solid-state neutron detectors. These two detector rings provide the ability to determine the directionality of a neutron source. The system gathers spectral information about a neutron source in two ways: by measuring the relative responses of the internal ring of detectors as well as measuring the ratio of the internal-to-external detector responses. Experiments were performed with variable neutron spectra: a 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron source which was HDPE moderated, HDPE reflected, lead (Pb) shielded, and bare in order to benchmark the system for spectral sensitivity. Simulations were performed in order to characterize the neutron spectra corresponding to each of the source configurations and showed agreement with experimental measurements. The DSNDS demonstrates the ability to determine the relative angle of the source and the hardness of the neutron spectrum. By using the

  1. Cooling and shielding systems for infrared detectors - requirements and limits.

    PubMed

    Wiecek, B

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents three main cooling systems used for infrared detectors. At first thermoelectric devices are discussed. They allow cooling down the detector with low efficiency and not to the very low temperature. They do not generate any vibrations and therefore are suitable for thermal detectors, where the microphone effect can decrease their performance. Photon detectors need to be cooled down even to 77K or better. The only way to have such deep cooling is to use the cooler based on thermodynamic cycle such as Stirling one. With the high efficiency one can easily obtain cryogenic temperature for a detector. The electromagnetic noise and vibration generation are the main disadvantages of using such devices. Joule-Thomson effect during gas expansion is 3rdcooling system discussed in the paper. It is highly effective process, used for gas liquefaction too. The working gas is being removed during cooling into the atmosphere, so the need of continuous supplying with compressed one, what makes this system very difficult for remote applications. In the paper, simple calculations are presented to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the different cooling systems.

  2. Monte Carlo simulated correction factors for output factor measurement with the CyberKnife system—results for new detectors and correction factor dependence on measurement distance and detector orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Satariano, N.

    2014-03-01

    A previous study of the corrections needed for output factor measurements with the CyberKnife system has been extended to include new diode detectors (IBA SFD and Exradin D1V), an air filled microchamber (Exradin CC01) and a scintillation detector (Exradin W1). The dependence of the corrections on detector orientation (detector long axis parallel versus perpendicular to the beam axis) and source to detector distance (SDD) was evaluated for these new detectors and for those in our previous study. The new diodes are found to over-respond at the smallest (5 mm) field size by 2.5% (D1V) and 3.3% (SFD) at 800 mm SDD, while the CC01 under-responds by 7.4% at the same distance when oriented parallel to the beam. Corrections for all detectors tend to unity as field size increases. The W1 corrections are <0.5% at all field sizes. Microchamber correction factors increase substantially if the detector is oriented perpendicular to the beam (by up to 23% for the PTW 31014). Corrections also vary with SDD, with the largest variations seen for microchambers in the perpendicular orientation (up to 13% change at 650 mm SDD versus 800 mm) and smallest for diodes (˜1% change at 650 mm versus 800 mm). The smallest and most stable corrections are found for diodes, liquid filled microchambers and scintillation detectors, therefore these should be preferred for small field output factor measurements. If air filled microchambers are used, then the parallel orientation should be preferred to the perpendicular, and care should be taken to use corrections appropriate to the measurement SDD.

  3. Clinical radiation therapy measurements with a new commercial synthetic single crystal diamond detector.

    PubMed

    Laub, Wolfram U; Crilly, Richard

    2014-11-08

    A commercial version of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector (SCDD) in a Schottky diode configuration was recently released as the new type 60019 microDiamond detector (PTW-Freiburg, Germany). In this study we investigate the dosimetric properties of this detector to independently confirm that findings from the developing group of the SCDDs still hold true for the commercial version of the SCDDs. We further explore if the use of the microDiamond detector can be expanded to high-energy photon beams of up to 15 MV and to large field measure- ments. Measurements were performed with an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator delivering 6, 10, and 15 MV X-rays, as well as 6, 9, 12, 15, and 20 MeV electron beams. The dependence of the microdiamond detector response on absorbed dose after connecting the detector was investigated. Furthermore, the dark current of the diamond detector was observed after irradiation. Results are compared to similar results from measurements with a diamond detector type 60003. Energy dependency was investigated, as well. Photon depth-dose curves were measured for field sizes 3 × 3, 10 × 10, and 30 × 30 cm2. PDDs were measured with the Semiflex type 31010 detector, microLion type 31018 detector, P Diode type 60016, SRS Diode type 60018, and the microDiamond type 60019 detector (all PTW-Freiburg). Photon profiles were measured at a depth of 10 cm. Electron depth-dose curves normalized to the dose maximum were measured with the 14 × 14 cm2 electron cone. PDDs were measured with a Markus chamber type 23343, an E Diode type 60017 and the microDiamond type 60019 detector (all PTW-Freiburg). Profiles were measured with the E Diode and microDiamond at half of D90, D90, D70, and D50 depths and for electron cone sizes of 6 × 6 cm2, 14 × 14 cm2, and 20 × 20 cm2. Within a tol- erance of 0.5% detector response of the investigated detector was stable without any preirradiation. After preirradition with approximately 250 cGy the detector response

  4. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed.

  5. Terrestrial detector for low-frequency gravitational waves based on full tensor measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, H. J.; Moody, M. V.; Griggs, C. E.; Lee, H. M.; Majorana, E.

    2016-05-01

    Two serious obstacles in constructing terrestrial gravitational wave (GW) detectors that can resolve low-frequency signals (≤ 10 Hz) are seismic and Newtonian noises. Here we describe a new detector concept by adopting new measurement techniques and configurations to overcome the present low-frequency barrier due to these noises. Six magnetically levitated superconducting test masses, widely separated along three orthogonal axes, each with three degrees of freedom, constitute a tensor GW detector. The tensor outputs could be combined to better reject the Newtonian noise. Unlike current two-dimensional detectors, a single tensor detector is able to determine the polarization of GWs and the direction to sources on its own.

  6. Assembly and Commissioning of a Liquid Argon Detector and Development of a Slow Control System for the COHERENT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaemingk, Michael; Cooper, Robert; Coherent Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    COHERENT is a collaboration whose goal is to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS). COHERENT plans to deploy a suite of detectors to measure the expected number-of-neutrons squared dependence of CEvNS at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One of these detectors is a liquid argon detector which can measure these low energy nuclear recoil interactions. Ensuring optimal functionality requires the development of a slow control system to monitor and control various aspects, such as the temperature and pressure, of these detectors. Electronics manufactured by Beckhoff, Digilent, and Arduino among others are being used to create these slow control systems. This poster will generally discuss the assembly and commissioning of this CENNS-10 liquid argon detector at Indiana University and will feature work on the slow control systems.

  7. Sub-millimeter wave frequency heterodyne detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Dengler, Robert (Inventor); Mueller, Eric R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to sub-millimeter wave frequency heterodyne imaging systems. More specifically, the present invention relates to a sub-millimeter wave frequency heterodyne detector system for imaging the magnitude and phase of transmitted power through or reflected power off of mechanically scanned samples at sub-millimeter wave frequencies.

  8. Sub-millimeter wave frequency heterodyne detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Dengler, Robert (Inventor); Mueller, Eric R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to sub-millimeter wave frequency heterodyne imaging systems. More specifically, the present invention relates to a sub-millimeter wave frequency heterodyne detector system for imaging the magnitude and phase of transmitted power through or reflected power off of mechanically scanned samples at sub-millimeter wave frequencies.

  9. Pixel detector system development at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Tartoni, N.

    2010-10-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors consisting of an array of silicon photodiodes bump-bonded to CMOS read-out chips provide high signal-to-noise ratio and high dynamic range compared to CCD-based detectors and Image Plates. These detector features are important for SAXS experiments where a wide range of intensities are present in the images. For time resolved SAXS experiments, high frame rates are compulsory. The latest CMOS read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX collaboration provides high frame rate and continuous acquisition mode. A read-out system for an array of MEDIPIX3 sensors is under development at Diamond Light Source. This system will support a full resolution frame rate of 1 kHz at a pixel counter depth of 12-bit and a frame rate of 30 kHz at a counter depth of 1 bit. Details concerning system design and MEDIPIX sensors characterization are presented.

  10. [Flat-panel detectors in X-ray systems].

    PubMed

    Spahn, M; Heer, V; Freytag, R

    2003-05-01

    For all application segments X-ray systems with flat-panel detectors increasingly enter the market. In digital radiography,mammography and cardiologic angiography flat-panel detectors are already well established while they are made ready for market introduction in general angiography and fluoroscopy. Two flat-panel detector technologies are available. One technology is based on an indirect conversion process of X-rays while the other one uses a direct conversion method. For radiography and dynamic applications the indirect method provides substantial advantages, while the direct method has some benefits for mammography. In radiography and mammography flat-panel detectors lead to clear improvements with respect to workflow, image quality and dose reduction potentials. These improvements are fostered by the immediate availability of the image, the large dynamic range and the high sensitivity to X-rays. New applications and the use of complex image processing algorithms have the potential to enlarge the present diagnostic range of applications. Up to now, image intensifiers are still the well-established technology for angiography and fluoroscopy. Nevertheless flat-panel detectors begin to enter this field, especially in cardiologic angiography. Characteristics of flat-panel detectors such as the availability of distortion-free images, the excellent contrast resolution, the large dynamic range, the high sensitivity to X-rays and the usability in magnetic fields provide the basis for improved and new diagnostic and interventional methods.

  11. Design, construction, characterization and use of a detector to measure time of flight of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, A. C.; Félix, J.

    2016-10-01

    In the study of cosmic rays, measurements of time of flight and momentum have been used to identify incident particles from its physical properties, like mass. In this poster we present the design, construction, characterization, and operation of a detector to measure time of flight of cosmic rays. The device is comprised of three plates of plastic scintillator arranged in vertical straight line, they are coupled to one photomultiplier tube. The analogical output has been connected to a data acquisition system to obtain the number of digital pulses per millisecond. We present preliminary results.

  12. Improved detector for the measurement of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelt, F. B.

    1985-07-01

    The present invention lies in the field of gamma ray spectrometry of geologic deposits and other materials, such as building materials (cement, asphalt, etc.) More specifically, the invention is an improved device for the gamma ray spetcrometery of gelogical deposits as a tool for petroleum exploration, geologic research and monitoring of radio-active materials such as in uranium mill tailings and the like. Improvement consists in enlarging the area of the receptor face and without any necessarily substantial increase in the volume of the receptor crystal over the current cylindrical shapes. The invention also provides, as a corollary of the increase in area receptor crystal face, a reduction in the weight of the amount of material necessary to provide effective shielding of the crystal from atmospheric radiation and radiation from deposits not under examination. The area of the receptor crystal face is increased by forming the crystal as a truncated cone with the shielding shaped as a hollow frustrum of a cone. A photomultiplier device is secured to the smaller face of the crystal. The improved detector shape can also be used in scintillometers which measure total gamma radiation.

  13. Wideband 1.064 micrometer detector evaluation. [for application to space laser communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several types of communications detectors for use in a 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometer laser communication system were evaluated and characterized. The communication system Bit Error Rate (BER) performance was measured, and test results for the best detector of each type are summarized. The complete BER curves are presented. The 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometer communication system receiver test bed is described. The best performance levels which can be achieved by focusing the signal to diffraction limited spots on the photosensitive area are cited.

  14. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Detector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission, it's scientific goals, and how these drive detector systems technology. We describe the specific technologies that were developed (2.5 um and 5 um cutoff HgCdTe HAWAIIW2RG arrays for the 3 near-IR instruments, SIDECAR ASICs for the near-IR instruments, and Si:As arrays for the raid-IR instrument). We describe status in each of these areas with an emphasis on the performance of the flight detector systems themselves.

  15. ALICE Diffractive Detector Control System for RUN-II in the ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanillas, J. C.; Martínez, M. I.; León, I.

    2016-10-01

    The ALICE Diffractive (AD0) detector has been installed and commissioned for the second phase of operation (RUN-II). With this new detector it is possible to achieve better measurements by expanding the range of pseudo-rapidity in which the production of particles can be detected. Specifically the selection of diffractive events in the ALICE experiment which was limited by the range over which rapidity gaps occur. Any new detector should be able to take data synchronously with all other detectors and to be operated through the ALICE central systems. One of the key elements developed for the AD0 detector is the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS is designed to operate safely and correctly this detector. Furthermore, the DCS must also provide optimum operating conditions for the acquisition and storage of physics data and ensure these are of the highest quality. The operation of AD0 implies the configuration of about 200 parameters, as electronics settings and power supply levels and the generation of safety alerts. It also includes the automation of procedures to get the AD0 detector ready for taking data in the appropriate conditions for the different run types in ALICE. The performance of AD0 detector depends on a certain number of parameters such as the nominal voltages for each photomultiplier tube (PMT), the threshold levels to accept or reject the incoming pulses, the definition of triggers, etc. All these parameters affect the efficiency of AD0 and they have to be monitored and controlled by the AD0 DCS.

  16. The magnetic design and field measurement of Fermilab collider detectors: CDF (the Collider Detector at Fermilab) and D0

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.

    1990-02-01

    General magnetic characteristics of the CDF and D0 hadron collider detectors at Fermilab are described. The method and equipment for the field measurement for both detectors are described, and their field measurement data are presented. The magnetic field distribution inside the CDF solenoid magnet was measured extensively only at the boundaries, and the field values inside the volume were reconstructed. The effects due to the joints and the return conductor were measured and are discussed. The flux distribution inside the yokes and the fringing field of the D0 toroids were calculated and compared with measured data. A proposal to generate dipole magnetic field inside the D0 toroidal magnet is discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Imaging MAMA detector systems. [Multi-Anode Microchannel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Kasle, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Imaging multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems with 1024 x 1024 pixel formats have been produced for visible and UV wavelengths; the UV types employ 'solar blind' photocathodes whose detective quantum efficiencies are significantly higher than those of currently available CCDs operating at far-UV and EUV wavelengths. Attention is presently given to the configurations and performance capabilities of state-of-the-art MAMA detectors, with a view to the development requirements of the hybrid electronic circuits needed for forthcoming spacecraft-sensor applications. Gain, dark noise, uniformity, and dynamic range performance data are presented for the curved-channel 'chevron', 'Z-plate', and helical-channel high gain microchannel plate configurations that are currently under evaluation with MAMA detector systems.

  18. READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B.; KARGAR, A.; HARRISON, M.J.; MCGREGOR, D.S.

    2006-10-29

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.

  19. Comparison of UV-B measurements performed with a Brewer spectrophotometer and a new UVB-1 broad band detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Meleti, Charicleia; Ziomas, Ioannis C.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the UV-B erythemal dose, based on solar spectra acquired with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Thessaloniki, Greece, are compared to measurements performed with the recently introduced, by the Yankee Environmental Systems, (Robertson type) broad band solar UV-B detector. The spectral response function of this detector, when applied to the Brewer spectral UV-B measurements, results in remarkably comparable estimates of the erythemal UV-B dose. The two instruments provide similar information on the UV-B dose when they are cross-examined under a variety of meteorological and atmospheric conditions and over the a large range of solar zenith angles and total ozone.

  20. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET.

    PubMed

    Ariño, G; Chmeissani, M; De Lorenzo, G; Puigdengoles, C; Cabruja, E; Calderón, Y; Kolstein, M; Macias-Montero, J G; Martinez, R; Mikhaylova, E; Uzun, D

    2013-02-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at -8°C with an applied bias voltage of -1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration.

  1. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET

    PubMed Central

    Ariño, G.; Chmeissani, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Puigdengoles, C.; Cabruja, E.; Calderón, Y.; Kolstein, M.; Macias-Montero, J.G.; Martinez, R.; Mikhaylova, E.; Uzun, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at −8°C with an applied bias voltage of −1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration. PMID:23750177

  2. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariño, G.; Chmeissani, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Puigdengoles, C.; Cabruja, E.; Calderón, Y.; Kolstein, M.; Macias-Montero, J. G.; Martinez, R.; Mikhaylova, E.; Uzun, D.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at -8°C with an applied bias voltage of -1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration.

  3. Comparison of Phoswich and ARSA-type detectors for Radioxenon Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Rebecca; Biegalski, Steven R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hennig, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    The monitoring of atmospheric radioxenon to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty has driven the development of improved detectors for measuring xenon, including the development of a phoswich detector. This detector uses only one PMT to detect beta-gamma coincidence, thus greatly reducing the bulk and electronics of the detector in comparison to the ARSA-type detector. In this experiment, 135Xe was produced through neutron activation and a phoswich detector was used to attain spectra from the gas. These results were compared to similar results from an ARSA-type beta-gamma coincidence spectrum. The spectral characteristics and resolution were compared for the coincidence and beta spectra. Using these metrics, the overall performance of the phoswich detector for beta-gamma coincidence of radioxenon was evaluated.

  4. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality detectors and measurement devices... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.320 Air quality detectors and measurement devices. (a) Tests for methane shall be made by a qualified person...

  5. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality detectors and measurement devices... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.320 Air quality detectors and measurement devices. (a) Tests for methane shall be made by a qualified person...

  6. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Lance

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  7. III-V Compound Detectors for CO2 DIAL Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Sulima, Oleg V.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2005-01-01

    Profiling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is important for understanding the natural carbon cycle on Earth and its influence on global warming and climate change. Differential absorption lidar is a powerful remote sensing technique used for profiling and monitoring atmospheric constituents. Recently there has been an interest to apply this technique, at the 2 m wavelength, for investigating atmospheric CO2. This drives the need for high quality detectors at this wavelength. Although 2 m detectors are commercially available, the quest for a better detector is still on. The detector performance, regarding quantum efficiency, gain and associated noise, affects the DIAL signal-to-noise ratio and background signal, thereby influencing the instrument sensitivity and dynamic range. Detectors based on the III-V based compound materials shows a strong potential for such application. In this paper the detector requirements for a long range CO2 DIAL profiles will be discussed. These requirements were compared to newly developed III-V compound infrared detectors. The performance of ternary InGaSb pn junction devices will be presented using different substrates, as well as quaternary InGaAsSb npn structure. The performance study was based on experimental characterization of the devices dark current, spectral response, gain and noise. The final results are compared to the current state-of-the-art InGaAs technology. Npn phototransistor structure showed the best performance, regarding the internal gain and therefore the device signal-to-noise ratio. 2-micrometers detectivity as high as 3.9 x 10(exp 11) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W was obtained at a temperature of -20 C and 4 V bias voltage. This corresponds to a responsivity of 2650 A/W with about 60% quantum efficiency.

  8. Measurement of loss of DT fusion products using scintillator detectors in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Marsala, R.J.; Palladino, R.W.; Zweben, S.J.; Tuszewski, M.

    1995-03-01

    A poloidal array of MeV ion loss probes previously used to measure DD fusion product loss has been upgraded to measure the loss of alpha particles from DT plasmas in TFTR. The following improvements to the system have been made in preparation for the use of tritium in TFTR: (1) relocation of detectors to a neutronshielded enclosure in the basement to reduce neutron-induced background signals; (2) replacement of ZnS:Cu (P31) scintillators in the probes with the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}0{sub 12}:Ce(P46) variety to minimize damage and assure linearity at the fluxes anticipated from DT plasmas; and (3) shielding of the fiber optic bundles which carry the fight from the probes to the detectors to reduce neutron- and gamma-induced light within them. In addition to the above preparations, the probes have been absolutely calibrated for alpha particles by using the Van de Graaf accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Alpha particle losses from DT plasmas have been observed, and losses at the detector 901 below the midplane are consistent with first orbit loss.

  9. Systems Engineering Measurement Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Systems Engineering Measurement Primer A Basic Introduction to Systems Engineering Measurement Concepts and Use Version 1.0 March 1998 This document...Federal Systems Garry Roedler Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Cathy Tilton The National Registry, Inc. E. Richard Widmann Raytheon Systems...IV 1. INTRODUCTION

  10. Performance Evaluation of Spectroscopic Detectors for LEU Hold-up Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Nutter, Greg; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2016-12-06

    The hold-up measurement of low enriched uranium materials may require use of alternate detector types relative to the measurement of highly enriched uranium. This is in part due to the difference in process scale (i.e., the components are generally larger for low enriched uranium systems) but also because the characteristic gamma-ray lines from 235U used for assay of highly enriched uranium will be present at a much reduced intensity (on a per gram of uranium basis) at lower enrichments. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory examined the performance of several standard detector types, e.g., NaI(Tl), LaBr3(Ce), and HPGe, to select a suitable candidate for measuring and quantifying low enriched uranium hold-up in process pipes and equipment at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant. Detector characteristics, such as energy resolution (full width at half maximum) and net peak count rates at gamma ray energies spanning a range of 60–1332 keV, were measured for the above-mentioned detector types using the same sources and in the same geometry. Uranium enrichment standards (Certified Reference Material no. 969 and Certified Reference Material no. 146) were measured using each of the detector candidates in the same geometry. The net count rates recorded by each detector at 186 keV and 1,001 keV were plotted as a function of enrichment (atom percentage). Background measurements were made in unshielded and shielded configurations under both ambient and elevated conditions of 238U activity. The highly enriched uranium hold-up measurement campaign at the Portsmouth plant was performed on process equipment that had been cleaned out. Therefore, in most cases, the thickness of the uranium deposits was less than the “infinite thickness” for the 186 keV gamma rays to be completely self-attenuated. Because of this, in addition to measuring the 186 keV gamma, the 1,001 keV gamma ray from 234mPa—a daughter of 238U in secular

  11. TH-C-19A-06: Measurements with a New Commercial Synthetic Single Crystal Diamond Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Laub, W; Crilly, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A commercial version of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector in a Scottky diode configuration was recently released as the new type 60019 microDiamond detector (PTW-Freiburg). In this study we investigate the dosimetric properties of this detector and explore if the use of the microDiamond detector can be expanded to high energy photon beams of up to 15MV and to large field measurements. Methods: Energy dependency was investigated. Photon and electron depth-dose curves were measured. Photon PDDs were measured with the Semiflex type 31010, microLion type 31018, P-Diode type 60016, SRS Diode type 60018, and the microDiamond type 60019 detector. Electron depth-dose curves were measured with a Markus chamber type 23343, an E Diode type 60017 and the microDiamond type 60019 detector (all PTW-Freiburg). Profiles were measured with the E-Diode and microDiamond at dose maximum depths. Results: The microDiamond detector shows no energy dependence in high energy photon or electron dosimetry. Electron PDD measurements with the E-Diode and microDiamond are in good agreement except for the bremsstrahlungs region, where values are about 0.5 % lower with the microDiamond detector. Markus detector measurements agree with E-Diode measurements in this region. For depths larger than dmax, depth-dose curves of photon beams measured with the microDiamond detector are in close agreement to those measured with the microLion detector for small fields and with those measured with a Semiflex 0.125cc ionization chamber for large fields. For profile measurements, microDiamond detector measurements agree well with microLion and P-Diode measurements in the high-dose region and the penumbra region. For areas outside the open field, P-Diode measurements are about 0.5–1.0% higher than microDiamond and microLion measurements. Conclusion: The investigated diamond detector is suitable for a wide range of applications in high energy photon and electron dosimetry and is interesting

  12. Ice Detector and Deicing Fluid Effectiveness Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An ice detector and deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring system for an aircraft is disclosed. The ice detection portion is particularly suited for use in flight to notify the flight crew of an accumulation of ice on an aircraft lifting and control surfaces, or helicopter rotors, whereas the deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring portion is particularly suited for use on the ground to notify the flight crew of the possible loss of the effectiveness of the deicing fluid. The ice detection portion comprises a temperature sensor and a parallel arrangement of electrodes whose coefficient of coupling is indicative of the formation of the ice, as well as the thickness of the formed ice. The fluid effectiveness monitoring portion comprises a temperature sensor and an ionic-conduction cell array that measures the conductivity of the deicing fluid which is indicative of its concentration and, thus, its freezing point. By measuring the temperature and having knowledge of the freezing point of the deicing fluid, the fluid effectiveness monitoring portion predicts when the deicing fluid may lose its effectiveness because its freezing point may correspond to the temperature of the ambient.

