Science.gov

Sample records for determinantes sociales frente

  1. Noncolliding Brownian Motion and Determinantal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Makoto; Tanemura, Hideki

    2007-12-01

    A system of one-dimensional Brownian motions (BMs) conditioned never to collide with each other is realized as (i) Dyson's BM model, which is a process of eigenvalues of hermitian matrix-valued diffusion process in the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), and as (ii) the h-transform of absorbing BM in a Weyl chamber, where the harmonic function h is the product of differences of variables (the Vandermonde determinant). The Karlin-McGregor formula gives determinantal expression to the transition probability density of absorbing BM. We show from the Karlin-McGregor formula, if the initial state is in the eigenvalue distribution of GUE, the noncolliding BM is a determinantal process, in the sense that any multitime correlation function is given by a determinant specified by a matrix-kernel. By taking appropriate scaling limits, spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous infinite determinantal processes are derived. We note that the determinantal processes related with noncolliding particle systems have a feature in common such that the matrix-kernels are expressed using spectral projections of appropriate effective Hamiltonians. On the common structure of matrix-kernels, continuity of processes in time is proved and general property of the determinantal processes is discussed.

  2. Quantum entanglement and geometry of determinantal varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hao

    2006-05-15

    Quantum entanglement was first recognized as a feature of quantum mechanics in the famous paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Recently it has been realized that quantum entanglement is a key ingredient in quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum cryptography. In this paper, we introduce algebraic sets, which are determinantal varieties in the complex projective spaces or the products of complex projective spaces, for the mixed states on bipartite or multipartite quantum systems as their invariants under local unitary transformations. These invariants are naturally arised from the physical consideration of measuring mixed states by separable pure states. Our construction has applications in the following important topics in quantum information theory: (1) separability criterion, it is proved that the algebraic sets must be a union of the linear subspaces if the mixed states are separable; (2) simulation of Hamiltonians, it is proved that the simulation of semipositive Hamiltonians of the same rank implies the projective isomorphisms of the corresponding algebraic sets; (3) construction of bound entangled mixed states, examples of the entangled mixed states which are invariant under partial transpositions (thus PPT bound entanglement) are constructed systematically from our new separability criterion.

  3. Aplicación de técnicas de análisis de redes sociales y de co-ocurrencia de palabras en la determinación de frentes de investigación

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeris, C. E.

    A bibliometric study of the scientific production of the IAR researchers has been performed, with the aim of determining the institute's research fronts and groups of researchers working on these fronts. Methods of analysis of co-occurrence of words, authorship analysis and social network analysis (SNA) has been applied by extracting keywords and the names of the authors on the base of published works. The results support the existence of two research fronts within the institution. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. Determinantal Quintics and Mirror Symmetry of Reye Congruences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Shinobu; Takagi, Hiromichi

    2014-08-01

    We study a certain family of determinantal quintic hypersurfaces in whose singularities are similar to the well-studied Barth-Nieto quintic. Smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with Hodge numbers ( h 1,1, h 2,1) = (52, 2) are obtained by taking crepant resolutions of the singularities. It turns out that these smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds are in a two dimensional mirror family to the complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds in which have appeared in our previous study of Reye congruences in dimension three. We compactify the two dimensional family over and reproduce the mirror family to the Reye congruences. We also determine the monodromy of the family over completely. Our calculation shows an example of the orbifold mirror construction with a trivial orbifold group.

  5. Cosmological singularities in Born-Infeld determinantal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Che-Yu; Chen, Pisin

    2014-12-01

    The Born-Infeld determinantal gravity has been recently proposed as a way to smooth the big bang singularity. This theory is formulated on the Weitzenböck space-time and the teleparallel representation is used instead of the standard Riemannian representation. We find that although this theory is shown to be singularity free for a certain region of the parameter space in which the divergence of the Hubble rate in the high-energy regime is substituted by a de Sitter stage or a bounce in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, cosmological singularities—such as a big rip, big bang, big freeze, and sudden singularities—can emerge in other regions of the configuration space of the theory. We also show that all these singular events exist even though the universe is filled with a perfect fluid with a constant equation of state.

  6. Primordial brusque bounce in Born-Infeld determinantal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Franco

    2016-07-01

    We study a particular exact solution to the Born-Infeld determinantal gravity consisting of a cosmological model which undergoes a "brusque bounce." The latter consists of an event characterized by a non-null (but finite) value of the squared Hubble rate H2 occurring at a minimum (non-null) scale factor. The energy density and pressure of the fluid covering the whole manifold are perfectly well behaved in such an event, but the curvature invariants turn out to be undefined there because of the undefined character of H ˙. It is shown that the spacetime that results is geodesically complete and singularity free, and that it corresponds to a picture of an eternal Universe in which a (somewhat unconventional) bounce replaces the standard big bang singularity. This example tends to asize that, beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity, and in the context of extended theories of gravity formulated by purely torsional means, the criterion of a singularity based on pathologies of scalars constructed upon the Riemann curvature tensor becomes objectionable.

  7. Solution of the determinantal assignment problem using the Grassmann matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcanias, Nicos; Leventides, John

    2016-02-01

    The paper provides a direct solution to the determinantal assignment problem (DAP) which unifies all frequency assignment problems of the linear control theory. The current approach is based on the solvability of the exterior equation ? where ? is an n -dimensional vector space over ? which is an integral part of the solution of DAP. New criteria for existence of solution and their computation based on the properties of structured matrices are referred to as Grassmann matrices. The solvability of this exterior equation is referred to as decomposability of ?, and it is in turn characterised by the set of quadratic Plücker relations (QPRs) describing the Grassmann variety of the corresponding projective space. Alternative new tests for decomposability of the multi-vector ? are given in terms of the rank properties of the Grassmann matrix, ? of the vector ?, which is constructed by the coordinates of ?. It is shown that the exterior equation is solvable (? is decomposable), if and only if ? where ?; the solution space for a decomposable ?, is the space ?. This provides an alternative linear algebra characterisation of the decomposability problem and of the Grassmann variety to that defined by the QPRs. Further properties of the Grassmann matrices are explored by defining the Hodge-Grassmann matrix as the dual of the Grassmann matrix. The connections of the Hodge-Grassmann matrix to the solution of exterior equations are examined, and an alternative new characterisation of decomposability is given in terms of the dimension of its image space. The framework based on the Grassmann matrices provides the means for the development of a new computational method for the solutions of the exact DAP (when such solutions exist), as well as computing approximate solutions, when exact solutions do not exist.

  8. Critical configurations (determinantal loci) for range and range difference satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsimis, E.

    1973-01-01

    The observational modes of Geometric Satellite Geodesy are discussed. The geometrical analysis of the problem yielded a regression model for the adjustment of the observations along with a suitable and convenient metric for the least-squares criterion. The determinantal loci (critical configurations) for range networks are analyzed. An attempt is made to apply elements of the theory of variants for this purpose. The use of continuously measured range differences for loci determination is proposed.

  9. Noncolliding Brownian motion with drift and time-dependent Stieltjes-Wigert determinantal point process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuta; Katori, Makoto

    2012-10-01

    Using the determinantal formula of Biane, Bougerol, and O'Connell, we give multitime joint probability densities to the noncolliding Brownian motion with drift, where the number of particles is finite. We study a special case such that the initial positions of particles are equidistant with a period a and the values of drift coefficients are well-ordered with a scale σ. We show that, at each time t > 0, the single-time probability density of particle system is exactly transformed to the biorthogonal Stieltjes-Wigert matrix model in the Chern-Simons theory introduced by Dolivet and Tierz. Here, one-parameter extensions (θ-extensions) of the Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials, which are themselves q-extensions of the Hermite polynomials, play an essential role. The two parameters a and σ of the process combined with time t are mapped to the parameters q and θ of the biorthogonal polynomials. By the transformation of normalization factor of our probability density, the partition function of the Chern-Simons matrix model is readily obtained. We study the determinantal structure of the matrix model and prove that, at each time t > 0, the present noncolliding Brownian motion with drift is a determinantal point process, in the sense that any correlation function is given by a determinant governed by a single integral kernel called the correlation kernel. Using the obtained correlation kernel, we study time evolution of the noncolliding Brownian motion with drift.

  10. Absorption-edge singularities for a nonequilibrium Fermi sea. III. Determinantal nonperturbative theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguy, C.; Combescot, M.

    1995-10-15

    The nonperturbative solution to the problem of threshold singularities for a ({mu}{sub 1},{mu}{sub 2}) nonequilibrium Fermi sea is obtained using the determinantal method of Ohtaka and Tanabe. The critical exponents of the absorption power-law behavior we find agree with those estimated from the perturbative treatment of the problem given in papers I and II. A family of possibly diverging singularities is found at energies {mu}{sub 2}+{ital n}({mu}{sub 1}{minus}{mu}{sub 2}), for {ital n}{ge}1.

  11. Nonabelian 2D gauge theories for determinantal Calabi-Yau varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jockers, Hans; Kumar, Vijay; Lapan, Joshua M.; Morrison, David R.; Romo, Mauricio

    2012-11-01

    The two-dimensional supersymmetric gauged linear sigma model (GLSM) with abelian gauge groups and matter fields has provided many insights into string theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds of a certain type: complete intersections in toric varieties. In this paper, we consider two GLSM constructions with nonabelian gauge groups and charged matter whose infrared CFTs correspond to string propagation on determinantal Calabi-Yau varieties, furnishing another broad class of Calabi-Yau geometries in addition to complete intersections. We show that these two models — which we refer to as the PAX and the PAXY model — are dual descriptions of the same low-energy physics. Using GLSM techniques, we determine the quantum Kähler moduli space of these varieties and find no disagreement with existing results in the literature.

  12. Bayesian Inference for Latent Biologic Structure with Determinantal Point Processes (DPP)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanxun; Müller, Peter; Telesca, Donatello

    2016-01-01

    Summary We discuss the use of the determinantal point process (DPP) as a prior for latent structure in biomedical applications, where inference often centers on the interpretation of latent features as biologically or clinically meaningful structure. Typical examples include mixture models, when the terms of the mixture are meant to represent clinically meaningful subpopulations (of patients, genes, etc.). Another class of examples are feature allocation models. We propose the DPP prior as a repulsive prior on latent mixture components in the first example, and as prior on feature-specific parameters in the second case. We argue that the DPP is in general an attractive prior model for latent structure when biologically relevant interpretation of such structure is desired. We illustrate the advantages of DPP prior in three case studies, including inference in mixture models for magnetic resonance images (MRI) and for protein expression, and a feature allocation model for gene expression using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. An important part of our argument are efficient and straightforward posterior simulation methods. We implement a variation of reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation for inference under the DPP prior, using a density with respect to the unit rate Poisson process. PMID:26873271

  13. Social Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social forces and social pathologies figure prominently in the dynamics of suicide. Gives several examples of "social suicide," including mass suicide, organizational self-destruction, social analogues to individual suicide, and military suicide. Claims that suicide prevention requires social, economic, and cultural transformations at…

  14. Hacer frente - Supervivencia

    Cancer.gov

    Muchos supervivientes de cáncer dicen que cuando terminó el tratamiento, fue difícil ajustarse a una nueva forma de vida. Entérese de cómo ajustarse a nuevos sentimientos y problemas que aparecen después del tratamiento del cáncer.

  15. Social Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  16. Social Inventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, D. Stuart

    Just as programs and organizations have too frequently been established for the presumed benefit of mankind but do not work out as expected because the social methods available are not good enough, so the author proposes that the existence of social problems in general bespeak the need for new social inventions. Social inventions provide laws,…

  17. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  18. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  19. Social paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, N.; Colomer, C.; Alperstein, G.; Bouvier, P.; Colomer, J.; Duperrex, O.; Gokcay, G.; Julien, G.; Kohler, L.; Lindstrom, B.; Macfarlane, A.; Mercer, R.; Panagiotopoulos, T.; Schulpen, T.; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective. PMID:15650140

  20. Social Indicators and Social Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Robert; Seidman, David

    1978-01-01

    Describes the several research traditions which combine to form the social indicators movement. All the traditions share concern for measurement, analysis, and reporting of aspects of social conditions to a general audience. Journal available from: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania…

  1. What's social about social learning?

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    Research on social learning in animals has revealed a rich variety of cases where animals--from caddis fly larvae to chimpanzees--acquire biologically important information by observing the actions of others. A great deal is known about the adaptive functions of social learning, but very little about the cognitive mechanisms that make it possible. Even in the case of imitation, a type of social learning studied in both comparative psychology and cognitive science, there has been minimal contact between the two disciplines. Social learning has been isolated from cognitive science by two longstanding assumptions: that it depends on a set of special-purpose modules--cognitive adaptations for social living; and that these learning mechanisms are largely distinct from the processes mediating human social cognition. Recent research challenges these assumptions by showing that social learning covaries with asocial learning; occurs in solitary animals; and exhibits the same features in diverse species, including humans. Drawing on this evidence, I argue that social and asocial learning depend on the same basic learning mechanisms; these are adapted for the detection of predictive relationships in all natural domains; and they are associative mechanisms--processes that encode information for long-term storage by forging excitatory and inhibitory links between event representations. Thus, human and nonhuman social learning are continuous, and social learning is adaptively specialized--it becomes distinctively "social"--only when input mechanisms (perceptual, attentional, and motivational processes) are phylogenetically or ontogenetically tuned to other agents. PMID:21895355

  2. Social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  3. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  4. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  5. Social cognition.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Marc; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2010-08-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a novel field of interdisciplinary research that examines socio-emotional cognition and behavior by emphasizing the neural substrates of these processes. Insights from this biological perspective have established that socio-emotional processing does not happen in a sequential order but in a recursive and interlinked fashion; that individual brain regions are not associated with one, but multiple, distinct social functions; and that brain regions are organized into dynamically interacting networks. These factors explain why it is difficult to pinpoint the neural substrates of particular social deficits in patients with brain diseases. With that said, there are specific brain regions that are highly specialized for the perception, regulation, and modulation of emotion and behavior. This article will review key aspects of social processing beginning with their underlying neural substrates, including (1) perception of social signals, (2) social and emotional evaluation, and (3) behavioral response generation and selection. Case studies will be used to illustrate the real-life social deficits resulting from distinct patterns of neuroanatomic damage, highlighting the brain regions most critical for adequate social behavior. Continuum Lifelong Learning Neurol 2010;16(4):69-85. PMID:22810514

  6. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  7. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cam, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on social studies instruction and technology: (1) "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Social Studies Teacher Educators Collaborate To Integrate Technology into Methods' Courses" (Cheryl Mason, Marsha Alibrandi, Michael Berson, Kara Dawson, Rich Diem, Tony Dralle, David Hicks, Tim Keiper, and John Lee); (2)…

  8. [Social phobia].

    PubMed

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D

    2014-05-01

    With a lifetime prevalence of 13% social phobia (social anxiety disorder) is a common and serious condition that should not be played down because of the burden associated with the disorder, an increased suicide rate and the frequent comorbidity with substance abuse disorders. Social phobia is characterized by the excessive and unrealistic fear of being scrutinized or criticized by others. The disorder often begins in adolescence.Symptoms of social phobia can be effectively treated with evidence-based treatment, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and psychopharmacological medications. In the present paper, treatment recommendations are given, which are based on a systematic review of all available randomized trials for the treatment of social phobia. Among psychological therapies, variants of CBT have been proven to be effective in controlled studies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine are among the drugs of first choice.

  9. Social indicators.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  10. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  11. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  12. Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed

    MedlinePlus

    ... phobia? For More Information Share Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Download PDF Download ePub Order ... If so, you may have a type of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social anxiety ...

  13. [Social pain].

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2011-09-01

    This chapter focuses on what social pain is and how it should be managed. In order to understand social pain in a cancer patient, it is necessary to recognize the change in the patient's daily life after the diagnosis of cancer. Because the degree of suffering and the relationships with family members and the people he or she worked with differ from patient to patient, it is important to note that the context of social pain is different in each patient. Five points shown below are essential in managing social pain. 1. Economical suffering may be alleviated by utilization of the social security system while taking into account each patient's standard of living. 2. Burdens on family members should be lessened, such as by not having them stay at the patient's bedside every day and letting them go home occasionally. 3. The normal patterns of communication, support, and conflict in the family should be identified, and the extent to which they have been disrupted by the illness should be assessed. 4. It is important to understand the ethnic, cultural, and religious background of the patient and the potential impact of their influence on the individual and the illness. 5. Practical or emotional unfinished business that the patient has needs to be identified, and efforts should be made to support fulfillment.

  14. Social anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in the ...

  15. Social Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csermely, Peter

    This is not only the time to get down to work, as I noted at the end of the last chapter, but also a time to thank you for your patience in coming along with me on this trip to Netland. We have reached an important point. We are just about to rise above ourselves. In the last chapter, we surveyed some of the networks in our body, and in this chapter the same body will be an element of a larger network, the social net. The current chapter will give me a good opportunity to understand my obsession with building social networks.

  16. Schoolhouse Socialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rome, Gregory; Block, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Public schools are part and parcel of socialism. This system of economics does not function well. Not in the Soviet Union, and not in any industry in the United States, certainly including education. The present paper attempts to show that education is no exception to this general rule. (Contains 6 notes.)

  17. Socials Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2013-01-01

    Eric Sheninger, the principal at New Milford High School in Bergen County, NJ, is well-known in ed tech circles as an evangelist for the use of web 2.0 tools in K-12 education. New Milford has made collaboration a pillar of its educational platform, and Sheninger believes that social media helps students learn how to collaborate. In fact, he…

  18. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Edward

    The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents social study concepts and activities relative to education in the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on the study of man (past, present, and future) interacting with his environment. Listed below are activity examples: (1)…

  19. Social Engineering hits Social Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes

    Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.

  20. Social medicine and social policy.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Social medicine as a term has achieved acceptance in medical education and medical practice, although there is still some question as to its acceptance in reality. The term had its origin in the vigorous nineteenth-century efforts at both medical and social reform, combining the two in a recognition of the intimate connection between social factors and the causation of disease. Henry Ernest Sigerist, a Swiss physician and noted scholar of medical history, formulated the broadest concept in the 1930s, attracting students and a latent American reform movement toward the idea of restructuring medical education as one part of social reform, and indicating ways of restructuring medical practice as another element in improving medical care at the same time. In addition to promulgating the doctrine, he established the policy of examining and describing systems of medical education and medical care in other parts of the world, not only to assist in improving medical care in countries with well-organized systems, but to assist countries with poor resources and lesser organizational capability in meeting the goals of social medicine. Doubt as to the durability of the concept has been expressed, insofar as the recommended improvements have lagged behind the expression, and because so many changes have taken place in the nature of medical practice, medical discoveries, and advances in technology. A closer examination of Sigerist's writings on the subject and evaluation of the circumstances around present-day problems would seem to indicate that the flaw is not in the doctrine, but in the lack of social application. PMID:6537694

  1. Teaching for social justice and social action.

    PubMed

    Torres-Harding, Susan R; Meyers, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Social justice education involves promoting critical awareness of social inequalities and developing skills that work against these inequalities. This article describes a general theoretical framework for social justice education, describes general strategies for facilitating students' social justice awareness and engagement, identifies challenges to social education, and highlights articles in the special issue that address these themes.

  2. Social Goals, Social Behavior, and Social Status in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Ryan, Allison M.; Jamison, Rhonda; Wilson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines motivational precursors of social status and the applicability of a dual-component model of social competence to middle childhood. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between self-reported social goals (social development, demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid goal orientations), teacher-rated prosocial and…

  3. Measuring social behavior: social dominance.

    PubMed

    Craig, J V

    1986-04-01

    Social dominance develops more slowly when young animals are kept in intact peer groups where they need not compete for resources. Learned generalizations may cause smaller and weaker animals to accept subordinate status readily when confronted with strangers that would be formidable opponents. Sexual hormones and sensitivity to them can influence the onset of aggression and status attained. After dominance orders are established, they tend to be stable in female groups but are less so in male groups. Psychological influences can affect dominance relationships when strangers meet and social alliances within groups may affect relative status of individuals. Whether status associated with agonistic behavior is correlated with control of space and scarce resources needs to be determined for each species and each kind of resource. When such correlations exists, competitive tests and agonistic behavior associated with gaining access to scarce resources can be useful to the observer in learning about dominance relationships rapidly. Examples are given to illustrate how estimates of social dominance can be readily attained and some strengths and weaknesses of the various methods. PMID:3519554

  4. Social Networks and Social Influences in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, John

    Young people are concerned with making and keeping friends, and they invest a great deal of energy in group social life to do so. This book charts the interactions of young people both in and out of school and the role of peers and friends in strengthening social attachments and in establishing social identities. It describes how social identities…

  5. Religious Education and Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article considers Religious Education (RE) from the perspective of socialization theory. After clarifying the concept of socialization, an understanding of socialization processes, requiring the simultaneous development of both a personal and a social identity, is linked with RE. The development of both a personal and a social identity calls…

  6. Understanding Social Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…

  7. [Social psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Miéville, C

    1978-01-01

    The author attempts an analysis of some of the socio-cultural elements which have marked the birth of (modern?) psychiatry and which have consequently influenced the education, identity and ethical values of the practitioner who choses to become a psychiatrist. The author draws attention to the problem of the psychiatrist's autonomy by stressing the important relationship between autonomy (or lack of autonomy) and the dominant political ideologies. Such relationship appears more clearly when the psychiatrist uncritically accepts to become "the psychiatric expert" in criminal and civil law, suicide, sex, death, etc., in other words, whenever accepting the role of "managerial technician". It is evident that the psychiatrist cannot renounce the social responsibilities which fall upon him because of his understanding and analysis of human behaviour, but it is also evident that a redefinition of the psychiatrist's role in society is called for. Such a re-definition will be possible only by the permanent exercise of self-criticism, honesty towards oneself, moral integrity and the capacity to differentiate between true autonomy and the illusion of autonomy when operating in the name of an official psychiatry which is often also a vehicle for the enforcement of a political ideology.

  8. Social categories are shaped by social experience.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Sandra R

    2012-11-01

    A new study by Rhodes and colleagues offers insight into the development of social essentialism - the belief that members of social categories share essential properties (e.g., attitudes, psychological capacities). The challenge now is to consider these issues in children raised in the more diverse social environments that constitute the range of human experience.

