Science.gov

Sample records for determine phylogenetic relationships

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Cryptosporidium determined by ribosomal RNA sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Fielke, R; Lumb, R; Baverstock, P R

    1990-04-01

    Reverse transcription of total cellular RNA was used to obtain a partial sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA of Cryptosporidium, a protist currently placed in the phylum Apicomplexa. The semi-conserved regions were aligned with homologous sequences in a range of other eukaryotes, and the evolutionary relationships of Cryptosporidium were determined by two different methods of phylogenetic analysis. The prokaryotes Escherichia coli and Halobacterium cuti were included as outgroups. The results do not show an especially close relationship of Cryptosporidium to other members of the phylum Apicomplexa. PMID:2332273

  2. Evaluating Darwin's naturalization hypothesis in experimental plant assemblages: phylogenetic relationships do not determine colonization success.

    PubMed

    Castro, Sergio A; Escobedo, Victor M; Aranda, Jorge; Carvallo, Gastón O

    2014-01-01

    Darwin's naturalization hypothesis (DNH) proposes that colonization is less likely when the colonizing species is related to members of the invaded community, because evolutionary closeness intensifies competition among species that share similar resources. Studies that have evaluated DNH from correlational evidence have yielded controversial results with respect to its occurrence and generality. In the present study we carried out a set of manipulative experiments in which we controlled the phylogenetic relatedness of one colonizing species (Lactuca sativa) with five assemblages of plants (the recipient communities), and evaluated the colonizing success using five indicators (germination, growth, flowering, survival, and recruitment). The evolutionary relatedness was calculated as the mean phylogenetic distance between Lactuca and the members of each assemblage (MPD) and by the mean phylogenetic distance to the nearest neighbor (MNND). The results showed that the colonization success of Lactuca was not affected by MPD or MNND values, findings that do not support DNH. These results disagree with experimental studies made with communities of microorganisms, which show an inverse relation between colonization success and phylogenetic distances. We suggest that these discrepancies may be due to the high phylogenetic distance used, since in our experiments the colonizing species (Lactuca) was a distant relative of the assemblage members, while in the other studies the colonizing taxa have been related at the congeneric and conspecific levels. We suggest that under field conditions the phylogenetic distance is a weak predictor of competition, and it has a limited role in determining colonization success, contrary to prediction of the DNH. More experimental studies are needed to establish the importance of phylogenetic distance between colonizing species and invaded community on colonization success.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Asian and European pig breeds determined by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kim, K I; Lee, J H; Li, K; Zhang, Y P; Lee, S S; Gongora, J; Moran, C

    2002-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Asian and European pig breeds were assessed using 1036 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) tree was constructed on the basis of maximum likelihood distances using sequences determined for three Cheju (Korea), 11 Chinese, one Westran (Australian feral origin) and two European pigs (Berkshire and Welsh), and also published sequences for four Japanese (including two Wild Boars), one Yucatan miniature, five European (including Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Swedish and Wild Boar) and two Meishan pigs. The Colombian collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) sequence was also determined and used as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony with heuristic search method was used to determine bootstrap support values. Asian-type pigs clustered together (bootstrap support 33%), but were separate from European-type pigs that also clustered together (93%). The Westran pig, derived from the feral descendants of pigs inhabiting Kangaroo Island of South Australia, clustered with Asian pigs, demonstrating Asian origin of their mitochondria. Berkshire and Large White clustered with Asian pigs, indicating that Asian pigs were involved in the development of these breeds. Our findings clearly demonstrate that pigs indigenous to China, Korea and Japan are only recently diverged from each other and distinctly different from European-type pigs. European pig breeds consist of pigs with mitochondria of Asian and non-Asian type, some of which were formed from closely related maternal ancestors, if not from a single ancestor.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made from 6/90--3/91 toward completion of our project, Phylogenetic Relationships among subsurface microorganisms. 16S rRNA was sequenced, and based on the sequence the SMCC isolates were assigned to preliminary groups. Microorganisms were obtained at various depths at the Savannah River Site, including the Surface (0 m), Congaree (91 m), and Middendorf (244 m, 259 m, 265 m). Sequence data from four isolates from the Congaree formation indicate these microorganisms can be divided into Pseudomonas spp. or Acinetobacter spp. Three 16S rRNA probes were synthesized based on sequence data. The synthesized probes were tested through in situ hybridization. Optimal conditions for in situ hybridization were determined. Because stability of RNA-DNA hybrids is dependent on hybridization stringency, related organisms can be differentiated using a single probe under different strigencies. The results of these hybridizations agree with results obtained by Balkwill and Reeves using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The RNA content of a cell reflects its metabolic state. Cells which are starved for four days are not detectable with the homologous 16S rRNA probe. However, within 15 minutes of refeeding, detectable rRNA appeared. This suggests that organisms which are undetectable in environmental samples due to starvation may be detectable after addition of nutrients. Stepwise addition of specific nutrients could indicate which nutrients are rate limiting for growth. Preliminary experiments with soil samples from the Hanford Site indicate indigenous microorganisms can be detected by oligionucleotide probes. Further, using multiple probes based on universal sequences increases the number of organisms detected. Double label experiments, using a rhodamine-labelled oligionucleotide probe with free coumarin succinimidyl ester will allow simultaneous detection of total bacteria and specific 16S rRNA containing bacteria. 4 tabs. (MHB)

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of anthropoid relationships.

    PubMed

    Ross, C; Williams, B; Kay, R F

    1998-09-01

    The relationships of anthropoids to other primates are currently debated, as are the relationships among early fossil anthropoids and crown anthropoids. To resolve these issues, data on 291 morphological characters were collected for 57 taxa of living and fossil primates and analyzed using PAUP and MacClade. The dental evidence provides weak support for the notion of an adapid origin for anthropoids, the cranial evidence supports the tarsier-anthropoid hypothesis, and the postcranial evidence supports a monophyletic Prosimii and a monophyletic Anthropoidea. Combining these data into a single data set produces almost universal support for a tarsier-anthropoid clade nested within omomyids. Eosimias and Afrotarsius are certainly members of this clade, and probably basal anthropoids, although the Shanghuang petrosal may not belong to Eosimias. The tree derived from the combined data set resembles the tree derived from the cranial data set rather than the larger dental data set. This may be attributable to relatively slower evolution in the cranial characters. The combined data set shows Anthropoidea to be monophyletic but the features traditionally held to be anthropoid synapomorphies are found to have evolved mosaically. Parapithecines are the sister taxon to crown anthropoids; qatraniines and oligopithecids are more distantly related sister taxa. There is support for a relationship of a Tarsius + Anthropoidea clade with either washakiines on Uintanius. These elements of tree topology remain fairly stable under different assumptions sets, but overall, tree topology is not robust. Previously divergent hypotheses regarding anthropoid relationships are attributable to the use of restricted data sets. This large data set enables the adapid-anthropoid hypothesis to be rejected, and unites Tarsius, Anthropoidea and Omomyiformes within a clade, Haplorhini. However, relationships among these three taxa cannot be convincingly resolved at present.

  6. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that

  7. Neogastropod phylogenetic relationships based on entire mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Regina L; Grande, Cristina; Zardoya, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Background The Neogastropoda is a highly diversified group of predatory marine snails (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda). Traditionally, its monophyly has been widely accepted based on several morphological synapomorphies mostly related with the digestive system. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies challenged the monophyly of Neogastropoda due to the inclusion of representatives of other caenogastropod lineages (e.g. Littorinimorpha) within the group. Neogastropoda has been classified into up to six superfamilies including Buccinoidea, Muricoidea, Olivoidea, Pseudolivoidea, Conoidea, and Cancellarioidea. Phylogenetic relationships among neogastropod superfamilies remain unresolved. Results The complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of seven Neogastropoda (Bolinus brandaris, Cancellaria cancellata, Conus borgesi, Cymbium olla, Fusiturris similis, Nassarius reticulatus, and Terebra dimidiata) and of the tonnoidean Cymatium parthenopeum (Littorinimorpha), a putative sister group to Neogastropoda, were sequenced. In addition, the partial sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the calyptraeoidean Calyptraea chinensis (Littorinimorpha) was also determined. All sequenced neogastropod mt genomes shared a highly conserved gene order with only two instances of tRNA gene translocation. Phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda were inferred based on the 13 mt protein coding genes (both at the amino acid and nucleotide level) of all available caenogastropod mitochondrial genomes. Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) phylogenetic analyses failed to recover the monophyly of Neogastropoda due to the inclusion of the tonnoidean Cymatium parthenopeum within the group. At the superfamily level, all phylogenetic analyses questioned the taxonomic validity of Muricoidea, whereas the monophyly of Conoidea was supported by most phylogenetic analyses, albeit weakly. All analyzed families were recovered as monophyletic except Turridae due to the inclusion of Terebridae

  8. Ultrastructure, biology, and phylogenetic relationships of kinorhyncha.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Birger; Higgins, Robert P

    2002-07-01

    The article summarizes current knowledge mainly about the (functional) morphology and ultrastructure, but also about the biology, development, and evolution of the Kinorhyncha. The Kinorhyncha are microscopic, bilaterally symmetrical, exclusively free-living, benthic, marine animals and ecologically part of the meiofauna. They occur throughout the world from the intertidal to the deep sea, generally in sediments but sometimes associated with plants or other animals. From adult stages 141 species are known, but 38 species have been described from juvenile stages. The trunk is arranged into 11 segments as evidenced by cuticular plates, sensory spots, setae or spines, nervous system, musculature, and subcuticular glands. The ultrastructure of several organ systems and the postembryonic development are known for very few species. Almost no data are available about the embryology and only a single gene has been sequenced for a single species. The phylogenetic relationships within Kinorhyncha are unresolved. Priapulida, Loricifera, and Kinorhyncha are grouped together as Scalidophora, but arguments are found for every possible sistergroup relationship within this taxon. The recently published Ecdysozoa hypothesis suggests a closer relationship of the Scalidophora, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda. PMID:21708758

  9. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in Ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR) since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e. standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and non random spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD. PMID:26649401

  10. Phylogenetic relationship of two popular edible Pleurotus in China, Bailinggu (P. eryngii var. tuoliensis) and Xingbaogu (P. eryngii), determined by ITS, RPB2 and EF1α sequences.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Lan; Wu, Bo; Li, Qian; Peng, Wei-Hong; Huang, Zhong-Qian; Gan, Bing-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the utility of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and partial translation elongation factor (EF1α) and RNA polymerase II (RPB2) genes, for differentiation of Bailinggu, P. eryngii, and P. nebrodensis; to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships between the three species; and to confirm the taxonomic status of Bailinggu based on ribosomal and protein-coding genes. Pairwise genetic distances between Bailinggu, P. eryngii, and related Pleurotus strains were calculated by using the p-distance model, and molecular phylogeny of these isolates was estimated based on ITS, RPB2, and EF1α using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. Differences in ITS, RPB2, and EF1α sequences show that Bailinggu, P. eryngii, and P. nebrodensis are distinct at the species level. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that P. eryngii is closer to P. nebrodensis than to Bailinggu. Sequence analyses of ribosomal and protein-coding genes confirm that P. eryngii var. tuoliensis is identical to Bailinggu. P. eryngii var. tuoliensis should be raised to species level or a new name should be introduced for Bailinggu after a thorough investigation into Pleurotus isolates from Ferula in Xinjiang Province. This study helps to resolve uncertainty regarding Bailinggu, P. eryngii and P. nebrodensis, improving the resource management of these strains. ITS, EF1α, and RPB2 sequences can be used to distinguish Bailinggu, P. eryngii and P. nebrodensis as three different species, and P. eryngii var. tuoliensis should be the scientific name for Bailinggu at present. PMID:27075657

  11. Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllidiidae (Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia)

    PubMed Central

    Stoffels, Bart E.M.W.; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; van Alphen, Joris; van Alen, Theo; Meyers-Muñoz, Maria Angelica; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Tuti, Yosephine; van der Velde, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Phyllidiidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia) is a family of colourful nudibranchs found on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Despite the abundant and widespread occurrence of many species, their phylogenetic relationships are not well known. The present study is the first contribution to fill the gap in our knowledge on their phylogeny by combining morphological and molecular data. For that purpose 99 specimens belonging to 16 species were collected at two localities in Indonesia. They were photographed and used to make a phylogeny reconstruction based on newly obtained cytochrome oxidase subunit (COI) sequences as well as sequence data from GenBank. All mitochondrial 16S sequence data available from GenBank were used in a separate phylogeny reconstruction to obtain information for species we did not collect. COI data allowed the distinction of the genera and species, whereas the 16S data gave a mixed result with respect to the genera Phyllidia and Phyllidiella. Specimens which could be ascribed to species level based on their external morphology and colour patterns showed low variation in COI sequences, but there were two exceptions: three specimens identified as Phyllidia cf. babai represent two to three different species, while Phyllidiella pustulosa showed highly supported subclades. The barcoding marker COI also confirms that the species boundaries in morphologically highly variable species such as Phyllidia elegans, Phyllidia varicosa, and Phyllidiopsis krempfi, are correct as presently understood. In the COI as well as the 16S cladogram Phyllidiopsis cardinalis was located separately from all other Phyllidiidae, whereas Phyllidiopsis fissuratus was positioned alone from the Phyllidiella species by COI data only. Future studies on phyllidiid systematics should continue to combine morphological information with DNA sequences to obtain a clearer insight in their phylogeny. PMID:27551210

  12. Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllidiidae (Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia).

    PubMed

    Stoffels, Bart E M W; van der Meij, Sancia E T; Hoeksema, Bert W; van Alphen, Joris; van Alen, Theo; Meyers-Muñoz, Maria Angelica; de Voogd, Nicole J; Tuti, Yosephine; van der Velde, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The Phyllidiidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia) is a family of colourful nudibranchs found on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Despite the abundant and widespread occurrence of many species, their phylogenetic relationships are not well known. The present study is the first contribution to fill the gap in our knowledge on their phylogeny by combining morphological and molecular data. For that purpose 99 specimens belonging to 16 species were collected at two localities in Indonesia. They were photographed and used to make a phylogeny reconstruction based on newly obtained cytochrome oxidase subunit (COI) sequences as well as sequence data from GenBank. All mitochondrial 16S sequence data available from GenBank were used in a separate phylogeny reconstruction to obtain information for species we did not collect. COI data allowed the distinction of the genera and species, whereas the 16S data gave a mixed result with respect to the genera Phyllidia and Phyllidiella. Specimens which could be ascribed to species level based on their external morphology and colour patterns showed low variation in COI sequences, but there were two exceptions: three specimens identified as Phyllidia cf. babai represent two to three different species, while Phyllidiella pustulosa showed highly supported subclades. The barcoding marker COI also confirms that the species boundaries in morphologically highly variable species such as Phyllidia elegans, Phyllidia varicosa, and Phyllidiopsis krempfi, are correct as presently understood. In the COI as well as the 16S cladogram Phyllidiopsis cardinalis was located separately from all other Phyllidiidae, whereas Phyllidiopsis fissuratus was positioned alone from the Phyllidiella species by COI data only. Future studies on phyllidiid systematics should continue to combine morphological information with DNA sequences to obtain a clearer insight in their phylogeny. PMID:27551210

  13. On the origin of and phylogenetic relationships among living amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Zardoya, Rafael; Meyer, Axel

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among the three orders of modern amphibians (Caudata, Gymnophiona, and Anura) have been estimated based on both morphological and molecular evidence. Most morphological and paleontological studies of living and fossil amphibians support the hypothesis that salamanders and frogs are sister lineages (the Batrachia hypothesis) and that caecilians are more distantly related. Previous interpretations of molecular data based on nuclear and mitochondrial rRNA sequences suggested that salamanders and caecilians are sister groups to the exclusion of frogs. In an attempt to resolve this apparent conflict, the complete mitochondrial genomes of a salamander (Mertensiella luschani) and a caecilian (Typhlonectes natans) were determined (16,656 and 17,005 bp, respectively) and compared with previously published sequences from a frog (Xenopus laevis) and several other groups of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial data supported with high bootstrap values the monophyly of living amphibians with respect to other living groups of tetrapods, and a sister group relationship of salamanders and frogs. The lack of phylogenetically informative sites in the previous rRNA data sets (because of its shorter size and higher among-site rate variation) likely explains the discrepancy between our results and those based on previous molecular data. Strong support of the Batrachia hypothesis from both molecule- and morphology-based studies provides a robust phylogenetic framework that will be helpful to comparative studies among the three living orders of amphibians and will permit better understanding of the considerably divergent vertebral, brain, and digit developmental patterns found in frogs and salamanders. PMID:11390961

  14. On the origin of and phylogenetic relationships among living amphibians.

    PubMed

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    2001-06-19

    The phylogenetic relationships among the three orders of modern amphibians (Caudata, Gymnophiona, and Anura) have been estimated based on both morphological and molecular evidence. Most morphological and paleontological studies of living and fossil amphibians support the hypothesis that salamanders and frogs are sister lineages (the Batrachia hypothesis) and that caecilians are more distantly related. Previous interpretations of molecular data based on nuclear and mitochondrial rRNA sequences suggested that salamanders and caecilians are sister groups to the exclusion of frogs. In an attempt to resolve this apparent conflict, the complete mitochondrial genomes of a salamander (Mertensiella luschani) and a caecilian (Typhlonectes natans) were determined (16,656 and 17,005 bp, respectively) and compared with previously published sequences from a frog (Xenopus laevis) and several other groups of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial data supported with high bootstrap values the monophyly of living amphibians with respect to other living groups of tetrapods, and a sister group relationship of salamanders and frogs. The lack of phylogenetically informative sites in the previous rRNA data sets (because of its shorter size and higher among-site rate variation) likely explains the discrepancy between our results and those based on previous molecular data. Strong support of the Batrachia hypothesis from both molecule- and morphology-based studies provides a robust phylogenetic framework that will be helpful to comparative studies among the three living orders of amphibians and will permit better understanding of the considerably divergent vertebral, brain, and digit developmental patterns found in frogs and salamanders.

  15. On the origin of and phylogenetic relationships among living amphibians.

    PubMed

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    2001-06-19

    The phylogenetic relationships among the three orders of modern amphibians (Caudata, Gymnophiona, and Anura) have been estimated based on both morphological and molecular evidence. Most morphological and paleontological studies of living and fossil amphibians support the hypothesis that salamanders and frogs are sister lineages (the Batrachia hypothesis) and that caecilians are more distantly related. Previous interpretations of molecular data based on nuclear and mitochondrial rRNA sequences suggested that salamanders and caecilians are sister groups to the exclusion of frogs. In an attempt to resolve this apparent conflict, the complete mitochondrial genomes of a salamander (Mertensiella luschani) and a caecilian (Typhlonectes natans) were determined (16,656 and 17,005 bp, respectively) and compared with previously published sequences from a frog (Xenopus laevis) and several other groups of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial data supported with high bootstrap values the monophyly of living amphibians with respect to other living groups of tetrapods, and a sister group relationship of salamanders and frogs. The lack of phylogenetically informative sites in the previous rRNA data sets (because of its shorter size and higher among-site rate variation) likely explains the discrepancy between our results and those based on previous molecular data. Strong support of the Batrachia hypothesis from both molecule- and morphology-based studies provides a robust phylogenetic framework that will be helpful to comparative studies among the three living orders of amphibians and will permit better understanding of the considerably divergent vertebral, brain, and digit developmental patterns found in frogs and salamanders. PMID:11390961

  16. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  17. Worldwide Phylogenetic Relationship of Avian Poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy. PMID:23408635

  18. [Analysis phylogenetic relationship of Gynostemma (Cucurbitaceae)].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuang-shuang; Li, Hai-tao; Wang, Zhou-yong; Cui, Zhan-hu; Yu, Li-ying

    2015-05-01

    The sequences of ITS, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH of 9 Gynostemma species or variety including 38 samples were compared and analyzed by molecular phylogeny method. Hemsleya macrosperma was designated as outgroup. The MP and NJ phylogenetic tree of Gynostemma was built based on ITS sequence, the results of PAUP phylogenetic analysis showed the following results: (1) The eight individuals of G. pentaphyllum var. pentaphyllum were not supported as monophyletic in the strict consensus trees and NJ trees. (2) It is suspected whether G. longipes and G. laxum should be classified as the independent species. (3)The classification of subgenus units of Gynostemma plants is supported.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Juan E; Colgan, Don; Castro, Lyda R; Kano, Yasunori; Zardoya, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extraordinary morphological and ecological diversity of Neritimorpha, few studies have focused on the phylogenetic relationships of this lineage of gastropods, which includes four extant superfamilies: Neritopsoidea, Hydrocenoidea, Helicinoidea, and Neritoidea. Here, the nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Georissa bangueyensis (Hydrocenoidea), Neritina usnea (Neritoidea), and Pleuropoma jana (Helicinoidea) and the nearly complete mt genomes of Titiscania sp. (Neritopsoidea) and Theodoxus fluviatilis (Neritoidea) were determined. Phylogenetic reconstructions using probabilistic methods were based on mitochondrial (13 protein coding genes and two ribosomal rRNA genes), nuclear (partial 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, actin, and histone H3 genes) and combined sequence data sets. All phylogenetic analyses except one converged on a single, highly supported tree in which Neritopsoidea was recovered as the sister group of a clade including Helicinoidea as the sister group of Hydrocenoidea and Neritoidea. This topology agrees with the fossil record and supports at least three independent invasions of land by neritimorph snails. The mitochondrial genomes of Titiscania sp., G. bangueyensis, N. usnea, and T. fluviatilis share the same gene organization previously described for Nerita mt genomes whereas that of P. jana has undergone major rearrangements. We sequenced about half of the mitochondrial genome of another species of Helicinoidea, Viana regina, and confirmed that this species shares the highly derived gene order of P. jana.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Juan E; Colgan, Don; Castro, Lyda R; Kano, Yasunori; Zardoya, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extraordinary morphological and ecological diversity of Neritimorpha, few studies have focused on the phylogenetic relationships of this lineage of gastropods, which includes four extant superfamilies: Neritopsoidea, Hydrocenoidea, Helicinoidea, and Neritoidea. Here, the nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Georissa bangueyensis (Hydrocenoidea), Neritina usnea (Neritoidea), and Pleuropoma jana (Helicinoidea) and the nearly complete mt genomes of Titiscania sp. (Neritopsoidea) and Theodoxus fluviatilis (Neritoidea) were determined. Phylogenetic reconstructions using probabilistic methods were based on mitochondrial (13 protein coding genes and two ribosomal rRNA genes), nuclear (partial 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, actin, and histone H3 genes) and combined sequence data sets. All phylogenetic analyses except one converged on a single, highly supported tree in which Neritopsoidea was recovered as the sister group of a clade including Helicinoidea as the sister group of Hydrocenoidea and Neritoidea. This topology agrees with the fossil record and supports at least three independent invasions of land by neritimorph snails. The mitochondrial genomes of Titiscania sp., G. bangueyensis, N. usnea, and T. fluviatilis share the same gene organization previously described for Nerita mt genomes whereas that of P. jana has undergone major rearrangements. We sequenced about half of the mitochondrial genome of another species of Helicinoidea, Viana regina, and confirmed that this species shares the highly derived gene order of P. jana. PMID:27456746

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among Hepatozoon species from snakes, frogs and mosquitoes of Ontario, Canada, determined by ITS-1 nucleotide sequences and life-cycle, morphological and developmental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Smith, T G; Kim, B; Desser, S S

    1999-02-01

    The molecular biological characteristics of Hepatozoon species infecting various species of snakes, frogs and mosquitoes were investigated by determining the nucleotide sequences of the first internal transcribed spacer region. A phylogenetic analysis was performed on seven isolates of Hepatozoon infecting snakes, including Hepatozoon sipedon and four morphologically similar but not identical forms, and two isolates of Hepatozoon catesbianae infecting Green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota). This analysis, which utilised data from first internal transcribed spacer nucleotide sequences, morphological and morphometric features of gamonts, oocysts and sporocysts, and previously determined life-cycle and host-specificity characteristics, revealed that H. sipedon is a polymorphic species with a wide host and geographic range. Four synapomorphies. including two nucleotide substitutions and two morphological character state changes, supported a monophyletic group of six isolates of H. sipedon from the central region of Ontario which was the sister group for an isolate (HW1) from the southern part of the province. Based on the results of this study, an evaluation of which criteria are useful for describing species of Hepatozoon is presented, with the intent of curtailing the practice of naming species based on morphological features of gamonts or on incomplete life-cycle data.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterization of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Xu, Donglin; Abad, Jorge; Li, Ruhui

    2012-08-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3'-poly(A) tail. Their genomic organizations are typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cleaved into 10 mature proteins by three viral proteinases. Conserved motifs of orthologous proteins of viruses in the genus Potyvirus are found in corresponding positions of both viruses. Pairwise comparisons of individual protein sequences of the two viruses with those of 78 other potyviruses show that P1 protein and coat protein (CP) of both viruses are significantly large, with the SPVG CP as the largest among the all the known species of the genus Potyvirus. The extended N-terminal region of the P1 protein is conserved in the potyviruses and ipomovirus infecting sweet potato. A novel ORF, PISPO, is identified within the P1 region of SPVG, SPV2, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), and Sweet potato virus C (SPVC). The C-terminal half of CP is highly conserved among SPFMV, SPVC, SPVG, SPV2, and Sweet potato virus-Zimbabwe. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced CP amino acid sequences supports the view that these five viruses are grouped together in a SPFMV lineage. The analysis also reveals that Sweet potato virus Y and Ipomoea vein mosaic virus are grouped with SPV2 as one species, and these two viruses should be consolidated with SPV2.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Havey, M J

    1991-06-01

    The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was estimated at 140 kb and restriction enzyme sites were mapped for KpnI, PstI, PvuII, SalI, XbaI, and XhoI. Variability at restriction enzyme sites in the chloroplast DNA was studied for at least three accessions of each of six cultivated, old-world Allium species. Of 189 restriction enzyme sites detected with 12 enzymes, 15 mutations were identified and used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. Cladistic analysis based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony resulted in a single, most-parsimonious tree of 16 steps and supported division of the species into sections. Allium species in section Porrum were distinguished from species in sections Cepa and Phyllodolon. Two species in section Rhiziridium, A. schoenoprasum and A. tuberosum, differed by five mutations and were placed in separate lineages. Allium cepa and A. fistulosum shared the loss of a restriction enzyme site and were phylogenetically closer to each other than to A. schoenoprasum. This study demonstrates the usefulness of restriction enzyme site analysis of the chloroplast genome in the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships in Allium. PMID:24221436

  4. Phylogenetic relationship among horseshoe crab species: effect of substitution models on phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Xia, X

    2000-03-01

    The horseshoe crabs, known as living fossils, have maintained their morphology almost unchanged for the past 150 million years. The little morphological differentiation among horseshoe crab lineages has resulted in substantial controversy concerning the phylogenetic relationship among the extant species of horseshoe crabs, especially among the three species in the Indo-Pacific region. Previous studies suggest that the three species constitute a phylogenetically unresolvable trichotomy, the result of a cladogenetic process leading to the formation of all three Indo-Pacific species in a short geological time. Data from two mitochondrial genes (for 16S ribosomal rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and one nuclear gene (for coagulogen) in the four species of horseshoe crabs and outgroup species were used in a phylogenetic analysis with various substitution models. All three genes yield the same tree topology, with Tachypleus-gigas and Carcinoscorpius-rotundicauda grouped together as a monophyletic taxon. This topology is significantly better than all the alternatives when evaluated with the RELL (resampling estimated log-likelihood) method.

  5. An explosive innovation: Phylogenetic relationships of Solanum section Gonatotrichum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephen; Bohs, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solanum is one of the largest plant genera and exhibits a wide range of morphological diversity. Solanum section Gonatotrichum, the focus of this study, is unique within the genus because of its fruits that swell with turgor pressure and explosively dehisce to disperse the seeds. We infer phylogenetic relationships within section Gonatotrichum using DNA sequence data from two nuclear regions (ITS and the granule-bound starch synthase gene [GBSSI or waxy]) and the chloroplast region trnT-F. The resulting phylogenetic trees support the monophyly of the section with the inclusion of Solanum lignescens, a species not previously thought to belong to the group due to the presence of stellate hairs. This inclusion of this species in section Gonatotrichum suggests that the simple, often geniculate hairs of species in the group may represent reduced stellate hairs. The presence of heterantherous flowers appears to be derived in the section, but this character is largely lost in Solanum parcistrigosum. PMID:22287931

  6. Use of 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, and gyrB gene sequence analysis to determine phylogenetic relationships of Bacillus cereus group.

    SciTech Connect

    Bayvkin, S. G.; Lysov, Y. P.; Zakhariev, V.; Kelly, J. J.; Jackman, J.; Stahl, D. A.; Cherni, A.; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; Loyola Univ.; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Univ. of Washington

    2004-08-01

    In order to determine if variations in rRNA sequence could be used for discrimination of the members of the Bacillus cereus group, we analyzed 183 16S rRNA and 74 23S rRNA sequences for all species in the B. cereus group. We also analyzed 30 gyrB sequences for B. cereus group strains with published 16S rRNA sequences. Our findings indicated that the three most common species of the B. cereus group, B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, were each heterogeneous in all three gene sequences, while all analyzed strains of Bacillus anthracis were found to be homogeneous. Based on analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA sequence variations, the microorganisms within the B. cereus group were divided into seven subgroups, Anthracis, Cereus A and B, Thuringiensis A and B, and Mycoides A and B, and these seven subgroups were further organized into two distinct clusters. This classification of the B. cereus group conflicts with current taxonomic groupings, which are based on phenotypic traits. The presence of B. cereus strains in six of the seven subgroups and the presence of B. thuringiensis strains in three of the subgroups do not support the proposed unification of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis into one species. Analysis of the available phenotypic data for the strains included in this study revealed phenotypic traits that may be characteristic of several of the subgroups. Finally, our results demonstrated that rRNA and gyrB sequences may be used for discriminating B. anthracis from other microorganisms in the B. cereus group.

  7. DNA barcoding, phylogenetic relationships and speciation of snappers (genus Lutjanus).

    PubMed

    Wang, ZhongDuo; Guo, YuSong; Tan, Wei; Li, Lu; Tang, EnPu; Liu, ChuWu; Liu, Yun

    2010-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 13 snapper species from the South China Sea have been established using the combined DNA sequences of three full-length mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and CYTB) and two partial nuclear genes (RAG1, RAG2). The 13 species (genus Lutjanus) were selected after DNA barcoding 72 individuals, representing 20 species. Our study suggests that although DNA barcoding aims to develop species identification systems, it may also be useful in the construction of phylogenies by aiding the selection of taxa. Combined mitochondrial and nuclear gene data has an advantage over an individual dataset because of its higher resolving power.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of the pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Nadimpalli, R G; Jarret, R L; Phatak, S C; Kochert, G

    1993-04-01

    Nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used to determine phylogenetic relationships in the genus Cajanus using 15 random genomic probes and six restriction enzymes. Twenty-four accessions representing 12 species of four genera (Cajanus, Dunbaria, Eriosema, and Rhynchosia) were examined to determine phylogenetic relationships in the genus Cajanus. Eriosema parviflorum was selected as the out-group. Sufficient RFLP polymorphisms were detected among species to resolve in-group taxa into distinct clusters. Topologies of trees from parsimony and similarity matrix analyses were similar but not identical, and clustering patterns agreed broadly with published phylogenies based on seed protein data and, to a lesser extent, data from cytology and breeding experiments. Accessions of cultivated C. cajan shared more DNA fragments with C. scarabaeoides than with C. cajanifolia. Inconsistencies in taxonomic relationships based on data from morphology, cytology, crossability, and RFLPs are discussed.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of the mockingbirds and thrashers (Aves: Mimidae).

    PubMed

    Lovette, Irby J; Arbogast, Brian S; Curry, Robert L; Zink, Robert M; Botero, Carlos A; Sullivan, John P; Talaba, Amanda L; Harris, Rebecca B; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Ricklefs, Robert E; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-05-01

    The mockingbirds, thrashers and allied birds in the family Mimidae are broadly distributed across the Americas. Many aspects of their phylogenetic history are well established, but there has been no previous phylogenetic study that included all species in this radiation. Our reconstructions based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence markers show that an early bifurcation separated the Mimidae into two clades, the first of which includes North and Middle American taxa (Melanotis, Melanoptila, Dumetella) plus a small radiation that likely occurred largely within the West Indies (Ramphocinclus, Allenia, Margarops, Cinclocerthia). The second and larger radiation includes the Toxostoma thrasher clade, along with the monotypic Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes) and the phenotypically diverse and broadly distributed Mimus mockingbirds. This mockingbird group is biogeographically notable for including several lineages that colonized and diverged on isolated islands, including the Socorro Mockingbird (Mimus graysoni, formerly Mimodes) and the diverse and historically important Galapagos mockingbirds (formerly Nesomimus). Our reconstructions support a sister relationship between the Galapagos mockingbird lineage and the Bahama Mockingbird (M. gundlachi) of the West Indies, rather than the Long-tailed Mockingbird (M. longicaudatus) or other species presently found on the South American mainland. Relationships within the genus Toxostoma conflict with traditional arrangements but support a tree based on a preivous mtDNA study. For instance, the southern Mexican endemic Ocellated Thrasher (T. ocellatum) is not an isolated sister species of the Curve-billed thrasher (T. curvirostre).

  10. The phylogenetic relationships of cynopterine fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae: Cynopterinae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Francisca C; Giannini, Norberto P; DeSalle, Rob; Simmons, Nancy B

    2009-12-01

    The subfamily Cynopterinae comprises ca. 24 species of pteropodid bats (Family Pteropodidae) distributed exclusively in South and Southeast Asia. Although some studies have supported monophyly of the subfamily, molecular analyses have produced contradictory results and there has been little agreement on relationships of cynopterines to other megabat groups. However, no previous studies have included a complete sampling of cynopterine genera. Here we describe a phylogenetic analysis of Cynopterinae based on more than 6000 bp from six different genes sampled in representatives of all 14 recognized genera. Our results support the monophyly of Cynopterinae but refute a close relationship of cynopterines with Nyctimeninae. Within Cynopterinae, our analyses consistently recovered two monophyletic clades, which we recommend be recognized formally as tribes: Cynopterini and Balionycterini. Biogeographic analyses indicate a Sundaland origin of the Cynopterinae and divergence date estimates suggest different timing of diversification of the two major cynopterine clades.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships within the lophophorate lineages (Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida).

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Helmkampf, Martin; Nesnidal, Maximilian P; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2010-06-01

    We produced two new EST datasets of so far uncovered clades of ectoprocts to investigate the phylogenetic relationships within the lophophorate lineages, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida. Maximum-likelihood analyses based on 78 ribosomal proteins of 62 metazoan taxa support the monophyly of Ectoprocta and a sister group relationship of Phylactolaemata living in freshwater and the mainly marine Gymnolaemata. Hypotheses suggesting that Ectoprocta is diphyletic with phylactolaemates forming a clade with phoronids or paraphyletic with respect to Entoprocta could be rejected by topology tests. The hypotheses that Stenolaemata are the sister group of all other ectoprocts, that Stenolaemata constitutes a monophyletic group with Cheilostomata, and that Phylactolaemata have been derived from Ctenostomata could also be excluded. However, the hypothesis that Phylactolaemata and Stenolaemata form a monophyletic group could not be rejected. Brachiopoda and Phoronida constitute a monophylum, Brachiozoa. The hypotheses that phoronids are the sister group of articulate or inarticulate brachiopods could be rejected by topology tests, thus confirming the monophyly of Brachiopoda.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among the family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Sakai, M; Ichii, T; Chow, S

    2012-09-01

    Squids of the family Ommastrephidae are distributed worldwide, and the family includes many species of commercial importance. To investigate phylogenetic relationships among squid species of the family Ommastrephidae, partial nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial gene loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [1277bp] and 16S rRNA [443bp]) of 15 ommastrephid species and two outgroup species from the families Loliginidae and Enoploteuthidae were determined and used to construct parsimony and distance based phylogenetic trees. The molecular data provided several new phylogenetic inferences. The monophyletic status of three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae and Ommastrephinae) was well supported, although phylogenetic relationships between the subfamilies were not resolved. Inclusion of a problematic species, Ornithoteuthis volatilis, to Todarodinae was indicated. Within Todarodinae, the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was observed to have much closer relationship to the species of the genus Nototodarus than to its congener (Todarodes filippovae). These results indicate that re-evaluation of several morphological key characters for ommastrephid taxonomy may be necessary.

  13. Phylogenetic Relationships of Southern African West Nile Virus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Leman, Patricia A.; Anthony, Fiona S.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Swanepoel, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 29 southern African West Nile virus (formal name West Nile virus [WNV]) isolates from various sources in four countries from 1958 to 2001. In addition sequence data were retrieved from GenBank for another 23 WNV isolates and Kunjin and Japanese encephalitis viruses. All isolates belonged to two lineages. Lineage 1 isolates were from central and North Africa, Europe, Israel, and North America; lineage 2 isolates were from central and southern Africa and Madagascar. No strict correlation existed between grouping and source of virus isolate, pathogenicity, geographic distribution, or year of isolation. Some southern African isolates have been associated with encephalitis in a human, a horse, and a dog and with fatal hepatitis in a human and death of an ostrich chick. PMID:12141968

  14. Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D

    2011-04-01

    The recent rapid expansion in the DNA and protein databases, arising from large-scale genomic and metagenomic sequence projects, has forced significant development in the field of phylogenetics: the study of the evolutionary relatedness of the planet's inhabitants. Advances in phylogenetic analysis have greatly transformed our view of the landscape of evolutionary biology, transcending the view of the tree of life that has shaped evolutionary theory since Darwinian times. Indeed, modern phylogenetic analysis no longer focuses on the restricted Darwinian-Mendelian model of vertical gene transfer, but must also consider the significant degree of lateral gene transfer, which connects and shapes almost all living things. Herein, I review the major tree-building methods, their strengths, weaknesses and future prospects. PMID:21249334

  15. Phylogenetic Relationships Matter: Antifungal Susceptibility among Clinically Relevant Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Schmalreck, A. F.; Becker, K.; Fegeler, W.; Czaika, V.; Ulmer, H.; Lass-Flörl, C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: to evaluate whether phylogenetically closely related yeasts share common antifungal susceptibility profiles (ASPs) and whether these ASPs can be predicted from phylogeny. To address this question, 9,627 yeast strains were collected and tested for their antifungal susceptibility. Isolates were reidentified by considering recent changes in taxonomy and nomenclature. A phylogenetic (PHYLO) code based on the results of multilocus sequence analyses (large-subunit rRNA, small-subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor 1α, RNA polymerase II subunits 1 and 2) and the classification of the cellular neutral sugar composition of coenzyme Q and 18S ribosomal DNA was created to group related yeasts into PHYLO groups. The ASPs were determined for fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole in each PHYLO group. The majority (95%) of the yeast strains were Ascomycetes. After reclassification, a total of 23 genera and 54 species were identified, resulting in an increase of 64% of genera and a decrease of 5% of species compared with the initial identification. These taxa were assigned to 17 distinct PHYLO groups (Ascomycota, n = 13; Basidiomycota, n = 4). ASPs for azoles were similar among members of the same PHYLO group and different between the various PHYLO groups. Yeast phylogeny may be an additional tool to significantly enhance the assessment of MIC values and to predict antifungal susceptibility, thereby more rapidly initiating appropriate patient management. PMID:24366735

  16. Phylogenetic signal in predator-prey body-size relationships.

    PubMed

    Naisbit, Russell E; Kehrli, Patrik; Rohr, Rudolf P; Bersier, Louis-Félix

    2011-12-01

    Body mass is a fundamental characteristic that affects metabolism, life history, and population abundance and frequently sets bounds on who eats whom in food webs. Based on a collection of topological food webs, Ulrich Brose and colleagues presented a general relationship between the body mass of predators and their prey and analyzed how mean predator-prey body-mass ratios differed among habitats and predator metabolic categories. Here we show that the general body-mass relationship conceals significant variation associated with both predator and prey phylogeny. Major-axis regressions between the log body mass of predators and prey differed among taxonomic groups. The global pattern for Kingdom Animalia had slope > 1, but phyla and classes varied, and several had slopes significantly < 1. The predator-prey body-mass ratio can therefore decrease or increase with increasing body mass, depending on the taxon considered. We also found a significant phylogenetic signal in analyses of prey body-mass range for predators and predator body-mass range for prey, with stronger signal in the former. Besides providing insights into how characteristics of trophic interactions evolve, our results emphasize the need to integrate phylogeny to improve models of community structure and dynamics or to achieve a metabolic theory of food-web ecology.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships within Araucariaceae based on rbcL gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Setoguchi, H; Asakawa Osawa, T; Pintaud, J C; Jaffré, T; Veillon, J M

    1998-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were determined in the Araucariaceae, which are now found mainly in the Southern Hemisphere. This conifer family was well diversified and widely distributed in both hemispheres during the Mesozoic era. The sequence of 1322 bases of the rbcL gene of cpDNA was determined from 29 species of Araucariaceae, representing almost all the species of the family. Phylogenetic trees determined by the parsimony method indicate that Araucariaceae are well defined by rbcL sequences and also that the monophyly of Agathis or Araucaria is well supported by high bootstrap values. The topology of these trees revealed that Wollemia had derived prior to Agathis and Araucaria. The rbcL phylogeny agrees well with the present recognition of four sections within Araucaria: Araucaria, Bunya, Eutacta, and Intermedia. Morphological characteristics of the number of cotyledons, position of male cone, and cuticular micromorphologies were evaluated as being phylogenetically informative. Section Bunya was found to be derived rather than to be the oldest taxon. Infrageneric relationships of Agathis could not be well elucidated because there are few informative site changes in the rbcL gene, suggesting the more recent differentiation of the species as their fossil records indicate. The New Caledonian Araucaria and Agathis species each formed a monophyletic group with very low differentiation in rbcL sequences among them, indicating rapid adaptive radiation to new edaphic conditions, i.e., ultramafic soils, in the post-Eocene era.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Project technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

    1993-08-01

    The development of group-specific, 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface microorganisms is described. Because portions of the 16S RRNA molecule are unique to particular organisms or groups, these unique sequences can serve as targets for hybridization probes with varied specificity. Target sequences for selected microbial groups have been identified by analysis of the available RRNA sequence data for subsurface microbes. Hybridization probes for these target sequences were produced and their effectiveness and specificity tested with RNA cell blot and in situ hybridizations. Selected probes were used to study phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microbes and to classify these organisms into the specific groups that the probes are designed to detect. To date, this work has been performed on the P24 and C10 borehole isolates from the Savannah River Site. The probes will also be used, with in situ hybridizations, to detect and monitor selected microbial groups in freshly collected subsurface samples and laboratory microcosms in collaboration with other investigators. In situ hybridizations permit detection of selected microbial types without the necessity to isolate and culture them in the laboratory.

  19. Immunogenetic evidence for the phylogenetic sister group relationship of dogs and bears (Mammalia, Carnivora: Canidae and Crsidae). a comparative determinant analysis of carnivoran albumin, c3 complement and immunoglobulin micro-chain.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, A; Eulenberger, K; Bauer, K

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-seven antigenic determinants were identified in the albumins, the immunoglobulin micro- and IgG(Fc) chains, and the C3 proteins of 51 carnivoran (sub)species from 31 genera, and in 12 noncarnivoran mammals. In addition to 19 determinants plesiomorphic for Carnivora as an order, 18 synapomorphic epitopes of carnivoran families revealed nine phylogenetic reaction groups: (1) canids, (2) ursids, (3) the racoon, (4) the Weddell seal, (5) the lesser panda, (6) the harbour seal, (7) mustelids, (8) viverrids and hyaenas, and (9) felids. These data identify Canoidea (Canidae, Ursidae, Phocidae, Procyonidae, Ailuridae, Mustelidae) and Feloidea (Viverridae, Hyaenidae, Felidae) as two fundamentally differentiated lineages of Carnivora, and confirm the inclusion of seals among the former. The Ursidae are the sister group of the Canidae. The antigenic determinants in the studied proteins do not subdivide the Canidae, Ursidae and Felidae into immunologically differentiated lineages. PMID:9813413

  20. An Experimentally Determined Evolutionary Model Dramatically Improves Phylogenetic Fit

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    All modern approaches to molecular phylogenetics require a quantitative model for how genes evolve. Unfortunately, existing evolutionary models do not realistically represent the site-heterogeneous selection that governs actual sequence change. Attempts to remedy this problem have involved augmenting these models with a burgeoning number of free parameters. Here, I demonstrate an alternative: Experimental determination of a parameter-free evolutionary model via mutagenesis, functional selection, and deep sequencing. Using this strategy, I create an evolutionary model for influenza nucleoprotein that describes the gene phylogeny far better than existing models with dozens or even hundreds of free parameters. Emerging high-throughput experimental strategies such as the one employed here provide fundamentally new information that has the potential to transform the sensitivity of phylogenetic and genetic analyses. PMID:24859245

  1. Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes. PMID:25049904

  2. Bryozoans are returning home: recolonization of freshwater ecosystems inferred from phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Koletić, Nikola; Novosel, Maja; Rajević, Nives; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrates that inhabit all types of aquatic ecosystems. They are small animals that form large colonies by asexual budding. Colonies can reach the size of several tens of centimeters, while individual units within a colony are the size of a few millimeters. Each individual within a colony works as a separate zooid and is genetically identical to each other individual within the same colony. Most freshwater species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata class, while several species that tolerate brackish water belong to the Gymnolaemata class. Tissue samples for this study were collected in the rivers of Adriatic and Danube basin and in the wetland areas in the continental part of Croatia (Europe). Freshwater and brackish taxons of bryozoans were genetically analyzed for the purpose of creating phylogenetic relationships between freshwater and brackish taxons of the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata classes and determining the role of brackish species in colonizing freshwater and marine ecosystems. Phylogenetic relationships inferred on the genes for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, COI, and ITS2 region confirmed Phylactolaemata bryozoans as radix bryozoan group. Phylogenetic analysis proved Phylactolaemata bryozoan's close relations with taxons from Phoronida phylum as well as the separation of the Lophopodidae family from other families within the Plumatellida genus. Comparative analysis of existing knowledge about the phylogeny of bryozoans and the expansion of known evolutionary hypotheses is proposed with the model of settlement of marine and freshwater ecosystems by the bryozoans group during their evolutionary past. In this case study, brackish bryozoan taxons represent a link for this ecological phylogenetic hypothesis. Comparison of brackish bryozoan species Lophopus crystallinus and Conopeum seurati confirmed a dual colonization of freshwater ecosystems throughout evolution of this group of animals. PMID:25691955

  3. Bryozoans are returning home: recolonization of freshwater ecosystems inferred from phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Koletić, Nikola; Novosel, Maja; Rajević, Nives; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrates that inhabit all types of aquatic ecosystems. They are small animals that form large colonies by asexual budding. Colonies can reach the size of several tens of centimeters, while individual units within a colony are the size of a few millimeters. Each individual within a colony works as a separate zooid and is genetically identical to each other individual within the same colony. Most freshwater species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata class, while several species that tolerate brackish water belong to the Gymnolaemata class. Tissue samples for this study were collected in the rivers of Adriatic and Danube basin and in the wetland areas in the continental part of Croatia (Europe). Freshwater and brackish taxons of bryozoans were genetically analyzed for the purpose of creating phylogenetic relationships between freshwater and brackish taxons of the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata classes and determining the role of brackish species in colonizing freshwater and marine ecosystems. Phylogenetic relationships inferred on the genes for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, COI, and ITS2 region confirmed Phylactolaemata bryozoans as radix bryozoan group. Phylogenetic analysis proved Phylactolaemata bryozoan's close relations with taxons from Phoronida phylum as well as the separation of the Lophopodidae family from other families within the Plumatellida genus. Comparative analysis of existing knowledge about the phylogeny of bryozoans and the expansion of known evolutionary hypotheses is proposed with the model of settlement of marine and freshwater ecosystems by the bryozoans group during their evolutionary past. In this case study, brackish bryozoan taxons represent a link for this ecological phylogenetic hypothesis. Comparison of brackish bryozoan species Lophopus crystallinus and Conopeum seurati confirmed a dual colonization of freshwater ecosystems throughout evolution of this group of animals. PMID:25691955

  4. Bryozoans are returning home: recolonization of freshwater ecosystems inferred from phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Koletić, Nikola; Novosel, Maja; Rajević, Nives; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrates that inhabit all types of aquatic ecosystems. They are small animals that form large colonies by asexual budding. Colonies can reach the size of several tens of centimeters, while individual units within a colony are the size of a few millimeters. Each individual within a colony works as a separate zooid and is genetically identical to each other individual within the same colony. Most freshwater species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata class, while several species that tolerate brackish water belong to the Gymnolaemata class. Tissue samples for this study were collected in the rivers of Adriatic and Danube basin and in the wetland areas in the continental part of Croatia (Europe). Freshwater and brackish taxons of bryozoans were genetically analyzed for the purpose of creating phylogenetic relationships between freshwater and brackish taxons of the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata classes and determining the role of brackish species in colonizing freshwater and marine ecosystems. Phylogenetic relationships inferred on the genes for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, COI, and ITS2 region confirmed Phylactolaemata bryozoans as radix bryozoan group. Phylogenetic analysis proved Phylactolaemata bryozoan's close relations with taxons from Phoronida phylum as well as the separation of the Lophopodidae family from other families within the Plumatellida genus. Comparative analysis of existing knowledge about the phylogeny of bryozoans and the expansion of known evolutionary hypotheses is proposed with the model of settlement of marine and freshwater ecosystems by the bryozoans group during their evolutionary past. In this case study, brackish bryozoan taxons represent a link for this ecological phylogenetic hypothesis. Comparison of brackish bryozoan species Lophopus crystallinus and Conopeum seurati confirmed a dual colonization of freshwater ecosystems throughout evolution of this group of animals.

  5. Phylogenetic position of the pentastomida and [pan]crustacean relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-31

    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda, however the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete, or nearly complete, mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus), and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans likely related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacos tracans and insects.

  6. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships of chicken and turkey parvoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports indicate that the newly discovered chicken parvoviruses (ChPV) and turkey parvoviruses (TuPV) are very similar to each other, yet they represent different species within a new genus of Parvoviridae. Currently, strain classification is based on the phylogenetic analysis of a 561 bas...

  7. Contrasting biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in phylogenetic and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Steudel, Bastian; Hallmann, Christine; Lorenz, Maike; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Prinz, Kathleen; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Martini, Johannes W R; Kessler, Michael

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that ecosystem functioning is positively influenced by biodiversity. Most biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments have measured biodiversity based on species richness or phylogenetic relationships. However, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that ecosystem functioning should be more closely related to functional diversity than to species richness. We applied different metrics of biodiversity in an artificial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiment using 64 species of green microalgae in combinations of two to 16 species. We found that phylogenetic and functional diversity were positively correlated with biomass overyield, driven by their strong correlation with species richness. At low species richness, no significant correlation between overyield and functional and phylogenetic diversity was found. However, at high species richness (16 species), we found a positive relationship of overyield with functional diversity and a negative relationship with phylogenetic diversity. We show that negative phylogenetic diversity-ecosystem functioning relationships can result from interspecific growth inhibition. The opposing performances of facilitation (functional diversity) and inhibition (phylogenetic diversity) we observed at the 16 species level suggest that phylogenetic diversity is not always a good proxy for functional diversity and that results from experiments with low species numbers may underestimate negative species interactions. PMID:27301904

  8. Contrasting biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in phylogenetic and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Steudel, Bastian; Hallmann, Christine; Lorenz, Maike; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Prinz, Kathleen; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Martini, Johannes W R; Kessler, Michael

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that ecosystem functioning is positively influenced by biodiversity. Most biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments have measured biodiversity based on species richness or phylogenetic relationships. However, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that ecosystem functioning should be more closely related to functional diversity than to species richness. We applied different metrics of biodiversity in an artificial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiment using 64 species of green microalgae in combinations of two to 16 species. We found that phylogenetic and functional diversity were positively correlated with biomass overyield, driven by their strong correlation with species richness. At low species richness, no significant correlation between overyield and functional and phylogenetic diversity was found. However, at high species richness (16 species), we found a positive relationship of overyield with functional diversity and a negative relationship with phylogenetic diversity. We show that negative phylogenetic diversity-ecosystem functioning relationships can result from interspecific growth inhibition. The opposing performances of facilitation (functional diversity) and inhibition (phylogenetic diversity) we observed at the 16 species level suggest that phylogenetic diversity is not always a good proxy for functional diversity and that results from experiments with low species numbers may underestimate negative species interactions.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes elucidate phylogenetic relationships of the deep-sea octocoral families Coralliidae and Paragorgiidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Diego F.; Baco, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, molecular phylogenetic analyses of octocorals have shown that the current morphological taxonomic classification of these organisms needs to be revised. The latest phylogenetic analyses show that most octocorals can be divided into three main clades. One of these clades contains the families Coralliidae and Paragorgiidae. These families share several taxonomically important characters and it has been suggested that they may not be monophyletic; with the possibility of the Coralliidae being a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae. Uncertainty exists not only in the relationship of these two families, but also in the classification of the two genera that make up the Coralliidae, Corallium and Paracorallium. Molecular analyses suggest that the genus Corallium is paraphyletic, and it can be divided into two main clades, with the Paracorallium as members of one of these clades. In this study we sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of five species of Paragorgia and of five species of Corallium to use in a phylogenetic analysis to achieve two main objectives; the first to elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the Paragorgiidae and Coralliidae and the second to determine whether the genera Corallium and Paracorallium are monophyletic. Our results show that other members of the Coralliidae share the two novel mitochondrial gene arrangements found in a previous study in Corallium konojoi and Paracorallium japonicum; and that the Corallium konojoi arrangement is also found in the Paragorgiidae. Our phylogenetic reconstruction based on all the protein coding genes and ribosomal RNAs of the mitochondrial genome suggest that the Coralliidae are not a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae, but rather a monophyletic sister branch to the Paragorgiidae. While our manuscript was in review a study was published using morphological data and several fragments from mitochondrial genes to redefine the taxonomy of the Coralliidae. Paracorallium was subsumed

  10. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of six snakes: phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution of genomic features.

    PubMed

    Dong, Songyu; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2005-07-01

    Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from six snake families: the acrochordid little file snake, the bold boa constrictor, the cylindrophiid red pipe snake, the viperid himehabu, the pythonid ball python, and the xenopeltid sunbeam snake. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNALeu gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. The duplicate control regions had nearly identical nucleotide sequences within species but they were divergent among species, suggesting concerted sequence evolution of the two control regions. In addition, the duplicate control regions appear to have facilitated an interchange of some flanking tRNA genes in the viperid lineage. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using a large number of sites (9570 sites in total) derived from the complete mtDNA sequences. Our data strongly suggested a new phylogenetic relationship among the major families of snakes: ((((Viperidae, Colubridae), Acrochordidae), (((Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae), Cylindrophiidae), Boidae)), Leptotyphlopidae). This conclusion was distinct from a widely accepted view based on morphological characters in denying the sister-group relationship of boids and pythonids, as well as the basal divergence of nonmacrostomatan cylindrophiids. These results imply the significance to reconstruct the snake phylogeny with ample molecular data, such as those from complete mtDNA sequences.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of the phasianidae reveals possible non-pheasant taxa.

    PubMed

    Bush, K L; Strobeck, C

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 21 pheasant and 6 non-pheasant species were determined using nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis were used to try to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within Phasianidae. Both the degree of resolution and strength of support are improved over previous studies due to the testing of a number of species from multiple pheasant genera, but several major ambiguities persist. Polyplectron bicalcaratum (grey peacock pheasant) is shown not to be a pheasant. Alternatively, it appears ancestral to either the partridges or peafowl. Pucrasia macrolopha macrolopha (koklass) and Gallus gallus (red jungle fowl) both emerge as non-pheasant genera. Monophyly of the pheasant group is challenged if Pucrasia macrolopha macrolopha and Gallus gallus are considered to be pheasants. The placement of Catreus wallichii (cheer) within the pheasants also remains undetermined, as does the cause for the great sequence divergence in Chrysolophus pictus obscurus (black-throated golden). These results suggest that alterations in taxonomic classifications may be required for some pheasant species and genera.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of the phasianidae reveals possible non-pheasant taxa.