  13. Energy spectrum measured by the telescope array surface detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dmitri

    2012-05-01

    Two conflicting measurements of the ultra high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been reported by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) and the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiments. HiRes observes a ˜5sigma suppression at E = 1019.75 eV, which is in agreement with the prediction of Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) theory. AGASA, in contrast, sees the flux extended well beyond E = 1020 eV with no visible break, suggesting that the flux is limited only by the rate at which the sources can produce the UHECR and not by interaction of energetic particles with the cosmic microwave background, thus challenging the relativistic invariance principle. In response to this discrepancy, a new experiment named the Telescope Array (TA) has been deployed, which combines the detection elements used separately by HiRes and AGASA. We describe the TA surface detector (SD) analysis using a technique new to the field, which consists of a detailed Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation of the SD response to the natural cosmic rays, validating the MC by comparing its distributions with the data, and calculation of the SD aperture from the MC. We will also describe our reconstruction procedure, based solely upon the data, and its application to both data and the MC. Finally, we will describe the energy spectrum resulting from this analysis, which is found to be in excellent agreement with the HiRes result, and as such, is the first confirmation of the GZK effect by a ground array of scintillation counters.

  14. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... detector systems. (a) For each turbine engine powered rotorcraft and Category A reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, and for each Category B reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft with engines of more... affected by any oil, water, other fluids, or fumes that might be present. (d) There must be means to...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... detector systems. (a) For each turbine engine powered rotorcraft and Category A reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, and for each Category B reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft with engines of more... affected by any oil, water, other fluids, or fumes that might be present. (d) There must be means to...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... detector systems. (a) For each turbine engine powered rotorcraft and Category A reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, and for each Category B reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft with engines of more... affected by any oil, water, other fluids, or fumes that might be present. (d) There must be means to...

  17. The NA62 Gigatracker pixel detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, G.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Fiorini, M.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Noy, M.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2010-05-01

    The silicon tracker for the NA62 experiment has to provide both a time resolution of 150 ps rms and a space resolution of about 100 μm rms. These challenging specifications require the development of a new readout electronics in order to address the problem of measuring the tracks arrival time with such a high channel density. Moreover, the high particle density (up to 1.5 MHz/mm2 in the center and 0.8-1 GHz in total) requires a high speed measurement and data transmission in order to keep the dead time below 1%.

  18. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  19. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  20. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figures.

  1. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

  2. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC. Employing a Cerenkov detector for the thickness measurement of X-rays in a scattering background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Wei; Kang, Ke-Jun; Wang, Yi; Li, Jin; Li, Yuan-Jing; Zhang, Qing-Jun

    2010-12-01

    The variation in environmental scattering background is a major source of systematic errors in X-ray inspection and measurement systems. As the energy of these photons consisting of environmental scattering background is much lower generally, the Cerenkov detectors having the detection threshold are likely insensitive to them and able to exclude their influence. A thickness measurement experiment is designed to verify the idea by employing a Cerenkov detector and an ionizing chamber for comparison. Furthermore, it is also found that the application of the Cerenkov detectors is helpful to exclude another systematic error from the variation of low energy components in the spectrum incident on the detector volume.

  3. Development of a portable instrument for automated measurements of the detective quantum efficiency of x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, I. A.; Lazarev, S.; Sattarivand, M.; Jankovic, N. D.

    2007-03-01

    The scientific community has generally adopted use of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as primary measures of performance of radiographic detectors. However, measurement of these parameters is generally restricted to experts in laboratory environments due to the required x-ray physics knowledge, specialized instrumentation and computational analyses. We have developed a prototype instrument that automates both the physical measurement and subsequent image analysis to determine the MTF, noise power spectrum (NPS) and DQE of radiographic and mammographic systems. The instrument is placed in the x-ray path directly in front of the detector. A series of images are acquired, saved in "raw" DICOM format and then used to determine the MTF (using the slanted-edge method) and NPS. The number of incident quanta is calculated from measurements of the incident exposure including corrections for air temperature and pressure and ionization chamber spectral response. The primary sources of error are backscatter from the detector and scatter generated within the instrument. These have been minimized to achieve an incident exposure measurement within 2% of a calibrated electrometer and chamber in free space. The MTF and DQE of a commercial CsI-based flat-panel detector were measured over a range of incident exposures from 20 uR to 20 mR per image. Results agreed with both our own laboratory measurements and previously published measurements performed elsewhere with a similar detector within 2% for the MTF and 5% for the DQE. A complete DQE analysis of a clinical digital flat-panel detector is completed in 30 minutes and requires no system modifications.

  4. Homodyne detection with on-off detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipfert, T.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

    2015-11-01

    Phase-sensitive properties of light play a crucial role in a variety of quantum optical phenomena, which have been mostly discussed in the framework of photoelectric detection theory. However, modern detection schemes, such as arrays of on-off detectors, are not based on photoelectric counting. We demonstrate that the theory of homodyning with such click-counting detectors can be established by using a proper detection model. For practical applications, a variety of typically occurring imperfections are rigorously analyzed and directly observable nonclassicality criteria are studied. Fundamental examples demonstrate the general functionality of our technique. Thus, our approach of homodyne detection with on-off detector systems is able to bridge the gap between imperfect detection and the phase resolution demands for modern applications of quantum light.

  5. A Prototype Detector for a Novel High-Resolution PET System: BazookaPET.

    PubMed

    Park, Ryeojin; Miller, Brian W; Jha, Abhinav K; Furenlid, Lars R; Hunter, William C J; Barrett, Harrison H

    2012-01-01

    We have designed and are developing a novel proof-of-concept PET system called BazookaPET. In order to complete the PET configuration, at least two detector elements are required to detect positron-electron annihilation events. Each detector element of the BazookaPET has two independent data acquisition channels. One side of the scintillation crystal is optically coupled to a 4×4 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array and the other side is a CCD-based gamma camera. Using these two separate channels, we can obtain data with high energy, temporal and spatial resolution data by associating the data outputs via several maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) steps. In this work, we present the concept of the system and the prototype detector element. We focus on characterizing individual detector channels, and initial experimental calibration results are shown along with preliminary performance-evaluation results. We measured energy resolution and the integrated traces of the slit-beam images from both detector channel outputs. A photo-peak energy resolution of ~5.3% FWHM was obtained from the SiPM and ~48% FWHM from the CCD at 662 keV. We assumed SiPM signals follow Gaussian statistics and estimated the 2D interaction position using MLE. Based on our the calibration experiments, we computed the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) for the SiPM detector channel and found that the CRB resolution is better than 1 mm in the center of the crystal.

  6. Si(Li)-NaI(Tl) sandwich detector array for measurements of trace radionuclides in soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, M.G.; Sherman, I.S.; Roche, C.T.; Pehl, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    An ultra-sensitive x-/..gamma..-ray detector system for assaying trace radioactivity in actinide contaminated soil and ash samples has been developed. The new system consists of an array of 6 large Si(Li) x-ray detectors sensitive on both faces and mounted on edge in a paddle-shaped cryostat with a 14 cm dia Be window on each side. The paddle, with a sample of the soil placed at each window, is sandwiched between 2 large NaI(Tl) scintillators which suppress the ..gamma.. background. With x rays being measured simultaneously from soil in 2 sample holders and background reduced by 50% using anticoincidence, the sensitivity of this detector is 4 times higher than that of conventionally mounted Si(Li) detectors. A soil sample containing 50 pCi/g /sup 239/Pu was measured in 5 min with an uncertainty of <20% and a sample containing 7 pCi/g was measured in 1 hr. With FWHM resolution of 400 eV at 17 keV, the UL..beta../sub 1/ and NpL..beta../sub 1/ x-ray peaks are resolved thus permitting measurement of trace Pu in the presence of Am-241. This is the most sensitive and selective detector known for nondestructive assay of radioactivity in soil and other samples. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  7. (135)Xe measurements with a two-element CZT-based radioxenon detector for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Lily; Farsoni, Abi T; Becker, Eric M

    2017-04-01

    Measurement of elevated concentrations of xenon radioisotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) in the atmosphere has been shown to be a very powerful method for verifying whether or not a detected explosion is nuclear in nature. These isotopes are among the few with enough mobility and with half-lives long enough to make their detection at long distances realistic. Existing radioxenon detection systems used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) suffer from problems such as complexity, need for high maintenance and memory effect. To study the response of CdZnTe (CZT) detectors to xenon radioisotopes and investigate whether it is capable of mitigating the aforementioned issues with the current radioxenon detection systems, a prototype detector utilizing two coplanar CZT detectors was built and tested at Oregon State University. The detection system measures xenon radioisotopes through beta-gamma coincidence technique by detecting coincidence events between the two detectors. In this paper, we introduce the detector design and report our measurement results with radioactive lab sources and (135)Xe produced in the OSU TRIGA reactor. Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) for (135)Xe was calculated to be 1.47 ± 0.05 mBq/m(3).

  8. Design of non-dispersion Infrared detector's data processor on measurement of automobile emission CO and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guohua; Zhang, Yujun; Chen, Chen; Lu, Yibing; He, Chungui; Gao, Yanwei; You, Kun; He, Ying; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-10-01

    For the technical requirements of automobile emission CO and CO2 detector's data processor, the scheme is based on the detection principle of NDIR method and the implementation of the data processor software as well as hardware is discussed. High-speed, high-precision DSP is selected as the core of the detector's data acquisition and processing, while four-channel thermoelectricity sensor TPS4339 as infrared detector, digital-analog data acquisition circuit of NDIR is designed and simulated. Then Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is adopted for signal processing. Automobile emission CO and CO2 concentration can be accurately obtained by appropriately adjusting sampling period and the light source modulation frequencies, the system SNR is improved and the detection limit is reduced. The experimental results show that the detector's data processor has 3% accuracy and stability which can meet the measurement and analysis of automobile emission CO and CO2 concentration.

  9. Error in measuring radon in soil gas by means of passive detectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Passive detection of radon isotopes depends on diffusion of radon atoms from the sites of their generation to the location of the detecting or collecting device. Because some radon decays en route to a passive detector in soil, the radon concentration measured by the detector must be less than the concentration in those soil pores where it is undiminished by diffusion to the detector cavity. The true radon concentration may be significantly underestimated in moist soils. -Author

  10. ALGORITHMS FOR OPTIMIZATION OF SYSYTEM PERFORMANCE IN LAYERED DETECTION SYSTEMS UNDER DETECTOR COORELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas W.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Daly, Don S.

    2010-07-15

    Almost all of the "architectures" for radiation detection systems in Department of Energy (DOE) and other USG programs rely on some version of layered detector deployment. Efficacy analyses of layered (or more generally extended) detection systems in many contexts often assume statistical independence among detection events and thus predict monotonically increasing system performance with the addition of detection layers. We show this to be a false conclusion for the ROC curves typical of most current technology gamma detectors, and more generally show that statistical independence is often an unwarranted assumption for systems in which there is ambiguity about the objects to be detected. In such systems, a model of correlation among detection events allows optimization of system algorithms for interpretation of detector signals. These algorithms are framed as optimal discriminant functions in joint signal space, and may be applied to gross counting or spectroscopic detector systems. We have shown how system algorithms derived from this model dramatically improve detection probabilities compared to the standard serial detection operating paradigm for these systems. These results would not surprise anyone who has confronted the problem of correlated errors (or failure rates) in the analogous contexts, but is seems to be largely underappreciated among those analyzing the radiation detection problem – independence is widely assumed and experimental studies typical fail to measure correlation. This situation, if not rectified, will lead to several unfortunate results. Including [1] overconfidence in system efficacy, [2] overinvestment in layers of similar technology, and [3] underinvestment in diversity among detection assets.

  11. Detection system for ocular refractive error measurement.

    PubMed

    Ventura, L; de Faria e Sousa, S J; de Castro, J C

    1998-05-01

    An automatic and objective system for measuring ocular refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism) was developed. The system consists of projecting a light target (a ring), using a diode laser (lambda = 850 nm), at the fundus of the patient's eye. The light beams scattered from the retina are submitted to an optical system and are analysed with regard to their vergence by a CCD detector (matrix). This system uses the same basic principle for the projection of beams into the tested eye as some commercial refractors, but it is innovative regarding the ring-shaped measuring target for the projection system and the detection system where a matrix detector provides a wider range of measurement and a less complex system for the optical alignment. Also a dedicated electronic circuit was not necessary for treating the electronic signals from the detector (as the usual refractors do); instead a commercial frame grabber was used and software based on the heuristic search technique was developed. All the guiding equations that describe the system as well as the image processing procedure are presented in detail. Measurements in model eyes and in human eyes are in good agreement with retinoscopic measurements and they are also as precise as these kinds of measurements require (0.125D and 5 degrees).

  12. The Data Acquisition System for a Kinetic Inductance Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Capasso, L.; Marchetti, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) and the Front-End electronics for an array of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are described. KIDs are superconductive detectors, in which electrons are organized in Cooper pairs. Any incident radiation could break a pair generating a couple of quasi-particles that increase the inductance of the detector. The DAQ system we developed is a hardware/software co-design, based on state machines and on a microprocessor embedded into an FPGA. A commercial DAC/ADC board is used to interface the FPGA to the array of KIDs. The DAQ system generates a Stimulus signal suitable for an array of up to 128 KIDs. Such signal is up-mixed with a 3 GHz carrier wave and it then excites the KIDs array. The read-out signal from the detector is down-mixed with respect to the 3 GHz sine wave and recovered Stimulus is read back by the ADC device. The microprocessor stores read out data via a PCI express bus (PCIe) into an external disk. It also computes the Fast Fourier Transform of the acquired read out signal: this allows extrapolating which KID interacted and the energy of the impinging radiation. Simulations and tests have been performed successfully and experimental results are presented.

  13. Neodymium neutron transmission and capture measurements and development of a new transmission detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Devin P.

    Neodymium is a 235U fission product and is important in reactor neutronic calculations. The aim of this thesis is to improve upon the existing neutron cross section data of neodymium. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LINAC using metallic neodymium samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m flight station with a 16-segment Nal multiplicity detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15-m and 25-m flight stations, respectively, with 6Li glass scintillation detectors. After the data were collected and reduced, resonance parameters were determined by simultaneously fitting the transmission and capture data with the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The resonance parameters for all naturally occurring neodymium isotopes were deduced within the energy range of 1.0 eV to 500 eV. The resulting resonance parameters were used to calculate the capture resonance integral with this energy region and were compared to calculations obtained when using the resonance parameters from ENDF-B/VI. The RPI parameters gave a resonance integral value of 32 +/- 1 barns that is approximately 7% lower than that obtained with the ENDF-B/VI parameters. The current measurements significantly reduce the statistical uncertainties on the resonance parameters when compared with previously published parameters. This thesis also explains the resolution function in detail and discusses its importance when fitting experimental data to extract resonance parameters. More accurate resolution function parameters were determined for epithermal transmission and capture measurements by fitting well known resonances in Uranium-238. Improved transmission bare-bounce target in-beam photomultiplier tube (PMT) resolution function parameters were found and compared to those used previously at the RPI LINAC and a marked improvement in the quality of the fits is shown. In addition

  14. Passive detector for measurement of the implanted (sup 210)Po activity in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesen, G.; Uyttenhove, J.; Poffijn, A.; van Laere, K.; Buysse, J.

    1994-08-01

    It is a well known fact that radon is the most important factor in the natural radiation background. For complete dose calculations we need information about the radon concentration up to 25 years ago. As suggested by C. Samuelsson et al. in 1988, the activity of the implanted radon daughter (sup 210)Po can be used to reconstruct the radon activity over the past decades. For large scale surveys in dwellings a passive detector based on polycarbonate foils has been investigated. This system has a sufficient sensitivity to detect (sup 210)Po levels down to 1 Bq/m(sup 2) with a 6 month measuring period.

  15. A Si-PIN-stack detector for 14 MeV pulsed neutrons measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianpeng; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Zhongbing; Tian, Geng; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a high-sensitivity fast neutron stack detector for use in the current mode by introducing a readout circuit that is capable of operating with a single detector's time response, while its neutron sensitivity, statistics, and n-γ sensitivity ratio are greatly improved compared to the single detector. The neutron stack detector sandwiches large-area Si-PIN semiconductor detectors and 2-mm-thick polyethylene disks used as the n-p converter and sensitivity enhancement medium. A neutron stack detector composed of 9 ∅80 mm×0.8 mm Si-PIN detectors has been built and used to measure a pulsed 14 MeV neutron flux of dense plasma focus devices (DPF). We have acquired its sensitivity to 14 MeV neutrons and 1.25 MeV γ-rays, the n-γ sensitivity ratio, and time response experimentally or theoretically. The study shows that this neutron stack detector can be applied for the diagnosis of DPF and neutron tubes. The results of this investigation also suggest a general model for developing high-sensitivity detectors based on a single radiation detector of another type.

  16. Measurement of the Fast Neutron Response for {sup 4}He Scintillation Detectors Using a Coincidence Scattering Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.P.; Lewis, J.M.; Murer, D.; Enqvist, A.; Jordan, K.A.

    2015-07-01

    the scattering angle known, the amount of energy deposited by the neutron in the bottom detector (ER) was also calculated using kinematic scattering equations. This deposited recoil energy was then compared to the corresponding light output for each event to form a deposited energy scintillation light response matrix. Similarly, the system's insensitivity to gammas and its ability to reject gammas by pulse shape discrimination (PSD) are often cited as an important advantage, although a detailed analysis of these capabilities has not yet been performed. This work therefore quantified these parameters in order to further characterize these detectors for future mixed radiation field measurements. Gamma sources were measured spanning a range of gamma-ray energies from 0.122 MeV to 1.332 MeV, including {sup 57}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 60}Co. Each source was counted by the {sup 4}He detector and the background subtracted. Taking the ratio of the number of events detected during the experimental source measurement to the number of gammas predicted by MCNPX to pass through the detector volume yields the detector's intrinsic gamma efficiency. The difference between this fraction and unity is therefore a measure of the detector's ability to ignore interfering gamma rays, defined as its inherent gamma rejection rate. The ability of post-processing PSD algorithms to further reduce the number of gammas is also investigated and quantified. Finally, it has been noted that the scintillation signal from a single neutron event can be separated in time into two components: the fast component is a sharp peak that exists on the order of nanoseconds; the slow component is a series of smaller pulses, stretched out over four microseconds. Whereas previous research has exclusively focused on the energy information contained in the slow component, this work demonstrates that the fast component is also sensitive to neutron energy, and the entire scintillation signal can therefore

  17. Three-axis asymmetric radiation detector system

    DOEpatents

    Martini, Mario Pierangelo; Gedcke, Dale A.; Raudorf, Thomas W.; Sangsingkeow, Pat

    2000-01-01

    A three-axis radiation detection system whose inner and outer electrodes are shaped and positioned so that the shortest path between any point on the inner electrode and the outer electrode is a different length whereby the rise time of a pulse derived from a detected radiation event can uniquely define the azimuthal and radial position of that event, and the outer electrode is divided into a plurality of segments in the longitudinal axial direction for locating the axial location of a radiation detection event occurring in the diode.

  18. Forward muon system for the D/Ø detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, V.; Alexeev, G.; Babintsev, V.; Baldin, B.; Butler, J.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.; Bojko, N.; Burtovoi, V.; Chekulaev, S.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.; Diehl, T.; Dodonov, V.; Dyshkant, A.; Eroshin, O.; Evdokimov, V.; Galyaev, A.; Goncharov, P.; Gornushkin, Yu.; Green, D.; Gurzhiev, S.; Haggerty, H.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hedin, D.; Ito, A.; Johns, K.; Kalinin, A.; Kostritskiy, A.; Kozelov, A.; Kozlovski, E.; Leitner, R.; Lokajíček, M.; Los, S.; Malyshev , V.; Mayorov, A.; Medovikov, V.; Mokhov, N.; Nozdrin, A.; Pisarev, I.; Pospíšil, S.; Raskowski, J.; Sabirov, B.; Šimák, V.; Smith, G.; Stefanik, A.; Stoianova, D.; Suk, M.; Tokmenin, V.; Vaniov, V.; Volkov, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Vrba, V.; Williams, R.; Wood, D.; Yatsunenko, Yu.; Yoffe, F.; Zimin, S.

    1998-12-01

    The design and main parameters of the completly redesigned DØ Forward Angle MUon System (FAMUS: 1.0<| η|<2.0) for the next high luminosity Tevatron Collider run are reported. Results of the studies of trigger scintillation counters based on fast scintillator Bicron 404A and WLS bars SOFZ-105 are presented. We report about results of test beam studies of prototype counters including minimum ionizing particles detection efficiency, time resolution and amplitude response. Radiation ageing of scintillating materials for the doses up to 1 Mrad, phototubes magnetic shielding in the fields of up to 700 G and ageing of phototubes are presented. Mini-Drift Tubes (MDTs) are chosen as FAMUS tracking detectors. The detector is a drift wire chamber with a metallic cathode. The detector operates in proportional mode with a fast freon-methane gas mixture to provide high drift velocity, adequate counting rate and low ageing. A description of the performance of the MDT is given. Studies of two prototypes in test beams were performed at FNAL and JINR. Obtained coordinate accuracy is around 0.5 mm r.m.s. All tests show robustness of MDT as tracking detector of the new muon system for a long period in high DØ background radiation conditions.

  19. Design and implementation of the BESIII detector-control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xihui; Xie, Xiaoxi; Gao, Cuishan; Zhang, Yinhong; Min, Jian; Nie, Zhendong; Xie, Song; Liu, Guoming; Li, Xiaonan

    2008-07-01

    In the upgrade project of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII), a novel Detector-Control System (DCS) for the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII) has been built and started its successful operation for the BESIII Commissioning. The main task of the DCS is to monitor and control the status of the BESIII detector and to guarantee a safe operation of the detector. The DCS must provide a uniform and coherent interface to detector operators even though there are a large number of distributed I/O channels from a large variety of equipments. For this reason, the DCS is hierarchically organized and divided into three layers: front-end layer (FEL), local control layer (LCL) and global control layer (GCL). In the FEL, devices ranging from simple sensors up to complex computer-based devices like embedded systems and programmable logical controllers (PLC) are utilized. A LabVIEW-based software framework has been developed for the LCL. Network communication and web server technologies have been used for the GCL. This paper will give a detailed introduction to the design and implementation of the DCS. Its performance and reliability will also be discussed.

  20. A measurement method of a detector response function for monochromatic electrons based on the Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhlanov, S. V.; Bazlov, N. V.; Derbin, A. V.; Drachnev, I. S.; Kayunov, A. S.; Muratova, V. N.; Semenov, D. A.; Unzhakov, E. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a method of scintillation detector energy calibration using the gamma-rays. The technique is based on the Compton scattering of gamma-rays in a scintillation detector and subsequent photoelectric absorption of the scattered photon in the Ge-detector. The novelty of this method is that the source of gamma rays, the germanium and scintillation detectors are immediately arranged adjacent to each other. The method presents an effective solution for the detectors consisting of a low atomic number materials, when the ratio between Compton effect and photoelectric absorption is large and the mean path of gamma-rays is comparable to the size of the detector. The technique can be used for the precision measurements of the scintillator light yield dependence on the electron energy.

  1. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Here, the local plane detector system for the KArlsiuhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high vacuum system, a high vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system, It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  2. Neutron measurements with Time-Resolved Event-Counting Optical Radiation (TRECOR) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandis, M.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bromberger, B.; Bar, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Friedman, E.; Czasch, A.; Mardor, I.; Mor, I.; Weierganz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Results are presented from the latest experiment with a new neutron/gamma detector, a Time-Resolved, Event-Counting Optical Radiation (TRECOR) detector. It is composed of a scintillating fiber-screen converter, bending mirror, lens and Event-Counting Image Intensifier (ECII), capable of specifying the position and time-of-flight of each event. TRECOR is designated for a multipurpose integrated system that will detect Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and explosives in cargo. Explosives are detected by Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography, and SNM by Dual Discrete-Energy gamma-Radiography. Neutrons and gamma-rays are both produced in the 11B(d,n+γ)12C reaction. The two detection modes can be implemented simultaneously in TRECOR, using two adjacent radiation converters that share a common optical readout. In the present experiment the neutron detection mode was studied, using a plastic scintillator converter. The measurements were performed at the PTB cyclotron, using the 9Be(d,n) neutron spectrum obtained from a thick Be-target at Ed ~ 13 MeV\\@. The basic characteristics of this detector were investigated, including the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF), Point Spread Function (PSF) and elemental discrimination capability.