  9. Socialization of Social Anxiety in Adolescent Crowds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we looked at whether social anxiety is socialized, or influenced by peers' social anxiety, more in some peer crowds than others. Adolescents in crowds with eye-catching appearances such as Goths and Punks (here termed "Radical"), were compared with three comparison groups. Using data from 796 adolescents (353 girls and 443 boys; M…

  10. Socialism in High School Social Studies Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns textbook analysis regarding the presentation of socialism in four leading high school social studies books, one in each of the following subjects: United States history, world history, United States government, and economics. Findings indicate that students relying on these texts to gain understanding of socialism and…

  11. Social Interaction: The Reciprocity of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Linda A.

    This study examined social support as a component of naturally occurring social interaction, focusing on the provision and receipt of support and examining sex differences in support exchange. Seventy female and 54 male college freshmen completed a modified version of the Rochester Interaction Record on which they recorded any social interaction…

  12. Social Representations as Dynamic Social Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Pascal; Latane, Bibb

    1996-01-01

    Describes Social Representation Theory (SRT), an important and controversial development in European social constructivism. Argues that, although SRT and Dynamic Social Impact Theory (DSIT) come from different research traditions, they are complementary. Maintains that DSIT goes further in providing a clear mechanism for how dialog creates…

  13. Teaching social justice.

    PubMed

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L

    2003-01-01

    Social justice is a core nursing value and the foundation of public health nursing. Social justice ideology requires nursing students to uphold moral, legal, and humanistic principles related to health. As such, teaching social justice requires a basis in moral developmental theory. In addition, teaching social justice demands action beyond classroom pedagogy. The author describes how social justice is taught within a baccalaureate program. A social justice project is described and examples are provided.

  14. Children's Social Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…

  15. Toward a Social Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This report, prepared at the request of President Johnson, represents an attempt by social scientists to look at several important aspects of the quality of American Life, and digest what is known about progress toward generally accepted social goals. It is not in itself a social report, but a step toward the development of a social report and a…

  16. Counseling and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author expands on "The Scandal of Social Work Education," a National Association of Scholars study documenting the commitment to left-wing "social justice" in social work programs at ten major public institutions. He presents a critical exploration of social justice ideology in academic and professional mental health training…

  17. Socially visible midwives.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Teresa; Clarke, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    Social media are playing a bigger and bigger part in our personal lives and what's more they are now infiltrating our professional lives, too. Moving from just 'being on' social media to using social media effectively as a midwife, is a huge challenge that many midwives are facing. To be effective and to really utilise social media to their full potential, midwives need to consider role-modelling, leading, social capital, digital footprint, visibility and continuing professional development. If all of these aspects are considered and midwives take a more considered approach to social media, they can really start to benefit from engaging in these online spaces. PMID:27008757

  18. Social Cues, Social Control, and Ecological Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Ross D.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses research strategies employed in studies of the importance of adult social cues in controlling children's behavior, illustrating some of the limitations of sole reliance on laboratory paradigms for achieving an understanding of both the contemporaneous operation and the development of social cue effectiveness. (JH)

  19. Social Policy as Social Process. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newitt, Jane

    A decade's explosive growth in the scope, funding and complexity of national social policy has created serious problems in the United States. This first overview report notes that the Office of Economic Opportunity (now known as the Community Services Administration) has ceased to provide a focal point for national social policy. It was this state…

  20. Domain specificity in social interactions, social thought, and social development.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    J. E. Grusec and M. Davidov (this issue) have taken good steps in formulating a domain-specific view of parent-child interactions. This commentary supports the introduction of domain specificity to analyses of parenting. Their formulation is an advance over formulations that characterized parental practices globally. This commentary calls for inclusion of definitions of the classification system of domain-specific interactions and criteria for each domain. It is also maintained that Grusec and Davidov's domains of social interaction imply that processes of development are involved, along with socialization; that bidirectionality in parent-child relations needs to be extended to include mutual influences and the construction of domains of social thought; and that conflicts and opposition within families coexist with compliance and social harmony.

  1. Emotional and Social Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ...

  2. Social networks and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Beels, C C

    1979-01-01

    This artical begins with an introduction to social networks research and its practical importance in the understanding and treatment of schizophrenia, and concludes with a consideration of the experience, the phenomenology, of schizophrenia, from a social network point of view.

  3. Social Psychology as History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  4. Excellence in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses a strategy for unifying and improving the social studies curriculum through an "outcomes sought" approach. Outlines eight measurable qualities students completing social studies should have achieved. Discusses implications of this approach. (LP)

  5. Professional social networking.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options.

  6. Professional social networking.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options. PMID:25308391

  7. Introduction to social media.

    PubMed

    Meru, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This overview of social media categories some of the typical types and uses of this form of communication and suggests common courtesies and effective strategies for participation in the social media culture.

  8. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  9. Social Media. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The growing use of social media by students and adults is impacting schools. A recent Pew study found that 73% of teens use social-networking sites to connect with others. Social media includes blogs, wikis, and podcasts as well as sites such as MySpace, Facebook, and Linkedin. While such sites promote connection with others, their use has created…

  10. Socialization and Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karzenik, Diana

    1979-01-01

    After reviewing the socialization models of Berger and Luckmann, Speier, and Piaget, the author relates the drawing process to these theories as a form of social interaction, citing changes in drawing style and subject matter with gains in social maturity. She concludes with implications for art educators. (SJL)

  11. Nebraska Social Studies Statutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This booklet lists the laws that relate to Nebraska social studies. The volume is intended for administrators, teachers, and curriculum planners to assist them to do a more thorough job of planning social studies programs. The Nebraska Social Studies Statutes are designed to be a primary tool in developing a district's curriculum, as they speak to…

  12. Perspectives about Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Mark E.; And Others

    Previous research has shown that career preferences are dependent upon the words and images that individuals associate with various occupations. The present study sought to identify differences and similarities between college students' and social workers' views toward social work. College students majoring in psychology (N=25) and social workers…

  13. Effective Elementary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, John Douglas

    This book advocates providing high-quality K-6 social studies instruction. The text provides practical information on how teachers can conduct high-quality social studies programs in their classrooms. The volume is divided into three parts. Part 1 offers an overview of the formal and informal social studies curriculum, its history, current status,…

  14. Measuring Social Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Stan; And Others

    Although social support has been operationally defined, a lack of conceptual clarity has made measurement modest and unreliable. To investigate the feasibility of measuring social support from a qualitative rather than a quantitative perspective, and to consider negative social interactions in the assessment, 130 college students were administered…

  15. Social Skills Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Charles W., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue for people working in the field of adult literacy focuses on the impact of learning disabilities (LD) on an adult's social skills. It explores various social, emotional, and daily living concerns which adults with learning disabilities may face. The following articles are included: (1) "Social Skills and Adults with Learning…

  16. Social Anthropology and Social Science History

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914

  17. Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Ida C.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the resources devoted by the United States to public social welfare programs. Compares these expenditures with those by other industrial nations and notes possible future trends. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  18. Social cognition in humans.

    PubMed

    Frith, Chris D; Frith, Uta

    2007-08-21

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a shared social world. Social signals can be processed automatically by the receiver and may be unconsciously emitted by the sender. These signals are non-verbal and are responsible for social learning in the first year of life. Social signals can also be processed consciously and this allows automatic processing to be modulated and overruled. Evidence for this higher-level social processing is abundant from about 18 months of age in humans, while evidence is sparse for non-human animals. We suggest that deliberate social signalling requires reflective awareness of ourselves and awareness of the effect of the signals on others. Similarly, the appropriate reception of such signals depends on the ability to take another person's point of view. This ability is critical to reputation management, as this depends on monitoring how our own actions are perceived by others. We speculate that the development of these high level social signalling systems goes hand in hand with the development of consciousness.

  19. Human Social Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural “social signal transduction” pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving. PMID:25166010

  20. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  1. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  2. Social status gates social attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Mario; Pavan, Giulia; Castelli, Luigi; Galfano, Giovanni

    2012-06-23

    Humans tend to shift attention in response to the averted gaze of a face they are fixating, a phenomenon known as gaze cuing. In the present paper, we aimed to address whether the social status of the cuing face modulates this phenomenon. Participants were asked to look at the faces of 16 individuals and read fictive curriculum vitae associated with each of them that could describe the person as having a high or low social status. The association between each specific face and either high or low social status was counterbalanced between participants. The same faces were then used as stimuli in a gaze-cuing task. The results showed a greater gaze-cuing effect for high-status faces than for low-status faces, independently of the specific identity of the face. These findings confirm previous evidence regarding the important role of social factors in shaping social attention and show that a modulation of gaze cuing can be observed even when knowledge about social status is acquired through episodic learning.

  3. The repurposed social brain.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Carolyn; Wheatley, Thalia

    2015-03-01

    Human social intelligence depends on a diverse array of perceptual, cognitive, and motivational capacities. Some of these capacities depend on neural systems that may have evolved through modification of ancestral systems with non-social or more limited social functions (evolutionary repurposing). Social intelligence, in turn, enables new forms of repurposing within the lifetime of an individual (cultural and instrumental repurposing), which entail innovating over and exploiting pre-existing circuitry to meet problems our brains did not evolve to solve. Considering these repurposing processes can provide insight into the computations that brain regions contribute to social information processing, generate testable predictions that usefully constrain social neuroscience theory, and reveal biologically imposed constraints on cultural inventions and our ability to respond beneficially to contemporary challenges. PMID:25732617

  4. Visualizing Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Carlos D.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    With today‘s ubiquity and popularity of social network applications, the ability to analyze and understand large networks in an efficient manner becomes critically important. However, as networks become larger and more complex, reasoning about social dynamics via simple statistics is not a feasible option. To overcome these limitations, we can rely on visual metaphors. Visualization nowadays is no longer a passive process that produces images from a set of numbers. Recent years have witnessed a convergence of social network analytics and visualization, coupled with interaction, that is changing the way analysts understand and characterize social networks. In this chapter, we discuss the main goal of visualization and how different metaphors are aimed towards elucidating different aspects of social networks, such as structure and semantics. We also describe a number of methods where analytics and visualization are interwoven towards providing a better comprehension of social structure and dynamics.

  5. Psychopathology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-06-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered.

  6. Social in, social out: How the brain responds to social language with more social language

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Matthew Brook; Falk, Emily B.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Social connection is a fundamental human need. As such, people’s brains are sensitized to social cues, such as those carried by language, and to promoting social communication. The neural mechanisms of certain key building blocks in this process, such as receptivity to and reproduction of social language, however, are not known. We combined quantitative linguistic analysis and neuroimaging to connect neural activity in brain regions used to simulate the mental states of others with exposure to, and re-transmission of, social language. Our results link findings on successful idea transmission from communication science, sociolinguistics and cognitive neuroscience to prospectively predict the degree of social language that participants utilize when re-transmitting ideas as a function of 1) initial language inputs and 2) neural activity during idea exposure. PMID:27642220

  7. The social dominance paradox.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jennifer Louise; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Heyes, Cecilia M; Cools, Roshan

    2014-12-01

    Dominant individuals report high levels of self-sufficiency, self-esteem, and authoritarianism. The lay stereotype suggests that such individuals ignore information from others, preferring to make their own choices. However, the nonhuman animal literature presents a conflicting view, suggesting that dominant individuals are avid social learners, whereas subordinates focus on learning from private experience. Whether dominant humans are best characterized by the lay stereotype or the animal view is currently unknown. Here, we present a "social dominance paradox": using self-report scales and computerized tasks, we demonstrate that socially dominant people explicitly value independence, but, paradoxically, in a complex decision-making task, they show an enhanced reliance (relative to subordinate individuals) on social learning. More specifically, socially dominant people employed a strategy of copying other agents when the agents' responses had a history of being correct. However, in humans, two subtypes of dominance have been identified: aggressive and social. Aggressively dominant individuals, who are as likely to "get their own way" as socially dominant individuals but who do so through the use of aggressive or Machiavellian tactics, did not use social information, even when it was beneficial to do so. This paper presents the first study of dominance and social learning in humans and challenges the lay stereotype in which all dominant individuals ignore others' views. The more subtle perspective we offer could have important implications for decision making in both the boardroom and the classroom. PMID:25454588

  8. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael F; Leitman, David I

    2008-07-01

    Social cognition in schizophrenia is a rapidly emerging area of study. Because the number and diversity of studies in this area have increased, efforts have been made to better define terms and provide organizing frameworks. A key challenge confronting the study of social cognition in schizophrenia is building bridges between clinical scientists and social neuroscientists. The articles in this theme summarize data-based studies that have attempted to build or strengthen such bridges to better understand the neural bases of social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  9. Social Networks and Health.

    PubMed

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe.

  10. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology.

  11. Frailty and Social Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Melissa K

    2015-01-01

    Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to health. Intrinsic factors are familiar topics in health research and include medical conditions, medications, genetics and frailty, while extrinsic factors stem from social and physical environments. This chapter builds on others in this volume, in which a deficit accumulation approach to frailty has been described. The concept of social vulnerability is presented. Social vulnerability stems from the accumulation of multiple and varied social problems and has bidirectional importance as a risk factor for poor health outcomes and as a pragmatic consideration for health care provision and planning. Importantly, the social factors that contribute to overall social vulnerability come into play at different levels of influence (individual, family and friends, peer groups, institutions and society at large). A social ecology perspective is discussed as a useful framework for considering social vulnerability, as it allows for attention to each of these levels of influence. Tying together what we currently understand about frailty (in medical and basic science models) and social vulnerability, the scaling potential of deficit accumulation is discussed, given that deficit accumulation can be understood to occur at many levels, from the (sub-)cellular level to tissues, organisms/complex systems and societies.

  12. Social evils, poverty & health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all

  13. Social evils, poverty & health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all.

  14. Social Perception and Social Reality: A Reflection-Construction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jussim, Lee

    1991-01-01

    A reflection-construction model of relations between social perception and social reality is presented that explicitly specifies several ways in which social perception may relate to social reality. Evidence supporting this model also supports a weaker version of the social-constructivist view. (SLD)

  15. Educating for Social Justice: Drawing from Catholic Social Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valadez, James R.; Mirci, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a duoethnographic process to develop a model for socially just education based on social justice theory and Catholic social teaching. Three major issues are addressed, including: (a) the definition of socially just education, (b) explaining a vision for establishing socially just schools, and (c) providing a practical guide for…

  16. Distinguishing Between Social Reinforcement and Social Elicitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the distinction between species-typical (elicitation) and operant reinforcement interpretations of infant/adult social interaction; considers procedural and analytic components of Poulson's 1983 paper (v36 p471-89); and clarifies differences in Poulson's interpretation and the author's interpretation of the vocal conditioning studies of…

  17. "The Social Responsibility of the Social Scientist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Bernard C.

    Although social scientists are often adjured to become more "scientific," they might well remember a phenomenon described by Arthur Lovejoy as "metaphysical pathos" or the set of sentiments with which every theory is associated and which are congruent with the mood or deep lying sentiment of its adherents. Examples from the past include the Social…

  18. Teaching Social Software with Social Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejias, Ulises

    2006-01-01

    Ulises Mejias examines how social software--information and communications technologies that facilitate the collaboration and exchange of ideas--enables students to participate in distributed research, an approach to learning in which knowledge is collectively constructed and shared. During Fall 2005, Mejias taught a graduate seminar that provided…

  19. L'Animation Sociale. (Social Action )

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondin, Michel

    1969-01-01

    The development of the social animation movement in Quebec in the last five years has had a profound effect. The stimulus provided by the "animateurs" and citizens' committees in disadvantaged districts in Montreal has helped obtain better facilities (schools, housing, etc.) and, more important, has encouraged the creation of local leadership. (MF)

  20. Limits of social mobilization.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-04-16

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719

  1. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  2. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  3. Current Social Problem Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Donald J.

    This review of social problem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of social problem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…

  4. Reinventing Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jarre, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    There is so much more to preparing a citizen than merely running students like lemmings through a three-year succession of history survey courses. Everyone is neglecting most of the social sciences in American high schools today, favoring the sequential and systematic delivery of history. What should be primary in the teaching of social studies,…

  5. Limits of social mobilization.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-04-16

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability.

  6. Classroom Discipline and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kayoun

    This study explored how children are socialized through discipline in the preschool classroom. Using detailed descriptions of teacher-student interactions and an interpretive method, the study mapped the process of the children's socialization and the role of discipline. The case study in one 4-year-olds' room examined early socialization…

  7. Social Science: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Charles Gene

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course surveying basic social science skills and information, including scientific method, map usage, evolution, native peoples, social groups, and U.S. Government. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose for the course indicates that it is designed to provide…

  8. Diversity and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The issue of diversity, in its broadest sense, is discussed here in its relation to social cohesion, cross-cultural relations, ingroup-outgroup relations and educational interventions. The main thesis of the paper is that real social cohesion in an ingroup rests on the acknowledgment of and the dialog with the diversities of the members of the…

  9. Sizing Up Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jerold

    2010-01-01

    Most people are aware of the increasing importance of social media to institutional advancement, and many colleges and universities have started investing resources in these media. The next step is to measure the impact of social media on the institution and evaluate the success of one's efforts. Every advancement leader should understand how…

  10. Professional Socialization in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Geraldine E.

    Professional socialization is the process by which individuals acquire the specialized knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and interests needed to perform their professional roles acceptably. The following interacting domains of potential professional self-growth can be defined as outcomes of the socialization process: self-image, role…

  11. Social Work Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    This reference guide contains laws, rules, and regulations of the State Education Department that govern social work practice in the state of New York. It highlights requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a social worker, and authorization of licensees for insurance reimbursement. Included are sections on:…

  12. Social Work Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    This reference guide contains laws, rules, and regulations of the State Education Department that govern social work practice in the State of New York. It highlights requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a social worker, and authorization of licensees for insurance reimbursement. Included are sections on:…

  13. Social Withdrawal in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

  14. Social Medium Well Done

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    For tech-savvy educators looking to connect with students, social media have a powerful allure: Not only are sites such as Facebook and Twitter inherently designed for discussion and the exchange of ideas, but most students are already immersed in the technology. While these sites have their critics, social media's potential for collaboration is…

  15. The Social Pork Barrel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockman, David A.

    1975-01-01

    A decisive shift toward alternative social welfare strategies - such as comprehensive national health insurance or universal income maintenance - can be accomplished only through a vast reprogramming of funds from within the social welfare sector of the budget itself. However, the major impediment to such a restructuring lies in the political and…

  16. Cognitive and Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machamer, Peter; Douglas, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Hugh Lacey's separation of cognitive values and social values in discussions of the nature of science. Claims that attempting to distinguish between cognitive and social ignores crucial complexities in the development and use of knowledge. Proposes that the proper distinction be between legitimate and illegitimate reasons in science as…

  17. Nigerian Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Nigeria and describes the origin and development of present-day social studies instruction. Concludes that while Nigerian social studies instruction appears to be changing from the traditional passive approach to modern activity methods, instruction continues to be organized by traditional disciplines and motivated by…

  18. Art as Social Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…

  19. Limits of social mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719

  20. The Socialization Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippitt, Ronald O.

    This paper develops a conceptual framework as a guide for research analysis and the designing of experimental interventions aimed at the improvement of the socialization process of the community. Socialization agents are the parents, older and like-age peers, formal education agencies, churches, leisure time child and youth serving agencies, legal…

  1. Social Studies Resource Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Based on the premise that fundamental solutions to environmental problems must include social solutions, these three resource units are designed to study the interrelation of man and nature as part of the social studies curriculum. A series of inquiry questions are posed with the intent of stimulating students to find solutions to our…

  2. Social Interactions and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz, Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular due to great technological improvements in recent years. They have been increasingly transformed from co-located experiences into multi-played, socially oriented platforms (Herodotou, 2009). Multi-User Online Games provide the opportunity to create a social environment for friendships and strengthen the…

  3. Building Social Media Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriter, William N.; Ramsden, Jason T.; Sheninger, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating social media tools into your professional practices does not have to be intimidating as long as you are willing to tackle five action steps. It is far easier to articulate the strengths--and to imagine the possibilities--of social media spaces as tools for communication and professional development when you are actively using those…

  4. Social Work and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  5. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  6. Transmission of social attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

    1986-01-01

    Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

  7. Violence as Social Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Daniel J.

    1981-01-01

    The role of violence or threat of violence in the development of conflict intervention strategies and the relationship between collective violence and social reform are discussed in this paper. The effects of industrial, racial, and urban mass violence on institutional policies and the concept of social justice are examined. (JCD)

  8. Explaining Social Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

  9. Anticipatory Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Anticipatory consumer socialization is the learning of consumer roles and perceptions, which will be assumed at a later time, such as those that children acquire before they become adult consumers. A survey of 784 adolescents was conducted in a southern state to examine the anticipatory consumer socialization effects of such factors as the mass…

  10. Guatemala social marketing program.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The Guatemala Social Marketing Program reported 1986 increases after social marketing promotion in the sales of Panther and Scudo condoms, Perla oral contraceptives, and Lirio vaginal foaming tablets. Sale of Panther condoms was highest in February; all the other products peaked in June and July. Sales fell in December due to Christmas holidays. Sale patterns are illustrated graphically for all 4 products.

  11. Imagining Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…

  12. [Principles of social gerontology].

    PubMed

    Kricheldorff, Cornelia; Aner, Kirsten; Himmelsbach, Ines; Thiesemann, Rüdiger

    2015-12-01

    Social gerontology is seen as a science-based but application-oriented subdiscipline of gerontology. It focuses particularly on social relationships in old age, social participation of elderly and old people and the protection of their individual needs. Self-determination and autonomy are important value orientations. Central issues are the quality of life and life satisfaction from the perspective of personal resources and biographical influences and the conditions of individual aging in the sense of differential gerontology. Against this background, in the first part of this article Kirsten Aner discusses the social construction of aging and in part two Ines Himmelsbach describes the typical life events and developmental tasks in the process of aging. The article concludes with a theoretical basis in which Cornelia Kricheldorff outlines social aging theories and derives a brief description of approaches and interventions.

  13. [Principles of social gerontology].

    PubMed

    Kricheldorff, Cornelia; Aner, Kirsten; Himmelsbach, Ines; Thiesemann, Rüdiger

    2015-12-01

    Social gerontology is seen as a science-based but application-oriented subdiscipline of gerontology. It focuses particularly on social relationships in old age, social participation of elderly and old people and the protection of their individual needs. Self-determination and autonomy are important value orientations. Central issues are the quality of life and life satisfaction from the perspective of personal resources and biographical influences and the conditions of individual aging in the sense of differential gerontology. Against this background, in the first part of this article Kirsten Aner discusses the social construction of aging and in part two Ines Himmelsbach describes the typical life events and developmental tasks in the process of aging. The article concludes with a theoretical basis in which Cornelia Kricheldorff outlines social aging theories and derives a brief description of approaches and interventions. PMID:26496913

  14. Treatment of social phobias.

    PubMed

    Agras, W S

    1990-10-01

    Social phobia, despite a prevalence in the general population of 1.5% denoting a common disorder, has been relatively neglected from the viewpoints of psychopathology and of treatment. Two subtypes of social phobia have been differentiated: specific (characterized by anxiety in one situation, e.g., public speaking) and generalized (characterized by anxiety in several social situations). The syndrome is frequently complicated by alcohol abuse or dependence. Among the treatment targets are symptoms of anxiety, avoidance behavior, negative cognitions concerning the reactions of others, and, less frequently, social skills deficits. Both pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral treatments have been found effective in this disorder, and it seems likely that the two treatments will complement each other. The treatment literature is reviewed, and recommendations concerning a state-of-the-art treatment approach to both specific and generalized social phobia are made. Potential complications and limitations are discussed.