    PubMed

    Bush, K L; Strobeck, C

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 21 pheasant and 6 non-pheasant species were determined using nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis were used to try to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within Phasianidae. Both the degree of resolution and strength of support are improved over previous studies due to the testing of a number of species from multiple pheasant genera, but several major ambiguities persist. Polyplectron bicalcaratum (grey peacock pheasant) is shown not to be a pheasant. Alternatively, it appears ancestral to either the partridges or peafowl. Pucrasia macrolopha macrolopha (koklass) and Gallus gallus (red jungle fowl) both emerge as non-pheasant genera. Monophyly of the pheasant group is challenged if Pucrasia macrolopha macrolopha and Gallus gallus are considered to be pheasants. The placement of Catreus wallichii (cheer) within the pheasants also remains undetermined, as does the cause for the great sequence divergence in Chrysolophus pictus obscurus (black-throated golden). These results suggest that alterations in taxonomic classifications may be required for some pheasant species and genera. PMID:14691314

  13. Photobiont Relationships and Phylogenetic History of Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum and Related Dermatocarpon Species

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Kyle M.; Beck, Andreas; Stocker-Wörgötter, Elfie; Piercey-Normore, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the genus Dermatocarpon are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere along the edge of lakes, rivers and streams, and are subject to abiotic conditions reflecting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Little is known about the evolutionary relationships within the genus and between continents. Investigation of the photobiont(s) associated with sub-aquatic and terrestrial Dermatocarpon species may reveal habitat requirements of the photobiont and the ability for fungal species to share the same photobiont species under different habitat conditions. The focus of our study was todetermine the relationship between Canadian and Austrian Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum along with three additional sub-aquatic Dermatocarpon species, and to determine the species of photobionts that associate with D. luridum var. luridum. Culture experiments were performed to identify the photobionts. In addition, the question of the algal sharing potential regarding different species of Dermatocarpon was addressed. Specimens were collected from four lakes in northwestern Manitoba, Canada and three streams in Austria. Three Canadian and four Austrian thalli of D. luridum var. luridum were selected for algal culturing. The nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA gene of the fungal partner along with the algal ITS rDNA gene was sequenced to confirm the identity of the lichen/photobiont and afterwards the same data sets were used in phylogenetic analyses to assess algal sharing. The green algal photobiont was identified as Diplosphaera chodatii (Trebouxiophyceae). The phylogenetic analyses of Canadian and Austrian D. luridum var. luridum revealed that ITS sequences are identical despite the vast geographic distance. Phylogenetic placement of D. luridum var. decipiens and D. arnoldianum suggested that a re-examination of the species status might be necessary. This study concluded that additional photobiont culture experiments should be conducted to answer the

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of American willows (Salix L., Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E; Argus, George W; Labrecque, Michel; Brouillet, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Salix L. is the largest genus in the family Salicaceae (450 species). Several classifications have been published, but taxonomic subdivision has been under continuous revision. Our goal is to establish the phylogenetic structure of the genus using molecular data on all American willows, using three DNA markers. This complete phylogeny of American willows allows us to propose a biogeographic framework for the evolution of the genus. Material was obtained for the 122 native and introduced willow species of America. Sequences were obtained from the ITS (ribosomal nuclear DNA) and two plastid regions, matK and rbcL. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) were performed on the data. Geographic distribution was mapped onto the tree. The species tree provides strong support for a division of the genus into two subgenera, Salix and Vetrix. Subgenus Salix comprises temperate species from the Americas and Asia, and their disjunction may result from Tertiary events. Subgenus Vetrix is composed of boreo-arctic species of the Northern Hemisphere and their radiation may coincide with the Quaternary glaciations. Sixteen species have ambiguous positions; genetic diversity is lower in subg. Vetrix. A molecular phylogeny of all species of American willows has been inferred. It needs to be tested and further resolved using other molecular data. Nonetheless, the genus clearly has two clades that have distinct biogeographic patterns.

  15. Contrasting HIV phylogenetic relationships and V3 loop protein similarities

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, B. Santa Fe Inst., NM ); Myers, G. )

    1992-01-01

    At least five distinct sequence subtypes of HIV-I can be identified from the major centers of the AMS pandemic. While it is too early to tell whether these subtypes are serologically or phenotypically similar or distinct in terms of properties such as pathogenicity and transmissibility, we can begin to investigate their potential for phenotypic divergence at the protein sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV DNA sequences is being widely used to examine lineages of different viral strains as they evolve and spread throughout the globe. We have identified five distinct HIV-1 subtypes (designated A-E), or clades, based on phylogenetic clustering patterns generated from genetic information from both the gag and envelope (env) genes from a spectrum of international isolates. Our initial observations concerning both HIV-1 and HIV-2 sequences indicate that conserved patterns in protein chemistry may indeed exist across distant lineages. Such patterns in V3 loop amino acid chemistry may be indicative of stable lineages or convergence within this highly variable, though functionally and immunologically critical, region. We think that there may be parallels between the apparently stable HIV-2 V3 lineage and the previously mentioned HIV-1 V3 loops which are very similar at the protein level despite being distant by cladistic analysis, and which do not possess the distinctive positively charged residues. Highly conserved V3 loop protein sequences are also encountered in SIVAGMs and CIVs (chimpanzee viral strains), which do not appear to be pathogenic in their wild-caught natural hosts.

  16. Contrasting HIV phylogenetic relationships and V3 loop protein similarities

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, B. |; Myers, G.

    1992-12-31

    At least five distinct sequence subtypes of HIV-I can be identified from the major centers of the AMS pandemic. While it is too early to tell whether these subtypes are serologically or phenotypically similar or distinct in terms of properties such as pathogenicity and transmissibility, we can begin to investigate their potential for phenotypic divergence at the protein sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV DNA sequences is being widely used to examine lineages of different viral strains as they evolve and spread throughout the globe. We have identified five distinct HIV-1 subtypes (designated A-E), or clades, based on phylogenetic clustering patterns generated from genetic information from both the gag and envelope (env) genes from a spectrum of international isolates. Our initial observations concerning both HIV-1 and HIV-2 sequences indicate that conserved patterns in protein chemistry may indeed exist across distant lineages. Such patterns in V3 loop amino acid chemistry may be indicative of stable lineages or convergence within this highly variable, though functionally and immunologically critical, region. We think that there may be parallels between the apparently stable HIV-2 V3 lineage and the previously mentioned HIV-1 V3 loops which are very similar at the protein level despite being distant by cladistic analysis, and which do not possess the distinctive positively charged residues. Highly conserved V3 loop protein sequences are also encountered in SIVAGMs and CIVs (chimpanzee viral strains), which do not appear to be pathogenic in their wild-caught natural hosts.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of American willows (Salix L., Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E; Argus, George W; Labrecque, Michel; Brouillet, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Salix L. is the largest genus in the family Salicaceae (450 species). Several classifications have been published, but taxonomic subdivision has been under continuous revision. Our goal is to establish the phylogenetic structure of the genus using molecular data on all American willows, using three DNA markers. This complete phylogeny of American willows allows us to propose a biogeographic framework for the evolution of the genus. Material was obtained for the 122 native and introduced willow species of America. Sequences were obtained from the ITS (ribosomal nuclear DNA) and two plastid regions, matK and rbcL. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) were performed on the data. Geographic distribution was mapped onto the tree. The species tree provides strong support for a division of the genus into two subgenera, Salix and Vetrix. Subgenus Salix comprises temperate species from the Americas and Asia, and their disjunction may result from Tertiary events. Subgenus Vetrix is composed of boreo-arctic species of the Northern Hemisphere and their radiation may coincide with the Quaternary glaciations. Sixteen species have ambiguous positions; genetic diversity is lower in subg. Vetrix. A molecular phylogeny of all species of American willows has been inferred. It needs to be tested and further resolved using other molecular data. Nonetheless, the genus clearly has two clades that have distinct biogeographic patterns. PMID:25880993

  18. Phylogenetic Relationships of American Willows (Salix L., Salicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E.; Argus, George W.; Labrecque, Michel; Brouillet, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Salix L. is the largest genus in the family Salicaceae (450 species). Several classifications have been published, but taxonomic subdivision has been under continuous revision. Our goal is to establish the phylogenetic structure of the genus using molecular data on all American willows, using three DNA markers. This complete phylogeny of American willows allows us to propose a biogeographic framework for the evolution of the genus. Material was obtained for the 122 native and introduced willow species of America. Sequences were obtained from the ITS (ribosomal nuclear DNA) and two plastid regions, matK and rbcL. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) were performed on the data. Geographic distribution was mapped onto the tree. The species tree provides strong support for a division of the genus into two subgenera, Salix and Vetrix. Subgenus Salix comprises temperate species from the Americas and Asia, and their disjunction may result from Tertiary events. Subgenus Vetrix is composed of boreo-arctic species of the Northern Hemisphere and their radiation may coincide with the Quaternary glaciations. Sixteen species have ambiguous positions; genetic diversity is lower in subg. Vetrix. A molecular phylogeny of all species of American willows has been inferred. It needs to be tested and further resolved using other molecular data. Nonetheless, the genus clearly has two clades that have distinct biogeographic patterns. PMID:25880993

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the South american and the Australian lungfish: testing of the phylogenetic performance of mitochondrial data sets for phylogenetic problems in tetrapod relationships.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Henner; Denk, Angelika; Zitzler, Jürgen; Joss, Jean J; Meyer, Axel

    2004-12-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequences (16403 and 16572 base pairs, respectively) of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi). The mitochondrial DNA sequences were established in an effort to resolve the debated evolutionary positions of the lungfish and the coelacanth relative to land vertebrates. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on complete mtDNA sequences, including only the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, sequence were able to strongly reject the traditional textbook hypothesis that coelacanths are the closest relatives of land vertebrates. However, these studies were unable to statistically significantly distinguish between the two remaining scenarios: lungfish as the closest relatives to land vertebrates and lungfish and coelacanths jointly as their sister group (Cao et al. 1998; Zardoya et al. 1998; Zardoya and Meyer 1997a). Lungfish, coelacanths, and the fish ancestors of the tetrapod lineage all originated within a short time window of about 20 million years, back in the early Devonian (about 380 to 400 million years ago). This short divergence time makes the determination of the phylogenetic relationships among these three lineages difficult. In this study, we attempted to break the long evolutionary branch of lungfish, in an effort to better resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the three extant sarcopterygian lineages. The gene order of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American and Australian lungfish conforms to the consensus gene order among gnathostome vertebrates. The phylogenetic analyses of the complete set of mitochondrial proteins (without ND6) suggest that the lungfish are the closest relatives of the tetrapods, although the support in favor of this scenario is not statistically significant. The two other smaller data sets (tRNA and rRNA genes) give inconsistent results depending on the

  20. Phylogenetic Resolution of Deep Eukaryotic and Fungal Relationships Using Highly Conserved Low-Copy Nuclear Genes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ren; Sun, Yazhou; Zhao, Yue; Geiser, David; Ma, Hong; Zhou, Xiaofan

    2016-09-11

    A comprehensive and reliable eukaryotic tree of life is important for many aspects of biological studies from comparative developmental and physiological analyses to translational medicine and agriculture. Both gene-rich and taxon-rich approaches are effective strategies to improve phylogenetic accuracy and are greatly facilitated by marker genes that are universally distributed, well conserved, and orthologous among divergent eukaryotes. In this article, we report the identification of 943 low-copy eukaryotic genes and we show that many of these genes are promising tools in resolving eukaryotic phylogenies, despite the challenges of determining deep eukaryotic relationships. As a case study, we demonstrate that smaller subsets of ∼20 and 52 genes could resolve controversial relationships among widely divergent taxa and provide strong support for deep relationships such as the monophyly and branching order of several eukaryotic supergroups. In addition, the use of these genes resulted in fungal phylogenies that are congruent with previous phylogenomic studies that used much larger datasets, and successfully resolved several difficult relationships (e.g., forming a highly supported clade with Microsporidia, Mitosporidium and Rozella sister to other fungi). We propose that these genes are excellent for both gene-rich and taxon-rich analyses and can be applied at multiple taxonomic levels and facilitate a more complete understanding of the eukaryotic tree of life.

  1. Phylogenetic Resolution of Deep Eukaryotic and Fungal Relationships Using Highly Conserved Low-Copy Nuclear Genes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ren; Sun, Yazhou; Zhao, Yue; Geiser, David; Ma, Hong; Zhou, Xiaofan

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive and reliable eukaryotic tree of life is important for many aspects of biological studies from comparative developmental and physiological analyses to translational medicine and agriculture. Both gene-rich and taxon-rich approaches are effective strategies to improve phylogenetic accuracy and are greatly facilitated by marker genes that are universally distributed, well conserved, and orthologous among divergent eukaryotes. In this article, we report the identification of 943 low-copy eukaryotic genes and we show that many of these genes are promising tools in resolving eukaryotic phylogenies, despite the challenges of determining deep eukaryotic relationships. As a case study, we demonstrate that smaller subsets of ∼20 and 52 genes could resolve controversial relationships among widely divergent taxa and provide strong support for deep relationships such as the monophyly and branching order of several eukaryotic supergroups. In addition, the use of these genes resulted in fungal phylogenies that are congruent with previous phylogenomic studies that used much larger datasets, and successfully resolved several difficult relationships (e.g., forming a highly supported clade with Microsporidia, Mitosporidium and Rozella sister to other fungi). We propose that these genes are excellent for both gene-rich and taxon-rich analyses and can be applied at multiple taxonomic levels and facilitate a more complete understanding of the eukaryotic tree of life. PMID:27604879

  2. Diversity of Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Glucosinolate Content and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Christoph; Müller, Anja; Kuhnert, Nikolai; Albach, Dirk

    2016-04-27

    Recently, kale has become popular due to nutritive components beneficial for human health. It is an important source of phytochemicals such as glucosinolates that trigger associated cancer-preventive activity. However, nutritional value varies among glucosinolates and among cultivars. Here, we start a systematic determination of the content of five glucosinolates in 25 kale varieties and 11 non-kale Brassica oleracea cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and compare the profiles with results from the analysis of SNPs derived from a KASP genotyping assay. Our results demonstrate that the glucosinolate levels differ markedly among varieties of different origin. Comparison of the phytochemical data with phylogenetic relationships revealed that the common name kale refers to at least three different groups. German, American, and Italian kales differ morphologically and phytochemically. Landraces do not show outstanding glucosinolate levels. Our results demonstrate the diversity of kale and the importance of preserving a broad genepool for future breeding purposes.

  3. [Phylogenetic relationships among Asiatic salamanders of the genus Salamandrella based on variability of nuclear genes].

    PubMed

    Maliarchuk, B A; Derenko, M V; Denisova, G A

    2015-01-01

    Based on sequence variation of three nuclear genome genes (BDNF, POMC, and RAG1), the phylogenetic relationships among Asiatic salamanders of the genus Salamandrella, Siberian salamander (S. keyserlingii) and Schrenk salamander (S. schrenkii), were examined. Both species demonstrated high levels of heterozygosity determined by intraspecific polymorphism. Fixed interspecific differences were revealed at one nucleotide position of the RAG1 gene, and thus the level of interspecific divergence over the three genes constituted only 0.04%. Analysis of the RAG1 polymorphism across the whole range of S. keyserlingii showed that only one gene variant, encoding for modified RAG1 recombinase, had the highest distribution to the north of the Amur region (west and northeast of Siberia). It is possible that the changes in the RAG1 gene in Siberian salamander are of an adaptive nature. However, cases of interspecific hybridization were identified in Jewish autonomous oblast (JAO), which contains one of the range borders between the two Salamandrella species. PMID:25857197

  4. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-01-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  5. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants. PMID:27625661

  6. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants.

  7. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants. PMID:27625661

  8. Phylogenetic relationships in Selaginellaceae based on RBCL sequences.

    PubMed

    Korall, Petra; Kenrick, Paul

    2002-03-01

    A phylogenetic framework is developed for the clubmoss family Selaginellaceae based on maximum parsimony analyses of molecular data. The chloroplast gene rbcL was sequenced for 62 species, which represent nearly 10% of living species diversity in the family. Taxa were chosen to reflect morphological, geographical, and ecological diversity. The analyses provide support for monophyly of subgenera Selaginella and Tetragonostachys. Stachygynandrum and Heterostachys are polyphyletic. Monophyly of Ericetorum is uncertain. Results also indicate a large number of new groupings not previously recognized on morphological grounds. Some of these new groups seem to have corresponding morphological synapomorphies, such as the presence of rhizophores (distinctive root-like structures), aspects of rhizophore development, and leaf and stem morphology. Others share distinctive ecological traits (e.g., xerophytism). For many groups, however, no morphological, ecological, or physiological markers are known. This could reflect patchy sampling and a lack of detailed knowledge about many species. Despite a lengthy fossil record dating from the Carboniferous Period, cladogram topology indicates that most of the living tropical species are probably the products of more recent diversifications. Resurrection plants, extreme xerophytes characterized by aridity-driven inrolling of branches and rapid revival on rehydration, have evolved at least three times in quite different clades.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of class II fumarase genes from trichomonad species.

    PubMed

    Gerbod, D; Edgcomb, V P; Noël, C; Vanácová, S; Wintjens, R; Tachezy, J; Sogin, M L; Viscogliosi, E

    2001-08-01

    Class II fumarase sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction from five trichomonad species. All residues known to be highly conserved in this enzyme were present. Nuclear run-on assays showed that one of the two genes identified in Tritrichomonas foetus was expressed, whereas no fumarase transcripts were detected in the related species Trichomonas vaginalis. These findings corroborate previous biochemical data. Fumarase genes were also expressed in Monocercomonas sp. and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum but not in Pentatrichomonas hominis, Trichomonas gallinae, Trichomonas tenax, and Trichomitus batrachorum under the culture conditions used. Molecular trees inferred by likelihood methods reveal that trichomonad sequences have no affinity to described class II fumarase genes from other eukaryotes. The absence of functional mitochondria in protists such as trichomonads suggests that they diverged from other eukaryotes prior to the alpha-proteobacterial symbiosis that led to mitochondria. Furthermore, they are basal to other eukaryotes in rRNA analyses. However, support for the early-branching status of trichomonads and other amitochondriate protists based on phylogenetic analyses of multiple data sets has been equivocal. Although the presence of hydrogenosomes suggests that trichomonads once had mitochondria, their class II iron-independent fumarase sequences differ markedly from those of other mitochondriate eukaryotes. All of the class II fumarase genes described from other eukaryotes are of apparent alpha-proteobacterial origin and hence a marker of mitochondrial evolution. In contrast, the class II fumarase from trichomonads emerges among other eubacterial homologs. This is intriguing evidence for an independent acquisition of these genes in trichomonads apart from the mitochondrial endosymbiosis event that gave rise to the form present in other eukaryotes. The ancestral trichomonad class II fumarase may represent a prokaryotic form that was replaced in

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of class II fumarase genes from trichomonad species.

    PubMed

    Gerbod, D; Edgcomb, V P; Noël, C; Vanácová, S; Wintjens, R; Tachezy, J; Sogin, M L; Viscogliosi, E

    2001-08-01

    Class II fumarase sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction from five trichomonad species. All residues known to be highly conserved in this enzyme were present. Nuclear run-on assays showed that one of the two genes identified in Tritrichomonas foetus was expressed, whereas no fumarase transcripts were detected in the related species Trichomonas vaginalis. These findings corroborate previous biochemical data. Fumarase genes were also expressed in Monocercomonas sp. and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum but not in Pentatrichomonas hominis, Trichomonas gallinae, Trichomonas tenax, and Trichomitus batrachorum under the culture conditions used. Molecular trees inferred by likelihood methods reveal that trichomonad sequences have no affinity to described class II fumarase genes from other eukaryotes. The absence of functional mitochondria in protists such as trichomonads suggests that they diverged from other eukaryotes prior to the alpha-proteobacterial symbiosis that led to mitochondria. Furthermore, they are basal to other eukaryotes in rRNA analyses. However, support for the early-branching status of trichomonads and other amitochondriate protists based on phylogenetic analyses of multiple data sets has been equivocal. Although the presence of hydrogenosomes suggests that trichomonads once had mitochondria, their class II iron-independent fumarase sequences differ markedly from those of other mitochondriate eukaryotes. All of the class II fumarase genes described from other eukaryotes are of apparent alpha-proteobacterial origin and hence a marker of mitochondrial evolution. In contrast, the class II fumarase from trichomonads emerges among other eubacterial homologs. This is intriguing evidence for an independent acquisition of these genes in trichomonads apart from the mitochondrial endosymbiosis event that gave rise to the form present in other eukaryotes. The ancestral trichomonad class II fumarase may represent a prokaryotic form that was replaced in

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of Nembrothinae (Mollusca: Doridacea: Polyceridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pola, Marta; Cervera, J Lucas; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2007-06-01

    Within the Polyceridae, Nembrothinae includes some of the most striking and conspicuous sea slugs known, although several features of their biology and phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. This paper reports a phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and morphology for most species included in Nembrothinae. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using both molecular and combined morphological and molecular data support the taxonomic splitting of Nembrothinae into several taxa. Excluding one species (Tambja tentaculata), the monophyly of Roboastra was supported by all the phylogenetic analyses of the combined molecular data. Nembrotha was monophyletic both in the morphological and molecular analyses, always with high support. However, Tambja was recovered as para- or polyphyletic, depending on the analysis performed. Our study also rejects the monophyly of "phanerobranch" dorids based on molecular data.

  12. Phylogenetic utility of nuclear introns in interfamilial relationships of Caniformia (order Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Luan, Peng-Tao; Jin, Wei; Ryder, Oliver A; Chemnick, Leona G; Davis, Heidi A; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-03-01

    The monophyletic group Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) in the order Carnivora comprises 9 families. Except for the general consensus for the earliest divergence of Canidae and the grouping of Procyonidae and Mustelidae, conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses exist for the other caniformian families. In the present study, a data set comprising > 22 kb of 22 nuclear intron loci from 16 caniformian species is used to investigate the phylogenetic utility of nuclear introns in resolving the interfamilial relationships of Caniformia. Our phylogenetic analyses support Ailuridae as the sister taxon to a clade containing Procyonidae and Mustelidae, with Mephitinae being the sister taxon to all of them. The unresolved placements of Ursidae and Pinnipeds here emphasize a need to add more data and include more taxa to resolve this problem. The present study not only resolves some of the ambiguous relationships in Caniformia phylogeny but also shows that the noncoding nuclear markers can offer powerful complementary data for estimating the species tree. None of the newly developed introns here have previously been used for phylogeny reconstruction, thus increasing the spectrum of molecular markers available to mammalian systematics. Interestingly, all the newly developed intron data partitions exhibit intraindividual allele heterozygotes (IIAHs). There are 115 cases of IIAHs in total. The incorporation of IIAHs into phylogenetic analysis not only provides insights into the interfamilial relationships of Caniformia but also identifies two potential hybridization events occurred within Ursidae and Otariidae, respectively. Finally, the powers and pitfalls of phylogenetics using nuclear introns as markers are discussed in the context of Caniformia phylogeny.

  13. Decisive Data Sets in Phylogenomics: Lessons from Studies on the Phylogenetic Relationships of Primarily Wingless Insects

    PubMed Central

    Meusemann, Karen; Meyer, Benjamin; Borner, Janus; Petersen, Malte; Aberer, Andre J.; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Walzl, Manfred G.; Minh, Bui Quang; von Haeseler, Arndt; Ebersberger, Ingo; Pass, Günther; Misof, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the primarily wingless insects are still considered unresolved. Even the most comprehensive phylogenomic studies that addressed this question did not yield congruent results. To get a grip on these problems, we here analyzed the sources of incongruence in these phylogenomic studies by using an extended transcriptome data set. Our analyses showed that unevenly distributed missing data can be severely misleading by inflating node support despite the absence of phylogenetic signal. In consequence, only decisive data sets should be used which exclusively comprise data blocks containing all taxa whose relationships are addressed. Additionally, we used Four-cluster Likelihood Mapping (FcLM) to measure the degree of congruence among genes of a data set, as a measure of support alternative to bootstrap. FcLM showed incongruent signal among genes, which in our case is correlated neither with functional class assignment of these genes nor with model misspecification due to unpartitioned analyses. The herein analyzed data set is the currently largest data set covering primarily wingless insects, but failed to elucidate their interordinal phylogenetic relationships. Although this is unsatisfying from a phylogenetic perspective, we try to show that the analyses of structure and signal within phylogenomic data can protect us from biased phylogenetic inferences due to analytical artifacts. PMID:24140757

  14. Comparative analysis of DNA polymorphisms and phylogenetic relationships among Syzygium cumini Skeels based on phenotypic characters and RAPD technique

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jitendra P; Singh, AK; Bajpai, Anju; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2014-01-01

    The Indian black berry (Syzygium cumini Skeels) has a great nutraceutical and medicinal properties. As in other fruit crops, the fruit characteristics are important attributes for differentiation were also determined for different accessions of S. cumini. The fruit weight, length, breadth, length: breadth ratio, pulp weight, pulp content, seed weight and pulp: seed ratio significantly varied in different accessions. Molecular characterization was carried out using PCR based RAPD technique. Out of 80 RAPD primers, only 18 primers produced stable polymorphisms that were used to examine the phylogenetic relationship. A sum of 207 loci were generated out of which 201 loci found polymorphic. The average genetic dissimilarity was 97 per cent among jamun accessions. The phylogenetic relationship was also determined by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) that explained 46.95 per cent cumulative variance. The two-dimensional PCoA analysis showed grouping of the different accessions that were plotted into four sub-plots, representing clustering of accessions. The UPGMA (r = 0.967) and NJ (r = 0.987) dendrogram constructed based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed a good degree of fit with the cophenetic correlation value. The dendrogram grouped the accessions into three main clusters according to their eco-geographical regions which given useful insight into their phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24966521

  15. SICLE: a high-throughput tool for extracting evolutionary relationships from phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H.

    2016-01-01

    We present the phylogeny analysis software SICLE (Sister Clade Extractor), an easy-to-use, high-throughput tool to describe the nearest neighbors to a node of interest in a phylogenetic tree as well as the support value for the relationship. The application is a command line utility that can be embedded into a phylogenetic analysis pipeline or can be used as a subroutine within another C++ program. As a test case, we applied this new tool to the published phylome of Salinibacter ruber, a species of halophilic Bacteriodetes, identifying 13 unique sister relationships to S. ruber across the 4,589 gene phylogenies. S. ruber grouped with bacteria, most often other Bacteriodetes, in the majority of phylogenies, but 91 phylogenies showed a branch-supported sister association between S. ruber and Archaea, an evolutionarily intriguing relationship indicative of horizontal gene transfer. This test case demonstrates how SICLE makes it possible to summarize the phylogenetic information produced by automated phylogenetic pipelines to rapidly identify and quantify the possible evolutionary relationships that merit further investigation. SICLE is available for free for noncommercial use at http://eebweb.arizona.edu/sicle/. PMID:27635331

  16. SICLE: a high-throughput tool for extracting evolutionary relationships from phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H.

    2016-01-01

    We present the phylogeny analysis software SICLE (Sister Clade Extractor), an easy-to-use, high-throughput tool to describe the nearest neighbors to a node of interest in a phylogenetic tree as well as the support value for the relationship. The application is a command line utility that can be embedded into a phylogenetic analysis pipeline or can be used as a subroutine within another C++ program. As a test case, we applied this new tool to the published phylome of Salinibacter ruber, a species of halophilic Bacteriodetes, identifying 13 unique sister relationships to S. ruber across the 4,589 gene phylogenies. S. ruber grouped with bacteria, most often other Bacteriodetes, in the majority of phylogenies, but 91 phylogenies showed a branch-supported sister association between S. ruber and Archaea, an evolutionarily intriguing relationship indicative of horizontal gene transfer. This test case demonstrates how SICLE makes it possible to summarize the phylogenetic information produced by automated phylogenetic pipelines to rapidly identify and quantify the possible evolutionary relationships that merit further investigation. SICLE is available for free for noncommercial use at http://eebweb.arizona.edu/sicle/.

  17. SICLE: a high-throughput tool for extracting evolutionary relationships from phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    DeBlasio, Dan F; Wisecaver, Jennifer H

    2016-01-01

    We present the phylogeny analysis software SICLE (Sister Clade Extractor), an easy-to-use, high-throughput tool to describe the nearest neighbors to a node of interest in a phylogenetic tree as well as the support value for the relationship. The application is a command line utility that can be embedded into a phylogenetic analysis pipeline or can be used as a subroutine within another C++ program. As a test case, we applied this new tool to the published phylome of Salinibacter ruber, a species of halophilic Bacteriodetes, identifying 13 unique sister relationships to S. ruber across the 4,589 gene phylogenies. S. ruber grouped with bacteria, most often other Bacteriodetes, in the majority of phylogenies, but 91 phylogenies showed a branch-supported sister association between S. ruber and Archaea, an evolutionarily intriguing relationship indicative of horizontal gene transfer. This test case demonstrates how SICLE makes it possible to summarize the phylogenetic information produced by automated phylogenetic pipelines to rapidly identify and quantify the possible evolutionary relationships that merit further investigation. SICLE is available for free for noncommercial use at http://eebweb.arizona.edu/sicle/. PMID:27635331

  18. Evaluation of Lespedeza Germplasm Genetic Diversity and Its Phylogenetic Relationship with the Genus Kummerowia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of the genus Lespedeza is not well known and the phylogenetic relationship of Lespedeza with the genus Kummerowia is unclear. We report the first study in which polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers derived from Medicago, cowpea and soybea...

  19. A phylogenetic perspective on the individual species-area relationship in temperate and tropical tree communities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G; Cao, Min; Chuyong, George B; Ewango, Corneille E N; Howe, Robert; Kenfack, David; Thomas, Duncan; Wolf, Amy; Lin, Luxiang

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists have historically used species-area relationships (SARs) as a tool to understand the spatial distribution of species. Recent work has extended SARs to focus on individual-level distributions to generate individual species area relationships (ISARs). The ISAR approach quantifies whether individuals of a species tend have more or less species richness surrounding them than expected by chance. By identifying richness 'accumulators' and 'repellers', respectively, the ISAR approach has been used to infer the relative importance of abiotic and biotic interactions and neutrality. A clear limitation of the SAR and ISAR approaches is that all species are treated as evolutionarily independent and that a large amount of work has now shown that local tree neighborhoods exhibit non-random phylogenetic structure given the species richness. Here, we use nine tropical and temperate forest dynamics plots to ask: (i) do ISARs change predictably across latitude?; (ii) is the phylogenetic diversity in the neighborhood of species accumulators and repellers higher or lower than that expected given the observed species richness?; and (iii) do species accumulators, repellers distributed non-randomly on the community phylogenetic tree? The results indicate no clear trend in ISARs from the temperate zone to the tropics and that the phylogenetic diversity surrounding the individuals of species is generally only non-random on very local scales. Interestingly the distribution of species accumulators and repellers was non-random on the community phylogenies suggesting the presence of phylogenetic signal in the ISAR across latitude.

  20. Disentangling determinants of egg size in the Geometridae (Lepidoptera) using an advanced phylogenetic comparative method.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert B; Javoiš, J; Pienaar, J; Õunap, E; Tammaru, T

    2012-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic comparative study assessing the evolutionary determinants of egg size in the moth family Geometridae. These moths were found to show a strong negative allometric relationship between egg size and maternal body size. Using recently developed comparative methods based on an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, we show that maternal body size explains over half the variation in egg size. However, other determinants are less clear: ecological factors, previously hypothesized to affect egg size, were not found to have a considerable influence in the Geometridae. The limited role of such third factors suggests a direct causal link between egg size and body size rather than an indirect correlation mediated by some ecological factors. Notably, no large geometrid species lay small eggs. This pattern suggests that maternal body size poses a physical constraint on egg size, but within these limits, there appears to be a rather invariable selection for larger eggs.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Dorcus koreanus Jang and Kawai, 2008 (Coleoptera, Lucanidae): species or subspecies?

    PubMed

    Han, Tae Man; Jeong, Jong Chel; Kang, Tae Hwa; Lee, Young Bo; Park, Hae Chul

    2010-04-01

    Dorcus koreanus Jang and Kawai, 2008 was recently described as a valid species in Haenam, South Korea, based on morphology. However, the taxonomic position and relationships of this new species with the related species Dorcus japonicus and Dorcus carinulatus were not examined in detail. To address this issue, we evaluated the phylogenetic relationships of D. koreanus to its related species based on molecular analyses of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences. The molecular evidence suggested that D. koreanus and D. carinulatus are more closely related to each other than either is to D. Japonicus. The genetic divergence between D. koreanus and D. carinulatus ranged from 1.2 to 1.6%, whereas that between D. koreanus and D. japonicus ranged from 9.0 to 9.2%. By comparing the range of nucleotide substitutions within Lucanidae, we determined that the sequence distance between D. koreanus and D. carinulatus is smaller than that for required for species-level distinction. Therefore, we reduce D. koreanus to subspecies rank, as Dorcus carinulatus koreanus stat. nov. PMID:20377356

  2. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples.

    PubMed

    Coura, Fernanda Morcatti; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  3. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    PubMed Central

    Morcatti Coura, Fernanda; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  4. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples.

    PubMed

    Coura, Fernanda Morcatti; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Oriental torrent frogs in the genus Amolops and its allies (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Shimada, Tomohiko; Liu, Wan-Zhao; Maryati, Mohamed; Khonsue, Wichase; Orlov, Nikolai

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among 20 species of Oriental torrent frogs in the genus Amolops and its allies from China and Southeast Asia based on 1346-bp sequences of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes. Oriental species of the tribe Ranini form a monophyletic group containing 11 clades (Rana temporaria + Pseudoamolops, R. chalconota, four clades of Amolops, Meristogenys, three clades of Huia species, and Staurois) for which the phylogenetic relationships are unresolved. The genus Amolops consists of southern Chinese, southwestern Chinese, Thai, and Vietnamese-Malaysian lineages, but their relationships are also unresolved. The separation of southern and southwestern lineages within China conforms to previous morphological and karyological results. Species of Huia do not form a monophyletic group, whereas those of Meristogenys are monophyletic. Because P. sauteri is a sister species of R. temporaria, distinct generic status of Pseudoamolops is unwarranted.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of extant zokors (Myospalacinae) (Rodentia, Spalacidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Su, Junhu; Ji, Weihong; Wang, Jing; Gleeson, Dianne M; Zhou, Janwei; Hua, Limin; Wei, Yanming

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we use three mitochondrial markers, cytochrome b gene (Cyt b), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and control region (D-loop) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of extant zokor species in Mysopalacinae. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on Cyt b strongly supports the monophyly genera Eospalax and Myospalax with E. fontanierii being the most ancient species in Eospalax. Further phylogenetic analyses of four species of Eospalax based on ND4 and D-loop sequences revealed two clades that correspond to two geographical distributions. The basal clade includes E. cansus which is mainly found on Loess Plateau (LP) and another clade including E. baileyi, E. smithii and E. rufescens that inhabits areas above 2000 m on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Qinling Mountains. Geographical events of QTP and LP may have played a major role in the diversification and evolution of Mysopalacinae.

  8. Filling phylogenetic gaps and the biogeographic relationships of the Octodontidae (Mammalia: Hystricognathi).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Villota, Elkin Y; González-Wevar, Claudio A; Gallardo, Milton H; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Poulin, Elie

    2016-12-01

    Endemic to South America, octodontid rodents are remarkable by being the only mammal taxa where allotetraploidy has been documented. The taxon's extensive morpho-physiological radiation associated to niche shifts has allowed testing phylogeographic hypotheses. Using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, applied to all nominal species of octodontids, phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequences of 12S rRNA and growth hormone receptor gene are presented. Species boundaries were determined by coalescent analyses and divergence times among taxa were estimated based on mutation rates. Two main clades associated to the Andean orogenesis were recognized. The essentially western clade comprises genera Aconaemys, Octodon, Spalacopus, and Octodontomys whereas the eastern one included genera Octomys, Pipanacoctomys, Salinoctomys, and Tympanoctomys. Genetic relationships, coalescent analyses, and genetic distance supported the specific status given to Octodon pacificus and that given to Pipanacoctomys aureus as a species of Tympanoctomys. However, these analyses failed to recognize Salinoctomys loschalchalerosorum as a valid taxon considering its position within the diversity of Tympanoctomys barrerae. Although the origin of genome duplication remains contentious, the coincidence of the basal clade split with distinctive modes of karyotypic evolution across the Andes emphasizes the role of physiographic barriers and westerlies in shaping different edaphological conditions, selective grounds, and concomitantly distinct adaptations within the octodontids.

  9. Molecular characterization of Hop latent virus and phylogenetic relationships among viruses closely related to carlaviruses.

    PubMed

    Hataya, T; Uchino, K; Arimoto, R; Suda, N; Sano, T; Shikata, E; Uyeda, I

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the hop latent virus (HpLV) genome was determined. The viral RNA genome is 8,612 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains six open reading frames (ORFs), which encode putative proteins of 224-kDa (ORF 1), 25-kDa (ORF 2), 11-kDa (ORF 3), 7-kDa (ORF 4), 34-kDa (ORF 5), and 12-kDa (ORF 6). ORF 5 encodes the coat protein as demonstrated by N-terminal sequencing of three proteolytic peptides derived from the virus particle. The genome organization of HpLV is similar to that of other species in the genus Carlavirus, and the overall sequence of HpLV is more similar to that of Potato virus M than to sequences of other carlaviruses reported to date. The amino acid sequences of the putative methyltransferase, RNA helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase encoded in ORF 1 and an 'accessory' helicase encoded in ORF 2 of the HpLV genome were compared with those of viruses in the 'tymo' lineage: the genera Carlavirus, Potexvirus, Allexivirus, Foveavirus, Trichovirus, Capillovirus, Vitivirus, and Tymovirus. The phylogenetic relationships among the viruses in these genera are discussed. This is the first molecular characterization of a carlavirus infecting hop plants. PMID:11205102

  10. Possible sister groups and phylogenetic relationships among selected North Pacific and North Atlantic Rhodophyta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.

    1987-09-01

    Although the cool temperate (boreal) waters of the N. Pacific and N. Atlantic share many similar if not identical species, there have been few studies to test the identity of these species pairs. Whereas such tests are important from a taxonomic perspective, they tell us little if anything about biogeographic relationships. A more useful approach is one employing phylogenetic systematics (cladistics). The interpretation of phylogenetic diagrams (cladograms) in terms of biogeographic area relationships is explained. It is argued that cladistic analyses of taxa occurring in the cool temperate waters of the northern oceans can provide biogeographic tracks, which in turn can suggest the origins and migrations of species and possibly even floras. A number of cool temperate taxa that appear particularly amenable to this approach are discussed, including genera in the Palmariaceae, Corallinaceae, Dumontiaceae, Solieriaceae, Petrocelidaceae, Ceramiaceae and Rhodomelaceae.

  11. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera. PMID:26156243

  12. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among Linguatula serrata isolates from Iran based on 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Tavassoli, Mousa; Peters, Andrew; Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Hajipour, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven Linguatula serrata (L. serrata) isolates collected from cattle, goats, sheep, dogs and camels in different geographical locations of Iran were investigated using partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences. The nucleotide sequences were analysed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the isolates. Higher sequence diversity and intraspecies variation was observed in the cox1 gene compared to 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 gene placed all L. serrata isolates in a sister clade to L. arctica. The Mantel regression analysis revealed no association between genetic variations and host species or geographical location, perhaps due to the small sample size. However, genetic variations between L. serrata isolates in Iran and those isolated in other parts of the world may exist and could reveal possible evolutionary relationships.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among Linguatula serrata isolates from Iran based on 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Tavassoli, Mousa; Peters, Andrew; Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Hajipour, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven Linguatula serrata (L. serrata) isolates collected from cattle, goats, sheep, dogs and camels in different geographical locations of Iran were investigated using partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences. The nucleotide sequences were analysed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the isolates. Higher sequence diversity and intraspecies variation was observed in the cox1 gene compared to 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 gene placed all L. serrata isolates in a sister clade to L. arctica. The Mantel regression analysis revealed no association between genetic variations and host species or geographical location, perhaps due to the small sample size. However, genetic variations between L. serrata isolates in Iran and those isolated in other parts of the world may exist and could reveal possible evolutionary relationships. PMID:27149706

  15. Phylogenetic relationships within Cornus (Cornaceae) based on 26S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Fan, C

    2001-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the dogwood genus Cornus have been highly controversial due to the great morphological heterogeneity. Earlier phylogenetic analyses of Cornus using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) data (including rbcL and matK sequences, as well as restriction sites) and morphological characters suggested incongruent relationships within the genus. The present study generated sequence data from the nuclear gene 26S rDNA for Cornus to test the phylogenetic hypotheses based on cpDNA and morphological data. The 26S rDNA sequence data obtained represent 16 species, 13 from Cornus and three from outgroups, having an aligned length of 3380 bp. Both parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of these sequences were conducted. Trees resulting from these analyses suggest relationships among subgroups of Cornus consistent with those inferred from cpDNA data. That is, the dwarf dogwood (subg. Arctocrania) and the big-bracted dogwood (subg. Cynoxylon and subg. Syncarpea) clades are sisters, which are, in turn, sister to the cornelian cherries (subg. Cornus and subg. Afrocrania). This red-fruited clade is sister to the blue- or white-fruited dogwoods (subg. Mesomora, subg. Kraniopsis, and subg. Yinquania). Within the blue- or white-fruited clade, C. oblonga (subg. Yinquania) is sister to the remainder, and subg. Mesomora is sister to subg. Kraniopsis. These relationships were also suggested by the combined 26S rDNA and cpDNA data, but with higher bootstrap and Bremer support in the combined analysis. The 26S rDNA sequence data of Cornus consist of 12 expansion segments spanning 1034 bp. These expansion segments evolve approximately four times as fast as the conserved core regions. The study provides an example of phylogenetic utility of 26S rDNA sequences below the genus level. PMID:11410478

  16. Evolution of the mitochondrial genome in snakes: Gene rearrangements and phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Li, Hongdan; Zhou, Kaiya

    2008-01-01

    Background Snakes as a major reptile group display a variety of morphological characteristics pertaining to their diverse behaviours. Despite abundant analyses of morphological characters, molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear genes are limited. As a result, the phylogeny of snakes remains controversial. Previous studies on mitochondrial genomes of snakes have demonstrated duplication of the control region and translocation of trnL to be two notable features of the alethinophidian (all serpents except blindsnakes and threadsnakes) mtDNAs. Our purpose is to further investigate the gene organizations, evolution of the snake mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic relationships among several major snake families. Results The mitochondrial genomes were sequenced for four taxa representing four different families, and each had a different gene arrangement. Comparative analyses with other snake mitochondrial genomes allowed us to summarize six types of mitochondrial gene arrangement in snakes. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (BI, ML, MP, NJ) arrived at a similar topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene arrangements in snakes. Conclusion The phylogenetic relationships among the major families of snakes are in accordance with the mitochondrial genomes in terms of gene arrangements. The gene arrangement in Ramphotyphlops braminus mtDNA is inferred to be ancestral for snakes. After the divergence of the early Ramphotyphlops lineage, three types of rearrangements occurred. These changes involve translocations within the IQM tRNA gene cluster and the duplication of the CR. All phylogenetic methods support the placement of Enhydris plumbea outside of the (Colubridae + Elapidae) cluster, providing mitochondrial genomic evidence for the familial rank of Homalopsidae. PMID:19038056

  17. Phylogenetic relationships within the Callicebus cupreus species group (Pitheciidae: Primates): Biogeographic and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Manuel; Bloor, Paul; Defler, Thomas; Vermeer, Jan; Röhe, Fabio; Farias, Izeni

    2016-09-01

    The genus Callicebus (Thomas, 1903) is one of the most diverse of Neotropical primate genera and the only extant member of the Callicebinae subfamily. It has a widespread distribution from Colombia to Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and northern Paraguay. Coat colouring and colour pattern vary substantially within the genus, and this has led to the description of numerous species and subspecies, as well as numerous species groups. However, a lack of molecular phylogenetic analyses on the genus means that phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of species are poorly understood. Here, we examined phylogenetic relationships and patterns of diversification within the Callicebus cupreus species Group (sensu Kobayashi, 1995) using complete mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequence. Analyses indicate that the Callicebus cupreus Group underwent recent and extensive diversification. The common ancestor appears to have emerged some 2.3 million years ago (Ma) from a centre of origin in the western Amazon region, followed by diversification of the group between about 1.5 and 1.2Ma. Phylogenetic analyses were able to recover most previously described species (including the recently described Colombian endemic Callicebus caquetensis). However, there are some notable inconsistences between the obtained phylogeny and current taxonomy. Some previously recognized taxa were not separated by our data (e.g., Callicebus caligatus and Callicebus dubius), while currently unrecognized species diversity was uncovered within C. cupreus in the form of two divergent lineages: one of which exhibited greater phylogenetic similarity to species from the C. moloch Group. Based on the present study, we challenge current taxonomic arrangements for the C. cupreus species Group and call for a thorough taxonomic revision within the genus Callicebus.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships within the Callicebus cupreus species group (Pitheciidae: Primates): Biogeographic and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Manuel; Bloor, Paul; Defler, Thomas; Vermeer, Jan; Röhe, Fabio; Farias, Izeni

    2016-09-01

    The genus Callicebus (Thomas, 1903) is one of the most diverse of Neotropical primate genera and the only extant member of the Callicebinae subfamily. It has a widespread distribution from Colombia to Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and northern Paraguay. Coat colouring and colour pattern vary substantially within the genus, and this has led to the description of numerous species and subspecies, as well as numerous species groups. However, a lack of molecular phylogenetic analyses on the genus means that phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of species are poorly understood. Here, we examined phylogenetic relationships and patterns of diversification within the Callicebus cupreus species Group (sensu Kobayashi, 1995) using complete mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequence. Analyses indicate that the Callicebus cupreus Group underwent recent and extensive diversification. The common ancestor appears to have emerged some 2.3 million years ago (Ma) from a centre of origin in the western Amazon region, followed by diversification of the group between about 1.5 and 1.2Ma. Phylogenetic analyses were able to recover most previously described species (including the recently described Colombian endemic Callicebus caquetensis). However, there are some notable inconsistences between the obtained phylogeny and current taxonomy. Some previously recognized taxa were not separated by our data (e.g., Callicebus caligatus and Callicebus dubius), while currently unrecognized species diversity was uncovered within C. cupreus in the form of two divergent lineages: one of which exhibited greater phylogenetic similarity to species from the C. moloch Group. Based on the present study, we challenge current taxonomic arrangements for the C. cupreus species Group and call for a thorough taxonomic revision within the genus Callicebus. PMID:27235549

  19. Phylogenetic relationships in Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae): evidence from morphology, chloroplast DNA, and nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Padgett, D J; Les, D H; Crow, G E

    1999-09-01

    The genus Nuphar consists of yellow-flowered waterlilies and is widely distributed in north-temperate bodies of water. Despite regular taxonomic evaluation of these plants, no explicit phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed for the genus. We investigated phylogenetic relationships in Nuphar using morphology and sequences of the chloroplast gene matK and of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Two major lineages within Nuphar are consistently resolved with the morphological and molecular data sets. One lineage comprises New World taxa and the other represents a primarily Old World lineage. Relationships within the major lineages were poorly resolved by morphology and ITS, yet certain relationships were elucidated by all analyses. Most notable is the strong support for a monophyletic lineage of dwarf taxa and the alliance of the North American N. microphylla with the Eurasian taxa. Minor discordance between the independent cladograms is accounted for by hybridization. The common taxonomic practice of uniting all North American and Eurasian taxa under one species is not supported phylogenetically.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships within mammalian order Carnivora indicated by sequences of two nuclear DNA genes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Li, Qing-wei; Ryder, O A; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2004-12-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 37 living species of order Carnivora spanning a relatively broad range of divergence times and taxonomic levels were examined using nuclear sequence data from exon 1 of the IRBP gene (approximately 1.3 kb) and first intron of the TTR gene (approximately 1 kb). These data were used to analyze carnivoran phylogeny at the family and generic level as well as the interspecific relationships within recently derived Felidae. Phylogenetic results using a combined IRBP+TTR dataset strongly supported within the superfamily Califormia, the red panda as the closest lineage to procyonid-mustelid (i.e., Musteloidea) clade followed by pinnipeds (Otariidae and Phocidae), Ursidae (including the giant panda), and Canidae. Four feliform families, namely the monophyletic Herpestidae, Hyaenidae, and Felidae, as well as the paraphyletic Viverridae were consistently recovered convincingly. The utilities of these two gene segments for the phylogenetic analyses were extensively explored and both were found to be fairly informative for higher-group associations within the order Carnivora, but not for those of low level divergence at the species level. Therefore, there is a need to find additional genetic markers with more rapid mutation rates that would be diagnostic at deciphering relatively recent relationships within the Carnivora.

  1. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Symbiotic Bacteria in the Aphid Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Vidal, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Aphids have developed symbiotic associations with different bacterial species, and some morphological and molecular analyses have provided evidence of the host relationship between the primary symbiotic bacteria (Buchnera aphidicola) and the aphid while the contrary with the secondary symbiotic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the bacterial endosymbionts in the aphid Sitobion avenae (F.). We characterized all bacterial endosymbionts in 10 genetically defined S. avenae clones by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and, from these clones, sequenced the 16S rRNA genes of both the primary endosymbiont, B. aphidicola (for the first time), and the secondary endosymbionts, Regiella insecticola and Hamiltonella defensa (for the first time). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Buchnera from Sitobion related to those in Macrosiphoni. The analysis of the secondary endosymbionts indicated that there is no host relationship between H. defensa and R. insecticola from Sitobion and those from other aphid species. In this study, therefore, we identified further evidence for the relationship between Buchnera and its host and reported a relationship within the secondary endosymbionts of S. avenae from the same country, even though there were no relationships between the secondary bacteria and their host. We also discussed the diversity within the symbiotic bacteria in S. avenae clones. PMID:26314016

  2. Blastocystis elongation factor-1alpha: genomic organization, taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Ho, L C; Armiugam, A; Jeyaseelan, K; Yap, E H; Singh, M

    2000-08-01

    The elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein that is involved in translation and is desirable for use in phylogenetic studies on Blastocystis, an enigmatic intestinal parasite with a contentious taxonomic position. In the present study, a PCR product (BEalpha) that codes for a major part of the coding region of the EF-lalpha protein was amplified. Genome walking experiments together with cloning were implemented to elucidate the 5' and 3' ends of the EF-1alpha gene of the human isolate, Blastocystis hominis C. The genomic organization and the potential transcription factor binding sites of the 5' end of B. hominis C EF-1alpha were identified. A comparative study on the deduced amino acid sequences of BEalpha of 13 Blastocystis isolates from various hosts was done to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship among the species. A phylogenetic reconstruction analysis with other eukaryotic EF-1alpha sequences was carried out to trace the phylogenetic position of Blastocystis among eukaryotic organisms. PMID:11085233

  3. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae) Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keun-Yong; Ko, Myeong-Hun; Liu, Huanzhang; Tang, Qiongying; Chen, Xianglin; Bang, In-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1), recombination activating gene 2 (rag2), and early growth response 1 gene (egr1), from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia. PMID:24106702

  4. Multiple Lines of Evidence from Mitochondrial Genomes Resolve Phylogenetic Relationships of Parasitic Wasps in Braconidae.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wei, Shu-Jun; Tang, Pu; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Min; Sharkey, Michael J; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of mitochondrial genomes in public databases provides opportunities for insect phylogenetic studies; but it also provides challenges because of gene rearrangements and variable substitution rates among both lineages and sites. Typically, phylogenetic studies use mitochondrial sequence data but exclude other features of the mitochondrial genome from analyses. Here, we undertook large-scale sequencing of mitochondrial genomes from a worldwide collection of specimens belonging to Braconidae, one of the largest families of Metazoa. The strand-asymmetry of base composition in the mitochondrial genomes of braconids is reversed, providing evidence for monophyly of the Braconidae. We have reconstructed a backbone phylogeny of the major lineages of Braconidae from gene order of the mitochondrial genomes. Standard phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences provided strong support for both Cyclostomes and Noncyclostomes. Four subfamily complexes, that is, helconoid, euphoroid, sigalphoid, and microgastroid, within the Noncyclostomes were reconstructed robustly, the first three of which formed a monophyletic group sister to the last one. Aphidiinae was recovered as a lineage sister to other groups of Cyclostomes, while the Ichneutinae was recovered as paraphyletic. Separate analyses of the subdivided groups showed congruent relationships, employing different matrices and methods, for the internal nodes of the Cyclostomes and the microgastroid complex of subfamilies. This research, using multiple lines of evidence from mitochondrial genomes, illustrates multiple uses of mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic inference in Braconidae. PMID:27503293

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance. PMID:26988415

  6. Phylogenetic relationships and systematic position of the families Cortrematidae and Phaneropsolidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea).

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Sitko, Jiljí; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2014-12-01

    The systematic position and phylogenetic relationships of the family Cortrematidae Yamaguti, 1958 have always been controversial. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships of this family and its constituent genera and families within the superfamily Microphalloidea were evaluated using previously published and newly obtained sequences of 28S rDNA of Cortrema magnicaudata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1950) (Cortrematidae), Phaneropsolus praomydis Baer, 1971 and Microtrema barusi Sitko, 2013 (Phaneropsolidae). Results clearly demonstrate that the genus Cortrema Tang, 1951 is closest to Gyrabascus Macy 1935, both genera forming one of the clades within the family Pleurogenidae in the superfamily Microphalloidea and sharing several important morphological features. Thus, the family Cortrematidae should be considered among synonyms of the Pleurogenidae. Based on the analysis of morphology, C. corti Tang, 1951, C. testilobata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1953) and C. niloticus Ashour, Ahmed et Lewis, 1994 are considered junior synonyms of C. magnicaudata. The phylogenetic position of P. praomydis as a family-level branch not showing close relationships with other families of the Microphalloidea, supports the status of the Phaneropsolidae as an independent family. The genus Parabascus Looss, 1907 previously considered within the Phaneropsolidae clearly belongs to the Pleurogenidae. In addition, the molecular phylogeny has demonstrated that the recently described phaneropsolid Microtrema barusi belongs to the microphallid genus Microphallus Ward, 1901. Therefore, Microtrema Sitko, 2013 is considered a junior synonym of Microphallus. Our analysis has also confirmed the status of Collyriclidae as a family within the Microphalloidea. Not yet sequenced representatives of other families within the Microphalloidea (e.g. Anenterotrematidae, Eumegacetidae, Renschtrematidae, Stomylotrematidae, etc.) need to be included in future molecular phylogenetic studies to better unravel

  7. Phylogenetic relationships among Staphylococcus species and refinement of cluster groups based on multilocus data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Estimates of relationships among Staphylococcus species have been hampered by poor and inconsistent resolution of phylogenies based largely on single gene analyses incorporating only a limited taxon sample. As such, the evolutionary relationships and hierarchical classification schemes among species have not been confidently established. Here, we address these points through analyses of DNA sequence data from multiple loci (16S rRNA gene, dnaJ, rpoB, and tuf gene fragments) using multiple Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic approaches that incorporate nearly all recognized Staphylococcus taxa. Results We estimated the phylogeny of fifty-seven Staphylococcus taxa using partitioned-model Bayesian and maximum likelihood analysis, as well as Bayesian gene-tree species-tree methods. Regardless of methodology, we found broad agreement among methods that the current cluster groups require revision, although there was some disagreement among methods in resolution of higher order relationships. Based on our phylogenetic estimates, we propose a refined classification for Staphylococcus with species being classified into 15 cluster groups (based on molecular data) that adhere to six species groups (based on phenotypic properties). Conclusions Our findings are in general agreement with gene tree-based reports of the staphylococcal phylogeny, although we identify multiple previously unreported relationships among species. Our results support the general importance of such multilocus assessments as a standard in microbial studies to more robustly infer relationships among recognized and newly discovered lineages. PMID:22950675

  8. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM (DINOPHYCEAE) TO OTHER ALEXANDRIUM SPECIES BASED ON 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phylogenetic relationship of Alexandrium monilatum to other Alexandrium spp. was explored using 18S rDNA sequences. Maximum likelilhood phylogenetic analysis of the combined rDNA sequences established that A. monilatum paired with Alexandrium taylori and that the pair was the...

  9. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM (DINOPHYCAE)TO OTHER ALEXANDRIUM SPECIES BASED ON 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phylogenetic relationship of Alexandrium monilatum to other Alexandrium spp. was explored using 18S rDNA sequences. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the combined rDNA sequences established that A. monilatum paired with Alexandrium taylori and that the pair was the ...

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic longtailed rattlesnakes (Crotalus ericsmithi, C. lannomi, and C. stejnegeri).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Meik, Jesse M; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    The longtailed rattlesnakes of western Mexico represent an enigmatic group of poorly known venomous snake species: Crotalus ericsmithi, C. lannomi, and C. stejnegeri. In the 120 years since their discovery, fewer than twenty individuals have been deposited in natural history collections worldwide. These three species share similar morphological traits, including a particularly long tail that has been interpreted as either an ancestral condition among rattlesnakes or as derived within the longtailed group. An understanding of the phylogenetic distinctiveness and relationships among the longtailed rattlesnakes, and their relationships to other rattlesnake groups, has previously been hampered by a dearth of comparative material and tissues for collection of DNA sequence data. Facilitated by the recent availability of tissue samples from multiple individuals of each species, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships among the longtailed rattlesnakes and their placement among other rattlesnake groups, using DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial and three nuclear gene fragments. We explore phylogenetic signal in our data using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, species tree analyses and hypothesis testing. Our results strongly support the monophyly of longtailed rattlesnakes and suggest the three species diverged from each other during the mid to late Pliocene or early Pleistocene (~1.5-5.6 mya). Contrary to prevailing hypotheses, we find no evidence for an early or basal divergence of the longtailed clade within the rattlesnake tree, and instead estimate that it diverged relatively recently (~6.8 mya) from its sister lineage, composed of the diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox group) and the prairie rattlesnakes (C. viridis group). With our added sampling of lineages and identification of previously used problematic sequences, we provide a revised hypothesis for relationships among Crotalus species, yet underscore the need for future studies and new data to

  11. Sequence capture using RAD probes clarifies phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries in Primula sect. Auricula.