  3. Overview on Measured Properties of VTT's Edgeless Detectors and their use in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliopuska, Juha; Jakubek, Jan; Tlustos, Lukas

    During the past five years VTT has actively developed fabrication processes for the state-of-the-art edgeless strip and pixel detectors with a negligible dead region at the edges. The article summarizes the measured properties of VTT's edgeless detectors and gives references to the relevant journal papers. The measured properties include leakage current, breakdown voltage and capacitance dependences on the detector thickness and polarity. Earlier X-ray tube and radiation source characterization results are revised and new ones are introduced to reveal a pixel response as a function of bias voltage and pixel location in the detector's pixel matrix. Part of the article concentrates on alpha particle characterization of the detectors, especially to the pixel response properties at the edge regions of the detector. The article shows that the edgeless detectors are not losing charge collections efficiency at the edge and the spectroscopic response is comparable to the inner regions of the detector. In addition, the distortion of the electric field at the edge of the detector is almost independent on the applied reverse bias voltage.

  4. Millikelvin cryocooler for space- and ground-based detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, J.; Hardy, G.; Hepburn, I.; Milward, S.; Coker, P.; Theobald, C.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the design of a continuously operating millikelvin cryocooler (mKCC) and its origins. It takes heritage from the double adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (dADR) which was built for the European Space Agency (ESA). The compact design is based on a tandem configuration continuous ADR which alternately cycles two dADRs. The mKCC is a single module (dimensions 355 x 56 x120 mm) which operates from a 4 K bath (liquid or cryocooler) and provides an interface to the user which is settable from < 100 mK to 4 K. Predicted maximum cooling power at 100 mK is 7μW. It will use only single crystal tungsten magnetoresistive heat switches (the first ADR cooler to do so) and the measured thermal performance of these heat switches is presented. The mKCC uses ten shielded 2 Tesla superconducting magnets capable of ramping to full field in 20 - 30 seconds. This has been demonstrated in the lab and the results are given for the successful performance of a prototype Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) pill using one of these magnets. The mKCC has been designed to be fully automated and user friendly with the aim of expanding the use of millikelvin cryogenics and providing a good testing and operating platform for detector systems.

  5. Radiation measurement platform for balloon flights based on the TriTel silicon detector telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabori, Balazs; Hirn, Attila; Pazmandi, Tamas; Apathy, Istvan; Szanto, Peter; Deme, Sandor

    Several measurements have been performed on the cosmic radiation field from the surface of the Earth up to the maximum altitudes of research airplanes. However the cosmic radiation field is not well known between 15 km and 30 km. Our experiment idea based on to study the radiation environment in the stratosphere. The main technical goals of our experiment were to test at first time the TriTel 3D silicon detector telescope system for future ISS missons and to develop a balloon technology platform for advanced cosmic radiation and dosimetric measurements. The main scientific goals were to give an assessment of the cosmic radiation field at the altitude of the BEXUS balloons, to use the TriTel system to determine dosimetric and radiation quantities during the ballon flight and to intercompare the TriTel and Pille results to provide a correction factor definition method for the Pille ISS measurements. To fulfil the scientific and technological objectives several different dosimeter systems were included in the experiment: an advanced version of the TriTel silicon detector telescope, Geiger-Müller counters, Pille passive thermoluminescent dosimeters and Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. The experiment was built by students from Hungarian universities and flew on board the BEXUS stratospheric balloon in Northern Sweden (from ESRANGE Space Center). The float altitude was approximately 28.6 km and the total flight time was about 4 hours. The active instruments measured in real time and the ground team received the collected data continuously during the mission. The main technical goals were received since the operation of the TriTel experienced no failures and the experiment worked as it expected. This paper presents the scientific goals and results. From the TriTel measurements the deposited energy spectra, the Linear Energy Transfer spectra, the average quality factor of the cosmic radiation as well as the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were determined for the

  6. Measurements of an intensified CCD detector for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William T.; Poland, Arthur I.; Siegmund, Oswald H.; Swartz, Marvin; Leviton, Douglas B.; Payne, Leslie J.

    1992-01-01

    An engineering model intensified CCD detector for the SOHO Coronal Diagnostics Spectrometer has been built and tested at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. A windowless MCP intensifier tube converts EUV radiation (30-65 nm) into visible light, which is focused via a lens system onto a Tektronix 1024 x 1024 CCD. Tests have been made of this engineering model to determine the following characteristics: quantum efficiency, resolution, throughput, linearity, statistical variation, readout noise, scattering, and flat-field response. In almost all respects, the detector performed as expected. This detector has been delivered, and work is underway on the flight detector.

  7. Low-noise, high-speed detector development for optical turbulence fluctuation measurements for NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Smith, D.; Uzun-Kaymak, I. U.; Winz, G.; Ellington, S. D.; Jaehnig, K.

    2010-10-15

    A new beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic is under development. Photon-noise limited measurements of neutral beam emissions are achieved using photoconductive photodiodes with a novel frequency-compensated broadband preamplifier. The new BES system includes a next-generation preamplifier and upgraded optical coupling system. Notable features of the design are surface-mount components, minimized stray capacitance, a wide angular acceptance photodiode, a differential output line driver, reduced input capacitance, doubling of the frequency range, net reduced electronic noise, and elimination of the need for a cryogenic cooling system. The irreducible photon noise dominates the noise up to 800 kHz for a typical input power of 60 nW. This new assembly is being integrated into an upgraded multichannel optical detector assembly for a new BES system on the NSTX experiment.

  8. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located where— (1)...

  9. Thoron activity level and radon measurement by a nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Planinić, J; Faj, Z; Vuković, B

    1993-03-01

    Radon activity concentrations in the air were measured with LR-115 nuclear track detectors at three locations in Osijek. The respective equilibrium factors and the effective dose equivalents were determined. Indoor concentrations were from 9.8 to 58.2 Bq m-3 and relative errors of the track etching method were near 19 per cent. The indoor alpha potential energy of the radon and thoron progenies was measured with an ISD detector. Independent measurements, performed with a Radhome semiconductor detector, showed that the indoor thoron concentration was nearly 20 per cent of the radon one.

  10. The CT-PPS tracking system with 3D pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, F.

    2016-11-01

    The CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) detector will be installed in Roman pots (RP) positioned on either side of CMS, at about 210 m from the interaction point. This detector will measure leading protons, allowing detailed studies of diffractive physics and central exclusive production in standard LHC running conditions. An essential component of the CT-PPS apparatus is the tracking system, which consists of two detector stations per arm equipped with six 3D silicon pixel-sensor modules, each read out by six PSI46dig chips. The front-end electronics has been designed to fulfill the mechanical constraints of the RP and to be compatible as much as possible with the readout chain of the CMS pixel detector. The tracking system is currently under construction and will be installed by the end of 2016. In this contribution the final design and the expected performance of the CT-PPS tracking system is presented. A summary of the studies performed, before and after irradiation, on the 3D detectors produced for CT-PPS is given.

  11. Characterization of a MOSkin detector for in vivo skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Safari, M. J.; Wong, J. H. D.; Ng, K. H.; Jong, W. L.; Cutajar, D. L.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The MOSkin is a MOSFET detector designed especially for skin dose measurements. This detector has been characterized for various factors affecting its response for megavoltage photon beams and has been used for patient dose measurements during radiotherapy procedures. However, the characteristics of this detector in kilovoltage photon beams and low dose ranges have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to characterize the MOSkin detector to determine its suitability for in vivo entrance skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures. Methods: The calibration and reproducibility of the MOSkin detector and its dependency on different radiation beam qualities were carried out using RQR standard radiation qualities in free-in-air geometry. Studies of the other characterization parameters, such as the dose linearity and dependency on exposure angle, field size, frame rate, depth-dose, and source-to-surface distance (SSD), were carried out using a solid water phantom under a clinical x-ray unit. Results: The MOSkin detector showed good reproducibility (94%) and dose linearity (99%) for the dose range of 2 to 213 cGy. The sensitivity did not significantly change with the variation of SSD (±1%), field size (±1%), frame rate (±3%), or beam energy (±5%). The detector angular dependence was within ±5% over 360° and the dose recorded by the MOSkin detector in different depths of a solid water phantom was in good agreement with the Markus parallel plate ionization chamber to within ±3%. Conclusions: The MOSkin detector proved to be reliable when exposed to different field sizes, SSDs, depths in solid water, dose rates, frame rates, and radiation incident angles within a clinical x-ray beam. The MOSkin detector with water equivalent depth equal to 0.07 mm is a suitable detector for in vivo skin dosimetry during interventional radiology procedures.

  12. The LED calibration system of the SPHERE-2 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, R. A.; Bonvech, E. A.; Chernov, D. V.; Podgrudkov, D. A.; Roganova, T. M.

    2016-04-01

    An absolute calibration method for the PMT mosaic used in the SPHERE-2 experiment is presented. The method is based on the relative calibration of all PMTs in the mosaic to a single stable PMT, incorporated in it, during each measurement event and subsequent absolute calibration of that single PMT using a known stable light source. The results of the SPHERE-2 detector PMTs calibration are presented and are discussed.

  13. Measurements of Variable-Shaped Electron Beams with Solid-State Detector and Scattering Aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Makoto; Ohta, Hiroya; Kanosue, Tadashi; Sohda, Yasunari; Ban, Naoma

    2007-09-01

    A highly accurate method for measuring beam properties in a variable-shaped electron beam (VSB) system has been developed. This method is based on a knife-edge method with a solid-state detector (SSD) and scattering apertures. In VSB system, it is necessary to measure both beam profile and beam position for a long time. To meet this requirement, many aperture marks on a silicon membrane were prepared in a measurement unit. Using this unit, the accuracy and stability of beam-size and beam position measurements were evaluated in VBS system (HL-7000D, Hitachi-HITEC). As a result, the repeatability error for beam size was obtained to be smaller than 2 nm (3σ) and the repeatability error for beam position was obtained to be 0.82 nm (3σ). Moreover, a multitude of repeat experiments showed that this measurement unit can be used for more than ten years. Consequently, it was confirmed that this measurement method is useful for the high accuracy of a VSB system.

  14. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT - PROTON RADIOGRAPHY: CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTOR DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Michael J.; Gustafson, H. Richard.; Rajaram, Durga; Nigmanov, Turgun

    2007-05-11

    Proton radiography offers significant advantages over conventional X-ray radiography, including the capability of looking into thick, dense materials, better contrast for a wide range of materials, sensitivity to different materials of similar density, and better resolution because of the ability to focus beams. In order to achieve this capability it is crucial to understand the background due to neutrons and photons and to develop techniques to reduce it to tolerable levels. The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neu-tron/photon calorimeters. These are the only detectors in the experiment that provide informa-tion on neutrons and photons. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the for-ward production data and in developing an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grant, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in January 2005, and data taking continued through February 2006. Data were taken on a range of targets, from liquid hydrogen to uranium, at beam energies from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The analysis of the data is challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged and over 31 million events were accumulated. Our recent efforts have been devoted to the calibration of the neutron and photon detectors, to track and shower reconstruction, identification of forward-going neutrons, and simulation of the calorimeters in a Monte Carlo. Reconstruction of the data with improved tracking is underway.

  15. Technical Note: Response measurement for select radiation detectors in magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, M.; Fallone, B. G.; Rathee, S.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose response to applied magnetic fields for ion chambers and solid state detectors has been investigated previously for the anticipated use in linear accelerator–magnetic resonance devices. In this investigation, the authors present the measured response of selected radiation detectors when the magnetic field is applied in the same direction as the radiation beam, i.e., a longitudinal magnetic field, to verify previous simulation only data. Methods: The dose response of a PR06C ion chamber, PTW60003 diamond detector, and IBA PFD diode detector is measured in a longitudinal magnetic field. The detectors are irradiated with buildup caps and their long axes either parallel or perpendicular to the incident photon beam. In each case, the magnetic field dose response is reported as the ratio of detector signals with to that without an applied longitudinal magnetic field. The magnetic field dose response for each unique orientation as a function of magnetic field strength was then compared to the previous simulation only studies. Results: The measured dose response of each detector in longitudinal magnetic fields shows no discernable response up to near 0.21 T. This result was expected and matches the previously published simulation only results, showing no appreciable dose response with magnetic field. Conclusions: Low field longitudinal magnetic fields have been shown to have little or no effect on the dose response of the detectors investigated and further lend credibility to previous simulation only studies.

  16. The SoLid anti-neutrino detector's readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, L.; Beaumont, W.; Cussans, D.; Newbold, D.; Ryder, N.; Weber, A.

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid collaboration have developed an intelligent readout system to reduce their 3200 silicon photomultiplier detector's data rate by a factor of 10000 whilst maintaining high efficiency for storing data from anti-neutrino interactions. The system employs an FPGA-level waveform characterisation to trigger on neutron signals. Following a trigger, data from a space-time region of interest around the neutron will be read out using the IPbus protocol. In these proceedings the design of the readout system is explained and results showing the performance of a prototype version of the system are presented.

  17. A modular solid state detector for measuring high energy heavy ion fragmentation near the beam axis.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, C J; Frankel, K A; Gong, W; Heilbronn, L; Lampo, E J; Leres, R; Miller, J; Schimmerling, W

    1994-01-01

    A multi-element solid state detector has been designed to measure fluences of fragments produced near the beam axis by high energy heavy ion beams in thick targets. The detector is compact and modular, so as to be readily reconfigured according to the range of fragment charges and energies to be measured. Preamplifier gain settings and detector calibrations are adjustable remotely under computer control. We describe the central detector, its associated detectors and electronics, triggering scheme, data acquisition and particle identification techniques, illustrated by data taken with 600 MeV/u 56Fe beams and thick polyethylene targets at the LBL Bevalac. The applications of this work to space radiation protection are discussed.

  18. Neutron detector for fusion reaction-rate measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.; Phillion, D.W.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1993-09-03

    We have developed a fast, sensitive neutron detector for recording the fusion reaction-rate history of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The detector is based on the fast rise-time of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC-422) and has a response < 25-ps FWHM. A thin piece of scintillator material acts as a neutron-to- light converter. A zoom lens images light from the scintillator surface to a high-speed (15 ps) optical streak camera for recording. The zoom lens allows the scintillator to be positioned between 1 and 50 cm from a target. The camera simulaneously records an optical fiducial pulse which allows the camera time base to be calibrated relative to the incident laser power. Bursts of x rays formed by focusing 20-ps, 2.5-TW laser pulses onto gold disk targets demonstrate the detector resolution to be < 25 ps. We have recorded burn histories for deuterium/tritium-filled targets producing as few as 3 {times} 10{sup 7} neutrons.

  19. Highly absorbing gadolinium test device to characterize the performance of neutron imaging detector systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenzweig, C.; Frei, G.; Lehmann, E.; Kuehne, G.; David, C.

    2007-05-15

    We report on the fabrication and application of a novel neutron imaging test device made of gadolinium. It is designed for a real time evaluation of the spatial resolution, resolution direction, and distortions of a neutron imaging detector system. Measurements of the spatial resolution of {sup 6}LiF doped ZnS scintillator screens with different thicknesses and of imaging plates were performed. The obtained results are in good agreement with comparison measurements using the standard knife edge detection method.

  20. Multi-energy x-ray detector calibration for Te and impurity density (nZ) measurements of MCF plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Maddox, J.; Pablant, N.; Efthimion, P.; ...

    2016-09-07

    Here, soft x-ray detection with the new "multi-energy" PILATUS3 detector systems holds promise as a magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasma diagnostic for ITER and beyond. The measured x-ray brightness can be used to determine impurity concentrations, electron temperatures, n2eZeff products, and to probe the electron energy distribution. However, in order to be effective, these detectors which are really large arrays of detectors with photon energy gating capabilities must be precisely calibrated for each pixel. The energy-dependence of the detector response of the multi-energy PILATUS3 system with 100 K pixels has been measured at Dectris Laboratory. X-rays emitted from a tubemore » under high voltage bombard various elements such that they emit x-ray lines from Zr-Lα to Ag-Kα between 1.8 and 22.16 keV. Each pixel on the PILATUS3 can be set to a minimum energy threshold in the range from 1.6 to 25 keV. This feature allows a single detector to be sensitive to a variety of x-ray energies, so that it is possible to sample the energy distribution of the x-ray continuum and line-emission. PILATUS3 can be configured for 1D or 2D imaging of MCF plasmas with typical spatial energy and temporal resolution of 1 cm, 0.6 keV, and 5 ms, respectively.« less

  1. Multi-energy x-ray detector calibration for Te and impurity density (nZ) measurements of MCF plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, J.; Pablant, N.; Efthimion, P.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rissi, M.; Donath, T.; Luethi, B.; Stratton, B.

    2016-11-01

    Soft x-ray detection with the new "multi-energy" PILATUS3 detector systems holds promise as a magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasma diagnostic for ITER and beyond. The measured x-ray brightness can be used to determine impurity concentrations, electron temperatures, ne 2 Z eff products, and to probe the electron energy distribution. However, in order to be effective, these detectors which are really large arrays of detectors with photon energy gating capabilities must be precisely calibrated for each pixel. The energy-dependence of the detector response of the multi-energy PILATUS3 system with 100 K pixels has been measured at Dectris Laboratory. X-rays emitted from a tube under high voltage bombard various elements such that they emit x-ray lines from Zr-Lα to Ag-Kα between 1.8 and 22.16 keV. Each pixel on the PILATUS3 can be set to a minimum energy threshold in the range from 1.6 to 25 keV. This feature allows a single detector to be sensitive to a variety of x-ray energies, so that it is possible to sample the energy distribution of the x-ray continuum and line-emission. PILATUS3 can be configured for 1D or 2D imaging of MCF plasmas with typical spatial energy and temporal resolution of 1 cm, 0.6 keV, and 5 ms, respectively.

  2. Systemic risk measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Solange Maria; Silva, Thiago Christiano; Tabak, Benjamin Miranda; de Souza Penaloza, Rodrigo Andrés; de Castro Miranda, Rodrigo César

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present systemic risk measures based on contingent claims approach and banking sector multivariate density. We also apply network measures to analyze bank common risk exposure. The proposed measures aim to capture credit risk stress and its potential to become systemic. These indicators capture not only individual bank vulnerability, but also the stress dependency structure between them. Furthermore, these measures can be quite useful for identifying systemically important banks. The empirical results show that these indicators capture with considerable fidelity the moments of increasing systemic risk in the Brazilian banking sector in recent years.

  3. Evaluation of a microchannel-plate PMT as a potential timing detector suitable for positron lifetime measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosev, K.; Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Cowan, T.; Hartmann, A.; Heidel, K.; Jungmann, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2010-12-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of a microchannel-plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) as a candidate detector, suitable for positron lifetime studies. Several properties of MCP-PMTs, such as their fast time response, compact size, low susceptibility to magnetic fields, relatively high gain and the low power consumption make them attractive for positron lifetime spectroscopy. The preliminary tests were performed with a 85001-501 Burle Planacon TM photomultiplier tube assembly. Initial measurements were conducted with a pulsed Picosecond Injection Laser (PiLas) system. The engineering sample of the 85001 exhibits a transit-time-spread (TTS) of 110 ps (FWHM). Further timing experiments showing the suitability of the device as Cherenkov detector are presented. For the first time, a conventional positron lifetime spectrum of a Cz-Si probe measured with a spectrometer, where an MCP-PMT detector is included, has been demonstrated.

  4. The Effect of Detector Nonlinearity on WFIRST PSF Profiles for Weak Gravitational Lensing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plazas, A. A.; Shapiro, C.; Kannawadi, A.; Mandelbaum, R.; Rhodes, J.; Smith, R.

    2016-10-01

    Weak gravitational lensing (WL) is one of the most powerful techniques to learn about the dark sector of the universe. To extract the WL signal from astronomical observations, galaxy shapes must be measured and corrected for the point-spread function (PSF) of the imaging system with extreme accuracy. Future WL missions—such as NASA’s Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)—will use a family of hybrid near-infrared complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detectors (HAWAII-4RG) that are untested for accurate WL measurements. Like all image sensors, these devices are subject to conversion gain nonlinearities (voltage response to collected photo-charge) that bias the shape and size of bright objects such as reference stars that are used in PSF determination. We study this type of detector nonlinearity (NL) and show how to derive requirements on it from WFIRST PSF size and ellipticity requirements. We simulate the PSF optical profiles expected for WFIRST and measure the fractional error in the PSF size (ΔR/R) and the absolute error in the PSF ellipticity (Δe) as a function of star magnitude and the NL model. For our nominal NL model (a quadratic correction), we find that, uncalibrated, NL can induce an error of ΔR/R = 1 × 10-2 and Δe 2 = 1.75 × 10-3 in the H158 bandpass for the brightest unsaturated stars in WFIRST. In addition, our simulations show that to limit the bias of ΔR/R and Δe in the H158 band to ˜10% of the estimated WFIRST error budget, the quadratic NL model parameter β must be calibrated to ˜1% and ˜2.4%, respectively. We present a fitting formula that can be used to estimate WFIRST detector NL requirements once a true PSF error budget is established.

  5. Neutron multiplicity measurements with 3He alternative: Straw neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald; Detwiler, Ryan; Maurer, Richard; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul; Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Sun, Liang; Athanasiades, Athanasios

    2015-01-27

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as ‘‘ship effect ’’) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. A prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called ‘‘straws’’ that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions of neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and

  6. Gamma radiation induced background determination for (n,γ) measurements with 4π detectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Reifarth, R.; Browne, J. C.; Esch, E. I.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Greife, U.

    2003-07-29

    The main focus of this report is to investigate possibilities to disentangle the target originating γ- background from background caused by scattered neutrons at the sample assuming a DANCE like detector to measure detect the capture events.

  7. A drift detector system with anode and cathode readout in the GlueX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, V V; Somov, S V; Pentchev, L; Zihlmann, B

    2015-01-01

    A drift detector system designed to detect charged particle tracks in the GlueX experiment dedicated to study the nature of confinement is described. The key design features of the drift chambers associated with the requirement of a minimum material budget in the path of secondary particles are presented. The spatial resolution and the detection efficiency have been measured with cosmic rays using the automatic data acquisition system.

  8. Design and performance of a modular low-radioactivity readout system for cryogenic detectors in the CDMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Barnes, P. D., Jr.; Brink, P. L.; Cabrera, B.; Clarke, R. M.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Huber, M. E.; Kurylowicz, M.; Mandic, V.; Martinis, J. M.; Meunier, P.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Nam, S. W.; Perillo-Isaac, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R. W.; Seitz, D. N.; Shutt, T.; Smith, G. W.; Stockwell, W. K.; Sundqvist, K. M.; White, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment employs ultra-cold solid-state detectors to search for rare events resulting from WIMP-nucleus scattering. An innovative detector packaging and readout system has been developed to meet the unusual combination of requirements for: low temperature, low radioactivity, low energy threshold, and large channel count. Features include use of materials with low radioactivity such as multi-layer KAPTON laminates for circuit boards; immunity to microphonic noise via a vacuum coaxial wiring design, manufacturability, and modularity. The detector readout design had to accommodate various electronic components which have to be operated in close proximity to the detector as well maintaining separate individual temperatures (ranging from 600 mK to 150 K) in order to achieve optimal noise performance. The paper will describe the general electrical, thermal, and mechanical designs of the CDMS readout system, as well as presenting the theoretical and measured performance of the detector readout channels.

  9. In-laboratory development of an automatic track counting system for solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzun, Sefa Kemal; Demiröz, Işık; Ulus, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an automatic track counting system was developed for solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Firstly the specifications of required hardware components were determined, and accordingly the CCD camera, microscope and stage motor table was supplied and integrated. The system was completed by developing parametric software with VB.Net language. Finally a set of test intended for radon activity concentration measurement was applied. According to the test results, the system was enabled for routine radon measurement. Whether the parameters of system are adjusted for another SSNTD application, it could be used for other fields of SSNTD like neutron dosimetry or heavy charged particle detection.