  15. Social phobia: everyone's disorder?

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J W

    1996-01-01

    Several findings suggest that serotonin dysfunction may play at least a partial role in the etiology of social phobia. The cortisol response to fenfluramine, a serotonin agonist, is enhanced in patients with social phobia. Serotonin may be a common denominator between the blushing commonly seen in social phobics and the cutaneous flushing occurring in patients with carcinoid syndrome, although this is unlikely. Drugs that have demonstrated effectiveness in social phobia include the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), clonazepam (a benzodiazepine that potentiates serotonin function and synthesis), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (which block the oxidative deamination of serotonin), and beta-adrenoceptor blockers (which control the synthesis of melatonin from serotonin). A variety of beta-blockers, some acting centrally and some peripherally, have been effective in the treatment of performance anxiety, a specific form of social phobia. PMID:8647795

  16. Singing and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  17. Singing and social inclusion

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  18. Singing and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  19. Social Skills as Exchange Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sletta, Olav

    1992-01-01

    A conceptualization of social skills as resources in social exchange is offered, and a social exchange theoretical framework is applied to educational research. In a social exchange framework, the contribution of the peer group to the social exclusion of an individual would not be ignored. (SLD)

  20. Social Studies and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, James P.

    Traditionally, the social studies have been defined as the social sciences adapted and simplified for pedagogical purposes. This definition assumes that the criteria for curriculum selection and development in social studies should come from the social sciences and not from an independent view of what the social sciences should be about. Hence,…

  1. Social Cognition, Social Competence, Negative Symptoms and Social Outcomes: Inter-relationships in People with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Marc; Kaplan, Sara; Gould, Felicia; Pinkham, Amy; Penn, David; Harvey, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Social deficits are common in people with schizophrenia and the treatment of deficits in social competence has been a long-time treatment strategy. However, negative symptoms and social cognitive deficits also contribute to social dysfunction. In this study, we examined the correlations between everyday social outcomes, a performance based measure of social competence, and performance on 8 different social cognition tests in 179 patients with schizophrenia. Social cognition, social competence, and motivation-related negative symptoms accounted for 32% of the variance in real-world social outcomes. In addition, two different social cognition tests, along with expression-related negative symptoms accounted for 32% of the variance in performance-based assessments of social competence. These data suggest that negative symptoms exert an important influence on social outcomes and social competence, but not social cognition, and that social cognition and social competence exert separable influences on real-world social outcomes. Improving social outcomes seems to require a multi-faceted approach which considers social cognition, social competence, and negative symptoms. PMID:26228427

  2. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  3. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  4. Social strategies that work.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, Mikołaj Jan

    2011-11-01

    Although most companies have collected lots of friends and followers on social platforms such as Facebook, few have succeeded in generating profits there. That's because they merely port their digital strategies into social environments by broadcasting their commercial messages or seeking customer feedback. To succeed on social platforms, says Harvard Business School's Piskorski, businesses need to devise social strategies that are consistent with users' expectations and behavior in these venues--namely, people want to connect with other people, not with companies. The author defines successful social strategies as those that reduce costs or increase customers' willingness to pay by helping people establish or strengthen relationships through doing free work on a company's behalf. Citing successes at Zynga, eBay, American Express, and Yelp, Piskorski shows that social strategies can generate profits by helping people connect in exchange for tasks that benefit the company such as customer acquisition, marketing, and content creation. He lays out a systematic way to build a social strategy and shows how a major credit card company he advised used the method to roll out its own strategy. PMID:22111430

  5. Social marketing of contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Schellstede, W P; Derr, B B

    1986-12-01

    Application of commercial marketing techniques has not only increased awareness, acceptability, and use of modern contraceptives in developing countries, but also overcome logistic problems in service delivery. The ability of contraceptive social marketing to reach large numbers and to treat contraceptives as common consumer products has helped to diminish social and religious constraints associated with family planning. Each contraceptive social marketing program is built around a theme tailored to meet specific cultural, social, and management requirements. The primary target populations are those who cannot afford regular commercial products and those who are not adequately reached by government programs. In countries such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica, profit is not a primary sales objective and retail prices are highly subsidized to make products affordable to low-income people. In contrast, the Colombian and Thai programs use contraceptive social marketing to help offset the operating costs of rural community-based programs and seek profits. The most impressive contraceptive social marketing sales performances have been recorded in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, and Jamaica. The main reason contraceptive social marketing is more cost-efficient than other modes of contraceptive distribution is that the cost of product delivery is assumed by the commercial system. Although there has been some interest in making these programs self-sufficient financially, this step has tended to undermine the purpose of serving lower income groups. PMID:12341233

  6. Social strategies that work.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, Mikołaj Jan

    2011-11-01

    Although most companies have collected lots of friends and followers on social platforms such as Facebook, few have succeeded in generating profits there. That's because they merely port their digital strategies into social environments by broadcasting their commercial messages or seeking customer feedback. To succeed on social platforms, says Harvard Business School's Piskorski, businesses need to devise social strategies that are consistent with users' expectations and behavior in these venues--namely, people want to connect with other people, not with companies. The author defines successful social strategies as those that reduce costs or increase customers' willingness to pay by helping people establish or strengthen relationships through doing free work on a company's behalf. Citing successes at Zynga, eBay, American Express, and Yelp, Piskorski shows that social strategies can generate profits by helping people connect in exchange for tasks that benefit the company such as customer acquisition, marketing, and content creation. He lays out a systematic way to build a social strategy and shows how a major credit card company he advised used the method to roll out its own strategy.

  7. Stress and Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Baqutayan, Shadiya

    2011-01-01

    Background: This is an experimental study and it discusses the effectiveness of social support in managing academic stress among students. Aim: The purpose of this study is to understand the importance of social support in managing stress. Materials and Methods: Simple random sampling was assigned to a number of 120 students, equally divided into an experimental and a control group. Classes on social support as coping mechanisms were given to the experimental group only. The accumulated data were then analyzed, descriptive statistics were used to interpret and evaluate the prevalence of academic stress, and social support. Correlation analysis was employed in the examination of the relationship between stress and social support. Results: The findings of this study indicate that there are significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in relation to stress and social support. Eventually, the experimental group proved to cope with academic stress better than the control group, and they were satisfied with their academic performance during the experimentation. Conclusion: Hence, it is highly advisable to encourage the students to use social support as coping mechanisms. PMID:22021950

  8. The Social Sciences in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanuki, Joji

    1975-01-01

    This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

  9. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  10. Boredom and social meaning.

    PubMed

    Barbalet, J M

    1999-12-01

    Meaning is necessary in social processes. An absence of meaning in an activity or circumstance leads to an experience of boredom. This is a restless, irritable feeling that the subject's current activity or situation holds no appeal, and that there is a need to get on with something interesting. Thus boredom emotionally registers an absence of meaning and leads the actor in question towards meaning. Boredom, then, is central to key social processes centered on questions of meaningfulness. Given the pervasive preconditions for boredom, release from boredom is a factor that explains characteristic social practices, including risk taking and intergroup conflict. PMID:15270068

  11. Interactive brains, social minds

    PubMed Central

    Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the neural and behavioral dynamics of social interaction, single-person studies are increasingly complemented by research designs that simultaneously assess two or more interacting individuals. In this article, we review studies on neural mechanisms and markers of social interactions that use multi-person functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological recordings. We propose a terminology for investigating social interaction dynamics, show how forward models of action regulation may serve as a framework for investigating interpersonal action coordination and discuss different methodological approaches to studying functional brain connectivity. PMID:22448303

  12. [Social networks and medicine].

    PubMed

    Bastardot, F; Vollenweider, P; Marques-Vidal, P

    2015-11-01

    Social networks (social media or #SoMe) have entered medical practice within the last few years. These new media--like Twitter or Skype--enrich interactions among physicians (telemedicine), among physicians and patients (virtual consultations) and change the way of teaching medicine. They also entail new ethical, deontological and legal issues: the extension of the consultation area beyond the medical office and the access of information by third parties were recently debated. We develop here a review of some social networks with their characteristics, applications for medicine and limitations, and we offer some recommendations of good practice. PMID:26685647

  13. Social Class Differences Produce Social Group Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Suzanne R.; Shutts, Kristin; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Some social groups are higher in socioeconomic status than others and the former tend to be favored over the latter. The present research investigated whether observing group differences in wealth alone can directly cause children to prefer wealthier groups. In Experiment 1, 4–5-year-old children developed a preference for a wealthy novel group over a less wealthy group. In Experiment 2, children did not develop preferences when groups differed by another kind of positive/negative attribute (i.e., living in brightly-colored houses vs. drab houses), suggesting that wealth is a particularly meaningful group distinction. Lastly, in Experiment 3, the effect of favoring novel wealthy groups was moderated by group membership: Children assigned to a wealthy group showed ingroup favoritism, but those assigned to the less wealthy group did not. These experiments shed light on why children tend to be biased in favor of social groups that are higher in socioeconomic status. PMID:24702971

  14. Social games in a social network.

    PubMed

    Abramson, G; Kuperman, M

    2001-03-01

    We study an evolutionary version of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, played by agents placed in a small-world network. Agents are able to change their strategy, imitating that of the most successful neighbor. We observe that different topologies, ranging from regular lattices to random graphs, produce a variety of emergent behaviors. This is a contribution towards the study of social phenomena and transitions governed by the topology of the community. PMID:11308622

  15. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-02-21

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations.

  16. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-02-21

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. PMID:24561513

  17. Social anxiety as a basis for friendship selection and socialization in adolescents' social networks.

    PubMed

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2011-06-01

    Socially anxious children and adolescents have previously been found to have friends with similarly socially anxious, withdrawn behavioral characteristics. How peers might socialize social anxiety over time has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. We examined this in a sample of 834 youths (339 girls and 495 boys; M=14.29), followed for 3 years. We used the social network analysis software SIENA to analyze the data. The results showed that youths who were socially anxious were less popular and chose fewer friends in the network. They also tended to choose friends who were socially anxious, and over time they influenced each other into becoming more socially anxious--over and above other effects. Finally, girls' social anxiety was more influenced than boys' by their friends' social anxiety levels. The results showed the significance of looking at socially anxious youths' friendships over time and embedded in social networks.

  18. Social Networks and Health.

    PubMed

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe. PMID:26153011

  19. Social judgments from faces.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  20. Enuresis: A Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, James E.

    1978-01-01

    Several theories and treatments of enuresis are described. The authors conclude that enuresis is a social problem (perhaps due to maturational lag, developmental delay or faulty learning) which requires teacher and parental tolerance and understanding. (SE)

  1. Social Studies in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searles, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the role of social studies in transmitting the cultural heritage of Brazil. Includes descriptions of Brazilian culture and the educational structure. Journal availability: see SO 506 831. (AV)

  2. Quantitative social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidlich, W.

    1987-03-01

    General concepts for the quantitative description of the dynamics of social processes are introduced. They allow for embedding social science into the conceptual framework of synergetics. Equations of motion for the socioconfiguration are derived on the stochastic and quasideterministic level. As an application the migration of interacting human populations is treated. The solutions of the nonlinear migratory equations include limit cycles and strange attractors. The empiric evaluation of interregional migratory dynamics is exemplified in the case of Germany.

  3. A conservative's social psychology.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Clark

    2015-01-01

    I suggest that social psychologists should stick to studying positive and negative attitudes and give up stigmatizing some attitudes as "prejudice." I recommend that we avoid assuming that race and ethnicity have no biological foundations, in order to avoid a collision course with modern biology. And I wonder how much difference the target article recommendations can make in the context of hiring a social psychologist for an academic position.

  4. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  5. The social life of cognition.

    PubMed

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics).

  6. Social University Challenge: Constructing Pragmatic Graduate Competencies for Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Vladlena; Morgan, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    With the strong acceptance of social technologies by student users, the academic applications have swiftly followed, bringing a social dimension into every area of university life. However, there have been concerns raised about the impact of social media on students. Some Universities have started including social media skills training in the…

  7. Social Conflict: The Negative Aspect of Social Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Rovine, Michael

    Interpersonal relationships can be nonsupportive as well as supportive. A study was conducted to investigate the negative aspects of social relations which parallel two positive components of social relations, esteem support and affirmative support. If social support represents the positive aspects of interpersonal relationships, social conflict…

  8. The Social Side of School: Why Teachers Need Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and learning are fundamentally social enterprises. In attempting to understand, explain, and predict social behavior, social psychologists have amassed scores of empirically grounded, fundamental principles. Yet, many such principles have yet to be applied to classrooms despite the social nature of these settings. This article illustrates…

  9. Social Justice, Education and School Social Work in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadir, Ural; Aktan, Mehmet Can

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on welfare state, social justice and school social work interaction. In this paper, these three concepts' reflections in Turkey were mentioned. Researchers aimed to discuss how school social work (which is brought to the agenda recently) is important in the provision of social justice in Turkish public service delivery. [For the…

  10. In the Service of Socialism: Social Welfare in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Bong-ho

    1983-01-01

    Investigates the concept of social welfare and the achievement of social welfare goals in China, in the context of the unique political and social background of the country. Social welfare is seen more as a means to attain socialist ends rather than as an end in itself. (JAC)

  11. [Influence of the social context on the body image perception of women undergoing breast cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Neri Sánchez, M; Mur Villar, N; Gómez Valverde, E

    2013-01-01

    El pecho de la mujer está muy relacionado en la cultura occidental con el mundo de la sexualidad y el atractivo físico, aunque puede variar en función del contexto. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia del contexto social en la percepción de la imagen corporal de las mujeres intervenidas de cáncer de mama. Material y método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Los escenarios del estudio estuvieron constituidos por el Centro Oncológico Estatal del ISSEMyM en la ciudad de Toluca (México), y el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio de la ciudad de Granada (España). La totalidad del universo estuvo formado por 72 mujeres mastectomizadas. De ellas, 30 correspondieron a México y 42 a España. Se recogieron datos de variables sociodemográficas y las mujeres respondieron a preguntas sobre su historia clínica personal y familiar. Se aplicó la Escala validada BIS (Body Image Scale) de Hopwood. Resultados: El 67,7% mujeres mastectomizadas españolas se encuentran activas laboralmente en comparación al 43,3% de las mujeres mexicanas. Diferencia estadísticamente significativas en los dos grupos (p < 0,05). En la medida en que las mujeres se vinculan al mundo laboral e incrementan su nivel de escolaridad, la aceptación de la imagen corporal muestra mejores resultados. Las mujeres que viven en contextos sociales desarrollados tienen una mejor percepción de su imagen corporal. Con una diferencia significativa de (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El contexto social influye en la percepción de la imagen corporal de las mujeres intervenidas de cáncer de mama. La ocupación laboral y el grado de escolaridad fueron determinantes de la percepción de la misma.

  12. Child and Nonviolent Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Elise

    1974-01-01

    Examines the nature of the child and the impact of socialization experiences on his capacity to act nonviolently in a changing social order. Presents a socialization model that draws on different disciplinary frameworks and research areas (animal and human ethnology, social learning theories, altruism studies, and reviews of protest movements).…

  13. Social robots for health applications.

    PubMed

    Breazeal, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Social robots are designed to interact with people in a manner that is consistent with human social psychology. They are a particularly intriguing technology in health domains due to their ability to engage people along social and emotional dimensions. In this paper, we highlight a number of interesting opportunities for social robots in healthcare related applications.

  14. Creative Cognition in Social Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Mingming; Thagard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Social innovations are creative products and changes that are motivated by social needs and bring value to society by meeting those needs. This article uses case studies to investigate the cognitive and social processes that contribute to creativity in social innovation. The cases are: Wendy Kopp with Teach For America in education, Cicely…

  15. Home Education: The Social Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Data from a Norwegian survey show correlation between a student's socially related problems at school and the parent's social motivation for home education. I argue that more time spent at school by a student could result in more socially related problems at school, which can explain an increase in social motivation for home education.

  16. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  17. [Social media, children and pediatricians].

    PubMed

    Le Heuzey, M-F

    2012-01-01

    Using social media web sites is a common activity for children, and any site that allows social interaction (social network, games, virtual worlds...) is a social media site. Pediatricians are in a position to help families understand the benefits and the risks of these sites, and to diagnose problems in children and adolescents as cyberbullying, depression, and post traumatic disorder. PMID:22119289

  18. Social Science and Institutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Robert R.

    With the growth of the social sciences, there has been increasing interest in use of their products to shed light on, and solve, some of the pressing social problems of our society. This monograph, the first in a series of studies on social change, reports on an analysis of applications of social change theory and research to programs of…

  19. Social Anxiety in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasi, Guzin

    2005-01-01

    Social anxiety occurs when people feel doubtful about their particular impressions, real or imaginary, on others. Social anxiety, as denoted by its name, is a situation that arises in social settings as an outcome of interpersonal relationships. What lies in the basis of social anxiety is the fear of being evaluated by others as inadequate. Social…

  20. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

    2011-01-01

    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  1. Animal models of social avoidance and social fear.

    PubMed

    Toth, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D

    2013-10-01

    Social fear and avoidance of social situations represent the main behavioral symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD), a highly prevalent anxiety disorder that is poorly elucidated and has rather unsatisfactory therapeutic options. Therefore, animal models are needed to study the underlying etiology and pathophysiology of SAD and to verify the efficacy of possible novel treatment approaches. In this review, we describe and discuss the most important paradigms that have been shown to induce social avoidance and fear in rodents, including foot shock exposure, restraint stress, social isolation, social instability, social defeat, conditioned defeat, social defeat/overcrowding, chronic subordinate colony housing, chronic mild stress, maternal separation and social fear conditioning. We also describe some of the behavioral paradigms used to assess social avoidance and fear in rodents, including the social interaction test, the social preference-avoidance test, the social approach-avoidance test, the three-chambered social approach test, the partition test and the modified Y-maze test. We focus on the behavioral alterations these paradigms induce, especially on social interaction, general anxiety and depressive-like behavior given that SAD is strongly comorbid with anxiety and affective disorders.

  2. Burnout in gerontological social work.

    PubMed

    Poulin, J E; Walter, C A

    1993-05-01

    Although burnout in various fields of social work has been explored in some depth, there is a dearth of research on the gerontological social worker's experience with burnout. This article reports a national survey of burnout among 1,196 social workers who work with elderly people and who belong to either the National Association of Social Workers or the Gerontological Society of America. The extent to which these social workers experience the three components of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) is reported. The significant client, organizational, and personal factors associated with burnout among gerontological social workers are identified, and implications for social work practice are discussed.

  3. Justice-based social assistance

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-01-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls – social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice – to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and ‘real’ social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries.

  4. Justice-based social assistance

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-01-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls – social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice – to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and ‘real’ social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries. PMID:27708544

  5. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  6. The Social Strategy Game

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Winking, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines social determinants of resource competition among Tsimane Amerindian women of Bolivia. We introduce a semi-anonymous experiment (the Social Strategy Game) designed to simulate resource competition among women. Information concerning dyadic social relationships and demographic data were collected to identify variables influencing resource competition intensity, as measured by the number of beads one woman took from another. Relationship variables are used to test how the affiliative or competitive aspects of dyads affect the extent of prosociality in the game. Using a mixed-modeling procedure, we find that women compete with those with whom they are quarreling over accusations of meat theft, mate competition, and rumor spreading. They also compete with members of their social network and with those who were designated as cooperative helpers or as close kin. Women take fewer beads from desired friends, neighbors, and from those viewed as enemies. We interpret favoritism toward enemies as resulting from fear of retribution. Our results suggest that social relations among women are multifaceted and often cannot be simplified by exclusive focus on genetic relatedness, physical proximity, or reciprocity. We argue that a complex understanding of cooperation and competition among women may require important contextual information concerning relationship history in addition to typical features of resource ecology. PMID:20526460

  7. Justice within social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, David A; Steel, Julie E; Woodell, Andria J; Bembenek, Alicia F

    2003-01-01

    The defining feature of social dilemma situations is the inherent conflict faced by those involved: should one act in his or her own individual best interest or sacrifice a measure of one's personal payoff to help maximize the joint payoff of the group as a whole? In such dilemmas, those making individualistic and defecting choices are always at a competitive advantage relative to those who choose to cooperate. One seemingly inevitable consequence of the resulting resource allocation asymmetry is that it must challenge and threaten the cooperator's sense of fairness and justice, and it is the reaction of those caught in social dilemmas to this injustice and unfairness that is the focus of this article. We examine how justice processes-distributive justice, procedural justice, restorative justice, and retributive justice-operate in social dilemmas. Within this examination, we consider ideas from classic and contemporary conceptual analyses of justice to provide a broader context within which to understand social dilemmas and the roles that justice plays as people strive to ensure fair outcomes for themselves and for others. We conclude with the proposal of a 4-stage, sequential model of justice in social dilemmas that posits groups move between the types of justice concerns when unfair and unsatisfactory outcomes (e.g., inequitable resource allocations, violations of agreed-on allocation rules, intentional and egregious exploitation of the group) cause members to "recognize the necessity" for change to ensure fair and just outcomes for all.

  8. Culturally Relevant, Socially Just Social Work Supervision: Becoming Visible through a Social Constructionist Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Heather J.; O'Donoghue, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    Developing a conceptualization of the supervision relationship that can successfully encourage cultural relevancy and the pursuit of social justice is a challenge facing social workers today. We propose that a social constructionist perspective invites social work supervisors influenced by Euro-Western discourse to (1) seek understanding about…

  9. Exploring the Roles of Social Participation in Mobile Social Media Learning: A Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Helmi; Nordin, Norazah; Din, Rosseni; Ally, Mohamad; Dogan, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Social media is increasingly becoming an essential platform for social connectivity in our daily lives. The availability of mobile technology has further fueled its importance -- making it a ubiquitous tool for social interaction. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate roles of social participation in this field. Thus, the…

  10. Making Social Studies Social: Engaging Students through Different Forms of Social Perspective Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2011-01-01

    People are intrinsically motivated to connect to others socially. One of the most important mechanisms in fostering social relationships is social perspective taking (SPT)--the capacity to discern the thoughts and feelings of others. Thus, students in social studies classrooms might be motivated to engage with their subject either through taking…

  11. Social interaction distance and stratification.

    PubMed

    Bottero, Wendy; Prandy, Kenneth

    2003-06-01

    There have been calls from several sources recently for a renewal of class analysis that would encompass social and cultural, as well as economic elements. This paper explores a tradition in stratification that is founded on this idea: relational or social distance approaches to mapping hierarchy and inequality which theorize stratification as a social space. The idea of 'social space' is not treated as a metaphor of hierarchy nor is the nature of the structure determined a priori. Rather, the space is identified by mapping social interactions. Exploring the nature of social space involves mapping the network of social interaction--patterns of friendship, partnership and cultural similarity--which gives rise to relations of social closeness and distance. Differential association has long been seen as the basis of hierarchy, but the usual approach is first to define a structure composed of a set of groups and then to investigate social interaction between them. Social distance approaches reverse this, using patterns of interaction to determine the nature of the structure. Differential association can be seen as a way of defining proximity within a social space, from the distances between social groups, or between social groups and social objects (such as lifestyle items). The paper demonstrates how the very different starting point of social distance approaches also leads to strikingly different theoretical conclusions about the nature of stratification and inequality.