    PubMed

    Boucher, F C; Casazza, G; Szövényi, P; Conti, E

    2016-11-01

    Species-rich evolutionary radiations are a common feature of mountain floras worldwide. However, the frequent lack of phylogenetic resolution in species-rich alpine plant groups hampers progress towards clarifying the causes of diversification in mountains. In this study, we use the largest plant group endemic to the European Alpine system, Primula sect. Auricula, as a model system. We employ a newly developed next-generation-sequencing protocol, involving sequence capture with RAD probes, and map reads to the reference genome of Primula veris to obtain DNA matrices with thousands of SNPs. We use these data-rich matrices to infer phylogenetic relationships in Primula sect. Auricula and examine species delimitations in two taxonomically difficult subgroups: the clades formed by the close relatives of P. auricula and P. pedemontana, respectively. Our molecular dataset enables us to resolve most phylogenetic relationships in the group with strong support, and in particular to infer four well-supported clades within sect. Auricula. Our results support existing species delimitations for P. auricula, P. lutea, and P. subpyrenaica, while they suggest that the group formed by P. pedemontana and close relatives might need taxonomic revision. Finally, we discuss preliminary implications of these findings on the biogeographic history of Primula sect. Auricula.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships between the Acantharea and the Polycystinea: a molecular perspective on Haeckel's Radiolaria.

    PubMed

    Zettler, L A; Sogin, M L; Caron, D A

    1997-10-14

    Polycystine radiolaria are among few protistan groups that possess a comprehensive fossil record available for study by micropaleontologists. The Polycystinea and the Acantharea, whose skeletons do not become fossilized, were once members of the class "Radiolaria" ("Radiolaria" sensu lato: Polycystinea, Phaeodarea, and Acantharea) originally proposed by Haeckel but are now included in the superclass Actinopoda. Phylogenetic relationships within this superclass remain largely enigmatic. We investigated the evolutionary relationship of the Acantharea and the Polycystinea to other protists using phylogenetic analyses of 16S-like ribosomal RNA (rRNA) coding regions. We circumvented the need to culture these organisms by collecting and maintaining reproductive stages that contain many copies of their genomic DNA. This strategy facilitated extraction of genomic DNA and its purification from symbiont and prey DNA. Phylogenetic trees inferred from comparisons of 16S-like coding regions do not support a shared history between the Acantharea and the Polycystinea. However, the monophyly of the Acantharea and the separate monophyly of the Polycystinea (Spumellarida) are well supported by our molecular-based trees. The acantharian lineage branches among crown organisms whereas the polycystine lineage diverges before the radiation of the crown groups. We conclude that the Actinopoda does not represent a monophyletic evolutionary assemblage and recommend that this taxonomic designation be discarded.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic revision of Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 sensu lato (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae).

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Hardman, Lotta M; Hoberg, Eric P; Henttonen, Heikki

    2014-10-17

    An extensive phylogenetic analysis and genus-level taxonomic revision of Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910-like cestodes (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae) are presented. The phylogenetic analysis is based on DNA sequences of two partial mitochondrial genes, i.e. cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and includes 51 cestode isolates. The revision concerns all 34 Paranoplocephala-like species considered valid, of which 21 species could be included in the molecular phylogenetic analysis. Based on the phylogenetic relationships and main morphological features, with emphasis on the structure of the scolex, suckers and neck, length of the vagina (relative to the cirrus sac) and distribution of testes, 12 new genera are proposed for cestodes traditionally assigned to Paranoplocephala s. l. This results in 23 new combinations. The new genera are: Gulyaevia n. g., Chionocestus n. g., Microticola n. g., Beringitaenia n. g., Arctocestus n. g., Rauschoides n. g., Eurotaenia n. g., Douthittia n. g., Lemminia n. g., Tenoraia n. g., Rodentocestus n. g. and Cookiella n. g. In addition, Paranoplocephala (s. s.) and Parandrya Gulyaev & Chechulin, 1996 are redescribed; the latter genus is considered valid, although it has been earlier synonymized with Paranoplocephala. A new species (Beringitaenia nanushukensis n. sp.) from Microtus miurus is described. Based on the DNA sequence data, several additional lineages probably representing independent species are identified, but not described as new taxa because of lack of good-quality specimens or absence of reliable morphological differences. The study also presents the first evidence for the phylogenetic position of the monotypic genus Gallegoides Tenora & Mas-Coma, 1978 based on DNA sequence data. A key for the Paranoplocephala-like genera is presented. The patterns of diversity and zoogeography of cestodes representing the "arvicoline clade" (72 species) are complex, involving mechanisms of

  14. Endosymbiosis in statu nascendi: close phylogenetic relationship between obligately endosymbiotic and obligately free-living Polynucleobacter strains (Betaproteobacteria).

    PubMed

    Vannini, Claudia; Pöckl, Matthias; Petroni, Giulio; Wu, Qinglong L; Lang, Elke; Stackebrandt, Erko; Schrallhammer, Martina; Richardson, Paul M; Hahn, Martin W

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial strains affiliated to the phylogenetically shallow subcluster C (PnecC) of the Polynucleobacter cluster, which is characterized by a minimal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approximately 98.5%, have been reported to occur as obligate endosymbionts of ciliates (Euplotes spp.), as well as to occur as free-living cells in the pelagic zone of freshwater habitats. We investigated if these two groups of closely related bacteria represent strains fundamentally differing in lifestyle, or if they simply represent different stages of a facultative endosymbiotic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S ITS sequences of five endosymbiont strains from two different Euplotes species and 40 pure culture strains demonstrated host-species-specific clustering of the endosymbiont sequences within the PnecC subcluster. The sequences of the endosymbionts showed characteristics indicating an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle. Cultivation experiments revealed fundamental differences in physiological adaptations, and determination of the genome sizes indicated a slight size reduction in endosymbiotic strains. We conclude that the two groups of PnecC bacteria represent obligately free-living and obligately endosymbiotic strains, respectively, and do not represent different stages of the same complex life cycle. These closely related strains occupy completely separated ecological niches. To our best knowledge, this is the closest phylogenetic relationship between obligate endosymbionts and obligately free-living bacteria ever revealed.

  15. Endosymbiosis In Statu Nascendi: Close Phylogenetic RelationshipBetween Obligately Endosymbiotic and Obligately Free-LivingPolynucleobacter Strains (Betaproteobacteria)

    SciTech Connect

    Vannini, Claudia; Pockl, Matthias; Petroni, Giulio; Wu, Qinglong; Lang, Elke; Stackebrandt, Erko; Schrallhammer, Martina; Richardson, PaulM.; Hahn, Martin W.

    2006-07-21

    Bacterial strains affiliated to the phylogenetically shallowsubcluster C (PnecC) of the 28 Polynucleobacter cluster, which ischaracterized by a minimal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approx.98.5 percent, have been reported to occur as obligate endosymbionts of 30ciliates (Euplotes spp.), as well as to occur as free-living cells in thepelagic zone of freshwater habitats. We investigated if these two groupsof closely related bacteria represent 32 strains fundamentally differingin lifestyle, or if they simply represent different stages of afacultative endosymbiotic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analysis of 16SrRNA gene and 16S34 23S ITS sequences of five endosymbiont strains fromtwo different Euplotes species and 40 pure culture strains demonstratedhost-species-specific clustering of the endosymbiont 36 sequences withinthe PnecC subcluster. The sequences of the endosymbionts showedcharacteristics indicating an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle.Cultivation experiments 38 revealed fundamental differences inphysiological adaptations, and determination of the genome sizesindicated a slight size reduction in endosymbiotic strains. We concludethat the 40 two groups of PnecC bacteria represent obligately free-livingand obligately endosymbiotic strains, respectively, and do not representdifferent stages of the same complex lifecycle. 42 These closely relatedstrains occupy completely separated ecological niches. To our bestknowledge, this is the closest phylogenetic relationship between obligateendosymbionts and 44 obligately free-living bacteria everrevealed.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Liuyang black goat and its phylogenetic relationship with other Caprinae.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Ma, H M; Chen, G S; Wang, L Y

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Liuyang black goat was investigated, and phylogenetic relationships between the Liuyang black goat and other species of Caprinae were analyzed. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,715 bp, which consisted of 33.50% A, 27.27% T, 25.98% C, and 13.25% G. The mitochondrial genome contained a major non-coding control region (D-loop region), two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. Neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony trees of Caprinae constructed using 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed that the Liuyang black goat is phylogenetically closest to Hemitragus jemlahicus (the Himalayan tahr) and Blue sheep to form clade A. Tibetan antelopes clustered separately in clade B and so did sheep in clade C. PMID:27421009

  17. Phylogenetic Relationships among Asian species of Petaurista (Rodentia, Sciuridae), Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences.

    PubMed

    Oshida, T; Lin, L K; Masuda, R; Yoshida, M C

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among four species belonging to the genus Petaurista (P. alborufus castaneus, P. alborufus lena, P. leucogenys leucogenys, P. leucogenys nikkonis, P. petaurista melanotus, and P. philippensis grandis), we investigated the partial sequences (1,068 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for these giant flying squirrels. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP, and ML trees) constructed from cytochrome b sequences indicated that P. leucogenys was grouped independently with other species, and that P. philippensis was most closely related to P. petaurista with 99-100% bootstrap values. In addition, two subspecies of P. alborufus did not form a single clade: P. alborufus castaneus from China was most distantly related to the other species, whereas P. alborufus lena from Taiwan was closely related to P. petaurista and P. philippensis with 82-90% bootstrap values. This result suggests that it is reasonable to regard P. alborufus lena as a distinct species from P. alborufus castaneus. PMID:18494567

  18. Whole genome analysis of diverse Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical typing

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Simon R.; Clarke, Ian N.; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Solomon, Anthony W.; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Marsh, Peter; Skilton, Rachel J.; Holland, Martin J.; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Lewis, David A.; Spratt, Brian G.; Unemo, Magnus; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Brunham, Robert; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Speksnijder, Arjen; Bébéar, Cécile M.; Clerc, Maïté; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections causing substantial morbidity and economic cost globally. Despite this, our knowledge of its population and evolutionary genetics is limited. Here we present a detailed whole genome phylogeny from representative strains of both trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) biovars from temporally and geographically diverse sources. Our analysis demonstrates that predicting phylogenetic structure using the ompA gene, traditionally used to classify Chlamydia, is misleading because extensive recombination in this region masks true relationships. We show that in many instances ompA is a chimera that can be exchanged in part or whole, both within and between biovars. We also provide evidence for exchange of, and recombination within, the cryptic plasmid, another important diagnostic target. We have used our phylogenetic framework to show how genetic exchange has manifested itself in ocular, urogenital and LGV C. trachomatis strains, including the epidemic LGV serotype L2b. PMID:22406642

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  20. Phylometrics: a pipeline for inferring phylogenetic trees from a sequence relationship network perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene is frequently used to characterize the microbial diversity of environmental samples. However, sequence similarities do not always imply functional or evolutionary relatedness due to many factors, including unequal rates of change and convergence. Thus, relying on top BLASTN hits for phylogenetic studies may misrepresent the diversity of these constituents. Furthermore, attempts to circumvent this issue by including a large number of BLASTN hits per sequence in one tree to explore their relatedness presents other problems. For instance, the multiple sequence alignment will be poor and computationally costly if not relying on manual alignment, and it may be difficult to derive meaningful relationships from the resulting tree. Analyzing sequence relationship networks within collective BLASTN results, however, reveal sequences that are closely related despite low rank. Results We have developed a web application, Phylometrics, that relies on networks of collective BLASTN results (rather than single BLASTN hits) to facilitate the process of building phylogenetic trees in an automated, high-throughput fashion while offering novel tools to find sequences that are of significant phylogenetic interest with minimal human involvement. The application, which can be installed locally in a laboratory or hosted remotely, utilizes a simple wizard-style format to guide the user through the pipeline without necessitating a background in programming. Furthermore, Phylometrics implements an independent job queuing system that enables users to continue to use the system while jobs are run with little or no degradation in performance. Conclusions Phylometrics provides a novel data mining method to screen supplied DNA sequences and to identify sequences that are of significant phylogenetic interest using powerful analytical tools. Sequences that are identified as being similar to a number of supplied sequences may provide key

  1. Multigene analysis of phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of primate sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura).

    PubMed

    Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2009-02-01

    Cospeciation between hosts and parasites offers a unique opportunity to use information from parasites to infer events in host evolutionary history. Although lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are known to cospeciate with their hosts and have frequently served as important markers to infer host evolutionary history, most molecular studies are based on only one or two markers. Resulting phylogenies may, therefore, represent gene histories (rather than species histories), and analyses of multiple molecular markers are needed to increase confidence in the results of phylogenetic analyses. Herein, we phylogenetically examine nine molecular markers in primate sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) and we use these markers to estimate divergence times among louse lineages. Individual and combined analyses of these nine markers are, for the most part, congruent, supporting relationships hypothesized in previous studies. Only one marker, the nuclear protein-coding gene Histone 3, has a significantly different tree topology compared to the other markers. The disparate evolutionary history of this marker, however, has no significant effect on topology or nodal support in the combined phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, phylogenetic results from the combined data set likely represent a solid hypothesis of species relationships. Additionally, we find that simultaneous use of multiple markers and calibration points provides the most reliable estimates of louse divergence times, in agreement with previous studies estimating divergences among species. Estimates of phylogenies and divergence times also allow us to verify the results of [Reed, D.L., Light, J.E., Allen, J.M., Kirchman, J.J., 2007. Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: the evolutionary history of anthropoid primate lice. BMC Biol. 5, 7.]; there was probable contact between gorilla and archaic hominids roughly 3 Ma resulting in a host switch of Pthirus lice from gorillas to archaic hominids. Thus, these results provide

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among the baleen whales based on maternally and paternally inherited characters.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Leila T; Dopman, Erik B; Harrison, Richard G

    2006-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in the Cetacean suborder Mysticeti (baleen whales) have recently been the focus of increased attention. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of this group by comparing genealogies derived from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We generated topologies based on paternally and maternally inherited characters for males from nine baleen whale species, including representatives of three families (Balaenidae, Eschrichtiidae, and Balaenopteridae) and four genera (Balaena, Eschrichtius, Balaenoptera, and Megaptera). Divergence among species was fifteen times greater for mtDNA than for Y-specific DNA. Both mtDNA and yDNA topologies revealed the family Balaenopteridae to be paraphyletic, but this relationship was neither strongly supported nor consistent across phylogenetic analysis methodologies. Humpback and fin whales, representing different genera, were reciprocally monophyletic sister species according to mtDNA. Although the monophyly of fin whales decayed for yDNA, a close relationship between fin and humpback whales was retained in yDNA trees. The paraphyly of fin whales and the long branch leading to humpback whales for the yDNA marker may suggest life history differences between these species. Specifically, male humpback whales showed higher than average divergence from other baleen whales at yDNA, although not at mtDNA, suggesting a potential for smaller effective population sizes among male humpbacks on an evolutionary timescale. The observation that those species that have been found to hybridize in nature (blue/fin and blue/humpback) do not reveal evidence for paraphyly for either maternal or paternal markers suggests that introgressive hybridization has not historically been extensive and thus may not represent a substantial source of phylogenetic error for Mysticeti.

  3. Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Malcolm S.; Hill, April L.; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C.; Thacker, Robert W.; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cárdenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C.; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E.; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rützler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A.; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E.; Collins, Allen G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap, Haploscleromorphap (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlaviap. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosap and Myxospongiaep to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorphap+Spongillidap+Democlaviap. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillidap) are sister to Haploscleromorphap rather than part of Democlaviap. Within Keratosap, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiaep, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlaviap, Tetractinellidap, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlaviap. Within Tetractinellidap, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. Conclusions/Significance These results, using an

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among insect orders based on three nuclear protein-coding gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Keisuke; Sasaki, Go; Ogawa, Jiro; Miyata, Takashi; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Many attempts to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of higher groups of insects have been made based on both morphological and molecular evidence; nonetheless, most of the interordinal relationships of insects remain unclear or are controversial. As a new approach, in this study we sequenced three nuclear genes encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta and the two largest subunits of RNA polymerase II from all insect orders. The predicted amino acid sequences (In total, approx. 3500 amino acid sites) of these proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analyses based on the maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis methods with various models. The resulting trees strongly support the monophyly of Palaeoptera, Neoptera, Polyneoptera, and Holometabola, while within Polyneoptera, the groupings of Isoptera/"Blattaria"/Mantodea (Superorder Dictyoptera), Dictyoptera/Zoraptera, Dermaptera/Plecoptera, Mantophasmatodea/Grylloblattodea, and Embioptera/Phasmatodea are supported. Although Paraneoptera is not supported as a monophyletic group, the grouping of Phthiraptera/Psocoptera is robustly supported. The interordinal relationships within Holometabola are well resolved and strongly supported that the order Hymenoptera is the sister lineage to all other holometabolous insects. The other orders of Holometabola are separated into two large groups, and the interordinal relationships of each group are (((Siphonaptera, Mecoptera), Diptera), (Trichoptera, Lepidoptera)) and ((Coleoptera, Strepsiptera), (Neuroptera, Raphidioptera, Megaloptera)). The sister relationship between Strepsiptera and Diptera are significantly rejected by all the statistical tests (AU, KH and wSH), while the affinity between Hymenoptera and Mecopterida are significantly rejected only by AU and KH tests. Our results show that the use of amino acid sequences of these three nuclear genes is an effective approach for resolving the relationships of higher groups of insects. PMID:21075208

  5. Phylogenetic Relationships of Five Asian Schilbid Genera Including Clupisoma (Siluriformes: Schilbeidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Lu, Bin; Zan, Ruiguang; Chai, Jing; Ma, Wei; Jin, Wei; Duan, Rongyao; Luo, Jing; Murphy, Robert W; Xiao, Heng; Chen, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Asian schilbid catfishes of the genera Clupisoma, Ailia, Horabagrus, Laides and Pseudeutropius are poorly understood, especially those of Clupisoma. Herein, we reconstruct the phylogeny of 38 species of catfishes belonging to 28 genera and 14 families using the concatenated mitochondrial genes COI, cytb, and 16S rRNA, as well as the nuclear genes RAG1 and RAG2. The resulting phylogenetic trees consistently place Clupisoma as the sister taxon of Laides, and the five representative Asian schilbid genera form two monophyletic groups with the relationships (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). The so-called "Big Asia" lineage relates distantly to African schilbids. Independent analyses of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data yield differing trees for the two Asian schilbid groups. Analyses of the mitochondrial gene data support a sister-group relationship for (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and the Sisoroidea and a sister-taxon association of (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius) and the Bagridae. In contrast, analyses of the combined nuclear data indicate (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) to be the sister group to (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). Our results indicate that the Horabagridae, recognized by some authors as consisting of Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius and Clupisoma does not include the latter genus. We formally erect a new family, Ailiidae fam. nov. for a monophyletic Asian group comprised of the genera Ailia, Laides and Clupisoma. PMID:26751688

  6. Phylogenetic Relationships of Five Asian Schilbid Genera Including Clupisoma (Siluriformes: Schilbeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Ruiguang; Chai, Jing; Ma, Wei; Jin, Wei; Duan, Rongyao; Luo, Jing; Murphy, Robert W.; Xiao, Heng; Chen, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Asian schilbid catfishes of the genera Clupisoma, Ailia, Horabagrus, Laides and Pseudeutropius are poorly understood, especially those of Clupisoma. Herein, we reconstruct the phylogeny of 38 species of catfishes belonging to 28 genera and 14 families using the concatenated mitochondrial genes COI, cytb, and 16S rRNA, as well as the nuclear genes RAG1 and RAG2. The resulting phylogenetic trees consistently place Clupisoma as the sister taxon of Laides, and the five representative Asian schilbid genera form two monophyletic groups with the relationships (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). The so-called “Big Asia” lineage relates distantly to African schilbids. Independent analyses of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data yield differing trees for the two Asian schilbid groups. Analyses of the mitochondrial gene data support a sister-group relationship for (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and the Sisoroidea and a sister-taxon association of (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius) and the Bagridae. In contrast, analyses of the combined nuclear data indicate (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) to be the sister group to (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). Our results indicate that the Horabagridae, recognized by some authors as consisting of Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius and Clupisoma does not include the latter genus. We formally erect a new family, Ailiidae fam. nov. for a monophyletic Asian group comprised of the genera Ailia, Laides and Clupisoma. PMID:26751688

  7. Assessing the passerine "Tapestry": phylogenetic relationships of the Muscicapoidea inferred from nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Cibois, Alice; Cracraft, Joel

    2004-07-01

    This study presents new comparative sequence data from the nuclear RAG-1 gene for an increased taxon sample in order to investigate phylogenetic relationships among a diverse songbird superfamily, the Muscicapoidea, which has variously included the waxwings, silky flycatchers, Palm Chat, dippers, starlings, mockingbirds, thrushes, chats, and Old World flycatchers. At the same time, our results provide a test of the often-cited relationships inferred from the phenetic studies of Sibley and Ahlquist [Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1990] using DNA hybridization distances. Nuclear DNA sequences confirm the monophyly of the "core muscicapoid" group, as defined by Barker et al. [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269 (2002) 295] and also support the sister-group relationship of the Sturnidae and Mimidae, on the one hand, and the large-bodied thrushes (Turdini)+the Old World flycatchers and robins, on the other. The results of the phylogenetic analysis allow preliminary inferences about muscicapoid biogeographic history.

  8. Phylogenetic and cophylogenetic relationships of entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis: Rhabditida) and their symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus: Enterobacteriaceae).

    PubMed

    Maneesakorn, Patchareewan; An, Ruisheng; Daneshvar, Hannah; Taylor, Kara; Bai, Xiaodong; Adams, Byron J; Grewal, Parwinder S; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

    2011-05-01

    Mutualistic association between entomopathogenic Photorhabdus bacteria and Heterorhabditis nematodes represents one of the emerging model systems in symbiosis studies, yet little is known about this partnership from a coevolutionary perspective. Herein, we investigated phylogenetic and cophylogenetic relationships of Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus strains using molecular markers Internal Transcribed Spacer and gyrase B gene sequences, respectively. The phylogenies presented consistent, well supported, monophyletic groups in the parsimonious and likelihood analyses for both the nematode and bacterial strains and supported the placement of currently recognized taxa, from which a potentially new Heterorhabditis species represented by a Thailand strain MP68 was identified. While the nematode strains with distant geographic distributions showed no detectable phylogenetic divergence within H. bacteriophora or H. georgiana monophyletic groups, their respective symbiotic bacteria speciated into two Photorhabdus species: P. luminescens and P. temperata, indicating the occurrence of duplication. Although such evolutionary process reduces the phylogenetic congruence between Heterorhabditis nematodes and Photorhabdus bacteria, global cophylogenetic tests using ParaFit detected a highly significant correlation between the two phylogenies (ParaFitGlobal = 0.001). Further, the associations between H. zealandica, H. indica and H. megidis strains and their symbiotic bacteria exhibited significant contribution to the overall cophylogenetic structure. Overall, this study reveals evidence of coevolution between Photorhabdus bacteria and Heterorhabditis nematodes and provides a framework for further examination of the evolution of these associations. PMID:21335093

  9. Molecular and Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships of Stingrays Focusing on the Family Dasyatidae (Myliobatiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kean Chong; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chong, Ving Ching; Loh, Kar-Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the current but problematic Dasyatidae (Order Myliobatiformes) was the first priority of the current study. Here, we studied three molecular gene markers of 43 species (COI gene), 33 species (ND2 gene) and 34 species (RAG1 gene) of stingrays to draft out the phylogenetic tree of the order. Nine character states were identified and used to confirm the molecularly constructed phylogenetic trees. Eight or more clades (at different hierarchical level) were identified for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes in the Myliobatiformes including four clades containing members of the present Dasyatidae, thus rendering the latter non-monophyletic. The uncorrected p-distance between these four ‘Dasytidae’ clades when compared to the distance between formally known families confirmed that these four clades should be elevated to four separate families. We suggest a revision of the present classification, retaining the Dasyatidae (Dasyatis and Taeniurops species) but adding three new families namely, Neotrygonidae (Neotrygon and Taeniura species), Himanturidae (Himantura species) and Pastinachidae (Pastinachus species). Our result indicated the need to further review the classification of Dasyatis microps. By resolving the non-monophyletic problem, the suite of nine character states enables the natural classification of the Myliobatiformes into at least thirteen families based on morphology. PMID:25867639

  10. [Telomere length and phylogenetic relationship of Baikal and Siberian planarians (Turbellaria, Tricladida)].

    PubMed

    Koroleva, A G; Evtushenko, E V; Timoshkin, O A; Vershinin, A V; Kiril'chik, S V

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the telomeric DNA (tDNA) and the phylogeny of the Baikal and Siberian planarians have been studied based on the analysis of the 18S rDNA and beta-actin gene fragments. A relationship between tDNA and the planarians size has been demonstrated. Giant planarians with a minor exception have longer tDNA than little planarians. Phylogenetic affinity between the species that have the stretched tracks of tDNA, big size and similar habitats may indicate possible role of tDNA in the development of the indefinite regenerative capacity of planarians.

  11. Dentition of eight species of Mediterranean Sea Gobiidae: do dentition characters of gobies reflect phylogenetic relationships?

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Kovačić, M; Patzner, R A

    2012-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal dentition was analysed in eight Mediterranean species of five different genera using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Number, position, shape and size of teeth in the jaws and the pharyngeal tooth plates were used as a basis for comparison among taxa. Three different groups could be established based on the dental morphology among the species investigated and homoplasy due to feeding ecology cannot be considered the reason for similarity among them. The established groups are suggested to reflect phylogenetic relationships and correspond with the scarce published data on the topic.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among the Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) inferred from partial sequences of the wingless gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brower, A V

    2000-01-01

    A cladistic analysis was performed on a 378 bp region of the wingless gene from 103 nymphalid species and three pierid outgroups in order to infer higher level patterns of relationship among nymphalid subfamilies and tribes. Although the data are highly homoplastic, in many instances the most parsimonious cladograms corroborate traditionally recognized groups. The results suggest that this short gene region provides a useful source of data for phylogenetic inference, provided that adequate effort is made to sample a diversity of taxa. PMID:10902686

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among higher Nemertean (Nemertea) Taxa inferred from 18S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, P; Turbeville, J M; Lindh, S

    2001-09-01

    We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of 15 nemertean (phylum Nemertea) species from the four subclasses Hoplo-, Hetero-, Palaeo-, and Bdellonemertea with 18S rDNA sequence data. Three outgroup taxa were used for rooting: Annelida, Platyhelminthes, and Mollusca. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses supported the monophyletic status of the Heteronemertea and a taxon consisting of hoplonemerteans and Bdellonemertea, while indicating that Palaeonemertea is paraphyletic. The monophyletic status of the two nemertean classes Anopla and Enopla is not supported by the data. The unambiguous clades are well supported, as assessed by a randomization test (bootstrapping) and branch support values.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of BMP4 in triggerfishes and filefishes (Balistoidea).

    PubMed

    McCord, Charlene L; Westneat, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    The triggerfishes (family Balistidae) and filefishes (family Monacanthidae) comprise a charismatic superfamily (Balistoidea) within the diverse order Tetraodontiformes. This group of largely marine fishes occupies an impressive ecological range across the world's oceans, and is well known for its locomotor and feeding diversity, unusual body shapes, small genome size, and ecological and economic importance. In order to investigate the evolutionary history of these important fish families, we used multiple phylogenetic methods to analyze molecular data from 86 species spanning the extant biodiversity of Balistidae and Monacanthidae. In addition to three gene regions that have been used extensively in phylogenetic analyses, we include sequence data for two mitochondrial regions, two nuclear markers, and the growth factor gene bmp4, which is involved with cranial development. Phylogenetic analyses strongly support the monophyly of the superfamily Balistoidea, the sister-family relationship of Balistidae and Monacanthidae, as well as three triggerfish and four filefish clades that are well resolved. A new classification for the Balistidae is proposed based on phylogenetic groups. Bayesian topology, as well as the timing of major cladogenesis events, is largely congruent with previous hypotheses of balistid phylogeny. However, we present a novel topology for major clades in the filefish family that illustrate the genera Aluterus and Stephanolepis are more closely related than previously posited. Molecular rates suggest a Miocene and Oligocene origin for the families Balistidae and Monacanthidae, respectively, and significant divergence of species in both families within the past 5 million years. A second key finding of this study is that, relative to the other protein-coding gene regions in our DNA supermatrix, bmp4 shows a rapid accumulation of both synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, especially within the family Monacanthidae. Overall substitution patterns in

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Genomes Organization and Phylogenetic Relationships Analysis of Eight Anemonefishes (Pomacentridae: Amphiprioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianlong; Chen, Xiao; Kang, Bin; Liu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Anemonefishes (Pomacentridae Amphiprioninae) are a group of 30 valid coral reef fish species with their phylogenetic relationships still under debate. The eight available mitogenomes of anemonefishes were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogenetic tree; six were obtained from this study (Amphiprion clarkii, A. frenatus, A. percula, A. perideraion, A. polymnus and Premnas biaculeatus) and two from GenBank (A. bicinctus and A. ocellaris). The seven Amphiprion species represent all four subgenera and P. biaculeatus is the only species from Premnas. The eight mitogenomes of anemonefishes encoded 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and two main non-coding regions, with the gene arrangement and translation direction basically identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. Among the 13 protein-coding genes, A. ocellaris (AP006017) and A. percula (KJ174497) had the same length in ND5 with 1,866 bp, which were three nucleotides less than the other six anemonefishes. Both structures of ND5, however, could translate to amino acid successfully. Only four mitogenomes had the tandem repeats in D-loop; the tandem repeats were located in downstream after Conserved Sequence Block rather than the upstream and repeated in a simply way. The phylogenetic utility was tested with Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods using all 13 protein-coding genes. The results strongly supported that the subfamily Amphiprioninae was monophyletic and P. biaculeatus should be assigned to the genus Amphiprion. Premnas biaculeatus with the percula complex were revealed to be the ancient anemonefish species. The tree forms of ND1, COIII, ND4, Cytb, Cytb+12S rRNA, Cytb+COI and Cytb+COI+12S rRNA were similar to that 13 protein-coding genes, therefore, we suggested that the suitable single mitochondrial gene for phylogenetic analysis of anemonefishes maybe Cytb. Additional mitogenomes of anemonefishes with a combination of nuclear markers will be useful to substantiate these

  16. Phylogenetic relationships between some members of the genera Deleya, Halomonas, and Halovibrio.

    PubMed

    Dobson, S J; McMeekin, T A; Franzmann, P D

    1993-10-01

    The genera Halomonas and Deleya, which constitute the family Halomonadaceae, are difficult to differentiate on the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic attributes. DNA-rRNA hybridization studies have indicated that some Halomonas spp. have the same level of relationship to the type species of the genus Deleya as some Deleya spp. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of seven members of the Halomonadaceae indicated that the members of the genera Halomonas and Deleya do not form separate monophyletic subgroups, confirming the lack of any phylogenetic support for retention of these taxa as separate genera. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence of Halovibrio variabilis confirmed that this species belongs in the Halomonadaceae. All of the members of the Halomonadaceae examined and Halovibrio variabilis possess a cytosine residue at position 486 (Escherichia coli numbering), which is an extremely rare attribute among the prokaryotes and has been reported in only one other species, Listonella anguillarum. Several other signature characteristics which define this group in the gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria are identified. The Jukes-Cantor distances between members of the family Halomonadaceae, including Halovibrio variabilis, range from 0.086 to 0.000 (the levels of similarity between the 16S rRNA sequences range from 92.6 to 100%). The members of the genera Halomonas, Deleya, and Halovibrio form a monophyletic group and share common chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Subgroups containing members of the genera Halomonas, Deleya, and Halovibrio cannot be resolved on the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, or phenotypic data. Our data indicate that the members of the genera Halomonas, Deleya, and Halovibrio should be united in a single genus.

  17. [Sequence of the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA(nrDNA) in Xinjiang wild Dianthus and its phylogenetic relationship].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Cai, You-Ming; Zhuge, Qiang; Zou, Hui-Yu; Huang, Min-Ren

    2002-06-01

    Xinjiang is a center of distribution and differentiation of genus Dianthus in China, and has a great deal of species resources. The sequences of ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 8 species of genus Dianthus wildly distributed in Xinjiang were determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The result showed that the size of the ITS of Dianthus is from 617 to 621 bp, and the length variation is only 4 bp. There are very high homogeneous (97.6%-99.8%) sequences between species, and about 80% homogeneous sequences between genus Dianthus and outgroup. The sequences of ITS in genus Dianthus are relatively conservative. In general, there are more conversion than transition in the variation sites among genus Dianthus. The conversion rates are relatively high, and the ratios of conversion/transition are 1.0-3.0. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences the species of Dianthus in China would be divided into three sections. There is a distant relationship between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Dianthus and between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Fimbriatum Williams, and there is a close relationship between sect. Dianthus and sect. Fimbriatum Williams. From the phylogenetic tree of ITS it was found that the origin of sect. Dianthusis is earlier than that of sect. Fimbriatum Williams and sect. Barbulatum Williams.

  18. Phylogenetic and ecological determinants of the neotropical dawn chorus

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Karl S; Brumfield, Robb T; Apanius, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of avian song at first light (i.e. the dawn chorus) is widely appreciated, but has an enigmatic functional significance. One widely accepted explanation is that birds are active at dawn, but light levels are not yet adequate for foraging. In forest communities, the onset to singing should thus be predictable from the species' foraging strata, which is ultimately related to ambient light level. To test this, we collected data from a tropical forest of Ecuador involving 57 species from 27 families of birds. Time of first song was a repeatable, species-specific trait, and the majority of resident birds, including non-passerines, sang in the dawn chorus. For passerine birds, foraging height was the best predictor of time of first song, with canopy birds singing earlier than birds foraging closer to the forest floor. A weak and opposite result was observed for non-passerines. For passerine birds, eye size also predicted time of first song, with larger eyed birds singing earlier, after controlling for body mass, taxonomic group and foraging height. This is the first comparative study of the dawn chorus in the Neotropics, and it provides the first evidence for foraging strata as the primary determinant of scheduling participation in the dawn chorus of birds. PMID:16627286

  19. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Robert K; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Alverson, Andrew J; Daniell, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Background The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. Results The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. However, maximum

  20. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian W; Li, Gang; Murphy, William J

    2010-07-01

    The pantherine lineage of cats diverged from the remainder of modern Felidae less than 11 million years ago and consists of the five big cats of the genus Panthera, the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the closely related clouded leopard. A significant problem exists with respect to the precise phylogeny of these highly threatened great cats. Despite multiple publications on the subject, no two molecular studies have reconstructed Panthera with the same topology. These evolutionary relationships remain unresolved partially due to the recent and rapid radiation of pantherines in the Pliocene, individual speciation events occurring within less than 1 million years, and probable introgression between lineages following their divergence. We provide an alternative, highly supported interpretation of the evolutionary history of the pantherine lineage using novel and published DNA sequence data from the autosomes, both sex chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. New sequences were generated for 39 single-copy regions of the felid Y chromosome, as well as four mitochondrial and four autosomal gene segments, totaling 28.7 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of these new data, combined with all published data in GenBank, highlighted the prevalence of phylogenetic disparities stemming either from the amplification of a mitochondrial to nuclear translocation event (numt), or errors in species identification. Our 47.6 kb combined dataset was analyzed as a supermatrix and with respect to individual partitions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, in conjunction with Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees (BEST) which accounts for heterogeneous gene histories. Our results yield a robust consensus topology supporting the monophyly of lion and leopard, with jaguar sister to these species, as well as a sister species relationship of tiger and snow leopard. These results highlight new avenues for the study of speciation genomics and

  1. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species. PMID:27156498

  2. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian W; Li, Gang; Murphy, William J

    2010-07-01

    The pantherine lineage of cats diverged from the remainder of modern Felidae less than 11 million years ago and consists of the five big cats of the genus Panthera, the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the closely related clouded leopard. A significant problem exists with respect to the precise phylogeny of these highly threatened great cats. Despite multiple publications on the subject, no two molecular studies have reconstructed Panthera with the same topology. These evolutionary relationships remain unresolved partially due to the recent and rapid radiation of pantherines in the Pliocene, individual speciation events occurring within less than 1 million years, and probable introgression between lineages following their divergence. We provide an alternative, highly supported interpretation of the evolutionary history of the pantherine lineage using novel and published DNA sequence data from the autosomes, both sex chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. New sequences were generated for 39 single-copy regions of the felid Y chromosome, as well as four mitochondrial and four autosomal gene segments, totaling 28.7 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of these new data, combined with all published data in GenBank, highlighted the prevalence of phylogenetic disparities stemming either from the amplification of a mitochondrial to nuclear translocation event (numt), or errors in species identification. Our 47.6 kb combined dataset was analyzed as a supermatrix and with respect to individual partitions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, in conjunction with Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees (BEST) which accounts for heterogeneous gene histories. Our results yield a robust consensus topology supporting the monophyly of lion and leopard, with jaguar sister to these species, as well as a sister species relationship of tiger and snow leopard. These results highlight new avenues for the study of speciation genomics and

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of red deer subspecies in XinJiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bin; Li, Ren-Yan; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Yan, Gen-Qiang; Xi, Ji-Feng; Blair, Hugh T; Li, Da-Quan; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhao, Xi-Tang

    2011-08-01

    Polymorphisms for seven microsatellite loci in three red deer subspecies (9 populations) found in XinJiang were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 12% nondenaturation polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Sanguinetti silver staining method. Numbers of alleles, average effective numbers of alleles (E) and the average rate of homozygosity, allelic frequencies of seven microsatellite loci, polymorphism information content (PIC), mean heterozygosity (H) and genetic distances among the populations were calculated for each population. Dendrograms were constructed based on genetic distances by the neighbor-joining method (NJ), utilizing molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software PHYLIP (3.6). The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies using maximum likelihood (ML); the bootstrap value was estimated by bootstrap test in the tree. Lastly, phylogenesis was analyzed. The results showed that four of the seven microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic, but BMS2508 and Celjp0023 showed no polymorphism and BM5004 was a neutral polymorphism. It is our conclusion that the four microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the three red deer subspecies. The mean PIC, H and E-values across the microsatellite loci were 0.5393, 0.5736 and 2.64, which showed that these microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the genetic analysis of red deer. C.e. songaricus populations from Regiment 104, 151 and Hami are clustered together. C.e. yarkandensis populations from Regiment 35, Xaya and Alaer are clustered together. These two clusters also cluster together. Lastly, C.e. sibiricus populations from Burqin, Regiment 188 and the first two clusters were clustered together. The phylogenetic relationship among different red deer populations is consistent with the known origin, history of breeding and geographic distributions of populations. PMID:21794008

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls.

    PubMed

    Bao, WenBin; Chen, GuoHong; Li, BiChun; Wu, XinSheng; Shu, JingTing; Wu, ShengLong; Xu, Qi; Weigend, Steffen

    2008-06-01

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 568 individuals of two red jungle fowl subspecies (Gallus gallus spadiceus in China and Gallus gallus gallus in Thailand) and 14 Chinese domestic chicken breeds were evaluated with 29 microstaellite loci, the genetic variability within population and genetic differentiation among population were estimated, and then genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls. A total of 286 alleles were detected in 16 population with 29 microsatellite markers and the average number of the alleles observed in 29 microsatellite loci was 9.86+/-6.36. The overall expected heterozygosity of all population was 0.6708+/-0.0251, and the number of population deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium per locus ranged from 0 to 7. In the whole population, the average of genetic differentiation among population, measured as FST value, was 16.7% (P<0.001), and all loci contributed significantly (P<0.001) to this differentiation. It can also be seen that the deficit of heterozygotes was very high (0.015) (P<0.01). Reynolds' distance values varied between 0.036 (Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair) and 0.330 (G. gallus gallus-Gushi chicken pair). The Nm value ranged from 0.533 (between G. gallus gallus and Gushi chicken) to 5.833 (between Xiaoshan chicken and Luyuan chicken). An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method and the Reynolds' genetic distance. The heavy-body sized chicken breeds, Luyuan chicken, Xiaoshan chicken, Beijing Fatty chicken, Henan Game chicken, Huainan Partridge and Langshan chicken formed one branch, and it had a close genetic relationship between Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair and Chahua chicken-Tibetan chicken pair. Chahua chicken and Tibetan chicken had closer genetic relationship with these two subspecies of red jungle fowl than other domestic chicken breeds. G. gallus spadiceus showed closer phylogenetic

  5. Esterase patterns and phylogenetic relationships of Drosophila species in the saltans subgroup (saltans group).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A P; de Campos, Bicudo H E M

    2002-01-01

    The esterase patterns of sixteen strains from four species in the saltans subgroup were analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Thirty-four esterase bands were detected. By using alpha and beta naphthyl acetates as substrates, they were classified in 18 alpha-esterases (they hydrolyse the alpha-naphtyl substrate), 15 beta-esterases (they hydrolyse the beta-naphtyl substrate) and 1 alpha/beta-esterase (it hydrolyses the alpha and beta-naphtyl substrates). Among the alpha-esterases, three were detected exclusively in males. Malathion, Eserine and pCMB were used as inhibitors in order to characterize biochemically the esterases. The results indicated the presence of cholinesterases, carboxylesterases and acetylesterases. The degree of mobility of the bands in the gels, their specificity to alpha and beta naphthyl acetates and the results of the inhibition tests allowed us to recognize tentatively nine genetic loci. Phylogenetic relationships among species inferred on the basis of the esterase patterns by PAUP 4.0b8, with neighbor-joining search and a bootstrap analysis showed that, although the four species are closely related, D. septentriosaltans, D. saltans and D. austrosaltans are closer to each other than to D. prosaltans. These results showed to be consistent with phylogenetic relationships previously inferred from inversion polymorphism.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of fig wasps pollinating functionally dioecious Ficus based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology.

    PubMed

    Weiblen, G D

    2001-04-01

    The obligate mutualism between pollinating fig wasps in the family Agaonidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) and Ficus species (Moraceae) is often regarded as an example of co-evolution but little is known about the history of the interaction, and understanding the origin of functionally dioecious fig pollination has been especially difficult. The phylogenetic relationships of fig wasps pollinating functionally dioecious Ficus were inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene sequences (mtDNA) and morphology. Separate and combined analyses indicated that the pollinators of functionally dioecious figs are not monophyletic. However, pollinator relationships were generally congruent with host phylogeny and support a revised classification of Ficus. Ancestral changes in pollinator ovipositor length also correlated with changes in fig breeding systems. In particular, the relative elongation of the ovipositor was associated with the repeated loss of functionally dioecious pollination. The concerted evolution of interacting morphologies may bias estimates of phylogeny based on female head characters, but homoplasy is not so strong in other morphological traits. The lesser phylogenetic utility of morphology than of mtDNA is not due to rampant convergence in morphology but rather to the greater number of potentially informative characters in DNA sequence data; patterns of nucleotide substitution also limit the utility of mtDNA findings. Nonetheless, inferring the ancestral associations of fig pollinators from the best-supported phylogeny provided strong evidence of host conservatism in this highly specialized mutualism.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of yellowjackets inferred from nine loci (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Vespinae, Vespula and Dolichovespula).

    PubMed

    Lopez-Osorio, Federico; Pickett, Kurt M; Carpenter, James M; Ballif, Bryan A; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2014-04-01

    Eusociality has arisen repeatedly and independently in the history of insects, often leading to evolutionary success and ecological dominance. Eusocial wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula, or yellowjackets, have developed advanced social traits in a relatively small number of species. The origin of traits such as effective paternity and colony size has been interpreted with reference to an established phylogenetic hypothesis that is based on phenotypic data, while the application of molecular evidence to phylogenetic analysis within yellowjackets has been limited. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of yellowjackets on the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear markers (nuclear: 28S, EF1α, Pol II, and wg; mitochondrial: 12S, 16S, COI, COII, and Cytb). We use these data to test the monophyly of yellowjackets and species groups, and resolve species-level relationships within each genus using parsimony and Bayesian inference. Our results indicate that a yellowjacket clade is either weakly supported (parsimony) or rejected (Bayesian inference). However, the monophyly of each yellowjacket genus as well as species groups are strongly supported and concordant between methods. Our results agree with previous studies regarding the monophyly of the Vespula vulgaris group and the sister relationship between the V. rufa and V. squamosa groups. This suggests convergence of large colony size and high effective paternity in the vulgaris group and V. squamosa, or a single origin of both traits in the most recent common ancestor of all Vespula species and their evolutionary reversal in the rufa group. PMID:24462637

  8. A Molecular Assessment of Phylogenetic Relationships and LineageDiversification Within the Family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata)

    SciTech Connect

    Weisrock, David W.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Macey, J. Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H.; Zhao, Ermi; Larson, Allan

    2005-08-08

    Phylogenetic relationships among species of the salamanderfamily Salamandridae are investigated using nearly 3000 nucleotide basesof newly reported mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the mtDNA genicregion spanning the genes tRNALeu-COI. This study uses nearlycomprehensive species-level sampling to provide the first completephylogeny for the Salamandridae. Deep phylogenetic relationships amongthe three most divergent lineages in the family Salamandrina terdigitata,a clade comprising the "True" salamanders, and a clade comprising allnewts except S. terdigitata are difficult to resolve. However, mostrelationships within the latter two lineages are resolved with robustlevels of branch support. The genera Euproctus and Triturus arestatistically shown to be nonmonophyletic, instead each contains adiverse set of lineages positioned within the large newt clade. The genusParamesotriton is also resolve as a nonmonophyletic group, with the newlydescribed species P. laoensis constituting a divergent lineage placed ina sister position to clade containing all Pachytriton species and allremaining Paramesotriton species. Sequence divergences between P.laoensis and other Paramesotriton species are as great as those comparingP. laoensis and species of the genera Cynops and Pachytriton. Analyses oflineage diversification across the Salamandridae indicate that, despiteits exceptional diversity, lineage accumulation appears to have beenconstant across time, indicating that it does not represent a truespecies radiation.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) from China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiangqun; Gao, Ke; Yuan, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-06-10

    Hesperiidae is one of the largest families of butterflies. Our knowledge of the higher systematics on hesperiids from China is still very limited. We infer the phylogenetic relationships of the subfamilies of Chinese skippers based on three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b (Cytb), the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI)). In this study, 30 species in 23 genera were included in the Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The subfamily Coeliadinae, Eudaminae, Pyrginae and Heteropterinae were recovered as a monophyletic clade with strong support. The subfamily Hesperiinae formed a clade, but support for monophyly was weak. Our results imply that the five subfamilies of Chinese Hesperiidae should be divided into: Coeliadinae, Eudaminae, Pyrginae, Heteropterinae and Hesperiinae. The relationships of the five subfamilies should be as follows: Coeliadinae + (Eudaminae + (Pyrginae + (Heteropterinae + Hesperiinae))).

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of South China Sea snappers (genus Lutjanus; family Lutjanidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yusong; Wang, Zhongduo; Liu, Chuwu; Liu, Li; Liu, Yun

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of intra- and interspecies were elucidated based on complete cytochrome b (cyt b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequences from 12 recognized species of genus Lutjanus Bloch in the South China Sea (SCS). Using the combined data set of consensus cyt b and COII gene sequences, interspecific relationships for all 12 recognized species in SCS were consistent with Allen's morphology-based identifications, with strong correlation between the molecular and morphological characteristics. Monophyly of eight species (L. malabaricus, L. russellii, L. stellatus, L. bohar, L. johnii, L. sebae, L. fulvus, and L. fulviflamma) was strongly supported; however, the pairs L. vitta/L. ophuysenii and L. erythropterus/L. argentimaculatus were more similar than expected We inferred that L. malabaricus exists in SCS, and the introgression caused by hybridization is the reason for the unexpectedly high homogeneity.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships in the coral family acroporidae, reassessed by inference from mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Fukami, H; Omori, M; Hatta, M

    2000-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the dominant reef coral family Acroporidae were inferred from the mitochondrial genes cytochrome b and ATPase 6. The rate of nucleotide substitution in the genes gave proper resolution to deduce genetic relationships between the genera in this family. The molecular phylogeny divided this family into three major lineages: the genera Astreopora, Montipora and Acropora. The genus Anacropora was included in the same clade as the genus Montipora, suggesting its recent speciation from Montipora. The subgenus Isopora was significantly distant from the subgenus Acropora. Taken together with morphological and reproductive differences, we propose that these two subgenera be classified as independent genera. The divergence times deduced from the genetic distances were consistent with the fossil record for the major genera. The results also suggest that the extant reef corals speciated and expanded very recently, probably after the Miocene, from single lineage which survived repeated extinction by climate changes during the Cenozoic era. PMID:18517306

  12. Phylogenetic Relationships among Deep-Sea and Chemosynthetic Sea Anemones: Actinoscyphiidae and Actinostolidae (Actiniaria: Mesomyaria)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Daly, Marymegan

    2010-01-01

    Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) are present in all marine ecosystems, including chemosynthetic environments. The high level of endemicity of sea anemones in chemosynthetic environments and the taxonomic confusion in many of the groups to which these animals belong makes their systematic relationships obscure. We use five molecular markers to explore the phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily Mesomyaria, which includes most of the species that live in chemosynthetic, deep-sea, and polar sea habitats and to test the monophyly of the recently defined clades Actinostolina and Chemosynthina. We found that sea anemones of chemosynthetic environments derive from at least two different lineages: one lineage including acontiate deep-sea taxa and the other primarily encompassing shallow-water taxa. PMID:20532040

  13. Metacommunity and phylogenetic structure determine wildlife and zoonotic infectious disease patterns in time and space.

    PubMed

    Suzán, Gerardo; García-Peña, Gabriel E; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Rico, Oscar; Rubio, André V; Tolsá, María J; Roche, Benjamin; Hosseini, Parviez R; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Murray, Kris A; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Vittecoq, Marion; Bailly, Xavier; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene; Mills, James N; Guégan, Jean-Francois

    2015-02-01

    The potential for disease transmission at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans has become a major concern for public health and conservation biology. Research in this subject is commonly conducted at local scales while the regional context is neglected. We argue that prevalence of infection at local and regional levels is influenced by three mechanisms occurring at the landscape level in a metacommunity context. First, (1) dispersal, colonization, and extinction of pathogens, reservoir or vector hosts, and nonreservoir hosts, may be due to stochastic and niche-based processes, thus determining distribution of all species, and then their potential interactions, across local communities (metacommunity structure). Second, (2) anthropogenic processes may drive environmental filtering of hosts, nonhosts, and pathogens. Finally, (3) phylogenetic diversity relative to reservoir or vector host(s), within and between local communities may facilitate pathogen persistence and circulation. Using a metacommunity approach, public heath scientists may better evaluate the factors that predispose certain times and places for the origin and emergence of infectious diseases. The multidisciplinary approach we describe fits within a comprehensive One Health and Ecohealth framework addressing zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks and their relationship to their hosts, other animals, humans, and the environment.

  14. Metacommunity and phylogenetic structure determine wildlife and zoonotic infectious disease patterns in time and space

    PubMed Central

    Suzán, Gerardo; García-Peña, Gabriel E; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Rico, Oscar; Rubio, André V; Tolsá, María J; Roche, Benjamin; Hosseini, Parviez R; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Murray, Kris A; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Vittecoq, Marion; Bailly, Xavier; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene; Mills, James N; Guégan, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    The potential for disease transmission at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans has become a major concern for public health and conservation biology. Research in this subject is commonly conducted at local scales while the regional context is neglected. We argue that prevalence of infection at local and regional levels is influenced by three mechanisms occurring at the landscape level in a metacommunity context. First, (1) dispersal, colonization, and extinction of pathogens, reservoir or vector hosts, and nonreservoir hosts, may be due to stochastic and niche-based processes, thus determining distribution of all species, and then their potential interactions, across local communities (metacommunity structure). Second, (2) anthropogenic processes may drive environmental filtering of hosts, nonhosts, and pathogens. Finally, (3) phylogenetic diversity relative to reservoir or vector host(s), within and between local communities may facilitate pathogen persistence and circulation. Using a metacommunity approach, public heath scientists may better evaluate the factors that predispose certain times and places for the origin and emergence of infectious diseases. The multidisciplinary approach we describe fits within a comprehensive One Health and Ecohealth framework addressing zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks and their relationship to their hosts, other animals, humans, and the environment. PMID:25750713

  15. Metacommunity and phylogenetic structure determine wildlife and zoonotic infectious disease patterns in time and space.

    PubMed

    Suzán, Gerardo; García-Peña, Gabriel E; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Rico, Oscar; Rubio, André V; Tolsá, María J; Roche, Benjamin; Hosseini, Parviez R; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Murray, Kris A; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Vittecoq, Marion; Bailly, Xavier; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene; Mills, James N; Guégan, Jean-Francois

    2015-02-01

    The potential for disease transmission at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans has become a major concern for public health and conservation biology. Research in this subject is commonly conducted at local scales while the regional context is neglected. We argue that prevalence of infection at local and regional levels is influenced by three mechanisms occurring at the landscape level in a metacommunity context. First, (1) dispersal, colonization, and extinction of pathogens, reservoir or vector hosts, and nonreservoir hosts, may be due to stochastic and niche-based processes, thus determining distribution of all species, and then their potential interactions, across local communities (metacommunity structure). Second, (2) anthropogenic processes may drive environmental filtering of hosts, nonhosts, and pathogens. Finally, (3) phylogenetic diversity relative to reservoir or vector host(s), within and between local communities may facilitate pathogen persistence and circulation. Using a metacommunity approach, public heath scientists may better evaluate the factors that predispose certain times and places for the origin and emergence of infectious diseases. The multidisciplinary approach we describe fits within a comprehensive One Health and Ecohealth framework addressing zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks and their relationship to their hosts, other animals, humans, and the environment. PMID:25750713

  16. Determining the Position of Storks on the Phylogenetic Tree of Waterbirds by Retroposon Insertion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuramoto, Tae; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Maiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on avian phylogenetics in recent decades that used morphology, mitochondrial genomes, and/or nuclear genes, the phylogenetic positions of several birds (e.g., storks) remain unsettled. In addition to the aforementioned approaches, analysis of retroposon insertions, which are nearly homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers, has also been used in avian phylogenetics. However, the first step in the analysis of retroposon insertions, that is, isolation of retroposons from genomic libraries, is a costly and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and cost-effective protocol to collect retroposon insertion information based on next-generation sequencing technology, which we call here the STRONG (Screening of Transposons Obtained by Next Generation Sequencing) method, and applied it to 3 waterbird species, for which we identified 35,470 loci containing chicken repeat 1 retroposons (CR1). Our analysis of the presence/absence of 30 CR1 insertions demonstrated the intra- and interordinal phylogenetic relationships in the waterbird assemblage, namely 1) Loons diverged first among the waterbirds, 2) penguins (Sphenisciformes) and petrels (Procellariiformes) diverged next, and 3) among the remaining families of waterbirds traditionally classified in Ciconiiformes/Pelecaniformes, storks (Ciconiidae) diverged first. Furthermore, our genome-scale, in silico retroposon analysis based on published genome data uncovered a complex divergence history among pelican, heron, and ibis lineages, presumably involving ancient interspecies hybridization between the heron and ibis lineages. Thus, our retroposon-based waterbird phylogeny and the established phylogenetic position of storks will help to understand the evolutionary processes of aquatic adaptation and related morphological convergent evolution. PMID:26527652

  17. The more, the better: the use of multiple landmark configurations to solve the phylogenetic relationships in musteloids.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Santiago A; Ercoli, Marcos D; Prevosti, Francisco J

    2015-03-01

    Although the use of landmark data to study shape changes along a phylogenetic tree has become a common practice in evolutionary studies, the role of this sort of data for the inference of phylogenetic relationships remains under debate. Theoretical issues aside, the very existence of historical information in landmark data has been challenged, since phylogenetic analyses have often shown little congruence with alternative sources of evidence. However, most analyses conducted in the past were based upon a single landmark configuration, leaving it unsettled whether the incorporation of multiple configurations may improve the rather poor performance of this data source in most previous phylogenetic analyses. In the present study, we present a phylogenetic analysis of landmark data that combines information derived from several skeletal structures to derive a phylogenetic tree for musteloids. The analysis includes nine configurations representing different skeletal structures for 24 species. The resulting tree presents several notable concordances with phylogenetic hypotheses derived from molecular data. In particular, Mephitidae, Procyonidae, and Lutrinae plus the genera Martes, Mustela, Galictis, and Procyon were retrieved as monophyletic. In addition, other groupings were in agreement with molecular phylogenies or presented only minor discordances. Complementary analyses have also indicated that the results improve substantially when an increasing number of landmark configurations are included in the analysis. The results presented here thus highlight the importance of combining information from multiple structures to derive phylogenetic hypotheses from landmark data. PMID:25516268

  18. A molecular assessment of phylogenetic relationships and lineage accumulation rates within the family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata).