  10. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Pandit, Deepak; Das, S. K.; Chowdhury, A.; Das, P.; Banerjee, D.; Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The β - γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in 106Rh →106Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in 106Rh →106Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  11. Simulation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose from 137 Cs Gammas Using a Si Timepix Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Empl, Anton; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The TimePix readout chip is a hybrid pixel detector with over 65k independent pixel elements. Each pixel contains its own circuitry for charge collection, counting logic, and readout. When coupled with a Silicon detector layer, the Timepix chip is capable of measuring the charge, and thus energy, deposited in the Silicon. Measurements using a NIST traceable 137Cs gamma source have been made at Johnson Space Center using such a Si Timepix detector, and this data is compared to simulations of energy deposition in the Si layer carried out using FLUKA.

  12. Precision measurement of the speed of propagation of neutrinos using the MINOS detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Ashby, N.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Bumgarner, R.; Cao, S. V.; Castromonte, C. M.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Fonville, B.; Frohne, M. V.; Gallagher, H. R.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Hirschauer, J.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jefferts, S. R.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Matsakis, D.; Mayer, N.; McKinley, A.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mitchell, S.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Parker, T. E.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Powers, E.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Ridl, K.; Römisch, S.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wright, J.; Zhang, V.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration, Nist,; Usno

    2015-09-01

    We report a two-detector measurement of the propagation speed of neutrinos over a baseline of 734 km. The measurement was made with the NuMI beam at Fermilab between the near and far MINOS detectors. The fractional difference between the neutrino speed and the speed of light is determined to be (v /c -1 )=(1.0 ±1.1 )×10-6 , consistent with relativistic neutrinos.

  13. Precision measurement of the speed of propagation of neutrinos using the MINOS detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Adamson, P.

    2015-09-17

    We report a two-detector measurement of the propagation speed of neutrinos over a baseline of 734 km. The measurement was made with the NuMI beam at Fermilab between the near and far MINOS detectors. Furthermore, the fractional difference between the neutrino speed and the speed of light is determined to be (v/c-1)=(1.0±1.1)×10-6, consistent with relativistic neutrinos.

  14. Precision measurement of the speed of propagation of neutrinos using the MINOS detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.

    2015-09-17

    We report a two-detector measurement of the propagation speed of neutrinos over a baseline of 734 km. The measurement was made with the NuMI beam at Fermilab between the near and far MINOS detectors. Furthermore, the fractional difference between the neutrino speed and the speed of light is determined to be (v/c-1)=(1.0±1.1)×10-6, consistent with relativistic neutrinos.

  15. Investigations of a flat-panel detector for quality assurance measurements in ion beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Bernadette; Telsemeyer, Julia; Huber, Lucas; Ackermann, Benjamin; Jäkel, Oliver; Martišíková, Mária

    2012-01-07

    Increased accuracy in radiation delivery to a patient provided by scanning particle beams leads to high demands on quality assurance (QA). To meet the requirements, an extensive quality assurance programme has been implemented at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center. Currently, high-resolution radiographic films are used for beam spot position measurements and homogeneity measurements for scanned fields. However, given that using this film type is time and equipment demanding, considerations have been made to replace the radiographic films in QA by another appropriate device. In this study, the suitability of the flat-panel detector RID 256 L based on amorphous silicon was investigated as an alternative method. The currently used radiographic films were taken as a reference. Investigations were carried out for proton and carbon ion beams. The detectors were irradiated simultaneously to allow for a direct comparison. The beam parameters (e.g. energy, focus, position) currently used in the daily QA procedures were applied. Evaluation of the measurements was performed using newly implemented automatic routines. The results for the flat-panel detector were compared to the standard radiographic films. Additionally, a field with intentionally decreased homogeneity was applied to test the detector's sensitivities toward possible incorrect scan parameters. For the beam position analyses, the flat-panel detector results showed good agreement with radiographic films. For both detector types, deviations between measured and planned spot distances were found to be below 1% (1 mm). In homogeneously irradiated fields, the flat-panel detector showed a better dose response homogeneity than the currently used radiographic film. Furthermore, the flat-panel detector is sensitive to field irregularities. The flat-panel detector was found to be an adequate replacement for the radiographic film in QA measurements. In addition, it saves time and equipment because no post

  16. Heated Surface Temperatures Measured by Infrared Detector in a Cascade Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigators have used infrared devices to accurately measure heated surface temperatures. Several of these applications have been for turbine heat transfer studies involving film cooling and surface roughness, typically, these measurements use an infrared camera positioned externally to the test section. In cascade studies, where several blades are used to ensure periodic flow, adjacent blades block the externally positioned camera's views of the test blade. To obtain a more complete mapping of the surface temperatures, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center fabricated a probe with an infrared detector to sense the blade temperatures. The probe size was kept small to minimize the flow disturbance. By traversing and rotating the probe, using the same approach as for total pressure surveys, one can find the blade surface temperatures. Probe mounted infrared detectors are appropriate for measuring surface temperatures where an externally positioned infrared camera is unable to completely view the test object. This probe consists of a 8-mm gallium arsenide (GaAs) lens mounted in front of a mercury-cadmium-zinc-tellurium (HgCdZnTe) detector. This type of photovoltaic detector was chosen because of its high sensitivity to temperature when the detector is uncooled. The particular application is for relatively low surface temperatures, typically ambient to 100 C. This requires a detector sensitive at long wavelengths. The detector is a commercial product enclosed in a 9-mm-diameter package. The GaAs lens material was chosen because of its glass-like hardness and its good long-wavelength transmission characteristics. When assembled, the 6.4-mm probe stem is held in the traversing actuator. Since the entire probe is above the measurement plane, the flow field disturbance in the measurement plane is minimized. This particular probe body is somewhat wider than necessary, because it was designed to have replaceable detectors and lenses. The signal for the detector is

  17. A scintillating fission detector for neutron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Esch, Ernst I; Burgett, Eric A; May, Iain; Muenchausen, Ross E; Taw, Felicia; Tovesson, Fredrik K

    2010-01-01

    Neutron flux monitors are commonly used for a variety of nuclear physics applications. A scintillating neutron detector, consisting of a liquid scintillator loaded with fissionable material, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and shows a significant improvement in neutron sensitivity compared with a conventional fission chamber. Recent research on nanocomposite-based scintillators for gamma-ray detection indicates that this approach can be extended to load nanoparticles of fissionable material into a scintillating matrix, with up to three orders of magnitude higher loading than typical fission chambers. This will result in a rugged, cost-efficient detector with high efficiency, a short signal rise time, and the ability to be used in low neutron-flux environments. Initial efforts to utilize the luminescence of uranyl oxide to eliminate the need for wavelength-shifting dyes were unsuccessful. Excitation of uranyl compounds has been reported at wavelengths ranging from 266 nm to 532 nm. However, neither the 300 nm emission of toluene, nor the 350 nm emission of PPO, nor the 410 nm emission of POPOP resulted in significant excitation of and emission by uranyl oxide. As indicated by UV/visible spectroscopy, light emitted at these wavelengths was absorbed by the colored solution. {sup 235}U remains the most attractive candidate for a fissionable scintillator, due to its high fission cross-section and lack of a threshold fission energy, but all solutions containing molecular uranium compounds will be colored, most more highly than the U{sup 6+} compounds used here. Research is therefore continuing toward the fabrication of uranium nanoparticles, in which, due to Rayleigh scattering, the coloration should be less pronounced. The characterization of the thorium-loaded liquid scintillator and the fabrication of the 100 mL detectors for use at LANSCE demonstrated the feasibility of loading fissionable

  18. A Novel Cosmic Ray Tagger System for Liquid Argon TPC Neutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, M.; Del Tutto, M.; Ereditato, A.; Fleming, B.; Goeldi, D.; Gramellini, E.; Guenette, R.; Ketchum, W.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Sinclair, J. R.; Soleti, S. R.; Weber, M.

    2016-12-14

    The Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program aims to observe and reconstruct thousands of neutrino-argon interactions with its three detectors (SBND, MicroBooNE and ICARUS-T600), using their hundred of tonnes Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers to perform a rich physics analysis program, in particular focused in the search for sterile neutrinos. Given the relatively shallow depth of the detectors, the continuos flux of cosmic ray particles which crossing their volumes introduces a constant background which can be falsely identified as part of the event of interest. Here we present the Cosmic Ray Tagger (CRT) system, a novel technique to tag and identify these crossing particles using scintillation modules which measure their time and coordinates relative to events internal to the neutrino detector, mitigating therefore their effect in the event tracking reconstruction.

  19. Performance characterization of compressed sensing positron emission tomography detectors and data acquisition system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chen-Ming; Grant, Alexander M; Lee, Brian J; Kim, Ealgoo; Hong, KeyJo; Levin, Craig S

    2015-08-21

    In the field of information theory, compressed sensing (CS) had been developed to recover signals at a lower sampling rate than suggested by the Nyquist-Shannon theorem, provided the signals have a sparse representation with respect to some base. CS has recently emerged as a method to multiplex PET detector readouts thanks to the sparse nature of 511 keV photon interactions in a typical PET study. We have shown in our previous numerical studies that, at the same multiplexing ratio, CS achieves higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to Anger and cross-strip multiplexing. In addition, unlike Anger logic, multiplexing by CS preserves the capability to resolve multi-hit events, in which multiple pixels are triggered within the resolving time of the detector. In this work, we characterized the time, energy and intrinsic spatial resolution of two CS detectors and a data acquisition system we have developed for a PET insert system for simultaneous PET/MRI. The CS detector comprises a 2 x 4 mosaic of 4 x 4 arrays of 3.2 x 3.2 x 20 mm(3) lutetium-yttrium orthosilicate crystals coupled one-to-one to eight 4 x 4 silicon photomultiplier arrays. The total number of 128 pixels is multiplexed down to 16 readout channels by CS. The energy, coincidence time and intrinsic spatial resolution achieved by two CS detectors were 15.4±0.1% FWHM at 511 keV, 4.5 ns FWHM and 2.3 mm FWHM, respectively. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the sources of time jitter that limit the time resolution of the current system, which provides guidance for potential system design improvements. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of compressed sensing as a promising multiplexing method for PET detectors.

  20. Neutron field parameter measurements on the JET tokamak by means of super-heated fluid detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gherendi, M.; Craciunescu, T.; Pantea, A.; Zoita, V. L.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Hellesen, C.; Conroy, S.; Baltog, I.; Edlington, T.; Kiptily, V.; Popovichev, S.; Murari, A.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    The neutron field parameters (fluence and energy distribution) at a specific location outside the JET Torus Hall have been measured by means of super-heated fluid detectors (or 'bubble detectors') in combination with an independent, time-of-flight, technique. The bubble detector assemblies were placed at the end of a vertical line of sight at about 16 m from the tokamak mid plane. Spatial distributions of the neutron fluence along the radial and toroidal directions have been obtained using two-dimensional arrays of bubble detectors. Using a set of three bubble detector spectrometers the neutron energy distribution was determined over a broad energy range, from about 10 keV to above 10 MeV, with an energy resolution of about 30% at 2.5 MeV. The very broad energy response allowed for the identification of energy features far from the main fusion component (around 2.45 MeV for deuterium discharges).

  1. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  2. An ultrafast x-ray detector system at an elliptically polarizingundulator beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Comin, A.; Bartelt, A.F.; Shin, H.J.; Nasiatka, J.R.; Padmore, H.A.; Young, A.T.; Scholl, A.

    2007-05-01

    An ultrafast x-ray detector system is under development atLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for application primarily tostudyies of ultrafast magnetization dynamics. The system consists of a fslaser, an x-ray streak camera and an ellipitically polarization undulator(EPU) beamline. Polarized x-rays from an EPU can be used to measure x-raymagnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) of a sample. XMCD has the uniqueability to independently measure orbit and spin magnetization withsub-monolayer sensitivity and element specificity. The streak camera hassimultaneously a sub-picosecond temporal resolution and a high spatialresolution. The combination of the streak camera and EPU allows us tostudy the transfer of angular momentum from spin to orbit to the latticein the sample on an ultrafast time scale. We describe here theperformance of the ultrafast detector, the laser and the x-raysynchronization system. The observation of the demagnetization process ofdifferent samples demonstrates the ability of the apparatus.

  3. Interaction region design and auxiliary detector systems for an EIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, R.

    2016-03-01

    There are a number of exciting physics opportunities at a future electron-ion collider facility. One possible design for such a facility is eRHIC, where the current RHIC facility located at Brookhaven National Lab would be transformed into an electron-ion collider. It is imperative for a seamless integration of auxiliary detector systems into the interaction region design to have a machine that meets the needs for the planned physics analyses, as well as take into account the space constraints due to the tunnel geometry and the necessary beam line elements. In this talk, we describe the current ideas for integrating a luminosity detector, electron polarimeter, roman pots, and a low Q2-tagger into the interaction region for eRHIC.

  4. Field Testing of a Portable Radiation Detector and Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Eakle, R.F.

    1998-03-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have developed a man- portable radiation detector and mapping system (RADMAPS) which integrates the accumulation of radiation information with precise ground locations. RADMAPS provides field personnel with the ability to detect, locate, and characterize nuclear material at a site or facility by analyzing the gamma or neutron spectra and correlating them with position. the man-portable field unit records gamma or neutron count rate information and its location, along with date and time, using an embedded Global Positioning System (GPS). RADMAPS is an advancement in data fusion, integrating several off-the-shelf technologies with new computer software resulting in a system that is simple to deploy and provides information useful to field personnel in an easily understandable form. Decisions on subsequent actions can be made in the field to efficiently use available field resources. The technologies employed in this system include: recording GPS, radiation detection (typically scintillation detectors), pulse height analysis, analog-to-digital converters, removable solid-state (Flash or SRAM) memory cards, Geographic Information System (GIS) software and personal computers with CD-ROM supporting digital base maps. RADMAPS includes several field deployable data acquisition systems designed to simultaneously record radiation and geographic positions. This paper summarizes the capabilities of RADMAPS and some of the results of field tests performed with the system.

  5. Coherent 1-micron lidar measurements of atmospheric-turbulence-induced spatial decorrelation using a multielement heterodyne detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kin P.; Killinger, Dennis K.

    1992-01-01

    A coherent 1-micron Nd:YAG lidar system is employed to measure directly the reduced spatial coherence length rho 0 of the lidar returns caused by atmospheric turbulence. The experiments were conducted by using a 2 x 2 heterodyne detector array, which permitted real-time spatial correlation measurements of the lidar returns at two different detector spacings. The spatial correlation coefficients and spatial coherence length of the lidar returns from a hard target were measured during a day-to-night time period when the atmospheric turbulence parameter, Cn-squared, was measured to vary from 2 x 10 exp -13 to 2 x 10 exp -4 m exp -2/3. These directly measured values of rho 0 as a function of Cn-squared were found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  6. Systematic investigation of background sources in neutron flux measurements with a proton-recoil silicon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, P.; Mathieu, L.; Acosta, L.; Aïche, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Tsekhanovich, I.

    2017-01-01

    Proton-recoil detectors (PRDs), based on the well known standard H(n,p) elastic scattering cross section, are the preferred instruments to perform precise quasi-absolute neutron flux measurements above 1 MeV. The limitations of using a single silicon detector as PRD at a continuous neutron beam facility are investigated, with the aim of extending such measurements to neutron energies below 1 MeV. This requires a systematic investigation of the background sources affecting the neutron flux measurement. Experiments have been carried out at the AIFIRA facility to identify these sources. A study on the role of the silicon detector thickness on the background is presented and an energy limit on the use of a single silicon detector to achieve a neutron flux precision better than 1% is given.

  7. SU-E-P-24: Simplified EDW Profile Measurements Using Two Commonly Available Detector Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T; Arentsen, L; Watanabe, Y; Alaei, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) profiles are needed as part of the commissioning of a treatment planning system. This work compares the acquisition of EDW profiles using a linear diode array (LDA) with two commonly used detector arrays available in the clinics, with the goal of identifying the simplest approach for these measurements. Methods: The measurements of EDW profiles were performed on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator for 6, 10, and 18 MV photon beams for all seven wedge angles at four depths. The measurements were done using the LDA 99 in Blue Phantom2 (IBA Dosimetry), and IC Profiler and MapCHECK2 (Sun Nuclear) in solid water phantoms. The water phantom was set up at 100 cm SSD, whereas the two other devices were set up at 75 cm due to the size limitations of the devices. The largest possible field size was used. The average and maximum percentage differences were examined within the central 90% of the field and in the penumbra. Results: Dose profiles measured with IC Profiler were in a good agreement with LDA 99 data. The average percentage difference within the field did not exceed 0.5% for all energies. MapCHECK2 measurements matched well with LDA 99 for 10 and 18 MV (within 0.3%) with discrepancies of up to 1.4% observed for the 6 MV beam. The maximum percentage differences for both devices in the penumbra exhibited larger variations than LDA 99 results due to differences in detector spacing and high dose gradient, as expected. Conclusion: Common linac QA devices such as IC Profiler or MapCHECK2 provide EDW beam profile data of reasonable accuracy as compared to measurements performed using a linear diode array in a water phantom, saving the expense and time involved in acquiring and setting up a LDA.

  8. A New Neutron Time-of-Flight Detector for DT Yield and Ion-Temperature Measurements on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-11-01

    A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector for DT yield and ion-temperature measurements in DT implosions on the OMEGA Laser System was designed, fabricated, tested, and calibrated. The goal of this detector is to provide a second line of sight for DT yield and ion-temperature measurements in the 1 ×1012 to 1014 yield range. The nTOF detector consists of a 40-mm-diam, 20-mm-thick BC-422Q(1%) scintillator coupled with a one-stage Photek PMT-140 photomultiplier tube. To avoid PMT saturation at high yields a neutral density filter ND1 is inserted between the scintillator and PMT. Both the scintillator and PMT are shielded from hard x rays by 5 mm of lead on all sides and 10 mm in the direction of the target. The nTOF detector is located at 15.8 m from target chamber center in the OMEGA Target Bay. The design details and calibration results of this nTOF detector in DT implosions on OMEGA will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  9. Measurements of Differential Z/gamma*+jet+X Cross Sections with the D0 Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lammers, Sabine

    2009-11-01

    We present measurements of differential cross sections in inclusive Z/{gamma}* plus jet production in a data sample of 1 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector in proton antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Measured variables include the Z/{gamma}* transverse momentum (p{sub T}{sup Z}) and rapidity (y{sup Z}), the leading jet transverse momentum (p{sub T}{sup jet}) and rapidity (y{sup jet}), as well as various angles of the Z+jet system. We compare the results to different Monte Carlo event generators and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (NLO pQCD) predictions, with non-perturbative corrections applied.

  10. Vacuum and cryogenic system for the MUSE detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizon, J. L.; Accardo, M.; Gojak, Domingo; Reiss, Roland; Kern, Lothar

    2012-09-01

    MUSE with its 24 detectors distributed over an eight square meter vertical area was requiring a well engineered and extremely reliable cryogenic system. The solution should also use a technology proven to be compatible with the very high sensitivity of the VLT interferometer. A short introduction reviews the various available technologies to cool these 24 chips down to 160 K. The first part of the paper presents the selected concept insisting on the various advantages offered by LN2. In addition to the purely vacuum and cryogenic aspects we highlight some of the most interesting features given by the control system based on a PLC.

  11. Security issues of quantum cryptographic systems with imperfect detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Viacheslav

    The laws of quantum physics can be used to secure communications between two distant parties in a scheme called quantum key distribution (QKD), even against a technologically unlimited eavesdropper. While the theoretical security of QKD has been proved rigorously, current implementations of QKD are generally insecure. In particular, mathematical models of devices, such as detectors, do not accurately describe their real-life behaviour. Such seemingly insignificant discrepancies can compromise the security of the entire scheme, especially as novel detector technologies are being developed with little regard for potential vulnerabilities. In this thesis, we study how detector imperfections can impact the security of QKD and how to overcome such technological limitations. We first analyze the security of a high-speed QKD system with finite detector dead time tau. We show that the previously reported sifting approaches are not guaranteed to be secure in this regime. More specifically, Eve can induce a basis-dependent detection efficiency at the receiver's end. Modified key sifting schemes that are basis-independent, and thus secure in the presence of dead time and an active eavesdropper, are discussed and compared. It is shown that the maximum key generation rate is 1/(2tau) for passive basis selection, and 1/tau for active basis selection. The security analysis is also extended to the decoy state BB84 protocol. We then study a relatively new type of single-photon detector called the superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), and discover some unexpected behaviour. We report an afterpulsing effect present when the SNSPD is operated in the high bias current regime. In our standard set-up, the afterpulsing is most likely to occur at around 180 ns following a detection event, for both real counts and dark counts. We characterize the afterpulsing behaviour and speculate that it is not due to the SNSPD itself but rather the associated read-out circuit. We also

  12. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Örbom, Anders Ahlstedt, Jonas; Östlund, Karl; Strand, Sven-Erik; Serén, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri; Hauge, Håvard; Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Dahlbom, Magnus

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging {sup 18}F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of {sup 58}Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a {sup 131}I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10{sup −6} counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and

  13. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1997-12-30

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10{sup {minus}13} atm cc/s. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces back streaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium. 2 figs.

  14. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1997-01-01

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

  15. Experimental measurements of charge carrier mobility: lifetime products for large sample of pixilated CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadawale, S. V.; Shanmugam, M.; Purohit, Shishir; Acharya, Y. B.; Sudhakar, Manju

    2012-07-01

    Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) is thought to be a primary work horse for hard X-ray astronomy in future. Due to the relatively large band-gap, it offers near room temperature operation while maintaining much better energy resolution then scintillator detectors operating in similar energy range. Further, CZT detectors are available in the form of pixilated detectors with area up to few cm2 and hence it is possible to realize very large detector area by having an array of such pixilated CZT detectors. However, it is well known that the energy spectrum of mono-energetic X-ray measured by CZT detectors does not have a Gaussian shape but has significant low-energy tail. This is mainly due to relatively poor mobility and small life time of the charge carriers, particularly of holes, in the CZT crystals. Thus, in order to understand spectral response for a large array of CZT detectors consisting of multiple elements / pixels, it is essential to characterize the mobility-lifetime products of charge carriers for each individual elements / pixels. Here we present experimental measurements of charge carrier mobility-lifetime products for large sample of multi-pixel CZT detectors. The mobility-lifetime products are measured by simultaneously fitting a ‘CZT line’ model to pixel wise spectra of 122 keV X-rays from 57Co at three different bias voltages. These were carried out as a part of selection of CZT detector modules for the “High Energy X-ray spectrometer (HEX)” onboard Indian moon mission - Chandrayaan-1.

  16. Measurement of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray detectors according to the novel standard IEC 62220-1.

    PubMed

    Illers, Hartmut; Buhr, Egbert; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    A mobile measurement facility which complies with IEC 62220-1 has been set up to determine the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray detector systems. Exemplary measurements were performed for two similar CR detector systems, a CsI-based indirect detector and an Se-based direct detector. The standardised radiation quality RQA 5 was applied for measurement and for three of these systems RQA 9 was also applied. A pronounced dependence of DQE on radiation quality was observed for the direct detector, where the DQEs for RQA 5 and RQA 9 differ by a factor of approximately 2. The uncertainty (95% confidence interval) associated with the measured DQE values is within 0.01 and 0.04 depending on, for example, the spatial frequency. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the DQE can be measured accurately and reliably with the accuracy required by the international standard IEC 62220-1. It is now possible to objectively measure and compare DQE values of digital X-ray detector systems.

  17. Performance Measurements of the Flight Detector for SPICE on SolarOrbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Davila, J. M.; Caldwell, M.; Siegmund, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment (SPICE) instrument for theSolar Orbiter mission will make spectroscopic observations of the Sun's lowcorona to characterize the plasma properties of the source regions of the solarwind. The detector package for SPICE, provided by the NASA Goddard SpaceFLight Center, consists of two microchannel-plate (MCP) intensified ActivePixel Sensor (APS) detectors covering the short (702-792 Angstroms) and long(972-1050 Angstroms) wavelength bandpasses. The long wavelength detector willalso provide coverage in second order between 485-525 Angstroms. We previouslyreported on measurements of the engineering model detector. Here, we report onmeasurements made on the flight SPICE detector in the same vacuum tank facilityat the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Harwell, UK. These measurementsinclude the detector flat field, sensitivity, resolution, linearity, andstatistical noise. A krypton resonance lamp operating at 1236 Angstroms wasused to stimulate the detector. Results at this wavelength are combined withthe quantum efficiency measurements of the individual MCPs at this and otherwavelengths covering the entire wavelength range to provide a completecalibration curve for the instrument. A calibrated NIST photodiode was used todetermine the absolute brightness of the lamp.