  12. Communication about social status.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Russell D

    2014-10-01

    Dominance hierarchies are ubiquitous in social species and serve to organize social systems. Social and sexual status is communicated directly among animals via sensory systems evolved in the particular species. Such signals may be chemical, visual, auditory, postural or a combination of signals. In most species, status is initially established through physical conflict between individuals that leads to ritualized conflict or threats, reducing possibly dangerous results of fighting. Many of the status signals contain other information, as in some bird species that communicate both the size of their group and their individual rank vocally. Recent studies have shown that scent signaling among hyenas of east Africa is unique, being produced by fermentative, odor producing bacteria residing in the scent glands. PMID:24793315

  13. Live Social Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; van den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain

    Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web 2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated in real-time with face-to-face contact networks derived from wearable sensors. Integration of all these heterogeneous data layers made it possible to offer various services to conference attendees to enhance their social experience such as visualisation of contact data, and a site to explore and connect with other participants. This paper describes the architecture of the application, the services we provided, and the results we achieved in this deployment.

  14. Quantum Social Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.

  15. Embodiment in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology.

  16. COMMUNICATION ABOUT SOCIAL STATUS

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are ubiquitous in social species and serve to organize social systems. Social and sexual status is communicated directly among animals via sensory systems evolved in the particular species. Such signals may be chemical, visual, auditory, postural or a combination of signals. In most species, status is initially established through physical conflict between individuals that leads to ritualized conflict or threats, reducing possibly dangerous results of fighting. Many of the status signals contain other information, as in some bird species that communicate both the size of their group and their individual rank vocally. Recent studies have shown that scent signaling among hyenas of east Africa is unique, being produced by fermentative, odor producing bacteria residing in the scent glands. PMID:24793315

  17. The Social Network Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunus, Peter

    Online social networking is an important part in the everyday life of college students. Despite the increasing popularity of online social networking among students and faculty members, its educational benefits are largely untested. This paper presents our experience in using social networking applications and video content distribution websites as a complement of traditional classroom education. In particular, the solution has been based on effective adaptation, extension and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material to students on mobile platforms like iPods and 3 rd generation mobile phones. The goals of the proposed educational platform, described in this paper, are to make the learning experience more engaging, to encourage collaborative work and knowledge sharing among students, and to provide an interactive platform for the educators to reach students and deliver lecture material in a totally new way.

  18. Evolution of individual versus social learning on social networks.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of 'cultural models' exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak.

  19. How social cognition can inform social decision making.

    PubMed

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures-while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context-and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  20. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  1. Social Identity and Preferences*

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Choi, James J.; Strickland, A. Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Social identities prescribe behaviors for people. We identify the marginal behavioral effect of these norms on discount rates and risk aversion by measuring how laboratory subjects’ choices change when an aspect of social identity is made salient. When we make ethnic identity salient to Asian-American subjects, they make more patient choices. When we make racial identity salient to black subjects, non-immigrant blacks (but not immigrant blacks) make more patient choices. Making gender identity salient has no effect on intertemporal or risk choices. PMID:20871741

  2. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  3. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites.

  4. Social Media and Social Reality - Theory, Evidence and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, William; Weber, Marta S.; Farber, Robert M.; Corley, Courtney D.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2010-06-14

    Social Media provide an exciting and novel view into social phenomena. The vast amounts of data that can be gathered from the Internet coupled with massively parallel supercomputers such as the Cray XMT open new vistas for research. Conclusions drawn from such analysis must recognize that social media are distinct from the underlying social reality. Rigorous validation is essential. This paper briefly presents results obtained from computational analysis of social media - utilizing both blog and twitter data. Validation of these results is discussed in the context of a framework of established methodologies from the social sciences. Finally, an outline for a set of supporting studies is proposed.

  5. Cultural transmission of social essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children. PMID:22869722

  6. Psychobiology of social support: the social dimension of stress buffering.

    PubMed

    Ditzen, Beate; Heinrichs, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Social integration and social support have a substantial influence on individual health and longevity, an effect assumed to be mediated through reduced stress reactivity in support recipients. However, considerable variability in individual responses to social support has been documented, suggesting that the beneficial effect of social support interacts with early experiences, genetically influenced differences in biological systems mediating social behavior, personality traits, and psychopathology. Here we outline the historical background of social support research, including epidemiological studies, laboratory studies, and field studies on the subject of social support and health, with regard to different psychobiological effector systems. Most recent research has focused on brain mechanisms which link social integration or social support with reduced neural threat responses. As numerous mental disorders are associated with considerable social impairment, understanding the potentially underlying mechanisms of neural plasticity in relation to social support, stress buffering and health in these disorders can help tailor new diagnostic and treatment strategies. Thus, theories of socially-driven emotional learning and memory, as presented in this review, might eventually lead to psychobiology-based treatment concepts for mental disorders involving social deficits.

  7. Cyberbullying via Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Elizabeth; Kowalski, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a surge of research on cyberbullying. In this article, three studies examined prevalence rates of cyberbullying among college-age students, venues through which cyberbullying occurs, with a particular focus on social media, and perceptions of cyberbullying as a function of features of the target (e.g., peer, celebrity,…

  8. Mobilizing Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard

    1977-01-01

    The author sees a serious need to encourage training and research activities relating to long-term normative change in social, economic, political, and cultural systems, especially of transnational and global scales. He makes the judgment that we are in the midst of a transition process as fundamental as the convulsive process that accompanied the…

  9. IQ and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv

    1980-01-01

    Swedish longitudinal studies of twins support Scarr-Salapatek's explanation of nature-nurture influences on intelligence. This model predicts more genetic variance in test results for advantaged than disadvantaged groups. Jensen's work, however, suggests equal amounts of variance among different social classes. (Author/CP)

  10. Social Gerontology Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jeanne C., Ed.; Umbarger, Vivian C., Ed.

    This guide for educators, human service workers, and others interested in social gerontology contains four sections covering fifteen subject areas/sessions. Unit 1, Societal Structure and Its Relationship to the Aged, presents data concerning demographics of the aging population, historical factors having an impact upon value processing of older…

  11. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  12. Social Policy Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    This document is comprised of the four 2002 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and implications for social policies affecting children. The topics featured in each of the issues are: (1) "The Effects of Welfare Reform Policies on Children" (Pamela A. Morris); (2) "At What Age…

  13. Social Policy Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy G., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Each of the four issues of this newsletter published in 1993 consists of one article dealing with a particular policy debate. Number 1, "Canadian Special Education Policies: Children with Learning Disabilities in a Bilingual and Multicultural Society" (Linda S. Siegel and Judith Wiener), discusses social and cultural factors affecting the…

  14. Primer on Social Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Robert L.

    An elaboration of the author's booklet entitled "First Steps Toward Economic Understanding," this primer is designed to help the reader develop a functional understanding of the economic process so that he can make wiser decisions on issues of social policy and on matters affecting his economic well-being. The document is not "economics in one…

  15. Student Services Go Social

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt; Gullon, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Like fine wines, Web 2.0 technologies get better with age. Gone are the days of the pointless chat room; this is the era of social networking juggernauts such as Facebook, MySpace, and Friendster. Services offered by these firms are helpful in facilitating connections among users in every industry and of every age. In higher education, however, a…

  16. Environmental Quality & Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khare, R. S.; And Others

    Edited transcripts of presentations made at a conference sponsored by the University of Wisconsin--Green Bay are arranged in five sections: (1) "Mass Production, Mass Consumption, Mass Waste;" (2) "Man Versus Nature;" (3) "The Urban Social Environment: Problems of Affluence, Membership, and Security;" (4) "Institutional Response to Technological…

  17. Mining the social mediome.

    PubMed

    Asch, David A; Rader, Daniel J; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-09-01

    The experiences and behaviors revealed in our everyday lives provide as much insight into health and disease as any analysis of our genome could ever produce. These characteristics are not found in the genome, but may be revealed in our online activities, which make up our social mediome.

  18. Discursive social psychology now.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. PMID:21790666

  19. Social Separation in Monkeys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineka, Susan; Suomi, Stephen J.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews phenomena associated with social separation from attachment objects in nonhuman primates. Evaluates four theoretical treatments of separation in light of existing data: Bowlby's attachment-object-loss theory, Kaufman's conservation-withdrawal theory, Seligman's learned helplessness theory, and Solomon and Corbit's opponent-process theory.…

  20. Tactics of Social Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrabian, Albert

    In this book, the principles of behavior modification are presented as a set of guidelines for identifying recurrent behavior patterns and are then applied as techniques to change various undesirable behaviors. Progressively more complex steps toward behavior modification and its social influence are cited and illustrated in chapters which deal…

  1. Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Lyndsey R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between reactive and regulatory dimensions of temperament may be particularly relevant to children's adjustment but are examined infrequently. This study investigated these interactions by examining effortful control as a moderator of the relations of fear and frustration reactivity to children's social competence, internalizing, and…

  2. Early Childhood Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia S.

    This book presents three models for teaching social studies to young children, each of which is based on use of the senses, concrete experiences, and opportunities to discuss observations. The models can be used as needed with children at differing levels since each addresses a particular level of development. The book focuses on a cognitive…

  3. Aviation in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary unit approach for teaching social science concepts using aviation as a vehicle to create interest and provide a meaningful context for grades K through 8. The general objectives and understandings for each grade level are described and some sample activities listed. (BR)

  4. Discursive social psychology now.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today.

  5. Social Studies Journal, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo R., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Social Studies Journal" focuses on the worldwide conflict known in the United States as the French and Indian War (1754-1763). The volume is dedicated to examining the conflict in Pennsylvania. Western Pennsylvania became a battle-scarred landscape as the British and French, with their Native American allies, struggled for…

  6. Mining the Social Mediome

    PubMed Central

    Asch, David A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Merchant, Raina

    2015-01-01

    The experiences and behaviors revealed in our everyday lives provide as much insight into health and disease as any analysis of our genome could ever produce. These characteristics are not found in the genome, but may be revealed in our online activities which make up our social mediome. PMID:26341614

  7. Socialization of Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Guided by new structuralism theory, this study examined the context of novice teacher socialization, identified the frequency and substance of interactions between novice teachers and their mentors and other colleagues, and reported on novices' evaluation of the support that they received. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with…

  8. Navigating Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, DeAnna; Bartlett, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors note that when it comes to balancing free speech and schools' responsibilities, the online world is largely uncharted waters. Questions remain about the rights of both students and teachers in the world of social media. Although the lower courts have ruled that students' freedom of speech rights offer them some protection for…

  9. Reggio Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stejzygier, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the social capital as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the Places" and "The…

  10. Teaching Social Studies Indepth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2014-01-01

    Social studies, too frequently, is taught in a survey approach whereby pupils obtain subject matter in a shallow manner. Forgetting and hazy recalls are typical of this procedure of instruction. Covering many topics in a relatively short period of time does not make for achievement which is long-lasting. Then too, selected pupils might be left…

  11. Motives for Social Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    1995-01-01

    A set of motive statements for social comparison was elicited from one group of subjects and then rated in terms of usefulness by a second group of subjects. Analysis of these statements revealed six motives in response to two different hypothetical scenarios: self-evaluation, common bond, self-improvement, self-enhancement, altruism, and…

  12. Language As Social Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of social event was tested with a group of 68 children, aged three to six years. The subjects were presented with a wide variety of environmental print messages (road signs, toys, fast food signs, and household products) and were questioned…

  13. Whither Social Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from psychology and mathematics as the main…

  14. Social Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste or Abuse Site Map Website Policies Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov Healthcare.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social ...

  15. Social Studies Handbook, Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    The handbook outlines a course of study in social studies on the kindergarten level. The overall course objective is to teach children that people everywhere have certain basic needs and wants, and that how people meet these needs depends upon their environment and cultural level. Questioning techniques are used throughout the course. Questions…

  16. Social Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Jonathan, Ed.

    In recent years, social programs for the poor have lost the support of the American public. This book describes some of the very best programs and documents their benefits, demonstrating that we can, in fact, make substantial progress in the fight against educational failure, family dissolution, violent crime, substance abuse, unemployment, and…

  17. Teaching Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  18. Social Policy Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy G., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four 1999 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and its implications for the social policies affecting children. The topics of the issues are: (1) "Beyond 'Giving Science Away': How University-Community Partnerships Inform Youth Programs, Research,…

  19. Disintegrating Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrow, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Argues that social scientists convey the impression of rational behavior by means of self-serving research techniques. Concludes that their artificially constructed order masks the disorder of everyday existence and that they should have tolerance for human frailties. (Author/WD)

  20. Social inheritance can explain the structure of animal social networks

    PubMed Central

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Akçay, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The social network structure of animal populations has major implications for survival, reproductive success, sexual selection and pathogen transmission of individuals. But as of yet, no general theory of social network structure exists that can explain the diversity of social networks observed in nature, and serve as a null model for detecting species and population-specific factors. Here we propose a simple and generally applicable model of social network structure. We consider the emergence of network structure as a result of social inheritance, in which newborns are likely to bond with maternal contacts, and via forming bonds randomly. We compare model output with data from several species, showing that it can generate networks with properties such as those observed in real social systems. Our model demonstrates that important observed properties of social networks, including heritability of network position or assortative associations, can be understood as consequences of social inheritance. PMID:27352101

  1. Topological evolution of virtual social networks by modeling social activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Dong, Junyu; Tang, Ruichun; Xu, Mantao; Qi, Lin; Cai, Yang

    2015-09-01

    With the development of Internet and wireless communication, virtual social networks are becoming increasingly important in the formation of nowadays' social communities. Topological evolution model is foundational and critical for social network related researches. Up to present most of the related research experiments are carried out on artificial networks, however, a study of incorporating the actual social activities into the network topology model is ignored. This paper first formalizes two mathematical abstract concepts of hobbies search and friend recommendation to model the social actions people exhibit. Then a social activities based topology evolution simulation model is developed to satisfy some well-known properties that have been discovered in real-world social networks. Empirical results show that the proposed topology evolution model has embraced several key network topological properties of concern, which can be envisioned as signatures of real social networks.

  2. Social marketing: an approach to planned social change.

    PubMed

    Kotler, P; Zaltman, G

    1971-07-01

    This article examines the applicability of marketing concepts to social causes and social change. Social marketing is defined as the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Wiebe examined four social advertising campaigns and concluded that their effectiveness depended on the presence of adequate force, direction, adequate and compatible social mechanism, and distance (the "cost" of the new attitude as seen by message's message"s recepient). A marketing planning approach is not a guarantee for the achievement of social objectives; yet, it represents a bridging mechanism linking the knowledge of the behavioral scientist with the socially useful implementation of that knowledge. PMID:12276120

  3. Social marketing: an approach to planned social change.

    PubMed

    Kotler, P; Zaltman, G

    1971-07-01

    This article examines the applicability of marketing concepts to social causes and social change. Social marketing is defined as the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Wiebe examined four social advertising campaigns and concluded that their effectiveness depended on the presence of adequate force, direction, adequate and compatible social mechanism, and distance (the "cost" of the new attitude as seen by message's message"s recepient). A marketing planning approach is not a guarantee for the achievement of social objectives; yet, it represents a bridging mechanism linking the knowledge of the behavioral scientist with the socially useful implementation of that knowledge.

  4. Social inheritance can explain the structure of animal social networks.

    PubMed

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Akçay, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The social network structure of animal populations has major implications for survival, reproductive success, sexual selection and pathogen transmission of individuals. But as of yet, no general theory of social network structure exists that can explain the diversity of social networks observed in nature, and serve as a null model for detecting species and population-specific factors. Here we propose a simple and generally applicable model of social network structure. We consider the emergence of network structure as a result of social inheritance, in which newborns are likely to bond with maternal contacts, and via forming bonds randomly. We compare model output with data from several species, showing that it can generate networks with properties such as those observed in real social systems. Our model demonstrates that important observed properties of social networks, including heritability of network position or assortative associations, can be understood as consequences of social inheritance. PMID:27352101

  5. Military Social Work: Opportunities and Challenges for Social Work Education

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Nikki R.

    2015-01-01

    Military social work is a specialized field of practice spanning the micro-macro continuum and requiring advanced social work knowledge and skills. The complex behavioral health problems and service needs of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans highlight the need for highly trained social work professionals who can provide militarily-relevant and culturally-responsive evidence-informed services. Responding to the military behavioral health workforce and service needs of recently returned veterans presents both opportunities and challenges for military social work education. This article discusses the rationale for a military social work specialization, the need for military social work education, and opportunities and challenges for social work education. An integrated model of intellectual capital is proposed to guide strategic planning for future military social work education. PMID:26089628

  6. Choking under social pressure: social monitoring among the lonely.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Megan L; Lucas, Gale M; Baumeister, Roy F; Gardner, Wendi L

    2015-06-01

    Lonely individuals may decode social cues well but have difficulty putting such skills to use precisely when they need them--in social situations. In four studies, we examined whether lonely people choke under social pressure by asking participants to complete social sensitivity tasks framed as diagnostic of social skills or nonsocial skills. Across studies, lonely participants performed worse than nonlonely participants on social sensitivity tasks framed as tests of social aptitude, but they performed just as well or better than the nonlonely when the same tasks were framed as tests of academic aptitude. Mediational analyses in Study 3 and misattribution effects in Study 4 indicate that anxiety plays an important role in this choking effect. This research suggests that lonely individuals may not need to acquire social skills to escape loneliness; instead, they must learn to cope with performance anxiety in interpersonal interactions. PMID:25956799

  7. Social communication deficits: Specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Methods Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire – Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Results Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), Reciprocal Social Interaction (t(351)=4.73, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), communication (t(344)=3.62, p<.001, d=.43, r=.21) and repetitive, restrictive and stereotyped behaviors subscales (t(353)=3.15, p=.002, d=.37, r=.18). Furthermore, children with Social Anxiety Disorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. Limitations The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Conclusions Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. PMID:25451393

  8. Developmental pathways for social understanding: linking social cognition to social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Kimberly A.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859

  9. Social Work Learning Spaces: The Social Work Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufferey, Carole; King, Sue

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of a physical learning space to student engagement in social work education. Drawing on a constructivist methodology, this paper examines the findings of a survey conducted with students and staff in a social work and human service programme about their experiences of a Social Work Studio learning space. The…

  10. Social Problems in Turkish Social Studies Coursebooks and Workbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesiltas, Erkan; Eryilmaz, Önder; Pehlivan, Aysegül

    2016-01-01

    In Turkey, the social studies course, which is taught in elementary 5th to 7th grades, prepares students to solve problems they may encounter in their future life. Therefore, the teaching of social problems to help students get to know them is one of the most important issues for the social studies course. The primary aim of this study is to…

  11. Social Media and Social Networking Applications for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Michelle Mei Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to better understand the experiences of the youth and the educators with the tapping of social media like YouTube videos and the social networking application of Facebook for teaching and learning. This paper is interested in appropriating the benefits of leveraging of social media and networking applications like YouTube and…

  12. The Implications of Social Neuroscience for Social Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, James C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Social disability represents a unifying feature in the diverse group of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social neuroscience is the study of brain mechanisms supporting interpersonal interaction. In this paper, we review brain imaging studies of the social brain and highlight practical applications of these scientific insights.…

  13. Fostering Social Responsibility and Handling Disruptive Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Marvin

    1998-01-01

    Describes The Social Development Program, a way to foster social responsibility and in the process reduce unacceptable classroom behavior simply and easily. The strategy is based on several principles: positivity; empowerment by choice; the importance of self-evaluation and self-correction; assumption of social responsibility; and authority…

  14. Toward Valuation in Social Work and Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cnaan, Ram A.; Kang, Chulhee

    2011-01-01

    Social work and social services are known to be beneficial to society, but to date no systematic valuation of their contribution has been attempted. The aim of this article is to advance our ability to quantify both the known direct benefits and some of the positive externalities of social work. The authors make the case of why valuation is…

  15. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  16. Coupling Social Solidarity and Social Harmony in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ma, Stephen Kan

    2011-01-01

    The various forms of social solidarity are empirically uncharted, especially in relation to social harmony. With respect to resource exchange theory, inclusive solidarity or intergroup acceptance is more conducive to social harmony than mechanical, organic, distributive, and dialogic forms of solidarity. The theoretical prediction holds in the…

  17. Social Trust, Social Partner Time and Television Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patulny, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Social trust is an important phenomenon, but the influence of important time-based measures upon trust has not been examined. Such measures include social contact and anti-social activity, such as television watching, which allows for the co-presence of other people. This paper reports on associations between trust and weighted means of co-present…

  18. Using Social Media to Engage Youth: Education, Social Justice, & Humanitarianism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Belle; Commins, Meghan; Duffy, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    While youth typically turn to social media for gossip, photo sharing, and friendship building, can it also be used to inspire them toward greater goals? The creators of GenerationPulse.com explore how two theories salient to adolescent social development (positive youth development and relational health) were used to shape a social media website…

  19. Social Anxiety and Adolescents' Friendships: The Role of Social Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Wu, Yelena P.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates social anxiety is associated with lower friendship quality, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This 2-month longitudinal study examined social withdrawal as a mediator of the social anxiety-friendship quality link in a sample of 214 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.1 years, SD = 0.73) that included an…

  20. The Social Classroom: Integrating Social Network Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallia, Gorg, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    As technology is being integrated into educational processes, teachers are searching for new ways to enhance student motivation and learning. Through shared experiences and the results of empirical research, educators can ease social networking sites into instructional usage. "The Social Classroom: Integrating Social Network Use in…

  1. One Health in social networks and social media

    PubMed Central

    Mekaru, S.R.; Brownstein, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media’s strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting, the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message. PMID:25707189

  2. Military Social Work: Opportunities and Challenges for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Nikki R.

    2015-01-01

    Military social work is a specialized field of practice spanning the micro-macro continuum and requiring advanced social work knowledge and skills. The complex behavioral health problems and service needs of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans highlight the need for highly trained social work professionals who can provide militarily relevant and…

  3. Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences/Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Daniel L.

    Computers are beginning to be used more frequently as instructional tools in secondary school social studies. This is especially true of "new social studies" programs; i.e., programs which subordinate mere mastery of factual content to the recognition of and ability to deal with the social imperatives of the future. Computer-assisted instruction…

  4. One Health in social networks and social media.

    PubMed

    Mekaru, S R; Brownstein, J S

    2014-08-01

    In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media's strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting,the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message.