    PubMed

    Weisrock, David W; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Macey, J Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H; Zhao, Ermi; Jowkar, Houman; Larson, Allan

    2006-11-01

    We examine phylogenetic relationships among salamanders of the family Salamandridae using approximately 2700 bases of new mtDNA sequence data (the tRNALeu, ND1, tRNAIle, tRNAGln, tRNAMet, ND2, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, tRNATyr, and COI genes and the origin for light-strand replication) collected from 96 individuals representing 61 of the 66 recognized salamandrid species and outgroups. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis are performed on the new data alone and combined with previously reported sequences from other parts of the mitochondrial genome. The basal phylogenetic split is a polytomy of lineages ancestral to (1) the Italian newt Salamandrina terdigitata, (2) a strongly supported clade comprising the "true" salamanders (genera Chioglossa, Mertensiella, Lyciasalamandra, and Salamandra), and (3) a strongly supported clade comprising all newts except S. terdigitata. Strongly supported clades within the true salamanders include monophyly of each genus and grouping Chioglossa and Mertensiella as the sister taxon to a clade comprising Lyciasalamandra and Salamandra. Among newts, genera Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, and Tylototriton form a strongly supported clade whose sister taxon comprises the genera Calotriton, Cynops, Euproctus, Neurergus, Notophthalmus, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton, Taricha, and Triturus. Our results strongly support monophyly of all polytypic newt genera except Paramesotriton and Triturus, which appear paraphyletic, and Calotriton, for which only one of the two species is sampled. Other well-supported clades within newts include (1) Asian genera Cynops, Pachytriton, and Paramesotriton, (2) North American genera Notophthalmus and Taricha, (3) the Triturus vulgaris species group, and (4) the Triturus cristatus species group; some additional groupings appear strong in Bayesian but not parsimony analyses. Rates of lineage accumulation through time are evaluated using this nearly comprehensive sampling of

  19. Close phylogenetic relationship between Angolan and Romanian HIV-1 subtype F1 isolates

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Monick L; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Otsuki, Koko; da Silva, Rosa Ferreira FC; Francisco, Moises; da Silva, Filomena Gomes; Serrano, Ducelina; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Here, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the HIV-1 subtype F1 circulating in Angola with subtype F1 strains sampled worldwide and reconstructed the evolutionary history of this subtype in Central Africa. Methods Forty-six HIV-1-positive samples were collected in Angola in 2006 and subtyped at the env-gp41 region. Partial env-gp120 and pol-RT sequences and near full-length genomes from those env-gp41 subtype F1 samples were further generated. Phylogenetic analyses of partial and full-length subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide were carried out. The onset date of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central Africa was estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Results Nine Angolan samples were classified as subtype F1 based on the analysis of the env-gp41 region. All nine Angolan sequences were also classified as subtype F1 in both env-gp120 and pol-RT genomic regions, and near full-length genome analysis of four of these samples confirmed their classification as "pure" subtype F1. Phylogenetic analyses of subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide revealed that isolates from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were the earliest branching lineages within the subtype F1 phylogeny. Most strains from Angola segregated in a monophyletic group together with Romanian sequences; whereas South American F1 sequences emerged as an independent cluster. The origin of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central African was estimated at 1958 (1934–1971). Conclusion "Pure" subtype F1 strains are common in Angola and seem to be the result of a single founder event. Subtype F1 sequences from Angola are closely related to those described in Romania, and only distantly related to the subtype F1 lineage circulating in South America. Original diversification of subtype F1 probably occurred within the DRC around the late 1950s. PMID:19386115

  20. Eurotatorian paraphyly: Revisiting phylogenetic relationships based on the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rotaria rotatoria (Bdelloidea: Rotifera: Syndermata)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Syndermata (Rotifera+Acanthocephala) is one of the best model systems for studying the evolutionary origins and persistence of different life styles because it contains a series of lineage-specific life histories: Monogononta (cyclic parthenogenetic and free-living), Bdelloidea (entirely parthenogenetic and mostly benthic dweller), Seisonidea (exclusively bisexual and epizoic or ectoparasitic), and Acanthocephala (sexual and obligatory endoparasitic). Providing phylogenetic resolution to the question of Eurotatoria (Monogononta and Bdelloidea) monophyly versus paraphyly is a key factor for better understanding the evolution of different life styles, yet this matter is not clearly resolved. In this study, we revisited this issue based on comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome information for major groups of the Syndermata. Results We determined the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences (15,319 bp) of a bdelloid rotifer, Rotaria rotatoria. In order to examine the validity of Eurotatoria (Monogononta and Bdelloidea) monophyly/paraphyly, we performed phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences for eleven protein-coding genes sampled from a wide variety of bilaterian representatives. The resulting mitochondrial genome trees, inferred using different algorithms, consistently failed to recover Monogononta and Bdelloidea as monophyletic, but instead identified them as a paraphyletic assemblage. Bdelloidea (as represented by R. rotatoria) shares most common ancestry with Acanthocephala (as represented by L. thecatus) rather than with monogonont B. plicatilis, the other representative of Eurotatoria. Conclusion Comparisons of inferred amino acid sequence and gene arrangement patterns with those of other metazoan mtDNAs (including those of acanthocephalan L. thecatus and monogonont B. plicatilis) support the hypothesis that Bdelloidea shares most common ancestry with Acanthocephala rather than with Monogononta. From this finding, we

  1. Circulation and phylogenetic relationship of chicken and turkey-origin astroviruses detected in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    PubMed

    Biđin, M; Biđin, Z; Majnarić, D; Tišljar, M; Lojkić, I

    2012-12-01

    The natural occurrence of chicken and turkey-origin astroviruses in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) is described. Twenty-two duck flocks were covered by this research. The liver, spleen, kidney and intestines were sampled and tested by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for the presence of avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken astrovirus (CAstV), turkey astrovirus (TAstV)-1, TAstV-2 and duck astrovirus. The astrovirus infection was confirmed in multiple organ samples from 59.1% of tested flocks. CAstV was detected in one flock, TAstV-2 in three flocks and ANV in 10 flocks. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the small open reading frame (ORF) 1b fragment (130 nucleotides) of all chicken and turkey-origin astroviruses detected in ducks showed that ANV-sequence group was more distant from CastV, TAstV-1 and TAstV-2 sequences, which formed a separate, more related group. ANV sequences were divided into three subgroups, suggesting that several types of ANV were circulating in Croatian duck flocks. The comparison of the partial ORF 1b (254 nucleotides) duck ANV sequences with 21 ANVs detected in various avian species (chickens, turkeys, geese, guinea fowl and pigeons) revealed they shared the higher nucleotide (95.6 to 97.2%) and amino acid (98.8 to 100%) identity with two ANV-2-like sequences from chickens (GA-SEP-A451-05 and GA-CK-SEP ANV-364-2005). Phylogenetic neighbour-joining tree analysis based on the same nucleotide alignment, and performed using the Jukes-Cantor method, clustered the compared sequences into three groups. All analysed duck ANV sequences showed a close phylogenetic relationship with chicken-origin ANVs. Additional work is required to determine the significance and pathogenicity of chicken and turkey-origin astroviruses in domestic ducks.

  2. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains of hemoglobins from Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis and phylogenetic relationships of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Fushitani, K; Higashiyama, K; Moriyama, E N; Imai, K; Hosokawa, K

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate phylogenetic relationships among amniotes and the evolution of alpha globins, hemoglobins were analyzed from the Komodo dragon (Komodo monitor lizard) Varanus komodoensis, the world's largest extant lizard, inhabiting Komodo Islands, Indonesia. Four unique globin chains (alpha A, alpha D, beta B, and beta C) were isolated in an equal molar ratio by high performance liquid chromatography from the hemolysate. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains were determined. The alpha D chain has a glutamine at E7 as does an alpha chain of a snake, Liophis miliaris, but the alpha A chain has a histidine at E7 like the majority of hemoglobins. Phylogenetic analyses of 19 globins including two alpha chains of Komodo dragon and ones from representative amniotes showed the following results: (1) The a chains of squamates (snakes and lizards), which have a glutamine at E7, are clustered with the embryonic alpha globin family, which typically includes the alpha D chain from birds; (2) birds form a sister group with other reptiles but not with mammals; (3) the genes for embryonic and adult types of alpha globins were possibly produced by duplication of the ancestral alpha gene before ancestral amniotes diverged, indicating that each of the present amniotes might carry descendants of the two types of alpha globin genes; (4) squamates first split off from the ancestor of other reptiles and birds.

  3. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains of hemoglobins from Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis and phylogenetic relationships of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Fushitani, K; Higashiyama, K; Moriyama, E N; Imai, K; Hosokawa, K

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate phylogenetic relationships among amniotes and the evolution of alpha globins, hemoglobins were analyzed from the Komodo dragon (Komodo monitor lizard) Varanus komodoensis, the world's largest extant lizard, inhabiting Komodo Islands, Indonesia. Four unique globin chains (alpha A, alpha D, beta B, and beta C) were isolated in an equal molar ratio by high performance liquid chromatography from the hemolysate. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains were determined. The alpha D chain has a glutamine at E7 as does an alpha chain of a snake, Liophis miliaris, but the alpha A chain has a histidine at E7 like the majority of hemoglobins. Phylogenetic analyses of 19 globins including two alpha chains of Komodo dragon and ones from representative amniotes showed the following results: (1) The a chains of squamates (snakes and lizards), which have a glutamine at E7, are clustered with the embryonic alpha globin family, which typically includes the alpha D chain from birds; (2) birds form a sister group with other reptiles but not with mammals; (3) the genes for embryonic and adult types of alpha globins were possibly produced by duplication of the ancestral alpha gene before ancestral amniotes diverged, indicating that each of the present amniotes might carry descendants of the two types of alpha globin genes; (4) squamates first split off from the ancestor of other reptiles and birds. PMID:8752011

  4. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Mesoamerican endemic freshwater fish family Profundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes: Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Felipe; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya.

  5. Evolutionary relationships among Magnetospirillum strains inferred from phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, J G; Kawaguchi, R; Sakaguchi, T; Thornhill, R H; Matsunaga, T

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the evolutionary relationships between two facultatively anaerobic Magnetospirillum strains (AMB-1 and MGT-1) and fastidious, obligately microaerophilic species, such as Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, using a molecular phylogenetic approach. Genomic DNA from strains MGT-1 and AMB-1 was used as a template for amplification of the genes coding for 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) by the polymerase chain reaction. Amplified DNA fragments were sequenced (1,424 bp) and compared with sequences for M. magnetotacticum MS-1 and Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1. Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the two new magnetic spirilla, AMB-1 and MGT-1, lie within the alpha subdivision (alpha-1) of the eubacterial group Proteobacteria and are closely related to Rhodospirillum fulvum and to several endosymbiotic bacteria. Strains AMB-1, MGT-1, and MS-1 formed a cluster, termed group I, in which they were more closely related to each other than to group II, which contained M. gryphiswaldense MSR-1. Group I strains were also physiologically distinct from strain MSR-1. Sequence alignment studies allowed elucidation of genus-specific regions of the 16S rDNA, and oligonucleotide primers complementary to two of these regions were used to develop a specific polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of magnetic spirilla in natural samples. Images PMID:7691800

  6. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Mesoamerican endemic freshwater fish family Profundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes: Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Felipe; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya. PMID:26364972

  8. Phylogenetic relationships between Hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fausser, Jean-Luc; Prosper, Prosper; Donati, Giuseppe; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Rumpler, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hapalemur remains controversial, particularly within the Hapalemur griseus species group. In order to obtain more information on the taxonomic status within this genus, and particularly in the cytogenetic distinct subspecies group of Hapalemur griseus, 357 bp sequence of cytochrome b and 438 bp of 12S mitochondrial DNAs were analyzed on a sample of animals captured in areas extending from the north to the south-east of Madagascar. This sample covers all cytogenetically defined types recognized of the genus Hapalemur. Results Phylogenetic trees and distances analyses demonstrate a first emergence of Hapalemur simus followed by H. aureus which is the sister clade of the H. griseus subspecies. Hapalemur griseus is composed of 4 subspecies separated into two clades. The first contains H. g. griseus, H. g. alaotrensis and H. g. occidentalis. The second consists of H. g. meridionalis. A new chromosomal polymorphic variant from the region of Ranomafana, H. griseus ssp, has been analysed and was found in both clades. Conclusions Our results support the raising of H. g. meridionalis to the specific rank H. meridionalis, while neither cytogenetic nor molecular evidences support the raising of H. g. alaotrensis to a species rank despite its morphological characteristics. The new cytotype H. g. ssp which has been previously characterized by cytogenetic studies contains animals clustering either with the group of Hapalemur griseus griseus or with that of Hapalemur meridionalis. This suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism or an introgression of mitochondrial DNA between subspecies. PMID:11914128

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of twenty Gymnothorax species based on cytochrome b sequence data.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Yin, S W; Niu, B Z

    2016-01-01

    To study the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Gymnothorax (moray eels) distributed in South China Sea, polymerase chain reactions were performed, and the amplification products were sequenced by cloning into the PMD18T-vector (TaKaRa). The entire gene sequences encoding cytochrome b (1140 bp) for 16 Gymnothorax (G. flavimarginatus, G. meleagris, G. undulates, G. reticularis, G. reevesi, G. melanospilus, G. rueppeliae, G. javanicus, G. chilospilus, G. pseudothyrsoideus, G. fimbriatus, G. hepaticus, G. berndti, G. curostus, G. favagineus, and G. margaritophorus) were obtained. Four additional Gymnothorax sequences from GenBank were also included. The nucleotide composition, genetic distances, and base substitution saturation analysis were calculated using the MEGA 5.0 Software. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood (ML), and neighbor-joining (NJ). The results were as follows: 1) base-substitution saturation analysis suggested that both in third codon positions, and the full-length cytochrome b data set, Ts are not saturated, but Tv substitutions may be saturated, 2) the genus Gymnothorax, native to the South China Sea, is divided into four distinct clades, with two clades in the NJ and ML trees, and 3) according to our experimental data, G. melanospilus (Bleeker, 1855) and G. favagineus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) are the same species. PMID:27323052

  10. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association. PMID:24553081

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of twenty Gymnothorax species based on cytochrome b sequence data.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Yin, S W; Niu, B Z

    2016-01-01

    To study the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Gymnothorax (moray eels) distributed in South China Sea, polymerase chain reactions were performed, and the amplification products were sequenced by cloning into the PMD18T-vector (TaKaRa). The entire gene sequences encoding cytochrome b (1140 bp) for 16 Gymnothorax (G. flavimarginatus, G. meleagris, G. undulates, G. reticularis, G. reevesi, G. melanospilus, G. rueppeliae, G. javanicus, G. chilospilus, G. pseudothyrsoideus, G. fimbriatus, G. hepaticus, G. berndti, G. curostus, G. favagineus, and G. margaritophorus) were obtained. Four additional Gymnothorax sequences from GenBank were also included. The nucleotide composition, genetic distances, and base substitution saturation analysis were calculated using the MEGA 5.0 Software. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood (ML), and neighbor-joining (NJ). The results were as follows: 1) base-substitution saturation analysis suggested that both in third codon positions, and the full-length cytochrome b data set, Ts are not saturated, but Tv substitutions may be saturated, 2) the genus Gymnothorax, native to the South China Sea, is divided into four distinct clades, with two clades in the NJ and ML trees, and 3) according to our experimental data, G. melanospilus (Bleeker, 1855) and G. favagineus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) are the same species.

  12. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martín D

    2016-01-01

    The early evolution of archosauromorphs during the Permo-Triassic constitutes an excellent empirical case study to shed light on evolutionary radiations in deep time and the timing and processes of recovery of terrestrial faunas after a mass extinction. However, macroevolutionary studies of early archosauromorphs are currently limited by poor knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships. In particular, one of the main early archosauromorph groups that need an exhaustive phylogenetic study is "Proterosuchia," which as historically conceived includes members of both Proterosuchidae and Erythrosuchidae. A new data matrix composed of 96 separate taxa (several of them not included in a quantitative phylogenetic analysis before) and 600 osteological characters was assembled and analysed to generate a comprehensive higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis of basal archosauromorphs and shed light on the species-level interrelationships of taxa historically identified as proterosuchian archosauriforms. The results of the analysis using maximum parsimony include a polyphyletic "Prolacertiformes" and "Protorosauria," in which the Permian Aenigmastropheus and Protorosaurus are the most basal archosauromorphs. The enigmatic choristoderans are either found as the sister-taxa of all other lepidosauromorphs or archosauromorphs, but consistently placed within Sauria. Prolacertids, rhynchosaurs, allokotosaurians and tanystropheids are the major successive sister clades of Archosauriformes. The Early Triassic Tasmaniosaurus is recovered as the sister-taxon of Archosauriformes. Proterosuchidae is unambiguosly restricted to five species that occur immediately after and before the Permo-Triassic boundary, thus implying that they are a short-lived "disaster" clade. Erythrosuchidae is composed of eight nominal species that occur during the Early and Middle Triassic. "Proterosuchia" is polyphyletic, in which erythrosuchids are more closely related to Euparkeria and more crownward

  13. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The early evolution of archosauromorphs during the Permo-Triassic constitutes an excellent empirical case study to shed light on evolutionary radiations in deep time and the timing and processes of recovery of terrestrial faunas after a mass extinction. However, macroevolutionary studies of early archosauromorphs are currently limited by poor knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships. In particular, one of the main early archosauromorph groups that need an exhaustive phylogenetic study is “Proterosuchia,” which as historically conceived includes members of both Proterosuchidae and Erythrosuchidae. A new data matrix composed of 96 separate taxa (several of them not included in a quantitative phylogenetic analysis before) and 600 osteological characters was assembled and analysed to generate a comprehensive higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis of basal archosauromorphs and shed light on the species-level interrelationships of taxa historically identified as proterosuchian archosauriforms. The results of the analysis using maximum parsimony include a polyphyletic “Prolacertiformes” and “Protorosauria,” in which the Permian Aenigmastropheus and Protorosaurus are the most basal archosauromorphs. The enigmatic choristoderans are either found as the sister-taxa of all other lepidosauromorphs or archosauromorphs, but consistently placed within Sauria. Prolacertids, rhynchosaurs, allokotosaurians and tanystropheids are the major successive sister clades of Archosauriformes. The Early Triassic Tasmaniosaurus is recovered as the sister-taxon of Archosauriformes. Proterosuchidae is unambiguosly restricted to five species that occur immediately after and before the Permo-Triassic boundary, thus implying that they are a short-lived “disaster” clade. Erythrosuchidae is composed of eight nominal species that occur during the Early and Middle Triassic. “Proterosuchia” is polyphyletic, in which erythrosuchids are more closely related to Euparkeria and more

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Pseudohynobius (Urodela, Hynobiidae) inferred from DNA barcoding analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y-Y; Su, L-N; Zhang, Z-M; Wang, X-Y

    2016-01-01

    As a proven tool, DNA barcoding can identify species rapidly and unambiguously. In this study, we used mtDNA cyt b, COI, and 16s rRNA sequences of six species of Pseudohynobius, Protohynobius puxiongensis, Liua shihi, Ranodon sibiricus, and Pachyhynobius shangchengensis, to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. Approximate lineage divergence times were also estimated, the divergence between them was calculated to have taken place mainly in Miocene. Our results showed that: 1) Ps. guizhouensis is an independent and valid species that is a sister species to Ps. kuankuoshuiensis; 2) five Pseudohynobius species formed a monophyletic group; 3) Ps. tsinpaensis is different from L. shihi, and should be classified as belonging to the Liua genus; and 4) Pr. puxiongensis is the sister lineage to all Pseudohynobius species, and should therefore be named Pseudohynobius puxiongensis. PMID:27420996

  15. Unraveling the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Eccoptochilinae, an Enigmatic Array of Ordovician Cheirurid Trilobites

    PubMed Central

    Gapp, I. Wesley; Congreve, Curtis R.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    The Cheiruridae are a diverse group of trilobites and several subfamilies within the clade have been the focus of recent phylogenetic studies. This paper focuses on the relationships of one of those subfamilies, the Ordovician Eccoptochilinae. We analyze sixteen species from six genera within the traditionally defined group, using the pilekiid Anacheirurus frederici as an outgroup. To assess the monophyly of the Eccoptochilinae seven sphaerexochine species, Kawina arnoldi, Sphaerexochus arenosus, S. atacius, S. latifrons, S. mirus, S. parvus, and S. scabridus were included in the analysis as well. The results of this analysis show that the genus Eccoptochile represents a paraphyletic grade and species traditionally assigned to Parasphaerexochus and Skelipyx plot within Pseudosphaerexochus. Also, representative species of Sphaerexochinae plot within the traditionally defined Eccoptochilinae, suggesting Eccoptochilinae itself is paraphyletic. To resolve this, we propose all species of Pseudosphaerexochus be placed within Sphaerexochinae and Eccoptochilinae be restricted to a monotypic Eccoptochile clavigera. PMID:23173046

  16. Haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the Iberian barbels (Barbus, Cyprinidae) reveal two evolutionary lineages.

    PubMed

    Doadrio, I; Carmona, J A; Machordom, A

    2002-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships and haplotype diversity of all Iberian barbels were examined by analyzing the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence (1141 bp) of 72 specimens from 59 Iberian localities. Phylogenetic findings demonstrated a clear distinction between two mitochondrial lineages and confirmed the existence of two previously considered subgenera: Barbus and Luciobarbus: The first subgenus, Barbus, is represented on the Iberian Peninsula by Barbus haasi and Barbus meridionalis. The second subgenus, Luciobarbus, includes the remaining endemic Iberian species: Barbus comizo, Barbus bocagei, Barbus microcephalus, Barbus sclateri, Barbus guiraonis, and Barbus graellsii. Mean haplotype divergence between these subgenera was 10.40%, providing evidence of a clear subdivision within the Iberian barbels. Our results conflict with those reported in a recent study, based on 307 cytochrome b base pairs, that failed to identify any division within the genus Barbus in the Iberian Peninsula. The inclusion of nine further species belonging to this genus (used as outgroups) allowed us to establish a closer relationship of the Iberian species of the subgenus Barbus with other European taxa than with the Iberian Luciobarbus, which was found to cluster with North African, Caucasian, and Greek species. At the population level, no biogeographic structure was shown by specimens of each species (only 5.98% of the variation was attributable to differences among populations of each species). Given the discrete amount of divergence found among the Luciobarbus species, the formation of current hydrographic basins during the Plio-Pleistocene seems to have played a major role in their isolation and evolution. PMID:12140275

  17. [Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific variation of D-genome Aegilops L. as revealed by RAPD analysis].

    PubMed

    Goriunova, S V; Kochieva, E Z; Chikida, N N; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2004-05-01

    RAPD analysis was carried out to study the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of polyploid Aegilops species, which contain the D genome as a component of the alloploid genome, and diploid Aegilops tauschii, which is a putative donor of the D genome for common wheat. In total, 74 accessions of six D-genome Aegilops species were examined. The highest intraspecific variation (0.03-0.21) was observed for Ae. tauschii. Intraspecific distances between accessions ranged 0.007-0.067 in Ae. cylindrica, 0.017-0.047 in Ae. vavilovii, and 0.00-0.053 in Ae. juvenalis. Likewise, Ae. ventricosa and Ae. crassa showed low intraspecific polymorphism. The among-accession difference in alloploid Ae. ventricosa (genome DvNv) was similar to that of one parental species, Ae. uniaristata (N), and substantially lower than in the other parent, Ae. tauschii (D). The among-accession difference in Ae. cylindrica (CcDc) was considerably lower than in either parent, Ae. tauschii (D) or Ae. caudata (C). With the exception of Ae. cylindrica, all D-genome species--Ae. tauschii (D), Ae. ventricosa (DvNv), Ae. crassa (XcrDcrl and XcrDcrlDcr2), Ae. juvenalis (XjDjUj), and Ae. vavilovii (XvaDvaSva)--formed a single polymorphic cluster, which was distinct from clusters of other species. The only exception, Ae. cylindrica, did not group with the other D-genome species, but clustered with Ae. caudata (C), a donor of the C genome. The cluster of these two species was clearly distinct from the cluster of the other D-genome species and close to a cluster of Ae. umbellulata (genome U) and Ae. ovata (genome UgMg). Thus, RAPD analysis for the first time was used to estimate and to compare the interpopulation polymorphism and to establish the phylogenetic relationships of all diploid and alloploid D-genome Aegilops species.

  18. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species. PMID:22912691

  19. [Molecular phylogenetic relationships among species in the genus Sorghum based on partial Adh1 gene].

    PubMed

    Liao, Fang; Liu, Yong; Yang, Xiu-Li; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing

    2009-05-01

    The genus Sorghum contains some important grain crops and economically important forage grasses as well as agricultural weeds. The goals of this study were to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between Sorghum species and ascertain the taxonomy status of the quarantine weeds which provide bases for effective utilization of its germ resources on molecular breeding and improvement of crop qualities and thus provide important guidance for port detection. In the present study, total DNA from the seeds of 8 Sorghum species (four S. almum, two S. halepense, one S. silk and one S. sudanense)were extracted, and the partial Adh1 gene of about 2,000 bp in length were amplified by PCR using specific primers designed from conserved regions of Adh1 gene reported in the GenBank (AF050456) and sequenced. Based on these sequences and other 24 Adh1 sequences registered in the GenBank, the phylogenetic trees constructed by multiple methods (MP, ML, and NJ) with the corresponding Adh1 sequence of Cleistachne sorghoides as the outgroup shared almost the same topology. The results showed that: (1) there were obviously three lineages for the genus Sorghum. One included two subgenera Chaetosorghum and Heterosorghum, and another included subgenus Eusorghum, both of which consisted of 2n=20 and 2n=40 species with small chromosomes. Still another lineage contained the two subgenera Parasorghum and Stiposorghum with 2n=10 species and their polyploid relatives with relatively large chromosomes; (2) geographical divergence clearly existed in the S. almum; (3) S. purpureosericeum, S. versicolor, S. nitidum and S. leiocladum of subgenus Parasorghum clustered together, but S. matarankense, S. grande, and S. timorense of the same subgenus clustered with the species of subgenus Stiposorghum, showing closer relationship with subgenus Stiposorghum; (4) S. macrospermum was more closely related to S. laxiflorum than the other species of the genus Sorghum.

  20. Re-Visiting Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Relationships in the Genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species. PMID:22912691

  1. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species.

  2. Exploring Phylogenetic Relationships within Myriapoda and the Effects of Matrix Composition and Occupancy on Phylogenomic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Rosa; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Myriapods, including the diverse and familiar centipedes and millipedes, are one of the dominant terrestrial arthropod groups. Although molecular evidence has shown that Myriapoda is monophyletic, its internal phylogeny remains contentious and understudied, especially when compared to those of Chelicerata and Hexapoda. Until now, efforts have focused on taxon sampling (e.g., by including a handful of genes from many species) or on maximizing matrix size (e.g., by including hundreds or thousands of genes in just a few species), but a phylogeny maximizing sampling at both levels remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed 40 Illumina transcriptomes representing 3 of the 4 myriapod classes (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Symphyla); 25 transcriptomes were newly sequenced to maximize representation at the ordinal level in Diplopoda and at the family level in Chilopoda. Ten supermatrices were constructed to explore the effect of several potential phylogenetic biases (e.g., rate of evolution, heterotachy) at 3 levels of gene occupancy per taxon (50%, 75%, and 90%). Analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian mixture models retrieved monophyly of each myriapod class, and resulted in 2 alternative phylogenetic positions for Symphyla, as sister group to Diplopoda + Chilopoda, or closer to Diplopoda, the latter hypothesis having been traditionally supported by morphology. Within centipedes, all orders were well supported, but 2 deep nodes remained in conflict in the different analyses despite dense taxon sampling at the family level. Relationships among centipede orders in all analyses conducted with the most complete matrix (90% occupancy) are at odds not only with the sparser but more gene-rich supermatrices (75% and 50% supermatrices) and with the matrices optimizing phylogenetic informativeness or most conserved genes, but also with previous hypotheses based on morphology, development, or other molecular data sets. Our results indicate that a high percentage of ribosomal

  3. Biometrical studies upon hominoid teeth: the coefficient of variation, sexual dimorphism and questions of phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Blumenberg, B

    1985-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism as a function of variation in hominoid tooth metrics has been investigated for four groups of taxa: Recent great apes (two subfamilies), Dryopiths (one subfamily), Ramapiths (one subfamily) and hominids (one family). Gorilla, and to a lesser extent Pan, appear characterized by very high levels of sexual dimorphism and meet several criteria for statistical outliers. Recent great apes are the only group exhibiting consistently high levels of sexual dimorphism. Ramapiths are the only group characterized by low levels of sexual dimorphism and their relative canine length is most similar to Dryopiths. Both Dryopiths and hominids contain taxa with low and intermediate levels of sexual dimorphism. The Gingerich and Shoeninger hypothesis relating coefficients of variation to occlusal complexity is supported. Non-parametric statistics suggest that homogeneity of coefficient of variation profiles over most of the tooth row is characteristic of only the Dryopiths and a composite data set composed of the Dryopith plus Ramapith tooth measurements. Oxnard's model for the multifactorial basis of multiple sexual dimorphisms is also supported. The Dryopith and hominid patterns of sexual dimorphism are similar, an observation that suggests phylogenetic relationship. At the taxonomic level of subfamily or family, sexual dimorphism is a character of cladistic usefulness and possible phylogenetic valence. Assuming that breeding system and sexual dimorphism are functional correlates as many workers suggest, then Ramapithecus sp. China, Sivapithecus indicus and possibly Australopithecus boisei are good candidates for having possessed monogamous breeding/social structures. All Dryopith taxa, S. sivalensis, Sivapithecus sp. China, A. afarensis, Homo habilis and H. erectus emerge as the best candidates for having possessed a polygynous breeding/social structure. No biometrical affinities of Ramapiths with hominids can be demonstrated and some phylogenetic relationship with

  4. Exploring Phylogenetic Relationships within Myriapoda and the Effects of Matrix Composition and Occupancy on Phylogenomic Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rosa; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    Myriapods, including the diverse and familiar centipedes and millipedes, are one of the dominant terrestrial arthropod groups. Although molecular evidence has shown that Myriapoda is monophyletic, its internal phylogeny remains contentious and understudied, especially when compared to those of Chelicerata and Hexapoda. Until now, efforts have focused on taxon sampling (e.g., by including a handful of genes from many species) or on maximizing matrix size (e.g., by including hundreds or thousands of genes in just a few species), but a phylogeny maximizing sampling at both levels remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed 40 Illumina transcriptomes representing 3 of the 4 myriapod classes (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Symphyla); 25 transcriptomes were newly sequenced to maximize representation at the ordinal level in Diplopoda and at the family level in Chilopoda. Ten supermatrices were constructed to explore the effect of several potential phylogenetic biases (e.g., rate of evolution, heterotachy) at 3 levels of gene occupancy per taxon (50%, 75%, and 90%). Analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian mixture models retrieved monophyly of each myriapod class, and resulted in 2 alternative phylogenetic positions for Symphyla, as sister group to Diplopoda + Chilopoda, or closer to Diplopoda, the latter hypothesis having been traditionally supported by morphology. Within centipedes, all orders were well supported, but 2 deep nodes remained in conflict in the different analyses despite dense taxon sampling at the family level. Relationships among centipede orders in all analyses conducted with the most complete matrix (90% occupancy) are at odds not only with the sparser but more gene-rich supermatrices (75% and 50% supermatrices) and with the matrices optimizing phylogenetic informativeness or most conserved genes, but also with previous hypotheses based on morphology, development, or other molecular data sets. Our results indicate that a high percentage of ribosomal

  5. Genetic identification and phylogenetic relationships of Indian clariids based on mitochondrial COI sequences.

    PubMed

    Devassy, Aneesha; Kumar, Raj; Shajitha, P P; John, Reshma; Padmakumar, K G; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mathew, Linu

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) sequence variation among the clariid fishes of India (Clarias magur, C. dussumieri and C. gariepinus) and their relationship with other representative clariids was studied in this work. Three species were sampled and together with 23 COI sequences from GenBank were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in the family Clariidae. The study revealed two clades: one consisting of the African species with C. dussumieri, and the other of Asian species suggesting the prevalence of intra-continental diversification of catfishes. This study further revealed that the genus Clarias is monophyletic. For the COI gene, the interspecies genetic divergence ranged from 0.056 to 0.182. The mean genetic difference between C. dussumieri and other selected African species in this study is 12.1%. It was also observed that the morphological similarity of C. dussumieri and C. magur was not replicated in the genetic level. Clarias dussumieri was more close to African catfish C. gariepinus thus indicating the utility of COI phylogeny to identify the well-known African-Asian relationships within catfishes. The results also showed that C. magur and C. batrachus are genetically distinct from each other. PMID:26358817

  6. Molecular phylogenetic investigations of the relationships of the echinoderm-parasite family Eulimidae within Hypsogastropoda (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Takano, Tsuyoshi; Kano, Yasunori

    2014-10-01

    The gastropod family Eulimidae has attracted considerable attention as one of the most diverse groups of parasitic molluscs in terms of number of species and ranges of body plans and parasitic strategies. However, the phylogenetic position of the family has not been established within the Hypsogastropoda and this has hampered the inference of ancestral states in the evolution of the morphology and parasitic strategies. Here we present Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylograms of Hypsogastropoda based on nuclear and mitochondrial loci (18S and 28S rRNA, Histone H3, COI and 16S rRNA) and a better taxonomic sampling than in previous molecular analyses, to determine the position of Eulimidae. The resulting trees suggest Vanikoridae as the sister group of Eulimidae; the two families are collectively placed in the newly redefined superfamily Vanikoroidea, with Truncatelloidea and (potentially paraphyletic) Rissooidea as closest relatives. Vanikorids are protandrous hermaphrodites as are many eulimids and are essentially carnivorous, differing from the mostly gonochoristic and herbivorous/detritivorous Truncatelloidea and Rissooidea. The mode of feeding may have a phylogenetic signal also within Eulimidae, where radula-less species constitute a robust clade. Other new findings include a close affinity of the submarine-cave Pickworthiidae to Cerithioidea and a terminal position of Nystiellidae within the paraphyletic Epitoniidae. PMID:24994027

  7. Molecular phylogenetic investigations of the relationships of the echinoderm-parasite family Eulimidae within Hypsogastropoda (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Takano, Tsuyoshi; Kano, Yasunori

    2014-10-01

    The gastropod family Eulimidae has attracted considerable attention as one of the most diverse groups of parasitic molluscs in terms of number of species and ranges of body plans and parasitic strategies. However, the phylogenetic position of the family has not been established within the Hypsogastropoda and this has hampered the inference of ancestral states in the evolution of the morphology and parasitic strategies. Here we present Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylograms of Hypsogastropoda based on nuclear and mitochondrial loci (18S and 28S rRNA, Histone H3, COI and 16S rRNA) and a better taxonomic sampling than in previous molecular analyses, to determine the position of Eulimidae. The resulting trees suggest Vanikoridae as the sister group of Eulimidae; the two families are collectively placed in the newly redefined superfamily Vanikoroidea, with Truncatelloidea and (potentially paraphyletic) Rissooidea as closest relatives. Vanikorids are protandrous hermaphrodites as are many eulimids and are essentially carnivorous, differing from the mostly gonochoristic and herbivorous/detritivorous Truncatelloidea and Rissooidea. The mode of feeding may have a phylogenetic signal also within Eulimidae, where radula-less species constitute a robust clade. Other new findings include a close affinity of the submarine-cave Pickworthiidae to Cerithioidea and a terminal position of Nystiellidae within the paraphyletic Epitoniidae.

  8. Assessing Phylogenetic Relationships among Galliformes: A Multigene Phylogeny with Expanded Taxon Sampling in Phasianidae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Braun, Edward L.; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Zhengwang

    2013-01-01

    Galliform birds (relatives of the chicken and turkey) have attracted substantial attention due to their importance to society and value as model systems. This makes understanding the evolutionary history of Galliformes, especially the species-rich family Phasianidae, particularly interesting and important for comparative studies in this group. Previous studies have differed in their conclusions regarding galliform phylogeny. Some of these studies have suggested that specific clades within this order underwent rapid radiations, potentially leading to the observed difficulty in resolving their phylogenetic relationships. Here we presented analyses of six nuclear intron sequences and two mitochondrial regions, an amount of sequence data larger than many previous studies, and expanded taxon sampling by collecting data from 88 galliform species and four anseriform outgroups. Our results corroborated recent studies describing relationships among the major families, and provided further evidence that the traditional division of the largest family, the Phasianidae into two major groups (“pheasants” and “partridges”) is not valid. Within the Phasianidae, relationships among many genera have varied among studies and there has been little consensus for the placement of many taxa. Using this large dataset, with substantial sampling within the Phasianidae, we obtained strong bootstrap support to confirm some previously hypothesized relationships and we were able to exclude others. In addition, we added the first nuclear sequence data for the partridge and quail genera Ammoperdix, Caloperdix, Excalfactoria, and Margaroperdix, placing these taxa in the galliform tree of life with confidence. Despite the novel insights obtained by combining increased sampling of taxa and loci, our results suggest that additional data collection will be necessary to solve the remaining uncertainties. PMID:23741315

  9. Assessing phylogenetic relationships among galliformes: a multigene phylogeny with expanded taxon sampling in Phasianidae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Kimball, Rebecca T; Braun, Edward L; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Zhengwang

    2013-01-01

    Galliform birds (relatives of the chicken and turkey) have attracted substantial attention due to their importance to society and value as model systems. This makes understanding the evolutionary history of Galliformes, especially the species-rich family Phasianidae, particularly interesting and important for comparative studies in this group. Previous studies have differed in their conclusions regarding galliform phylogeny. Some of these studies have suggested that specific clades within this order underwent rapid radiations, potentially leading to the observed difficulty in resolving their phylogenetic relationships. Here we presented analyses of six nuclear intron sequences and two mitochondrial regions, an amount of sequence data larger than many previous studies, and expanded taxon sampling by collecting data from 88 galliform species and four anseriform outgroups. Our results corroborated recent studies describing relationships among the major families, and provided further evidence that the traditional division of the largest family, the Phasianidae into two major groups ("pheasants" and "partridges") is not valid. Within the Phasianidae, relationships among many genera have varied among studies and there has been little consensus for the placement of many taxa. Using this large dataset, with substantial sampling within the Phasianidae, we obtained strong bootstrap support to confirm some previously hypothesized relationships and we were able to exclude others. In addition, we added the first nuclear sequence data for the partridge and quail genera Ammoperdix, Caloperdix, Excalfactoria, and Margaroperdix, placing these taxa in the galliform tree of life with confidence. Despite the novel insights obtained by combining increased sampling of taxa and loci, our results suggest that additional data collection will be necessary to solve the remaining uncertainties.

  10. Snake mitochondrial genomes: phylogenetic relationships and implications of extended taxon sampling for interpretations of mitogenomic evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Snake mitochondrial genomes are of great interest in understanding mitogenomic evolution because of gene duplications and rearrangements and the fast evolutionary rate of their genes compared to other vertebrates. Mitochondrial gene sequences have also played an important role in attempts to resolve the contentious phylogenetic relationships of especially the early divergences among alethinophidian snakes. Two recent innovative studies found dramatic gene- and branch-specific relative acceleration in snake protein-coding gene evolution, particularly along internal branches leading to Serpentes and Alethinophidia. It has been hypothesized that some of these rate shifts are temporally (and possibly causally) associated with control region duplication and/or major changes in ecology and anatomy. Results The near-complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of three henophidian snakes were sequenced: Anilius scytale, Rhinophis philippinus, and Charina trivirgata. All three genomes share a duplicated control region and translocated tRNALEU, derived features found in all alethinophidian snakes studied to date. The new sequence data were aligned with mt genome data for 21 other species of snakes and used in phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic results agreed with many other studies in recovering several robust clades, including Colubroidea, Caenophidia, and Cylindrophiidae+Uropeltidae. Nodes within Henophidia that have been difficult to resolve robustly in previous analyses remained uncompellingly resolved here. Comparisons of relative rates of evolution of rRNA vs. protein-coding genes were conducted by estimating branch lengths across the tree. Our expanded sampling revealed dramatic acceleration along the branch leading to Typhlopidae, particularly long rRNA terminal branches within Scolecophidia, and that most of the dramatic acceleration in protein-coding gene rate along Serpentes and Alethinophidia branches occurred before Anilius diverged from other

  11. Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution and biogeographic diversification of Pogostemon s.l. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Yao, Gang; Drew, Bryan T; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Yan, Hai-Fei; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Pogostemon (Lamiaceae; Lamioideae) sensu lato is a large genus consisting of about 80 species with a disjunct African/Asian distribution. The infrageneric taxonomy of the genus has historically been troublesome due to morphological variability and putative convergent evolution within the genus. Notably, some species of Pogostemon are obligately aquatic, perhaps the only Lamiaceae taxa which exhibit this trait. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and five plastid regions (matK, rbcL, rps16, trnH-psbA, trnL-F), confirmed the monophyly of Pogostemon and its sister relationship with the genus Anisomeles. Pogostemon was resolved into two major clades, and none of the three morphologically defined subgenera of Pogostemon were supported as monophyletic. Inflorescence type (spikes with more than two lateral branches vs. a single terminal spike, or rarely with two lateral branches) is phylogenetically informative and consistent with the two main clades we recovered. Accordingly, a new infrageneric classification of Pogostemon consisting of two subgenera is proposed. Molecular dating and biogeographic diversification analyses suggest that Pogostemon split from its sister genus in southern and southeast Asia in the early Miocene. The early strengthening of the Asia monsoon system that was triggered by the uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in the subsequent diversification of the genus. In addition, our results suggest that transoceanic long-distance dispersal of Pogostemon from Asia to Africa occurred at least twice, once in the late Miocene and again during the late-Miocene/early-Pliocene. PMID:26923493

  12. Phylogenetic Relationships in Bupleurum (Apiaceae) Based on Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ITS Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    NEVES, SUSANA S.; WATSON, MARK F.

    2004-01-01

    • Backgroud and Aims The genus Bupleurum has long been recognized as a natural group, but its infrageneric classification is controversial and has not yet been studied in the light of sequence data. • Methods Phylogenetic relationships among 32 species (35 taxa) of the genus Bupleurum were investigated by comparative sequencing of the ITS region of the 18–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat. Exemplar taxa from all currently accepted sections and subsections of the genus were included, along with outgroups from four other early branching Apioideae genera (Anginon, Heteromorpha, Physospermum and Pleurospermum). • Key Results Phylogenies generated by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbour‐joining methods show similar topologies, demonstrating monophyly of Bupleurum and the division of the genus into two major clades. This division is also supported by analysis of the 5.8S coding sequence alone. The first branching clade is formed by all the species of the genus with pinnate‐reticulate veined leaves and B. rigidum with a unique type of leaf venation. The other major clade includes the remaining species studied, all of which have more or less parallel‐veined leaves. • Conclusions These phylogenetic results do not agree with any previous classifications of the genus. Molecular data also suggest that the endemic Macaronesian species B. salicifolium is a neoendemic, as the sequence divergence between the populations in Madeira and Canary Islands, and closer mainland relatives in north‐west Africa is small. All endemic north‐west African taxa are included in a single unresolved but well‐supported clade, and the low nucleotide variation of ITS suggests a recent radiation within this group. The only southern hemisphere species, B. mundii (southern Africa), is shown to be a neoendemic, apparently closely related to B. falcatum, a Eurasian species. PMID:14980972

  13. Phylogenetic Relationships of Citrus and Its Relatives Based on matK Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Penjor, Tshering; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that “true citrus fruit trees” could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  14. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Mongolia Medicine Artemisia frigida and Phylogenetic Relationships with Other Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuixian; Young, Hugh A.; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yong Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. Conclusion The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of subtribe Ecliptinae (Asteraceae: Heliantheae) based on chloroplast DNA restriction site data.

    PubMed

    Panero, J L; Jansen, R K; Clevinger, J A

    1999-03-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA restriction site data for 76 of the 302 genera of Heliantheae sensu lato using 16 restriction endonucleases reveals that subtribe Ecliptinae is polyphyletic and that its genera are distributed in four different lineages. The ecliptinous genera Squamopappus, Podachaenium, Verbesina, and Tetrachyron (of the Neurolaeninae), along with other members of subtribe Neurolaeninae are the basalmost clades of the paleaceous Heliantheae. The mostly temperate species of subtribe Ecliptinae (exemplified by Balsamorhiza, Borrichia, Chrysogonum, Engelmannia, Silphium, Vigethia, and Wyethia) are strongly nested in a clade with the Mesoamerican monotypic genus Rojasianthe as basal. The genera characterized by marcescent ray corollas traditionally classified in subtribe Zinniinae constitute a strongly supported group sister to Acmella, Spilanthes, and Salmea. The largest clade of ecliptinous genera is the most recently derived group within Heliantheae sampled. This large group of mostly Neotropical lowland genera (variously characterized by their winged cypselae, foliaceous phyllaries, and opposite phyllotaxy and exemplified by Perymenium, Wedelia, and Zexmenia) has been and continues to be the most challenging group from a taxonomic standpoint. The study provides new insights as to their relationships that will have a positive impact in future monographic studies of the group. The genera of the Espeletiinae form a monophyletic clade and are sister to members of the Milleriinae and Melampodiinae. This result is consistent with their traditional taxonomic placement with genera such as Smallanthus with which they share a tendency for functionally staminate disc flowers. The phylogenetically enigmatic genus Montanoa is sister to Melampodium. Members of subtribe Galinsoginae are clustered in two main lineages that correspond to the traditional division of the subtribe based on pappus characteristics. There is no support for the monophyly of

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Penjor, Tshering; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  17. Resolving the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Drosophila virilis group using multilocus data.

    PubMed

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Reis, Micael; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    The Drosophila virilis group is one of the major lineages of Drosophila previously recognised and it has been used as a model for different types of studies. It comprises 13 species whose phylogenetic relationships are not well resolved. In the present study, six nuclear genes (Adh, fused, Gpdh, NonA, CG9631 and CG7219) and the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes (12S-16S) have been used to estimate the evolutionary tree of the group using different methods of phylogenetic reconstruction. Different competing evolutionary hypotheses have also been compared using the Approximately Unbiased test to further evaluate the robustness of the inferred trees. Results are, in general, consistent with previous studies in recovering the four major lineages of the group (D. virilis phylad, Drosophila montana subphylad, Drosophila kanekoi subphylad and Drosophila littoralis subphylad), although D. kanekoi, D. littoralis and Drosophila ezoana are here inferred to be more closely related to the D. virilis phylad than to the D. montana subphylad. The age of the crown group, estimated with a Bayesian method that assumes a relaxed molecular clock, is placed in the late Miocene (∼ 10 Mya). The oldest lineages also appeared during this period (∼ 7.5 to ∼ 8.9 Mya), while the ages of the basal nodes of the montana subphylad and the virilis phylad are located in the early Pliocene (∼ 4.9 and ∼ 4.1 Mya). Major cladogenesis events correlate to geological and palaeoclimatic occurrences that most likely affected the freshwater and deciduous forests where these species are found. The inferred biogeographical history of the group, based on the statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, indicates that the last common ancestor of the group had a Holarctic distribution from which the North American and the Eurasian lineages evolved as a result of a vicariant event.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships in Myrceugenia (Myrtaceae) based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-A., José; Ruiz-P., Eduardo; Landrum, Leslie R.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Barfuss, Michael H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Myrceugenia is a genus endemic to South America with a disjunct distribution: 12 species occurring mainly in central Chile and approximately 25 in southeastern Brazil. Relationships are reconstructed within Myrceugenia from four plastid markers (partial trnK-matK, rpl32-trnL, trnQ-5′rps16 and rpl16) and two ribosomal nuclear regions (ETS and ITS) using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Relationships inferred previously from morphological data are not completely consistent with those from molecular data. All molecular analyses support the hypothesis that Myrceugenia is monophyletic, except for M. fernadeziana that falls outside the genus. Chilean species and Brazilian species form two separate lineages. Chilean species form three early diverging clades, whereas Brazilian species are a strongly supported monophyletic group in a terminal position. Least average evolutionary divergence, low resolution, short branches, and high species diversity found in the Brazilian clade suggest rapid radiation. Geographical distributions and phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that extant Myrceugenia species arose in northern Chile followed by colonization southward and finally to the Juan Fernández Islands and southeastern Brazil. PMID:22155422

  19. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Leontopodium (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) based on AFLP data

    PubMed Central

    SAFER, STEFAN; TREMETSBERGER, KARIN; GUO, YAN-PING; KOHL, GUDRUN; SAMUEL, MARY R.; STUESSY, TOD F.; STUPPNER, HERMANN

    2012-01-01

    The genus Leontopodium comprises 30–41 species. The centre of diversity is the Sino-Himalayan region in south-western China, where about 15 species occur. The two species native to Europe, L. alpinum (known as the common ‘Edelweiss’) and L. nivale, are part of the cultural heritage of the people living there. Despite its importance, very little is known about the systematics of the genus. Because recent molecular studies have shown that species within this genus are closely related and difficult to distinguish with rDNA and cpDNA data, we used AFLPs to obtain a more detailed understanding of the phylogeny of the genus. Our main aims were as follows: (1) to clarify species relationships within the genus; and (2) to reveal information about the biogeography of the genus. We used AFLPs with six primer combinations to investigate 216 individuals in 38 populations of 16 different species. With AFLPs, we were able to recognize 10 different groups, all of which had strong bootstrap support. These results were also congruent with the morphology-based taxonomy of the genus. Most private and rare fragments were found in the Yunnan region (south-western China) relative to Europe and Mongolia/central China, suggesting a long-lasting in situ history of populations in the centre of diversity of the genus. Our results illustrate the utility of AFLPs to resolve phylogenetic relationships between these closely related species. PMID:23258943

  20. Relationships of cucumbers and melons unraveled: molecular phylogenetics of Cucumis and related genera (Benincaseae, Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghebretinsae, Amanuel G; Thulin, Mats; Barber, Janet C

    2007-07-01

    Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) comprises 33 species of annuals and perennials with a major native center of diversity in tropical and southern Africa. The genus includes some economically important and widely grown vegetables such as cucumbers and melons. Monophyly of the genus has been disputed in previous studies, but with only limited sampling. Relationships within Cucumis are thus poorly understood; moreover, the validity of the closely related genera has not been thoroughly tested. The present study was undertaken to test the monophyly of Cucumis and several closely related genera, to test sectional circumscriptions within Cucumis, and to understand the biogeographical history of the genus. We sequenced the nuclear ITS and plastid trnS-trnG regions for 40 ingroup and three outgroup taxa, representing all recognized subgenera and sections. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses found Cucumella, Oreosyce, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Dicaelospermum nested within Cucumis. The clades recovered within the Cucumis complex in some instances represent the first phylogenetically derived hypothesis of relationships, whereas others correspond to previous subgeneric and sectional classifications. At least four introductions from Africa to Asia, as well as one reintroduction to Africa, are suggested within the Cucumis complex. Cucumis sativus (cucumber) is strongly supported as sister to the eastern Asian C. hystrix, whereas C. melo (melon) is strongly supported as sister to C. sagittatus in southern Africa.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of the Orang Asli and Iban of Malaysia based on maternal markers.

    PubMed

    Ang, K C; Leow, J W H; Yeap, W K; Hood, S; Mahani, M C; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia remains as a crossroad of different cultures and peoples, and it has long been recognized that studying its population history can provide crucial insight into the prehistory of Southeast Asia as a whole. The earliest inhabitants were the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak. Although they were the earliest migrants in this region, these tribes are divided geographically by the South China Sea. We analyzed DNA sequences of 18 Orang Asli using mitochondrial DNA extracted from blood samples, each representing one sub-tribe, and from five Sarawakian Iban. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from hair samples in order to examine relationships with the main ethnic groups in Malaysia. The D-loop region and cytochrome b genes were used as the candidate loci. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated using maximum parsimony and neighbor joining algorithms, and each tree was subjected to bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates. Analyses of the HVS I region showed that the Iban are not a distinct group from the Orang Asli; they form a sub-clade within the Orang Asli. Based on the cytochrome b gene, the Iban clustered with the Orang Asli in the same clade. We found evidence for considerable gene flow between Orang Asli and Iban. We concluded that the Orang Asli, Iban and the main ethnic groups of Malaysia are probably derived from a common ancestor. This is in agreement with a single-route migration theory, but it does not dismiss a two-route migration theory. PMID:21491374

  2. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of two extinct potoroid marsupials, Potorous platyops and Caloprymnus campestris (Potoroinae: Marsupialia).

    PubMed

    Westerman, M; Loke, S; Springer, M S

    2004-05-01

    Complete 12S rRNA and partial cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences have been obtained from museum samples of two recently extinct potoroids-Potorous platyops and Caloprymnus campestris. Phylogenetic analyses based on these mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest that the broad-faced potoroo (P. platyops) was a close relative of the recently discovered Potorous longipes and the recently re-discovered Potorous gilberti. Although the extinct desert rat-kangaroo (C. campestris) was clearly resolved as a member of the subfamily Potoroinae, its precise relationships vis a vis other living potoroines are unclear. We confirmed that the rufous rat-kangaroo (Aepyprymnus rufescens) is sister to all living Bettongia species, but the molecular data provide no support for a sister relationship between A. rufescens and C. campestris as suggested by on the basis of four shared morphological characters. Molecular dating analyses suggest that the initial radiation of potoroinae seems to have occurred soon after its origin in the early Miocene. Within Potoroinae, C. campestris diverged from other taxa approximately 16 million years ago. P. platyops diverged from P. longipes+P. gilberti approximately 14-15 million years ago.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Chamaecyparis inferred from leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ya; Cheng, Seng-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2011-06-01

    The species differentiation between Chamaecyparis formosensis, C. obtusa var. formosana, and C. obtusa, based on the composition of the leaf essential oils, was studied. The characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses showed remarkable differences between these three essential oils. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal-component analysis (PCA) distinguished three groups of essential oils. The C. formosensis oil was dominated by α-pinene while those isolated from C. obtusa var. formosana and C. obtusa were characterized by high levels of (-)-thujopsene and α-terpinyl acetate, respectively. Moreover, the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Chamaecyparis were in agreement with previous findings based on morphological and molecular evidence. In addition, the essential oils from C. obtusa var. formosana could be classified into three chemical types, according to their different characteristic main compounds (β-elemol, (-)-thujopsene, and cis-thujopsenal). The biochemical correlations between the major constituents of the Chamaecyparis species were examined and their relationship is discussed. PMID:21674781

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of rock-wallabies, Petrogale (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) and their biogeographic history within Australia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sally; Cooper, Steven J B; Metcalfe, Cushla J; Taggart, David A; Eldridge, Mark D B

    2012-02-01

    The rock-wallaby genus Petrogale comprises a group of habitat-specialist macropodids endemic to Australia. Their restriction to rocky outcrops, with infrequent interpopulation dispersal, has been suggested as the cause of their recent and rapid diversification. Molecular phylogenetic relationships within and among species of Petrogale were analysed using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1, cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2) and nuclear (omega-globin intron, breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene) sequence data with representatives that encompassed the morphological and chromosomal variation within the genus, including for the first time both Petrogale concinna and Petrogale purpureicollis. Four distinct lineages were identified, (1) the brachyotis group, (2) Petrogale persephone, (3) Petrogalexanthopus and (4) the lateralis-penicillata group. Three of these lineages include taxa with the ancestral karyotype (2n=22). Paraphyletic relationships within the brachyotis group indicate the need for a focused phylogeographic study. There was support for P. purpureicollis being reinstated as a full species and P. concinna being placed within Petrogale rather than in the monotypic genus Peradorcas. Bayesian analyses of divergence times suggest that episodes of diversification commenced in the late Miocene-Pliocene and continued throughout the Pleistocene. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that Petrogale originated in a mesic environment and dispersed into more arid environments, events that correlate with the timing of radiations in other arid zone vertebrate taxa across Australia.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of elapid snakes based on cytochrome b mtDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Slowinski, J B; Keogh, J S

    2000-04-01

    Published molecular phylogenetic studies of elapid snakes agree that the marine and Australo-Melanesian forms are collectively monophyletic. Recent studies, however, disagree on the relationships of the African, American, and Asian forms. To resolve the relationships of the African, American, and Asian species to each other and to the marine/Australo-Melanesian clade, we sequenced the entire cytochrome b gene for 28 elapids; 2 additional elapid sequences from GenBank were also included. This sample includes all African, American, and Asian genera (except for the rare African Pseudohaje), as well as a representative sample of marine/Australo-Melanesian genera. The data were analyzed by the methods of maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood. Both types of analyses yielded similar trees, from which the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Homoroselaps falls outside a clade formed by the remaining elapids; (2) the remaining elapids are divisible into two broad sister clades, the marine/Australo-Melanesian species vs the African, American, and Asian species; (3) American coral snakes cluster with Asian coral snakes; and (4) the "true" cobra genus Naja is probably not monophyletic as the result of excluding such genera as Boulengerina and Paranaja.

  6. [Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of nine species of grouper in genus Epinephelus].