  18. Ultrasonic linear measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Scot H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An ultrasonic linear measurement system uses the travel time of surface waves along the perimeter of a three-dimensional curvilinear body to determine the perimeter of the curvilinear body. The system can also be used piece-wise to measure distances along plane surfaces. The system can be used to measure perimeters where use of laser light, optical means or steel tape would be extremely difficult, time consuming or impossible. It can also be used to determine discontinuities in surfaces of known perimeter or dimension.

  19. Detector system dose verification comparisons for arc therapy: couch vs. gantry mount.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Arjunan; Sarkar, Biplab; Nandy, Maitreyee; Sureka, Chandra Sekaran; Gossman, Michael S; Sujatha, Nadendla; Rajendran, Vivek Thirupathur

    2014-05-08

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a gantry-mounted detector system and a couch set detector system using a systematic multileaf collimator positional error manually introduced for volumetric-modulated arc therapy. Four head and neck and esophagus VMAT plans were evaluated by measurement using an electronic portal imaging device and an ion chamber array. Each plan was copied and duplicated with a 1 mm systematic MLC positional error in the left leaf bank. Direct comparison of measurements for plans with and without the error permitted observational characteristics for quality assurance performance between detectors. A total of 48 different plans were evaluated for this testing. The mean percentage planar dose differences required to satisfy a 95% match between plans with and without the MLCPE were 5.2% ± 0.5% for the chamber array with gantry motion, 8.12% ± 1.04% for the chamber array with a static gantry at 0°, and 10.9%± 1.4% for the EPID with gantry motion. It was observed that the EPID was less accurate due to overresponse of the MLCPE in the left leaf bank. The EPID always images bank-A on the ipsilateral side of the detector, whereas for a chamber array or for a patient, that bank changes as it crosses the -90° or +90° position. A couch set detector system can reproduce the TPS calculated values most consistently. We recommend it as the most reliable patient specific QA system for MLC position error testing. This research is highlighted by the finding of up to 12.7% dose variation for H/N and esophagus cases for VMAT delivery, where the mere source of error was the stated clinically acceptability of 1 mm MLC position deviation of TG-142.

  20. Measurement of Total Scatter Factor for Stereotactic Cones with Plastic Scintillation Detector

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Suresh H; Dobhal, Rishabh; Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Kadam, Sudarshan S.; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapy modalities such as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and image-guided radiotherapy may employ very small beam apertures for accurate localized high dose to target. Accurate measurement of small radiation fields is a well-known challenge for many dosimeters. The purpose of this study was to measure total scatter factors for stereotactic cones with plastic scintillation detector and its comparison against diode detector and theoretical estimates. Measurements were performed on Novalis Tx™ linear accelerator for 6MV SRS beam with stereotactic cones of diameter 6 mm, 7.5 mm, 10 mm, 12.5 mm, and 15 mm. The advantage of plastic scintillator detector is in its energy dependence. The total scatter factor was measured in water at the depth of dose maximum. Total scatter factor with plastic scintillation detector was determined by normalizing the readings to field size of 10 cm × 10 cm. To overcome energy dependence of diode detector for the determination of scatter factor with diode detector, daisy chaining method was used. The plastic scintillator detector was calibrated against the ionization chamber, and the reproducibility in the measured doses was found to be within ± 1%. Total scatter factor measured with plastic scintillation detector was 0.728 ± 0.3, 0.783 ± 0.05, 0.866 ± 0.55, 0.885 ± 0.5, and 0.910 ± 0.06 for cone sizes of 6 mm, 7.5 mm, 10 mm, 12.5 mm, and 15 mm, respectively. Total scatter factor measured with diode detector was 0.733 ± 0.03, 0.782 ± 0.02, 0.834 ± 0.07, 0.854 ± 0.02, and 0.872 ± 0.02 for cone sizes of 6 mm, 7.5 mm, 10 mm, 12.5 mm, and 15 mm, respectively. The variation in the measurement of total scatter factor with published Monte Carlo data was found to be −1.3%, 1.9%, −0.4%, and 0.4% for cone sizes of 7.5 mm, 10 mm, 12.5 mm, and 15 mm, respectively. We conclude that total scatter factor measurements for stereotactic cones can be adequately carried out with a plastic scintillation detector. Our results show

  1. Gating characteristics of an Elekta radiotherapy treatment unit measured with three types of detector.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip M; Symonds-Tayler, J Richard N; Colgan, Ruth; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Letts, Nicky; Sandin, Carlos

    2010-04-21

    The characteristics of an Elekta Precise treatment machine with a gating interface were investigated. Three detectors were used: a Farmer ionization chamber, a MatriXX ionization chamber array and an in-house, single pulse-measurement ionization chamber (IVC). Measurements were made of dosimetric accuracy, flatness and symmetry characteristics and duty cycle for a range of beam-on times and gating periods. Results were compared with a standard ungated delivery as a reference. For all beam-on times, down to 0.5 s, dosimetric differences were below +/-1% and flatness and symmetry parameter variations were below +/-1.5%. For the shorter beam-on times the in-house detector deviated from the other two detectors, suggesting that this device should be used in conjunction with other detectors for absolute dosimetry purposes. However, it was found to be useful for studying gated beam characteristics pulse by pulse.

  2. NOTE: Gating characteristics of an Elekta radiotherapy treatment unit measured with three types of detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Philip M.; Symonds-Tayler, J. Richard N.; Colgan, Ruth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Letts, Nicky; Sandin, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The characteristics of an Elekta Precise treatment machine with a gating interface were investigated. Three detectors were used: a Farmer ionization chamber, a MatriXX ionization chamber array and an in-house, single pulse-measurement ionization chamber (IVC). Measurements were made of dosimetric accuracy, flatness and symmetry characteristics and duty cycle for a range of beam-on times and gating periods. Results were compared with a standard ungated delivery as a reference. For all beam-on times, down to 0.5 s, dosimetric differences were below ±1% and flatness and symmetry parameter variations were below ±1.5%. For the shorter beam-on times the in-house detector deviated from the other two detectors, suggesting that this device should be used in conjunction with other detectors for absolute dosimetry purposes. However, it was found to be useful for studying gated beam characteristics pulse by pulse.

  3. Estimation of errors in diffraction data measured by CCD area detectors

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, David; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for diffraction-spot integration from CCD area detectors typically underestimate the errors in the measured intensities. In an attempt to understand fully and identify correctly the sources of all contributions to these errors, a simulation of a CCD-based area-detector module has been produced to address the problem of correct handling of data from such detectors. Using this simulation, it has been shown how, and by how much, measurement errors are underestimated. A model of the detector statistics is presented and an adapted summation integration routine that takes this into account is shown to result in more realistic error estimates. In addition, the effect of correlations between pixels on two-dimensional profile fitting is demonstrated and the problems surrounding improvements to profile-fitting algorithms are discussed. In practice, this requires knowledge of the expected correlation between pixels in the image. PMID:27006649

  4. Time Dependent DD Neutrons Measurement Using a Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond Detector on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tengfei; Peng, Xingyu; Chen, Zhongjing; Hu, Zhimeng; Ge, Lijian; Hu, Liqun; Zhong, Guoqiang; Pu, Neng; Chen, Jinxiang; Fan, Tieshuan

    2016-09-01

    A single crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector has been successfully employed for neutron measurements in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) plasmas. The scCVD diamond detector coated with a 5 μm 6LiF (95% 6Li enriched) layer was placed inside a polyethylene moderator to enhance the detection efficiency. The time-dependent neutron emission from deuteron plasmas during neutral beam injection (NBI) heating was obtained. The measured results are compared with that of fission chamber detectors, which always act as standard neutron flux monitors. The scCVD diamond detector exhibits good reliability, stability and the capability to withstand harsh radiation environments despite its low detection efficiency due to the small active volume. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB106004 and 2012GB101003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91226102)

  5. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    cm3, ~ 3 kg, ~ 140 %, or larger). Maintenance-free Stirling -cycle mechanical coolers are being used. These coolers have operating lifetimes...photograph of the complete RASA 1 detector system is shown in Figure 1. The detector is cooled to temperatures below 50 K when the cooler is...cryostat- cooler combination can ultimately serve as a viable detector unit for RASA detector systems . During the pursuit of the microphonic noise

  6. Beamline fast and automatic attenuation system for X-Ray detectors at Synchrotron Soleil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, G.; Garreau, Y.; Betinelli, P.; Tournieux, A.; Bisou, J.; Monteiro, P.; Elattaoui, X.

    2013-03-01

    Attenuators are commonly used on beamlines to control incident photon flux. Attenuators are mainly controlled by software. In some experimental cases using various diffraction techniques, this architecture is not fast enough to manage high flux variation. The fast attenuation system inserts and extracts filters quickly, allowing very fast beam attenuation at the maximum rate allowed by the filter mechanism and the beam detector response. To build the solution, we used an off-the-shelf CPCI General Purpose board (GPIO) from TEWS that is based on a SPARTAN-3 Xilinx FPGA: We have developed a daughter board and an embedded VHDL program. The logic is dedicated to maintaining incident detector photon flux within an acceptable range for optimized measurements and protecting the X ray detector against over-exposure. This system is part of a continuous scan process. Some low level process logic is also embedded in order to optimize data exchange. During continuous scanning, this process allows each experimental data item collected to be associated with its corresponding photon flux value. This system is in operation on the SIXS beamline and will be soon installed on the DIFFABS beamline. This paper describes the principle and the results obtained with this solution and the possible improvements and perspectives (interfacing more complex detectors such as XPad).

  7. Applications of a Fast Neutron Detector System to Verification of Special Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Douglas R.; Byrd, Roger C.; Ensslin, Norbert; Krick, Merlyn S.; Mercer, David J.; Miller, Michael C.; Prettyman, Thomas H.; Russo, Phyllis A.

    1998-04-01

    An array of boron-loaded plastic optically coupled to bismuth germanate scintillators has been developed to detect neutrons for measurement of special nuclear materials. The phoswiched detection system has the advantage of a high neutron detection efficiency and short die-away time. This is achieved by mixing the moderator (plastic) and the detector (^10B) at the molecular level. Simulations indicate that the neutron capture probabilities equal or exceed those of the current thermal neutron multiplicity techniques which have the moderator (polyethylene) and detectors (^3He gas proportional tubes) macroscopically separate. Experiments have been performed to characterize the response of these detectors and validate computer simulations. The fast neutron detection system may be applied to the quantitative assay of plutonium in high (α,n) backgrounds, with emphasis on safeguards and enviromental scenarios. Additional applications of the insturment, in a non-quantative mode, has been tested for possible verification activities involving dismantlement of nuclear weapons. A description of the detector system, simulations and preliminary data will be presented.

  8. A 90GHz Bolometer Camera Detector System for the Green

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Allen, Christine A.; Buchanan, Ernest; Chen, Tina C.; Chervenak, James A.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Forgione, Joshua B.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a close-packed, two-dimensional imaging detector system for operation at 90GHz (3.3 mm) for the 100m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This system will provide high sensitivity (less than 1mJy in 1s) rapid imaging (15'x15' to 150 micron Jy in 1 hr) at the world's largest steerable aperture. The heart of this camera is an 8x8 close-packed, Nyquist-sampled array of superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers. We have designed and are producing a functional superconducting bolometer array system using a monolithic planar architecture and high-speed multiplexed readout electronics. With an NEP of approximately 2 x 10(exp -17) W/square root of Hz, the TES bolometers will provide fast, linear, sensitive response for high performance imaging. The detectors are read out by an 8x8 time domain SQUID multiplexer. A digital/analog electronics system has been designed to enable read out by SQUID multiplexers. First light for this instrument on the GBT is expected within a year.

  9. Development of 1.45-mm resolution four-layer DOI-PET detector for simultaneous measurement in 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tachibana, Atsushi; Obata, Takayuki; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Suga, Mikio; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of PET-MRI systems have been developed by a number of research groups. However, almost all of the PET detectors used in these PET-MRI systems have no depth-of-interaction (DOI) capability. The DOI detector can reduce the parallax error and lead to improvement of the performance. We are developing a new PET-MRI system which consists of four-layer DOI detectors positioned close to the measured object to achieve high spatial resolution and high scanner sensitivity. As a first step, we are investigating influences the PET detector and the MRI system have on each other using a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector. This prototype detector consists of a lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal block and a 4 × 4 multi-pixel photon counter array. The size of each crystal element is 1.45 mm × 1.45 mm × 4.5 mm, and the crystals are arranged in 6 × 6 elements × 4 layers with reflectors. The detector and some electric components are packaged in an aluminum shielding box. Experiments were carried out with 3.0 T MRI (GE, Signa HDx) and a birdcage-type RF coil. We demonstrated that the DOI-PET detector was normally operated in simultaneous measurements with no influence of the MRI measurement. A slight influence of the PET detector on the static magnetic field of the MRI was observed near the PET detector. The signal-to-noise ratio was decreased by presence of the PET detector due to environmental noise entering the MRI room through the cables, even though the PET detector was not powered up. On the other hand, no influence of electric noise from the PET detector in the simultaneous measurement on the MRI images was observed, even though the PET detector was positioned near the RF coil.

  10. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Reynier, Yvan; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  11. [Physical imaging properties of a flat panel X-ray detector system].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akira; Nakamura, Satoru; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Kohama, Chiyuki; Takahata, Akira; Fujikawa, Kouichi

    2002-01-01

    We report the physical imaging properties of a flat panel detector (FPD) designed for radiographic imaging applications (Revolution XQ/i digital chest imaging system, G.E. Medical Systems). The imaging properties of the detector were evaluated through measurements of the characteristic curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), and Wiener spectrum. The digital characteristic curves of the FPD system were measured for the two tube voltages (80 kV and 120 kV). They showed that the correlation between the pixel values of FPD and the incident exposure to the FPD was a linear correlation. The dynamic range of characteristic curves had a range from about 0.003 to 2 microC/kg at the exposure. The presampling MTFs for different tube voltage were almost the same, when we measured the MTFs at 80 kV and 120 kV. And also, there was no significant difference between the MTFs measured with the slit in the direction parallel to the horizontal direction and with the slit in the perpendicular direction. The relative resolution of the FPD system was a 46% higher than that of ST-V imaging plate of FCR (Fuji Computed Radiography) system at 2 cycles/mm. The digital Wiener spectrum of the FPD system was about 1/10 lower than that of the CR system. Thus the FPD system can provide superior imaging performance due to both high resolution and low noise.

  12. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  13. The Fork+ burnup measurement system: Design and first measurement campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.E.; Bronowski, D.R.; McMurtry, W.; Ewing, R.; Jordan, R.; Rivard, D.

    1998-12-31

    Previous work with the original Fork detector showed that burnup as determined by reactor records could be accurately allocated to spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The original Fork detector, designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, used an ion chamber to measure gross gamma count and a fission chamber to measure neutrons from an activation source, {sup 244}Cm. In its review of the draft Topical Report on Burnup Credit, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission indicated it felt uncomfortable with a measurement system that depended on reactor records for calibration. The Fork+ system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute with the aim of providing this independent measurement capability. The initial Fork+ prototype was used in a measurement campaign at the Maine Yankee reactor. The campaign confirmed the applicability of the sensor approach in the Fork+ system and the efficiency of the hand-portable Fork+ prototype in making fuel assembly measurements. It also indicated potential design modifications that will be necessary before the Fork+ can be used effectively on high-burnup spent fuel.

  14. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  15. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  16. SSC detector muon sub-system beam tests

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.; Errede, S.; Gauthier, A.; Haney, M.; Karliner, I.; Liss, T.; O`Halloran, T.; Sheldon, P.; Simiatis, V.; Thaler, J.; Wiss, J.; Green, D.; Martin, P.; Morfin, J.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Okusawa, T.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Asano, Y.; Mann, T.; Davisson, R.; Liang, G.; Lubatti, H.; Wilkes, R.; Zhao, T.; Carlsmith, D.

    1993-08-01

    We propose to start a test-beam experiment at Fermilab studying the problems associated with tracking extremely high energy muons through absorbers. We anticipate that in this energy range the observation of the muons will be complicated by associated electromagnetic radiation Monte Carlo simulations of this background need to be tuned by direct observations. These beam tests are essential to determine important design parameters of a SSC muon detector, such as the choice of the tracking, geometry, hardware triggering schemes, the number of measuring stations, the amount of iron between measuring stations, etc. We intend to begin the first phase of this program in November of 1990 utilizing the Tevatron muon beam. We plan to measure the multiplicity, direction, and separation of secondary particles associated with the primary muon track as it emerges from an absorber. The second phase of beam test in 1992 or later will be a full scale test for the final design chosen in our muon subsystem proposal.

  17. Compact Full-Field Ion Detector System for SmallSats Beyond LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Clark, Pamela E.; McNeil, Roger R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying its expertise and facilities in harsh environment instrumentation to develop a Compact Full-Field Ion Detector System (CFIDS). The CFIDS is designed to be an extremely compact, low cost instrument, capable of being flown on a wide variety of deep space platforms, to provide multi-directional, comprehensive (composition, velocity, and direction) in-situ measurements of heavy ions in space plasma environments.

  18. Compact Full-Field Ion Detector System for CubeSat Science Beyond LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Clark, Pamela E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying its expertise and facilities in harsh environment instrumentation to develop a Compact Full-Field Ion Detector System (CFIDS). The CFIDS is designed to be an extremely compact, low cost instrument, capable of being flown on a wide variety of deep space platforms, to provide comprehensive (composition, velocity, and direction) in situ measurements of heavy ions in space plasma environments with higher fidelity, than previously available.

  19. Deconvolution of detector size effect for output factor measurement for narrow Gamma Knife radiosurgery beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, G.; Saiful Huq, M.; Rosenow, U. F.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of output factors (OFs) for a model U Gamma Knife collimator, with special emphasis on the accurate determination of the OF for the 4 mm collimator (OF4). In the past, the OF4 was set to 0.800 relative to the 18 mm collimator. Recently, the manufacturer has recommended a new value of 0.870 for OF4. However, most centres still use the old value of the OF4. In the present study, the Gamma Knife OFs were measured using a commercially available miniature diamond detector and a miniature 0.006 cc ion chamber, which was especially designed for the task. The measured OF4 were corrected for spatial averaging effects by measuring dose profiles for the 4 mm collimator with the same detectors and deconvolving their response from the measured profiles. A Gaussian kernel was used to describe the detector response. The relative OFs measured with the diamond detector/ion chamber were 0.986/0.982, 0.953/0.935 and 0.812/0.765 for the 14, 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively, as compared with the manufacturer's values of 0.984, 0.956 and 0.87. The corrected OF4 was 0.881 +/- 0.012 for the diamond detector and 0.851 +/- 0.012 for the ion chamber, supporting the manufacturer's revised value for this collimator.

  20. Theory and measurement of plasmonic terahertz detector response to large signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, S.; Rupper, G.; Gutin, A.; Shur, M.

    2014-02-01

    Electron gas in the conduction channel of a Field Effect Transistor (FET) can support collective plasma oscillations tunable by the gate voltage. In the Dyakonov-Shur terahertz (THz) detector, nonlinearities in the plasma wave propagation in the gated channel of a FET lead to a constant source-to-drain voltage providing the detector output. We present the detector theory in the frame of the hydrodynamic model using the electron plasma Navier-Stokes and thermal transport equations, thus fully accounting for the hydrodynamic non-linearity, the viscosity, and pressure gradients in the detector response. Both resonant and broadband operations of the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based plasmonic detectors are described by this model. The relation between the electron channel density and gate voltage was modeled by the unified charge control model applicable both above and below the threshold voltage. The theoretical results are compared with the response measured in the short channel InGaAs HEMT and the analytical approximation. The THz source was operating at 1.63 THz, and the response was measured at varying signal intensities. The response of the detector operated in the open drain mode was measured above and below the threshold, and the theoretical and experimental results are shown to be in good agreement.

  1. New measurement of antineutrino oscillation with the full detector configuration at Daya Bay.

    PubMed

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Butorov, I; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Cen, W R; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Draeger, E; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, L; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, L M; Hu, L J; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, K Y; Leung, J K C; Lewis, C A; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, P Y; Lin, S K; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, H; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Liu, S S; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Martinez Caicedo, D A; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mitchell, I; Monari Kebwaro, J; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, B; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Shao, B B; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Themann, H; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Tung, Y C; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xia, X; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C G; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Yeh, Y S; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, Z Y; Zang, S L; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y F; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2015-09-11

    We report a new measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using the fully constructed Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. The final two of eight antineutrino detectors were installed in the summer of 2012. Including the 404 days of data collected from October 2012 to November 2013 resulted in a total exposure of 6.9×10^{5} GW_{th}  ton days, a 3.6 times increase over our previous results. Improvements in energy calibration limited variations between detectors to 0.2%. Removal of six ^{241}Am-^{13}C radioactive calibration sources reduced the background by a factor of 2 for the detectors in the experimental hall furthest from the reactors. Direct prediction of the antineutrino signal in the far detectors based on the measurements in the near detectors explicitly minimized the dependence of the measurement on models of reactor antineutrino emission. The uncertainties in our estimates of sin^{2}2θ_{13} and |Δm_{ee}^{2}| were halved as a result of these improvements. An analysis of the relative antineutrino rates and energy spectra between detectors gave sin^{2}2θ_{13}=0.084±0.005 and |Δm_{ee}^{2}|=(2.42±0.11)×10^{-3}  eV^{2} in the three-neutrino framework.

  2. New Measurement of Antineutrino Oscillation with the Full Detector Configuration at Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Butorov, I.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Draeger, E.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, L.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, K. Y.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. K.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S. S.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevski, A.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Shao, B. B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. F.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    We report a new measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using the fully constructed Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. The final two of eight antineutrino detectors were installed in the summer of 2012. Including the 404 days of data collected from October 2012 to November 2013 resulted in a total exposure of 6.9 × 105 GWth ton days , a 3.6 times increase over our previous results. Improvements in energy calibration limited variations between detectors to 0.2%. Removal of six 241Am 241- 13C radioactive calibration sources reduced the background by a factor of 2 for the detectors in the experimental hall furthest from the reactors. Direct prediction of the antineutrino signal in the far detectors based on the measurements in the near detectors explicitly minimized the dependence of the measurement on models of reactor antineutrino emission. The uncertainties in our estimates of sin22 θ13 and |Δ mee 2| were halved as a result of these improvements. An analysis of the relative antineutrino rates and energy spectra between detectors gave sin22 θ13=0.084 ±0.005 and |Δ mee 2|=(2.42 ±0.11 )×10-3 eV2 in the three-neutrino framework.

  3. New measurement of antineutrino oscillation with the full detector configuration at Daya Bay

    DOE PAGES

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; ...

    2015-09-11

    We report a new measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using the fully constructed Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. The final two of eight antineutrino detectors were installed in the summer of 2012. Including the 404 days of data collected from October 2012 to November 2013 resulted in a total exposure of 6.9×105 GWth ton days, a 3.6 times increase over our previous results. Improvements in energy calibration limited variations between detectors to 0.2%. Removal of six 241Am- 13C radioactive calibration sources reduced the background by a factor of 2 for the detectors in the experimental hall furthest from the reactors.more » Direct prediction of the antineutrino signal in the far detectors based on the measurements in the near detectors explicitly minimized the dependence of the measurement on models of reactor antineutrino emission. The uncertainties in our estimates of 2sin2θ13 and |Δm2ee| were halved as a result of these improvements. An analysis of the relative antineutrino rates and energy spectra between detectors gave 2sin2θ13=0.084±0.005 and |Δm2ee|=(2.42±0.11)×10–3 eV2 in the three-neutrino framework.« less

  4. Low-mass materials and vertex detector systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Physics requirements set the material budget and the precision and stability necessary in low-mass vertex detector systems. Operational considerations, along with physics requirements, set the operating environment to be provided and determine the heat to be removed. Representative materials for fulfilling those requirements are described and properties of the materials are tabulated. A figure of merit is proposed to aid in material selection. Multi-layer structures are examined as a method to allow material to be used effectively, thereby reducing material contributions. Lastly, comments are made on future directions to be considered in using present materials effectively and in developing new materials.