  5. Socialization Tactics, Proactive Behavior, and Newcomer Learning: Integrating Socialization Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashforth, Blake E.; Sluss, David M.; Saks, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized…

  6. Generalization of Social Skills Intervention for Preschoolers with Social Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Keith; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An individualized, on-site consultation model was used to instruct four classroom aides in teaching social interaction skills to five young children with social delays and 10 nondelayed peers. Increased levels of social interaction were found during training with triads of students, but generalization did not occur until a token system was…

  7. Integrating Mathematics and Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Gregory K.

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates how to integrate mathematics with social issues. Social issues discussed in the newspaper provide a rich context for connecting mathematical activities to the real world. The sample activities focus on measurement concepts. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. The Humanities in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John

    1989-01-01

    Suggests that truth, beauty, and the notion of morals and ethics are the essence of knowledge. Stresses the obligation of educators to encourage the feelings in their students that generate social responsibility. Claims the humanistic issue precedes social science. (NL)

  9. Engaging Learners With Social Media.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth; Harper, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Can social media be used to promote learning? This article includes an overview of social networking sites with specific examples of how nursing professional development practitioners might use each for professional development activities. PMID:27187828

  10. Social Work Practice In Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Rex A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes a program of social services provided by a large corporation for employees with personal problems. Graduate students in social work help in the program for field experience. Results indicate a significant drop in absenteeism within the company. (HMV)

  11. The Deprofessionalization of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Harry

    1972-01-01

    Four ideological currents serve to undermine professionalism in social work: activism, anti-individualism, communalism, and environmentalism. The author describes each of these currents and discusses the ways in which social work education accommodates them. (Author)

  12. Social cognition and epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Heidi E

    2006-02-01

    Human social behavior depends on a set of perceptive, mnemonic, and interpretive abilities that together may be termed social cognition. Lesion and functional imaging studies of social cognitive functions implicate the temporal lobes (in particular, the nondominant temporal lobe) and mesial temporal structures as critical at the front end of social cognitive processes. The frontal lobes, in turn, function to interpret and to modulate these processes via top-down control. Damage to frontal regions is associated with specific derangements in social behavior. Chronic focal-onset epilepsy and its surgical treatment commonly affect these neuroanatomic regions and might therefore impact social function. Postoperative social function helps determine quality of life for both patients and families. There is some evidence that resective seizure surgery affects social cognition, but there are significant weaknesses in our current knowledge that can be overcome with comprehensive longitudinal research. PMID:16253567

  13. National Association of Social Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 22/2016) NASW Health Care Standards Social Workers’ Perception of Workforce Challenges Executive Summary Findings Report (June ... Women’s Issues, conducted a survey on Social Workers’ Perception of Workforce Challenges. Click to read the findings. ' }] ...

  14. Online social networking for radiology.

    PubMed

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Heller, Matthew T; Nowitzki, Kristina M; Sherry, Steven J; Tillack, Allison A

    2015-01-01

    Online social networking services have changed the way we interact as a society and offer many opportunities to improve the way we practice radiology and medicine in general. This article begins with an introduction to social networking. Next, the latest advances in online social networking are reviewed, and areas where radiologists and clinicians may benefit from these new tools are discussed. This article concludes with several steps that the interested reader can take to become more involved in online social networking.

  15. Social attachments in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Sigman, M; Mundy, P

    1989-01-01

    Social responses of young autistic children to separation from and reunion with their caregivers did not differ from the social responses to similar situations of young mentally retarded nonautistic children. Most autistic children directed more social behaviors to their caregivers than to strangers and increased their preferential behavior after separation. Individual differences in social responses were not associated with the level of representational skills shown by the autistic children.

  16. Federalism and social justice: implications for social work.

    PubMed

    Linhorst, Donald M

    2002-07-01

    Federalism is a system of government that divides power between two or more levels of government. During the current conservative political climate in the United States, power has shifted increasingly from the federal government to states, a move that has implications for the achievement of social justice. Consequently, it is now necessary for social workers to engage in political activity at the state and local levels, in addition to the federal level, to promote social justice. Implications for social work policy practice, research, and education for advancing social justice within the federal system of government are explored.

  17. Social ties and health: A social neuroscience perspective

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2013-01-01

    Research over the last several decades has shown that the health of the body is intimately tied to the strength of our social connections, but why? This article reviews evidence from affective and social neuroscience suggesting that, because of the importance of social ties for mammalian survival, threats to social connection are processed by some of the same neural regions that process basic threats to survival and consequently trigger physiological threat responses that have negative health implications. Likewise, social support is processed by some of the same neural regions that process safety or protection from basic threats and inhibit these same health-relevant physiological threat responses. PMID:23395461

  18. Globalisation and social policy.

    PubMed

    Langmore, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses six major themes: that economic and social issues are closely interdependent and that the appropriate stance is to work on both together, simultaneously; that though the threats from globalisation have been exaggerated, there can be substantial costs as well as considerable benefits; that constraints on national policy are significant but are less severe than is commonly considered; that the vitality-the vigour-of national and international political processes must be increased to cope effectively with the changes which are underway; that the private sector, unions and civil society have crucial roles in the provision of services and in advocating socially responsible values, standards and policies; and that one of the most effective means of addressing the erosion of national autonomy from globalisation is for countries to cooperate in setting and implementing shared objectives and international standards and establishing more global public goods.

  19. Understanding social motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  20. The Social Sciences in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng-Fang, Yang

    1980-01-01

    Characterizes social science research and teaching in China today as being closely linked to the solution of practical social, economic, and political problems. The emphasis is also on encouraging many different schools of thought among scientists and social scientists as a means of bringing about a flourishing socialist culture. (DB)

  1. Social Competence: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Harris, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01

    Effective peer relations and the enhancement of social interactions in young children play a central role in the discussion of social competence. Developmental issues relevant to the assessment of social competence including perspective taking, conceptions of friendship, interpersonal strategies and problem solving, moral judgments, and…

  2. Social Change Education: Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choules, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Social change educators challenge social, economic, and political injustices that exist locally and globally. Their students may be people marginalized by these injustices or conversely, people who benefit from unjust systems. Much of the current social change pedagogy derives from the foundational work of Paulo Freire, developed in Brazil in…

  3. Critical Social Theory: A Portrait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    The term Critical Social Theory is employed in this article following the tradition of the Frankfurt School, and particularly the work of Herbert Marcuse and his interpretation of the political and social philosophy of Hegel and Marx. Discussing the contribution of G.W.F. Hegel to social theory Marcuse argued that: "Hegel's system brings to a…

  4. Why Social Work Needs Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Relative to other fields, social work has been slow to adopt geographic information systems (GIS) as a tool for research and practice. This paper argues that GIS can benefit social work by: (1) continuing and strengthening the social survey tradition; (2) providing a framework for understanding human behavior; (3) identifying community needs and…

  5. Social Pedagogy in Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosendal Jensen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies several key concepts used to describe and categorize social pedagogy. The first section of the paper establishes a framework for considering the diversity that characterizes the field, including reflection on social pedagogy's theoretical, political and social dimensions. This is followed by a discussion based on a…

  6. Redefining the Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, G. Sydney

    The author makes several prefatory observations on the hodgepodge nature of current social studies programs, and the lack of a functional (as opposed to descriptive) statement of the means and ends of social studies education. The following functional definition, developed by the staff of the Marin Social Studies Project, is offered: The social…

  7. Social Planning for Small Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, James

    Derived mainly from publications by the League of California Cities, this guide to social planning for small cities presents the following: (1) social planning definitions; (2) a checklist of social planning concerns (provision for: adequate income and economic opportunity; optimal environmental conditions for basic material needs; optimal health…

  8. Feminism, Neoliberalism, and Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeichel, Mardi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sparse presence of women in social studies education and to consider the possibility of a confluence of feminism and neoliberalism within the most widely distributed National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication, "Social Education." Using poststructural conceptions of discourse, the author…

  9. Social Justice and School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  10. Advancing Gerontological Social Work Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, M. Joanna, Ed.; Ivry, Joann, Ed.

    Chapters in this volume reflect a variety of issues related to education for gerontological social work. Chapters in section 1, "Geriatrics and Gerontology in Social Work Education," are: (1) "Social Work's Pursuit of a Common Professional Framework: Have We Reached a Milestone?" (Roberta Greene and Colleen Galambos); (2) "Basic Gerontological…

  11. [Social Ramifications of Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Helen, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The "Bulletin of the Caucus on Social Theory and Art Education" is an annual publication, with each issue devoted to a unified theme. The theme of this issue is the social ramifications of the teaching of art. This issue focuses on art teachers to gain a perspective on the art education process as a socially relevant experience. The volume…

  12. Education, Interaction, and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    This book examines the interaction of education and other elements in our culture. The social system of education is seen as similar to that of such other formal social institutions as business. Moreover, an understanding of the role and function of education can be achieved through an application of social science theory and research findings.…

  13. Social Reconstructionism for Urban Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Daisy Frye; Davis, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses links between poverty and student performance and achievement. Describes service learning and social reconstructionism (the relationship between school curriculum and the political, social, and economic development of society). Offers an example from an inner-city urban high school English class, describing social reconstructionism for…

  14. Burnout in Gerontological Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, John E.; Walter, Carolyn A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted national survey of burnout among 1,196 social workers who work with elderly people. Examined extent to which workers experienced emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Found that levels of gerontological social workers' burnout appeared lower than levels found among social workers in child welfare, mental…

  15. Social Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jabr, Soliman M.

    1990-01-01

    Reveals some cultural aspects of Saudi Arabian Islamic society and the role social studies education plays in it. States that the National Council for the Social Studies in Saudia Arabia stipulates general social studies goals and allows teachers to make specific behavioral goals. Concludes that Saudi Arabian schools are becoming more modern. (GG)

  16. Mental Representations of Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni

    2004-01-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  17. Social Justice Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice language teacher education conceptualizes language teacher education as responding to social and societal inequities that result in unequal access to educational and life opportunities. In this volume authors articulate a global view of Social Justice Language Teacher Education, with authors from 7 countries offering a theorized…

  18. Socialization, Intelligence, and Cognitive Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundmann, M.; Teo, Thomas

    This longitudinal study examined the multiple influences of social class and family socialization on intelligence at age 7, and on the development of cognitive competence from age 7 through age 15 in a sample of 121 urban Icelandic children and adolescents. Socialization condition was defined as sources of parental support and control strategies,…

  19. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  20. Explorations in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tie'er, Shi

    2013-01-01

    Social work education leans toward the applied approach emphasizing the practical and experiential. At present, many schools still offer social work education in the traditional academic model emphasizing textual learning. This approach is not suitable to the knowledge, student or teacher orientation in social work, and its pedagogy. To develop…

  1. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  2. Social Value and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…

  3. Social Work and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Meyer, Ed.

    Of special interest for social work students, teachers, and practitioners, the collection of 94 articles presents a broad survey of the field of mental retardation particularly as it relates to social work. The articles indicate both past work and the current status of social work practice with the mentally retarded. Material includes background…

  4. Social percolation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sorin; Weisbuch, Gerard; de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Jan, Naeem; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2000-03-01

    We here relate the occurrence of extreme market shares, close to either 0 or 100%, in the media industry to a percolation phenomenon across the social network of customers. We further discuss the possibility of observing self-organized criticality when customers and cinema producers adjust their preferences and the quality of the produced films according to previous experience. Comprehensive computer simulations on square lattices do indeed exhibit self-organized criticality towards the usual percolation threshold and related scaling behaviour.

  5. Social theory and medicine.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, H; Waterman, B

    1976-01-01

    Three sociolgists-Talcott Parson, Eliot Freidson, and Mechanic-have explained medical phneomena within a broader theoretical framework. Although all three have made significant contributions, their conclusions remain incomplete on the theoretical level and seldom have been helpful for workers concerned with ongoing problems of health care. Our purpose here is to summarize some of the strengths and weakness of each theoretical position. Parsons has elucidated the sick role as a deviant role in society, the function of physicians as agents of social control, and the normative patterns governing the doctor-patient relationship. The principal problems in Parsons' analysis center on an uncritical acceptance of physicians' social control functions, his inattention tot the ways in which physicians' behavior may inhibit change in society, and overoptimism about the medical profession's ability to regulate itself and to prevent the exploitation of patients. Viewing medical phenomena within a broader theory of the professions in general, Freidson has formulated w wide ranging critique of the medical profession and professional dominance. On the other hand, Freidson's work neglects the full political implications of bringing professional autonomy under control. Mechanic's coceptual approach emphasizes the social psychologic factors, rather than the institutional conditions, which are involved in the genesis of illness behavior. Mechanic also overlooks the ways in which illness behavior, by permitting a controllable from of deviance, fosters institutional stability. In conclusion, we present a breif overview of a theoretical framework whose general orientation is that of Marixian analysis. Several themes recur in this framework: illness as a source of exploitation, the sick role as a conservative mechanism fostering social stability, stratification in medicine, and the imperialsm of large medical institutions and health-related industries. PMID:939617

  6. Save Social Security Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. McCotter, Thaddeus G. [R-MI-11

    2011-09-12

    09/19/2011 Referred for a period ending not later than September 19, 2011, (or for a later time if the Chairman so designates) to the Subcommittee on Social Security, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the subcommittee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Affinity driven social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

  8. Social security financing.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    After nearly 2 years of study, the 1979 Advisory Council on Social Security submitted its findings and recommendations in December. In February the Bulletin published the Executive Summary of the Council's report. Because of the continuing wide public interest in the future of social security financing, the Council's detailed findings and recommendations on that subject are published below. The Council unanimously reports that all current and future beneficiaries can count on receiving the payments to which they are entitled. Among the recommendations it calls for are partial financing with nonpayroll-tax revenues. Suggested changes include hospital insurance (HI) financed through portins of personal and corporate income taxes and a part of the HI insurance payroll tax diverted to cash benefits with the balance of this tax repealed. The Council also recommends that the social security cash benefits program be brought into long-run actuarial balance--with a payroll-tax rate increase in the year 2005. It rejects the idea of a value-added tax as being inflationary. Parenthetical remarks represent additional views of the Council members cited. PMID:7423348

  9. Neurobiology of social attachments.

    PubMed

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Carrillo, Porfirio; Miquel, Marta; Pfaus, James G

    2014-06-01

    Many types of social attachments can be observed in nature. We discuss the neurobiology of two types (1) intraspecific (with a partner) and (2) parental (with the offspring). Stimuli related to copulation facilitate the first, whereas pregnancy, parturition and lactation facilitate the second. Both types develop as consequence of cohabitation. These events seem to stimulate similar neural pathways that increase (1) social recognition, (2) motivation, reward; and (3) decrease fear/anxiety. Subregions of the amygdala and cortex facilitate social recognition and also disinhibition to decrease rejection responses. The interrelationship between MeA, BNST, LS may mediate the activation of NAcc via the mPOA to increase motivation and reward. Cortical areas such as the ACC discriminate between stimuli. The interaction between OT and D2-type receptors in NAcc shell facilitates intraspecific attachment, but D1-type appears to facilitate parental attachment. This difference may be important for maternal females to direct their attention, motivation and expression of attachment toward the appropriate target. PMID:24769402

  10. Socially synchronized circadian oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Herzog, Erik D.; Levine, Joel D.; Schwartz, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian ‘clock’). The alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizes (entrains) these rhythms to the natural day–night cycle, and underlying mechanisms have been investigated using singly housed animals in the laboratory. But, most species ordinarily would not live out their lives in such seclusion; in their natural habitats, they interact with other individuals, and some live in colonies with highly developed social structures requiring temporal synchronization. Social cues may thus be critical to the adaptive function of the circadian system, but elucidating their role and the responsible mechanisms has proven elusive. Here, we highlight three model systems that are now being applied to understanding the biology of socially synchronized circadian oscillators: the fruitfly, with its powerful array of molecular genetic tools; the honeybee, with its complex natural society and clear division of labour; and, at a different level of biological organization, the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus, site of the brain's circadian clock, with its network of mutually coupled single-cell oscillators. Analyses at the ‘group’ level of circadian organization will likely generate a more complex, but ultimately more comprehensive, view of clocks and rhythms and their contribution to fitness in nature. PMID:23825203

  11. Sociality influences cultural complexity

    PubMed Central

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W.; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:24225461

  12. Oxytocin and social motivation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Ilanit; Martin, Carina; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F

    2011-10-01

    Humans are fundamentally social creatures who are ‘motivated’ to be with others. In this review we examine the role of oxytocin (OT) as it relates to social motivation. OT is synthesized in the brain and throughout the body, including in the heart, thymus, gastrointestinal tract, as well as reproductive organs. The distribution of the OT receptor (OTR) system in both the brain and periphery is even more far-reaching and its expression is subject to changes over the course of development. OTR expression is also sensitive to changes in the external environment and the internal somatic world. The OT system functions as an important element within a complex, developmentally sensitive biobehavioral system. Other elements include sensory inputs, the salience, reward, and threat detection pathways, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response axis. Despite an ever expanding scientific literature, key unresolved questions remain concerning the interplay of the central and peripheral components of this complex biobehavioral system that dynamically engages the brain and the body as humans interact with social partners over the course of development.

  13. Oxytocin and Social Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Ilanit; Martin, Carina; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are fundamentally social creatures who are ‘motivated’ to be with others. In this review we examine the role of oxytocin (OT) as it relates to social motivation. OT is synthesized in the brain and throughout the body, including in the heart, thymus, gastrointestinal tract, as well as reproductive organs. The distribution of the OT receptor (OTR) system in both the brain and periphery is even more far-reaching and its expression is subject to changes over the course of development. OTR expression is also sensitive to changes in the external environment and the internal somatic world. The OT system functions as an important element within a complex, developmentally sensitive biobehavioral system. Other elements include sensory inputs, the salience, reward, and threat detection pathways, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response axis. Despite an ever expanding scientific literature, key unresolved questions remain concerning the interplay of the central and peripheral components of this complex biobehavioral system that dynamically engages the brain and the body as humans interact with social partners over the course of development. PMID:21984889

  14. Sociality influences cultural complexity.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution.

  15. Can Computers be Social?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2002-09-01

    Of main concern in agent based computing is the conception that software agents can attain socially responsible behavior. This idea has its origin in the need for agents to interact with one another in a cooperating manner. Such interplay between several agents can be seen as a combinatorial play where the rules are fixed and the actors are supposed to closely analyze the play in order to behave rational. This kind of rationality has successfully being mathematically described. When the social behavior is extended beyond rational behavior, mere mathematical analysis falls short. For such behavior language is decisive for transferring concepts and language is a holistic entity that cannot be analyzed and defined mathematically. Accordingly, computers cannot be furnished with a language in the sense that meaning can be conveyed and consequently they lack all the necessary properties to be made social. The attempts to postulate mental properties to computer programs are a misconception that is blamed the lack of true understanding of language and especially the relation between formal system and its semantics.

  16. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  17. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  18. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  19. SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Berntson, Gary G.; Decety, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associations and influences between social and biological levels of organization. Success in the field, therefore, is not measured in terms of the contributions to social psychology per se, but rather in terms of the specification of the biological mechanisms underlying social interactions and behavior—one of the major problems for the neurosciences to address in the 21st century. PMID:24409007

  20. SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Berntson, Gary G; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associations and influences between social and biological levels of organization. Success in the field, therefore, is not measured in terms of the contributions to social psychology per se, but rather in terms of the specification of the biological mechanisms underlying social interactions and behavior-one of the major problems for the neurosciences to address in the 21(st) century.

  1. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions.

  2. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  3. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A

    2014-09-16

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  4. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  5. Social Literacy: A Social Skills Seminar for Young Adults with ASDs, NLDs, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Mary Riggs

    2011-01-01

    All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…

  6. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: From Social Stimuli Processing to Social Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Billeke, Pablo; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Social cognition consists of several skills which allow us to interact with other humans. These skills include social stimuli processing, drawing inferences about others’ mental states, and engaging in social interactions. In recent years, there has been growing evidence of social cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Apparently, these impairments are separable from general neurocognitive impairments, such as attention, memory, and executive functioning. Moreover, social cognition seems to be a main determinant of functional outcome and could be used as a guide to elaborate new pharmacological and psychological treatments. However, most of these studies focus on individual mechanisms and observational perspectives; only few of them study schizophrenic patients during interactive situations. We first review evidences of social cognitive impairments both in social stimuli processing and in mental state attribution. We focus on the relationship between these functions and both general cognitive impairments and functional outcome. We next review recent game theory approaches to the study of how social engagement occurs in schizophrenic patients. The advantage of using game theory is that game-oriented tasks can assess social decision making in an interactive everyday situation model. Finally, we review proposed theoretical models used to explain social alterations and their underlying biological mechanisms. Based on interactive studies, we propose a framework which takes into account the dynamic nature of social processes. Thus, understanding social skills as a result of dynamical systems could facilitate the development of both basic research and clinical applications oriented to psychiatric populations. PMID:23444313

  7. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors…

  8. Does Online Social Media Lead to Social Connection or Social Disconnection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twenge, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Today’s young generation (often called "Millennials," "GenY," or "Generation Me") are the first to grow up with the Internet and social networking websites. Have these experiences led to more and better social connections, or fewer and atrophied ones? Social media use may lead to online political action such as signing an e-mail petition but does…

  9. Social Skills and Peer Acceptance: Effects of a Social Learning Method for Training Verbal Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    The purpose of this study was to see if a social learning method for training verbal social skills might influence the social effectiveness of third grade children with low peer acceptance. Children were trained in three verbal skills: asking questions of peers; leading peers (e.g., offering useful suggestions or directions); and, offering…

  10. Neurogenomic mechanisms of social plasticity.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sara D; Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2015-01-01

    Group-living animals must adjust the expression of their social behaviour to changes in their social environment and to transitions between life-history stages, and this social plasticity can be seen as an adaptive trait that can be under positive selection when changes in the environment outpace the rate of genetic evolutionary change. Here, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding the neuromolecular mechanisms of social plasticity. According to this framework, social plasticity is achieved by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of a neural network underlying social behaviour in response to perceived social information. Therefore, at the molecular level, it depends on the social regulation of gene expression, so that different genomic and epigenetic states of this brain network correspond to different behavioural states, and the switches between states are orchestrated by signalling pathways that interface the social environment and the genotype. Different types of social plasticity can be recognized based on the observed patterns of inter- versus intra-individual occurrence, time scale and reversibility. It is proposed that these different types of social plasticity rely on different proximate mechanisms at the physiological, neural and genomic level. PMID:25568461

  11. Social marketing in public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.

  12. Entropy of Dynamical Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Márton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2011-01-01

    Human dynamical social networks encode information and are highly adaptive. To characterize the information encoded in the fast dynamics of social interactions, here we introduce the entropy of dynamical social networks. By analysing a large dataset of phone-call interactions we show evidence that the dynamical social network has an entropy that depends on the time of the day in a typical week-day. Moreover we show evidence for adaptability of human social behavior showing data on duration of phone-call interactions that significantly deviates from the statistics of duration of face-to-face interactions. This adaptability of behavior corresponds to a different information content of the dynamics of social human interactions. We quantify this information by the use of the entropy of dynamical networks on realistic models of social interactions. PMID:22194809

  13. Indigenous People in a Landscape of Risk: Teaching Social Work Students about Socially Just Social Work Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Hilary; Congress, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The need for social justice in social work practice is particularly apparent in work with indigenous populations. In spite of the social work profession's commitment to social justice, social workers have often done significant harm in their work with indigenous peoples. Social work educators are ideally positioned to close this gap between social…

  14. Adjustment or Change: Attitudes Among Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Thomas Owen; Jung, Marshall

    1972-01-01

    Many in the social work profession today are calling for social change and social action. Social work educators and students say they agree with this viewpoint. But their attitudes and actions in specific areas tend to favor traditional practice. (Author)

  15. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  16. Autopoiesis and socialization: on Luhmann's reconceptualization of communication and socialization.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, R

    2000-09-01

    In 1984, Niklas Luhmann published Soziale Systeme in which he applies the idea of autopoiesis (= self-production) to social systems. Abstracted from its biological connotations, the concept of autopoiesis leads to a sharp distinction between different kinds of autopoietic organization, i.e. between life, consciousness and communication. According to Luhmann, the relationship between social systems and human beings cannot be adequately analysed except by taking into account that they are environments for one another. If this theoretical background is accepted, the concepts and theory of socialization need to be revised. Luhmann takes issues with classical notions such as internalization, inculcation, or 'socialization to the grounds of consensus' (Talcott Parsons). After a historical overview of social systems research and general systems theory, it is indicated how communications trigger further communications and realize the autopoiesis of social systems. In the second part of the article, the distinction between social systems and psychic systems is used to discuss issues crucial to socialization theory. Both a revision of the concept of socialization, and lines for an empirical research programme are proposed in accordance with Luhmann's theory of social systems.