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiu-Fen; Liu, Chu-Wu; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Wu, Yong

    2007-07-01

    Thirteen microsatellite markers of Epinephelus awoara previously discovered by our lab were selected to analyze the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of nine species of grouper (E. awoara, E. merra, E. fario, E. fasciatus, E. lanceolatus, E. akaara, E. septemfasciatus, E. coioides and E. fuscoguttatus) from South China Sea. The results showed that the number of total alleles of these 13 microsatellite loci was 84 in these fishes, the mean number of alleles ranged from 2.69 to 5.38, mean polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.1976 to 0.4267, mean observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0.4615 to 0.6239, mean expected heterozygosity (He) from 0.3510 to 0.4754 and mean Hardy-Weinberg departure value (D) from 0.1097 to 0.2836, respectively. All of these indicated that genetic diversity of the nine species of grouper was at a medium level. Two NJ dendrograms showed that E. coioides, E. fuscoguttatus and E. lanceolatus were grouped together, while E. awoara, E. akaara and E. septemfasciatus were in a second group, and E. merra, E. fasciatus and E. fario were in a third group which had a relatively closed relationship with the second group. The dendrograms could also support a conclusion that Promicrops lanceolatus (E. lanceolatus) should be included in genus Epinephelus.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of the Orang Asli and Iban of Malaysia based on maternal markers.

    PubMed

    Ang, K C; Leow, J W H; Yeap, W K; Hood, S; Mahani, M C; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia remains as a crossroad of different cultures and peoples, and it has long been recognized that studying its population history can provide crucial insight into the prehistory of Southeast Asia as a whole. The earliest inhabitants were the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak. Although they were the earliest migrants in this region, these tribes are divided geographically by the South China Sea. We analyzed DNA sequences of 18 Orang Asli using mitochondrial DNA extracted from blood samples, each representing one sub-tribe, and from five Sarawakian Iban. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from hair samples in order to examine relationships with the main ethnic groups in Malaysia. The D-loop region and cytochrome b genes were used as the candidate loci. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated using maximum parsimony and neighbor joining algorithms, and each tree was subjected to bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates. Analyses of the HVS I region showed that the Iban are not a distinct group from the Orang Asli; they form a sub-clade within the Orang Asli. Based on the cytochrome b gene, the Iban clustered with the Orang Asli in the same clade. We found evidence for considerable gene flow between Orang Asli and Iban. We concluded that the Orang Asli, Iban and the main ethnic groups of Malaysia are probably derived from a common ancestor. This is in agreement with a single-route migration theory, but it does not dismiss a two-route migration theory.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:7618891

  9. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF THE RED TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE GYMNODINIUM BREVE TO OTHER MEMBERS OF THE GENERA GYMNODINIUM AND GYRODINIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phylogenetic relationships between the red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and other members of the genera Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium have not been studied at the molecular level. G. breve is most noted for its production of brevetoxin, which has been linked to extensive f...

  10. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Lespedeza Germplasm and Analysis of Its Phylogenetic Relationship with the Genus Kummerowia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of genus Lespedeza is not well known and the phylogenetic relationship of Lespedeza with the genus Kummerowia is unclear. We report the first study in which polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence (EST-SSR) markers derived from Medicago, cowpea and soybean were used...

  11. Molecular phylogenetics of Amorpha (Fabaceae): an evaluation of monophyly, species relationships, and polyploid origins.

    PubMed

    Straub, Shannon C K; Doyle, Jeff J

    2014-07-01

    Amorpha L. (false indigos and lead plants) is a North American legume genus of 16 species of shrubs, which is most diverse in the southeastern United States and distinctive due to the reduction of the corolla to a single petal. Most species have limited distributions, but the tetraploid A. fruticosa species complex is widely distributed and its range overlaps those of all of the other species. Morphological variation in the genus is characterized by gradation of characters among species and it has been the subject of repeated taxonomic study due to the difficulty in delimiting species, especially among A. fruticosa and allies. This study presents the first phylogenetic and network analyses for evaluation of relationships amongst Amorpha species based on three non-coding plastome regions (trnD-trnT, trnH-psbA, petN-psbM) and two low-copy nuclear genes (CNGC5, minD). Plastid DNA analyses supported a monophyletic Amorpha with Parryella filifolia and Errazurizia rotundata as successive sister lineages; however, nuclear gene analyses supported the nesting of these two species and thus a paraphyletic Amorpha. Relationships among species of Amorpha were best resolved in the plastid DNA phylogeny and in most cases were concordant with expectations based on morphology. Relationships based on the nuclear gene phylogenies were less clear due to lack of informative variation (CNGC5) or conflict in the data set (minD). The origins of A. fruticosa were unclear, but the plastid phylogeny revealed that this species shares the same or similar plastid haplotype as other species in a geographic region. Putative recombination of diploid species' alleles was evident in the minD-like network. Phenotypic plasticity in combination with gene flow into this species from different diploids, or even tetraploids, across its range may account for the incredible morphological diversity of the A. fruticosa species complex. Putative progenitors for two other suspected allotetraploid species, A

  12. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations. PMID:27761309

  13. The phylogenetic relationships of Pachyrhachis problematicus, and the evolution of limblessness in snakes (Lepidosauria, Squamata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaher, Hussam; Rieppel, Olivier

    1999-12-01

    We have revisited the type material of Pachyrhachis problematicus, a fossil snake from the Cenomanian (Cretaceous) of the Middle East, and found a number of characters in need of revision with respect to its recent re-description. A new interpretation is given for several cranial characters. There is no identifiable regionalization of the presacral-vertebral column beyond that found in booid snakes. The identification of a free sacral rib in Pachyrhachis is more parsimoniously interpreted as the first lymphapophysis. It is questionable that the pelvic rudiment would have been suspended from the axial skeleton. We have also extensively reviewed the evidence that is believed to link Pachyrhachis, and with it all other snakes, to a mosasauroid ancestor. We were not able to corroborate this hypothesis, which involves characters related to the dentition, braincase morphology, and the intramandibular joint. Instead, re-analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of Pachyrhachis corroborates the hypothesis that it represents the sister-group of macrostomatan snakes, i.e., advanced snakes. Given that Pachyrhachis is nested within the hierarchy of snakes, it is entirely possible that this snake re-developed almost complete hind limbs. A less parsimonious hypothesis would be to consider the hind limbs to have been lost independently in the major basal clades of extant snakes (Scolecophidia, Anilioidea, and Macrostomata). The latter hypothesis is considered a serious possibility given the recently described findings on the mechanisms of limb development in Python, which could account for the highly variable pattern of hindlimb reduction found among basal snakes.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Indian caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) inferred from mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mark; A Sheps, Jonathan; Oommen, Oommen V; Cohen, Bernard L

    2002-06-01

    India has a diverse caecilian fauna, including representatives of three of the six currently recognized families, the Caeciliidae, Ichthyophiidae, the endemic Uraeotyphlidae, but previous molecular phylogenetic studies of caecilians have not included sequences for any Indian caecilians. Partial 12S and 16S mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained for a single representative of each of the caecilian families found in India and aligned against previously reported sequences for 13 caecilian species. The resulting alignment (16 taxa, 1200 sites, of which 288 cannot be aligned unambiguously) was analyzed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and distance methods. As judged by bootstrap proportions, decay indices, and leaf stabilities, well-supported relationships of the Indian caecilians are recovered from the alignment. The data (1) corroborate the hypothesis, based on morphology, that the Uraeotyphlidae and Ichthyophiidae are sister taxa, (2) recover a monophyletic Ichthyophiidae, including Indian and South East Asian representatives, and (3) place the Indian caeciliid Gegeneophis ramaswamii as the sister group of the caeciliid caecilians of the Seychelles. Rough estimates of divergence times suggest an origin of the Uraeotyphlidae and Ichthyophiidae while India was isolated from Laurasia and Africa and are most consistent with an Indian origin of these families and subsequent dispersal of ichthyophiids into South East Asia.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of the Fox (Forkhead) gene family in the Bilateria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazet, Francoise; Yu, Jr Kai; Liberles, David A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.

    2003-01-01

    The Forkhead or Fox gene family encodes putative transcription factors. There are at least four Fox genes in yeast, 16 in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 42 in humans. Recently, vertebrate Fox genes have been classified into 17 groups named FoxA to FoxQ. Here, we extend this analysis to invertebrates, using available sequences from D. melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae (Ag), Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce), the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis (Ci) and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae (Bf), from which we also cloned several Fox genes. Phylogenetic analyses lend support to the previous overall subclassification of vertebrate genes, but suggest that four subclasses (FoxJ, L, N and Q) could be further subdivided to reflect their relationships to invertebrate genes. We were unable to identify orthologs of Fox subclasses E, H, I, J, M and Q1 in D. melanogaster, A. gambiae or C. elegans, suggesting either considerable loss in ecdysozoans or the evolution of these subclasses in the deuterostome lineage. Our analyses suggest that the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes had a minimum complement of 14 Fox genes.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among major species of japanese coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using three mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Takumiya, Mikio; Kobayashi, Mari; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2005-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 36 species of major coleoid cephalopods from Japanese waters were studied using partial sequences of three mitochondrial genes, 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Octopoda and Decapoda were monophylic groups. Within Sepioidea, Sepiadariidae and Sepiolidae were not closely related to Sepiidae, but rather related to Teuthoidea. Sepiidae with a distinct calcareous shell formed a single cluster. Myopsida was closely related to Oegopsida. Within Octopoda, Opisthoteuthis depressa and Argonauta argo diverged earlier than Octopodiidae. The common octopuses in Japanese waters were separated into three clusters. The first cluster occupied a basal position, and includes large-sized octopuses, such as Enteroctopus dofleini and Octopus (Paroctopus) conispadiceus from the continental shelf and upper slope. The second cluster consisted of long-armed octopuses, such as O. ornatus, O. minor, and O. sasakii. The third cluster contained small- to medium-sized octopus, such as Amphioctopus fangsiao, A. areolatus, O. cyaneus, and O. vulgaris, in which several species possess ocelli on the web. The second cluster formed the sister group to the third cluster. PMID:15738635

  17. Cloning, restriction mapping and phylogenetic relationship of genomic components of MYMIV from Lablab purpureus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Chakraborty, S; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Pandey, P K

    2006-10-01

    The present work describes cloning of genomic components of whitefly transmitted geminivirus infecting Lablab purpureus syn. Dolichos lablab (commonly known as Dolichos bean or Hyacinth bean). The genome characterization using PCR with geminiviral degenerate primers and DNA sequencing were used to describe the bipartite virus associated with yellow mosaic disease of Dolichos lablab. Full-length DNA-A and DNA-B clones were obtained. The DNA-A sequence analysis showed that the isolate was similar to other Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) isolates reported earlier. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the full-length DNA-A of virus isolate revealed more than 97% homology with Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus-[Cowpea] (AF481865), while the DNA-B also showed >95% homology with MYMIV-[Cp] (AF503580) and MYMIV-[Sb] (AY049771). The phylogenetic analysis of present isolate showed close relationship to legume geminiviruses. The nucleotide sequence analysis showed presence of six open reading frames (ORFs) in DNA-A, with 2 ORFs aligned in sense and 4 ORFs in antisense orientation. Similarly, DNA-B contained two open reading frames (ORFs), one in sense and another in antisense orientation. PMID:16242317

  18. Molecular phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of the placenta in Poecilia (Micropoecilia) (Poeciliidae: Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Meredith, Robert W; Pires, Marcelo N; Reznick, David N; Springer, Mark S

    2010-05-01

    Poeciliids are one of the most intensively studied groups within Cyprinodontiformes owing to their use as model organisms for experimental studies on natural and sexual selection, and comparative studies of life-history evolution. Life-history studies have demonstrated multiple origins of placentotrophy and superfetation in poeciliids, including the recent description of placentotrophy in three species of Poecilia (Micropoecilia): P. bifurca, P. branneri, and P. parae. Here, we use a concatenation of seven nuclear gene segments and two mitochondrial segments to examine relationships within Micropoecilia and between this subgenus and other subgenera in Poecilia (Mollienesia, Limia, Pamphorichthys, Acanthophacelus). The combined molecular data set (8668 bp) was analyzed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. We also employed a relaxed molecular clock method to estimate divergence times within Poecilia. All phylogenetic analyses with the combined DNA data set supported the monophyly of Poecilia and recovered a basal split between Poecilia (Acanthophacelus)+Poecilia (Micropoecilia) and the other three subgenera. Within Micropoecilia, P. bifurca grouped with P. branneri, and these joined P. parae to the exclusion of P. picta. Ancestral reconstructions based on parsimony and Bayesian methods suggest that placentotrophy evolved once in Micropoecilia in the common ancestor of P. bifurca, P. branneri, and P. parae. Divergence time estimates suggest that placentotrophy in Micropoecilia evolved in 4 million years.

  19. Advances in clarifying the phylogenetic relationships of acacias: Relevance for biological control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinjan, C. A.; Hoffmann, J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Biological control of invasive Australian acacias will benefit from recent advances in resolving the phylogenetic relationships of Acacia s.l. and Acacia s.s. ("Australian acacias") within the subfamily Mimosoideae. Some of the phytophage taxa associated with Acacia s.s. display fidelity to a derived clade within the genus. This derived clade contains most of the Acacia s.s. species that have become problematic around the world. Phytophages that are demonstrably restricted to species within the derived clade pose essentially no risk to species outside Acacia s.s.. In contrast, prospective agents able to develop on species in the basal lineages of Acacia s.s. would require more-expansive testing because Acacia s.s. is closely related to the Ingeae, and then sequentially to the genera Acaciella, Mariosousa and Senegalia. Importantly, Vachellia is distantly related to Acacia s.s., being nested in basal Mimoseae lineages, and is thus less likely to be at risk than previously envisaged. Elucidation of these trends shows the benefits of having a comprehensive knowledge of the phylogeny of plants and phytophages under consideration for biological control.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships and morphological diversity in Darwin's finches and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin J; Hackett, Shannon J; Klein, Nedra K

    2002-06-01

    Despite the importance of Darwin's finches to the development of evolutionary theory, the origin of the group has only recently been examined using a rigorous, phylogenetic methodology that includes many potential outgroups. Knowing the evolutionary relationships of Darwin's finches to other birds is important for understanding the context from which this adaptive radiation arose. Here we show that analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the cytochrome b gene confirm that Darwin's finches are monophyletic. In addition, many taxa previously proposed as the sister taxon to Darwin's finches can be excluded as their closest living relative. Darwin's finches are part of a well-supported monophyletic group of species, all of which build a domed nest. All but two of the non-Darwin's finches included in this clade occur on Caribbean islands and most are Caribbean endemics. These close relatives of Darwin's finches show a diversity of bill types and feeding behaviors similar to that observed among Darwin's finches themselves. Recent studies have shown that adaptive evolution in Darwin's finches occurred relatively quickly. Our data show that among the relatives of Darwin's finches, the evolution of bill diversity was also rapid and extensive.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among hadal amphipods of the Superfamily Lysianassoidea: Implications for taxonomy and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, H.; Jamieson, A. J.; Piertney, S. B.

    2015-11-01

    Amphipods of the superfamily Lysianassoidea are ubiquitous at hadal depths (>6000 m) and therefore are an ideal model group for investigating levels of endemism and the drivers of speciation in deep ocean trenches. The taxonomic classification of hadal amphipods is typically based on conventional morphological traits but it has been suggested that convergent evolution, phenotypic plasticity, intra-specific variability and ontogenetic variation may obscure the ability to robustly diagnose taxa and define species. Here we use phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence variation at two mitochondrial (COI and 16S rDNA) and one nuclear (18S rDNA) regions at to examine the evolutionary relationships among 25 putative amphipod species representing 14 genera and 11 families that were sampled from across seven hadal trenches. We identify several instances where species, genera and families do not resolve monophyletic clades, highlighting incongruence between the current taxonomic classification and the molecular phylogeny for this group. Our data also help extend and resolve the known biogeographic distributions for the different species, such as identifying the co-occurrence of Hirondellea dubia and Hirondellea gigas in the Mariana trench.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among major species of japanese coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using three mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Takumiya, Mikio; Kobayashi, Mari; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2005-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 36 species of major coleoid cephalopods from Japanese waters were studied using partial sequences of three mitochondrial genes, 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Octopoda and Decapoda were monophylic groups. Within Sepioidea, Sepiadariidae and Sepiolidae were not closely related to Sepiidae, but rather related to Teuthoidea. Sepiidae with a distinct calcareous shell formed a single cluster. Myopsida was closely related to Oegopsida. Within Octopoda, Opisthoteuthis depressa and Argonauta argo diverged earlier than Octopodiidae. The common octopuses in Japanese waters were separated into three clusters. The first cluster occupied a basal position, and includes large-sized octopuses, such as Enteroctopus dofleini and Octopus (Paroctopus) conispadiceus from the continental shelf and upper slope. The second cluster consisted of long-armed octopuses, such as O. ornatus, O. minor, and O. sasakii. The third cluster contained small- to medium-sized octopus, such as Amphioctopus fangsiao, A. areolatus, O. cyaneus, and O. vulgaris, in which several species possess ocelli on the web. The second cluster formed the sister group to the third cluster.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among seed plants: Persistent questions and the limits of molecular data.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Trees inferred from DNA sequence data provide only limited insight into the phylogeny of seed plants because the living lineages (cycads, Ginkgo, conifers, gnetophytes, and angiosperms) represent fewer than half of the major lineages that have been detected in the fossil record. Nevertheless, phylogenetic trees of living seed plants inferred from sequence data can provide a test of relationships inferred in analyses that include fossils. So far, however, significant uncertainty persists because nucleotide data support several conflicting hypotheses. It is likely that improved sampling of gymnosperm diversity in nucleotide data sets will help alleviate some of the analytical issues encountered in the estimation of seed plant phylogeny, providing a more definitive test of morphological trees. Still, rigorous morphological analyses will be required to answer certain fundamental questions, such as the identity of the angiosperm sister group and the rooting of crown seed plants. Moreover, it will be important to identify approaches for incorporating insights from data that may be accurate but less likely than sequence data to generate results supported by high bootstrap values. How best to weigh evidence and distinguish among hypotheses when some types of data give high support values and others do not remains an important problem. PMID:21628186

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of normal modes evolution in enzymes and its relationship to enzyme function.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jason; Jin, Jing; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2012-09-21

    Since the dynamic nature of protein structures is essential for enzymatic function, it is expected that functional evolution can be inferred from the changes in protein dynamics. However, dynamics can also diverge neutrally with sequence substitution between enzymes without changes of function. In this study, a phylogenetic approach is implemented to explore the relationship between enzyme dynamics and function through evolutionary history. Protein dynamics are described by normal mode analysis based on a simplified harmonic potential force field applied to the reduced C(α) representation of the protein structure while enzymatic function is described by Enzyme Commission numbers. Similarity of the binding pocket dynamics at each branch of the protein family's phylogeny was analyzed in two ways: (1) explicitly by quantifying the normal mode overlap calculated for the reconstructed ancestral proteins at each end and (2) implicitly using a diffusion model to obtain the reconstructed lineage-specific changes in the normal modes. Both explicit and implicit ancestral reconstruction identified generally faster rates of change in dynamics compared with the expected change from neutral evolution at the branches of potential functional divergences for the α-amylase, D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, and copper-containing amine oxidase protein families. Normal mode analysis added additional information over just comparing the RMSD of static structures. However, the branch-specific changes were not statistically significant compared to background function-independent neutral rates of change of dynamic properties and blind application of the analysis would not enable prediction of changes in enzyme specificity.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Indian caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) inferred from mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mark; A Sheps, Jonathan; Oommen, Oommen V; Cohen, Bernard L

    2002-06-01

    India has a diverse caecilian fauna, including representatives of three of the six currently recognized families, the Caeciliidae, Ichthyophiidae, the endemic Uraeotyphlidae, but previous molecular phylogenetic studies of caecilians have not included sequences for any Indian caecilians. Partial 12S and 16S mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained for a single representative of each of the caecilian families found in India and aligned against previously reported sequences for 13 caecilian species. The resulting alignment (16 taxa, 1200 sites, of which 288 cannot be aligned unambiguously) was analyzed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and distance methods. As judged by bootstrap proportions, decay indices, and leaf stabilities, well-supported relationships of the Indian caecilians are recovered from the alignment. The data (1) corroborate the hypothesis, based on morphology, that the Uraeotyphlidae and Ichthyophiidae are sister taxa, (2) recover a monophyletic Ichthyophiidae, including Indian and South East Asian representatives, and (3) place the Indian caeciliid Gegeneophis ramaswamii as the sister group of the caeciliid caecilians of the Seychelles. Rough estimates of divergence times suggest an origin of the Uraeotyphlidae and Ichthyophiidae while India was isolated from Laurasia and Africa and are most consistent with an Indian origin of these families and subsequent dispersal of ichthyophiids into South East Asia. PMID:12099794

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among cirrate octopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) resolved using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Piertney, Stuart B; Hudelot, Cendrine; Hochberg, F G; Collins, Martin A

    2003-05-01

    PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE CIRRATE OCTOPODS (MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) were investigated using partial sequences of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene. The derived phylogeny supports the traditional separation of cirrate families based on web form. Genera with a single web (Opisthoteuthis, Grimpoteuthis, Luteuthis, and Cirroctopus) are clearly distinct from those with an intermediate or secondary web (Cirroteuthis, Cirrothauma, and Stauroteuthis). The cirrates with a single web are separated into three groups. The first group is represented by Opisthoteuthis species, the second by Grimpoteuthis and Luteuthis, and the third by members of the genus Cirroctopus. There is no support for the isolation of Luteuthis in a separate family (Luteuthidae). There is, however, evidence of two groupings within the genus Opisthoteuthis. The data suggest the following revisions in the systematic classification of the cirrates: (1) Cirrothauma, Cirroteuthis, and Stauroteuthis be united in the Cirroteuthidae; (2) Grimpoteuthis and Luteuthis be placed in the Grimpoteuthidae; (3) Opisthoteuthis in the Opisthoteuthidae, and; (4) Cirroctopus be considered sufficiently distinct from both Opisthoteuthidae and Grimpoteuthidae to warrant placement in a new family.

  7. Plastid genomes reveal support for deep phylogenetic relationships and extensive rate variation among palms and other commelinid monocots.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Craig F; Baker, William J; Comer, Jason R; Conran, John G; Lahmeyer, Sean C; Leebens-Mack, James H; Li, Jeff; Lim, Gwynne S; Mayfield-Jones, Dustin R; Perez, Leticia; Medina, Jesus; Pires, J Chris; Santos, Cristian; Wm Stevenson, Dennis; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Davis, Jerrold I

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress based on multilocus, phylogenetic studies of the palms (order Arecales, family Arecaceae), uncertainty remains in resolution/support among major clades and for the placement of the palms among the commelinid monocots. Palms and related commelinids represent a classic case of substitution rate heterogeneity that has not been investigated in the genomic era. To address questions of relationships, support and rate variation among palms and commelinid relatives, 39 plastomes representing the palms and related family Dasypogonaceae were generated via genome skimming and integrated within a monocot-wide matrix for phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. Support was strong for 'deep' relationships among the commelinid orders, among the five palm subfamilies, and among tribes of the subfamily Coryphoideae. Additionally, there was extreme heterogeneity in the plastid substitution rates across the commelinid orders indicated by model based analyses, with c. 22 rate shifts, and significant departure from a global clock. To date, this study represents the most comprehensively sampled matrix of plastomes assembled for monocot angiosperms, providing genome-scale support for phylogenetic relationships of monocot angiosperms, and lays the phylogenetic groundwork for comparative analyses of the drivers and correlates of such drastic differences in substitution rates across a diverse and significant clade. PMID:26350789

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of Middle American cichlids (Cichlidae, Heroini) based on combined evidence from nuclear genes, mtDNA, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Rícan, Oldrich; Zardoya, Rafael; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Heroine cichlids are the second largest and very diverse tribe of Neotropical cichlids, and the only cichlid group that inhabits Mesoamerica. The taxonomy of heroines is complex because monophyly of most genera has never been demonstrated, and many species groups are without applicable generic names after their removal from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma (sensu Regan, 1905). Hence, a robust phylogeny for the group is largely wanting. A rather complete heroine phylogeny based on cytb sequence data is available [Concheiro Pérez, G.A., Rícan O., Ortí G., Bermingham, E., Doadrio, I., Zardoya, R. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43, 91-110], and in the present study, we have added and analyzed independent data sets (nuclear and morphological) to further confirm and strengthen the cytb-phylogenetic hypothesis. We have analyzed a combined cytb-nuclear (RAG1 and two S7 introns) data set of 48 species representing main heroine lineages to achieve further resolution of heroine higher taxonomic levels and a combined cytb-morphological data set of 92 species to stabilize generic taxonomy. The recovered phylogenies supported the circumamazonian--CAM--Heroini (sensu Concheiro Peréz et al., 2007) as a monophyletic group, that could be divided into six main clades: (1) australoheroines (the southernmost heroine genus Australoheros), (2) nandopsines (the Antillean genus Nandopsis), (3) caquetaines (including the north western Amazonian genera Caquetaia and Heroina), (4) astatheroines (including Astatheros, Herotilapia and Rocio), (5) amphilophines (including Amphilophus and related genera), and (6) herichthyines (including Herichthyis and related genera). Nuclear and mitochondrial data partitions arrived at highly congruent topologies. Suprageneric relationships were influenced mainly by the nuclear signal, as well as the most basal phylogenetic position

  9. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: An assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Mana; Radovčić, Davorka; Garvin, Heather M; Laird, Myra F; Schroeder, Lauren; Scott, Jill E; Brophy, Juliet; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Musiba, Chares M; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Mooers, Arne Ø; Collard, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: "Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?" and "How old is it?" We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out three analyses. First, we performed a dated Bayesian analysis to generate estimates of the evolutionary relationships of fossil hominins including H. naledi. Then we employed Bayes factor tests to compare the strength of support for hypotheses about the relationships of H. naledi suggested by the best-estimate trees. Lastly, we carried out a resampling analysis to assess the accuracy of the age estimate for H. naledi yielded by the dated Bayesian analysis. The analyses strongly supported the hypothesis that H. naledi forms a clade with the other Homo species and Australopithecus sediba. The analyses were more ambiguous regarding the position of H. naledi within the (Homo, Au. sediba) clade. A number of hypotheses were rejected, but several others were not. Based on the available craniodental data, Homo antecessor, Asian Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo floresiensis, Homo sapiens, and Au. sediba could all be the sister taxon of H. naledi. According to the dated Bayesian analysis, the most likely age for H. naledi is 912 ka. This age estimate was supported by the resampling analysis. Our findings have a number of implications. Most notably, they support the assignment of the new specimens to Homo, cast doubt on the claim that H. naledi is simply a variant of H. erectus, and suggest H. naledi is younger than has been previously proposed.

  10. New insights into relationships between active and dormant organisms, phylogenetic diversity and ecosystem productivity.

    PubMed

    Cram, Jacob A

    2015-12-01

    Marine microbes make up a key part of ocean food webs and drive ocean chemistry through a range of metabolic processes. A fundamental question in ecology is whether the diversity of organisms in a community shapes the ecological functions of that community. While there is substantial evidence to support a positive link between diversity and ecological productivity for macro-organisms in terrestrial environments, this relationship has not previously been verified for marine microbial communities. One factor complicating the understanding of this relationship is that many marine microbes are dormant and are easily dispersed by ocean currents, making it difficult to ensure that the organisms found in a given environmental sample accurately reflect processes occurring in that environment. Another complication is that, due to microbes great range of genotypic and phenotypic variability, communities with distantly related species may have greater range of metabolic functions than communities have the same richness and evenness, but in which the species present are more closely related to each other. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Galand et al. (2015) provide compelling evidence that the most metabolically active communities are those in which the nondormant portion of the microbial community has the highest phylogenetic diversity. They also illustrate that focusing on the active portion of the community allows for detection of temporal patterns in community structure that would not be otherwise evident. The authors' point out that the presence of many dormant organisms that do not contribute to ecosystem functioning is a feature that makes microbial ecosystems fundamentally different from macro-ecosystems and that this difference needs to be accounted for in microbial ecology theory. PMID:26607213

  11. Phylogenetic Relationships of Japanese Auritibicen Species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cryptotympanini) Inferred from Mitochondrial and Nuclear Gene Sequences.

    PubMed

    Sota, Teiji; Kojima, Takanori; Lee, Young June; Lin, Chung-Ping

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times within the genus Auritibicen(Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Cryptotympanini), analyzing five Japanese species (A. japonicus, A. bihamatus,A. kyushyuensis, A. esakii and A. flammatus) and three species from East Asian mainland and Taiwan (A. atrofasciatus, A. intermedius and A. chujoi) using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1a) gene sequences. Although the EF-1a gene tree did not resolve the relationships among these Auritibicen species, the trees based on COI gene and the combined data set showed that Japanese taxa comprised three distinct lineages: the individual species A. flammatus and A. bihamatus, and the A. japonicus group, comprising A. japonicus, A. esakii and A. kyushyuensis from Japan and A. intermedius from Korea. In A. kyushyuensis, which comprises three populations in Kyushu, western Honshu and Shikoku, the specimens from western Honshu and Shikoku were closely related to each other, but not to the specimen from Kyushu; instead, they were sister to the Korean A. intermedius. The incongruence between the gene tree and species tree necessitates further population genetic and morphological studies to confirm the classification and species status of the western Honshu and Shikoku populations of A. kyushyuensis, which were originally described as two independent species. Divergence time estimation suggested that the most recent common ancestor of Auritibicen species studied dated back to the late Pliocene and that the species of the A. japonicus group diverged during the mid Pleistocene. Thus, the Pleistocene climatic fluctuation may have promoted the divergence of the Auritibicen species. PMID:27498799

  12. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: An assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Mana; Radovčić, Davorka; Garvin, Heather M; Laird, Myra F; Schroeder, Lauren; Scott, Jill E; Brophy, Juliet; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Musiba, Chares M; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Mooers, Arne Ø; Collard, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: "Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?" and "How old is it?" We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out three analyses. First, we performed a dated Bayesian analysis to generate estimates of the evolutionary relationships of fossil hominins including H. naledi. Then we employed Bayes factor tests to compare the strength of support for hypotheses about the relationships of H. naledi suggested by the best-estimate trees. Lastly, we carried out a resampling analysis to assess the accuracy of the age estimate for H. naledi yielded by the dated Bayesian analysis. The analyses strongly supported the hypothesis that H. naledi forms a clade with the other Homo species and Australopithecus sediba. The analyses were more ambiguous regarding the position of H. naledi within the (Homo, Au. sediba) clade. A number of hypotheses were rejected, but several others were not. Based on the available craniodental data, Homo antecessor, Asian Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo floresiensis, Homo sapiens, and Au. sediba could all be the sister taxon of H. naledi. According to the dated Bayesian analysis, the most likely age for H. naledi is 912 ka. This age estimate was supported by the resampling analysis. Our findings have a number of implications. Most notably, they support the assignment of the new specimens to Homo, cast doubt on the claim that H. naledi is simply a variant of H. erectus, and suggest H. naledi is younger than has been previously proposed. PMID:27457542

  13. Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Determinants of Functional Composition of Bolivian Bat Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Luis F; Montaño-Centellas, Flavia A; Gavilanez, M Mercedes; Stevens, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups). Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement) was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia) create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for patterns of functional

  14. Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Determinants of Functional Composition of Bolivian Bat Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Luis F.; Montaño-Centellas, Flavia A.; Gavilanez, M. Mercedes; Stevens, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups). Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement) was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia) create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for patterns of functional

  15. Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic revision of Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 sensu lato (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extensive phylogenetic analysis and genus-level taxonomic revision of Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 -like cestodes (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae) are presented. The phylogenetic analysis is based on DNA sequences of two partial mitochondrial genes, i.e. cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and...

  16. Increased sampling of both genes and taxa improves resolution of phylogenetic relationships within Magnoliidae, a large and early-diverging clade of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Massoni, Julien; Forest, Félix; Sauquet, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Magnoliidae have been supported as a clade in the majority of large-scale molecular phylogenetic studies of angiosperms. This group consists of about 10,000 species assigned to 20 families and four orders, Canellales, Piperales, Laurales, and Magnoliales. Some relationships among the families are still largely debated. Here, we reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Magnoliidae as a whole, sampling 199 species (representing ca. 75% of genera) and 12 molecular markers from the three genomes (plastid atpB, matK, trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, ndhF, rbcL; mitochondrial atp1, matR, mtSSU, mtLSU; nuclear 18s rDNA, 26S rDNA). Maximum likelihood, Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses yielded congruent trees, with good resolution and high support values for higher-level relationships. This study further confirms, with greater levels of support, two major clades in Magnoliidae: Canellales+Piperales and Laurales+Magnoliales. Relationships among the 20 families are, in general, well resolved and supported. Several previously ambiguous relationships are now well supported. For instance, the Aristolochiaceae s.l. (incl. Asaroideae, Aristolochioideae, and Lactoris) are monophyletic with high support when Hydnoraceae are excluded. The latter family was not included in most previous studies because of the lack of suitable plastid sequences, a consequence of the parasitic habit of its species. Here, we confirm that it belongs in Aristolochiaceae. Our analyses also provide moderate support for a sister group relationship between Lauraceae and Monimiaceae. Conversely, the exact position of Magnoliaceae remains very difficult to determine. This study provides a robust phylogenetic background to address the evolutionary history of an important and highly diverse clade of early-diverging angiosperms.

  17. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in local cattle breeds of Senegal based on autosomal microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Ndèye Penda; Sow, Adama; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Ndiaye, Saliou; Sawadogo, Germain Jerôme; Sembène, Mbacké

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In Senegal, uncontrolled cross-breeding of cattle breeds and changes in production systems are assumed to lead to an increase of gene flow between populations. This might constitute a relevant threat to livestock improvement. Therewith, this study was carried out to assess the current genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of the four native Senegalese cattle breeds (Gobra zebu, Maure zebu, Djakoré, and N’Dama). Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 120 unrelated animals collected from three agro-ecological areas of Senegal according to their phenotypic traits. Genotyping was done using 11 specific highly polymorphic microsatellite makers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. The basic measures of genetic variation and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics’ software. Results: A total of 115 alleles were identified with a number of alleles (Na) at one locus ranging from 6 to 16. All loci were polymorphic with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.76. The mean allelic richness (Rs) lay within the narrow range of 5.14 in N’Dama taurine to 6.10 in Gobra zebu. While, the expected heterozygosity (HE) per breed was high in general with an overall mean of 0.76±0.04. Generally, the heterozygote deficiency (FIS) of 0.073±0.026 was relatively due to inbreeding among these cattle breeds or the occurrence of population substructure. The high values of allelic and gene diversity showed that Senegalese native cattle breeds represented an important reservoir of genetic variation. The genetic distances and clustering trees concluded that the N’Dama cattle were most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. So, the principal component analyses showed qualitatively that there was an intensive genetic admixture between the Gobra zebu and Maure zebu breeds. Conclusions: The broad genetic diversity in Senegalese cattle breeds will allow for greater opportunities for improvement of productivity

  18. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis confirms the close relationship between the genera Xanthobacter, Azorhizobium, and Aquabacter and reveals a lack of phylogenetic coherence among Xanthobacter species

    SciTech Connect

    Rainey, F.A.; Wiegel, J.

    1996-04-01

    A comparative 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis was used to investigate the phylogenetic position of members of the genus Xanthobacter. We determined 16S rDNA sequence data for the type strains of the three Xanthobacter species and five additional Xanthobacter strains. The close relationship between the genera Xanthobacter, Azorhizobium, and Aquabacter previously demonstrated by DNA-rRNA hybridization studies was confirmed. The results of our phylogenetic analysis indicate that members of the genera Xanthobacter, Azorhizobium, and Aquabacter are intermixed and that there is no clear genetic cluster consisting of the Xanthobacter species. A comparison of the Xanthobacter sequences with the 16S rDNA sequences available from environmental clone studies indicated that members of this genus have not been detected by nonculturing approaches.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Brazilian isolates of Pythium insidiosum based on ITS rDNA and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, M I; Botton, S A; Pereira, D I B; Robe, L J; Jesus, F P K; Mahl, C D; Costa, M M; Alves, S H; Santurio, J M

    2012-09-14

    Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that is the causative agent of pythiosis. Advances in molecular methods have enabled increased accuracy in the diagnosis of pythiosis, and in studies of the phylogenetic relationships of this oomycete. To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil, and also regarding to other American and Thai isolates, in this study a total of thirty isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil was used and had their ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2 rDNA (ITS) region and the partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase II (COX II) gene sequenced and analyzed. The outgroup consisted of six isolates of other Pythium species and one of Lagenidium giganteum. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and COX II genes were conducted, both individually and in combination, using four different methods: Maximum parsimony (MP); Neighbor-joining (NJ); Maximum likelihood (ML); and Bayesian analysis (BA). Our data supported P. insidiosum as monophyletic in relation to the other Pythium species, and COX II showed that P. insidiosum appears to be subdivided into three major polytomous groups, whose arrangement provides the Thai isolates as paraphyletic in relation to the Brazilian ones. The molecular analyses performed in this study suggest an evolutionary proximity among all American isolates, including the Brazilian and the Central and North America isolates, which were grouped together in a single entirely polytomous clade. The COX II network results presented signals of a recent expansion for the American isolates, probably originated from an Asian invasion source. Here, COX II showed higher levels bias, although it was the source of higher levels of phylogenetic information when compared to ITS. Nevertheless, the two markers chosen for this study proved to be entirely congruent, at least with respect to phylogenetic relationships between different isolates of P. insidiosum. PMID:22483240

  20. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Ampelopsis: Gene Organization, Comparative Analysis, and Phylogenetic Relationships to Other Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-01-01

    Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is an economically important plant that belongs to the Vitaceae family of angiosperms. The phylogenetic placement of Vitaceae is still unresolved. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that it should be placed in various alternative families including Caryophyllaceae, asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Dilleniaceae, or with the rest of the rosid families. However, these analyses provided weak supportive results because they were based on only one of several genes. Accordingly, complete chloroplast genome sequences are required to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on the complete chloroplast genome sequence suggested strong support for the position of Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids and placed it as a sister to the remaining rosids. These studies also revealed relationships among several major lineages of angiosperms; however, they highlighted the significance of taxon sampling for obtaining accurate phylogenies. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of A. brevipedunculata and used these data to assess the relationships among 32 angiosperms, including 18 taxa of rosids. The Ampelopsis chloroplast genome is 161,090 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,394 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,036 bp and 89,266 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Ampelopsis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Vitis and tobacco. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 70 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that both Saxifragales and Vitaceae diverged from the rosid clade and formed two clades with 100% bootstrap value. The position of the Vitaceae is sister to Saxifragales, and both are the basal and earliest diverging lineages. Moreover, Saxifragales forms a sister clade to Vitaceae of rosids. Overall, the results of this study will

  1. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Ampelopsis: Gene Organization, Comparative Analysis, and Phylogenetic Relationships to Other Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-01-01

    Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is an economically important plant that belongs to the Vitaceae family of angiosperms. The phylogenetic placement of Vitaceae is still unresolved. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that it should be placed in various alternative families including Caryophyllaceae, asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Dilleniaceae, or with the rest of the rosid families. However, these analyses provided weak supportive results because they were based on only one of several genes. Accordingly, complete chloroplast genome sequences are required to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on the complete chloroplast genome sequence suggested strong support for the position of Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids and placed it as a sister to the remaining rosids. These studies also revealed relationships among several major lineages of angiosperms; however, they highlighted the significance of taxon sampling for obtaining accurate phylogenies. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of A. brevipedunculata and used these data to assess the relationships among 32 angiosperms, including 18 taxa of rosids. The Ampelopsis chloroplast genome is 161,090 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,394 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,036 bp and 89,266 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Ampelopsis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Vitis and tobacco. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 70 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that both Saxifragales and Vitaceae diverged from the rosid clade and formed two clades with 100% bootstrap value. The position of the Vitaceae is sister to Saxifragales, and both are the basal and earliest diverging lineages. Moreover, Saxifragales forms a sister clade to Vitaceae of rosids. Overall, the results of this study will

  2. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Ampelopsis: Gene Organization, Comparative Analysis, and Phylogenetic Relationships to Other Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-01-01

    Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is an economically important plant that belongs to the Vitaceae family of angiosperms. The phylogenetic placement of Vitaceae is still unresolved. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that it should be placed in various alternative families including Caryophyllaceae, asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Dilleniaceae, or with the rest of the rosid families. However, these analyses provided weak supportive results because they were based on only one of several genes. Accordingly, complete chloroplast genome sequences are required to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on the complete chloroplast genome sequence suggested strong support for the position of Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids and placed it as a sister to the remaining rosids. These studies also revealed relationships among several major lineages of angiosperms; however, they highlighted the significance of taxon sampling for obtaining accurate phylogenies. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of A. brevipedunculata and used these data to assess the relationships among 32 angiosperms, including 18 taxa of rosids. The Ampelopsis chloroplast genome is 161,090 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,394 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,036 bp and 89,266 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Ampelopsis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Vitis and tobacco. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 70 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that both Saxifragales and Vitaceae diverged from the rosid clade and formed two clades with 100% bootstrap value. The position of the Vitaceae is sister to Saxifragales, and both are the basal and earliest diverging lineages. Moreover, Saxifragales forms a sister clade to Vitaceae of rosids. Overall, the results of this study will

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  4. Genetic Variability and Phylogenetic Relationships within Trypanosoma cruzi I Isolated in Colombia Based on Miniexon Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Claudia; Guhl, Felipe; Falla, Alejandra; Fajardo, Anabella; Montilla, Marleny; Adolfo Vallejo, Gustavo; Bargues, M. Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies of Trypanosoma cruzi have identified the existence of two groups: T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II. There are aspects that still remain unknown about the genetic variability within the T. cruzi I group. Given its epidemiological importance, it is necessary to have a better understanding of T. cruzi transmission cycles. Our purpose was to corroborate the existence of haplotypes within the T. cruzi I group and to describe the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the miniexon gene intergenic region, for the isolates from different hosts and epidemiological transmission cycles in Colombian regions. 31 T. cruzi isolates were molecularly characterized. Phylogenetic relationships within T. cruzi I isolates showed four haplotype groups (Ia–Id), associated with their transmission cycle. In previous studies, we reported that haplotype Ia is mainly associated with the domestic cycle and domiciliated Rhodnius prolixus. Haplotype Ib is associated with the domestic cycle and peridomestic cycle, haplotype Ic is closely related with the peridomestic cycle, and haplotype Id is strongly associated with the sylvatic cycle. The phylogenetic methodologies applied in this study are tools that bolster the associations among isolates and thus shed light on Chagas disease epidemiology. PMID:20798881

  5. Biologic interactions determining geographic range size: a one species response to phylogenetic community structure

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Alsina, Leonel; Villegas-Patraca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Range size variation in closely related species suggests different responses to biotic and abiotic heterogeneity across large geographic regions. Species turnover generates a wide spectrum of species assemblages, resulting in different competition intensities among taxa, creating restrictions as important as environmental constraints. We chose to adopt the widely used phylogenetic relatedness (NRI) measurement to define a metric that depicts competition strength (via phylogenetic similarity), which one focal species confronts in its environment. This new approach (NRIfocal) measures the potential of the community structure effect over performance of a single species. We chose two ecologically similar Peucaea sparrows, which co-occur and have highly dissimilar range size to test whether the population response to competition intensity is different between species. We analyzed the correlation between both Peucaea species population sizes and NRIfocal using data from point counts. Results indicated that the widespread species population size was not associated with NRIfocal, whereas the population of restricted-sized species exhibited a negative relationship with competition intensity. Consequently, a species' sensitivity to competition might be a limiting factor to range expansion, which provides new insights into geographic range analysis and community ecology. PMID:24772275

  6. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus).

    PubMed

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N B; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Diaz, Francisco J; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2015-07-01

    The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western Venezuela. In pairwise comparisons, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid protein of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid proteins of other hantaviruses were ≥8.7%. Likewise, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein precursor of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein precursors of other hantaviruses were ≥11.7%. Collectively, the unique association of Necoclí virus with Z. cherriei in Colombia, results of the Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences, and results of the pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences strongly support the notion that Necoclí virus represents a novel species in the genus Hantavirus. Further work is needed to determine whether Calabazo virus (a hantavirus associated with Z. brevicauda cherriei in Panama) and Necoclí virus are conspecific.

  7. Mitochondrial genome evolution in Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, and Holothuroidea: insights in phylogenetic relationships of Echinodermata.

    PubMed

    Perseke, Marleen; Bernhard, Detlef; Fritzsch, Guido; Brümmer, Franz; Stadler, Peter F; Schlegel, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The genome architecture and amino acid sequences of six new complete mitochondrial genomes were determined from representatives of Hemichordata (1), Ophiuroidea (3), Echinoidea (1) and Holothuroidea (1) and were analysed together with previously known sequences. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three lineages within echinoderms, Crinoidea, Ophiuroidea and a group comprising Holothuroidea, Echinoidea, and Asteroidea. In contrast to previous analyses of mitochondrial genomes the increased data set recovered the classical echinoderm phylogeny of Eleutherozoa and Echinozoa in Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses using hemichordate out-group representatives. However, an inconsistent ramification appeared with vertebrate out-groups and in Maximum Parsimony and Neighbour Joining reconstructions. The basal (consensus) gene orders of all three lineages could be derived from a hypothetical ancestral crinoid gene order by one single rearrangement in each lineage. The genome architecture was highly conserved in Echinoidea, whereas the highest gene order differences and large amounts of unassigned sequences (UAS) were detected in Ophiuroidea, supporting a higher evolutionary rate than in any other echinoderm lineage. The variability in gene order and UAS regions in ophiuroid genomes suggest dominating rearrangement mechanisms by duplication events. PMID:20152912

  8. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus)

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Diaz, Francisco J.; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western Venezuela. In pairwise comparisons, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid protein of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid proteins of other hantaviruses were ≥8.7%. Likewise, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein precursor of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein precursors of other hantaviruses were ≥11.7%. Collectively, the unique association of Necoclí virus with Z. cherriei in Colombia, results of the Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences, and results of the pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences strongly support the notion that Necoclí virus represents a novel species in the genus Hantavirus. Further work is needed to determine whether Calabazo virus (a hantavirus associated with Z. brevicauda cherriei in Panama) and Necoclí virus are conspecific. PMID:26186516

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of seven previously unclassified viruses within the family Rhabdoviridae using partial nucleoprotein gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, I V; Hughes, G J; Rupprecht, C E

    2006-08-01

    Partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences of the rhabdoviruses Obodhiang (OBOV), Kotonkon (KOTV), Rochambeau (RBUV), Kern canyon (KCV), Mount Elgon bat (MEBV), Kolongo (KOLV) and Sandjimba (SJAV) were generated and their phylogenetic positions within the family Rhabdoviridae were determined. Both OBOV and KOTV were placed within the genus Ephemerovirus. RBUV was joined to the same cluster, but more distantly. MEBV and KCV were grouped into a monophyletic cluster (putative genus) with Oita virus (OITAV). These three viruses, originating from different regions of the world, were all isolated from insectivorous bats and may be specific for these mammals. African avian viruses KOLV and SJAV were joined to each other and formed another clade at the genus level. Further, they were grouped with the recently characterized rhabdovirus Tupaia virus (TRV). Although the genetic distance was great, the grouping was supported by consistent bootstrap values. This observation suggests that viruses of this group may be distributed widely in the Old World. Non-synonymous/synonymous substitution ratio estimations (dN/dS) using a partial N gene fragment (241 codons) for the three rhabdovirus genera revealed contrasting patterns of evolution, where dN/dS values follow the pattern Ephemerovirus > Vesiculovirus > Lyssavirus. The magnitude of this ratio corresponds well with the number of negatively selected codons. The accumulation of dS appears evenly distributed along the gene fragment for all three genera. These estimations demonstrated clearly that lyssaviruses are subjected to the strongest constraints against amino acid substitutions, probably related to their particular niche and unique pathobiology.

  10. Mitochondrial genome evolution in Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, and Holothuroidea: insights in phylogenetic relationships of Echinodermata.

    PubMed

    Perseke, Marleen; Bernhard, Detlef; Fritzsch, Guido; Brümmer, Franz; Stadler, Peter F; Schlegel, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The genome architecture and amino acid sequences of six new complete mitochondrial genomes were determined from representatives of Hemichordata (1), Ophiuroidea (3), Echinoidea (1) and Holothuroidea (1) and were analysed together with previously known sequences. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three lineages within echinoderms, Crinoidea, Ophiuroidea and a group comprising Holothuroidea, Echinoidea, and Asteroidea. In contrast to previous analyses of mitochondrial genomes the increased data set recovered the classical echinoderm phylogeny of Eleutherozoa and Echinozoa in Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses using hemichordate out-group representatives. However, an inconsistent ramification appeared with vertebrate out-groups and in Maximum Parsimony and Neighbour Joining reconstructions. The basal (consensus) gene orders of all three lineages could be derived from a hypothetical ancestral crinoid gene order by one single rearrangement in each lineage. The genome architecture was highly conserved in Echinoidea, whereas the highest gene order differences and large amounts of unassigned sequences (UAS) were detected in Ophiuroidea, supporting a higher evolutionary rate than in any other echinoderm lineage. The variability in gene order and UAS regions in ophiuroid genomes suggest dominating rearrangement mechanisms by duplication events.

  11. Silicateins, the major biosilica forming enzymes present in demosponges: protein analysis and phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Boreiko, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaohong; Belikov, Sergey I; Wiens, Matthias; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A; Schlossmacher, Ute; Schröder, Heinz C

    2007-06-15

    Silicateins are enzymes, which are restricted to sponges (phylum Porifera), that mediate the catalytic formation of biosilica from monomeric silicon compounds. The silicatein protein is compartmented in the sponges in the axial filaments which reside in the axial canals of the siliceous spicules. In the present study silicatein has been isolated from the freshwater sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis where it occurs in isoforms with sizes of 23 kDa, 24 kDa and 26 kDa. Since the larger protein is glycosylated we posit that it is a processed form of one of the smaller size forms. The silicatein isoforms are post-translationally modified by phosphorylation; at least four isoforms exist with pI's of 5.4, of 5.2, of 4.9 and of 4.7. Surprisingly silicatein not only mediates polymerization of silicate, but also displays proteolytic activity which is specific for cathepsin L enzymes, thus underscoring the high relationship of the silicateins to cathepsin L. The cDNAs from L. baicalensis for silicatein and cathepsin L, as well as the respective genes, were cloned. It was found that the five introns present in the sponge genes are highly conserved up to human cathepsin L. This analysis has been completed by sequencing of two silicatein genes (both for silicatein-alpha and -beta) and of cathepsin L from another demosponge, Suberites domuncula. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis with these new sequences shed new light upon the evolution of cathepsin L and silicatein families which occurred at the base of the metazoan phyla. It is concluded, that in parallel with the emergence of these enzymes at first the number of introns increased, especially in the coding region of the mature enzyme. Later in evolution the number of introns decreased again. We postulate that modification of the catalytic triad, especially of its first amino acid, is a suitable target for a chemical modulation of enzyme function of the silicateins/cathepsin L.

  12. A phylogenetic analysis of normal modes evolution in enzymes and its relationship to enzyme function

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jason; Jin, Jing; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the dynamic nature of protein structures is essential for enzymatic function, it is expected that the functional evolution can be inferred from the changes in the protein dynamics. However, dynamics can also diverge neutrally with sequence substitution between enzymes without changes of function. In this study, a phylogenetic approach is implemented to explore the relationship between enzyme dynamics and function through evolutionary history. Protein dynamics are described by normal mode analysis based on a simplified harmonic potential force field applied to the reduced Cα representation of the protein structure while enzymatic function is described by Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers. Similarity of the binding pocket dynamics at each branch of the protein family’s phylogeny was analyzed in two ways: 1) explicitly by quantifying the normal mode overlap calculated for the reconstructed ancestral proteins at each end and 2) implicitly using a diffusion model to obtain the reconstructed lineage-specific changes in the normal modes. Both explicit and implicit ancestral reconstruction identified generally faster rates of change in dynamics compared with the expected change from neutral evolution at the branches of potential functional divergences for the alpha-amylase, D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, and copper-containing amine oxidase protein families. Normal modes analysis added additional information over just comparing the RMSD of static structures. However, the branch-specific changes were not statistically significant compared to background function-independent neutral rates of change of dynamic properties and blind application of the analysis would not enable prediction of changes in enzyme specificity. PMID:22651983

  13. Isozymatic variation and phylogenetic relationships between henequen (Agave fourcroydes) and its wild ancestor A. angustifolia (Agavaceae).

    PubMed

    Colunga-Garcíamarín, P; Coello-Coello, J; Eguiarte, L E; Piñero, D

    1999-01-01

    Isozymatic variation and phylogenetic relationships among extant henequén (Agave fourcroydes) germplasm and wild populations of its ancestor A. angustifolia in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico were analyzed. Analysis of three isozyme systems using starch gel electrophoresis indicated that while A. angustifolia populations have relatively high levels of variation, within each henequén cultivar all individuals were identical. This result corresponds to previous ethnobotanical and morphological analyses, which indicated severe loss of genetic variation of this domesticated plant as a consequence of the promotion by means of asexual propagation of only one cultivar since the middle of the last century. The three extant cultivars of henequén were distinct from each other. Two of them, Sac Ki (SK) and Yaax Ki (YK), could be matched within the progenitor, but Kitam Ki (KK) has a MDH electrophenotype not found in any of the plants growing inside the Yucatan Peninsula, but found in some A. angustifolia plants growing in the Mexican states of Oaxaca and Veracruz. A parsimony analysis of the morphological data indicated two lineages: that of SK and YK, cultivated cordage plants selected for stronger and longer fibers, whose sister group is the Tropical subdeciduous forest ecotype (SF), and that of all the other wild populations, which also included KK, the cultivated textile plants selected for finer fibers and nearly extinct in Yucatan. These results support the hypothesis of the yucatecan origin of SK and YK from the SF ecotype, as well as the hypothesis of a recent introduction of KK to the Yucatan Peninsula in a domestication trend that probably included also Chelem White (its cultivation being abandoned later).

  14. Phylogenetic relationships and morphological evolution in Lentinus, Polyporellus and Neofavolus, emphasizing southeastern Asian taxa.

    PubMed

    Seelan, Jaya Seelan Sathiya; Justo, Alfredo; Nagy, Laszlo G; Grand, Edward A; Redhead, Scott A; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    The genus Lentinus (Polyporaceae, Basidiomycota) is widely documented from tropical and temperate forests and is taxonomically controversial. Here we studied the relationships between Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler (i.e. sections Lentinus, Tigrini, Dicholamellatae, Rigidi, Lentodiellum and Pleuroti and polypores that share similar morphological characters). We generated sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and partial 28S regions of nuc rDNA and genes encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), focusing on Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler and the Neofavolus group, combined these data with sequences from GenBank (including RPB2 gene sequences) and performed phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. We also evaluated the transition in hymenophore morphology between Lentinus, Neofavolus and related polypores with ancestral state reconstruction. Single-gene phylogenies and phylogenies combining ITS and 28S with RPB1 and RPB2 genes all support existence of a Lentinus/Polyporellus clade and a separate Neofavolus clade. Polyporellus (represented by P. arcularius, P. ciliatus, P. brumalis) forms a clade with species representing Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler (1983), excluding L. suavissimus. Lentinus tigrinus appears as the sister group of Polyporellus in the four-gene phylogeny, but this placement was weakly supported. All three multigene analyses and the single-gene analysis using ITS strongly supported Polyporus tricholoma as the sister group of the Lentinus/Polyporellus clade; only the 28S rRNA phylogeny failed to support this placement. Under parsimony the ancestral hymenophoral configuration for the Lentinus/Polyporellus clade is estimated to be circular pores, with independent transitions to angular pores and lamellae. The ancestral state for the Neofavolus clade is estimated to be angular pores, with a single transition to lamellae in L. suavissimus. We propose that Lentinus suavissimus (section

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) - compositional bias affects phylogenetic analyses of lophotrochozoan relationships

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The phylogenetic relationships of the lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, within Lophotrochozoa are still controversial. We sequenced an additional mitochondrial genome of the most species-rich lophophorate lineage, the ectoprocts. Although it is known that there are large differences in the nucleotide composition of mitochondrial sequences of different lineages as well as in the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins, this bias is often not considered in phylogenetic analyses. We applied several approaches for reducing compositional bias and saturation in the phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial sequences. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (16,089 bp) of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata) was sequenced. All protein-encoding, rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from the same strand. Flustra shares long intergenic sequences with the cheilostomate ectoproct Bugula, which might be a synapomorphy of these taxa. Further synapomorphies might be the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA L(UUR), the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA S(UCN) and the unique anticodon sequence GAG of the tRNA L(CUN). The gene order of the mitochondrial genome of Flustra differs strongly from that of the other known ectoprocts. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial nucleotide and amino acid data sets show that the lophophorate lineages are more closely related to trochozoan phyla than to deuterostomes or ecdysozoans confirming the Lophotrochozoa hypothesis. Furthermore, they support the monophyly of Cheilostomata and Ectoprocta. However, the relationships of the lophophorate lineages within Lophotrochozoa differ strongly depending on the data set and the used method. Different approaches for reducing heterogeneity in nucleotide and amino acid data sets and saturation did not result in a more robust resolution of lophotrochozoan relationships. Conclusion The contradictory and usually weakly supported phylogenetic

  16. An evaluation of a possible phylogenetic relationship between the Euglenophyta and Kinetoplastida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivic, Peter A.; Walne, Patricia L.