  5. Low-mass materials and vertex detector systems

    DOE PAGES

    Cooper, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Physics requirements set the material budget and the precision and stability necessary in low-mass vertex detector systems. Operational considerations, along with physics requirements, set the operating environment to be provided and determine the heat to be removed. Representative materials for fulfilling those requirements are described and properties of the materials are tabulated. A figure of merit is proposed to aid in material selection. Multi-layer structures are examined as a method to allow material to be used effectively, thereby reducing material contributions. Lastly, comments are made on future directions to be considered in using present materials effectively and in developing newmore » materials.« less

  6. Segmented scintillation detectors with silicon photomultiplier readout for measuring antiproton annihilations

    SciTech Connect

    Sótér, A.; Todoroki, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Barna, D.; Horváth, D.; Hori, M.

    2014-02-15

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN constructed segmented scintillators to detect and track the charged pions which emerge from antiproton annihilations in a future superconducting radiofrequency Paul trap for antiprotons. A system of 541 cast and extruded scintillator bars were arranged in 11 detector modules which provided a spatial resolution of 17 mm. Green wavelength-shifting fibers were embedded in the scintillators, and read out by silicon photomultipliers which had a sensitive area of 1 × 1 mm{sup 2}. The photoelectron yields of various scintillator configurations were measured using a negative pion beam of momentum p ≈ 1 GeV/c. Various fibers and silicon photomultipliers, fiber end terminations, and couplings between the fibers and scintillators were compared. The detectors were also tested using the antiproton beam of the AD. Nonlinear effects due to the saturation of the silicon photomultiplier were seen at high annihilation rates of the antiprotons.

  7. Digital capacitance measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The hardware phase of a digital capacitance measuring system is presented with the major emphasis placed on the electrical design and operation. Test results are included of the three units fabricated. The system's interface is applicable to existing requirements for the space shuttle vehicle.

  8. Measurements of the scintillation time constants of inorganic crystals for the development of a triple-Phoswich detector for high-energy X-ray quanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelis, Thilo

    1987-04-01

    A setup for the measurement of the rise time distribution of pulses measured by a triple-Phoswich detector that is planned as component of an imaging system of a rotation-modulation telescope (RMT) was built. The principles and characteristics of scintillation crystals, scintillation detectors, and RMT's are outlined. Measurements on CsT(Tl) test crystals show a strong dependence of rise time distribution on Tl-concentration, and a clear dependence on temperature. A system for optimum light collection was developed for a Phoswich detector. The scintillation crystals NaJ(Tl) and CsJ(Na) are very suitable for a strip Phoswich. Proposals for a triple-Phoswich as detector for an RMT are given.

  9. A 1200 element detector system for synchrotron-based coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.C.; Lavender, W.M.; Rubenstein, E.; Giacomini, J.C.; Rosso, V.; Schulze, C.; Chapman, D.; Thomlinson, W.

    1993-08-23

    A 1200 channel Si(Li) detector system has been developed for transvenous coronary angiography experiments using synchrotron radiation. It is part of the synchrotron medical imaging facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The detector is made from a single crystal of lithium-drifted silicon with an active area 150 mm long {times} 11 mm high {times} 5 mm thick. The elements are arranged in two parallel rows of 600 elements with a center-to-center spacing of 0.25 mm. All 1200 elements are read out simultaneously every 4 ms. A Intel 80486 based computer with a high speed digital signal processing interface is used to control the beamline hardware and to acquire a series of images. The signal-to-noise, linearity and resolution of the system have been measured. Human images have been taken with this system.

  10. The Ring of Fire - an internal illimination system for detector sensitivity and filter bandpass characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpine, Victor E.; Kent, Stephen M.; Deustua, Susana E.; Sholl, Michael J.; Mufson, Stuart L.; Ott, Melanie N.; Wiesner, Matthew P.; Baptitst, Brian J.; /Indiana U.

    2010-07-01

    We describe a prototype of an illumination system, the Ring of Fire (ROF), which is used as part of an internal calibration system for large focal plane detector arrays in TMA (Three Mirror Anastigmat) telescope designs. Such designs have been proposed for the SNAP (SuperNova Acceleration Probe) version of a Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM). The ROF system illuminates the focal plane with a light beam the closely matches that of the telescope and is used for creating high spatial frequency flat fields and monitoring filter bandpasses for experiments that demand a highly accurate characterization of the detectors. We present measurements of a mockup of this prototype ROF design including studies in variations in illumination across a large focal plane.

  11. Managing operational documentation in the ALICE Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechman, M.; Augustinus, A.; Bond, P.; Chochula, P.; Kurepin, A.; Pinazza, O.; Rosinsky, P.

    2012-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneve, Switzerland. The experiment is composed of 18 sub-detectors controlled by an integrated Detector Control System (DCS) that is implemented using the commercial SCADA package PVSSII. The DCS includes over 1200 network devices, over 1,000,000 monitored parameters and numerous custom made software components that are prepared by over 100 developers from all around the world. This complex system is controlled by a single operator via a central user interface. One of his/her main tasks is the recovery of anomalies and errors that may occur during operation. Therefore, clear, complete and easily accessible documentation is essential to guide the shifter through the expert interfaces of different subsystems. This paper describes the idea of the management of the operational documentation in ALICE using a generic repository that is built on a relational database and is integrated with the control system. The experience gained and the conclusions drawn from the project are also presented.

  12. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  13. Measurement of magnetic susceptibility in pulsed magnetic fields using a proximity detector oscillator.

    PubMed

    Ghannadzadeh, S; Coak, M; Franke, I; Goddard, P A; Singleton, J; Manson, J L

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel susceptometer with a particularly small spatial footprint and no moving parts. The susceptometer is suitable for use in systems with limited space where magnetic measurements may not have been previously possible, such as in pressure cells and rotators, as well as in extremely high pulsed fields. The susceptometer is based on the proximity detector oscillator, which has a broad dynamic resonant frequency range and has so far been used predominantly for transport measurements. We show that for insulating samples, the resonance frequency behavior as a function of field consists of a magnetoresistive and an inductive component, originating, respectively, from the sensor coil and the sample. The response of the coil is modeled, and upon subtraction of the magnetoresistive component the dynamic magnetic susceptibility and magnetization can be extracted. We successfully measure the magnetization of the organic molecular magnets Cu(H(2)O)(5)(VOF(4))(H(2)O) and [Cu(HF(2))(pyz)(2)]BF(4) in pulsed magnetic fields and by comparing the results to that from a traditional extraction susceptometer confirm that the new system can be used to measure and observe magnetic susceptibilities and phase transitions.

  14. The development and test of multi-anode microchannel array detector systems. Part 2: Soft X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Detector systems based on the high gain microchannel plate (MCP) electron multiplier were used extensively for imaging at soft X-ray wavelengths both on the ground and in space. The latest pulse counting electronic readout systems provide zero readout noise, spatial resolutions (FWHM) of 25 microns or better and can determine the arrival times of detected photons to an accuracy of the order of 100 ns. These systems can be developed to produce detectors with active areas of 100 nm in diameter or greater. The use of CsI photocathodes produces very high detective quantum efficiencies at wavelengths between about 100 and 1A (approximately 0.1 to 10 keV) with moderate energy resolution. The operating characteristics of the different types of soft X-ray MCP detector systems are described and the prospects for future developments are discussed.

  15. Development of an X-ray HARP–FEA detector system for high-throughput protein crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Hirano, Keiichi; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Egami, Norifumi; Namba, Masakazu; Kubota, Misao; Kawai, Teruo; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2008-01-01

    A new detector system for protein crystallography is now being developed based on an X-ray HARP–FEA (high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor–field emitter array), which consists of an amorphous selenium membrane and a matrix field emitter array. The combination of the membrane avalanche effect with a single driven FEA has several advantages over currently available area detectors, including higher sensitivity, higher spatial resolution and a higher frame rate. Preliminary evaluation of the detector has been carried out and its effectiveness has been confirmed. Next, diffraction images were measured with continuous rotation of a protein crystal, and the images were compared with those measured by the existing CCD detector; the system successfully obtained high-spatial-resolution images. Using shutterless measurement, the total measurement time can be reduced significantly, making the method appropriate for high-throughput protein crystallography. The X-ray HARP–FEA detector is an attractive candidate for the next generation of X-ray area detectors. PMID:18421159

  16. Method and system for determining depth distribution of radiation-emitting material located in a source medium and radiation detector system for use therein

    DOEpatents

    Benke, Roland R.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2003-03-04

    A method, system and a radiation detector system for use therein are provided for determining the depth distribution of radiation-emitting material distributed in a source medium, such as a contaminated field, without the need to take samples, such as extensive soil samples, to determine the depth distribution. The system includes a portable detector assembly with an x-ray or gamma-ray detector having a detector axis for detecting the emitted radiation. The radiation may be naturally-emitted by the material, such as gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, or emitted when the material is struck by other radiation. The assembly also includes a hollow collimator in which the detector is positioned. The collimator causes the emitted radiation to bend toward the detector as rays parallel to the detector axis of the detector. The collimator may be a hollow cylinder positioned so that its central axis is perpendicular to the upper surface of the large area source when positioned thereon. The collimator allows the detector to angularly sample the emitted radiation over many ranges of polar angles. This is done by forming the collimator as a single adjustable collimator or a set of collimator pieces having various possible configurations when connected together. In any one configuration, the collimator allows the detector to detect only the radiation emitted from a selected range of polar angles measured from the detector axis. Adjustment of the collimator or the detector therein enables the detector to detect radiation emitted from a different range of polar angles. The system further includes a signal processor for processing the signals from the detector wherein signals obtained from different ranges of polar angles are processed together to obtain a reconstruction of the radiation-emitting material as a function of depth, assuming, but not limited to, a spatially-uniform depth distribution of the material within each layer. The detector system includes detectors having

  17. How to achieve ultra-clean detectors and cryostats at astronomical instruments: measures to avoid contamination and dust on CCD detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiries, S.; Lizon, Jean Louis; Iwert, Olaf

    2016-07-01

    ESO developed in its detector laboratory a complete routine to achieve ultra-clean detectors with lasting effect with special materials and surface treatments. All components of the detector cryostats are washed in ultrasonic baths, then baked to its maximum temperature in vacuum ovens. As final step plasma cleaning is used of individual and integrated systems. All handlings and the complete integrations are done in the clean room before its integration the detectors are dust cleaned with new methods e.g.: vapor cleaning. At observatory operation the detectors can be monitored by new methods (e.g.: pseudo FF dust evaluation, UV QE test) as a long term contamination control. The always unavoidable moisture in the ready installed instrument can even be cured by UV flashing in dry synthetic air without removing anything from the telescope. Such ESO provides ultra-clean detectors and instruments, which also do not degrade even after years of operation at their telescope sites.

  18. MINERvA neutrino detector response measured with test beam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Araujo Del Castillo, C.; Bagby, L.; Bellantoni, L.; Bergan, W. F.; Bodek, A.; Bradford, R.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Butkevich, A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Díaz, G. A.; Dytman, S. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Flight, R.; Gago, A. M.; Gingu, C.; Golan, T.; Gomez, A.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Howley, I. J.; Hurtado, K.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Lanari, M.; Le, T.; Leister, A. J.; Lovlein, A.; Maher, E.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Miller, W.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Muhlbeier, T.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Ochoa, N.; O`Connor, C. D.; Osmanov, B.; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Patrick, L.; Perdue, G. N.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rubinov, P.; Rude, C. R.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Urrutia, Z.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Westerberg, A.; Wolcott, J.; Woodward, N.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Ziemer, B. P.

    2015-07-01

    The MINERvA collaboration operated a scaled-down replica of thesolid scintillator tracking and sampling calorimeter regions of the MINERvA detector in a hadron test beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. This paper reports measurements with samples of protons, pions, and electrons from 0.35 to 2.0 GeV/c momentum. The calorimetric response to protons, pions, and electrons is obtained from these data. A measurement of the parameter in Birks' law and an estimate of the tracking efficiency are extracted from the proton sample. Overall the data are well described by a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector and particle interactions with agreements better than 4% for the calorimetric response, though some features of the data are not precisely modeled. These measurements are used to tune the MINERvA detector simulation and evaluate systematic uncertainties in support of the MINERvA neutrino cross-section measurement program.

  19. Measurements of identified particle spectra in diffractive pp collisions with the STAR detector at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulek, Łukasz

    2017-03-01

    We present the diffractive program with the STAR Roman Pot detectors at RHIC, focusing on the spectra of identified charged particles as pions, kaons and protons and their anti-particle counterparts in Single Diffraction (p + p → p + X) and Central Diffraction (p + p → p + X + p) processes. Moreover, the p ¯/p ratio as a function of rapidity is presented to study the baryon number transfer from forward to midrapidity in Single Diffraction. Similar effect has been studied in proton-proton and proton-photon interactions but it is the first measurement in proton-Pomeron interaction. The forward proton(s) were tagged in the STAR Roman Pot system while the identified charged particle tracks were reconstructed in the STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Ionization energy loss and time-of-flight of charged particles were used for particle identification. In addition, the status and future prospects of the diffractive meaurements at RHIC is described.

  20. Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Piana, A.; Carbone, B.; Renna, L.; Fallica, P. G.; Agrò, D.; Morsellino, G.; Pinto, M.; Canicattı, R.; Galioto, N.; Tomasino, A.; Adamo, G.; Stivala, S.; Parisi, A.; Curcio, L.; Giaconia, C.; Busacca, A. C.; Pagano, R.; Libertino, S.; Lombardo, S.

    2014-03-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) uses near infrared sources and detectors to measure changes in absorption due to neurovascular dynamics in response to brain activation. The use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) in a fNIRS system has been estimated potentially able to increase the spatial resolution. Dedicated SiPM sensors have been designed and fabricated by using an optimized process. Electrical and optical characterizations are presented. The design and implementation of a portable fNIRS embedded system, hosting up to 64 IR-LED sources and 128 SiPM sensors, has been carried out. The system has been based on a scalable architecture whose elementary leaf is a flexible board with 16 SiPMs and 4 couples of LEDs each operating at two wavelengths. An ARM based microcontroller has been joined with a multiplexing interface, able to control power supply for the LEDs and collect data from the SiPMs in a time-sharing fashion and with configurable temporal slots. The system will be validated by using a phantom made by materials of different scattering and absorption indices layered to mimic a human head. A preliminary characterization of the optical properties of the single material composing the phantom has been performed using the SiPM in the diffuse radial reflectance measurement technique. The first obtained results confirm the high sensitivity of such kind of detector in the detection of weak light signal even at large distance between the light source and the detector.

  1. Developing A New Test Stand For Lifetime Measurements Using A Narrow Gap Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuitt, Omani; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Morris, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) recently won a proposal "The First Four-Year Physics and Astronomy Degree at the University of the Virgin Islands; A new Era in Caribbean Participation in NASA Science" in collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The proposal included building a detector life-test chamber at UVI to support the degree program as well as assist NASA by running tests on detector components and reporting the results.The team at GSFC is developing X-ray polarimeters that can be used in detecting and imaging astrophysical sources such as black holes and neutron stars. The purpose of our research is to understand the effects that the degradation of gas has on the performance of the detectors. The current generation of time projection polarimeter incorporates a narrow gap detector assembled with epoxy. The addition of the epoxy allows a smaller gap with the minimal amount of changes from the original design, enhancing the performance of the detectors.With the use of epoxy, lifetime measurements have to be made to see how the epoxy detectors compared to previous iterations. We have been studying the effects on the narrow gap detector in the Mahaffey chamber in order to determine whether the epoxy affects the cleanliness of the gas. Tests have been conducted with a residual gas analyzer (RGA) in order to monitor the cleanliness of the gas inside of the Mahaffey chamber while being baked out. Results show that the detector is in fact getting cleaner as time progresses. The plan is to recreate a detector that meets the performance criteria for 2 years and has minimal degradation.

  2. High Performance CMOS Light Detector with Dark Current Suppression in Variable-Temperature Systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Sung, Guo-Ming; Lin, Jyun-Long

    2016-12-23

    This paper presents a dark current suppression technique for a light detector in a variable-temperature system. The light detector architecture comprises a photodiode for sensing the ambient light, a dark current diode for conducting dark current suppression, and a current subtractor that is embedded in the current amplifier with enhanced dark current cancellation. The measured dark current of the proposed light detector is lower than that of the epichlorohydrin photoresistor or cadmium sulphide photoresistor. This is advantageous in variable-temperature systems, especially for those with many infrared light-emitting diodes. Experimental results indicate that the maximum dark current of the proposed current amplifier is approximately 135 nA at 125 °C, a near zero dark current is achieved at temperatures lower than 50 °C, and dark current and temperature exhibit an exponential relation at temperatures higher than 50 °C. The dark current of the proposed light detector is lower than 9.23 nA and the linearity is approximately 1.15 μA/lux at an external resistance RSS = 10 kΩ and environmental temperatures from 25 °C to 85 °C.

  3. High Performance CMOS Light Detector with Dark Current Suppression in Variable-Temperature Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Sung, Guo-Ming; Lin, Jyun-Long

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dark current suppression technique for a light detector in a variable-temperature system. The light detector architecture comprises a photodiode for sensing the ambient light, a dark current diode for conducting dark current suppression, and a current subtractor that is embedded in the current amplifier with enhanced dark current cancellation. The measured dark current of the proposed light detector is lower than that of the epichlorohydrin photoresistor or cadmium sulphide photoresistor. This is advantageous in variable-temperature systems, especially for those with many infrared light-emitting diodes. Experimental results indicate that the maximum dark current of the proposed current amplifier is approximately 135 nA at 125 °C, a near zero dark current is achieved at temperatures lower than 50 °C, and dark current and temperature exhibit an exponential relation at temperatures higher than 50 °C. The dark current of the proposed light detector is lower than 9.23 nA and the linearity is approximately 1.15 μA/lux at an external resistance RSS = 10 kΩ and environmental temperatures from 25 °C to 85 °C. PMID:28025530

  4. Time-resolved diffuse reflectance measurement carried out on the head of an adult at large source-detector separation.

    PubMed

    Liebert, Adam; Sawosz, Piotr; Kacprzak, Michal; Weigl, Wojciech; Botwicz, Marcin; Maniewski, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Multichannel time-resolved optical monitoring system was constructed for measurements of diffuse reflectance in optically turbid medium at very large source-detector separation up to 9 cm. The system is based on femtosecond TiSa laser and sensitive photomultiplier tube detector. The laser light of 300mW of power was delivered to the surface of the head with the use of an optical fiber. A beam expander was applied in order to distribute the laser light on a large spot which allowed to avoid energetic stimulation of the tissue. The photomultiplier tube detector was positioned directly on the surface of the medium at the distance of 9cm from the center of the source position. In this paper we report results of an in-vivo experiment carried out on the head of an adult healthy volunteer. The time-resolved system was applied during intravenous injection of an optical contrast agent (indocyanine green - ICG) and the distributions of times of flight of photons were successfully acquired showing inflow and washout of the dye to the tissue. Time-courses of the moments of distributions of times of flight of photons are presented and compared with the results obtained simultaneously at shorter source-detector separations (3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm).

  5. Calibration of modified Liulin detector for cosmic radiation measurements on-board aircraft.

    PubMed

    Kyselová, D; Ambrožová, I; Krist, P; Kubančák, J; Uchihori, Y; Kitamura, H; Ploc, O

    2015-06-01

    The annual effective doses of aircrew members often exceed the limit of 1 mSv for the public due to the increased level of cosmic radiation at the flight altitudes, and thus, it is recommended to monitor them. Aircrew dosimetry is usually performed using special computer programs mostly based on results of Monte Carlo simulations. Contemporary, detectors are used mostly for validation of these computer codes, verification of effective dose calculations and for research purposes. One of such detectors is active silicon semiconductor deposited energy spectrometer Liulin. Output quantities of measurement with the Liulin detector are the absorbed dose in silicon D and the ambient dose equivalent H*(10); to determine it, two calibrations are necessary. The purpose of this work was to develop a calibration methodology that can be used to convert signal from the detector to D independently on calibration performed at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility in Chiba, Japan.

  6. Use of Cherenkov-type detectors for measurements of runaway electrons in the ISTTOK tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Plyusnin, V. V.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P.

    2008-10-15

    Gas, fluid, or solid Cherenkov-type detectors have been widely used in high-energy physics for determination of parameters of charged particles, which are moving with relativistic velocities. This paper presents experimental results on the detection of runaway electrons using Cherenkov-type detectors in the ISTTOK tokamak discharges. Such detectors have been specially designed for measurements of energetic electrons in tokamak plasma. The technique based on the use of the Cherenkov-type detectors has enabled the detection of energetic electrons (energies higher than 80 keV) and determination of their spatial and temporal parameters in the ISTTOK discharges. Obtained experimental data were found in adequate agreement to the results of numerical modeling of the runaway electron generation in ISTTOK.

  7. Cross section measurements for quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering with the MINOS near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, Mark Edward

    2008-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Chicago, Illinois. MINOS measures neutrino interactions in two large iron-scintillator tracking/sampling calorimeters; the Near Detector on-site at FNAL and the Far Detector located in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota. The Near Detector has recorded a large number of neutrino interactions and this high statistics dataset can be used to make precision measurements of neutrino interaction cross sections. The cross section for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering has been measured by a number of previous experiments and these measurements disagree by up to 30%. A method to select a quasi-elastic enriched sample of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector is presented and a procedure to fit the kinematic distributions of this sample and extract the quasi-elastic cross section is introduced. The accuracy and robustness of the fitting procedure is studied using mock data and finally results from fits to the MINOS Near Detector data are presented.

  8. INGAS: Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System for radioxenon measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost-Mohammadi, V.; Afarideh, H.; Etaati, G. R.; Safari, M. J.; Rouhi, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System (INGAS) will be introduced. This system is based on beta-gamma coincidence technique and consists of a well-type NaI(Tl) as gamma or X radiation detector and a cylindrical plastic scintillator to detect beta or conversion electron. Standard NIM modules were utilized to detect coincidence events of detectors. Both the beta and gamma detectors were appropriately calibrated. The efficiency curve of gamma detector for volume geometry was obtained by comparing the results of gamma point sources measurements and simulations of GATE V7.0 Monte Carlo code. The performance of detection system was checked by injection of 222Rn and 131mXe gaseous source in the detection cell. The minimum detectable activity of the system for 133Xe is 1.240±0.024 mBq for 24 h measurement time.

  9. Video integrated measurement system.

    PubMed

    Spector, B; Eilbert, L; Finando, S; Fukuda, F

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  10. Oceanic wave measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, J. F.; Miles, R. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An oceanic wave measured system is disclosed wherein wave height is sensed by a barometer mounted on a buoy. The distance between the trough and crest of a wave is monitored by sequentially detecting positive and negative peaks of the output of the barometer and by combining (adding) each set of two successive half cycle peaks. The timing of this measurement is achieved by detecting the period of a half cycle of wave motion.

  11. Silicon detector readout system using commercially available items

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1986-05-01

    The basic properties of silicon detectors are briefly noted, including bulk and electrical properties. Thermal and shot noise in front end amplifiers is discussed. The configuration of detectors and preamps is then briefly described. A detector test is described and results are given. (LEW)

  12. Separation system with a sheath-flow supported electrochemical detector

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Emrich, Charles A.; Singhal, Pankaj; Ertl, Peter

    2008-10-21

    An electrochemical detector including side channels associated with a separation channel of a sample component separation apparatus is provided. The side channels of the detector, in one configuration, provide a sheath-flow for an analyte exiting the separation channel which directs the analyte to the electrically developed electrochemical detector.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1203 - Fire detector system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of each fire or overheat detector electric circuit. (e) Components of each fire or overheat detector... means to warn the crew in the event of a short circuit in the sensor or associated wiring within a... short circuit. (c) No fire or overheat detector may be affected by any oil, water, other fluids or...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1203 - Fire detector system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of each fire or overheat detector electric circuit. (e) Components of each fire or overheat detector... means to warn the crew in the event of a short circuit in the sensor or associated wiring within a... short circuit. (c) No fire or overheat detector may be affected by any oil, water, other fluids or...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1203 - Fire detector system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of each fire or overheat detector electric circuit. (e) Components of each fire or overheat detector... means to warn the crew in the event of a short circuit in the sensor or associated wiring within a... short circuit. (c) No fire or overheat detector may be affected by any oil, water, other fluids or...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1203 - Fire detector system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of each fire or overheat detector electric circuit. (e) Components of each fire or overheat detector... means to warn the crew in the event of a short circuit in the sensor or associated wiring within a... short circuit. (c) No fire or overheat detector may be affected by any oil, water, other fluids or...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1203 - Fire detector system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of each fire or overheat detector electric circuit. (e) Components of each fire or overheat detector... means to warn the crew in the event of a short circuit in the sensor or associated wiring within a... short circuit. (c) No fire or overheat detector may be affected by any oil, water, other fluids or...