  17. Autopoiesis and socialization: on Luhmann's reconceptualization of communication and socialization.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, R

    2000-09-01

    In 1984, Niklas Luhmann published Soziale Systeme in which he applies the idea of autopoiesis (= self-production) to social systems. Abstracted from its biological connotations, the concept of autopoiesis leads to a sharp distinction between different kinds of autopoietic organization, i.e. between life, consciousness and communication. According to Luhmann, the relationship between social systems and human beings cannot be adequately analysed except by taking into account that they are environments for one another. If this theoretical background is accepted, the concepts and theory of socialization need to be revised. Luhmann takes issues with classical notions such as internalization, inculcation, or 'socialization to the grounds of consensus' (Talcott Parsons). After a historical overview of social systems research and general systems theory, it is indicated how communications trigger further communications and realize the autopoiesis of social systems. In the second part of the article, the distinction between social systems and psychic systems is used to discuss issues crucial to socialization theory. Both a revision of the concept of socialization, and lines for an empirical research programme are proposed in accordance with Luhmann's theory of social systems. PMID:11038137

  18. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    PubMed

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities. PMID:21542203

  19. Social networks and the development of social skills in cowbirds.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Gersick, Andrew S; Snyder-Mackler, Noah

    2012-07-01

    The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of 'social complexity' across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments 'trained' individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended. PMID:22641827

  20. Social visual contact, a primary "drive" for social animals?

    PubMed

    Perret, Audrey; Henry, Laurence; Coulon, Marion; Caudal, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine; George, Isabelle

    2015-05-01

    Social animals are always searching for conspecifics, thereby expressing a genuine "social need". This need is illustrated by the fact that social isolation can induce isolation syndromes that can be attenuated by devices such as mirrors. Social contacts appear to be so vital for social animals that they may be ready to work to obtain social stimulations. We used operant conditioning to investigate the possibility to use visual contact (through pictures of conspecifics) as a primary reinforcer. Isolated European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were offered the choice of seeing either social images (i.e. pictures of conspecifics) or non-social images (i.e. pictures of landscapes or pictures of monkeys) by triggering sensors. In contrast with most studies, our subjects were presented still pictures of conspecifics and not videos. Moreover, these pictures were used as primary reinforcers and thus were not paired with food. Our data show that starlings were ready to work and to use the apparatus (i.e. sensors) to see pictures in the absence of any other reward. Moreover, they actively and significantly preferred pictures of conspecifics to pictures of inanimate objects (landscapes) or of heterospecifics (monkeys). This suggests that 2D pictures with a social overtone can be used as primary reinforcers for isolated social birds. PMID:25604422

  1. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed.

  2. Social networks and the development of social skills in cowbirds.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Gersick, Andrew S; Snyder-Mackler, Noah

    2012-07-01

    The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of 'social complexity' across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments 'trained' individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended.

  3. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bögels, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms. PMID:21049538

  4. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed. PMID:24779421

  5. Social image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Guoping; Kheiri, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Current subjective image quality assessments have been developed in the laboratory environments, under controlledconditions, and are dependent on the participation of limited numbers of observers. In this research, with the help of Web 2.0 and social media technology, a new method for building a subjective image quality metric has been developed where the observers are the Internet users. A website with a simple user interface that enables Internet users from anywhere at any time to vote for a better quality version of a pair of the same image has been constructed. Users' votes are recorded and used to rank the images according to their perceived visual qualities. We have developed three rank aggregation algorithms to process the recorded pair comparison data, the first uses a naive approach, the second employs a Condorcet method, and the third uses the Dykstra's extension of Bradley-Terry method. The website has been collecting data for about three months and has accumulated over 10,000 votes at the time of writing this paper. Results show that the Internet and its allied technologies such as crowdsourcing offer a promising new paradigm for image and video quality assessment where hundreds of thousands of Internet users can contribute to building more robust image quality metrics. We have made Internet user generated social image quality (SIQ) data of a public image database available online (http://www.hdri.cs.nott.ac.uk/siq/) to provide the image quality research community with a new source of ground truth data. The website continues to collect votes and will include more public image databases and will also be extended to include videos to collect social video quality (SVQ) data. All data will be public available on the website in due course.

  6. Social Priorities as Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, E.

    2015-12-01

    Decision makers' responses to local risks and expected changes to a community from circumstances like natural hazards, human developments, and demographic changes can greatly affect social and environmental outcomes in a community. Translating physical data based in disciplines like engineering and geosciences into positive outcomes for communities can be challenging and often results in conflict that appears to pit "science" against "the public." Scientists can be reluctant to offer recommendations for action based on their work, often (and often correctly) noting that their role is not to make value judgments for a community - particularly for a community that is not their own. Conversely, decision makers can be frustrated by the lack of guidance they receive to help translate data into effective and acceptable action. The solution posed by this submission, given the goal of co-production of knowledge by scientists and decision makers to foster better community outcomes, is to involve the community directly by integrating social scientific methods that address decision making and community engagement to the scientist-decision maker interaction. Specifically, the missing dataset in many scientist-decision maker interactions is the nature of community priorities. Using scientifically valid methods to rigorously collect and characterize community priorities to help recommend tradeoffs between different outcomes indicated by the work of physical and natural scientists can bridge the gap between science and action by involving the community in the process. This submission presents early work on US preferences for different types of social and environmental outcomes designed to integrate directly with engineering and physical science frameworks like Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact Statements. Cardinal preference data are based on surveys of US adults using tools like the Analytical Hierarchy Process, budget allocation, and ranking.

  7. Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided.

  8. The Social Ecology of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Cai, Li; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Faris, Robert; Hipp, John; DuRant, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual framework based on social ecology, social learning, and social control theories guided identification of social contexts, contextual attributes, and joint effects that contribute to development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Modeling of alcohol use, suggested by social learning theory, and indicators of the social bond, suggested by…

  9. Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

  10. The Social Work Reinvestment Initiative: advocacy and social work practice.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Elizabeth Peffer; McMillin, Joan A

    2014-07-01

    In 2006, NASW launched the Social Work Reinvestment Initiative by granting each state chapter $15,000 in seed money to address the most pressing social work needs in the state. This article describes how NASW-SD, with 246 members, launched an epic campaign that resulted in the establishment of the only MSW program in South Dakota. Using historical research methods, this article demonstrates the power of social work advocacy when members unify in pursuit of a common goal and describes how the social workers rallied to educate policymakers and the public on the value of social work and its delivery of necessary social services at all levels and in all fields of practice. The research highlights an uphill battle of advocacy and the skillful planning and implementation of a campaign to secure state funding to establish the first MSW program in the state, at the beginning of the most difficult economic recession since the Great Depression.

  11. Models of social networks based on social distance attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguñá, Marián; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2004-11-01

    We propose a class of models of social network formation based on a mathematical abstraction of the concept of social distance. Social distance attachment is represented by the tendency of peers to establish acquaintances via a decreasing function of the relative distance in a representative social space. We derive analytical results (corroborated by extensive numerical simulations), showing that the model reproduces the main statistical characteristics of real social networks: large clustering coefficient, positive degree correlations, and the emergence of a hierarchy of communities. The model is confronted with the social network formed by people that shares confidential information using the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption algorithm, the so-called web of trust of PGP.

  12. Social identity change: shifts in social identity during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A; Halloran, Michael J; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then measured the effect of the prime on self-stereotyping and ingroup favouritism. The findings showed significant differences in social identity across adolescent groups, in that social identity effects were relatively strong in early- and late-adolescents, particularly when peer group identity rather than gender identity was salient. While these effects were consistent with the experience of change in educational social context, differences in cognitive style were only weakly related to ingroup favouritism. The implications of the findings for theory and future research on social identity during adolescence are discussed.

  13. Improved community model for social networks based on social mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Zhen; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an improved community model for social networks based on social mobility. The relationship between the group distribution and the community size is investigated in terms of communication rate and turnover rate. The degree distributions, clustering coefficients, average distances and diameters of networks are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the small-world property and can reproduce social networks effectively and efficiently.

  14. Quantifying social group evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Gergely; Barabási, Albert-László; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-04-01

    The rich set of interactions between individuals in society results in complex community structure, capturing highly connected circles of friends, families or professional cliques in a social network. Thanks to frequent changes in the activity and communication patterns of individuals, the associated social and communication network is subject to constant evolution. Our knowledge of the mechanisms governing the underlying community dynamics is limited, but is essential for a deeper understanding of the development and self-optimization of society as a whole. We have developed an algorithm based on clique percolation that allows us to investigate the time dependence of overlapping communities on a large scale, and thus uncover basic relationships characterizing community evolution. Our focus is on networks capturing the collaboration between scientists and the calls between mobile phone users. We find that large groups persist for longer if they are capable of dynamically altering their membership, suggesting that an ability to change the group composition results in better adaptability. The behaviour of small groups displays the opposite tendency-the condition for stability is that their composition remains unchanged. We also show that knowledge of the time commitment of members to a given community can be used for estimating the community's lifetime. These findings offer insight into the fundamental differences between the dynamics of small groups and large institutions.

  15. Collaboration in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Asta, Luca; Marsili, Matteo; Pin, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The very notion of social network implies that linked individuals interact repeatedly with each other. This notion allows them not only to learn successful strategies and adapt to them, but also to condition their own behavior on the behavior of others, in a strategic forward looking manner. Game theory of repeated games shows that these circumstances are conducive to the emergence of collaboration in simple games of two players. We investigate the extension of this concept to the case where players are engaged in a local contribution game and show that rationality and credibility of threats identify a class of Nash equilibria—that we call “collaborative equilibria”—that have a precise interpretation in terms of subgraphs of the social network. For large network games, the number of such equilibria is exponentially large in the number of players. When incentives to defect are small, equilibria are supported by local structures whereas when incentives exceed a threshold they acquire a nonlocal nature, which requires a “critical mass” of more than a given fraction of the players to collaborate. Therefore, when incentives are high, an individual deviation typically causes the collapse of collaboration across the whole system. At the same time, higher incentives to defect typically support equilibria with a higher density of collaborators. The resulting picture conforms with several results in sociology and in the experimental literature on game theory, such as the prevalence of collaboration in denser groups and in the structural hubs of sparse networks. PMID:22383559

  16. Palliative social media.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Mark; Watts, Gareth; Boland, Jason; Radbruch, Lukas

    2014-03-01

    The uses of social media have become ubiquitous in contemporary society at an astonishingly fast-paced rate. The internet and in particular platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are now part of most people's vocabulary and are starting to replace many face-to-face interactions. The online world, in particular, is alive with discussions, comments and anecdotes about the topics of illness, disease, hospitals, death and dying. The topic of death and dying had in the not too distant past been seen as taboo, but willingness and need to talk openly about it appears to be on the increase. In parallel to this, many public awareness campaigns are highlighting society's need to be more prepared for dying and death. This will have a significant impact on the way terminally ill patients and their families approach the last years, months and weeks of their lives and how they might expect palliative health and social care professionals working with them through these difficult periods to interact with them. We pay particular attention to the areas of digital posterity creation and memorialisation within the wider holistic context of end-of-life care. PMID:24644766

  17. Social aspects of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R C

    1976-01-01

    In slightly less than a century the world has gone from a predominantly rural to a largely urban society. Unlike Western Europe which industrialized slowly with labor-intensive industries, the developing world is industrializing rapidly with capital intensive industries which provide insufficient employment for the millions coming into the cities from the countryside. 2 factors responsible for growth of cities are rural push combined with urban pull, a lack of opportunity in the country combined with hopes and aspirations represented by the city. In addition, large population growth is a factor in both the increase in numbers of city-born dwellers and in the increase of young people leaving the countryside. Problems of health, sanitation, and public welfare are compounded by this rapid population growth. The social implications of these migrations are awesome. Already people are crowding together into cities without sufficient industrial base to provide employment; 1/5 to 1/4 of adult males are unemployed; as many as 4 out of 5 families live in a single room; as many as a 1/3 or more are without water. The tensions and social unrest caused by such conditions are the seedbed for serious political unrest. Resources and knowledge must quickly be brought to bear on the urban problem so that the now-disadvantaged will be able to realize their dream of a better life.

  18. Social Support and Social Networks in COPD: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness. PMID:26263036

  19. Social contract and social integration in adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Hilles, W S; Kahle, L R

    1985-10-01

    Eighty-nine subjects from two high schools were tested during the spring of their sophomore and senior years, when their mean ages were 16 years, 1 month, and 18 years, 1 month, respectively. Composites measured social contract with: (a) independence, (b) implicit social contract, societal norms and expectations, and (c) explicit social contracts, rules. Composites and single items measured social integration with: (d) role commitment, (e) social-American Dream, accepting the belief in the American Dream that hard work would lead to social success, (f) self-American Dream, belief that hard work will produce personal satisfaction and success, (g) raw deal, perceptions of being treated unfairly, (h) self-blame, and (i) feelings of hopelessness. The results of the cross-lagged panel correlations generally support the hypothesis that students respond to implicit social contracts through role commitment, which is further expressed by a belief in the American Dream for social fulfillment, while responding to the perception of explicit social contracts by not believing in the benefits of the American Dream for personal fulfillment. These results were interpreted as supporting Dienstbier's theory of moral development.

  20. Threats to social identity can trigger social deviance.

    PubMed

    Belmi, Peter; Barragan, Rodolfo Cortes; Neale, Margaret A; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2015-04-01

    We hypothesized that threats to people's social (i.e., group) identity can trigger deviant attitudes and behaviors. A correlational study and five experiments showed that experiencing or recalling situations associated with the devaluation of a social identity caused participants to endorse or engage in deviant actions, including stealing, cheating, and lying. The effect was driven by the tendency to construe social identity threats not as isolated incidents but as symbolic of the continuing devaluation and disrespectful treatment of one's group. Supplementing sociological approaches to deviance and delinquency, the results suggest the relevance and utility of a social-psychological account.

  1. How social is the social psychology of emotion?

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Brian

    2011-09-01

    Two classic studies published 50 years ago showed how other people provide information that shapes the activation and interpretation of emotions. The present paper traces development of the social psychology of emotions from this starting point. Subsequent research into group-based and social appraisal has advanced understanding of the impact of social information on emotions and suggested new ways of investigating associated phenomena. Although potential integrations of interpersonal and group-oriented approaches offer promise for the future, the continuing focus on emotions as cognitively mediated effects of social factors should broaden to encompass dynamic relational processes.

  2. Interpersonal consequences of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Heerey, Erin A; Kring, Ann M

    2007-02-01

    The behavioral manifestations of social anxiety may have implications for social outcomes. Unfortunately, little is known about how anxiety shapes social interaction. The present study examined social interactions in dyads consisting of either 2 nonsocially anxious (NSA) individuals or 1 socially anxious (SA) and 1 NSA individual. Behavior, self-reported affect, and perceptions were examined. In comparison with the interactions of NSA pairs, high levels of fidgeting, poor reciprocity of smiling behavior, more self-talk, and more frequent reassurance seeking and giving characterized interactions between SA and NSA participants. Both SA participants and their NSA partners rated their interactions as being less smooth and coordinated than did participants in NSA-NSA dyads. In addition, SA participants' reassurance seeking and self-talk correlated negatively with partner positive affect and perceptions of interaction quality. The authors discuss self-focused attention and the interpersonal consequences of social anxiety.

  3. The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed.

  4. Communicating science in social settings

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  5. Perceived social isolation and cognition.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C

    2009-10-01

    Social species, from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens, fare poorly when isolated. Homo sapiens, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are, in normal circumstances, dramatically affected by perceived social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, increased negativity and depressive cognition, heightened sensitivity to social threats, a confirmatory bias in social cognition that is self-protective and paradoxically self-defeating, heightened anthropomorphism and contagion that threatens social cohesion. These differences in attention and cognition impact on emotions, decisions, behaviors and interpersonal interactions that can contribute to the association between loneliness and cognitive decline and between loneliness and morbidity more generally. PMID:19726219

  6. Communicating science in social settings.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2013-08-20

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

  7. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  8. Social cognition and revictimization risk.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P

    2005-01-01

    The ability to accurately detect violations in social contracts likely helps people to avoid or to withdraw from relationships in which they are at risk of being cheated or harmed. Betrayal trauma theory argues that detecting violations of social contracts may be counter-productive to survival under certain conditions, such as when a victim is dependent on a perpetrator. When dependent on a perpetrator (as in the case of child abuse perpetrated by a caregiver), the victim may be better able to preserve the necessary attachment with the caregiver by remaining unaware of the abuse. Thus, the victim may develop a compromised capacity to detect violations of social contracts in the caregiving relationship. Over time, the victim may develop more generalized problems detecting violations in social exchange rules; in turn, generalized problems in detecting violations of social contracts may increase risk for later victimization. Participants in the current study were asked to detect violations in three types of conditional (if-then) rules: abstract, social contract (rules involving a social exchange), and precautionary (rules involving safety). Young adults who reported experiences of revictimization made more errors on social contract and precautionary problems than a no revictimization group; group performance did not differ for abstract problems, suggesting these findings are not explained by general deficits in conditional reasoning. Pathological dissociation significantly predicted errors on social contract and precautionary problems.

  9. Health equity and social justice.

    PubMed

    Peter, F

    2001-01-01

    There is consistent and strong empirical evidence for social inequalities in health, as a vast and growing literature shows. In recent years, these findings have helped to move health equity high on international research and policy agendas. This paper examines how the empirical identification of social inequalities in health relates to a normative judgment about health inequities and puts forward an approach which embeds the pursuit of health equity within the general pursuit of social justice. It defends an indirect approach to health equity, which views social inequalities in health as unjust in so far as they are the result of an unjust basic structure of society in Rawls' sense.

  10. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  11. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  12. The Possibilities of Network Sociality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Michele

    Technologically networked social forms are broad, extensive and in demand. The rapid development and growth of web 2.0, or the social web, is evidence of the need and indeed hunger for social connectivity: people are searching for many and varied ways of enacting being-together. However, the ways in which we think of, research and write about network(ed) sociality are relatively recent and arguably restricted, warranting further critique and development. This article attempts to do several things: it raises questions about the types of sociality enacted in contemporary techno-society; critically explores the notion of the networked individual and the focus on the individual evident in much of the technology and sociality literature and asks questions about the place of the social in these discussions. It argues for a more well-balanced and multilevelled approach to questions of sociality in networked societies. The article starts from the position that possibilities enabled/afforded by the technologies we have in place have an effect upon the ways in which we understand being in the world together and our possible actions and futures. These possibilities are more than simply supplementary; in many ways they are transformative. The ways in which we grapple with these questions reveals as much about our understandings of sociality as it does about the technologies themselves.

  13. Assessing preference for social interactions.

    PubMed

    Clay, Casey J; Samaha, Andrew L; Bloom, Sarah E; Bogoev, Bistra K; Boyle, Megan A

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that participants' approaches were under control of the form of social interaction provided as opposed to idiosyncratic features of the therapists. Results of a reinforcer assessment found that the social interaction identified as preferred also functioned as a reinforcer for all five participants. PMID:23009945

  14. Hepatitis C and Social Work

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Heather; Paylor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    It is now a full decade since Paylor and Orgel (2004) called for social work to ‘wake up’ to hepatitis C (HCV). In that time, a small but significant body of social research has developed which has highlighted the far-reaching social consequences of living with HCV. Using this as a foundation, Paylor and Mack (2010) expanded arguments on the role of social work and identified specific areas where social work might become involved, arguing that the profession is uniquely placed and skilled, to respond and provide support. This article draws on qualitative in-depth interviews with twenty-one people who (had) lived with HCV in the UK, to strengthen and broaden the argument that social work and social care need to urgently take a bigger role in working with people with HCV, given the cross-cutting and wide range of issues that arise. This is the first study which uses participant data to argue for the need for social work involvement and in that it highlights a number of points in the experience where social work support is needed including pre and post diagnosis, whilst on treatment and after treatment. PMID:27559217

  15. Media and primary socialization theory.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K; Donohew, L

    1999-06-01

    This article discusses the role of media in the socialization process of adolescents, and supports the theory of primary socialization which identifies media as a secondary factor in the socialization process (as described in other articles in this series). Additionally, several models of information processing are presented which offer both a cognitive and affective model of processing communications. Finally, the article points to the need for future research to analyze the cases and implications of media's impact on adolescents when media serve as a primary, rather than a secondary, source of socialization. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.] PMID:10359221

  16. Kinetics of Social Contagion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Zhongyuan; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Karsai, Márton; Kertész, János

    2015-11-01

    Diffusion of information, behavioral patterns or innovations follows diverse pathways depending on a number of conditions, including the structure of the underlying social network, the sensitivity to peer pressure and the influence of media. Here we study analytically and by simulations a general model that incorporates threshold mechanism capturing sensitivity to peer pressure, the effect of "immune" nodes who never adopt, and a perpetual flow of external information. While any constant, nonzero rate of dynamically introduced spontaneous adopters leads to global spreading, the kinetics by which the asymptotic state is approached shows rich behavior. In particular, we find that, as a function of the immune node density, there is a transition from fast to slow spreading governed by entirely different mechanisms. This transition happens below the percolation threshold of network fragmentation, and has its origin in the competition between cascading behavior induced by adopters and blocking due to immune nodes. This change is accompanied by a percolation transition of the induced clusters.

  17. Churn in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnstedt, Marcel; Hennessy, Tara; Chan, Jeffrey; Basuchowdhuri, Partha; Hayes, Conor; Strufe, Thorsten

    In the past, churn has been identified as an issue across most industry sectors. In its most general sense it refers to the rate of loss of customers from a company's customer base. There is a simple reason for the attention churn attracts: churning customers mean a loss of revenue. Emerging from business spaces like telecommunications (telcom) and broadcast providers, where churn is a major issue, it is also regarded as a crucial problem in many other businesses, such as online games creators, but also online social networks and discussion sites. Companies aim at identifying the risk of churn in its early stages, as it is usually much cheaper to retain a customer than to try to win him or her back. If this risk can be accurately predicted, marketing departments can target customers efficiently with tailored incentives to prevent them from leaving.