    1984-03-01

    Winthout close phylogenetic ties to any of the other algae, the Euglenophyta are a taxonomic enigma. The argument is made here that the euglenophytes have extensive morphological homology with the zooflagellte trypanosomatids, bodonids, andIsonema. A phylogenetic sequence is postulated linking these group; the available data suggest that the euglenophytes had their origin in these zooflagellates and that the introduction of the chloroplast and a phototrophic mode of nutrition was a relatively late step in this evolutionary process.

  17. Complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome and its phylogenetic relationship with other Canids ( Canis, Canidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxia; Li, Qifa; Zhao, Xingbo; Xie, Zhuang; Xu, Yinxue

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was determined, and the phylogenetic relationships between the Tibetan Mastiff and other species of Canidae were analyzed using the coyote (Canis latrans) as an outgroup. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mtDNA was 16 710 bp, and included 22 tRNA genes, 2S rRNA gene, 13 protein-coding genes and one non-coding region (D-loop region), which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. The characteristics of the protein-coding genes, non-coding region, tRNA and rRNA genes among Canidae were analyzed in detail. Neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony trees of Canids constructed using 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed that as the coyotes and Tibetan wolves clustered together, so too did the gray wolves and domestic dogs, suggesting that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from the gray wolf as did other domestic dogs. Domestic dogs clustered into four clades, implying at least four maternal origins (A to D). The Tibetan Mastiff, which belongs to clade A, appears to be closely related to the Saint Bernard and the Old English Sheepdog. PMID:22440697

  18. From phylogenetics to phylogenomics: the evolutionary relationships of insect endosymbiotic gamma-Proteobacteria as a test case.

    PubMed

    Comas, Iñaki; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2007-02-01

    The increasing availability of complete genome sequences and the development of new, faster methods for phylogenetic reconstruction allow the exploration of the set of evolutionary trees for each gene in the genome of any species. This has led to the development of new phylogenomic methods. Here, we have compared different phylogenetic and phylogenomic methods in the analysis of the monophyletic origin of insect endosymbionts from the gamma-Proteobacteria, a hotly debated issue with several recent, conflicting reports. We have obtained the phylogenetic tree for each of the 579 identified protein-coding genes in the genome of the primary endosymbiont of carpenter ants, Blochmannia floridanus, after determining their presumed orthologs in 20 additional Proteobacteria genomes. A reference phylogeny reflecting the monophyletic origin of insect endosymbionts was further confirmed with different approaches, which led us to consider it as the presumed species tree. Remarkably, only 43 individual genes produced exactly the same topology as this presumed species tree. Most discrepancies between this tree and those obtained from individual genes or by concatenation of different genes were due to the grouping of Xanthomonadales with beta-Proteobacteria and not to uncertainties over the monophyly of insect endosymbionts. As previously noted, operational genes were more prone to reject the presumed species tree than those included in information-processing categories, but caution should be exerted when selecting genes for phylogenetic inference on the basis of their functional category assignment. We have obtained strong evidence in support of the monophyletic origin of gamma-Proteobacteria insect endosymbionts by a combination of phylogenetic and phylogenomic methods. In our analysis, the use of concatenated genes has shown to be a valuable tool for analyzing primary phylogenetic signals coded in the genomes. Nevertheless, other phylogenomic methods such as supertree

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and ancestral areas of the bustards (Gruiformes: Otididae), inferred from mitochondrial DNA and nuclear intron sequences.

    PubMed

    Pitra, Christian; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Frahnert, Sylke; Fickel, Joerns

    2002-04-01

    The taxonomy of the bustards is poorly understood phylogenetically and has not been extensively evaluated using molecular methods. We sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, the control region (central domain II), and an intron-exon crossing fragment of the nuclear chromo-helicase-DNA binding gene (CHD1) in 27 bustard taxa (including multiple subspecies) representing 11 genera and four gruiform outgroup species. Molecular datings suggest a Miocene origin for the family. Inferred phylogenetic relationships include the following: (i) the basal polytomy consists of 10 branches (mostly consistent with traditional genera), suggesting a rapid early radiation; (ii) sister relationships between several couplets of genera include Ardeotis with Neotis, Afrotis with Eupodotis (excluding E. rueppellii), Otis with Chlamydotis, and Houbaropsis with Sypheotides; (iii) the genus Eupodotis may be polyphyletic; and (iv) the currently delimited genera Ardeotis and Neotis do not form independent monophyletic lineages. Molecular evidence for the Afro-tropical origin of the Otididae is provided. PMID:12182403

  20. Resolving the higher-order phylogenetic relationships of the circumtropical Mabuya group (Squamata: Scincidae): An out-of-Asia diversification.

    PubMed

    Karin, Benjamin R; Metallinou, Margarita; Weinell, Jeffrey L; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Despite an abundance of phylogenetic studies focused on intrageneric relationships of members of the Mabuya group, the intergeneric relationships have remained difficult to resolve. The most-persistent unresolved regions of the phylogeny of the group include: (1) the placement of the Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with respect to the Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis and its taxonomic status; (2) the phylogenetic position of the Cape Verdean Chioninia within the larger Mabuya group; (3) support for the placement of Dasia with respect to the entire group; and (4) the phylogenetic placement of Eutropis novemcarinata with respect to other Eutropis and Dasia. In this study, we include representatives of all these taxa as well as African Eumecia and Neotropical Mabuya. We seek to address these phylogenetic and systematic issues by generating a well-resolved and supported phylogeny for the Mabuya group as a whole that can be used to develop a stable taxonomy and reconstruct the geographic patterns of diversification within the group. To meet these goals, we built a large multi-locus dataset of 11 markers (nine nuclear and two mitochondrial), and performed concatenated and species tree analyses to generate a well-supported phylogeny for the group. Statistical topology tests reject the monophyly of Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis, and to reflect monophyly we place the Middle-Eastern species into a previously described genus, Heremites. Cape-Verdean Chioninia are resolved as the strongly supported sister-group to Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis. Monophyly of the Southeast-Asian genera, Eutropis and Dasia, is not supported, with a clade composed of Dasia+Eutropis novemcarinata more closely related to the rest of the Mabuya group than to the remaining Eutropis. The phylogenetic position of E. novemcarinata renders Eutropis polyphyletic, and we therefore describe and place E. novemcarinata into a new monotypic genus, Toenayar, to preserve monophyly among the genera. In

  1. Szidat's rule re-tested: relationships between flea and host phylogenetic clade ranks in four biogeographic realms.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Kiefer, Daniel; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2016-05-01

    We tested Szidat's rule (the more primitive the host, the more primitive the parasites it harbours) by analysing the relationships between phylogenetic clade ranks of fleas and their small mammalian hosts in four biogeographic realms (Afrotropics, Neotropics, Nearctic and Palearctic). From the host perspective, we tested the association between host clade rank and the mean clade rank of all fleas collected from this host. From the flea perspective, we tested the relationships between flea clade rank and the mean clade rank of hosts on which this flea was recorded. First, we tested whether the analysis of the relationships between host and flea clade ranks should be controlled for phylogenetic dependence among either host or flea species. Then, we tested for the associations between host and flea clade ranks separately for each realm using either a phylogenetic general least-squares analysis or an ordinary least-squares analysis. In all realms, the mean clade rank of fleas parasitic on a given host increased with an increase of this host's clade rank, and the mean clade rank of hosts recorded on a given flea increased with an increase of this flea's clade rank, suggesting that Szidat's rule, at least to some extent, holds for fleas.

  2. Disentangling evolutionary cause-effect relationships with phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis.

    PubMed

    von Hardenberg, Achaz; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro

    2013-02-01

    Confirmatory path analysis is a statistical technique to build models of causal hypotheses among variables and test if the data conform with the causal model. However, classical path analysis techniques ignore the nonindependence of observations due to phylogenetic relatedness among species, possibly leading to spurious results. Here, we present a simple method to perform phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis (PPA). We analyzed simulated datasets with varying amounts of phylogenetic signal in the data and a known underlying causal structure linking the traits to estimate Type I error and power. Results show that Type I error for PPA appeared to be slightly anticonservative (range: 0.047-0.072) but path analysis models ignoring phylogenetic signal resulted in much higher Type I error rates, which were positively related to the amount of phylogenetic signal (range: 0.051 for λ= 0 to 0.916 for λ= 1). Further, the power of the test was not compromised when accounting for phylogeny. As an example of the application of PPA, we revisit a study on the correlates of aggressive broodmate competition across seven avian families. The use of PPA allowed us to gain greater insight into the plausible causal paths linking species traits to aggressive broodmate competition.

  3. Selecting Species Traits for Biomonitoring Applications in light of Phylogenetic Relationships among Lotic Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poff, N.; Vieira, N. K.; Simmons, M. P.; Olden, J. D.; Kondratieff, B. C.; Finn, D. S.

    2005-05-01

    The use of species traits as indicators of environmental disturbance is being considered for biomonitoring programs globally. As such, methods to select relevant and informative traits for inclusion in biometrics need to be developed. In this research, we identified 20 traits of aquatic insects within six trait groups: morphology, mobility, life-history strategy, thermal tolerance, feeding guild and ecology (e.g., habitat preference). We constructed phylogenetic trees for 1) all lotic insect species of North America and 2) all Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera species based on morphology- and molecular-based analyses and classifications. We then measured variability (i.e., plasticity) of the 20 traits and six trait groups across the two phylogenetic trees. Traits with higher degrees of plasticity indicated traits that were less phylogenetically constrained, and were considered informative for biomonitoring purposes. Thermal tolerance, rheophily, body size at maturity and feeding guild showed the highest plasticity across both phylogenetic trees. Two mobility traits, occurrence in drift and adult dispersal distance, showed moderate plasticity. By contrast, adult exiting ability, degree of attachment, adult lifespan and body shape showed low variability and were thus less informative. Plastic species traits that are less phylogenetically constrained may be most useful in detecting community change along environmental gradients.

  4. The relationship between global and regional distribution diminishes among phylogenetically basal species.

    PubMed

    Prinzing, Andreas; Ozinga, Wim A; Durka, Walter

    2004-12-01

    Phylogenetic legacy and phylogenetic trends affect the ecology of species-except, apparently, for the width of their distribution. As a result, "macroecological" patterns of species distributions emerge constantly in phylogenetically very distinct species assemblages. The width of the global distribution of species, for instance, constantly correlates positively to the width of their regional distribution. However, such patterns primarily reflect the phylogenetically derived species that dominate most assemblages. Basal species, in contrast, might show different macroecological patterns. We tested the hypothesis that the correlation between global and regional distributions of species diminishes among the phylogenetically basal species. We considered central European higher plants and defined global distribution as the occupancy of global floristic zones, regional distribution as the grid occupancy in Eastern Germany, and phylogenetic position as the rank distance to tree base. We also took into account a number of confounding variables. We found that, across all lineages, the global/regional correlation diminished among basal species. We then reanalyzed 19 lineages separately and always found the same pattern. The pattern reflected both increases in global distributions and decreases in regional distributions among basal species. The results indicate that many basal species face a risk of global or at least regional extinction, but have escaped the downward spiral of mutually reinforcing extinction risks at multiple scales. We suggest that many basal species had much time to expand their global ranges but are presently displaced locally by more derived species. Overall, the study shows that macroecological patterns may not be static and universal, but may undergo macroevolutionary trends. Analyses of macroecological patterns across a phylogeny may thus provide insights into macroevolutionary processes.

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results.

  6. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results. PMID:26195214

  7. Phylogenetic relationship of Wolverine Gulo gulo in Mustelidae revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shibing; Gao, Yingying; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Shifang; Bai, Xiaojie; Zhang, Minghai

    2016-07-01

    The Wolverine Gulo gulo is an endangered species in China. We first obtained blood sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of wolverine in Northeast China. We built the phylogenetic tree of wolverine and 10 other most closely related Mustelidae species. The wolverine's complete mitogenome is 16 575 bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree indicates that Wolverine is mostly close to the genus Martes.

  8. Phylogenetic relationship of Wolverine Gulo gulo in Mustelidae revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shibing; Gao, Yingying; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Shifang; Bai, Xiaojie; Zhang, Minghai

    2016-07-01

    The Wolverine Gulo gulo is an endangered species in China. We first obtained blood sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of wolverine in Northeast China. We built the phylogenetic tree of wolverine and 10 other most closely related Mustelidae species. The wolverine's complete mitogenome is 16 575 bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree indicates that Wolverine is mostly close to the genus Martes. PMID:26702734

  9. Phylogenetic relationship of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zain, Zaini; Kamsani, Nurul H; Ahmad, Norazah; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiology of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains poorly understood. We therefore sought to determine the genetic relationship of 25 NTHi isolated from various states in Malaysia using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of isolates were obtained from sputum. There were 24 novel sequence types (STs). Eight isolates were single-locus variants, the remainder being singletons. Clustering was not based on clinical site of isolation or geographical origin. Despite the limited number of isolates examined in this study, we demonstrate that NTHi isolates in Malaysia are diverse and warrant further investigation.

  10. Phylogenetic relationship and geographic distribution of multiple human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, W M; Pieniazek, D; Swanson, P; Samdal, H H; Soriano, V; Khabbaz, R F; Kaplan, J E; Lal, R B; Heneine, W

    1995-01-01

    The current env-based subtyping of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) identifies only two heterogenetic groups, HTLV-IIa and HTLV-IIb. To better understand the genetic diversity and phylogeny of HTLV-II, we examined the most divergent genomic region of HTLV-II, the long terminal repeat, by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analysis. Long terminal repeat sequences were amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR and digested with seven restriction endonucleases that differentiated HTLV-II into five HTLV-IIa (IIa0 to IIa4) and six HTLV-IIb (IIb0 to IIb5) restriction types, with HTLV-IIa0 and HTLV-IIb0 being prototypes for the MoT and NRA isolates, respectively. We examined 169 HTLV-II-infected samples, including 123 from blood donors and intravenous drug users (IDU) from the Americas, 16 from IDU from Europe, and 30 from Amerindians. Of the 169 samples, 109 (64.5%) were categorized as HTLV-IIa and 60 (35.5%) were categorized as HTLV-IIb. The predominant restriction types seen among the U.S. blood donors and U.S. IDU were IIa0 (68.7%) and IIb4 (10.4%). Four Spanish and seven Italian samples were IIb4, while five Norwegian samples were IIa2. Twelve Guaymi and all ten Seminole samples were single restriction types (IIb1 and IIb5, respectively), whereas the two Navajo and six Pueblo samples had a mixture of restriction types IIa0, IIa4, and IIb5. Of the HTLV-IIb restriction types observed in the U.S. non-Indians, 42.8% appear to have originated from the North Amerindian (IIb5), while 57.2% were similar to the European IIb4 restriction type. Sequences of 15 selected HTLV-II samples were determined and phylogenetically compared with 7 previously published HTLV-II LTR sequences. The derived topologies revealed three HTLV-IIa phylogroups (A-I to A-III) and four HTLV-IIb phylogroups (B-I to B-IV). Furthermore, the HTLV-IIa phylogroups appear to have evolved from the HTLV-IIb phylogroups. In the HTLV-IIa cluster, a

  11. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis reveals the monophyly of a recircumscribed papilionoid legume tribe Diocleae with well-supported generic relationships.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci; Pastore, José Floriano B; Cardoso, Domingos; Snak, Cristiane; de C Lima, Ana Luísa; Gagnon, Edeline; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Holland, Ailsa E; Egan, Ashley N

    2015-09-01

    Deciphering the phylogenetic relationships within the species-rich Millettioid clade has persisted as one of the major challenges in the systematics and evolutionary history of papilionoid legumes (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae). Historically, the predominantly neotropical lianas of subtribe Diocleinae in the Millettioid legumes have been taxonomically tangled together with the largely heterogeneous tribe Phaseoleae. This work presents a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear and chloroplast markers and includes all genera ever referred to Diocleae except for the monospecific Philippine Luzonia, resolving several key generic relationships within the Millettioid legumes. The first of two separate analyses includes 310 matK accessions and strongly supports the reestablishment of tribe Diocleae as a branch of the Millettioid clade. This work sheds greater light on the higher-level phylogeny of Diocleae and allows the recognition of three major lineages: the Canavalia, Dioclea, and Galactia clades. The second set of phylogenetic analyses utilized nuclear (ITS/5.8S and ETS) and plastid (matK and trnT-Y) DNA sequences to reveal (i) the monophyly of Canavalia and Cleobulia; (ii) the monophyly of Bionia with the exclusion of Bionia bella; (iii) the paraphyly of Dioclea with respect to Cleobulia, Cymbosema, and Macropsychanthus; (iv) the paraphyly of Cratylia with respect to the broadly polyphyletic Camptosema; and (v) the polyphyly of Galactia with species scattered widely across the tree. PMID:25934529

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of true butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) inferred from COI, 16S rRNA and EF-1α sequences.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man Il; Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Ahn, Neung-Ho; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2010-11-01

    The molecular phylogenetic relationships among true butterfly families (superfamily Papilionoidea) have been a matter of substantial controversy; this debate has led to several competing hypotheses. Two of the most compelling of those hypotheses involve the relationships of (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + (Pieridae + Papilionidae) and (((Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + Pieridae) + Papilionidae). In this study, approximately 3,500 nucleotide sequences from cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) were sequenced from 83 species belonging to four true butterfly families, along with those of three outgroup species belonging to three lepidopteran superfamilies. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic reconstruction via Bayesian Inference (BI), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum Parsimony (MP) algorithms. The monophyletic Pieridae and monophyletic Papilionidae evidenced good recovery in all analyses, but in some analyses, the monophylies of the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae were hampered by the inclusion of single species of the lycaenid subfamily Miletinae and the nymphalid subfamily Danainae. Excluding those singletons, all phylogenetic analyses among the four true butterfly families clearly identified the Nymphalidae as the sister to the Lycaenidae and identified this group as a sister to the Pieridae, with the Papilionidae identified as the most basal linage to the true butterfly, thus supporting the hypothesis: (Papilionidae + (Pieridae + (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae))).

  13. Re-Evaluation of Phylogenetic Relationships among Species of the Mangrove Genus Avicennia from Indo-West Pacific Based on Multilocus Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinnian; Duke, Norman C.; Yang, Yuchen; Huang, Lishi; Zhu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Zhang; Zhou, Renchao; Zhong, Cairong; Huang, Yelin; Shi, Suhua

    2016-01-01

    Avicennia L. (Avicenniaceae), one of the most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones worldwide. Five species of Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region have been previously described. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. To enhance our understanding of evolutionary patterns in the clade, we carried out a molecular phylogenetic study using wide sampling and multiple loci. Our results support two monophyletic clades across all species worldwide in Avicennia: an Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) lineage and an Indo-West Pacific (IWP) lineage. This split is in line with biogeographic distribution of the clade. Focusing on the IWP branch, we reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree based on sequences from 25 nuclear genes. The results identified three distinct subclades, (1) A. rumphiana and A. alba, (2) A. officinalis and A. integra, and (3) the A. marina complex, with high bootstrap support. The results strongly corresponded to two morphological traits in floral structure: stigma position in relation to the anthers and style length. Using Bayesian dating methods we estimated diversification of the IWP lineage was dated to late Miocene (c. 6.0 million years ago) and may have been driven largely by the fluctuating sea levels since that time. PMID:27716800

  14. Evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationship between Auxis thazard and Auxis rochei inferred from COI sequences of mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girish; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Shyama, S K

    2013-01-01

    Tunas of the genus Auxis are cosmopolitan species and the smallest members of the tribe Thunnini, the true tunas. In the present study, COI sequences of mtDNA were employed to examine the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationship between A. thazard and A. rochei. A total of 29 COI sequences were retrieved from NCBI. Historic demographic analyses of sequence data showed that A. thazard has undergone sudden population expansion in the past while population size of A. rochei has been remain constant for long period. Non-significant value of Tajimas's D (P = 0.22400) and Fu's FS (P = 0.21400) test fail to reject the null hypothesis of neutral evolution for A. rochei. Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences demonstrated separate clusters for both species and are strongly supported by 98% bootstrap value. The results of the present study suggest the recent founding of A. thazard in world ocean while A. rochei represents the ancestral species. PMID:24084241

  15. New species of the spider genera Aysenia and Aysenoides from Chile and Argentina: description and phylogenetic relationships (Araneae: Anyphaenidae, Amaurobioidinae).

    PubMed

    Laborda, Alvaro; Ramírez, Martín J; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    New spider species of the genera Aysenia Tullgren and Aysenoides Ramírez are described and their phylogenetic relationships discussed. The new species Aysenia paposo, from the coastal desert in northern Chile is sister to Aysenia araucana Ramírez. The diagnosis of Aysenia araucana is updated and new somatic variability is reported for the species. We present new records for other species of Aysenia and Aysenoides. The new species Aysenoides simoi, from temperate forests in Chile and adjacent Argentina is sister to Aysenoides nahuel. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the monophyly of both genera. The support values of the genera are relatively high, but some internal branches show low support values. The genus Aysenia is supported by three synapomorphies, two of these from leg spination and one from the male genitalia. Aysenoides is supported by three synapomorphies from male and female genitalia. PMID:25277558

  16. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the deep-sea fish genus Coryphaenoides (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) based on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Morita, T

    1999-12-01

    In order to characterize the phylogenetic relationship and deep-sea adaptation process of the deep-sea fish genus Coryphaenoides, the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial (mt) 12 S rRNA and COI gene sequences for seven Coryphaenoides species were analyzed. Our molecular phylogenetic tree shows a new arrangement of seven Coryphaenoides species, which form two distinct groups, abyssal and nonabyssal species, and differs from the results of previous taxonomic studies. Using the mutation rate of mitochondrial genes, the divergence time between abyssal and nonabyssal Coryphaenoides was found to be 3.2-7.6 million years ago. Our study suggests that hydraulic pressure plays an important role in the speciation process in the marine environment. PMID:10620402

  17. Phylogenetic relationship of Glycyrrhiza lepidota, American licorice, in genus Glycyrrhiza based on rbcL sequences and chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Miwa, Etsuko; Inoue, Kenichiro

    2005-01-01

    Two known saponins, licorice-saponin H2 and macedonoside A, were isolated from the stolons of Glycyrrhiza lepidota (American licorice) as major saponins. Since licorice-saponin H2 and macedonoside A are minor saponins isolated from the three glycyrrhizin-producing species (i.e. G. glabra, G. uralensis, G. inflata) and the three macedonoside C-producing species (i.e. G. macedonica, G. echinata, G. pallidiflora), respectively, the present study suggests that G. lepidota is an intermediate of both glycyrrhizin-producing and macedonoside C-producing species. The phylogenetic tree constructed from the nucleotide sequences of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit gene (rbcL) of these seven Glycyrrhiza plants indicated that G. lepidota was separated from the other six Glycyrrhiza species, and this phylogenetic relationship was in accordance with their saponin compositions.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  19. Molecular phylogenetic relationships and the coevolution of placentotrophy and superfetation in Poecilia (Poeciliidae: Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Meredith, Robert W; Pires, Marcelo N; Reznick, David N; Springer, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    Members of Poeciliidae are used as model organisms for experimental studies on natural and sexual selection, and comparative studies of life-history evolution. The latter have demonstrated multiple origins of both superfetation and placentotrophy within Poeciliidae. Most recently, placentotrophy has been described in five species of Poecilia (Pamphorichthys), but only one of these (P.hasemani) shows evidence of superfetation. Here, we use a molecular phylogeny based on concatenated nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences to test hypotheses of correlated evolution between superfetation and placentotrophy in Poecilia. Taxon sampling included all species in the subgenera Micropoecilia and Pamphorichthys for which the presence or absence of placentotrophy and superfetation have been determined, as well as representatives of all other Poecilia subgenera (Acanthophacelus, Limia, Mollienesia, Poecilia, Pseudolimia). Phylogenetic analyses were performed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods; ancestral states for life-history characters were reconstructed with parsimony and SIMMAP; correlation analyses were performed with SIMMAP; and divergence times were estimated using a relaxed molecular clock. All subgenera in Poecilia were recovered as monophyletic. The basal split in Poecilia is between P. (Acanthophacelus)+P. (Micropoecilia) and the other five subgenera. In the latter clade, P. (Poecilia) is the sister-group to the remaining four subgenera. Within P. (Pamphorichthys), all analyses with the combined data set recovered P. (Pamphorichthys) araguaiensis as the sister taxon to P. (Pamphorichthys) hollandi, and P. (Pamphorichthys) scalpridens as the sister taxon to P. (Pamphorichthys) minor. P. (Pamphorichthys) hasemani was either the sister taxon to P. (Pamphorichthys) hollandi+P. (Pamphorichthys) minor (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) or the sister taxon to all other Pamphorichthys species (maximum parsimony). Ancestral state reconstructions

  20. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions. PMID:23130987

  1. Phylogenetic distribution and evolutionary dynamics of the sex determination genes doublesex and transformer in insects.

    PubMed

    Geuverink, E; Beukeboom, L W

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination in insects is characterized by a gene cascade that is conserved at the bottom but contains diverse primary signals at the top. The bottom master switch gene doublesex is found in all insects. Its upstream regulator transformer is present in the orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera, but has thus far not been found in Lepidoptera and in the basal lineages of Diptera. transformer is presumed to be ancestral to the holometabolous insects based on its shared domains and conserved features of autoregulation and sex-specific splicing. We interpret that its absence in basal lineages of Diptera and its order-specific conserved domains indicate multiple independent losses or recruitments into the sex determination cascade. Duplications of transformer are found in derived families within the Hymenoptera, characterized by their complementary sex determination mechanism. As duplications are not found in any other insect order, they appear linked to the haplodiploid reproduction of the Hymenoptera. Further phylogenetic analyses combined with functional studies are needed to understand the evolutionary history of the transformer gene among insects.

  2. First Report of Trypanosoma sp. in Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus): Morphological and Phylogenetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Andrea P.; Acosta, Igor C. L.; de Lima, Julia T. R.; Minervino, Antonio H. H.; Gennari, Solange M.

    2013-01-01

    In Crocodylidae family three trypanosomes species were described, T. grayi in African crocodilian and T. cecili and Trypanosoma sp. in Caimans species from Brazil. T. grayi was transmitted by tsetse flies and the vector of Brazilian caimans trypanosomes is unknown. We characterized first Brazilian trypanosome isolated in spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) from Mato Grosso State in Brazil. Morphological findings in epimastigotes forms from axenic culture showed high similarity with Trypanosoma sp. described in Caiman yacare from Brazilian Pantanal. Phylogenetic studies performed with SSU rDNA and gGAPDH (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphato dehydrogenase glycosomal) clustering in T. grayi Clade and together to genotype Cay 01 from Trypanosoma unnamed species isolated in C. yacare. This is the first isolate of Trypanosoma sp. from C. crocodilus and the phylogenetic position with isolates in C. yacare from Pantanal region and demonstrates the low host specificity of cayman trypanosomes in Brazil. PMID:27335853

  3. Taxonomic relationships among Turkish water frogs as revealed by phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Ufuk; Matsui, Masafumi; Kutrup, Bilal; Eto, Koshiro

    2011-12-01

    We assessed taxonomic relationships among Turkish water frogs through estimation of phylogenetic relationships among 62 adult specimens from 44 distinct populations inhabiting seven main geographical regions of Turkey using 2897 bp sequences of the mitochondrial Cytb, 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes with equally-weighted parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods of inference. Monophyletic clade (Clade A) of the northwesternmost (Thrace) samples is identified as Pelophylax ridibundus. The other clade (Clade B) consisted of two monophyletic subclades. One of these contains specimens from southernmost populations that are regarded as an unnamed species. The other subclade consists of two lineages, of which one corresponds to P. caralitanus and another to P. bedriagae. Taxonomic relationships of these two species are discussed and recognition of P. caralitanus as a subspecies of P. bedriagae is proposed.

  4. Ecological versus phylogenetic determinants of trophic associations in a plant-leafminer-parasitoid food web.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Sanna A; Altenhofer, Ewald; Liston, Andrew D; Nyman, Tommi

    2013-05-01

    Specialized trophic interactions in plant-herbivore-parasitoid food webs can spur "bottom-up" diversification if speciation in plants leads to host-shift driven divergence in insect herbivores, and if the effect then cascades up to the third trophic level. Conversely, parasitoids that search for victims on certain plant taxa may trigger "top-down" diversification by pushing herbivores into "enemy-free space" on novel hosts. We used phylogenetic regression methods to compare the relative importance of ecology versus phylogeny on associations between Heterarthrinae leafmining sawflies and their parasitoids. We found that: (1) the origin of leafmining led to escape from most parasitoids attacking external-feeding sawflies; (2) the current enemies mainly consist of generalists that are shared with other leafmining taxa, and of more specialized lineages that may have diversified by shifting among heterarthrines; and (3) parasitoid-leafminer associations are influenced more by the phylogeny of the miners' host plants than by relationships among miner species. Our results suggest that vertical diversifying forces have a significant-but not ubiquitous-role in speciation: many of the parasitoids have remained polyphagous despite niche diversification in the miners, and heterarthrine host shifts also seem to be strongly affected by host availability.

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of Phytophthora cryptogea Pethybr. & Laff and P. drechsleri Tucker.

    PubMed

    Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, R; Panabieres, F; Banihashemi, Z; Cooke, D E L

    2010-04-01

    The phylogeny and taxonomy of Phytophthora cryptogea and Phytophthora drechsleri has long been a matter of controversy. To re-evaluate this, a worldwide collection of 117 isolates assigned to either P. cryptogea, P. drechsleri or their sister taxon, Phytophthora erythroseptica were assessed for morphological, physiological (pathological, cultural, temperature relations, mating) and molecular traits. Multiple gene phylogenetic analysis was performed on DNA sequences of nuclear (internal transcribed spacers (ITS), ß-tubulin, translation elongation factor 1α, elicitin) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. Congruence was observed between the different phylogenetic data sets and established that P. drechsleri and P. cryptogea are distinct species. Isolates of P. drechsleri form a monophyletic grouping with low levels of intraspecific diversity whereas P. cryptogea is more variable. Three distinct phylogenetic groups were noted within P. cryptogea with an intermediate group providing strong evidence for introgression of previously isolated lineages. This evidence suggests that P. cryptogea is an operational taxonomic unit and should remain a single species. Of all the morphological and physiological traits only growth rate at higher temperatures reliably discriminated isolates of P. drechsleri and P. cryptogea. As a homothallic taxon, P. erythroseptica, considered the cause of potato pink rot, is clearly different in mating behaviour from the other two species. Pathogenicity, however, was not a reliable characteristic as all isolates of the three species formed pink rot in potato tubers. The phylogenetic evidence suggests P. erythroseptica has evolved from P. cryptogea more recently than the split from the most recent common ancestor of all three species. However, more data and more isolates of authentic P. erythroseptica are needed to fully evaluate the taxonomic position of this species.

  6. Phylogenetic Relationships among the Cryptophyta: Analyses of Nuclear-Encoded SSU rRNA Sequences Support the Monophyly of Extant Plastid-Containing Lineages.

    PubMed

    Marin, B; Klingberg, M; Melkonian, M

    1998-09-01

    The Cryptophyta comprise photoautotrophic protists with complex plastids which harbor a remnant eukaryotic nucleus (nucleomorph) and a few heterotrophic taxa which either lack a plastid (Goniomonas) or contain a complex plastid devoid of pigments (Ieucoplast; Chilomonas). To resolve the phylogenetic relationships between photosynthetic, leucoplast-containing and aplastidial taxa, we determined complete nuclear-encoded SSU rRNA-sequences from 12 cryptophyte taxa representing the genera Cryptomonas, Chilomonas, Rhodomonas, Chroomonas, Hemiselmis, Proteomonas and Teleaulax and, as an outgroup taxon, Cyanoptyche gloeocystis (Glaucocystophyta). Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rRNA sequences from a total of 24 cryptophyte taxa rooted with 4 glaucocystophyte taxa using distance, parsimony and likelihood methods as well as LogDet transformations invariably position the aplastidial genus Goniomonas as a sister taxon to a monophyletic lineage consisting of all plastid containing cryptophytes including Chilomonas. Among the plastid-containing taxa, we identify six major clades each supported by high bootstrap values: clade I (Cryptomonas and Chilomonas), clade II (Rhodomonas, Pyrenomonas, Rhinomonas and Storeatula), clade III (Guillardia and the 'unidentified cryptophyte' strain CCMP 325), clade IV (Teleaulax and Geminigera), clade V (Proteomonas) and clade VI (Hemiselmis, Chroomonas and Komma). Clade I (Cryptomonas and Chilomonas) represents a sister group to clades II-VI which together form a monophyletic lineage; the phylogenetic relationships between clades II-VI remain largely unresolved. Chilomonas is positioned within the Cryptomonas clade and thus presumably evolved from a photosynthetic taxon of this genus. In our analysis the characters blue and red pigmentation do not correspond with a basal subdivision of the phylum, thus rejecting this character for higher-level classification of cryptophytes. However, different spectroscopic subtypes of phycoerythrin (PE I-III) and

  7. Phylogenetic Relationships among the Cryptophyta: Analyses of Nuclear-Encoded SSU rRNA Sequences Support the Monophyly of Extant Plastid-Containing Lineages.

    PubMed

    Marin, B; Klingberg, M; Melkonian, M

    1998-09-01

    The Cryptophyta comprise photoautotrophic protists with complex plastids which harbor a remnant eukaryotic nucleus (nucleomorph) and a few heterotrophic taxa which either lack a plastid (Goniomonas) or contain a complex plastid devoid of pigments (Ieucoplast; Chilomonas). To resolve the phylogenetic relationships between photosynthetic, leucoplast-containing and aplastidial taxa, we determined complete nuclear-encoded SSU rRNA-sequences from 12 cryptophyte taxa representing the genera Cryptomonas, Chilomonas, Rhodomonas, Chroomonas, Hemiselmis, Proteomonas and Teleaulax and, as an outgroup taxon, Cyanoptyche gloeocystis (Glaucocystophyta). Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rRNA sequences from a total of 24 cryptophyte taxa rooted with 4 glaucocystophyte taxa using distance, parsimony and likelihood methods as well as LogDet transformations invariably position the aplastidial genus Goniomonas as a sister taxon to a monophyletic lineage consisting of all plastid containing cryptophytes including Chilomonas. Among the plastid-containing taxa, we identify six major clades each supported by high bootstrap values: clade I (Cryptomonas and Chilomonas), clade II (Rhodomonas, Pyrenomonas, Rhinomonas and Storeatula), clade III (Guillardia and the 'unidentified cryptophyte' strain CCMP 325), clade IV (Teleaulax and Geminigera), clade V (Proteomonas) and clade VI (Hemiselmis, Chroomonas and Komma). Clade I (Cryptomonas and Chilomonas) represents a sister group to clades II-VI which together form a monophyletic lineage; the phylogenetic relationships between clades II-VI remain largely unresolved. Chilomonas is positioned within the Cryptomonas clade and thus presumably evolved from a photosynthetic taxon of this genus. In our analysis the characters blue and red pigmentation do not correspond with a basal subdivision of the phylum, thus rejecting this character for higher-level classification of cryptophytes. However, different spectroscopic subtypes of phycoerythrin (PE I-III) and

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

  9. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species.

  10. DNA sequence support for a close phylogenetic relationship between some storks and New World vultures.

    PubMed Central

    Avise, J C; Nelson, W S; Sibley, C G

    1994-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were used to address a controversial suggestion that New World vultures are related more closely to storks than to Old World vultures. Phylogenetic analyses of 1-kb sequences from 18 relevant avian species indicate that the similarities in morphology and behavior between New World and Old World vultures probably manifest convergent adaptations associated with carrion-feeding, rather than propinquity of descent. Direct sequence evidence for a close phylogenetic alliance between at least some New World vultures and storks lends support to conclusions reached previously from DNA.DNA hybridization methods and detailed morphology-based appraisals, and it illustrates how mistaken assumptions of homology for organismal adaptations can compromise biological classifications. However, there was a lack of significant resolution for most other branches in the cytochrome b phylogenetic reconstructions. This irresolution is most likely attributable to a close temporal clustering of nodes, rather than to ceiling effects (mutational saturation) producing an inappropriate window of resolution for the cytochrome b sequences. Images PMID:8197203

  11. A New Nomenclature of Xenopus laevis Chromosomes Based on the Phylogenetic Relationship to Silurana/Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Kondo, Mariko; Gilchrist, Michael J; Zorn, Aaron M; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmid, Michael; Taira, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Xenopus laevis (XLA) is an allotetraploid species which appears to have undergone whole-genome duplication after the interspecific hybridization of 2 diploid species closely related to Silurana/Xenopus tropicalis (XTR). Previous cDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments have identified 9 sets of homoeologous chromosomes in X. laevis, in which 8 sets correspond to chromosomes 1-8 of X. tropicalis (XTR1-XTR8), and the last set corresponds to a fusion of XTR9 and XTR10. In addition, recent X. laevis genome sequencing and BAC-FISH experiments support this physiological relationship and show no gross chromosome translocation in the X. laevis karyotype. Therefore, for the benefit of both comparative cytogenetics and genome research, we here propose a new chromosome nomenclature for X. laevis based on the phylogenetic relationship and chromosome length, i.e. XLA1L, XLA1S, XLA2L, XLA2S, and so on, in which the numbering of XLA chromosomes corresponds to that in X. tropicalis and the postfixes 'L' and 'S' stand for 'long' and 'short' chromosomes in the homoeologous pairs, which can be distinguished cytologically by their relative size. The last chromosome set is named XLA9L and XLA9S, in which XLA9 corresponds to both XTR9 and XTR10, and hence, to emphasize the phylogenetic relationship to X. tropicalis, XLA9_10L and XLA9_10S are also used as synonyms.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the desert plant genus Fagonia (Zygophyllaceae), inferred by parsimony and Bayesian model averaging.

    PubMed

    Beier, B-A; Nylander, J A A; Chase, M W; Thulin, M

    2004-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within Fagonia were inferred from analyses of plastid trnL intron and nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Sampling of the genus was nearly complete, including 32 of 34 species. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using parsimony, and Bayesian model averaging. The latter method allows model-based inference while accounting for model-selection uncertainty, and is here used for the first time in phylogenetic analyses. All species of Fagonia in the Old World, except F. cretica, form a weakly supported clade, and all Fagonia species of the New World, except F. scoparia, are well supported as sister to the Old World clade. Fagonia scoparia, from Mexico, and F. cretica, from Northern Africa, are well supported as sisters to all other Fagonia species. Vicariance-dispersal analysis, using DIVA, indicated that the occurrences of Fagonia in South America and southern Africa are due to dispersals, and also, that the ancestor of Fagonia had a distribution compatible with the boreotropics hypothesis. PMID:15324841

  13. A multilocus assessment of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data elucidates phylogenetic relationships among European spirlins (Alburnoides, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Stierandová, Soňa; Vukić, Jasna; Vasil'eva, Ekaterina D; Zogaris, Stamatis; Shumka, Spase; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš; Švátora, Miroslav; Nowak, Michal; Stefanov, Tihomir; Koščo, Ján; Mendel, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of the spirlins in the genus Alburnoides are examined by comparative sequencing analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Molecular analyses revealed 17 Eurasian lineages divided into two main clades, termed the Ponto-Caspian and European in accordance with the lineage distribution. The indel diagnostics of β-actin and S7 markers and translation of cyt b to the amino acid chain were evaluated as a reliable identifying tool for most of the recognised lineages. Lineage richness is closely connected with the existence of known glacial refugia in most cases. The underestimation of species richness in the genus Alburnoides is confirmed: the genetic analyses support the validity of 11 morphologically accepted species; apart from them, four phylogenetic lineages requiring descriptions as separate species were revealed. The distribution area of the nominotypical species A. bipunctatus s. stricto is newly defined. Two diverging phylogenetic lineages, A. ohridanus, and A. prespensis complex, were observed in the Southeast Adriatic Freshwater Ecoregion, confirmed as a hotspot of endemic biodiversity. A. ohridanus demonstrates high divergence from the A. prespensis complex, represented by three similar mitochondrial lineages with the same nuclear haplotypes and sympatric occurrence. The range restricted endemism was confirmed for at least seven species. The Albanian river systems, as well as the wider Ponto-Caspian basin exhibit complications among definite species delineations and gaps in understanding of microevolutionary processes; these areas require further investigations.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships within an endemic group of Malagasy 'assassin spiders' (Araneae, Archaeidae): ancestral character reconstruction, convergent evolution and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Wood, Hannah M; Griswold, Charles E; Spicer, Greg S

    2007-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships in an endemic group of Malagasy 'assassin spiders' (Araneae, Archaeidae: Eriauchenius) called the gracilicollis group, are inferred from mitochondrial 12S, 16S and COI DNA sequence data. Archaeid spiders of Madagascar have evolved varying degrees of elongation in the cephalic area. These molecular data support the monophyly of the gracilicollis group. The evolution of the cephalic area is examined by performing an ancestral character reconstruction on this character, which reveals that the cephalic area is elongating independently. The biogeography of the gracilicollis group reveals an east-west split of the clade on Madagascar. PMID:17869131

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  16. Primary structures of skin antimicrobial peptides indicate a close, but not conspecific, phylogenetic relationship between the leopard frogs Lithobates onca and Lithobates yavapaiensis (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationship between the relict leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) onca (Cope, 1875) and the lowland leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) yavapaiensis (Platz and Frost, 1984) is unclear. Chromatographic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from L. onca led to the identification of six peptides with antimicrobial activity. Determination of their primary structures indicated that four of the peptides were identical to brevinin-1Ya, brevinin-1Yb, brevinin-1Yc and ranatuerin-2Ya previously isolated from skin secretions of L. yavapaiensis. However, a peptide belonging to the temporin family (temporin-ONa: FLPTFGKILSGLF.NH(2)) and an atypical member of the ranatuerin-2 family containing a C-terminal cyclic heptapeptide domain (ranatuerin-2ONa: GLMDTVKNAAKNLAGQMLDKLKCKITGSC) were isolated from the L. onca secretions but were not present in the L. yavapaiensis secretions. Ranatuerin-2ONa inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (MIC=50muM) and Candida albicans (MIC=100muM ) and showed hemolytic activity (LC(50)=90muM) but was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus. The data indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between L. onca and L. yavapaiensis but suggest that they are not conspecific species.

  17. Primary structures of skin antimicrobial peptides indicate a close, but not conspecific, phylogenetic relationship between the leopard frogs Lithobates onca and Lithobates yavapaiensis (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationship between the relict leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) onca (Cope, 1875) and the lowland leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) yavapaiensis (Platz and Frost, 1984) is unclear. Chromatographic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from L. onca led to the identification of six peptides with antimicrobial activity. Determination of their primary structures indicated that four of the peptides were identical to brevinin-1Ya, brevinin-1Yb, brevinin-1Yc and ranatuerin-2Ya previously isolated from skin secretions of L. yavapaiensis. However, a peptide belonging to the temporin family (temporin-ONa: FLPTFGKILSGLF.NH(2)) and an atypical member of the ranatuerin-2 family containing a C-terminal cyclic heptapeptide domain (ranatuerin-2ONa: GLMDTVKNAAKNLAGQMLDKLKCKITGSC) were isolated from the L. onca secretions but were not present in the L. yavapaiensis secretions. Ranatuerin-2ONa inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (MIC=50muM) and Candida albicans (MIC=100muM ) and showed hemolytic activity (LC(50)=90muM) but was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus. The data indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between L. onca and L. yavapaiensis but suggest that they are not conspecific species. PMID:20044030

  18. Molecular Genetic Variation in Emmonsia crescens and Emmonsia parva, Etiologic Agents of Adiaspiromycosis, and Their Phylogenetic Relationship to Blastomyces dermatitidis (Ajellomyces dermatitidis) and Other Systemic Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Stephen W.; Sigler, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Emmonsia crescens, an agent of adiaspiromycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, the agent of blastomycosis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, the agent of histoplasmosis, are known to form meiotic (sexual) stages in the ascomycete genus Ajellomyces (Onygenaceae, Onygenales), but no sexual stage is known for E. parva, the type species of the genus Emmonsia. To evaluate relationships among members of the putative Ajellomyces clade, large-subunit ribosomal and internal transcribed spacer region DNA sequences were determined from PCR-amplified DNA fragments. Sequences were analyzed phylogenetically to evaluate the genetic variation within the genus Emmonsia and evolutionary relationships to other taxa. E. crescens and E. parva are distinct species. E. crescens isolates are placed into two groups that correlate with their continents of origin. Considerable variation occurred among isolates previously classified as E. parva. Most isolates are placed into two closely related groups, but the remaining isolates, including some from human sources, are phylogenetically distinct and represent undescribed species. Strains of B. dermatitidis are a sister species of E. parva. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Histoplasma capsulatum are ancestral to most Emmonsia isolates, and P. brasiliensis, which has no known teleomorph, falls within the Ajellomyces clade. PMID:9738044

  19. Combining comparative sequence and genomic data to ascertain phylogenetic relationships and explore the evolution of the large GDSL-lipase family in land plants.

    PubMed

    Volokita, Micha; Rosilio-Brami, Tamar; Rivkin, Natalia; Zik, Moriyah

    2011-01-01

    The GDSL-lipase gene family is a very large subfamily within the supergene family of SGNH esterases, defined by the distinct GDSL amino acid motif and several highly conserved domains. Plants retain a large number of GDSL-lipases indicating that they have acquired important functions. Yet, in planta functions have been demonstrated for only a few GDSL-lipases from diverse species. Considering that orthologs often retain equivalent functions, we determined the phylogenetic relationships between GDSL-lipases from genome-sequenced species representing bryophytes, gymnosperms, monocots, and eudicots. An unrooted phylogenetic tree was constructed from the amino acid sequences of 604 GDSL-lipases from seven species. The topology of the tree depicts two major and one minor subfamily. This division is also supported by the unique gene structure of each subfamily. Because GDSL-lipase genes of all species are present in each of the three subfamilies, we conclude that the last common ancestor of the land plants already possessed at least one ancestral GDSL-lipase gene of each subfamily. Combined gene structure and synteny analyses revealed events of segmental duplications, gene transposition, and gene degeneration in the evolution of the GDSL-lipase gene family. Furthermore, these analyses showed that independent events of intron gain and loss also contributed to the extant repertoire of the GDSL-lipase gene family. Our findings suggest that underlying many of the intron losses was a spliceosomal-mediated mechanism followed by gene conversion. Sorting the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the GDSL-lipase gene family, as depicted by the tree and supported by synteny analyses, provides a framework for extrapolation of demonstrated functional data to GDSL-lipases, whose function is yet unknown. Furthermore, function(s) associated with specific lineage(s)-enriched branches may reveal correlations between acquired and/or lost functions and speciation.

  20. Data on the phylogenetic typing, integron gene cassette array analysis, multi-drug resistance analysis and correlation between antimicrobial resistance determinants in Klebsiella strains.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Mingyu; Liu, Yuqing; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Yunkun; Lu, Jinxing; Xu, Hai

    2016-09-01

    The antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella species in the poultry industry is becoming a public concern. In support our recent publication "Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella species isolated from chicken broilers" (Wu et al., 2016) [1], multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and gyrA PCR-RFLP assays were conducted to identify the genetic relationships between and phylogenetic groups of the 90 antimicrobial resistant Klebsiella species isolated from a commercial broiler slaughter plant in Shandong, China. In addition, PCR-RFLP was performed to identify different gene cassette arrays in class 1 and 2 integrons, and the correlations between different antimicrobial resistance determinants were analyzed. PMID:27570806

  1. Phylogenetic relationship among genera of Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Aznar, Francisco J; Nadler, Steven A

    2013-08-01

    Acanthocephalans of the family Polymorphidae Meyer, 1931 are obligate endoparasites with complex life cycles. These worms use vertebrates (marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl) as definitive hosts and invertebrates (amphipods, decapods and euphausiids) as intermediate hosts to complete their life cycle. Polymorphidae has a wordwide distribution, containing 12 genera, with approximately 127 species. The family is diagnosed by having a spinose trunk, bulbose proboscis, double-walled proboscis receptacle, and usually four to eight tubular cement glands. To conduct a phylogenetic analysis, in the current study sequences of the small (18S) and large-subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) were generated for 27 taxa representing 10 of 12 genera of Polymorphidae, plus three additional species of acanthocephalans that were used as outgroups. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian analyses were conducted on a combined nuclear rRNA (18S+28S) data set and on a concatenated dataset of nuclear plus one mitochondrial gene (18S+28S+cox 1). Phylogenetic analyses inferred with the concatenated dataset of three genes support the monophyly of nine genera (Andracantha, Corynosoma, Bolbosoma, Profilicollis, Pseudocorynosoma, Southwellina, Arhythmorhynchus, Hexaglandula and Ibirhynchus). However, the four sampled species of Polymorphus were nested within several clades, indicating that these species do not share a common ancestor, requiring further taxonomic revision using phylogenetic systematics, and reexamination of morphological and ecological data. By mapping definitive and intermediate host association onto the resulting cladogram, we observe that aquatic birds were the ancestral definitive hosts for the family with a secondary colonization and diversification to marine mammals. Whereas amphipods were ancestral intermediate hosts and that the association with decapods represent episodes of secondary colonization

  2. Phylogenetic relationships and new genetic tools for the detection and discrimination of the three feline Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Silbermayr, Katja; Horvath-Ungerboeck, Christa; Eigner, Barbara; Joachim, Anja; Ferrer, Lluis

    2015-02-01

    Two feline Demodex mite species have been described as causative agents of feline demodicosis, until recently a third species was detected. We provide an updated analysis on the phylogenetic relationship of Demodex mites. In addition, we present the first qPCR assay for the detection and differentiation of all three feline mite species in a single reaction. Specimen of Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and the recently discovered third species were collected from skin scrapings and fecal flotation for DNA extraction, conventional PCR, sequencing, and alignment. A total of 24 sequences of the partial 16S rRNA gene were used to estimate the evolutionary divergence in a p-distance model and a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree. For the qPCR assay, new primers and fluorescent probes for the simultaneous detection of all three feline Demodex mites were designed. A consensus fragment of 351 bp was phylogenetically analyzed. The third species sequence of our study shares 98.6 % similarity to the available sequence in GenBank®. It is most similar to D. gatoi (82.41 %) and most distant to the canine Demodex injai (78.28 %). In contrast, D. gatoi is most similar to human Demodex brevis (87.01 %). The multiplex qPCR detected and discriminated the three different mite species in one reaction. The detection limit is ≤1.4 ng of mite DNA. The three feline Demodex species have distinct genotypes and did not cluster in one genetic clade. The species differentiation and assessment of evolutionary relationships will ultimately support correct diagnostics and treatment approaches. PMID:25468382

  3. Phylogenetic relationships and new genetic tools for the detection and discrimination of the three feline Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Silbermayr, Katja; Horvath-Ungerboeck, Christa; Eigner, Barbara; Joachim, Anja; Ferrer, Lluis

    2015-02-01

    Two feline Demodex mite species have been described as causative agents of feline demodicosis, until recently a third species was detected. We provide an updated analysis on the phylogenetic relationship of Demodex mites. In addition, we present the first qPCR assay for the detection and differentiation of all three feline mite species in a single reaction. Specimen of Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and the recently discovered third species were collected from skin scrapings and fecal flotation for DNA extraction, conventional PCR, sequencing, and alignment. A total of 24 sequences of the partial 16S rRNA gene were used to estimate the evolutionary divergence in a p-distance model and a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree. For the qPCR assay, new primers and fluorescent probes for the simultaneous detection of all three feline Demodex mites were designed. A consensus fragment of 351 bp was phylogenetically analyzed. The third species sequence of our study shares 98.6 % similarity to the available sequence in GenBank®. It is most similar to D. gatoi (82.41 %) and most distant to the canine Demodex injai (78.28 %). In contrast, D. gatoi is most similar to human Demodex brevis (87.01 %). The multiplex qPCR detected and discriminated the three different mite species in one reaction. The detection limit is ≤1.4 ng of mite DNA. The three feline Demodex species have distinct genotypes and did not cluster in one genetic clade. The species differentiation and assessment of evolutionary relationships will ultimately support correct diagnostics and treatment approaches.

  4. The evolution pattern of rDNA ITS in Avena and phylogenetic relationship of the Avena species (Poaceae: Aveneae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan-Ying; Baum, Bernard R; Ren, Chang-Zhong; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Chen, Guo-Yue; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2010-10-01

    Ribosomal ITS sequences are commonly used for phylogenetic reconstruction because they are included in rDNA repeats, and these repeats often undergo rapid concerted evolution within and between arrays. Therefore, the rDNA ITS copies appear to be virtually identical and can sometimes be treated as a single gene. In this paper we examined ITS polymorphism within and among 13 diploid (A and C genomes), seven tetraploid (AB, AC and CC genomes) and four hexaploid (ACD genome) to infer the extent and direction of concerted evolution, and to reveal the phylogenetic and genome relationship among species of Avena. A total of 170 clones of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 fragment were sequenced to carry out haplotype and phylogenetic analysis. In addition, 111 Avena ITS sequences retrieved from GenBank were combined with 170 clones to construct a phylogeny and a network. We demonstrate the major divergence between the A and C genomes whereas the distinction among the A and B/D genomes was generally not possible. High affinity among the A(d) genome species A. damascena and the ACD genome species A. fatua was found, whereas the rest of the ACD genome hexaploids and the AACC tetraploids were highly affiliated with the A(l) genome diploid A. longiglumis. One of the AACC species A. murphyi showed the closest relationship with most of the hexaploid species. Both C(v) and C(p) genome species have been proposed as paternal donors of the C-genome carrying polyploids. Incomplete concerted evolution is responsible for the observed differences among different clones of a single Avena individual. The elimination of C-genome rRNA sequences and the resulting evolutionary inference of hexaploid species are discussed.

  5. Genome-wide comparison of ferritin family from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and Viruses: its distribution, characteristic motif, and phylogenetic relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lina; Xie, Ting; Hu, Qingqing; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-01

    Ferritins are highly conserved proteins that are widely distributed in various species from archaea to humans. The ubiquitous characteristic of these proteins reflects the pivotal contribution of ferritins to the safe storage and timely delivery of iron to achieve iron homeostasis. This study investigated the ferritin genes in 248 genomes from various species, including viruses, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. The distribution comparison suggests that mammals and eudicots possess abundant ferritin genes, whereas fungi contain very few ferritin genes. Archaea and bacteria show considerable numbers of ferritin genes. Generally, prokaryotes possess three types of ferritin (the typical ferritin, bacterioferritin, and DNA-binding protein from starved cell), whereas eukaryotes have various subunit types of ferritin, thereby indicating the individuation of the ferritin family during evolution. The characteristic motif analysis of ferritins suggested that all key residues specifying the unique structural motifs of ferritin are highly conserved across three domains of life. Meanwhile, the characteristic motifs were also distinguishable between ferritin groups, especially phytoferritins, which show a plant-specific motif. The phylogenetic analyses show that ferritins within the same subfamily or subunits are generally clustered together. The phylogenetic relationships among ferritin members suggest that both gene duplication and horizontal transfer contribute to the wide variety of ferritins, and their possible evolutionary scenario was also proposed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the distribution, characteristic motif, and evolutionary relationship of the ferritin family.

  6. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship analysis of Jatropha curcas L. inferred from nrDNA ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guo-Ye; Chen, Fang; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Yin-Shuai; Yu, Mao-Qun; Han, Xue-Qin; Yuan, Li-Chun; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among 102 Jatropha curcas accessions from Asia, Africa, and the Americas were assessed using the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS). The average G+C content (65.04%) was considerably higher than the A+T (34.96%) content. The estimated genetic diversity revealed moderate genetic variation. The pairwise genetic divergences (GD) between haplotypes were evaluated and ranged from 0.000 to 0.017, suggesting a higher level of genetic differentiation in Mexican accessions than those of other regions. Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific divergence were inferred by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum parsimony (MP), and median joining (MJ) network analysis and were generally resolved. The J. curcas accessions were consistently divided into three lineages, groups A, B, and C, which demonstrated distant geographical isolation and genetic divergence between American accessions and those from other regions. The MJ network analysis confirmed that Central America was the possible center of origin. The putative migration route suggested that J. curcas was distributed from Mexico or Brazil, via Cape Verde and then split into two routes. One route was dispersed to Spain, then migrated to China, eventually spreading to southeastern Asia, while the other route was dispersed to Africa, via Madagascar and migrated to China, later spreading to southeastern Asia. PMID:27461559

  7. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo, and phylogenetic relationships among main superorders of modern elasmobranchs

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Jaimes, Píndaro; Bayona-Vásquez, Natalia J.; Adams, Douglas H.; Uribe-Alcocer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranchs are one of the most diverse groups in the marine realm represented by 18 orders, 55 families and about 1200 species reported, but also one of the most vulnerable to exploitation and to climate change. Phylogenetic relationships among main orders have been controversial since the emergence of the Hypnosqualean hypothesis by Shirai (1992) that considered batoids as a sister group of sharks. The use of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may shed light to further validate this hypothesis by increasing the number of informative characters. We report the mtDNA genome of the bonnethead shark Sphyrna tiburo, and compare it with mitogenomes of other 48 species to assess phylogenetic relationships. The mtDNA genome of S. tiburo, is quite similar in size to that of congeneric species but also similar to the reported mtDNA genome of other Carcharhinidae species. Like most vertebrate mitochondrial genomes, it contained 13 protein coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes and the control region of 1086 bp (D-loop). The Bayesian analysis of the 49 mitogenomes supported the view that sharks and batoids are separate groups. PMID:27014583

  8. [RAPD analysis of the intraspecific and interspecific variation and phylogenetic relationships of Aegilops L. species with the U genome].