  18. SU-E-T-602: Patient-Specific Online Dose Verification Based On Transmission Detector Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thoelking, J; Yuvaraj, S; Jens, F; Lohr, F; Wenz, F; Wertz, H; Wertz, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy requires a comprehensive quality assurance program in general and ideally independent verification of dose delivery. Since conventional 2D detector arrays allow only pre-treatment verification, there is a debate concerning the need of online dose verification. This study presents the clinical performance, including dosimetric plan verification in 2D as well as in 3D and the error detection abilities of a new transmission detector (TD) for online dose verification of 6MV photon beam. Methods: To validate the dosimetric performance of the new device, dose reconstruction based on TD measurements were compared to a conventional pre-treatment verification method (reference) and treatment planning system (TPS) for 18 IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. Furthermore, dose reconstruction inside the patient based on TD read-out was evaluated by comparing various dose volume indices and 3D gamma evaluations against independent dose computation and TPS. To investigate the sensitivity of the new device, different types of systematic and random errors for leaf positions and linac output were introduced in IMRT treatment sequences. Results: The 2D gamma index evaluation of transmission detector based dose reconstruction showed an excellent agreement for all IMRT and VMAT plans compared to reference measurements (99.3±1.2)% and TPS (99.1±0.7)%. Good agreement was also obtained for 3D dose reconstruction based on TD read-out compared to dose computation (mean gamma value of PTV = 0.27±0.04). Only a minimal dose underestimation within the target volume was observed when analyzing DVH indices (<1%). Positional errors in leaf banks larger than 1mm and errors in linac output larger than 2% could clearly identified with the TD. Conclusion: Since 2D and 3D evaluations for all IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were in excellent agreement with reference measurements and dose computation, the new TD is suitable to qualify for routine treatment plan

  19. Benchmark Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Uranium Hexafluoride in Aluminmum Pipe with a Sodium Iodide Detector

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, Jose A; Uckan, Taner; Gunning, John E; Brukiewa, Patrick D; Upadhyaya, Belle R; Revis, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    ) and an enrichment monitor (EM). Development of the FM is primarily the responsibility of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and development of the EM is primarily the responsibility of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The FM will measure {sup 235}U mass flow rate by combining information from measuring the UF{sub 6} volumetric flow rate and the {sup 235}U density. The UF{sub 6} flow rate will be measured using characteristics of the process pumps used in product and tail UF{sub 6} header process lines of many GCEPs, and the {sup 235}U density will be measured using commercially available sodium iodide (NaI) gamma ray scintillation detectors. This report describes the calibration of the portion of the FM that measures the {sup 235}U density. Research has been performed to define a methodology and collect data necessary to perform this calibration without the need for plant declarations. The {sup 235}U density detector is a commercially available system (GammaRad made by Amptek, www.amptek.com) that contains the NaI crystal, photomultiplier tube, signal conditioning electronics, and a multichannel analyzer (MCA). Measurements were made with the detector system installed near four {sup 235}U sources. Two of the sources were made of solid uranium, and the other two were in the form of UF{sub 6} gas in aluminum piping. One of the UF{sub 6} gas sources was located at ORNL and the other at LANL. The ORNL source consisted of two pipe sections (schedule 40 aluminum pipe of 4-inch and 8-inch outside diameter) with 5.36% {sup 235}U enrichment, and the LANL source was a 4-inch schedule 40 aluminum pipe with 3.3% {sup 235}U enrichment. The configurations of the detector on these test sources, as well as on long straight pipe configurations expected to exist at GCEPs, were modeled using the computer code MCNP. The results of the MCNP calculations were used to define geometric correction factors between the test source and the GCEP application. Using these geometric correction factors

  20. Toward a Real-Time In Vivo Dosimetry System Using Plastic Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina M.; Poenisch, Falk; Beaulieu, Luc; Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew; Beddar, Sam

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: In the present study, we have presented and validated a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) system designed for real-time multiprobe in vivo measurements. Methods and Materials: The PSDs were built with a dose-sensitive volume of 0.4 mm{sup 3}. The PSDs were assembled into modular detector patches, each containing five closely packed PSDs. Continuous dose readings were performed every 150 ms, with a gap between consecutive readings of <0.3 ms. We first studied the effect of electron multiplication. We then assessed system performance in acrylic and anthropomorphic pelvic phantoms. Results: The PSDs were compatible with clinical rectal balloons and were easily inserted into the anthropomorphic phantom. With an electron multiplication average gain factor of 40, a twofold increase in the signal/noise ratio was observed, making near real-time dosimetry feasible. Under calibration conditions, the PSDs agreed with the ion chamber measurements to 0.08%. Precision, evaluated as a function of the total dose delivered, ranged from 2.3% at 2 cGy to 0.4% at 200 cGy. Conclusion: Real-time PSD measurements are highly accurate and precise. These PSDs can be mounted onto rectal balloons, transforming these clinical devices into in vivo dose detectors without modifying current clinical practice. Real-time monitoring of the dose delivered near the rectum during prostate radiotherapy should help radiation oncologists protect this sensitive normal structure.

  1. Monitor and control systems for the SLD Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Fernandez, F.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Korff, P.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.; Rabinowitz, L.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Va'Vra, J.; Williams, S.; Whitaker, J.; Wilson, R.J.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; McHugh, S.; Mathys, L.; Morriso

    1989-10-01

    To help ensure the stable long-term operation of a Cherenkov Ring Detector at high efficiency, a comprehensive monitor and control system is being developed. This system will continuously monitor and maintain the correct operating temperatures, and will provide an on-line monitor and maintain the correct operating temperatures, and will provide an on-line monitor of the pressures, flows, mixing, and purity of the various fluids. In addition the velocities and trajectories of Cherenkov photoelectrons drifting within the imaging chambers will be measured using a pulsed uv lamp and a fiberoptic light injection system. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Sensorimotor System Measurement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Bryan L.; Myers, Joseph B.; Lephart, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of currently available sensorimotor assessment techniques. Data Sources: We drew information from an extensive review of the scientific literature conducted in the areas of proprioception, neuromuscular control, and motor control measurement. Literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE for the years 1965 to 1999 with the key words proprioception, somatosensory evoked potentials, nerve conduction testing, electromyography, muscle dynamometry, isometric, isokinetic, kinetic, kinematic, posture, equilibrium, balance, stiffness, neuromuscular, sensorimotor, and measurement. Additional sources were collected using the reference lists of identified articles. Data Synthesis: Sensorimotor measurement techniques are discussed with reference to the underlying physiologic mechanisms, influential factors and locations of the variable within the system, clinical research questions, limitations of the measurement technique, and directions for future research. Conclusions/Recommendations: The complex interactions and relationships among the individual components of the sensorimotor system make measuring and analyzing specific characteristics and functions difficult. Additionally, the specific assessment techniques used to measure a variable can influence attained results. Optimizing the application of sensorimotor research to clinical settings can, therefore, be best accomplished through the use of common nomenclature to describe underlying physiologic mechanisms and specific measurement techniques. PMID:16558672

  3. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Inclusive Charged Current Cross Section on Iron using the MINOS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Loiacono, Laura Jean

    2010-05-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produces an intense muon neutrino beam used by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), a neutrino oscillation experiment, and the Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A, (MINERv A), a neutrino interaction experiment. Absolute neutrino cross sections are determined via σv = N vv , where the numerator is the measured number of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Detector and the denominator is the flux of incident neutrinos. Many past neutrino experiments have measured relative cross sections due to a lack of precise measurements of the incident neutrino flux, normalizing to better established reaction processes, such as quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. But recent measurements of neutrino interactions on nuclear targets have brought to light questions about our understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. In this thesis the vμ inclusive charged current cross section on iron is measured using the MINOS Detector. The MINOS detector consists of alternating planes of steel and scintillator. The MINOS detector is optimized to measure muons produced in charged current vμ interactions. Along with muons, these interactions produce hadronic showers. The neutrino energy is measured from the total energy the particles deposit in the detector. The incident neutrino flux is measured using the muons produced alongside the neutrinos in meson decay. Three ionization chamber monitors located in the downstream portion of the NuMI beamline are used to measure the muon flux and thereby infer the neutrino flux by relation to the underlying pion and kaon meson flux. This thesis describes the muon flux instrumentation in the NuMI beam, its operation over the two year duration of this measurement, and the techniques used to derive the neutrino flux.

  4. Results from a 64-pixel PIN-diode detector system for low-energy beta-electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuestling, Sascha; Fraenkle, F.; Habermehl, F.; Renschler, P.; Steidl, M.

    2010-12-01

    The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment is based on a precise energy measurement (Δ E/ E=5×10 -5) of electrons emerging from tritium beta decay ( Emax=18.6 keV). This is done by a large electrostatic retarding spectrometer (MAC-E Filter), which is followed by an electron detector. Key requirements for this detector are a large sensitive area (˜80 cm 2), a certain energy resolution (Δ E=600 eV @ 18.6 keV) but also a certain spatial resolution (˜3 mm), which leads to a multi-pixel design. As a tentative design on the way to the final detector, but also for operational service on the so-called pre-spectrometer experiment, a detector system with a reduced size (16 cm 2) and a reduced pixel number (64), making use of a monolithic segmented silicon PIN diode, was designed and built. While the design and very first measurements have been presented in Wuestling et al. [6], this publication shows the operational performance of the detector system. The robust concept of the electronics allowed adaptation to mechanically different experimental setups. The spacial resolution of the detector system proved to be essential in examining Penning trap induced background and other effects in the pre-spectrometer experiment. The detector performance test runs include energy resolution and calibration, background rates, correlation between pixels (crosstalk), spatially resolved rate analysis, and a dead-layer measurement [7]. The detector allows for background searches with a sensitivity as low as 1.3×10 -3 cps/cm 2 in the energy range of 20 keV. This allows the pre-spectrometer to be characterized with e-gun illumination with a signal to background ratio of better than 10 5 and the search for ultra low Penning discharge emissions.

  5. Performance of the front end electronics and data acquisition system for the SLD Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H. . Dept. of Physics); Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dolinsky, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Hoeflich, J.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Marshall, D.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Oxoby, G.; Pavel, T.J.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Stiles, P.; Toge, N.; Va'vra, J

    1991-11-01

    The front end electronics and data acquisition system for the SLD barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) are described. This electronics must provide a 1% charge division measurement with a maximum acceptable noise level of 2000 electrons (rms). Noise and system performance results are presented for the initial SLD engineering run data.

  6. Two-wavelength Raman detector for noninvasive measurements of carotenes and lycopene in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2005-04-01

    Carotenoids are an important part of the antioxidant system in human skin. Carotenoid molecules, provided by fruits and vegetables, are potent free radical quenchers that accumulate in the body. If not balanced by carotenoids and other antioxidants, free radicals may cause premature skin aging, oxidative cell damage, and even skin cancers. As carotenoids depletion may predispose a person to cancer or other disease, rapid and noninvasive measurement of carotenoid level in skin may be of preventive or diagnostic help. At the very least, such measurement can be used to obtain a biomarker for healthy levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Recently we have developed noninvasive optical technique based on Raman spectroscopy. In this paper we describe compact optical detector for clinical applications that utilizes two-wavelength excitation. It selectively measures the two most prominent skin carotenoids found in the human skin, lycopene and carotenes. According to the medical literature, these two compounds may play different roles in the human body and be part of different tissue defense mechanisms. Dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects.

  7. High accuracy measurements of the intrapixel sensitivity of VIS to LWIR astronomical detectors: experimental demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viale, T.; Ketchazo, C.; Guérineau, N.; Boulade, O.; de la Barrière, F.; Moreau, V.; Mugnier, L.; Dubreuil, D.; Bonnefois, A.; Delisle, C.; Druart, G.; Mulet, P.

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of systematic effects is necessary to improve the accuracy in imaging and astrometry. For example, in Euclid Mission which aims at carrying out accurate measurements of dark energy and quantifying precisely its role in the evolution of the Universe, systematic effects need at be controlled to a level better than 10-7 (Euclid, Science Book). To achieve this goal, a high-level of knowledge of the system point spread function (PSF) is required. This paper follows the concept-paper presented at the last SPIE conference1 and gives the recent developments achieved in the design of the test bench for the intrapixel sensitivity measurements. The measurement technique we use is based on the projection of a high spatial resolution periodic pattern on the detector using the self-imaging property of a new class of diffractive objects named continuously self-imaging gratings (CSIG) and developed at ONERA. The principle combines the potential of global techniques, which make measurements at once on the whole FPA, and the accuracy of spot-scan-based techniques, which provide high local precision.

  8. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  9. Precision Measurements of Top Quark Production with the ATLAS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. It is the only quark that decays before it hadronises which gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This overview will focus on a few recent precision top quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC: Fiducial top pair and single top production cross-sections including differential distributions will be presented and compared with QCD predictions. The results include the first top quark measurements at 13 TeV using data from LHC Run 2.

  10. CARS system for turbulent flame measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antcliff, R. R.; Jarrett, O., Jr.; Rogers, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Simultaneous nitrogen number density and rotational-vibrational temperatures were measured in a turbulent diffusion flame with a Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) instrument. The fuel jet was diluted with nitrogen (20 percent by volume) to allow temperature measurements across the entire jet mixing region. These measurements were compared with fluid dynamics computations. The CARS system incorporated a neodymium YAG laser, an intensified silicon photodiode array detector, and unique dynamic range enhancement methods. Theoretical calculations were based on a parabolic Navier-Stokes computer code. The comparison of these techniques will aid their development in the study of complex flowfields.

  11. Comparison of modeled and measured performance of a GSO crystal as gamma detector

    SciTech Connect

    Parno, Diana Syemour; Friend, Megan Lynn; Mamyan, Vahe; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Camsonne, Alexandre; Franklin, Gregg B.; Paschke, Kent D.; Quinn, Brian Patrick

    2013-11-01

    We have modeled, tested, and installed a large, cerium-activated Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal scintillator for use as a detector of gamma rays. We present the measured detector response to two types of incident photons: nearly monochromatic photons up to 40 MeV, and photons from a continuous Compton backscattering spectrum up to 200 MeV. Our GEANT4 simulations, developed to determine the analyzing power of the Compton polarimeter in Hall A of Jefferson Lab, reproduce the measured spectra well.

  12. Suboptimal filtering of 1/ƒ;-noise in detector charge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, E.; Manfredi, P. F.; Sampietro, M.; Speziali, V.

    1990-12-01

    Processing of {1}/{tf}- noise by suboptimal filters in detector charge measurements is considered. The achievable values of equivalent noise charge are compared to those provided by the optimum filter. Some aspects of filters processing {1}/{tf}- noise, like the degradation in the accuracy of charge measurements due to a bipolar or to a unipolar, flat-topped weighting function are described. Several conclusions are expected to be useful in the design of analog processors for radiation detectors when the front-end {1}/{tf}- noise is not negligible.

  13. Weak Value Amplification Can Outperform Conventional Measurement in the Presence of Detector Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Jérémie; Boyd, Robert W.; Lundeen, Jeff S.

    2017-02-01

    Weak value amplification (WVA) is a technique by which one can magnify the apparent strength of a measurement signal. Some have claimed that WVA can outperform more conventional measurement schemes in parameter estimation. Nonetheless, a significant body of theoretical work has challenged this perspective, suggesting WVA to be fundamentally suboptimal. Optimal measurements may not be practical, however. Two practical considerations that have been conjectured to afford a benefit to WVA over conventional measurement are certain types of noise and detector saturation. Here, we report a theoretical study of the role of saturation and pixel noise in WVA-based measurement, in which we carry out a Bayesian analysis of the Fisher information available using a saturable, pixelated, digitized, and/or noisy detector. We draw two conclusions: first, that saturation alone does not confer an advantage to the WVA approach over conventional measurement, and second, that WVA can outperform conventional measurement when saturation is combined with intrinsic pixel noise and/or digitization.

  14. Inter-comparison of radon detectors for one to four week measurement periods.

    PubMed

    Gunning, G A; Murray, M; Long, S C; Foley, M J; Finch, E C

    2016-03-01

    Seven different types of radon detectors (Atmos 12 dpx, RAD7, RStone, Sun Nuclear 1028, Ramon 2.2, Canary and CR-39) were compared for exposure periods of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The comparison was conducted under two conditions: (a) in a purpose-built radon chamber with an average radon concentration of 2560 Bq m(-3) (b) in a home environment with a radon concentration of 57 Bq m(-3), in both cases measured by the reference detector (Atmos 12 dpx) with a  ±10% uncertainty range. In (a) 5 out of 8 detectors recorded radon concentrations within the Atmos uncertainty range and all detectors recorded within  ±15%; in (b) 3 out of 9 detectors recorded within the Atmos uncertainty range and 6 out of 9 measured within  ±20%, for a 4 week measurement. The results from this study show that radon surveys can be conducted for shorter periods than the recommended 3 months where a rapid indication is needed of whether the radon concentration is above the reference level, such as when assessing the concentration during and after remediation work.

  15. Discharge rate measurements for Micromegas detectors in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    B. Moreno, S. Aune, J. Ball, G. Charles, A. Giganon, P. Konczykowski, C. Lahonde-Hamdoun, H. Moutarde, S. Procureur, F. Sabatie

    2011-10-01

    We present first discharge rate measurements for Micromegas detectors in the presence of a high longitudinal magnetic field in the GeV kinematical region. Measurements were performed by using two Micromegas detectors and a photon beam impinging a CH{sub 2} target in the Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory. One detector was equipped with an additional GEM foil, and a reduction of the discharge probability by two orders of magnitude compared to the stand-alone Micromegas was observed. The detectors were p laced in the FROST solenoid providing a longitudinal magnetic field up to 5T. It allowed for precise measurements of the discharge probability dependence with a diffusion-reducing magnetic field. Between 0 and 5T, the discharge probability increased by a factor of 10 for polar angles between 19{degrees} and 34{degrees}. A GEANT4-based simulation developed for sparking rate calculation was calibrated against these data in order to predict the sparking rate in a high longitudinal magnetic field environment. This simulati on is then used to investigate the possible use of Micromegas in the Forward Vertex Tracker (FVT) of the future CLAS12 spectrometer. In the case of the FVT a sparking rate of 1Hz per detector was obtained at the anticipated CLAS12 luminosity.

  16. Towards an Optimal Interest Point Detector for Measurements in Ultrasound Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukal, Martin; Beneš, Radek; Číka, Petr; Říha, Kamil

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on the comparison of different interest point detectors and their utilization for measurements in ultrasound (US) images. Certain medical examinations are based on speckle tracking which strongly relies on features that can be reliably tracked frame to frame. Only significant features (interest points) resistant to noise and brightness changes within US images are suitable for accurate long-lasting tracking. We compare three interest point detectors - Harris-Laplace, Difference of Gaussian (DoG) and Fast Hessian - and identify the most suitable one for use in US images on the basis of an objective criterion. Repeatability rate is assumed to be an objective quality measure for comparison. We have measured repeatability in images corrupted by different types of noise (speckle noise, Gaussian noise) and for changes in brightness. The Harris-Laplace detector outperformed its competitors and seems to be a sound option when choosing a suitable interest point detector for US images. However, it has to be noted that Fast Hessian and DoG detectors achieved better results in terms of processing speed.

  17. Application of a single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond detector for deuteron plasma neutron measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xufei; Yuan, Xi; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Zhongjing; Peng, Xingyu; Du, Tengfei; Li, Tao; Hu, Zhimeng; Cui, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Fan, Tieshuan; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2014-10-01

    A single crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector has been characterized and employed for the neutron measurement at the HL-2A tokamak device. The scCVD diamond detector has been deposited with 5 μm of lithium fluoride (LiF) layer to enhance the sensitivity to thermal neutrons. Time stability of the detector has been studied with α-source and good performance has been found for more than 12 h. Neutron irradiations have been performed in four quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields in the energy range from 2.50 MeV to 16.03 MeV. The measured response function of the scCVD diamond detector to 14.13 MeV neutrons shows a narrow 12C (n, α)9Be reaction peak which is well isolated from other structures by about 1 MeV in energy, indicating the great potential as a fast neutron spectrometer. Neutron measurement of deuterium plasma discharge was established at the HL-2A tokamak device, and good consistence has been revealed among this detector signal and other related signals.

  18. Threshold contrast detail detectability measurement of the fluoroscopic image quality of a dynamic solid-state digital x-ray image detector.

    PubMed

    Davies, A G; Cowen, A R; Kengyelics, S M; Bury, R F; Bruijns, T J

    2001-01-01

    Solid-state digital x-ray imaging detectors of flat-panel construction will play an increasingly important role in future medical imaging facilities. Solid-state detectors that will support both dynamic (including fluoroscopic) and radiographic image recording are under active development. The image quality of an experimental solid-state digital x-ray image detector operating in a continuous fluoroscopy mode has been investigated. The threshold contrast detail detectability (TCDD) technique was used to compare the fluoroscopic imaging performance of an experimental dynamic solid-state digital x-ray image detector with that of a reference image intensifier television (IITV) fluoroscopy system. The reference system incorporated Plumbicon TV. Results were presented as a threshold detection index, or H(T)(A), curves. Measurements were made over a range of mean entrance air kerma (EAK) rates typically used in conventional IITV fluoroscopy. At the upper and mid EAK rate range (440 and 220 nGy/s) the solid-state detector outperformed the reference IITV fluoroscopy system as measured by TCDD performance. At the lowest measured EAK rate (104 nGy/s), the solid-state detector produces slightly inferior TCDD performance compared with the reference system. Although not statistically significant at this EAK rate, the difference will increase as EAK is lowered further. Overall the TCDD results and early clinical experiences support the proposition that a current design of dynamic solid-state detector produces image quality competitive with that of modern IITV fluoroscopy systems. These findings encourage the development of compact and versatile universal x-ray imaging systems based upon solid-state detector technology to support R & F and vascular/interventional applications.

  19. Developments and first measurements of Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors produced at FBK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paternoster, G.; Arcidiacono, R.; Boscardin, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Ferrero, M.; Mulargia, R.; Obertino, M.; Pancheri, L.; Piemonte, C.; Sola, V.

    2017-02-01

    Segmented silicon sensors with internal gain, the so called Ultra-FAST Silicon Detectors (UFSD), have been produced at FBK for the first time. UFSD are based on the concept of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD), which are silicon detectors with an internal, low multiplication mechanism (gain ~ 10). This production houses two main type of devices: one type where the gain layer is on the same side of the read-out electrodes, the other type where the gain layer is on the side opposite to the pixellated electrodes (reverse-LGAD). Several technological splits have been included in the first production run, with the aim to tune the implantation dose of the multiplication layer, which controls the gain value of the detector. An extended testing on the wafers has been performed and the results are in line with simulations: the fabricated detectors show good performances, with breakdown voltages above 1000 Volts, and gain values in the range of 5–60 depending on the technological split. The detectors timing resolution has been measured by means of a laboratory setup based on an IR picosecond laser. The sample with higher gain shows time resolution of 55 ps at high reverse bias voltage, indicating very promising performance for future particle tracking applications.

  20. 47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... measurement field strength shall be determined by averaging over one complete pulse train, including blanking intervals, as long as the pulse train does not exceed 0.1 seconds. As an alternative (provided the transmitter operates for longer than 0.1 seconds) or in cases where the pulse train exceeds 0.1 seconds,...

  1. 47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Unless otherwise specified, on any frequency or frequencies above 1000 MHz, the radiated emission limits... emission measurements below 1000 MHz, there also is a limit on the peak level of the radio frequency... peak radio frequency emissions is 20 dB above the maximum permitted average emission limit...