  18. Therapeutic Theory and Social Context: A Social Constructionist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    Explores the foundation of therapeutic theory from the perspective of social constructionism. Proposes a theoretical description of the interaction between an individual and the social context in the formation of therapeutic theory. Then explores this description in relation to the early life and subsequent therapeutic theory of Carl Rogers. (RJM)

  19. Asch's social psychology: not as social as you may think.

    PubMed

    Leyens, J P; Corneille, O

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses 2 commonly held ideas about Solomon Asch's work in social psychology: (a) Asch was primarily interested in social phenomena in general and in group processes in particular, and (b) Asch was a forerunner of social cognition. Asch's studies on social influence were translations of strictly perceptual experiments. For him, social stimuli had no specificity relative to physical ones provided that the perceptual context presented similar structural properties. Moreover, and contrary to Kurt Lewin (e.g., 1948) Asch focused his attention at the individual level and may have slowed down interest in social interactions or group processes. Asch's studies on impression formation presaged the social cognition approach. In his work, he foresaw the importance of online processing of information, the existence of implicit theories of personality, as well as perception based on exemplars and prototypes. However, Asch's reliance on immediate perceptual experience, on isomorphism between the properties of the external object and the phenomenal experience of this object, and his holistic and dynamic perspective clash with the main stream of social cognition research. PMID:15661681

  20. The Social Studies, Ethnic Diversity, and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes goals to reform the school curriculum advocated by recent ethnic revival movements of Western societies and the factors that have prevented significant reform. A strategy is proposed that conceptualizes a teacher as a cultural mediator and an agent of change, and a social studies curriculum that promotes social criticism and civic…

  1. Socialization and Sport: A Paradigm of Institutional Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Christopher L.

    This study applies a model of institutional socialization to the institution of college sport. Five variables were generated with reference to college sport as an agent of socialization and to the occupations of medicine, law, and business. The degree to which these five variables exist in the U.S. was investigated by means of a questionnaire…

  2. Immigration and migration in America: social impact and social response.

    PubMed

    Dail, P W

    1988-12-01

    The author discusses various social problems resulting from migration to and within the United States, including poverty, acculturation, education, housing, employment, social adjustment, and family difficulties. The potential impact of migrants on the U.S. society and economy is assessed, and government policy responses to their problems are considered. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  3. Future Directions: Social Development in the Context of Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith G.

    2010-01-01

    Many societies and cultures have become increasingly diverse and heterogeneous over the past decade. This diversity has a direct bearing on social justice in children's and adolescents' social development. Increased diversity can have positive consequences, such as the possibility for increased empathy, tolerance, perspective taking, and the…

  4. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  5. SOCIAL STRUCTURES AND SOCIAL CLIMATES IN HIGH SCHOOLS, FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLEMAN, JAMES; AND OTHERS

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE TO--(1) INQUIRE INTO THE NATURE OF ADOLESCENT SOCIAL CLIMATES, (2) LEARN WHAT FACTORS IN THE SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY TEND TO GENERATE ONE OR ANOTHER ADOLESCENT CLIMATE, AND (3) DETERMINE THE CONSEQUENCES OF SUCH SOCIAL CLIMATES UPON THE ADOLESCENTS LIVING WITHIN THEM. THE STUDY WAS CARRIED ON IN 10 HIGH SCHOOLS…

  6. Age, Social Structure, and Socialization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Talcott; Platt, Gerald M.

    1970-01-01

    Socialization of affective and moral components of the personality is usually conceived of as completed by the end of adolescence. In contrast, this paper analyzes certain aspects of undergraduate college education which constitute a new level of socialization; although to a degree previously extant, it never before involved such a mass population…

  7. Going Social: The Impact of Social Networking in Promoting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Neelesh Kumar; Verma, Ashish; Verma, Rama Shankar; Tiwari, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    The growth and the popularity of the Social networks has a high impact on the development of the students in the field of Personality, Attitudes, Knowledge and on its whole academic performance in classroom and society. This paper envisage on the impact of Social Network on Education and Training of the students.

  8. Adult Education as Socialization: Implications for Personal and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that the process of education, including adult education, involves the adoption and possibly the transmission of values. Applies concepts of socialization theory and curriculum theory to adult education, focusing on the work of Brim, Berger and Luckmann, and Bourdieu. Discusses the relationship between adult education and social change.…

  9. Social Skills and Social Acceptance in Children with Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Beidel, Deborah C

    2015-01-01

    Whereas much is known about the deficits in social behaviors and social competence in youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD), less is known about those characteristics among youth with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This study aimed to better elucidate the social repertoire and peer acceptance of youth with SAD and youth with GAD, relative to normal control (NC) youth. The sample consisted of 58 primarily Caucasian children, ages 6 to 13 years: 20 SAD (12 female), 18 GAD (12 female), and 20 NC (9 female). Diagnoses were based on Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Children and Parent Versions interviews. A multimodal assessment strategy included parent and child reports, observer ratings of social performance, computer-based analysis of vocal qualities of speech, and peer ratings of likeability and friendship potential. Whereas self- and parental report did not differentiate the two diagnostic groups, differences on observable behaviors were apparent. Children with SAD exhibited anxious speech patterns, extended speech latencies, a paucity of speech, few spontaneous vocalizations, and ineffective social responses; they were perceived by peers as less likeable and socially desirable. Children with GAD had typical speech patterns and were well liked by their peers but displayed fewer spontaneous comments and questions than NC children. Parent and child reports are less sensitive to what could be important differences in social skill between youth with SAD and GAD. Direct observations, computer-based measures of speech quality, and peer ratings identify specific group differences, suggesting the need for a comprehensive evaluation to inform treatment planning.

  10. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation.

  11. "Teacher, What Are Social Justice and Social Change?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Fair, Ursula; Michael, Karen Hubbard

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this action research presentation is to invite discourse on racial equality and social justice with young children. Strategies include using children's literature in conjunction with Georgia's Power Standards for Social Studies. Methodology: This action research project took place in a suburban kindergarten with learners of…

  12. Immigration and migration in America: social impact and social response.

    PubMed

    Dail, P W

    1988-12-01

    The author discusses various social problems resulting from migration to and within the United States, including poverty, acculturation, education, housing, employment, social adjustment, and family difficulties. The potential impact of migrants on the U.S. society and economy is assessed, and government policy responses to their problems are considered. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12159550

  13. Asch's social psychology: not as social as you may think.

    PubMed

    Leyens, J P; Corneille, O

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses 2 commonly held ideas about Solomon Asch's work in social psychology: (a) Asch was primarily interested in social phenomena in general and in group processes in particular, and (b) Asch was a forerunner of social cognition. Asch's studies on social influence were translations of strictly perceptual experiments. For him, social stimuli had no specificity relative to physical ones provided that the perceptual context presented similar structural properties. Moreover, and contrary to Kurt Lewin (e.g., 1948) Asch focused his attention at the individual level and may have slowed down interest in social interactions or group processes. Asch's studies on impression formation presaged the social cognition approach. In his work, he foresaw the importance of online processing of information, the existence of implicit theories of personality, as well as perception based on exemplars and prototypes. However, Asch's reliance on immediate perceptual experience, on isomorphism between the properties of the external object and the phenomenal experience of this object, and his holistic and dynamic perspective clash with the main stream of social cognition research.

  14. Social Justice and Social/Political Education: A Theoretical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Ted

    1983-01-01

    Social/political education programs need an epistemological underpinning of clearly articulated principles of social justice--e.g., Rawls' two principles. However, such principles require operationalisation. Habermas' extension of Kohlberg's theory of moral development would provide a viable theoretical framework for the development of a…

  15. Changes in Mothers' Social Networks and Social Support Following Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Grady, Katherine

    1985-01-01

    Interviewed 38 mothers to determine the relationship between network characteristics and social support, and changes in both following divorce. Results indicated that characteristics associated with the support a mother receives may differ from the characteristics associated with how satisfied she feels with her network. With time, social networks…

  16. Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…

  17. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  18. Social Identity Change: Shifts in Social Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then…

  19. SOCIAL: An Integrative Framework for the Development of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Anderson, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the field of social neuroscience, much remains to be understood regarding the development and maintenance of social skills across the life span. Few comprehensive models exist that integrate multidisciplinary perspectives and explain the multitude of factors that influence the emergence and expression of social…

  20. Social Learning by Design: The Role of Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Laura

    2009-01-01

    It is no secret that learning has a social context. As library media specialists work with students nearly every day, they take for granted their pedagogical roots in social learning theory based on the premise that students need modeling and observation to learn from one another. Information gathering becomes a key activity, and social…

  1. Social Software: Participants' Experience Using Social Networking for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, Cecil W.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking tools used in learning provides instructional design with tools for transformative change in education. This study focused on defining the meanings and essences of social networking through the lived common experiences of 7 college students. The problem of the study was a lack of learner voice in understanding the value of social…

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives Addressing Social Exclusion in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships—collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives—may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  3. Social Privilege, Social Justice, and Group Counseling: An Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lance C.; Shin, Richard Q.

    2008-01-01

    The construct of social privilege is ubiquitous within the multicultural and social justice literature. However, the group work literature has yet to integrate the construct into group theory, processes, and training. In this article, we review the group literature on multicultural and diversity issues. Also, we examine the multicultural and…

  4. How social neuroscience can inform theories of social comparison.

    PubMed

    Swencionis, Jillian K; Fiske, Susan T

    2014-04-01

    Social comparison pervades our interactions with others, informing us of our standing and motivating improvement, but producing negative emotional and behavioral consequences that can harm relationships and lead to poor health outcomes. Social neuroscience research has begun to illuminate some mechanisms by which status divides lead to interpersonal consequences. This review integrates core findings on the neuroscience of social comparison processes, showing the effects of comparing the self to relevant others on dimensions of competence and warmth. The literature converges to suggest that relative status divides initiate social comparison processes, that upward and downward comparisons initiate pain- and pleasure-related neural responses, and that these responses can predict people׳s kindly or aggressive intentions toward one another. Across different types of comparisons, brain regions involved in mentalizing are also sometimes involved. Along with future work, the research reviewed here may inform efforts to mitigate negative outcomes of constant social comparisons.

  5. How Social Neuroscience Can Inform Theories of Social Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Swencionis, Jillian K.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison pervades our interactions with others, informing us of our standing and motivating improvement, but producing negative emotional and behavioral consequences that can harm relationships and lead to poor health outcomes. Social neuroscience research has begun to illuminate some mechanisms by which status divides lead to interpersonal consequences. This review integrates core findings on the neuroscience of social comparison processes, showing the effects of comparing the self to relevant others on dimensions of competence and warmth. The literature converges to suggest that relative status divides initiate social comparison processes, that upward and downward comparisons initiate pain- and pleasure- related neural responses, and that these responses can predict people's kindly or aggressive intentions toward one another. Across different types of comparisons, brain regions involved in mentalizing are also sometimes involved. Along with future work, the research reviewed here may inform efforts to mitigate negative outcomes of constant social comparisons. PMID:24486767

  6. Latin American Social Medicine and Global Social Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental change in the theory underlying public health and medicine is needed. Latin American social medicine (LASM), originating in a region of the world that has been subjected to colonial and postcolonial influence, will be part of this change. To the extent that the social production of disease among people in other regions is a consequence of various large-scale forms of domination, LASM offers a relevant analysis, models of resistance, and exemplars of social medicine in practice. I draw upon LASM to examine the social production of disease in the Marshall Islands and Iraq. I suggest a basis for a global social medicine in the shared experience of suffering and describe implications for public health theory and practice. PMID:14652319

  7. Psychiatric social work and socialism: problems and potential in China.

    PubMed

    Pearson, V; Phillips, M

    1994-05-01

    At present social work is almost unheard of in China. Grassroots responses to the needs of mentally ill people and their families, based on the use of untrained officials and volunteers, are insufficient. In some cases, intervention may be unwelcome because of the stigma that surrounds mental illness in China and the families' desire to keep the matter private. The problems and difficulties--practical, emotional, and social--that families and patients face are not dissimilar to those of their counterparts in the West. Doctors and nurses adopt a biological explanatory model and show little interest in the wider environment of the patient, even when environmental factors can be clearly demonstrated to impinge on the illness. The authors conclude that there is a role and a need for social workers in psychiatric settings in China. Although this would undoubtedly be social work with Chinese characteristics, it would be recognizable as consistent with professional social work practice elsewhere.

  8. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S.

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  9. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    PubMed

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  10. Consumer-oriented social data fusion: controlled learning in social environments, social advertising, and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, L.

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the current practices in social data fusion and analysis as it applies to consumer-oriented applications in a slew of areas including business, economics, politics, sciences, medicine, education and more. A categorization of these systems is proposed and contributions to each area are explored preceded by a discussion of some special issues related to social data and networks. From this work, future paths of consumer-based social data analysis research and current outstanding problems are discovered.

  11. [Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].

    PubMed

    Draibe, Sônia Miriam

    2007-01-01

    In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship.

  12. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  13. Luhmann on Socialization and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstraeten, Raf

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that Niklas Luhmann's perspective on socialization and education deserves attention from educational researchers. The paper reviews the paradigm change in systems theory, examines Luhmann's core concepts and their consequences, and discusses conceptual distinctions and determinations regarding issues of socialization and education,…

  14. The Social Organization of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Schools are complex social settings where students, teachers, administrators, and parents interact to shape a child's educational experience. Any effort to improve educational outcomes for America's children requires a dynamic understanding of the environments in which children learn. In "The Social Organization of Schooling", editors Larry Hedges…

  15. Classrooms, Communication, and Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Problems faced by deaf students developing social skills are discussed, and suggestions are provided for what teachers can do to specifically cultivate these skills. Teacher modeling, cooperative learning, and the integration of social skills lessons into other class lessons and activities are recommended, with sample activities and references to…

  16. Social Group Work in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    This literature review focuses on social group work in the hospital setting. The first section addresses the need for a holistic approach within a typology of illness, and discusses the social work role and intervention tasks required at different stages of illness, i.e., diagnosis, adaptation to long-term illness, and the ending of the illness…

  17. How Social Problems Are Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    Examines how social conditions can become social problems and argues that there are objective ways of determining the scale of a particular problem. The paper supports its argument through examinations of prohibition, the decline in tobacco consumption, and the war on drugs. (GLR)

  18. Socialization for the Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpov, Alexander O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to give an overview and present special features of socialization of the research type that prepares young people for life in the knowledge society. Methods of cultural and historical epistemology, of hermeneutic and structural-functional analysis of social action have been used in the study, as well as elements of the…

  19. MACOS: Social Studies in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Peter B.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews the history of the public controversy surrounding the social studies curriculum, "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS) and discusses the implications of the MACOS controversy for future curriculum development efforts in the social sciences. Available from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1701 K Street, N.W., Suite 1100,…

  20. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed significant…

  1. Current Trends in Social Dialectology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuy, Roger W.

    The formal study of social dialects has received increasing attention since about the middle of the sixties. In linguistics, the study of social dialectology has resulted in the clear demonstration of the importance of sociolinguistic variation in linguistic theory in contrast to the former preoccupation with linguistic universals. In education,…

  2. Gender as a Social Category.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Developmental Psychology, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes differences in the socialization setting provided by all-boy and all-girl play groups, and explores possible reasons for children's tendency to congregate in same-sex groups. Considers three classes of possible explanatory processes: biological factors, socialization pressures from adults, and gender cognitions. (RH)

  3. Geography and the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    This paper argues that geography teachers should commit themselves to social science programs. The paper concerns the role of geographers as social scientists through a consideration of the concepts classified by David Harvey (absolute, relative, relational). The argument concludes with a statement on the importance of the geographic approach for…

  4. Social Media in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Students in the United States use technology and social media platforms for both educational and noneducational purposes. Integration of social media in music education classes can help facilitate learning experiences that would be less likely to happen in a brick-and-mortar setting. However, issues such as privacy and cyberbullying continue to…

  5. Technological "Shortcuts" to Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    etzioni, Amitai; Remp, Richard

    1972-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of technologies" in six social problems. Concludes that technological solutions seem more likely to increase effectiveness in handling major parts of social problems at lower economic and psychic costs than punitive, therapeutic, or informational efforts. (AL)

  6. Social Interactions and Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesar, Margarida

    In the 1970s W. Doise, G. Mugny and A.-N. Perret-Clermont underlined for the first time the essential role played by social interactions in cognitive development. Since then, many authors have been studying social interactions and their mediating role in knowledge apprehension and in skills acquisition. Inspired by L. Vygotsky's theory, many…

  7. Social Mobility and Educational Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Zefang; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Wenjiao

    2009-01-01

    There is a close interactive relationship between social mobility and educational selection. On one side, the character, direction, speed, level, methods and trends of social mobility affect the aims, goals, functions, scope, strategy, content and methods of choice in education. On the other side, the goals, basis and means of choosing education…

  8. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  9. Social Studies. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains the following papers on social studies from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Technology Portfolios in Pre-Service Social Studies Teacher Education" (Marsha Alibrandi); (2) "North Carolina's Sixth Graders Go to Russia: A Global Education/Curriculum Integration Project…

  10. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  11. Managing School Social Work Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Kendra J.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents results of a survey of 73 school social workers regarding their record-keeping practices. These social workers indicated that time pressures are a major challenge to documentation; they struggle to know what to include, and they worry about privacy. More than half fail to consistently include assessment information, progress…

  12. Social Studies Objectives, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Six objectives which form the framework of a K-12 social studies program of Department of Defense Dependents Schools are outlined. The objectives are to evaluate the relationship between human beings and their social, natural, and man-made environment; analyze the origins and interrelationships of beliefs, values, and behavior patterns; solve…

  13. A Social Networks in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimova, Blanka; Poulova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    At present social networks are becoming important in all areas of human activities. They are simply part and parcel of everyday life. They are mostly used for advertising, but they have already found their way into education. The future potential of social networks is high as it can be seen from their statistics on a daily, monthly or yearly…

  14. Drugs. Social Issues Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Eleanor C.; And Others

    The Social Issues Resources Series (SIRS) is a set of loose leaf units each of which is addressed to a different social issue. Each unit consists of articles which have been reproduced from newspapers, magazines, journals and government publications representing the prevailing spectrum of opinion, emphasis and complexity. Sixty articles are…

  15. Teachers, Networks and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Kaleen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that school leaders and policymakers should attend to the social conditions within schools that promote instructional improvement and student achievement gains. This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical work on social capital to frame three aspects of the relationships among teachers. The three studies…

  16. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

  17. Measuring Involvement with Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Glen J.; Salmon, Charles T.

    A study applied research concepts from consumer product involvement to test a model for research on involvement with social issues. Issue involvement was defined as the state or level of perceived importance and/or interest evoked by a stimulus (issue) within a specific situation. Attitudes on four social issues--abortion, pornography, the…

  18. Social Cognition in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Bernard; And Others

    Social cognition is defined as a new field in psychology which emphasizes cognitive processes. It is concerned with how people interpret and construct their social environment. Selected aspects of this field are reviewed. These include perceptual salience, causal attributions, and indirect ability communications. Their pertinence to the…

  19. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  20. Naive Theories of Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined children's (ages 3-10, Total N = 235) naive theories of social groups, in particular, their expectations about how group memberships constrain social interactions. After introduction to novel groups of people, preschoolers (ages 3-5) reliably expected agents from one group to harm members of the other group (rather than…

  1. The Social Work Practice Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartocollis, Lina; Cnaan, Ram A.; Ledwith, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a systematic review of the emerging practice doctorate in social work. Based on the experience of the first such Doctor of Social Work (DSW) program, we provide information regarding the program origins and rationale, development, current structure, and future direction. Such information will enrich the discussion on the role…

  2. Social Security at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Social security schemes need to be streamlined and the underlying policies made more coherent to obtain the fullest possible return on expenditure. Third World countries need to reflect very seriously on the role of social security in the development process and on the management problems involved. (CT)

  3. Sesame Street: Socialization by Surrogate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenthal, Norman A.

    This paper reviews some of the controversy surrounding "Sesame Street's" treatment of the socialization progress of preschool television viewers. Examined in detail are those portions of "Sesame Street" programs which contribute to children's learning of socially acceptable attitudes and behaviors. Some comparisons are made between "Sesame Street"…

  4. The End of Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuger, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that three factors will cause the demise of social work in the next century: hypertechnologies that make intervention skill obsolete; fragmentation within the profession causing collapse of philosophical support; and changes in the social structure, caused by the corporate sector, that will obviate traditional human services delivery…

  5. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  6. A Social Studies Computer Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    Describes a variety of computer software programs and student activities utilizing the computer to help teach secondary social studies. Suggests using word processors, painting programs, and computer simulations for history and government courses. Concludes that successful use of computers in social studies instruction depends on the design of…

  7. Political model of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Egorov, Georgy; Sonin, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved. PMID:22198760

  8. Connecting with New Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the emergence of unions and social movements which provide opportunities for adult educators in forwarding their adult literacy campaigns. The author describes the recent World Social Forum (WSF), held at the end of January in Porto Alegre, that provides ample opportunities for adult educators to make…

  9. Social Class and School Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a practical look at social class in school music by exploring the manifestations and impact of three of its dimensions: financial resources, cultural practices, and social networks. Three suggestions are discussed: provide a free and equal music education for all students, understand and respect each student's cultural…

  10. Social Comparison Processes in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerald; Ashton-James, Claire E.; Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    2007-01-01

    We systematically analyze the role of social comparison processes in organizations. Specifically, we describe how social comparison processes have been used to explain six key areas of organizational inquiry: (1) organizational justice, (2) performance appraisal, (3) virtual work environments, (4) affective behavior in the workplace, (5) stress,…

  11. Using Social Media in Exercises

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, Jeff

    2014-04-28

    This presentation discusses the use of social media as a tool during the full-scale exercise Tremor-14 in Las Vegas, and examines Lessons Learned as a path forward in using social media to disseminate Emergency Public Information (EPI) on a regular basis.

  12. Chaos, Topology, and Social Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Russ

    1992-01-01

    Applies chaos theory to complex social organization, beginning with a mathematical definition of chaos. Shows how a nonlinear equation might be used to describe organization. The conclusion section identifies three approaches to analyzing chaos in social organization: metaphorical analysis, mathematical modeling, and data collection. (36…

  13. Engaging Students with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Anjali S.; Grewal, Dhruv; Mills, Adam; Ottley, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The importance of social media for marketing professionals has grown immensely as consumers turn to it to connect with products, brands, and brand communities. Yet limited research investigates the uses of social media to teach core marketing concepts. This article analyzes coursework in foundational marketing classes, with a specific focus on the…

  14. Social Justice in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Education is a moral enterprise and a right rather than a privilege. Teacher education should develop teachers' awareness of and concern for social justice and their capacity to teach democracy and teach democratically. The concept of social justice should guide curriculum development and implementation. (SK)

  15. Values, Technology, and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    The concentration of power and the potential for abuse inherent in modern technology mandates the development of a personal and socially responsible ethic. The development and examination of this ethic should be reflected and integrated throughout social studies instruction. Historical examples of traditional virtues (sobriety, thrift, industry)…

  16. Social Studies Curriculum, K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boocker, Sam; And Others

    This document offers a detailed description of the Oak Park, Michigan social studies program. The program is built around four goals: knowledge, skill, value, and participation. Knowledge goals pertain to acquiring facts, concepts, or generalizations from history and the social sciences. Skill goals pertain to the ability to collect, organize,…

  17. Contexts of Social Studies Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunstrum, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the "Handbook of Research on Social Studies Teaching and Learning's" section on context effect. Reviews influences that shape social studies, including research, student groups, family environment, mass media (especially television), testing, curriculum mandates, and local-to-national community pressures. (CH)

  18. Interfaith Leaders as Social Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Eboo; Meyer, Cassie

    2012-01-01

    Social entrepreneurs work to find concrete solutions to large-scale problems that are scalable and sustainable. In this article, the authors explore what the framework of social entrepreneurship might offer those seeking to positively engage religious diversity on college campuses, and highlight two programs that offer examples of what such…

  19. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  20. Social Studies in African Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Michael B., Ed.