    PubMed

    Goriunova, S V; Chikida, N N; Kochieva, E Z

    2010-07-01

    RAPD analysis was used to study the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of polyploid Aegilops species with the U genome. In total, 115 DNA samples of eight polyploid species containing the U genome and the diploid species Ae. umbellulata (U) were examined. Substantial interspecific polymorphism was observed for the majority of the polyploid species with the U genome (interspecific differences, 0.01-0,2; proportion of polymorphic loci, 56.6-88.2%). Aegilops triuncialis was identified as the only alloploid species with low interspecific polymorphism (interspecific differences, 0-0.01, P = 50%) in the U-genome group. The U-genome Aegilops species proved to be separated from other species of the genus. The phylogenetic relationships were established for the U-genome species. The greatest separation within the U-genome group was observed for the US-genome species Ae. kotschyi and Ae. variabilis. The tetraploid species Ae. triaristata and Ae. columnaris, which had the UX genome, and the hexaploid species Ae. recta (UXN) were found to be related to each other and separate from the UM-genome species. A similarity was observed between the U M-genome species Ae. ovata and Ae. biuncialis, which had the UM genome, and the ancestral diploid U-genome species Ae. umbellulata. The UC-genome species Ae. triuncialis was rather separate and slightly similar to the UX-genome species.

  9. Nuclear Ribosomal ITS Functional Paralogs Resolve the Phylogenetic Relationships of a Late-Miocene Radiation Cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals. PMID:25635842

  10. Mitochondrial DNA variation and phylogenetic relationships among five tuna species based on sequencing of D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girish; Kocour, Martin; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan

    2016-05-01

    In order to assess the DNA sequence variation and phylogenetic relationship among five tuna species (Auxis thazard, Euthynnus affinis, Katsuwonus pelamis, Thunnus tonggol, and T. albacares) out of all four tuna genera, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region were analyzed. The estimate of intra-specific sequence variation in studied species was low, ranging from 0.027 to 0.080 [Kimura's two parameter distance (K2P)], whereas values of inter-specific variation ranged from 0.049 to 0.491. The longtail tuna (T. tonggol) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares) were found to share a close relationship (K2P = 0.049) while skipjack tuna (K. pelamis) was most divergent studied species. Phylogenetic analysis using Maximum-Likelihood (ML) and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) methods supported the monophyletic origin of Thunnus species. Similarly, phylogeny of Auxis and Euthynnus species substantiate the monophyly. However, results showed a distinct origin of K. pelamis from genus Thunnus as well as Auxis and Euthynnus. Thus, the mtDNA D-loop region sequence data supports the polyphyletic origin of tuna species. PMID:25329285

  11. Genome-wide comparison of ferritin family from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and Viruses: its distribution, characteristic motif, and phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lina; Xie, Ting; Hu, Qingqing; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-01

    Ferritins are highly conserved proteins that are widely distributed in various species from archaea to humans. The ubiquitous characteristic of these proteins reflects the pivotal contribution of ferritins to the safe storage and timely delivery of iron to achieve iron homeostasis. This study investigated the ferritin genes in 248 genomes from various species, including viruses, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. The distribution comparison suggests that mammals and eudicots possess abundant ferritin genes, whereas fungi contain very few ferritin genes. Archaea and bacteria show considerable numbers of ferritin genes. Generally, prokaryotes possess three types of ferritin (the typical ferritin, bacterioferritin, and DNA-binding protein from starved cell), whereas eukaryotes have various subunit types of ferritin, thereby indicating the individuation of the ferritin family during evolution. The characteristic motif analysis of ferritins suggested that all key residues specifying the unique structural motifs of ferritin are highly conserved across three domains of life. Meanwhile, the characteristic motifs were also distinguishable between ferritin groups, especially phytoferritins, which show a plant-specific motif. The phylogenetic analyses show that ferritins within the same subfamily or subunits are generally clustered together. The phylogenetic relationships among ferritin members suggest that both gene duplication and horizontal transfer contribute to the wide variety of ferritins, and their possible evolutionary scenario was also proposed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the distribution, characteristic motif, and evolutionary relationship of the ferritin family.

  12. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo, and phylogenetic relationships among main superorders of modern elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Jaimes, Píndaro; Bayona-Vásquez, Natalia J; Adams, Douglas H; Uribe-Alcocer, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Elasmobranchs are one of the most diverse groups in the marine realm represented by 18 orders, 55 families and about 1200 species reported, but also one of the most vulnerable to exploitation and to climate change. Phylogenetic relationships among main orders have been controversial since the emergence of the Hypnosqualean hypothesis by Shirai (1992) that considered batoids as a sister group of sharks. The use of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may shed light to further validate this hypothesis by increasing the number of informative characters. We report the mtDNA genome of the bonnethead shark Sphyrna tiburo, and compare it with mitogenomes of other 48 species to assess phylogenetic relationships. The mtDNA genome of S. tiburo, is quite similar in size to that of congeneric species but also similar to the reported mtDNA genome of other Carcharhinidae species. Like most vertebrate mitochondrial genomes, it contained 13 protein coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes and the control region of 1086 bp (D-loop). The Bayesian analysis of the 49 mitogenomes supported the view that sharks and batoids are separate groups. PMID:27014583

  13. Nuclear ribosomal ITS functional paralogs resolve the phylogenetic relationships of a late-Miocene radiation cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals. PMID:25635842

  14. Nuclear ribosomal ITS functional paralogs resolve the phylogenetic relationships of a late-Miocene radiation cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of the Hucul horse from Romania inferred from mitochondrial D-loop variation.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dudu, A; Costache, M

    2011-10-31

    The existence of the Hucul horse on Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past; today Hucul is a unique breed that is part of the FAO Program for the Preservation of Animal Genetic Resources. We compared Hucul with several primitive European and Asiatic breeds in order to elucidate the origin of these horses. We analyzed a 683-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop fragment in a population of Hucul horses and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from other primitive breeds, including Exmoor, Icelandic Pony, Sorraia, Przewalski Horse, Mongolian Wild Horse, Konik, and Shetland Pony, as well as with Arabian, Akhal Teke and Caspian Pony. The sequences were truncated to 247 bp to accommodate short sequence data for the other species. Eighty horses were analyzed; 35 polymorphic sites representing 33 haplotypes were observed. The mean percentage of polymorphic sites was 14.2% for this mtDNA fragment. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Kimura two-parameter distances and the Network 3.111 software was used for phylogenetic analysis. The Hucul horse was classified separately from all other primitive breeds. It is possible that the Hucul horse is not part of the pony class, as it segregated apart from all primitive pony breeds. We found multiple origins in the maternal lineage of domestic horse breeds and demonstrated the uniqueness of the Hucul breed; its origins remain unclear.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of the Hucul horse from Romania inferred from mitochondrial D-loop variation.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dudu, A; Costache, M

    2011-01-01

    The existence of the Hucul horse on Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past; today Hucul is a unique breed that is part of the FAO Program for the Preservation of Animal Genetic Resources. We compared Hucul with several primitive European and Asiatic breeds in order to elucidate the origin of these horses. We analyzed a 683-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop fragment in a population of Hucul horses and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from other primitive breeds, including Exmoor, Icelandic Pony, Sorraia, Przewalski Horse, Mongolian Wild Horse, Konik, and Shetland Pony, as well as with Arabian, Akhal Teke and Caspian Pony. The sequences were truncated to 247 bp to accommodate short sequence data for the other species. Eighty horses were analyzed; 35 polymorphic sites representing 33 haplotypes were observed. The mean percentage of polymorphic sites was 14.2% for this mtDNA fragment. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Kimura two-parameter distances and the Network 3.111 software was used for phylogenetic analysis. The Hucul horse was classified separately from all other primitive breeds. It is possible that the Hucul horse is not part of the pony class, as it segregated apart from all primitive pony breeds. We found multiple origins in the maternal lineage of domestic horse breeds and demonstrated the uniqueness of the Hucul breed; its origins remain unclear. PMID:22057995

  17. Phylogenetic Relationships and Species Delimitation in Pinus Section Trifoliae Inferrred from Plastid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-León, Sergio; Gernandt, David S.; Pérez de la Rosa, Jorge A.; Jardón-Barbolla, Lev

    2013-01-01

    Recent diversification followed by secondary contact and hybridization may explain complex patterns of intra- and interspecific morphological and genetic variation in the North American hard pines (Pinus section Trifoliae), a group of approximately 49 tree species distributed in North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. We concatenated five plastid DNA markers for an average of 3.9 individuals per putative species and assessed the suitability of the five regions as DNA bar codes for species identification, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction. The ycf1 gene accounted for the greatest proportion of the alignment (46.9%), the greatest proportion of variable sites (74.9%), and the most unique sequences (75 haplotypes). Phylogenetic analysis recovered clades corresponding to subsections Australes, Contortae, and Ponderosae. Sequences for 23 of the 49 species were monophyletic and sequences for another 9 species were paraphyletic. Morphologically similar species within subsections usually grouped together, but there were exceptions consistent with incomplete lineage sorting or introgression. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that all three subsections diversified relatively recently during the Miocene. The general mixed Yule-coalescent method gave a mixed model estimate of only 22 or 23 evolutionary entities for the plastid sequences, which corresponds to less than half the 49 species recognized based on morphological species assignments. Including more unique haplotypes per species may result in higher estimates, but low mutation rates, recent diversification, and large effective population sizes may limit the effectiveness of this method to detect evolutionary entities. PMID:23936218

  18. How Accurate and Robust Are the Phylogenetic Estimates of Austronesian Language Relationships?

    PubMed Central

    Greenhill, Simon J.; Drummond, Alexei J.; Gray, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    We recently used computational phylogenetic methods on lexical data to test between two scenarios for the peopling of the Pacific. Our analyses of lexical data supported a pulse-pause scenario of Pacific settlement in which the Austronesian speakers originated in Taiwan around 5,200 years ago and rapidly spread through the Pacific in a series of expansion pulses and settlement pauses. We claimed that there was high congruence between traditional language subgroups and those observed in the language phylogenies, and that the estimated age of the Austronesian expansion at 5,200 years ago was consistent with the archaeological evidence. However, the congruence between the language phylogenies and the evidence from historical linguistics was not quantitatively assessed using tree comparison metrics. The robustness of the divergence time estimates to different calibration points was also not investigated exhaustively. Here we address these limitations by using a systematic tree comparison metric to calculate the similarity between the Bayesian phylogenetic trees and the subgroups proposed by historical linguistics, and by re-estimating the age of the Austronesian expansion using only the most robust calibrations. The results show that the Austronesian language phylogenies are highly congruent with the traditional subgroupings, and the date estimates are robust even when calculated using a restricted set of historical calibrations. PMID:20224774

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and protein modelling revealed two distinct subfamilies of group II HKT genes between crop and model grasses.

    PubMed

    Ariyarathna, H A Chandima K; Francki, Michael G

    2016-07-01

    Molecular evolution of large protein families in closely related species can provide useful insights on structural functional relationships. Phylogenetic analysis of the grass-specific group II HKT genes identified two distinct subfamilies, I and II. Subfamily II was represented in all species, whereas subfamily I was identified only in the small grain cereals and possibly originated from an ancestral gene duplication post divergence from the coarse grain cereal lineage. The core protein structures were highly analogous despite there being no more than 58% amino acid identity between members of the two subfamilies. Distinctly variable regions in known functional domains, however, indicated functional divergence of the two subfamilies. The subsets of codons residing external to known functional domains predicted signatures of positive Darwinian selection potentially identifying new domains of functional divergence and providing new insights on the structural function and relationships between protein members of the two subfamilies. PMID:27203707

  20. Molecular inference of phylogenetic relationships among Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) with special focus on the squid order Oegopsida.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Annie R

    2010-07-01

    Squids, cuttlefish and bobtail squids comprise the molluscan superorder Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Although these animals exemplify the morphological and ecological diversity seen in Cephalopoda, no previous study has focused resolving decapodiform relationships, particularly within Oegopsida, a large order comprised of pelagic squid. To further clarify the phylogenetic history of Decapodiformes, and Oegopsida in particular, molecular data for five genes (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, Histone H3, 16S rRNA, COI) was collected for 90 taxa representing all major lineages and families and evaluated using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analysis. Although ordinal relationships were sensitive to analytical method, several conclusions can be inferred: the pelagic order Myopsida is closely related to the benthic sepioids, whose relationships were ambiguous, and Bathyteuthoidea is distinct from Oegopsida. Within Oegopsida several clades are consistently recovered, some with previous morphological support (e.g. chiroteuthid, lepidoteuthid, histioteuthid families) while others suggest novel relationships (e.g. Architeuthidae+Neoteuthidae). This study, with its broad coverage of taxa, provides the first in-depth analysis of Decapodiformes with special focus on the morphologically and biogeographically diverse Oegopsida, confirms several sister-taxon relationships, and provides new hypotheses of cephalopod evolution in the open ocean.

  1. A phylogenetic analysis of the relationship between sub-adult mortality and mode of subsistence.

    PubMed

    Sellen, D W; Mace, R

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis that measures of sub-adult mortality rates in natural fertility populations are associated with subsistence practices in a selected cross-cultural sample (n = 39) was tested. After controlling for both distance from the equator and the general likelihood of cultural similarities between genetically closely related cultures using phylogenetic comparative methods, it was found that dependence on extractive modes of subsistence (hunting, gathering and fishing) was a significant positive correlated of total child mortality (15q0). Both increases in dependence on foraging and permanent settlement were associated with increases in child mortality between pairs of historically related cultures. The results indicated little association between infant mortality (1q0) and either dependence on foraging or settlement.

  2. Mosquitoes of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae) Group: Species Diagnostic and Phylogenetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Khrabrova, Natalia V.; Andreeva, Yulia V.; Sibataev, Anuarbek K.; Alekseeva, Svetlana S.; Esenbekova, Perizat A.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the results of study of Anopheles species in Primorsk and Khabarovsk regions of Russia. Three species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group: An. kleini, An. pullus, and An. lesteri were identified by molecular taxonomic diagnostics for the first time in Russia. Surprisingly, An. sinensis, which earlier was considered the only species of Anopheles in Russian Far East, was not observed. We analyzed nucleotide variation in the 610-bp fragment of the 5′ end of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region. All species possessed a distinctive set of COI sequences. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed for members of the hyrcanus group. The examined Anopheles hyrcanus group members could be divided into two major subgroups: subgroup 1 (An. hyrcanus and An. pullus) and subgroup 2 (An. sinensis, An. kleini, and An. lesteri), which were found to be monophyletic. PMID:26149867

  3. Mosquitoes of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae) Group: Species Diagnostic and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Khrabrova, Natalia V; Andreeva, Yulia V; Sibataev, Anuarbek K; Alekseeva, Svetlana S; Esenbekova, Perizat A

    2015-09-01

    Herein, we report the results of study of Anopheles species in Primorsk and Khabarovsk regions of Russia. Three species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group: An. kleini, An. pullus, and An. lesteri were identified by molecular taxonomic diagnostics for the first time in Russia. Surprisingly, An. sinensis, which earlier was considered the only species of Anopheles in Russian Far East, was not observed. We analyzed nucleotide variation in the 610-bp fragment of the 5' end of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region. All species possessed a distinctive set of COI sequences. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed for members of the hyrcanus group. The examined Anopheles hyrcanus group members could be divided into two major subgroups: subgroup 1 (An. hyrcanus and An. pullus) and subgroup 2 (An. sinensis, An. kleini, and An. lesteri), which were found to be monophyletic.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among amphisbaenian reptiles based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Macey, J Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Fourcade, H Mathew; Boore, Jeffrey L

    2004-10-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomic sequences are reported from 12 members in the four families of the reptile group Amphisbaenia. Analysis of 11,946 aligned nucleotide positions (5797 informative) produces a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The family Rhineuridae is basal and Bipedidae is the sister taxon to the Amphisbaenidae plus Trogonophidae. Amphisbaenian reptiles are surprisingly old, predating the breakup of Pangaea 200 million years before present, because successive basal taxa (Rhineuridae and Bipedidae) are situated in tectonic regions of Laurasia and nested taxa (Amphisbaenidae and Trogonophidae) are found in Gondwanan regions. Thorough sampling within the Bipedidae shows that it is not tectonic movement of Baja California away from the Mexican mainland that is primary in isolating Bipes species, but rather that primary vicariance occurred between northern and southern groups. Amphisbaenian families show parallel reduction in number of limbs and Bipes species exhibit parallel reduction in number of digits. A measure is developed for comparing the phylogenetic information content of various genes. A synapomorphic trait defining the Bipedidae is a shift from the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement to the derived state of trnE and nad6. In addition, a tandem duplication of trnT and trnP is observed in Bipes biporus with a pattern of pseudogene formation that varies among populations. The first case of convergent rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome among animals demonstrated by complete genomic sequences is reported. Relative to most vertebrates, the Rhineuridae has the block nad6, trnE switched in order with the block cob, trnT, trnP, as they are in birds.

  5. A Reevaluation of the Morphology, Paleoecology, and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Enigmatic Walrus Pelagiarctos

    PubMed Central

    Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of aberrant walruses (Odobenidae) have been described from the Neogene of the North Pacific, including specialized suction-feeding and generalist fish-eating taxa. At least one of these fossil walruses has been hypothesized to have been a specialized predator of other marine mammals, the middle Miocene walrus Pelagiarctos thomasi from the Sharktooth Hill Bonebed of California (16.1–14.5 Ma). Methodology/Principal Findings A new specimen of Pelagiarctos from the middle Miocene “Topanga” Formation of southern California (17.5–15 Ma) allows a reassessment of the morphology and feeding ecology of this extinct walrus. The mandibles of this new specimen are robust with large canines, bulbous premolars with prominent paraconid, metaconid, hypoconid cusps, crenulated lingual cingula with small talonid basins, M2 present, double-rooted P3–M1, single-rooted P1 and M2, and a P2 with a bilobate root. Because this specimen lacks a fused mandibular symphysis like Pelagiarctos thomasi, it is instead referred to Pelagiarctos sp. This specimen is more informative than the fragmentary holotype of Pelagiarctos thomasi, permitting Pelagiarctos to be included within a phylogenetic analysis for the first time. Analysis of a matrix composed of 90 cranial, dental, mandibular and postcranial characters indicates that Pelagiarctos is an early diverging walrus and sister to the late Miocene walrus Imagotaria downsi. We reevaluate the evidence for a macropredatory lifestyle for Pelagiarctos, and we find no evidence of specialization towards a macrophagous diet, suggesting that Pelagiarctos was a generalist feeder with the ability to feed on large prey. Conclusions/Significance This new specimen of Pelagiarctos adds to the knowledge of this problematic taxon. The phylogenetic analysis conclusively demonstrates that Pelagiarctos is an early diverging walrus. Pelagiarctos does not show morphological specializations associated with macrophagy, and was likely a

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among amphisbaenian reptiles based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-19

    Complete mitochondrial genomic sequences are reported from 12 members in the four families of the reptile group Amphisbaenia. Analysis of 11,946 aligned nucleotide positions (5,797 informative) produces a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The family Rhineuridae is basal and Bipedidae is the sister taxon to the Amphisbaenidae plus Trogonophidae. Amphisbaenian reptiles are surprisingly old, predating the breakup of Pangaea 200 million years before present, because successive basal taxa (Rhineuridae and Bipedidae) are situated in tectonic regions of Laurasia and nested taxa (Amphisbaenidae and Trogonophidae) are found in Gondwanan regions. Thorough sampling within the Bipedidae shows that it is not tectonic movement of Baja California away from the Mexican mainland that is primary in isolating Bipes species, but rather that primary vicariance occurred between northern and southern groups. Amphisbaenian families show parallel reduction in number of limbs and Bipes species exhibit parallel reduction in number of digits. A measure is developed for comparing the phylogenetic information content of various genes. A synapomorphic trait defining the Bipedidae is a shift from the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement to the derived state of trnE and nad6. In addition, a tandem duplication of trnT and trnP is observed in B. biporus with a pattern of pseudogene formation that varies among populations. The first case of convergent rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome among animals demonstrated by complete genomic sequences is reported. Relative to most vertebrates, the Rhineuridae has the block nad6, trnE switched in order with cob, trnT, trnP, as they are in birds.

  7. Genetic variability, phylogenetic relationships and gene flow in Triatoma infestans dark morphs from the Argentinean Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Piccinali, R. V.; Marcet, P. L.; Ceballos, L. A.; Kitron, U.; Gürtler, R. E.; Dotson, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans outside the Andean Valleys of Bolivia prompted an evolutionary question about the putative ancestral area of origin and dispersal of the species, and an epidemiological question regarding the possible role of these sylvatic populations in the recolonization process of insecticide-treated houses. The finding of a population of sylvatic melanic T. infestans (dark morphs) in the Argentinean dry Chaco at 7 km from a peridomestic bug population of typical coloration gave us the opportunity to test both questions simultaneously by employing phylogenetic and population genetic approaches. For this purpose we analyzed sylvatic and peridomestic bugs using sequence-based mitochondrial and nuclear markers (mtCOI and ITS-1) and microsatellites. Sylvatic bugs were confirmed to be T. infestans and not hybrids, and showed high levels of genetic variability and departures from neutral expectations for mtCOI variation. New ITS-1 and mtCOI haplotypes were recorded, as well as haplotypes shared with peridomestic and/or domestic bugs from previous records. The peridomestic population was invariant for ITS-1 and mtCOI, but showed variability for microsatellites and signatures of a population bottleneck, probably due to a limited number of founders. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with the presence of ancestral haplotypes in sylvatic bugs. According to F-statistics and assignment methods there was a significant differentiation between sylvatic and peridomestic bugs and gene flow was low and asymmetric, with more bugs moving from the peridomicile to the sylvatic environment. These results support the hypothesis of the Chaco region as the area of origin of T. infestans, and a limited role of sylvatic melanic T. infestans in peridomestic infestation in the Argentinean Chaco. PMID:21352954

  8. Phylogenetic Relationships and Genetic Variation in Longidorus and Xiphinema Species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) Using ITS1 Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weimin; Szalanski, Allen L; Robbins, R T

    2004-03-01

    Genetic analyses using DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1 were conducted to determine the extent of genetic variation within and among Longidorus and Xiphinema species. DNA sequences were obtained from samples collected from Arkansas, California and Australia as well as 4 Xiphinema DNA sequences from GenBank. The sequences of the ITS1 region including the 3' end of the 18S rDNA gene and the 5' end of the 5.8S rDNA gene ranged from 1020 bp to 1244 bp for the 9 Longidorus species, and from 870 bp to 1354 bp for the 7 Xiphinema species. Nucleotide frequencies were: A = 25.5%, C = 21.0%, G = 26.4%, and T = 27.1%. Genetic variation between the two genera had a maximum divergence of 38.6% between X. chambersi and L. crassus. Genetic variation among Xiphinema species ranged from 3.8% between X. diversicaudatum and X. bakeri to 29.9% between X. chambersi and X. italiae. Within Longidorus, genetic variation ranged from 8.9% between L. crassus and L. grandis to 32.4% between L. fragilis and L. diadecturus. Intraspecific genetic variation in X. americanum sensu lato ranged from 0.3% to 1.9%, while genetic variation in L. diadecturus had 0.8% and L. biformis ranged from 0.6% to 10.9%. Identical sequences were obtained between the two populations of L. grandis, and between the two populations of X. bakeri. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS1 DNA sequence data were conducted on each genus separately using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Among the Longidorus taxa, 4 subgroups are supported: L. grandis, L. crassus, and L. elongatus are in one cluster; L. biformis and L. paralongicaudatus are in a second cluster; L. fragilis and L. breviannulatus are in a third cluster; and L. diadecturus is in a fourth cluster. Among the Xiphinema taxa, 3 subgroups are supported: X. americanum with X. chambersi, X. bakeri with X. diversicaudatum, and X. italiae and X. vuittenezi forming a sister group with X. index. The relationships observed in this study

  9. Phylogenetic relationships, possible ancient hybridization, and biogeographic history of Abies (Pinaceae) based on data from nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiao-Ping; Wei, Ran; Shao, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Zu-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abies, the second largest genus of Pinaceae, consists of approximately 48 species occurring in the north temperate region. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies improved our understanding of relationships within the genus, but were limited by relying on only DNA sequence data from single genome and low taxonomic sampling. Here we use DNA data from three genomes (sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nrITS, three chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers, and two mitochondrial intergenic spacers) from 42 species to elucidate species relationships and construct the biogeographic history of Abies. We further estimated the divergence times of intercontinental disjunction using a relaxed molecular clock calibrated with three macro-fossils. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered six robust clades largely consistent with previous classifications of sections. A sister relationship between the eastern Asian and Europe-Mediterranean clades was highly supported. The monophyly of section Balsamea, disjunct in Far East and western North America, is supported by the nrITS data but not by the cpDNA data. Discordance on placement of section Balsamea between the paternally inherited cpDNA and maternally inherited mtDNA trees was also observed. The data suggested that ancient hybridization was likely involved in the origin of sect. Balsamea. Results from biogeographic analyses and divergence time estimation suggested an origin and early diversification of Abies in an area of high latitude around the Pacific during the Eocene. The present disjunction in eastern Asia and Europe-Mediterranean area of Abies was likely the result of southward migration and isolation by the Turgai Strait in the Late Eocene. An 'out-of-America' migration, for the origin of an eastern Asian and western North American disjunct species pairs in section Amabilis was supported. The results suggested a western North American origin of the section with subsequent dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) to

  10. Phylogenetic relationships, possible ancient hybridization, and biogeographic history of Abies (Pinaceae) based on data from nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiao-Ping; Wei, Ran; Shao, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Zu-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abies, the second largest genus of Pinaceae, consists of approximately 48 species occurring in the north temperate region. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies improved our understanding of relationships within the genus, but were limited by relying on only DNA sequence data from single genome and low taxonomic sampling. Here we use DNA data from three genomes (sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nrITS, three chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers, and two mitochondrial intergenic spacers) from 42 species to elucidate species relationships and construct the biogeographic history of Abies. We further estimated the divergence times of intercontinental disjunction using a relaxed molecular clock calibrated with three macro-fossils. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered six robust clades largely consistent with previous classifications of sections. A sister relationship between the eastern Asian and Europe-Mediterranean clades was highly supported. The monophyly of section Balsamea, disjunct in Far East and western North America, is supported by the nrITS data but not by the cpDNA data. Discordance on placement of section Balsamea between the paternally inherited cpDNA and maternally inherited mtDNA trees was also observed. The data suggested that ancient hybridization was likely involved in the origin of sect. Balsamea. Results from biogeographic analyses and divergence time estimation suggested an origin and early diversification of Abies in an area of high latitude around the Pacific during the Eocene. The present disjunction in eastern Asia and Europe-Mediterranean area of Abies was likely the result of southward migration and isolation by the Turgai Strait in the Late Eocene. An 'out-of-America' migration, for the origin of an eastern Asian and western North American disjunct species pairs in section Amabilis was supported. The results suggested a western North American origin of the section with subsequent dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) to

  11. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance

  12. A multi-locus analysis of phylogenetic relationships within cheilostome bryozoans supports multiple origins of ascophoran frontal shields.

    PubMed

    Knight, Sarah; Gordon, Dennis P; Lavery, Shane D

    2011-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the bryozoan order Cheilostomata are currently uncertain, with many morphological hypotheses proposed but scarcely tested by independent means of molecular analysis. This research uses DNA sequence data across five loci of both mitochondrial and nuclear origin from 91 species of cheilostome Bryozoa (34 species newly sequenced). This vastly improved the taxonomic coverage and number of loci used in a molecular analysis of this order and allowed a more in-depth look into the evolutionary history of Cheilostomata. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of individual loci were carried out along with a partitioned multi-locus approach, plus a range of topology tests based on morphological hypotheses. Together, these provide a comprehensive set of phylogenetic analyses of the order Cheilostomata. From these results inferences are made about the evolutionary history of this order and proposed morphological hypotheses are discussed in light of the independent evidence gained from the molecular data. Infraorder Ascophorina was demonstrated to be non-monophyletic, and there appears to be multiple origins of the ascus and associated structures involved in lophophore extension. This was further supported by the lack of monophyly within each of the four ascophoran grades (acanthostegomorph/spinocystal, hippothoomorph/gymnocystal, umbonulomorph/umbonuloid, lepraliomorph/lepralioid) defined by frontal-shield morphology. Chorizopora, currently classified in the ascophoran grade Hippothoomorpha, is phylogenetically distinct from Hippothoidae, providing strong evidence for multiple origins of the gymnocystal frontal shield type. Further evidence is produced to support the morphological hypothesis of multiple umbonuloid origins of lepralioid frontal shields, using a step-wise set of topological hypothesis tests combined with examination of multi-locus phylogenies.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum and its relationship with families (GH10 and GH11) of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cervantes, Jorge; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the amino acid sequence of the β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum, which is a pathogenic fungus of maize was used as a model protein to find its phylogenetic relationship with other xylanases of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and the information obtained allowed to establish a hypothesis of monophyly and of biological role. 84 amino acid sequences of β-xylanase obtained from the GenBank database was used. Groupings analysis of higher-level in the Pfam database allowed to determine that the proteins under study were classified into the GH10 and GH11 families, based on the regions of highly conserved amino acids, 233–318 and 180–193 respectively, where glutamate residues are responsible for the catalysis. PMID:27040368

  14. Phylogenetic Characterization of Encephalitozoon Romaleae (Microsporidia) from a Grasshopper Host: Relationship to Encephalitozoon spp. Infecting Humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encephalitozoon species are the most common microsporidian pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. We recently discovered a new microsporidium, Encephalitozoon romaleae, infecting the eastern lubber grasshopper Romalea microptera. To understand its evolutionary relationships, we compared par...

  15. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Baker, Allan J; Pereira, Sérgio L; Paton, Tara A

    2007-04-22

    Comparative study of character evolution in the shorebirds is presently limited because the phylogenetic placement of some enigmatic genera remains unclear. We therefore used Bayesian methods to obtain a well-supported phylogeny of 90 recognized genera using 5 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. The tree comprised three major clades: Lari (gulls, auks and allies plus buttonquails) as sister to Scolopaci (sandpipers, jacanas and allies), and in turn sister to Charadrii (plovers, oystercatchers and allies), as in previous molecular studies. Plovers and noddies were not recovered as monophyletic assemblages, and the Egyptian plover Pluvianus is apparently not a plover. Molecular dating using multiple fossil constraints suggests that the three suborders originated in the late Cretaceous between 79 and 102 Mya, and at least 14 lineages of modern shorebirds survived the mass extinction at the K/T boundary. Previous difficulties in determining the phylogenetic relationships of enigmatic taxa reflect the fact that they are well-differentiated relicts of old, genus-poor lineages. We refrain from suggesting systematic revisions for shorebirds at this time because gene trees may fail to recover the species tree when long branches are connected to deep, shorter branches, as is the case for some of the enigmatic taxa. PMID:17284401

  16. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Baker, Allan J; Pereira, Sérgio L; Paton, Tara A

    2007-04-22

    Comparative study of character evolution in the shorebirds is presently limited because the phylogenetic placement of some enigmatic genera remains unclear. We therefore used Bayesian methods to obtain a well-supported phylogeny of 90 recognized genera using 5 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. The tree comprised three major clades: Lari (gulls, auks and allies plus buttonquails) as sister to Scolopaci (sandpipers, jacanas and allies), and in turn sister to Charadrii (plovers, oystercatchers and allies), as in previous molecular studies. Plovers and noddies were not recovered as monophyletic assemblages, and the Egyptian plover Pluvianus is apparently not a plover. Molecular dating using multiple fossil constraints suggests that the three suborders originated in the late Cretaceous between 79 and 102 Mya, and at least 14 lineages of modern shorebirds survived the mass extinction at the K/T boundary. Previous difficulties in determining the phylogenetic relationships of enigmatic taxa reflect the fact that they are well-differentiated relicts of old, genus-poor lineages. We refrain from suggesting systematic revisions for shorebirds at this time because gene trees may fail to recover the species tree when long branches are connected to deep, shorter branches, as is the case for some of the enigmatic taxa.

  17. Testing the utility of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 sequences for phylogenetic estimates of relationships between crane (Grus) species.

    PubMed

    Yu, D B; Chen, R; Kaleri, H A; Jiang, B C; Xu, H X; Du, W-X

    2011-12-21

    Morphology and biogeography are widely used in animal taxonomy. Recent study has suggested that a DNA-based identification system, using a 648-bp portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), also known as the barcoding gene, can aid in the resolution of inferences concerning phylogenetic relationships and for identification of species. However, the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identifying crane species is unknown. We amplified and sequenced 894-bp DNA fragments of CO1 from Grus japonensis (Japanese crane), G. grus (Eurasian crane), G. monacha (hooded crane), G. canadensis (sandhill crane), G. leucogeranus (Siberian crane), and Balearica pavonina (crowned crane), along with those of 15 species obtained from GenBank and DNA barcoding, to construct four algorithms using Tringa stagnatilis, Scolopax rusticola, and T. erythropus as outgroups. The four phylum profiles showed good resolution of the major taxonomic groups. We concluded that reconstruction of the molecular phylogenetic tree can be helpful for classification and that CO1 sequences are suitable for studying the molecular evolution of cranes. Although support for several deeper branches was limited, CO1 data gave remarkably good separations, especially considering that our analysis was based on just a fragment of the gene and that CO1 has generally been viewed as useful only for resolving shallow divergences.

  18. A Phylogenetic Analysis of 34 Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships between Wild and Domestic Species within the Genus Citrus.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Ibañez, Victoria; Terol, Javier; Talon, Manuel; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2015-08-01

    Citrus genus includes some of the most important cultivated fruit trees worldwide. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, the origin of cultivated citrus species and the history of its domestication still remain an open question. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the chloroplast genomes of 34 citrus genotypes which constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed study to date on the evolution and variability of the genus Citrus. A statistical model was used to estimate divergence times between the major citrus groups. Additionally, a complete map of the variability across the genome of different citrus species was produced, including single nucleotide variants, heteroplasmic positions, indels (insertions and deletions), and large structural variants. The distribution of all these variants provided further independent support to the phylogeny obtained. An unexpected finding was the high level of heteroplasmy found in several of the analyzed genomes. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA not only paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within the Citrus genus but also provides original insights into other elusive evolutionary processes, such as chloroplast inheritance, heteroplasmy, and gene selection.

  19. Phylogenetic Relationships of Tribes Within Harpalinae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as Inferred from 28S Ribosomal DNA and the Wingless Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ober, Karen A.; Maddison, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Harpalinae is a large, monophyletic subfamily of carabid ground beetles containing more than 19,000 species in approximately 40 tribes. The higher level phylogenetic relationships within harpalines were investigated based on nucleotide data from two nuclear genes, wingless and 28S rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses of combined data indicate that many harpaline tribes are monophyletic, however the reconstructed trees showed little support for deeper nodes. In addition, our results suggest that the Lebiomorph Assemblage (tribes Lebiini, Cyclosomini, Graphipterini, Perigonini, Odacanthini, Lachnophorini, Pentagonicini, Catapiesini and Calophaenini), which is united by a morphological synapomorphy, is not monophyletic, and the tribe Lebiini is paraphyletic with respect to members of Cyclosomini. Two unexpected clades of tribes were supported: the Zuphiitae, comprised of Anthiini, Zuphiini, Helluonini, Dryptini, Galeritini, and Physocrotaphini; and a clade comprised of Orthogoniini, Pseudomorphini, and Graphipterini. The data presented in this study represent a dense sample of taxa to examine the molecular phylogeny of Harpalinae and provide a useful framework to examine the origin and evolution of morphological and ecological diversity in this group. PMID:20302528

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) associated to excavating sponges (Cliona spp.) reveal an unexpected lineage in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Granados, C; Camargo, C; Zea, S; Sánchez, J A

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of symbiotic dinoflagellate lineages, distributed in all tropical and subtropical seas, suggest strategies for long distance dispersal but at the same time strong host specialization. Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium: Dinophyta), which are associated to diverse shallow-water cnidarians, also engage in symbioses with some sponge species of the genus Cliona. In the Caribbean, zooxanthellae-bearing Cliona has recently become abundant due to global warming, overfishing, and algae abundance. Using molecular techniques, the symbionts from five excavating species (Clionacaribbaea, C. tenuis, C. varians, C. aprica and C. laticavicola) from the southern and southwestern Caribbean were surveyed. Several DNA sequence regions were used in order to confirm zooxanthellae identity; 18S rDNA, domain V of chloroplast large subunit (cp23S), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and ITS2 secondary structure. Sequence analyses corroborated the presence of three zooxanthellae clades: A, B, and G. Presence of clades A and B in common boring sponges of the Caribbean fit with the general pattern of the province. The discovery of clade G for the first time in any organism of the Atlantic Ocean leads us to consider this unusual finding as a phylogenetic relict through common ancestors of sponge clades or an invasion of the sponge from the Indo-Pacific. PMID:18725307

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) associated to excavating sponges (Cliona spp.) reveal an unexpected lineage in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Granados, C; Camargo, C; Zea, S; Sánchez, J A

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of symbiotic dinoflagellate lineages, distributed in all tropical and subtropical seas, suggest strategies for long distance dispersal but at the same time strong host specialization. Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium: Dinophyta), which are associated to diverse shallow-water cnidarians, also engage in symbioses with some sponge species of the genus Cliona. In the Caribbean, zooxanthellae-bearing Cliona has recently become abundant due to global warming, overfishing, and algae abundance. Using molecular techniques, the symbionts from five excavating species (Clionacaribbaea, C. tenuis, C. varians, C. aprica and C. laticavicola) from the southern and southwestern Caribbean were surveyed. Several DNA sequence regions were used in order to confirm zooxanthellae identity; 18S rDNA, domain V of chloroplast large subunit (cp23S), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and ITS2 secondary structure. Sequence analyses corroborated the presence of three zooxanthellae clades: A, B, and G. Presence of clades A and B in common boring sponges of the Caribbean fit with the general pattern of the province. The discovery of clade G for the first time in any organism of the Atlantic Ocean leads us to consider this unusual finding as a phylogenetic relict through common ancestors of sponge clades or an invasion of the sponge from the Indo-Pacific.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the atlas moth, Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and the phylogenetic relationship of Saturniidae species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miao-Miao; Li, Yan; Chen, Mo; Wang, Huan; Li, Qun; Xia, Run-Xi; Zeng, Cai-Yun; Li, Yu-Ping; Liu, Yan-Qun; Qin, Li

    2014-07-15

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) can provide information for genomic structure as well as for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. In this study, we present the complete mitogenome of the atlas moth, Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), a well-known silk-producing and ornamental insect with the largest wing surface area of all moths. The mitogenome of A. atlas is a circular molecule of 15,282 bp long, and its nucleotide composition shows heavily biased towards As and Ts, accounting for 79.30%. This genome comprises 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and an A+T-rich region. It is of note that this genome exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is different from the other known Saturniidae species. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI with CGA instead. Only six PCGs use a common stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas the remaining seven use an incomplete termination codon T or TA. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, with an exception for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A. atlas A+T-rich region contains non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Bombycoidea insects. The phylogenetic relationships based on Maximum Likelihood method provide a well-supported outline of Saturniidae, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification and recent molecular works.

  3. Testing the utility of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 sequences for phylogenetic estimates of relationships between crane (Grus) species.

    PubMed

    Yu, D B; Chen, R; Kaleri, H A; Jiang, B C; Xu, H X; Du, W-X

    2011-01-01

    Morphology and biogeography are widely used in animal taxonomy. Recent study has suggested that a DNA-based identification system, using a 648-bp portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), also known as the barcoding gene, can aid in the resolution of inferences concerning phylogenetic relationships and for identification of species. However, the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identifying crane species is unknown. We amplified and sequenced 894-bp DNA fragments of CO1 from Grus japonensis (Japanese crane), G. grus (Eurasian crane), G. monacha (hooded crane), G. canadensis (sandhill crane), G. leucogeranus (Siberian crane), and Balearica pavonina (crowned crane), along with those of 15 species obtained from GenBank and DNA barcoding, to construct four algorithms using Tringa stagnatilis, Scolopax rusticola, and T. erythropus as outgroups. The four phylum profiles showed good resolution of the major taxonomic groups. We concluded that reconstruction of the molecular phylogenetic tree can be helpful for classification and that CO1 sequences are suitable for studying the molecular evolution of cranes. Although support for several deeper branches was limited, CO1 data gave remarkably good separations, especially considering that our analysis was based on just a fragment of the gene and that CO1 has generally been viewed as useful only for resolving shallow divergences. PMID:22194213

  4. Phylogenetic Relationships and Morphological Character Evolution of Photosynthetic Euglenids (Excavata) Inferred from Taxon-rich Analyses of Five Genes.

    PubMed

    Karnkowska, Anna; Bennett, Matthew S; Watza, Donovan; Kim, Jong Im; Zakryś, Bożena; Triemer, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic euglenids acquired chloroplasts by secondary endosymbiosis, which resulted in changes to their mode of nutrition and affected the evolution of their morphological characters. Mapping morphological characters onto a reliable molecular tree could elucidate major trends of those changes. We analyzed nucleotide sequence data from regions of three nuclear-encoded genes (nSSU, nLSU, hsp90), one chloroplast-encoded gene (cpSSU) and one nuclear-encoded chloroplast gene (psbO) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among 59 photosynthetic euglenid species. Our results were consistent with previous works; most genera were monophyletic, except for the polyphyletic genus Euglena, and the paraphyletic genus Phacus. We also analyzed character evolution in photosynthetic euglenids using our phylogenetic tree and eight morphological traits commonly used for generic and species diagnoses, including: characters corresponding to well-defined clades, apomorphies like presence of lorica and mucilaginous stalks, and homoplastic characters like rigid cells and presence of large paramylon grains. This research indicated that pyrenoids were lost twice during the evolution of phototrophic euglenids, and that mucocysts, which only occur in the genus Euglena, evolved independently at least twice. In contrast, the evolution of cell shape and chloroplast morphology was difficult to elucidate, and could not be unambiguously reconstructed in our analyses.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on mitochondrial cox 1, trnV, and rrnL genes.

    PubMed

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, Josè; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among 37 species representing seven main lineages within Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on a mitochondrial fragment that included partial cox 1, complete trnV, and partial rrnL genes (about 2500 bp). Phylogenetic analyses confirmed tentatively that all studied main opisthobranch lineages conformed monophyletic groups except Nudibranchia. The sacoglossan Ascobulla was placed as the most basal lineage of opisthobranchs. The basommatophoran pulmonate Siphonaria was recovered within Opisthobranchia between Ascobulla and the remaining opisthobranchs. The latter were divided into two different lineages that await formal description: on one side, Cephalaspidea, Tylodinoidea, and Anaspidea (sharing features in the reproductive, digestive, and circulatory systems) were grouped together and, on the other Architectibranchia and Nudipleura (sharing similarities in the circulatory system) were recovered as sister group taxa. Two well-supported clades were recovered within Nudipleura: Pleuroanthobranchia (new taxon) and Cladobranchia. Pleuroanthobranchia (Pleurobranchoidea plus Anthobranchia) was defined by the presence of blood gland, the presence of calcareous spicules in the integument and the presence of a caecum with an opening directly into the stomach. The new molecular phylogeny provided a robust framework for comparative studies, and prompted a revision of the morphological synapomorphies diagnosing the main clades within opisthobranchs.

  6. A Phylogenetic Analysis of 34 Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships between Wild and Domestic Species within the Genus Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Ibañez, Victoria; Terol, Javier; Talon, Manuel; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    Citrus genus includes some of the most important cultivated fruit trees worldwide. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, the origin of cultivated citrus species and the history of its domestication still remain an open question. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the chloroplast genomes of 34 citrus genotypes which constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed study to date on the evolution and variability of the genus Citrus. A statistical model was used to estimate divergence times between the major citrus groups. Additionally, a complete map of the variability across the genome of different citrus species was produced, including single nucleotide variants, heteroplasmic positions, indels (insertions and deletions), and large structural variants. The distribution of all these variants provided further independent support to the phylogeny obtained. An unexpected finding was the high level of heteroplasmy found in several of the analyzed genomes. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA not only paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within the Citrus genus but also provides original insights into other elusive evolutionary processes, such as chloroplast inheritance, heteroplasmy, and gene selection. PMID:25873589

  7. Special structure of mitochondrial DNA control region and phylogenetic relationship among individuals of the black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiumei; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with the structure of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of the black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii. Two termination-associated sequences (TASs), two complementary termination-associated sequences (cTASs), and conserved sequence block (CSB), such as CSB-F, CSB-E, CSB-D, CSB1, CSB2, and CSB3, were detected in S. schlegelii. The results indicated that the structures of these blocks are similar to most marine fishes, but it is special that there are two TASs and two cTASs in the CR of S. schlegelii. One conserved region was found from 450 bp to the end of the CR, which is also a special feature of S. schlegelii. All sequences of CSB1, CSB2, and CSB3 blocks are the consensus among different individuals, which is quite different from most vertebrates. In addition, the complete mtDNA CR sequences and the first 449 bp of the CR are used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of S. schlegelii. The phylogenetic trees show a lack of genetic structure among individuals. This study also indicated a signal that the genetic diversity might be similar between the wild and cultured individuals, which may be helpful to the fisheries management. PMID:23072475

  8. Whole-genome analysis of diverse Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical typing.

    PubMed

    Harris, Simon R; Clarke, Ian N; Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Solomon, Anthony W; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Marsh, Peter; Skilton, Rachel J; Holland, Martin J; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W; Lewis, David A; Spratt, Brian G; Unemo, Magnus; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Brunham, Robert; de Vries, Henry J C; Morré, Servaas A; Speksnijder, Arjen; Bébéar, Cécile M; Clerc, Maïté; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections, causing substantial morbidity and economic cost globally. Despite this, our knowledge of its population and evolutionary genetics is limited. Here we present a detailed phylogeny based on whole-genome sequencing of representative strains of C. trachomatis from both trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) biovars from temporally and geographically diverse sources. Our analysis shows that predicting phylogenetic structure using ompA, which is traditionally used to classify Chlamydia, is misleading because extensive recombination in this region masks any true relationships present. We show that in many instances, ompA is a chimera that can be exchanged in part or as a whole both within and between biovars. We also provide evidence for exchange of, and recombination within, the cryptic plasmid, which is another key diagnostic target. We used our phylogenetic framework to show how genetic exchange has manifested itself in ocular, urogenital and LGV C. trachomatis strains, including the epidemic LGV serotype L2b. PMID:22406642

  9. Phylogenetic Relationship of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria according to 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the field. In this study, isolation and precise identification of PSB were carried out in Malaysian (Serdang) oil palm field (University Putra Malaysia). Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 8 better isolates were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in which as a result five isolates belong to the Beta subdivision of Proteobacteria, one isolate was related to the Gama subdivision of Proteobacteria, and two isolates were related to the Firmicutes. Bacterial isolates of 6upmr, 2upmr, 19upmnr, 10upmr, and 24upmr were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Also, bacterial isolates of 20upmnr and 17upmnr were identified as Bacillus cereus and Vagococcus carniphilus, respectively, and bacterial isolates of 31upmr were identified as Serratia plymuthica. Molecular identification and characterization of oil palm strains as the specific phosphate solubilizer can reduce the time and cost of producing effective inoculate (biofertilizer) in an oil palm field. PMID:25632387

  10. Primate phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jason A.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Sterner, Kirstin N.; Raaum, Ryan L.; Disotell, Todd R.

    2014-01-01

    The origins and the divergence times of the most basal lineages within primates have been difficult to resolve mainly due to the incomplete sampling of early fossil taxa. The main source of contention is related to the discordance between molecular and fossil estimates: while there are no crown primate fossils older than 56 Ma, most molecule-based estimates extend the origins of crown primates into the Cretaceous. Here we present a comprehensive mitogenomic study of primates. We assembled 87 mammalian mitochondrial genomes, including 62 primate species representing all the families of the order. We newly sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes, including eight Old World monkeys and three strepsirrhines. Phylogenetic analyses support a strong topology, confirming the monophyly for all the major primate clades. In contrast to previous mitogenomic studies, the positions of tarsiers and colugos relative to strepsirrhines and anthropoids are well resolved. In order to improve our understanding of how fossil calibrations affect age estimates within primates, we explore the effect of seventeen fossil calibrations across primates and other mammalian groups and we select a subset of calibrations to date our mitogenomic tree. The divergence date estimates of the Strepsirrhine/Haplorhine split support an origin of crown primates in the Late Cretaceous, at around 74 Ma. This result supports a short fuse model of primate origins, whereby relatively little time passed between the origin of the order and the diversification of its major clades. It also suggests that the early primate fossil record is likely poorly sampled. PMID:24583291

  11. Phylogenetic Relationship in Different Commercial Strains of Pleurotus nebrodensis Based on ITS Sequence and RAPD

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Shin, Pyeong Gyun; Yoo, Young Bok

    2009-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny in nine different commercial cultivated strains of Pleurotus nebrodensis was studied based on their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and RAPD. In the sequence of ITS region of selected strains, it was revealed that the total length ranged from 592 to 614 bp. The size of ITS1 and ITS2 regions varied among the strains from 219 to 228 bp and 211 to 229 bp, respectively. The sequence of ITS2 was more variable than ITS1 and the region of 5.8S sequences were identical. Phylogenetic tree of the ITS region sequences indicated that selected strains were classified into five clusters. The reciprocal homologies of the ITS region sequences ranged from 99 to 100%. The strains were also analyzed by RAPD with 20 arbitrary primers. Twelve primers were efficient to applying amplification of the genomic DNA. The sizes of the polymorphic fragments obtained were in the range of 200 to 2000 bp. RAPD and ITS analysis techniques were able to detect genetic variation among the tested strains. Experimental results suggested that IUM-1381, IUM-3914, IUM-1495 and AY-581431 strains were genetically very similar. Therefore, all IUM and NCBI gene bank strains of P. nebrodensis were genetically same with some variations. PMID:23983530

  12. Examining Relationships Among Several Oyster Pathogens in the Genus Bonamia Using Molecular Data, in Phylogenetic Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Burreson, E.

    2006-12-01

    Bonamiasis is a disease that affects oyster stocks around the world and is caused by intracellular protozoan parasites. Bonamia species can rapidly spread through oyster stocks and cause clinical disease in the host. The type species in the genus, Bonamia ostreae, was described from the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. Since that time, several bonamia-like species have been observed in the following oyster hosts: Crassostrea ariakensis deployed in North Carolina, USA, Ostrea pulchana from Argentina, Ostrea chilensis from Chile, and in Ostrea angasi from Australia. There is, however, much debate over the species identity of these undescribed Bonamia parasites. An hypothesis that I will test is whether the species of Bonamia that occurs in the aforementioned oysters are representative of one species of Bonamia, Bonamia exitiosa, or are representative of different, currently undescribed, species of Bonamia. To test this hypothesis, molecular techniques to include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and simultaneous bi-directional sequencing (SBS) reactions were utilized to target the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene complex for each of the undescribed Bonamia species and for Bonamia exitiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced data in addition to pertinent morphological data, geographic distribution information, and possible host dispersals are included in this study to provide additional information for testing hypotheses developed based on molecular data.

  13. Phylogenetic relationship analysis of Iranians and other world populations using allele frequencies at 12 polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Zahra; Vallian, Sadeq

    2012-12-01

    The estimation of genetic distance between populations could improve our viewpoint about human migration and its genetic origin. In this study, we used allele frequency data of 12 polymorphic markers on 250 individuals (500 alleles) from the Iranian population to estimate genetic distance between the Iranians and other world populations. The phylogenetic trees for three different sets of allele frequency data were constructed. Our results revealed the genetic similarity between the Iranians and European populations. The lowest genetic distance was observed between the Iranians and some populations reside in Russia. Furthermore, the high genetic distance was observed between the Iranians and East Asian populations. The data suggested that the Iranians might have relatively close evolutionary history with Europeans, but historically independent from East Asian populations. The evaluation of genetic distance between Indians populations and Iranians was also performed. The Indian groups showed low genetic distance with others, but high genetic distance with the Iranians. This study could provide a new insight into the evolutionary history of the Iranian population.

  14. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  15. Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Rogers, Willie L; Heyduk, Karolina; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron O; Glenn, Travis C; Malmberg, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (<3 million years ago) displaying a wide range of morphological diversity in complex trapping structures. This recently radiated group is a promising system to examine the structural evolution and diversification of carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by incomplete lineage sorting. Here, we applied a target enrichment approach using multiple accessions to assess the relationships of Sarracenia species. This resulted in 199 nuclear genes from 75 accessions covering the putative 8-11 species and 8 subspecies/varieties. In addition, we recovered 42kb of plastome sequence from each accession to estimate a cpDNA-derived phylogeny. Unsurprisingly, the cpDNA had few parsimony-informative sites (0.5%) and provided little information on species relationships. In contrast, use of the targeted nuclear loci in concatenation and coalescent frameworks elucidated many relationships within Sarracenia even with high heterogeneity among gene trees. Results were largely consistent for both concatenation and coalescent approaches. The only major disagreement was with the placement of the purpurea complex. Moreover, results suggest an Appalachian massif biogeographic origin of the genus. Overall, this study highlights the utility of target enrichment using multiple accessions to resolve relationships in recently radiated taxa.