  2. Particle Production Measurements Using the MIPP Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Sonam; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Raja, Rajendran

    2015-05-01

    Inelastic cross sections have been measured for H, Be, C and Bi targets using proton beams at momenta of 58, 85 and 120 GeV/c using the MIPP experiment at Fermilab. The cross section dependence on the atomic weight (A) of the targets has been found to vary as A$^{\\alpha}$, where $\\alpha$ is 0.75 $\\pm$ 0.03 for a beam momentum of 58 GeV/c and 0.66 $\\pm$ 0.03 for 120 GeV/c. The MIPP data have been compared with the Monte Carlo (DPMJET/FLUKA) predictions and previous measurements. Inelastic cross sections have also been measured as a function of multiplicity for H and C targets using proton beams at different momenta. The DPMJET/FLUKA multiplicity shapes disagree with those of data. Inclusive charged pion production cross sections have also been measured in bins of true momentum for C target using 58 and 120 GeV/c proton beams, and compared with the FLUKA Monte Carlo.

  3. Terahertz Systems Engineering: Detectors, Sources, Propagation, Phenomenology, Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, Jonathan Ying-Yan

    The terahertz (THz) band, from 300 GHz to 20 THz, is the last remaining frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fundamentally, the frequency is too high to use current electronic technologies, yet the photon energy is too low for optical systems. However, there is a rich set of phenomenology, science, and applications, which are only available with THz radiation. In order to exploit this, the THz engineer who is designing systems must be adept at integrating components with very limited performance into a system. This requires understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fields, including microwaves, infrared optics, material science, software development, atmospheric science, and the overall analysis and design of a system. Any THz system involves the sensing of some phenomena, which can be under the direct control of the engineer, such as in a communication system, or set by the laws of physics, such as in an astronomical telescope, or some variant in between. Thus, the design of such a system is fundamentally related to sensing science. Here, we have to consider detector and source technology, the propagation of radiation, target phenomenology, and the overall design and analysis of the system. This dissertation presents research in all of these areas. Specifically, in the field of THz phenomenology, I conducted a study to show the primary contrast mechanism in reflective biomedical imaging is water concentration. For source technology, I detail the development and characterization of photoconductive switches with record-breaking optical efficiency. In a separate study I developed a model which explains the complex photocarrier dynamics in fast-trapping THz photoconductive materials and show that high-frequency THz generation (>1 THz) is caused by beaching saturation. My work in detectors shows the design of a quasi-optical radar that exploits low 1/f noise Schottky diodes for detection of slow moving objects, useful for biomedical sensing of respiration and

  4. Automatic neutron dosimetry system based on fluorescent nuclear track detector technology.

    PubMed

    Akselrod, M S; Fomenko, V V; Bartz, J A; Haslett, T L

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, the authors are describing an automatic fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) reader for neutron dosimetry. FNTD is a luminescent integrating type of detector made of aluminium oxide crystals that does not require electronics or batteries during irradiation. Non-destructive optical readout of the detector is performed using a confocal laser scanning fluorescence imaging with near-diffraction limited resolution. The fully automatic table-top reader allows one to load up to 216 detectors on a tray, read their engraved IDs using a CCD camera and optical character recognition, scan and process simultaneously two types of images in fluorescent and reflected laser light contrast to eliminate false-positive tracks related to surface and volume crystal imperfections. The FNTD dosimetry system allows one to measure neutron doses from 0.1 mSv to 20 Sv and covers neutron energies from thermal to 20 MeV. The reader is characterised by a robust, compact optical design, fast data processing electronics and user-friendly software.

  5. Radiation Effects of n-type, Low Resistivity, Spiral Silicon Drift Detector Hybrid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen W.; De Geronimo G.; Carini, G.A.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Siddons, D.P.; Smith, G.C.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2011-11-15

    We have developed a new thin-window, n-type, low-resistivity, spiral silicon drift detector (SDD) array - to be used as an extraterrestrial X-ray spectrometer (in varying environments) for NASA. To achieve low-energy response, a thin SDD entrance window was produced using a previously developed method. These thin-window devices were also produced on lower resistivity, thinner, n-type, silicon material, effectively ensuring their radiation hardness in anticipation of operation in potentially harsh radiation environments (such as found around the Jupiter system). Using the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility beam line RERS1, we irradiated a set of suitable diodes up to 5 Mrad and the latest iteration of our ASICs up to 12 Mrad. Then we irradiated two hybrid detectors consisting of newly, such-produced in-house (BNL) SDD chips bonded with ASICs with doses of 0.25 Mrad and 1 Mrad. Also we irradiated another hybrid detector consisting of previously produced (by KETEK) on n-type, high-resistivity SDD chip bonded with BNL's ASICs with a dose of 1 Mrad. The measurement results of radiated diodes (up to 5 Mrad), ASICs (up to 12 Mrad) and hybrid detectors (up to 1 Mrad) are presented here.

  6. In-vitro corneal transparency measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; da Costa Vieira, Marcelo A.; Isaac, Flavio; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    2001-06-01

    A system for measuring the average corneal transparency of preserved corneas has been developed in order to provide a more accurate and standard report of the corneal tissue. The donated cornea transparency is one of the features to be analyzed previously to its indication for the transplant. The small portable system consists of two main parts: the optical and the electronic parts. The optical system consists of a white light, lenses and pin-holes that collimate white light beams that illuminates the cornea in its preservative medium. The light that passes through the cornea is detected by a resistive detector and the average corneal transparency is shown in a display. In order to obtain just the tissue transparency, the electronic circuit was built in a way that there is a baseline input of the preservative medium, previous to the measurement of the corneal transparency. Manipulating the system consists of three steps: (1) Adjusting the zero percentage in the absence of light (at this time the detectors in the dark); (2) Placing the preservative medium in the system and adjusting the 100% value (this is the baseline input); (3) Preserving the cornea and placing it in the system. The system provides the tissue transparency. The system is connected to an endothelium evaluation system for Slit Lamp, that we have developed, and statistics about the relationship of the corneal transparency and density of the endothelial cells will be provided in the next years. The system is being used in a public Eye Bank in Brasil.

  7. System for measuring film thickness

    DOEpatents

    Batishko, Charles R.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Rasmussen, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  8. The BiPo detector for ultralow radioactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bongrand, M.

    2007-03-28

    The BiPo project is dedicated to the measurement of extremely low radioactivity contamination of SuperNEMO source foils (208Tl < 2 {mu}Bq/kg and 214Bi < 10 {mu}Bq/kg). The R and D phase is started : a modular BiPo prototype with its shielding test facility is under construction. The goal of this prototype is to study the background and particularly the surface contamination of scintillators. The first capsule has been installed in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in October, 17th and is now taking data. After 10.7 days of measurements, a preliminary upper limit on the surface radiopurity of the scintillators of A(208Tl) < 60 {mu}Bq/m2 (90% C. L.) has been obtained.

  9. TRIAC II. A MatLab code for track measurements from SSNT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiris, D. L.; Blekas, K.; Ioannides, K. G.

    2007-08-01

    A computer program named TRIAC II written in MATLAB and running with a friendly GUI has been developed for recognition and parameters measurements of particles' tracks from images of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. The program, using image analysis tools, counts the number of tracks and depending on the current working mode classifies them according to their radii (Mode I—circular tracks) or their axis (Mode II—elliptical tracks), their mean intensity value (brightness) and their orientation. Images of the detectors' surfaces are input to the code, which generates text files as output, including the number of counted tracks with the associated track parameters. Hough transform techniques are used for the estimation of the number of tracks and their parameters, providing results even in cases of overlapping tracks. Finally, it is possible for the user to obtain informative histograms as well as output files for each image and/or group of images. Program summaryTitle of program:TRIAC II Catalogue identifier:ADZC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZC_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer: Pentium III, 600 MHz Installations: MATLAB 7.0 Operating system under which the program has been tested: Windows XP Programming language used:MATLAB Memory required to execute with typical data:256 MB No. of bits in a word:32 No. of processors used:one Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?:no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:25 964 No. of bytes in distributed program including test data, etc.: 4 354 510 Distribution format:tar.gz Additional comments: This program requires the MatLab Statistical toolbox and the Image Processing Toolbox to be installed. Nature of physical problem: Following the passage of a charged particle (protons and heavier) through a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a damage region is created, usually named latent

  10. In situ measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  11. Collimated prompt gamma TOF measurements with multi-slit multi-detector configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimmer, J.; Chevallier, M.; Constanzo, J.; Dauvergne, D.; De Rydt, M.; Dedes, G.; Freud, N.; Henriquet, P.; La Tessa, C.; Létang, J. M.; Pleskač, R.; Pinto, M.; Ray, C.; Reithinger, V.; Richard, M. H.; Rinaldi, I.; Roellinghoff, F.; Schuy, C.; Testa, E.; Testa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal prompt-gamma ray profiles have been measured with a multi-slit multi-detector configuration at a 75 MeV/u 13C beam and with a PMMA target. Selections in time-of-flight and energy have been applied in order to discriminate prompt-gamma rays produced in the target from background events. The ion ranges which have been extracted from each individual detector module agree amongst each other and are consistent with theoretical expectations. In a separate dedicated experiment with 200 MeV/u 12C ions the fraction of inter-detector scattering has been determined to be on the 10%-level via a combination of experimental results and simulations. At the same experiment different collimator configurations have been tested and the shielding properties of tungsten and lead for prompt-gamma rays have been measured.

  12. Terrestrial detector for low frequency gravitational waves based on full tensor measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung Mok; Paik, Hojung; Majorana, Ettore; Vol Moody, M.; Griggs, Cornelius E.; Nielsen, Alex; Kim, Chumglee

    2015-08-01

    Terrestrial gravitational wave (GW) detectors are mostly based on Michelson-type laser interferometers with arm lengths of a few km to reach a strain sensitivity of 10-23 Hz-1/2 in the frequency range of a few 100 to a few 1000 Hz. There should be a large variety of sources generating GWs at lower frequencies below 10 Hz. However, seismic and Newtonian noise has been serious obstacle in realizing terrestrial low-frequency GW detectors. Here we describe a new GW detector concept by adopting new measurement techniques and configurations to overcome the present low-frequency barrier due to seismic and Newtonian noise. The detector is an extension of the superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG) that has been developed at the University of Maryland to measure all components of the gravity gradient tensor by orthogonally combining three bars with test masses at each end. The oscillating component of the gravity gradient tensor is the GW strain tensor, but the actual signal is likely to be dominated by Newtonian and seismic noise, whose amplitudes are several orders of magnitude larger than the GWs. We propose to mitigate seismic noise by (a) constructing detector in deep underground, (b) applying passive isolation with pendulum suspension, and (c) using the common-mode rejection characteristic of the detector. The Newtonian noise can be suppressed by combining the components of the gradient tensor with signals detected by seismometers and microphones. By constructing a detector of 100-m long bars cooled to 0.1 K, a strain sensitivity of a few times 10-21 Hz-1/2 can be achieved in the frequency range between 0.1 to 10 Hz. Binaries composed of intermediate mass black holes of 1000 to 10,000 M¤ could be detected at distances up to a few Gpc with this detector. Detectable range for the merging white dwarf binaries is up to a few Mpc. Unlike current two-dimensional detectors, our single detector is able to determine the polarization of GWs and the direction to sources on

  13. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Neclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-10-30

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume high-resolution gamma-ray detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. Three important factors affect the operation of mechanically cooled germanium detectors: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors will be studied in the laboratory at the most fundamental levels to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system. Using this knowledge, mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems will be designed and fabricated.

  14. The development and test of ultra-large-format multi-anode microchannel array detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The specific tasks that were accomplished with each of the key elements of the multi-anode microchannel array detector system are described. The modes of operation of position-sensitive electronic readout systems for use with high-gain microchannel plates are described and their performance characteristics compared and contrasted. Multi-anode microchannel array detector systems with formats as large as 256 x 1024 pixels are currently under evaluation. Preliminary performance data for sealed ultraviolet and visible-light detector tubes show that the detector systems have unique characteristics which make them complementary to photoconductive array detectors, such as CCDs, and superior to alternative pulse-counting detector systems employing high-gain MCPs.

  15. The cosmic ray veto system of the Mario Schenberg gravitational wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Fauth, A. C.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2014-07-01

    The Mario Schenberg gravitational wave antenna is a spherical cryogenic resonant mass detector located at IFUSP, São Paulo. It is well known that cosmic rays interact with cryogenic resonant mass detectors generating acoustic signals. Depending on the shower energy, they could provide a substantial background noise which should be vetoed to reduce the false alarm rate. For this purpose, in December 2011, we have installed a cosmic ray veto system which is, since then, acquiring data. The cosmic ray veto system is composed of three particle detectors containing each one a scintillator, a photomultiplier and a tension divider. As the shower number of particles is used to define a threshold for the veto, it is important that the cosmic ray veto provides a linear response to high-energy cosmic ray events. The veto setup response was optimized and allows measurements up to 23,000 equivalent muon charge particles per square meter. We present here the experimental setup, its calibration and performance. Finally, to confirm the linearity of the data acquisition we show the measured particle multiplicity.

  16. Optimization of Proton CT Detector System and Image Reconstruction Algorithm for On-Line Proton Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Young; Song, Hankyeol; Park, Chan Woo; Chung, Yong Hyun; Kim, Jin Sung; Park, Justin C

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to optimize a proton computed tomography system (pCT) for proton range verification and to confirm the pCT image reconstruction algorithm based on projection images generated with optimized parameters. For this purpose, we developed a new pCT scanner using the Geometry and Tracking (GEANT) 4.9.6 simulation toolkit. GEANT4 simulations were performed to optimize the geometric parameters representing the detector thickness and the distance between the detectors for pCT. The system consisted of four silicon strip detectors for particle tracking and a calorimeter to measure the residual energies of the individual protons. The optimized pCT system design was then adjusted to ensure that the solution to a CS-based convex optimization problem would converge to yield the desired pCT images after a reasonable number of iterative corrections. In particular, we used a total variation-based formulation that has been useful in exploiting prior knowledge about the minimal variations of proton attenuation characteristics in the human body. Examinations performed using our CS algorithm showed that high-quality pCT images could be reconstructed using sets of 72 projections within 20 iterations and without any streaks or noise, which can be caused by under-sampling and proton starvation. Moreover, the images yielded by this CS algorithm were found to be of higher quality than those obtained using other reconstruction algorithms. The optimized pCT scanner system demonstrated the potential to perform high-quality pCT during on-line image-guided proton therapy, without increasing the imaging dose, by applying our CS based proton CT reconstruction algorithm. Further, we make our optimized detector system and CS-based proton CT reconstruction algorithm potentially useful in on-line proton therapy.

  17. Optimization of Proton CT Detector System and Image Reconstruction Algorithm for On-Line Proton Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae Young; Song, Hankyeol; Park, Chan Woo; Chung, Yong Hyun; Park, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to optimize a proton computed tomography system (pCT) for proton range verification and to confirm the pCT image reconstruction algorithm based on projection images generated with optimized parameters. For this purpose, we developed a new pCT scanner using the Geometry and Tracking (GEANT) 4.9.6 simulation toolkit. GEANT4 simulations were performed to optimize the geometric parameters representing the detector thickness and the distance between the detectors for pCT. The system consisted of four silicon strip detectors for particle tracking and a calorimeter to measure the residual energies of the individual protons. The optimized pCT system design was then adjusted to ensure that the solution to a CS-based convex optimization problem would converge to yield the desired pCT images after a reasonable number of iterative corrections. In particular, we used a total variation-based formulation that has been useful in exploiting prior knowledge about the minimal variations of proton attenuation characteristics in the human body. Examinations performed using our CS algorithm showed that high-quality pCT images could be reconstructed using sets of 72 projections within 20 iterations and without any streaks or noise, which can be caused by under-sampling and proton starvation. Moreover, the images yielded by this CS algorithm were found to be of higher quality than those obtained using other reconstruction algorithms. The optimized pCT scanner system demonstrated the potential to perform high-quality pCT during on-line image-guided proton therapy, without increasing the imaging dose, by applying our CS based proton CT reconstruction algorithm. Further, we make our optimized detector system and CS-based proton CT reconstruction algorithm potentially useful in on-line proton therapy. PMID:27243822

  18. Actinometric measurement of j(O3-O(1D)) using a luminol detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bairai, Solomon T.; Stedman, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    The photolysis frequency of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms has been measured by means of a chemical actinometer using a luminol based detector. The instrument measures j(O3-O(1D)) with a precision of 10 percent. The data collected in winter and spring of 1991 is in agreement with model predictions and previously measured values. Data from a global solar radiometer can be used to estimate the effects of local cloudiness on j(O3-O(1D)).

  19. The electronics and data acquisition system for the DarkSide-50 veto detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; Cecco, S. De; Deo, M. De; Vincenzi, M. De; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Eusanio, F. Di; Pietro, G. Di; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-12-01

    DarkSide-50 is a detector for dark matter candidates in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). It utilizes a liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr TPC) for the inner main detector. The TPC is surrounded by a liquid scintillator veto (LSV) and a water Cherenkov veto detector (WCV). The LSV and WCV, both instrumented with PMTs, act as the neutron and cosmogenic muon veto detectors for DarkSide-50. This paper describes the electronics and data acquisition system used for these two detectors.

  20. Measurement of b-Baryons with the CDF II detector

    SciTech Connect

    Heuser, Joachim; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2007-10-01

    We report the observation of new bottom baryon states. The most recent result is the observation of the baryon {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} through the decay {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} {yields} J/{psi}{Xi}{sup -}. The significance of the signal corresponds to 7.7{sigma} and the {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} mass is measured to be 5792.9{+-}2.5(stat.){+-}1.7(syst.) MeV/c{sup 2}. In addition we observe four resonances in the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{pi}{sup {+-}} spectra, consistent with the bottom baryons {Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*){+-}}. All observations are in agreement with theoretical expectations.

  1. The fluid systems for the SLD Cherenkov ring imaging detector. [01

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H. . Dept. of Physics); Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dolinsky, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; McCulloch, M.; McShurley, D.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.J.; Peterson, H.; Ratcliff, B.; Reif, R.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Shaw,

    1992-10-01

    We describe the design and operation of the fluid delivery, monitor and control systems for the SLD barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID). The systems deliver drift gas (C[sub 2]H[sub 6] + TMAE), radiator gas (C[sub 5]F[sub 12] + N[sub 2]) and radiator liquid (C[sub 6]F[sub 14]). Measured critical quantities such as electron lifetime in the drift gas and ultra-violet (UV) transparencies of the radiator fluids, together with the operational experience, are also reported.

  2. Fiber optic inclination detector system having a weighted sphere with reference points

    DOEpatents

    Cwalinski, Jeffrey P.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic inclination detector system for determining the angular displacement of an object from a reference surface includes a simple mechanical transducer which requires a minimum number of parts and no electrical components. The system employs a single light beam which is split into two light beams and provided to the transducer. Each light beam is amplitude modulated upon reflecting off the transducer to detect inclination. The power values associated with each of the reflected light beams are converted by a pair of photodetectors into voltage signals, and a microprocessor manipulates the voltage signals to provide a measure of the angular displacement between the object and the reference surface.

  3. Wear Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis Research Center developed a tribometer for in-house wear tests. Implant Sciences Corporation (ISC), working on a NASA contract to develop coatings to enhance the wear capabilities of materials, adapted the tribometer for its own use and developed a commercial line of user-friendly systems. The ISC-200 is a pin-on-disk type of tribometer, functioning like a record player and creating a wear groove on the disk, with variables of speed and load. The system can measure the coefficient of friction, the wear behavior between materials, and the integrity of thin films or coatings. Applications include measuring wear on contact lenses and engine parts and testing disk drives.

  4. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that

  5. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server

  6. IR detector for hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions during petroleum and oil products storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Andrey O.; Shemanin, Valeriy G.; Chartiy, Pavel V.

    2011-10-01

    A double beam IR detector is developed for light hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions from storage vessels during oil and oil products storage and transportation. It was concluded on the basis of chromatogram that main crude losses from evaporation are the share of hydrocarbons light ends from methane to decane. Detector operation is based on spectral transparency measurement in the infrared spectra absorption range. Operational wavelength of infrared radiation makes 3.4 μm. measurement principle is based on concentration calculation proceed from molecule absorption cross-section, optical path length between light emitted diode and reference and signal photodiodes as well as from value of measured signal transmitted through gaging volume. The novel of offering device is an actual paraffin hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions and continuous and automatic environment quality control.

  7. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  8. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  9. Contour measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.; Kissel, R. R.; Deaton, E. T., Jr.; Campbell, R. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A measurement system for measuring the departures from a straight line of discrete track sections of a track along a coal face in a mine employing a vehicle having a pair of spaced wheel assemblies which align with the track is presented. A reference arm pivotally connects between the wheel assemblies, and there is indicating means for measuring the angle of pivot between the arm and each of the wheel assemblies. The length of the device is less than the length of a track section, and thus when one of the wheel assemblies is on one track section and one is on an adjoining track section, the sum of the indicated angles will be indicative of the angle between track sections. Thus, from the length of a track section and angle, the departure of each track section from the line may be calculated.

  10. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass with the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Koji

    2005-02-01

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass using tt pair creation events decaying into the lepton+jets channel in pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. The data sample used in this analysis was collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) in Tevatron Run II during the period from March 2002 through August 2003.

  11. New measurement of antineutrino oscillation with the full detector configuration at Daya Bay

    SciTech Connect

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Butorov, I.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Draeger, E.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, L.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, K. Y.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. K.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S. S.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevski, A.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Shao, B. B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. F.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-09-11

    We report a new measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using the fully constructed Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. The final two of eight antineutrino detectors were installed in the summer of 2012. Including the 404 days of data collected from October 2012 to November 2013 resulted in a total exposure of 6.9×105 GWth ton days, a 3.6 times increase over our previous results. Improvements in energy calibration limited variations between detectors to 0.2%. Removal of six 241Am- 13C radioactive calibration sources reduced the background by a factor of 2 for the detectors in the experimental hall furthest from the reactors. Direct prediction of the antineutrino signal in the far detectors based on the measurements in the near detectors explicitly minimized the dependence of the measurement on models of reactor antineutrino emission. The uncertainties in our estimates of 2sin2θ13 and |Δm2ee| were halved as a result of these improvements. An analysis of the relative antineutrino rates and energy spectra between detectors gave 2sin2θ13=0.084±0.005 and |Δm2ee|=(2.42±0.11)×10–3 eV2 in the three-neutrino framework.

  12. Measurement of the Response Function of a BC501A Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Alexander, D.; Daniel, A.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ahmed, M. W.; Sikora, M.

    2015-10-01

    A 5'' X 2'' BC501A neutron detector was used to measure proton recoil spectra at a number of mono-energetic incident neutron energies between 2 and 6 MeV at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. The goal of the experiment was to characterize the response function for a variety of known neutron energies so that an unknown neutron spectrum can be obtained by unfolding the detector response to the incident spectrum. We discuss calibration, optimization of the neutron-gamma discrimination, and the progress of the analysis. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Measuring the attenuation length of water in the CHIPS-M water Cherenkov detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amat, F.; Bizouard, P.; Bryant, J.; Carroll, T. J.; Rijck, S. De; Germani, S.; Joyce, T.; Kriesten, B.; Marshak, M.; Meier, J.; Nelson, J. K.; Perch, A. J.; Pfützner, M. M.; Salazar, R.; Thomas, J.; Trokan-Tenorio, J.; Vahle, P.; Wade, R.; Wendt, C.; Whitehead, L. H.; Whitney, M.

    2017-02-01

    The water at the proposed site of the CHIPS water Cherenkov detector has been studied to measure its attenuation length for Cherenkov light as a function of filtering time. A scaled model of the CHIPS detector filled with water from the Wentworth 2W pit, proposed site of the CHIPS deployment, in conjunction with a 3.2 m vertical column filled with this water, was used to study the transmission of 405 nm laser light. Results consistent with attenuation lengths of up to 100 m were observed for this wavelength with filtration and UV sterilization alone.

  14. Electron performance measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2010 LHC proton-proton collision data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C. U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallas, M. V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. 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