    This collection of essays is organized into two sections: Section 1 deals with general issues in social studies, while Section 2 examines social studies education in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia. Essays in Section One are: (1) "The Historical Context of Education in British Colonial Africa" (L.…

  1. Social Interactions in Online Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark; Hussain, Zaheer; Grüsser, Sabine M.; Thalemann, Ralf; Cole, Helena; Davies, Mark N. O.; Chappell, Darren

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly overviews five studies examining massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). The first study surveyed 540 gamers and showed that the social aspects of the game were the most important factor for many gamers. The second study explored the social interactions of 912 MMORPG players and showed they created strong…

  2. Rural Social Change in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turowski, Jan, Ed.; Szwengrub, Lili Maria, Ed.

    Addressing the question of economic growth, this book focuses on the implications of industry re: Polish social structure, organization of farms, and changes in rural culture and large social groups. Emphasizing way and quality of life, this book includes the following major sections and article titles: (1) Industrialization and Changes in the…

  3. Seven Rules for Social Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firebaugh, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    "Seven Rules for Social Research" teaches social scientists how to get the most out of their technical skills and tools, providing a resource that fully describes the strategies and concepts no researcher or student of human behavior can do without. Glenn Firebaugh provides indispensable practical guidance for anyone doing research in the social…

  4. Comparative Theories of Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Hollis W.; And Others

    This symposium report contains various statements of the theory of change and societal growth and maintenance viewed from the perspectives of major social disciplines. Comparative theories in these areas can provide guidelines for predicting, planning, and carrying out social development programs. The theme of the symposium was the problem of…

  5. Schools, Social Capital and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…

  6. Discourse Analysis and Social Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of social constructivism as a general movement and how it has been applied in particular to scientific knowledge precedes a review of investigations into the role language and linguistic activities have in the social construction of knowledge. A 39-citation unannotated bibliography is included. (CB)

  7. Social Entrepreneurs and Catalytic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddock, Sandra A.; Post, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Social entrepreneurs are private citizens who play critical roles in bringing about catalytic changes in the public sector agenda and the perception of social issues. Factors that make their projects--such as the Partnership for a Drug-Free America and Earth Day--successful include problem complexity, credibility, and a commitment to a collective…

  8. Underage Children and Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Shalynn; Cooke, Bethany; McVey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum age requirements for joining popular social networking services such as Facebook, many students misrepresent their real ages and join as active participants in the networks. This descriptive study examines the use of social networking services (SNSs) by children under the age of 13. The researchers surveyed a sample of 199…

  9. Social Networking Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Just a few years ago, social networking meant little more to educators than the headache of determining whether to penalize students for inappropriate activities captured on Facebook or MySpace. Now, teachers and students have an array of social-networking sites and tools--from Ning to VoiceThread and Second Life--to draw on for such serious uses…

  10. Preschool Intervention Through Social Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Daele, Leland D.

    This summary on studies on preschool intervention through social learning indicate that a child's mode of orientation and his general level of competence and maturity are, in large part, derived from his social environment. To the extent that specific aspects of that environment can be identified as significant antecedents to behavioral…

  11. Measuring Emotion Socialization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Christy G.; Wallace, Tanner L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding how school personnel can best support students' development of communication skills around feelings is critical to long-term health outcomes. The measurement of emotion socialization in schools facilitates future research in this area; we review existing measures of emotion socialization to assess their applicability…

  12. Neuroethology of primate social behavior.

    PubMed

    Chang, Steve W C; Brent, Lauren J N; Adams, Geoffrey K; Klein, Jeffrey T; Pearson, John M; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2013-06-18

    A neuroethological approach to human and nonhuman primate behavior and cognition predicts biological specializations for social life. Evidence reviewed here indicates that ancestral mechanisms are often duplicated, repurposed, and differentially regulated to support social behavior. Focusing on recent research from nonhuman primates, we describe how the primate brain might implement social functions by coopting and extending preexisting mechanisms that previously supported nonsocial functions. This approach reveals that highly specialized mechanisms have evolved to decipher the immediate social context, and parallel circuits have evolved to translate social perceptual signals and nonsocial perceptual signals into partially integrated social and nonsocial motivational signals, which together inform general-purpose mechanisms that command behavior. Differences in social behavior between species, as well as between individuals within a species, result in part from neuromodulatory regulation of these neural circuits, which itself appears to be under partial genetic control. Ultimately, intraspecific variation in social behavior has differential fitness consequences, providing fundamental building blocks of natural selection. Our review suggests that the neuroethological approach to primate behavior may provide unique insights into human psychopathology.

  13. Social Supports among the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solarz, Andrea

    The homeless have long been considered a disaffiliated and socially isolated group. Research has indicated that most of the homeless are single and have no family relationships or friends to provide support. A study was conducted to gather information on both objective and subjective measures of social support from 125 individuals residing at a…

  14. Social marketing: issues for consideration.

    PubMed

    Novelli, W D

    1983-01-01

    Few social organizations have been able to incorporate all the essential components of successful marketing, namely, a customer oriented perspective, careful product development, segmented targets and programs, and an interative process of analysis, planning, implementation, and replanning. The lack of resources is part of the problem of moving forward into comprehensive social marketing. Social organizations may use marketing's 4 "Ps" -- product, price, promotion, and place, but often they must also contend with low visibility, lamentable budgets, little research, and lack of continuity. Several general problems confront marketing planners who try to transfer marketing approaches used to sell toothpaste and laundry detergent to promote concepts like family planning, smoking cessation, and nutrition. It has not been possible simply to apply commercial techniques for market analysis and segmentation or product, price, channel, and communication strategy and implementation to social programs. Evaluating program effectiveness is another area where commercial methods fail to readily apply. Contraceptive social marketing programs can point to quantifiable success measures of units sold and revenue received, but generally social marketers must gauge their longterm program objectives such as reduced fertility rates according to intermediary measures such as knowledge change or reported behavior. Currently, organizational design is being studied by several contraceptive social marketing programs. Trained marketing managers in key positions, a systematic marketing planning process, and careful monitoring and control are key program success ingredients that frequently are missing in social agencies where marketing activities and functions may not be fully understood. Many social organizations have established communication functions, but they are not conducive to the broader role that marketing must play if any significant impact is to result. Additionally, in the absence of

  15. Social marketing: issues for consideration.

    PubMed

    Novelli, W D

    1983-01-01

    Few social organizations have been able to incorporate all the essential components of successful marketing, namely, a customer oriented perspective, careful product development, segmented targets and programs, and an interative process of analysis, planning, implementation, and replanning. The lack of resources is part of the problem of moving forward into comprehensive social marketing. Social organizations may use marketing's 4 "Ps" -- product, price, promotion, and place, but often they must also contend with low visibility, lamentable budgets, little research, and lack of continuity. Several general problems confront marketing planners who try to transfer marketing approaches used to sell toothpaste and laundry detergent to promote concepts like family planning, smoking cessation, and nutrition. It has not been possible simply to apply commercial techniques for market analysis and segmentation or product, price, channel, and communication strategy and implementation to social programs. Evaluating program effectiveness is another area where commercial methods fail to readily apply. Contraceptive social marketing programs can point to quantifiable success measures of units sold and revenue received, but generally social marketers must gauge their longterm program objectives such as reduced fertility rates according to intermediary measures such as knowledge change or reported behavior. Currently, organizational design is being studied by several contraceptive social marketing programs. Trained marketing managers in key positions, a systematic marketing planning process, and careful monitoring and control are key program success ingredients that frequently are missing in social agencies where marketing activities and functions may not be fully understood. Many social organizations have established communication functions, but they are not conducive to the broader role that marketing must play if any significant impact is to result. Additionally, in the absence of

  16. Social capital in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Shane

    A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social capital. Additionally, the value of social capital in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social capital in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social capital consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social capital is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social capital in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social capital from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social capital in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social capital as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with

  17. Online Identities and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  18. [Social inequality in home care].

    PubMed

    Möller, A; Osterfeld, A; Büscher, A

    2013-06-01

    Social inequality in Germany is discussed primarily with regard to educational or social welfare issues. There is a political consensus that more action should be taken to ensure equality of chances and fulfillment of basic needs for everyone. In long-term care these considerations have not yet taken place and there are hardly any research studies in this field. However, the startling rise of the need for long-term care will definitely require a discussion of social inequality in various care arrangements. To learn more about social inequality in home care, a qualitative approach was used and 16 home care nurses were interviewed. Our study shows that many care recipients face numerous problems they cannot handle on their own, which may even worsen their situation. In addition, the results reveal that facing social inequalities place a burden on nurses and influence their work performance.

  19. The Emerging Neuroscience of Social Media.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Tamir, Diana I; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2015-12-01

    Social media use is a global phenomenon, with almost two billion people worldwide regularly using these websites. As Internet access around the world increases, so will the number of social media users. Neuroscientists can capitalize on the ubiquity of social media use to gain novel insights about social cognitive processes and the neural systems that support them. This review outlines social motives that drive people to use social media, proposes neural systems supporting social media use, and describes approaches neuroscientists can use to conduct research with social media. We close by noting important directions and ethical considerations of future research with social media.

  20. Contraception: a social revolution.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2007-03-01

    Modern contraceptive technology is more than a technical advance: it has brought about a true social revolution, the 'first reproductive revolution' in the history of mankind. This latter was followed in rapid succession by other major changes in human reproductive strategies. In the human species, sexual activity began to lose its exclusive reproductive meaning at an early stage of its evolution. Human beings must have practiced non-conceptive sex from the outset and therefore must have had a need to avoid, rather than to seek conception during intercourse from time immemorial. The search for methods to control fertility went on for millennia, but a valid solution was only found during the twentieth century, when the population explosion had forever changed the shape of humanity: in only one century the total population of the planet had grown from some 1.6 billion to more than 6 billion. That increase will remain unique in the history of Homo sapiens. At the global level, contraception provided a tool to deal with overpopulation and, in only 50 years, went a long way towards its resolution. However, to solve the problem, national and international family planning initiatives were required. For individuals, contraception also meant a revolution. It allowed sexual intercourse without reproduction. Only 25 years later, in vitro fertilisation permitted childbearing without sexual intercourse. Other advances followed and now cloning, that is, reproduction without the two gametes, looms on the horizon. Such a series of rapid, major changes in human reproductive strategies has confused many. For this reason, a constructive dialogue between sociology and biology is mandatory. Contraception is a powerful tool to promote equity between sexes; it improves women's status in the family and in the community. Avoiding pregnancy during the teens increases opportunities for a young woman's education, training and employment. By controlling their fertility, women get a chance to

  1. Social networks and social support: living with chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Rounds, K A; Israel, B A

    1985-09-01

    Individuals with chronic renal disease who receive dialysis treatment are continually faced with major adjustments. These may include dealing with changes in work and economic status, social roles, activity levels, self-image, health status, and normal routines, as well as learning to live with uncertainty and loss. The individual's social network plays a key role as the individual experiences and moves through various stages of adjustment. Networks with certain characteristics (e.g. provision of affective support, reciprocal ties) may be more effective than others lacking these characteristics in meeting the individual's changing needs during the process of adjusting to chronic renal disease. This paper examines this relationship between the characteristics of an individual's social network and adjustment to chronic renal illness. The discussion focuses on the impact of chronic renal disease on the individual, the composition and characteristics of the social network, and on the relationships between network members. How the social network affects a person's adjustment to stages of adaptation to chronic renal disease is also addressed. Finally, suggestions are presented for how health care professionals can intervene at the individual, network, and organizational level to strengthen and enlarge social networks in order to enhance social support.

  2. The social class determinants of income inequality and social cohesion.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, C; Lynch, J; Oates, G L

    1999-01-01

    The authors argue that Wilkinson's model omits important variables (social class) that make it vulnerable to biases due to model mis-specification. Furthermore, the culture of inequality hypothesis unnecessarily "psychopathologizes" the relatively deprived while omitting social determinants of disease related to production (environmental and occupational hazards) and the capacity of the relatively deprived for collective action. In addition, the hypothesis that being "disrespected" is a fundamental determinant of violence has already been refuted. Shying away from social mechanisms such as exploitation, workplace domination, or classist ideology might avoid conflict but reduce the income inequality model to a set of useful, but simple and wanting associations. Using a nonrecursive structural equation model that tests for reciprocal effects, the authors show that working-class position is negatively associated with social cohesion but positively associated with union membership. Thus, current indicators of social cohesion use middle-class standards for collective action that working-class communities are unlikely to meet. An erroneous characterization of working-class communities as noncohesive could be used to justify paternalistic or punitive social policies. These criticisms should not detract from an acknowledgment of Wilkinson's investigations as a leading empirical contribution to reviving social epidemiology at the end of the century.

  3. Will Learning Social Inclusion Assist Rural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Current research on social networks in some rural communities reports continuing demise despite efforts to build resilient communities. Several factors are identified as contributing to social decline including globalisation and rural social characteristics. Particular rural social characteristics, such as strong social bonds among members of…

  4. An Invitation to Postmodern Social Cartography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.; Liebman, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Structures of multiple education and knowledge systems can be recreated in maps, in a social cartography where the space of the social map reflects effects of social changes in real space. Such maps allow social research to escape from modernism's positivist restraints, improve comparative educators' understanding of the social milieu, and open…

  5. An Invitation to Postmodern Social Cartography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.; Liebman, Martin

    This essay demonstrates how social cartography--the writing and reading of maps addressing questions of location in the social milieu--may enhance social research and move it forward in its struggles to distance itself from the positivistic restraints of modernism. Social cartography suggests an opening of dialogue among diverse social players,…

  6. Social Comparison in the Classroom: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Zee, Yvonne G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted on social comparison processes in the classroom since Festinger proposed his theory of social comparison. It covers the theoretical framework of social comparison theory, and it is organized around the following themes: motives for social comparison, dimensions of social comparison, direction of social…

  7. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  8. Expert Students in Social Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avogadro, Paolo; Calegari, Silvia; Dominoni, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A social learning management system (social LMS) is a tool which favors social interactions and allows scholastic institutions to supervise and guide the learning process. The inclusion of the social feature to a "normal" LMS leads to the creation of educational social networks (EduSN), where the students interact and learn. The…

  9. The Compensating Income Variation of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen; van Praag, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    There is a small but growing literature on the determinants of social capital. Most of these studies use a measure of trust to define social capital empirically. In this paper we use three different measures of social capital: the size of the individual's social network, the extent of their social safety net and membership of unions or…

  10. Alienation and the Ontology of Social Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalman, Ralph

    Theoretical models of social structure are analyzed in light of modern work patterns, social affiliations, and social attitudes. It is hypothesized that previous paradigms for society were based on classic theory which analyzed the then emergent forms of social structure and relationships. Because social structures and relationships have changed,…

  11. Social Support and Social Anxiety in Use and Perceptions of Online Mental Health Resources: Exploring Social Compensation and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena.

  12. Attentional mechanisms of social perception are biased in social phobia.

    PubMed

    Boll, Sabrina; Bartholomaeus, Marie; Peter, Ulrike; Lupke, Ulrike; Gamer, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of social phobia have reported an increased vigilance to social threat cues but also an avoidance of socially relevant stimuli such as eye gaze. The primary aim of this study was to examine attentional mechanisms relevant for perceiving social cues by means of abnormalities in scanning of facial features in patients with social phobia. In two novel experimental paradigms, patients with social phobia and healthy controls matched on age, gender and education were compared regarding their gazing behavior towards facial cues. The first experiment was an emotion classification paradigm which allowed for differentiating reflexive attentional shifts from sustained attention towards diagnostically relevant facial features. In the second experiment, attentional orienting by gaze direction was assessed in a gaze-cueing paradigm in which non-predictive gaze cues shifted attention towards or away from subsequently presented targets. We found that patients as compared to controls reflexively oriented their attention more frequently towards the eyes of emotional faces in the emotion classification paradigm. This initial hypervigilance for the eye region was observed at very early attentional stages when faces were presented for 150ms, and persisted when facial stimuli were shown for 3s. Moreover, a delayed attentional orienting into the direction of eye gaze was observed in individuals with social phobia suggesting a differential time course of eye gaze processing in patients and controls. Our findings suggest that basic mechanisms of early attentional exploration of social cues are biased in social phobia and might contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder. PMID:27131909

  13. [Psychoanalysis and social anthropology].

    PubMed

    Thisted, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore some subjects originated in the work of psychoanalysts and social anthropologists that generated an interesting discussion about the transmission of cultural trends along generations, as well as psychological family features from one generation to the other: we refer to the Oedipus complex model, as it was introduced by S. Freud, and to Malinowski's work on children's sexuality and incest. This text examines the emergency of fieldwork methodology (ethnography), that is, living in the place in which the research is conducted, sharing native languages and listening to the meanings attributed by the people to aspects of their lives. We also show another perspective, in which the researchers share place, language and customs but study for their own sake in order to justify a theoretical concept: resilience. This is one of the results of the transdisciplinary works -carried out by the UBA anthropology and education teams- to which we refer, together with the discussion about the category "educability" and some issues related to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorders and Hyperactivity. This article proposes a critical approach on the ontological premises of racionalism, idealism and empiricism that preceded the researches mentioned. Finally it presents a perspective in which the imaginary institution of society and the emergency of psychism in singular subjects merge.

  14. Quantum social game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfi, Badredine

    2007-02-01

    Most game-theoretic studies of strategic interaction assume independent individual strategies as the basic unit of analysis. This paper explores the effects of non-independence on strategic interaction. Two types of non-independence effects are considered. First, the paper considers subjective non-independence at the level of the individual actor by looking at how choice ambivalence shapes the decision-making process. Specifically, how do alternative individual choices superpose with one another to “constructively/destructively” shape each other's role within an actor's decision-making process? This process is termed as quantum superposition of alternative choices. Second, the paper considers how inter-subjective non-independence across actors engenders collective strategies among two or more interacting actors. This is termed as quantum entanglement of strategies. Taking into account both types of non-independence effect makes possible the emergence of a new collective equilibrium, without assuming signaling, prior “contract” agreement or third-party moderation, or even “cheap talk”. I apply these ideas to analyze the equilibrium possibilities of a situation wherein N actors play a quantum social game of cooperation. I consider different configurations of large- N quantum entanglement using the approach of density operator. I specifically consider the following configurations: star-shaped, nearest-neighbors, and full entanglement.

  15. [Psychoanalysis and social anthropology].

    PubMed

    Thisted, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore some subjects originated in the work of psychoanalysts and social anthropologists that generated an interesting discussion about the transmission of cultural trends along generations, as well as psychological family features from one generation to the other: we refer to the Oedipus complex model, as it was introduced by S. Freud, and to Malinowski's work on children's sexuality and incest. This text examines the emergency of fieldwork methodology (ethnography), that is, living in the place in which the research is conducted, sharing native languages and listening to the meanings attributed by the people to aspects of their lives. We also show another perspective, in which the researchers share place, language and customs but study for their own sake in order to justify a theoretical concept: resilience. This is one of the results of the transdisciplinary works -carried out by the UBA anthropology and education teams- to which we refer, together with the discussion about the category "educability" and some issues related to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorders and Hyperactivity. This article proposes a critical approach on the ontological premises of racionalism, idealism and empiricism that preceded the researches mentioned. Finally it presents a perspective in which the imaginary institution of society and the emergency of psychism in singular subjects merge. PMID:23269971

  16. Programming the social computer.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David; Giunchiglia, Fausto

    2013-03-28

    The aim of 'programming the global computer' was identified by Milner and others as one of the grand challenges of computing research. At the time this phrase was coined, it was natural to assume that this objective might be achieved primarily through extending programming and specification languages. The Internet, however, has brought with it a different style of computation that (although harnessing variants of traditional programming languages) operates in a style different to those with which we are familiar. The 'computer' on which we are running these computations is a social computer in the sense that many of the elementary functions of the computations it runs are performed by humans, and successful execution of a program often depends on properties of the human society over which the program operates. These sorts of programs are not programmed in a traditional way and may have to be understood in a way that is different from the traditional view of programming. This shift in perspective raises new challenges for the science of the Web and for computing in general.

  17. Social health insurance reexamined.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Social health insurance (SHI) is enjoying something of a revival in parts of the developing world. Many countries that have in the past relied largely on tax finance (and out-of-pocket payments) have introduced SHI, or are thinking about doing so. And countries with SHI already in place are making vigorous efforts to extend coverage to the informal sector. Ironically, this revival is occurring at a time when the traditional SHI countries in Europe have either already reduced payroll financing in favor of general revenues, or are in the process of doing so. This paper examines how SHI fares in health-care delivery, revenue collection, covering the formal sector, and its impacts on the labor market. It argues that SHI does not necessarily deliver good quality care at a low cost, partly because of poor regulation of SHI purchasers. It suggests that the costs of collecting revenues can be substantial, even in the formal sector where non-enrollment and evasion are commonplace, and that while SHI can cover the formal sector and the poor relatively easily, it fares badly in terms of covering the non-poor informal sector workers until the economy has reached a high level of economic development. The paper also argues that SHI can have negative labor market effects. PMID:19399789

  18. Ghana social mobilization analysis.

    PubMed

    Tweneboa-Kodua, A; Obeng-Quaidoo, I; Abu, K

    1991-01-01

    In order to increase communication channels for child survival and development, the government and UNICEF Ghana undertook a "social mobilization analysis." This analysis included three studies that aimed to identify individuals and existing organizations with the potential to serve as health communicators and to determine the type of assistance that they needed to maximize their effectiveness in this role. The first study surveyed governmental institutions, trade unions, revolutionary organizations, traditional leaders, and others and found a largely untapped reservoir of capacities to promote child health, with varying levels of current involvement. The primary need identified was for information and training materials. The second study focused on the mass media and revealed a low coverage of maternal and child health topics and the need for better cooperation between journalists and health professionals. The third study assessed sources of health information for parents and found several sources, such as religious organizations, women's groups, and school teachers that could be mobilized to promote child health. Recommendations are made for the use of the findings. PMID:2037495

  19. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  20. Reflecting Socially on Social Issues in a Social Studies Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Avner; Gaudelli, William

    2007-01-01

    Reflection is widely embraced in teacher education as a necessary process in becoming a good teacher. While there is broad acceptance of this idea, the nature of reflection has been challenged, particularly by those seeking reflection that is socially situated and critical, implicating teaching in its broader social context. This paper examines…