  16. Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Rogers, Willie L; Heyduk, Karolina; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron O; Glenn, Travis C; Malmberg, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (<3 million years ago) displaying a wide range of morphological diversity in complex trapping structures. This recently radiated group is a promising system to examine the structural evolution and diversification of carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by incomplete lineage sorting. Here, we applied a target enrichment approach using multiple accessions to assess the relationships of Sarracenia species. This resulted in 199 nuclear genes from 75 accessions covering the putative 8-11 species and 8 subspecies/varieties. In addition, we recovered 42kb of plastome sequence from each accession to estimate a cpDNA-derived phylogeny. Unsurprisingly, the cpDNA had few parsimony-informative sites (0.5%) and provided little information on species relationships. In contrast, use of the targeted nuclear loci in concatenation and coalescent frameworks elucidated many relationships within Sarracenia even with high heterogeneity among gene trees. Results were largely consistent for both concatenation and coalescent approaches. The only major disagreement was with the placement of the purpurea complex. Moreover, results suggest an Appalachian massif biogeographic origin of the genus. Overall, this study highlights the utility of target enrichment using multiple accessions to resolve relationships in recently radiated taxa. PMID:25689607

  17. The phylogenetic relationships of insectivores with special reference to the lesser hedgehog tenrec as inferred from the complete sequence of their mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Cao, Ying; Okada, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Masami

    2003-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec Echinops telfairi was determined in this study. It is an endemic African insectivore that is found specifically in Madagascar. The tenrec's back is covered with hedgehog-like spines. Unlike other spiny mammals, such as spiny mice, spiny rats, spiny dormice and porcupines, lesser hedgehog tenrecs look amazingly like true hedgehogs (Erinaceidae). However, they are distinguished morphologically from hedgehogs by the absence of a jugal bone. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec and analyzed the results phylogenetically to determine the relationships between the tenrec and other insectivores (moles, shrews and hedgehogs), as well as the relationships between the tenrec and endemic African mammals, classified as Afrotheria, that have recently been shown by molecular analysis to be close relatives of the tenrec. Our data confirmed the afrotherian status of the tenrec, and no direct relation was recovered between the tenrec and the hedgehog. Comparing our data with those of others, we found that within-species variations in the mitochondrial DNA of lesser hedgehog tenrecs appear to be the largest recognized to date among mammals, apart from orangutans, which might be interesting from the view point of evolutionary history of tenrecs on Madagascar.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships in the Niviventer-Chiromyscus complex (Rodentia, Muridae) inferred from molecular data, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Balakirev, Alexander E.; Abramov, Alexei V.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on molecular data for mitochondrial (Cyt b, COI) and nuclear (IRBP, GHR) genes, and morphological examinations of museum specimens, we examined diversity, species boundaries, and relationships within and between the murine genera Chiromyscus and Niviventer. Phylogenetic patterns recovered demonstrate that Niviventer sensu lato is not monophyletic but instead includes Chiromyscus chiropus, the only previously recognized species of Chiropus. To maintain the genera Niviventer and Chiropus as monophyletic lineages, the scope and definition of the genus Chiromyscus is revised to include at least three distinct species: Chiromyscus chiropus (the type species of Chiromyscus), Chiromyscus langbianis (previously regarded as a species of Niviventer), and a new species, described in this paper under the name Chiromyscus thomasi sp. n. PMID:25493050

  19. High time for a roll call: gene duplication and phylogenetic relationships of TCP-like genes in monocots

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana; Trontin, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The TCP family is an ancient group of plant developmental transcription factors that regulate cell division in vegetative and reproductive structures and are essential in the establishment of flower zygomorphy. In-depth research on eudicot TCPs has documented their evolutionary and developmental role. This has not happened to the same extent in monocots, although zygomorphy has been critical for the diversification of Orchidaceae and Poaceae, the largest families of this group. Investigating the evolution and function of TCP-like genes in a wider group of monocots requires a detailed phylogenetic analysis of all available sequence information and a system that facilitates comparing genetic and functional information. Methods The phylogenetic relationships of TCP-like genes in monocots were investigated by analysing sequences from the genomes of Zea mays, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa and Sorghum bicolor, as well as EST data from several other monocot species. Key Results All available monocot TCP-like sequences are associated in 20 major groups with an average identity ≥64 % and most correspond to well-supported clades of the phylogeny. Their sequence motifs and relationships of orthology were documented and it was found that 67 % of the TCP-like genes of Sorghum, Oryza, Zea and Brachypodium are in microsyntenic regions. This analysis suggests that two rounds of whole genome duplication drove the expansion of TCP-like genes in these species. Conclusions A system of classification is proposed where putative or recognized monocot TCP-like genes are assigned to a specific clade of PCF-, CIN- or CYC/tb1-like genes. Specific biases in sequence data of this family that must be tackled when studying its molecular evolution and phylogeny are documented. Finally, the significant retention of duplicated TCP genes from Zea mays is considered in the context of balanced gene drive. PMID:21444336

  20. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xin; Ma, Xiaoyin; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2009-01-01

    Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248). It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%). All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans) form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid clade (including

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Lecythidaceae: a cladistic analysis using rbcL sequence and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Morton, C; Mori, S; Prance, G; Karol, K; Chase, M

    1997-04-01

    This study examined in detail the rbcL sequence and morphological support for subfamilial relationships and monophyly of Lecythidaceae. Initially we needed to establish relationships of Lecythidaceae among other dicot families. To complete this we examined 47 rbcL sequences of 25 families along with molecular observations from several large analyses of rbcL data. All analyses strongly support the monophyly of the asterid III grouping. This analysis revealed Lecythidaceae to be paraphyletic and indicated potential outgroup relationships with Sapotaceae. Once relationships had been evaluated using molecular data we then concentrated on analyzing separate and combined morphological and molecular databases. The topology of the morphological data set was similar to the rbcL sequence and combined data sets except for the positioning of Napoleonaeoideae, Grias, Gustavia, and Oubanguia. According to the combined results, Planchonioideae, Lecythidoideae. and Foetidioideae are monophyletic, whereas the subfamily Napoleonaeoideae are paraphyletic. Nested within Napolconaeoideae, we found Asteronthos forms a strongly supported clade with Oubanguia (Scytopetalaceae). Foetidia, the only genus of Foetidioideae, is sister to Planchonioideae, and this clade is sister to Lecythidoideae. The [(Planchonioideae, Foetidioideae) Lecythidoideae are sister to Asteranthos/Oubanguia. Napoleonaeoideae are sister to the rest of Lecythidaceae.

  2. The Anatomy and Phylogenetic Relationships of "Pelorosaurus" becklesii (Neosauropoda, Macronaria) from the Early Cretaceous of England.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, Paul; Mannion, Philip D; Taylor, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    The sauropod dinosaur "Pelorosaurus" becklesii was named in 1852 on the basis of an associated left humerus, ulna, radius and skin impression from the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian-Valanginian) Hastings Beds Group, near Hastings, East Sussex, southeast England, United Kingdom. The taxonomy and nomenclature of this specimen have a complex history, but most recent workers have agreed that "P." becklesii represents a distinct somphospondylan (or at least a titanosauriform) and is potentially the earliest titanosaur body fossil from Europe or even globally. The Hastings specimen is distinct from the approximately contemporaneous Pelorosaurus conybeari from Tilgate Forest, West Sussex. "P." becklesii can be diagnosed on the basis of five autapomorphies, such as: a prominent anteriorly directed process projecting from the anteromedial corner of the distal humerus; the proximal end of the radius is widest anteroposteriorly along its lateral margin; and the unique combination of a robust ulna and slender radius. The new generic name Haestasaurus is therefore erected for "P." becklesii. Three revised and six new fore limb characters (e.g. the presence/absence of condyle-like projections on the posterodistal margin of the radius) are discussed and added to three cladistic data sets for Sauropoda. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that Haestasaurus becklesii is a macronarian, but different data sets place this species either as a non-titanosauriform macronarian, or within a derived clade of titanosaurs that includes Malawisaurus and Saltasauridae. This uncertainty is probably caused by several factors, including the incompleteness of the Haestasaurus holotype and rampant homoplasy in fore limb characters. Haestasaurus most probably represents a basal macronarian that independently acquired the robust ulna, enlarged olecranon, and other states that have previously been regarded as synapomorphies of clades within Titanosauria. There is growing evidence that basal macronarian taxa

  3. Examining phylogenetic relationships of Erwinia and Pantoea species using whole genome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yucheng; Qiu, Sai

    2015-11-01

    The genera Erwinia and Pantoea contain species that are devastating plant pathogens, non-pathogen epiphytes, and opportunistic human pathogens. However, some controversies persist in the taxonomic classification of these two closely related genera. The phylogenomic analysis of these two genera was investigated via a comprehensive analysis of 25 Erwinia genomes and 23 Pantoea genomes. Single-copy orthologs could be extracted from the Erwinia/Pantoea core-genome to reconstruct the Erwinia/Pantoea phylogeny. This tree has strong bootstrap support for almost all branches. We also estimated the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between each genome; strains from the same species showed ANI values ≥96% and isDDH values >70%. These data confirm that whole genome sequence data provides a powerful tool to resolve the complex taxonomic questions of Erwinia/Pantoea, e.g. Pantoea agglomerans 299R was not clustered into a single group with other P. agglomerans strains, and the ANI values and isDDH values between them were <91% and around 43.8%, respectively. These data indicate P. agglomerans 299R should not be classified into the P. agglomerans species. In addition, another strain (Pantoea sp. At_9b) was identified that may represent a novel Pantoea species. We also evaluated the performance of six commonly used housekeeping genes (atpD, carA, gyrB, infB, recA, and rpoB) in phylogenetic inference. A single gene was not enough to obtain a reliable species tree, and it was necessary to use the multilocus sequence analysis of the six marker genes to recover the Erwinia/Pantoea phylogeny.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships within the Alcidae (Charadriiformes: Aves) inferred from total molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Baker, A J; Piatt, J F

    1996-02-01

    The Alcidae is a unique assemblage of Northern Hemisphere seabirds that forage by "flying" underwater. Despite obvious affinities among the species, their evolutionary relationships are unclear. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of 1,045 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and allelic profiles for 37 allozyme loci in all 22 extant species. Trees were constructed on independent and combined data sets using maximum parsimony and distance methods that correct for superimposed changes. Alternative methods of analysis produced only minor differences in relationships that were supported strongly by bootstrapping or standard error tests. Combining sequence and allozyme data into a single analysis provided the greatest number of relationships receiving strong support. Addition of published morphological and ecological data did not improve support for any additional relationship. All analyses grouped species into six distinct lineages: (1) the dovekie (Alle alle) and auks, (2) guillemots, (3) brachyramphine murrelets, (4) synthliboramphine murrelets, (5) true auklets, and (6) the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) and puffins. The two murres (genus Uria) were sister taxa, and the black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) was basal to the other guillemots. The Asian subspecies of the marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus perdix) was the most divergent brachyramphine murrelet, and two distinct lineages occurred within the synthliboramphine murrelets. Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and the rhinoceros auklet were basal to the other auklets and puffins, respectively, and the Atlantic (Fratercula arctica) and horned (Fratercula corniculata) puffins were sister taxa. Several relationships among tribes, among the dovekie and auks, and among the auklets could not be resolved but resembled "star" phylogenies indicative of adaptive radiations at different depths within the trees. PMID:8587501

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among Japanese species of the family Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia), inferred from nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Oshida, T; Masuda, R; Yoshida, M C

    1996-08-01

    In order to investigate phylogenetic relationships of the family Sciuridae living in Japan, we sequenced partial regions (379 bases) of mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes in six species of Japanese and other Asian squirrels. Phylogenetic trees constructed by sequence data indicated that two genera of flying squirrels (Petaurista and Pteromys) were clustered in a group distinct from non-flying squirrels, suggesting a possible monophyletic relationships of these flying squirrels. The evolutionary distance between the Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis) from Honshu island and the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) from Hokkaido island was comparable to intraspecific distances of the remaining species examined. PMID:8940915

  6. Analysis of the phylogenetic relationship of Anopheles species, subgenus Cellia (Diptera: Culicidae) and using it to define the relationship of morphologically similar species.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Amitav; Swain, Sunita; Kar, Santanu K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2009-12-01

    Studies on the relationship of various vectors and non-vectors of malaria from the evolutionary point of view are important. Use of molecular methods to define phylogeny helps to understand the interrelationship among the members of the anophelines and elucidate the ambiguity that has arisen from improper classification. It could also help to design molecular markers for species differentiation, particularly in those which pose difficulty when classified, based on morphological features. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships among the species of the anophelines of subgenus Cellia are inferred from the mitochondrial genes COI and COII, the ribosomal RNA gene, in particular the D3 region, and Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) region. The molecular phylogeny obtained in this work matches with that of the classical morphological taxonomy reasonably well, and was useful in properly defining species positions and resolving the ambiguity that normally arises due to morphological taxonomy. The correct arrangement of the various anopheline taxa as per the traditional morphological character-based classification of anophelines was there when we considered the D3 region of 28S rRNA gene and ITS2 region of rDNA. However, the arrangement of the taxa did not match with that of the morphological classification in some aspects, when we considered the COI and COII region of mitochondrial DNA. It may have been due to the variable degree of the rate of evolution of the different genes within the organism. Thus, a proper selection of those particular genes that evolve at the rate that is reflected at the species differentiation level, could help to construct the correct phylogenetic relationship among the anophelines and could be used to correlate with the grouping pattern done from the morphological perspective.

  7. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN THE STYLONEMATALES (STYLONEMATOPHYCEAE, RHODOPHYTA): BIOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS DO NOT APPLY TO STYLONEMA ALSIDII(1).

    PubMed

    Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; West, John A; Kikuchi, Norio

    2008-04-01

    The Stylonematales is the sole order of the Stylonematophyceae. The order consists of a mixture of filamentous or unicellular taxa that are small, grow on various surfaces, and are described from many floras, indicating that they may be cosmopolitan. Such ubiquity has been proposed to be due to properties of microorganisms, such as large population sizes, rather than human-derived phenomena. While their small nature makes most records fortuitous, we targeted these red algae to get a better understanding of their global distribution, genetic variation, and phylogeographic relationships. Our results indicated that the genera are mostly well supported, except for the position of Stylonema cornu-cervi with Goniotrichopsis reniformis, while intergeneric relationships are mostly unsupported. The most commonly isolated species was Stylonema alsidii. Within this species, several well-supported clades were present. The phylogeographic relationships in S. alsidii showed no obvious biogeographic pattern, with supported clades containing samples from disparate locations, and multiple samples from the same area not grouping together. Some clades showed little genetic variation and wide distributions, possibly indicating human-derived dispersal. Other clades, also with wide distribution, showed more genetic structure and could be candidates for groups formed by natural long-distance dispersal. While all issues on ubiquity cannot be answered with this data set, it would appear that at least S. alsidii is a true ubiquitous taxon. The sister relationship of Rufusia pilicola to the remaining Stylonematophyceae, the presence of the carbohydrate floridoside, and this species' unusual habitat indicate that it belongs to a new order, Rufusiales.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships in Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae), one of the great flowering plant radiations: progressive specialization and diversification

    PubMed Central

    Freudenstein, John V.; Chase, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The largest subfamily of orchids, Epidendroideae, represents one of the most significant diversifications among flowering plants in terms of pollination strategy, vegetative adaptation and number of species. Although many groups in the subfamily have been resolved, significant relationships in the tree remain unclear, limiting conclusions about diversification and creating uncertainty in the classification. This study brings together DNA sequences from nuclear, plastid and mitochrondrial genomes in order to clarify relationships, to test associations of key characters with diversification and to improve the classification. Methods Sequences from seven loci were concatenated in a supermatrix analysis for 312 genera representing most of epidendroid diversity. Maximum-likelihood and parsimony analyses were performed on this matrix and on subsets of the data to generate trees and to investigate the effect of missing values. Statistical character-associated diversification analyses were performed. Key Results Likelihood and parsimony analyses yielded highly resolved trees that are in strong agreement and show significant support for many key clades. Many previously proposed relationships among tribes and subtribes are supported, and some new relationships are revealed. Analyses of subsets of the data suggest that the relatively high number of missing data for the full analysis is not problematic. Diversification analyses show that epiphytism is most strongly associated with diversification among epidendroids, followed by expansion into the New World and anther characters that are involved with pollinator specificity, namely early anther inflexion, cellular pollinium stalks and the superposed pollinium arrangement. Conclusions All tested characters show significant association with speciation in Epidendroideae, suggesting that no single character accounts for the success of this group. Rather, it appears that a succession of key features appeared that

  9. On the origin of the fig: phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from ndhF sequences.

    PubMed

    Datwyler, Shannon L; Weiblen, George D

    2004-05-01

    The majority of species in the mulberry family (Moraceae) are figs (Ficus), marked by a specialized inflorescence (syconium) and an obligate mutualism with pollinating fig wasps. Because of the unique morphology of the syconium, it has been difficult to investigate the evolutionary position of the fig. We sequenced the chloroplast gene ndhF to examine relationships in Moraceae and to elucidate shifts in reproductive traits. The reclassification of tribes is warranted, and the limits of Artocarpeae, Moreae, and Castilleae are revised to reflect evolutionary relationships. The results point to ancestral dioecy in Moraceae and multiple origins of monoecy, androdioecy, and gynodioecy. Ancestral wind pollination gave way to insect pollination at least twice. Strong support for the sister-group relationship of a revised Castilleae with Ficus suggests that entomophily and involucral bracts encircling the flowers preceded the evolution of the syconium. Bracts surround flowers in Castilleae only during early development, but in Ficus the involucre and the receptacle enclose the fruit as well. Molecular dating suggests that fig pollination is at least 80-90 million years old. The diversity of Ficus relative to its sister group is a likely consequence of ancient specialization and cospeciation with pollinating fig wasps.

  10. Relationship between phylogenetic groups, antibiotic resistance and patient characteristics in terms of adhesin genes in cystitis and pyelonephritis isolates of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Er, Doganhan Kadir; Dundar, Devrim; Uzuner, Huseyin; Osmani, Agim

    2015-12-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered as the main causative agent of urinary tract infections worldwide. The relationship between antimicrobial resistance, phylogenetic groups, patient characteristics and adhesin virulence genes are complex and not fully understood. In this study, among 146 urinary isolates of E. coli, phylogenetic groups and various adhesin virulence genes were examined with multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction methods. Patient characteristics divided into sex, cystitis and pyelonephritis; community-acquired and hospital-acquired; complicated and uncomplicated infection. Antimicrobial resistance was also determined. The papAH gene was seen more often in pyelonephritis than cystitis and female than male patients. iha gene was more frequent in hospital-acquired infections than in community-acquired infections. sfa/focDE was more frequent in ampicillin, amikacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptible and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and multi-drug resistance (MDR) negative isolates. focG was seen more often in nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin susceptible and MDR negative isolates. fimH and papAH were more commonly observed in amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefotaxime susceptible isolates, respectively. iha and afa/draBC genes were more frequent in resistant isolates than the susceptible ones; for iha, in ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone resistant and ESBL and MDR positive isolates; for afa/draBC, in cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant and ESBL and MDR positive isolates, this trend was observed. ST 131 E. coli virulence gene pattern has a direct effect on resistance profile. Isolates belong to that clonal group has MDR and commonly harbour afa/draBC and iha genes. Our findings may

  11. Orders out of chaos – molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships

    PubMed Central

    Caira, Janine N.; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D.; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of “terrestrial” cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus; as was the sister to the freshwater fish and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. PMID:24275646

  12. Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    elasmobranch cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of "terrestrial" cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus, as was the sister to the freshwater fish- and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. PMID:24275646

  13. Determining type, part, color, and time relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.K.; Papalaskaris, M.A.; Taugher, J.

    1983-10-01

    The development of a simple question-answering system is considered. In particular, methods are described that are designed to supplement a deductive question-answering algorithm that is now operational. The algorithm draws on a base of logical propositions organized as a semantic net. The net permits selective access to the contents of individual mental worlds and narratives, to sets of entities of any specified type, and to propositions involving any specified entity and classified under any specified topic. The problems involved in determining type, part-of, color, and time relationships are discussed. It is shown that much combinatory reasoning in a question-answering system can be short-circuited by the use of special graphical and geometrical methods. 13 references.

  14. Next-generation sequencing of the yellowfin tuna mitochondrial genome reveals novel phylogenetic relationships within the genus Thunnus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Li, Mingming; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has become a powerful tool for sequencing the teleost mitochondrial genome (mitogenome). Here, we used this technology to determine the mitogenome of the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). A total of 41,378 reads were generated by Illumina platform with an average depth of 250×. The mitogenome (16,528 bp in length) contained 37 mitochondrial genes with the similar gene order to other typical teleosts. These mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The result of phylogenetic analysis supported two distinct clades dividing the genus Thunnus, but the tuna species of these two genetic clades were different from that of two recognized subgenus based on anatomical characters and geographical distribution. Our results might help to understand the structure, function, and evolutionary history of the yellowfin tuna mitogenome and also provide valuable new insights for phylogenetic affinity of tuna species. PMID:25418629

  15. Impact of deep coalescence and recombination on the estimation of phylogenetic relationships among species using AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    García-Pereira, María Jesús; Carvajal-Rodríguez, Antonio; Whelan, Simon; Caballero, Armando; Quesada, Humberto

    2014-07-01

    Deep coalescence and the nongenealogical pattern of descent caused by recombination have emerged as a common problem for phylogenetic inference at the species level. Here we use computer simulations to assess whether AFLP-based phylogenies are robust to the uncertainties introduced by these factors. Our results indicate that phylogenetic signal can prevail even in the face of extensive deep coalescence allowing recovering the correct species tree topology. The impact of recombination on tree accuracy was related to total tree depth and species effective population size. The correct tree topology could be recovered upon many simulation settings due to a trade-off between the conflicting signals resulting from intra-locus recombination and the benefits of the joint consideration of unlinked loci that better matched overall the true species tree. Errors in tree topology were not only determined by deep coalescence, but also by the timing of divergence and the tree-building errors arising from an insufficient number of characters. DNA sequences generally outperformed AFLPs upon any simulated scenario, but this difference in performance was nearly negligible when a sufficient number of AFLP characters were sampled. Our simulations suggest that the impact of deep coalescence and intra-locus recombination on the reliability of AFLP trees could be minimal for effective population sizes equal to or lower than 10,000 (typical of many vertebrates and tree plants) given tree depths above 0.02 substitutions per site. PMID:24631855

  16. Evolutionary relationships of the Critically Endangered frog Ericabatrachus baleensis Largen, 1991 with notes on incorporating previously unsampled taxa into large-scale phylogenetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The phylogenetic relationships of many taxa remain poorly known because of a lack of appropriate data and/or analyses. Despite substantial recent advances, amphibian phylogeny remains poorly resolved in many instances. The phylogenetic relationships of the Ethiopian endemic monotypic genus Ericabatrachus has been addressed thus far only with phenotypic data and remains contentious. Results We obtained fresh samples of the now rare and Critically Endangered Ericabatrachus baleensis and generated DNA sequences for two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Analyses of these new data using de novo and constrained-tree phylogenetic reconstructions strongly support a close relationship between Ericabatrachus and Petropedetes, and allow us to reject previously proposed alternative hypotheses of a close relationship with cacosternines or Phrynobatrachus. Conclusions We discuss the implications of our results for the taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of E. baleensis, and suggest a two-tiered approach to the inclusion and analyses of new data in order to assess the phylogenetic relationships of previously unsampled taxa. Such approaches will be important in the future given the increasing availability of relevant mega-alignments and potential framework phylogenies. PMID:24612655

  17. Phylogenetic Relationships of Cucullanidae (Nematoda), with Observations on Seuratoidea and the Monophyly of Cucullanus, Dichelyne and Truttaedacnitis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Nadler, Steven A

    2016-02-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Cucullanidae were explored using near-complete sequences of the 18S rDNA (rRNA gene). Sequences (1,750-1,760 bp) were obtained from 7 species of Cucullanidae belonging to 3 genera, Cucullanus (2 spp.), Dichelyne (2 spp.), Truttaedacnitis (3 spp.), and 1 species of Quimperiidae ( Paraseuratum sp.). These sequences were aligned with those of 128 other nematode species available in GenBank, including 3 other cucullanids (Dichelyne mexicanus, Cucullanus robustus, and Cucullanus baylisi) and 2 non-cucullanid seuratoids (Paraquimperia africana, and Linstowinema sp.). Bayesian (BPP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of 2 different datasets strongly supported a monophyletic Cucullanidae. Bayesian analysis placed this family as the sister group to a clade containing species of Diplogasterida, Strongylida, Rhabditida, and Tylenchida with very strong support. Neither BPP nor ML analyses recovered a close relationship of Cucullanidae to Ascaridida. None of the 3 non-cucullanid seuratoid species were sister to Cucullanidae, nor did they form a monophyletic group of their own, which questions the monophyly of Seuratoidea and the relationships among species within this superfamily. The 3 genera of cucullanids were also not monophyletic, although morphologically similar species such as the 2 species of Cucullanus from Neotropical catfishes and 2 species of Dichelyne from Nearctic ictalurid catfishes were sister taxa with strong support. The results were ambiguous with respect to the relationship of 2 Truttaedacnitis spp. in Nearctic freshwater fishes but do not support Truttaedacnitis heterodonti, a parasite of heterodontid sharks, as belonging to this genus. The study shows that all aspects of the conventional classification of Seuratoidea and its taxa should be scrutinized by even more extensive sampling across hosts and habitats. PMID:26361091

  18. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Vigna Savi germplasm revealed by DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Simon, M V; Benko-Iseppon, A-M; Resende, L V; Winter, P; Kahl, G

    2007-06-01

    The pantropical genus Vigna (Leguminosae) comprises 7 cultivated species that are adapted to a wide range of extreme agroclimatic conditions. Few data are available on the relationships among these cultivated species or on their importance as sources of resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, we optimized DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) to estimate the genetic diversity within, and genetic relationships among, a representative core collection of cowpea, as compared with 16 accessions representing cultivars from 6 Vigna species. A set of 26 primers was selected from 262 tested random primers and used for the characterization of 85 Vigna accessions (6 V. angularis, 4 each of V. mungo and V. radiata, 2 V. umbellata, 1 V. aconitifolia, and 68 V. unguiculata), with Phaseolus vulgaris subsp. vulgaris as outgroup. A total of 212 polymorphic bands were used for maximum parsimony analysis. Our results clearly distinguished Brazilian from African V. unguiculata genotypes. At the species level, V. angularis was the most related and V. radiata the most divergent species relative to V. unguiculata. DAF markers were also informative at the intraspecific level, detecting a large diversity between cowpea cultivars. The implications of the presented results for cowpea breeding programs are discussed.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of neotropical parrots (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Erika Sendra; Baker, Allan J; Pereira, Sérgio Luiz; Miyaki, Cristina Yumi

    2006-06-01

    Previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among Neotropical parrots were based on limited taxon sampling and lacked support for most internal nodes. In this study we increased the number of taxa (29 species belonging to 25 of the 30 genera) and gene sequences (6388 base pairs of RAG-1, cyt b, NADH2, ATPase 6, ATPase 8, COIII, 12S rDNA, and 16S rDNA) to obtain a stronger molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for this group of birds. Analyses of the combined gene sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a well-supported phylogeny and indicated that amazons and allies are a sister clade to macaws, conures, and relatives, and these two clades are in turn a sister group to parrotlets. Key morphological and behavioral characters used in previous classifications were mapped on the molecular tree and were phylogenetically uninformative. We estimated divergence times of taxa using the molecular tree and Bayesian and penalized likelihood methods that allow for rate variation in DNA substitutions among sites and taxa. Our estimates suggest that the Neotropical parrots shared a common ancestor with Australian parrots 59 Mya (million of years ago; 95% credibility interval (CrI) 66, 51 Mya), well before Australia separated from Antarctica and South America, implying that ancestral parrots were widespread in Gondwanaland. Thus, the divergence of Australian and Neotropical parrots could be attributed to vicariance. The three major clades of Neotropical parrots originated about 50 Mya (95% CrI 57, 41 Mya), coinciding with periods of higher sea level when both Antarctica and South America were fragmented with transcontinental seaways, and likely isolated the ancestors of modern Neotropical parrots in different regions in these continents. The correspondence between major paleoenvironmental changes in South America and the diversification of genera in the clade of amazons and allies between 46 and 16 Mya suggests they diversified exclusively in South

  20. Phylogenetic relationship of dengue virus type 3 isolated in Brazil and Paraguay and global evolutionary divergence dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue virus comprises four antigenically related viruses named dengue virus type 1 to 4 (DENV1-4). DENV-3 was re-introduced into the Americas in 1994 causing outbreaks in Nicaragua and Panama. DENV-3 was introduced in Brazil in 2000 and then spread to most of the Brazilian States, reaching the neighboring country, Paraguay in 2002. In this study, we have analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of DENV-3 isolated in Brazil and Paraguay with viruses isolated worldwide. We have also analyzed the evolutionary divergence dynamics of DENV-3 viruses. Results The entire open reading frame (ORF) of thirteen DENV-3 isolated in Brazil (n = 9) and Paraguay (n = 4) were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. DENV-3 grouped into three main genotypes (I, II and III). Several internal clades were found within each genotype that we called lineage and sub-lineage. Viruses included in this study belong to genotype III and grouped together with viruses isolated in the Americas within the lineage III. The Brazilian viruses were further segregated into two different sub-lineage, A and B, and the Paraguayan into the sub-lineage B. All three genotypes showed internal grouping. The nucleotide divergence was in average 6.7% for genotypes, 2.7% for lineages and 1.5% for sub-lineages. Phylogenetic trees constructed with any of the protein gene sequences showed the same segregation of the DENV-3 in three genotypes. Conclusion Our results showed that two groups of DENV-3 genotypes III circulated in Brazil during 2002–2009, suggesting different events of introduction of the virus through different regions of the country. In Paraguay, only one group DENV-3 genotype III is circulating that is very closely related to the Brazilian viruses of sub-lineage B. Different degree of grouping can be observed for DENV-3 and each group showed a characteristic evolutionary divergence. Finally, we have observed that any

  1. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the genus Algansea Girard (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) of central Mexico inferred from molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; de León, Gerardo Pérez Ponce; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Background The genus Algansea is one of the most representative freshwater fish groups in central Mexico due to its wide geographic distribution and unusual level of endemicity. Despite the small number of species, this genus has had an unsettled taxonomic history due to high levels of intraspecific morphological variation. Moreover, several phylogenetic hypotheses among congeners have been proposed but have had the following shortcomings: the use of homoplasious morphological characters, the use of character codification and polarisation methods that lacked objectivity, and incomplete taxonomic sampling. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis among species of Algansea is presented. This analysis is based upon two molecular markers, the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the first intron of the ribosomal protein S7 gene. Results Bayesian analysis based on a combined matrix (cytochrome b and first intron S7) showed that Algansea is a monophyletic group and that Agosia chrysogaster is the sister group. Divergence times dated the origin of the genus around 16.6 MYA, with subsequent cladogenetic events occurring between 6.4 and 2.8 MYA. When mapped onto the molecular phylogenetic hypothesis, the character states of three morphological characters did not support previous hypotheses on the evolution of morphological traits in the genus Algansea, whereas the character states of the remaining six characters partially corroborated those hypotheses. Conclusion Monophyly of the genus Algansea was corroborated in this study. Tree topology shows the genus consists of three main lineages: Central-Eastern, Western, and Southern clades. However, the relationships among these clades remained unresolved. Congruence found between the available geological and climatic history and the divergence times made it possible to infer the biogeographical history of Algansea, which suggested that vicariance events were responsible for the evolutionary history of the genus. Interestingly, this

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Brycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from four hydrographic basins in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Antunes, R S P; Gomes, V N; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, R A; Júlio, H F; Prioli, L M; Agostinho, C S; Prioli, A J

    2010-01-01

    Brycon is one of the main genera of Neotropical freshwater fish. In Brazil, Brycon species have been found in many hydrographic basins, such as the Amazon, Paraná, Paraguay, and Araguaia-Tocantins basins. We examined the phylogenetic relationships among the species Brycon orbignyanus, B. hilarii, B. cf. pesu, B. cephalus, B. falcatus, and B. gouldingi, using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. Specimens of B. orbignyanus were collected in the Paraná River. Specimens of B. hilarii were collected in the Manso River. Specimens of B. cephalus were obtained from a fish farm, and specimens of B. cf. pesu, B. falcatus and B. gouldingi were sampled in the Araguaia-Tocantins basin. DNA extraction was carried out using the phenol/chloroform method. Molecular polymorphism studies of Brycon species were carried out with the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique, using the total DNA of six specimens of each species. In DNA amplification of B. cf. pesu, eight specimens were used. The partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were used directly in sequencing reactions. Each ISSR primer produced from 7 to 14 scorable and reproducible bands. The (GGAC)(3)A and (GGAC)(3)C primers produced the greatest number of species-specific bands. A 264-bp fragment, corresponding to the partial region of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b, was sequenced and used for analysis. According to the phylogenetic tree obtained from the data, these Brycon species can be divided into two clades: one comprised only B. cf. pesu, and the second comprised the remaining Brycon species. We conclude that ISSR primers can be used for the identification of species-specific bands in fish, such as Brycon spp. PMID:20449799

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian anole lizards (Dactyloa): taxonomic implications, new insights about phenotypic evolution and the timing of diversification.

    PubMed

    Prates, Ivan; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Carnaval, Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The ecology and evolution of Caribbean anoles are well described, yet little is known about mainland anole species. Lack of phylogenetic information limits our knowledge about species boundaries, morphological evolution, and the biogeography of anoles in South America. To help fill this gap, we provide an updated molecular phylogeny of the Dactyloa (Dactyloidae), with emphasis on the punctata species group. By sampling understudied Amazonian taxa, we (i) assess the phylogenetic placement of the 'odd anole', D. dissimilis; (ii) infer the relationships of the proboscis-bearing D. phyllorhina, testing the hypothesis of independent nasal appendage evolution within the anole radiation; and (iii) examine genetic and dewlap color variation in D. punctata and D. philopunctata. Combining multiple nuclear loci with a review of the fossil record, we also (iv) estimate divergence times within the pleurodont iguanian clade of lizards, including Amazonian representatives of Dactyloa and Norops (Dactyloidae) and of Polychrus (Polychrotidae). We recover the five Dactyloa clades previously referred to as the aequatorialis, heteroderma, latifrons, punctata and roquet species groups, as well as a sixth clade composed of D. dissimilis and the non-Amazonian D. neblinina and D. calimae. We find D. phyllorhina to be nested within the punctata group, suggesting independent evolution of the anole proboscis. We consistently recover D. philopunctata nested within D. punctata, and report limited genetic divergence between distinct dewlap phenotypes. The most recent common ancestor of Dactyloa, Anolis and Norops dates back to the Eocene. Most Amazonian taxa within both Dactyloa and Norops diverged in the Miocene, but some diversification events were as old as the late Eocene and late Oligocene. Amazonian Polychrus diverged in the Pliocene. Our findings have broad implications for anole biogeography, disputing recent suggestions that modern dactyloid genera were present in the Caribbean region

  4. Examining Phylogenetic Relationships Among Gibbon Genera Using Whole Genome Sequence Data Using an Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Veeramah, Krishna R.; Woerner, August E.; Johnstone, Laurel; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Carbone, Lucia; Wall, Jeff D.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Gibbons are believed to have diverged from the larger great apes ∼16.8 MYA and today reside in the rainforests of Southeast Asia. Based on their diploid chromosome number, the family Hylobatidae is divided into four genera, Nomascus, Symphalangus, Hoolock, and Hylobates. Genetic studies attempting to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among gibbons using karyotypes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and short autosomal sequences have been inconclusive . To examine the relationships among gibbon genera in more depth, we performed second-generation whole genome sequencing (WGS) to a mean of ∼15× coverage in two individuals from each genus. We developed a coalescent-based approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method incorporating a model of sequencing error generated by high coverage exome validation to infer the branching order, divergence times, and effective population sizes of gibbon taxa. Although Hoolock and Symphalangus are likely sister taxa, we could not confidently resolve a single bifurcating tree despite the large amount of data analyzed. Instead, our results support the hypothesis that all four gibbon genera diverged at approximately the same time. Assuming an autosomal mutation rate of 1 × 10−9/site/year this speciation process occurred ∼5 MYA during a period in the Early Pliocene characterized by climatic shifts and fragmentation of the Sunda shelf forests. Whole genome sequencing of additional individuals will be vital for inferring the extent of gene flow among species after the separation of the gibbon genera. PMID:25769979

  5. Examining phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera using whole genome sequence data using an approximate bayesian computation approach.

    PubMed

    Veeramah, Krishna R; Woerner, August E; Johnstone, Laurel; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Carbone, Lucia; Wall, Jeff D; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-05-01

    Gibbons are believed to have diverged from the larger great apes ∼16.8 MYA and today reside in the rainforests of Southeast Asia. Based on their diploid chromosome number, the family Hylobatidae is divided into four genera, Nomascus, Symphalangus, Hoolock, and Hylobates. Genetic studies attempting to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among gibbons using karyotypes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and short autosomal sequences have been inconclusive . To examine the relationships among gibbon genera in more depth, we performed second-generation whole genome sequencing (WGS) to a mean of ∼15× coverage in two individuals from each genus. We developed a coalescent-based approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method incorporating a model of sequencing error generated by high coverage exome validation to infer the branching order, divergence times, and effective population sizes of gibbon taxa. Although Hoolock and Symphalangus are likely sister taxa, we could not confidently resolve a single bifurcating tree despite the large amount of data analyzed. Instead, our results support the hypothesis that all four gibbon genera diverged at approximately the same time. Assuming an autosomal mutation rate of 1 × 10(-9)/site/year this speciation process occurred ∼5 MYA during a period in the Early Pliocene characterized by climatic shifts and fragmentation of the Sunda shelf forests. Whole genome sequencing of additional individuals will be vital for inferring the extent of gene flow among species after the separation of the gibbon genera.

  6. Examining phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera using whole genome sequence data using an approximate bayesian computation approach.

    PubMed

    Veeramah, Krishna R; Woerner, August E; Johnstone, Laurel; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Carbone, Lucia; Wall, Jeff D; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-05-01

    Gibbons are believed to have diverged from the larger great apes ∼16.8 MYA and today reside in the rainforests of Southeast Asia. Based on their diploid chromosome number, the family Hylobatidae is divided into four genera, Nomascus, Symphalangus, Hoolock, and Hylobates. Genetic studies attempting to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among gibbons using karyotypes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and short autosomal sequences have been inconclusive . To examine the relationships among gibbon genera in more depth, we performed second-generation whole genome sequencing (WGS) to a mean of ∼15× coverage in two individuals from each genus. We developed a coalescent-based approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method incorporating a model of sequencing error generated by high coverage exome validation to infer the branching order, divergence times, and effective population sizes of gibbon taxa. Although Hoolock and Symphalangus are likely sister taxa, we could not confidently resolve a single bifurcating tree despite the large amount of data analyzed. Instead, our results support the hypothesis that all four gibbon genera diverged at approximately the same time. Assuming an autosomal mutation rate of 1 × 10(-9)/site/year this speciation process occurred ∼5 MYA during a period in the Early Pliocene characterized by climatic shifts and fragmentation of the Sunda shelf forests. Whole genome sequencing of additional individuals will be vital for inferring the extent of gene flow among species after the separation of the gibbon genera. PMID:25769979

  7. Phylogenetic relationships within caniform carnivores based on analyses of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Ledje, C; Arnason, U

    1996-12-01

    The complete 12S rRNA gene of 32 carnivore species, including four feliforms and 28 caniforms, was sequenced. The sequences were aligned on the basis of their secondary structures and used in phylogenetic analyses that addressed several evolutionary relationships within the Caniformia. The analyses showed an unresolved polytomy of the basic caniform clades; pinnipeds, mustelids, procyonids, skunks, Ailurus (lesser panda), ursids, and canids. The polytomy indicates a major diversification of caniforms during a relatively short period of time. The lesser panda was distinct from other caniforms, suggesting its inclusion in a monotypic family, Ailuridae. The giant panda and the bears were joined on the same branch. The skunks are traditionally included in the family Mustelidae. The present analysis, however, showed a less close molecular relationship between the skunks and the remaining Mustelidae (sensu stricto) than between Mustelidae (sensu stricto) and Procyonidae, making Mustelidae (sensu lato) paraphyletic. The results suggest that the skunks should be included in a separate family, Mephitidae. Within the Pinnipedia, the grouping of walrus, sea lions, and fur seals was strongly supported. Analyses of a combined set of 12S rRNA and cytochrome b data were generally consistent with the findings based on each gene. PMID:8995061

  8. The phylogenetic relationships of the extant pelicans inferred from DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Martyn; Taylor, Scott A; Nádvorník, Petr; Spencer, Hamish G

    2013-01-01

    The pelicans are a charismatic group of large water birds, whose evolutionary relationships have been long debated. Here we use DNA sequence data from both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to derive a robust phylogeny of all the extant species. Our data rejects the widespread notion that pelicans can be divided into white- and brown-plumaged groups. Instead, we find that, in contrast to all previous evolutionary hypotheses, the species fall into three well-supported clades: an Old World clade of the Dalmatian, Spot-billed, Pink-backed and Australian Pelicans, a New World clade of the American White, Brown and Peruvian Pelicans, and monospecific clade consisting solely of the Great White Pelican, weakly grouped with the Old World clade. We discuss possible evolutionary scenarios giving rise to this diversity. PMID:23059726

  9. Phylogenetic relationships among diploid Aegilops species inferred from 5S rDNA units.

    PubMed

    Baum, B R; Edwards, T; Johnson, D A

    2009-10-01

    Relationships among the currently recognized 11 diploid species within the genus Aegilops have been investigated. Sequence similarity analysis, based upon 363 sequenced 5S rDNA clones from 44 accessions plus 15 sequences retrieved from GenBank, depicted two unit classes labeled the long AE1 and short AE1. Several different analytical methods were applied to infer relationships within haplomes, between haplomes and among the species, including maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of consensus sequences, "total evidence" phylogeny analysis and "matrix representation with parsimony" analysis. None were able to depict suites of markers or unit classes that could discern among the seven haplomes as is observed among established haplomes in other genera within the tribe Triticeae; however, most species could be separated when displayed on gene trees. These results suggest that the haplomes currently recognized are so refined that they may be relegated as sub-haplomes or haplome variants. Amblyopyrum shares the same 5S rDNA unit classes with the diploid Aegilops species suggesting that it belongs within the latter. Comparisons of the Aegilops sequences with those of Triticum showed that the long AE1 unit class of Ae. tauschii shared the clade with the equivalent long D1 unit class, i.e., the putative D haplome donor, but the short AE1 unit class did not. The long AE1 unit class but not the short, of Ae. speltoides and Ae. searsii both share the clade with the previously identified long {S1 and long G1 unit classes meaning that both Aegilops species can be equally considered putative B haplome donors to tetraploid Triticum species. The semiconserved nature of the nontranscribed spacer in Aegilops and in Triticeae in general is discussed in view that it may have originated by processes of incomplete gene conversion or biased gene conversion or birth-and-death evolution.

  10. Clarifying phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the bivalve order Arcida (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia).

    PubMed

    Combosch, David J; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The systematics of the bivalve order Arcida constitutes an unresolved conundrum in bivalve systematics. The current definition of Arcida encompasses two superfamilies: Limopsoidea, which includes the recent families Philobryidae and Limopsidae, and Arcoidea, which encompasses the families Arcidae, Cucullaeidae, Noetiidae, Glycymerididae and Parallelodontidae. This classification, however, is controversial particularly with respect to the position and taxonomic status of Glycymerididae. Previous molecular phylogenies were limited either by the use of only a single molecular marker or by including only a few limopsoid and glycymeridid taxa. The challenging nature of Arcida taxonomy and the controversial results of some of the previous studies, prompted us to use a broad range of taxa (55 species), three nuclear markers (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and histone H3) and a wide range of algorithmic approaches. This broad but stringent approach led to a number of results that differ significantly from previous studies. We provide the first molecular evidence that supports the separation of Arcoidea from Limopsoidea, although the exact position of Glycymerididae remains unresolved, and the monophyly of Limopsoidea is algorithm-dependent. In addition, we present the first time-calibrated evolutionary tree of Arcida relationships, indicating a significant increase in the diversification of arcidan lineages at the beginning of the Cretaceous, around 140Ma. The monophyly of Arcida, which has been supported previously, was confirmed in all our analyses. Although relationships among families remain somehow unresolved we found support for the monophyly of most arcidan families, at least under some analytical conditions (i.e., Glycymerididae, Noetiidae, Philobryidae, and Limopsidae). However, Arcidae, and particularly Arcinae, remain a major source of inconsistency in the current system of Arcida classification and are in dire need of taxonomic revision.

  11. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Bausher, Michael G; Singh, Nameirakpam D; Lee, Seung-Bum; Jansen, Robert K; Daniell, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Background The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear transformation; it not only increases transgene expression but also facilitates transgene containment, which is one of the major impediments for development of transgenic trees. We have sequenced the Citrus chloroplast genome to facilitate genetic improvement of this crop and to assess phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms. Results The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis is 160,129 bp in length, and contains 133 genes (89 protein-coding, 4 rRNAs and 30 distinct tRNAs). Genome organization is very similar to the inferred ancestral angiosperm chloroplast genome. However, in Citrus the infA gene is absent. The inverted repeat region has expanded to duplicate rps19 and the first 84 amino acids of rpl22. The rpl22 gene in the IRb region has a nonsense mutation resulting in 9 stop codons. This was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing using primers that flank the IR/LSC boundaries. Repeat analysis identified 29 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Comparison of protein-coding sequences with expressed sequence tags revealed six putative RNA edits, five of which resulted in non-synonymous modifications in petL, psbH, ycf2 and ndhA. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods of a dataset composed of 61 protein-coding genes for 30 taxa provide strong support for the monophyly of several major clades of angiosperms, including monocots, eudicots, rosids and asterids. The MP and ML trees are incongruent in three areas: the position of Amborella and Nymphaeales, relationship

  12. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Eimeria from turkeys and gamebirds, and the implication on the evolutionary relationships OF Eimeria FROM galliforme birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the evolutionary relationships of Eimeria that infect galliforme birds, the 18s rDNA gene, and a portion of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) were amplified from Eimeria that infect turkeys, chukars, and pheasants. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences suggests th...

  13. Phylogenetic relationships between four Salix L. species based on DArT markers.

    PubMed

    Przyborowski, Jerzy A; Sulima, Paweł; Kuszewska, Anna; Załuski, Dariusz; Kilian, Andrzej

    2013-12-11

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of DArT markers in genotypic identification of willow species and describe genetic relationships between four willow species: Salix viminalis, S. purpurea, S. alba and S. triandra. The experimental plant material comprised 53 willow genotypes of these four species, which are popularly grown in Poland. DArT markers seem to identify Salix species with a high degree of accuracy. As a result, the examined species were divided into four distinct groups which corresponded to the four analyzed species. In our study, we observed that S. triandra was very different genetically from the other species, including S. alba which is generally classified into the same subgenus of Salix. The above corroborates the findings of other authors who relied on molecular methods to reveal that the classification of S. triandra to the subgenus Salix was erroneous. The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and the neighbor-joining dendrogram also confirmed the clear division of the studied willow genotypes into four clusters corresponding to individual species. This confirmed the usefulness of DArT markers in taxonomic analyses and identification of willow species.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus within Panicoideae (Poaceae) reveal two new genera of tropical grasses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Christian; Snak, Cristiane; Schnadelbach, Alessandra Selbach; van den Berg, Cássio; Oliveira, Reyjane Patrícia

    2015-12-01

    Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are two tropical grass genera distributed mostly in the Americas, characterized by the presence of rachilla appendages in the shape of convex swellings, scars or wings at the base of the upper anthecium. However, recent studies have shown that rachilla appendages arose several times independently in several groups within Paniceae and Paspaleae (Panicoideae). Thus, this study aimed to assess the monophyly of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus and their relationship to other genera of Paniceae and Paspaleae, especially those including species with rachilla appendages. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the cpDNA regions ndhF, rpl16, trnH-(rps19)-psbA, trnL-trnF, trnS-(psbZ)-trnG, and the rDNA ITS region included 29 of the 39 known species of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus, 23 of which were sampled for the first time. The multiple loci analyses indicated that Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are polyphyletic in their current circumscriptions, with species in four distinct lineages within subtribe Paspalinae, each one characterized by a single type of rachilla appendage. Thus, Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are each circumscribed in a narrow sense, and the other two lineages excluded from them are proposed as the new genera Hildaea and Oedochloa, resulting in 15 new combinations and the restablishment of I. oplismenoides Munro ex Döll.

  15. Exploring the potential of small RNA subunit and ITS sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Ctenophora.

    PubMed

    Simion, Paul; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Jager, Muriel; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2015-04-01

    Ctenophores are a phylum of non-bilaterian marine (mostly planktonic) animals, characterised by several unique synapomorphies (e.g., comb rows, apical organ). Relationships between and within the nine recognised ctenophore orders are far from understood, notably due to a paucity of phylogenetically informative anatomical characters. Previous attempts to address ctenophore phylogeny using molecular data (18S rRNA) led to poorly resolved trees but demonstrated the paraphyly of the order Cydippida. Here we compiled an updated 18S rRNA data set, notably including a few newly sequenced species representing previously unsampled families (Lampeidae, Euryhamphaeidae), and we constructed an additional more rapidly evolving ITS1 + 5.8S rRNA + ITS2 alignment. These data sets were analysed separately and in combination under a probabilistic framework, using different methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and models (e.g., doublet model to accommodate secondary structure; data partitioning). An important lesson from our exploration of these datasets is that the fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions are useful markers for reconstructing high-level relationships within ctenophores. Our results confirm the paraphyly of the order Cydippida (and thus a "cydippid-like" ctenophore common ancestor) and suggest that the family Mertensiidae could be the sister group of all other ctenophores. The family Lampeidae (also part of the former "Cydippida") is probably the sister group of the order Platyctenida (benthic ctenophores). The order Beroida might not be monophyletic, due to the position of Beroe abyssicola outside of a clade grouping the other Beroe species and members of the "Cydippida" family Haeckeliidae. Many relationships (e.g. between Pleurobrachiidae, Beroida, Cestida, Lobata, Thalassocalycida) remain unresolved. Future progress in understanding ctenophore phylogeny will come from the use of additional rapidly evolving markers and improvement of

  16. Exploring the potential of small RNA subunit and ITS sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Ctenophora.

    PubMed

    Simion, Paul; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Jager, Muriel; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2015-04-01

    Ctenophores are a phylum of non-bilaterian marine (mostly planktonic) animals, characterised by several unique synapomorphies (e.g., comb rows, apical organ). Relationships between and within the nine recognised ctenophore orders are far from understood, notably due to a paucity of phylogenetically informative anatomical characters. Previous attempts to address ctenophore phylogeny using molecular data (18S rRNA) led to poorly resolved trees but demonstrated the paraphyly of the order Cydippida. Here we compiled an updated 18S rRNA data set, notably including a few newly sequenced species representing previously unsampled families (Lampeidae, Euryhamphaeidae), and we constructed an additional more rapidly evolving ITS1 + 5.8S rRNA + ITS2 alignment. These data sets were analysed separately and in combination under a probabilistic framework, using different methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and models (e.g., doublet model to accommodate secondary structure; data partitioning). An important lesson from our exploration of these datasets is that the fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions are useful markers for reconstructing high-level relationships within ctenophores. Our results confirm the paraphyly of the order Cydippida (and thus a "cydippid-like" ctenophore common ancestor) and suggest that the family Mertensiidae could be the sister group of all other ctenophores. The family Lampeidae (also part of the former "Cydippida") is probably the sister group of the order Platyctenida (benthic ctenophores). The order Beroida might not be monophyletic, due to the position of Beroe abyssicola outside of a clade grouping the other Beroe species and members of the "Cydippida" family Haeckeliidae. Many relationships (e.g. between Pleurobrachiidae, Beroida, Cestida, Lobata, Thalassocalycida) remain unresolved. Future progress in understanding ctenophore phylogeny will come from the use of additional rapidly evolving markers and improvement of

  17. Phylogenetic relationships among Perissodactyla: secretoglobin 1A1 gene duplication and triplication in the Equidae family.

    PubMed

    Côté, Olivier; Viel, Laurent; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2013-12-01

    Secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB 1A1) is a small anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory protein that is abundantly secreted in airway surface fluids. We recently reported the existence of three distinct SCGB1A1 genes in the domestic horse genome as opposed to the single gene copy consensus present in other mammals. The origin of SCGB1A1 gene triplication and the evolutionary relationship of the three genes amongst Equidae family members are unknown. For this study, SCGB1A1 genomic data were collected from various Equus individuals including E. caballus, E. przewalskii, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. quagga. Three SCGB1A1 genes in E. przewalskii, two SCGB1A1 genes in E. asinus, and a single SCGB1A1 gene in E. grevyi and E. quagga were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that the non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions between the different equid genes coded for 17 amino acid changes. Most of these changes localized to the SCGB 1A1 central cavity that binds hydrophobic ligands, suggesting that this area of SCGB 1A1 evolved to accommodate diverse molecular interactions. Three-dimensional modeling of the proteins revealed that the size of the SCGB 1A1 central cavity is larger than that of SCGB 1A1A. Altogether, these findings suggest that evolution of the SCGB1A1 gene may parallel the separation of caballine and non-caballine species amongst Equidae, and may indicate an expansion of function for SCGB1A1 gene products.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the network pipefish (Corythoichthys flavofasciatus) and the analyses of phylogenetic relationships within the Syngnathidae species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixian; Zhang, Yanhong; Qin, Geng; Lin, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    This study determined the mitochondrial genome sequence of the network pipefish (Corythoichthys flavofasciatus) (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae). The mitogenome was a circular molecule consisting of 16,961 nucleotides, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region. The nucleotide composition of the genome was biased toward A+T content at 59.3%. All tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNA(Ser (AGY)), in which the dihydrouridine arm was missing. The C. flavofasciatus control region of 1130 bp contained several features common to other teleost, including conserved sequence blocks. We also performed comparative analysis of the network pipefish mitogenome to the available mitogenome sequences of other Syngnathidae species, and phylogenetic relationship of the Syngnathidae species was constructed based on the data sets including all the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the mitogenomes except the third codon positions. Partitioned Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses showed that all seahorse species formed a monophyletic group of Hippocampus with 100% PPs and BPs, but the pipefish species did not form a monophyletic group. Corythoichthys flavofasciatus was placed as a sister relationship to the Hippocampus clade by strong node-supporting values. The availability of mitogenome of the network pipefish will shed light on the molecular systematics, biogeography and genetic differentiation in this species.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes with analyses of gene evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Qing; Mayden, Richard L; Zhang, Jia-Bo; Yu, Dan; Tang, Qiong-Ying; Deng, Xin; Liu, Huan-Zhang

    2012-10-15

    The superfamily Cobitoidea of the order Cypriniformes is a diverse group of fishes, inhabiting freshwater ecosystems across Eurasia and North Africa. The phylogenetic relationships of this well-corroborated natural group and diverse clade are critical to not only informing scientific communities of the phylogeny of the order Cypriniformes, the world's largest freshwater fish order, but are key to every area of comparative biology examining the evolution of traits, functional structures, and breeding behaviors to their biogeographic histories, speciation, anagenetic divergence, and divergence time estimates. In the present study, two mitochondrial gene sequences (COI, ND4+5) and four single-copy nuclear gene segments (RH1, RAG1, EGR2B, IRBP) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea as reconstructed from maximum likelihood (ML) and partitioned Bayesian Analysis (BA). Analyses of the combined mitochondrial/nuclear gene datasets revealed five strongly supported monophyletic Cobitoidea families and their sister-group relationships: Botiidae+(Vaillantellidae+(Cobitidae+(Nemacheilidae+Balitoridae))). These recovered relationships are in agreement with previous systematic studies on the order Cypriniformes and/or those focusing on the superfamily Cobitoidea. Using these relationships, our analyses revealed pattern lineage- or ecological-group-specific evolution of these genes for the Cobitoidea. These observations and results corroborate the hypothesis that these group-specific-ancestral ecological characters have contributed in the diversification and/or adaptations within these groups. Positive selections were detected in RH1 of nemacheilids and in RAG1 of nemacheilids and genus Vaillantella, which indicated that evolution of RH1 (related to eye's optic sense) and RAG1 (related to immunity) genes appeared to be important for the diversification of these groups. The balitorid lineage (those species inhabiting fast-flowing riverine habitats) had

  20. When proglottids and scoleces conflict: phylogenetic relationships and a family-level classification of the Lecanicephalidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N; Cielocha, Joanna J; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    . Aspects of morphological evolution and host associations are discussed in a phylogenetic context for each family and for the order as a whole. Lecanicephalidean genera lacking apical structures were confirmed as the earliest diverging lineages. Proglottid anatomy was determined to be much more conserved and indicative of phylogenetic affinities than scolex morphology. Collectively, the Lecanicephalidea parasitize three of the four orders of Batoidea-their almost exclusive absence from skates (Order Rajiformes) appears to be real; only a few records from sharks exist. At the family level, the breadth of host associations is correlated with taxonomic diversity of the family. The degree to which factors such as intermediate host use or host specificity at any stage in the life-cycle shape these patterns is currently unknown.

  1. When proglottids and scoleces conflict: phylogenetic relationships and a family-level classification of the Lecanicephalidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N; Cielocha, Joanna J; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    . Aspects of morphological evolution and host associations are discussed in a phylogenetic context for each family and for the order as a whole. Lecanicephalidean genera lacking apical structures were confirmed as the earliest diverging lineages. Proglottid anatomy was determined to be much more conserved and indicative of phylogenetic affinities than scolex morphology. Collectively, the Lecanicephalidea parasitize three of the four orders of Batoidea-their almost exclusive absence from skates (Order Rajiformes) appears to be real; only a few records from sharks exist. At the family level, the breadth of host associations is correlated with taxonomic diversity of the family. The degree to which factors such as intermediate host use or host specificity at any stage in the life-cycle shape these patterns is currently unknown. PMID:26994689

  2. Serologic and hexon phylogenetic analysis of ruminant adenoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the antigenic relationship among ruminant adenoviruses and determine their phylogenetic relationship based on the deduced hexon gene amino acid sequence. Results of reciprocal cross-neutralization tests demonstrated antigenic relationships in either on...

  3. Assessment of phylogenetic relationships among ciliated protists using partial ribosomal RNA sequences derived from reverse transcripts.

    PubMed

    Lynn, D H; Sogin, M L

    1988-01-01

    Partial sequences were derived for the 16S-like ribosomal RNA of Halteria grandinella, Glaucoma chattoni, Colpidium campylum, Opisthonecta henneguyi and Colpoda inflata. Using isolated bulk nucleic acid preparations, partial rRNA sequences were determined using a series of oligonucleotide primers complementary to conserved sequence elements of the molecule and a dideoxynucleotide sequencing reaction using reverse transcriptase. Sequences were aligned and an evolutionary tree was generated by a distance-matrix method, comparing these partial sequences to the complete sequences of species of Tetrahymena, Paramecium, Euplotes, Oxytricha and Stylonychia. Halteria shows greater similarity to the stichotrichs Oxytricha and Stylonychia than to the hypotrich Euplotes, while these four genera share the same branch. Glaucoma and Colpidium appear closely related to Tetrahymena, with all three being more closely related to Opisthonecta than to Paramecium. Colpoda diverges near the base of the branch shared by Paramecium and the four oligohymenophorean genera. These results are discussed with reference to published revisions of the systematics of the phylum Ciliophora.

  4. Influence of Introgression and Geological Processes on Phylogenetic Relationships of Western North American Mountain Suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Unmack, Peter J.; Dowling, Thomas E.; Laitinen, Nina J.; Secor, Carol L.; Mayden, Richard L.; Shiozawa, Dennis K.; Smith, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western USA and into northern Mexico. They are typically found in medium gradient, middle-elevation reaches of rivers over rocky substrates. This study (1) compares molecular data with morphological and paleontological data for proposed species of Pantosteus, (2) tests hypotheses of their monophyly, (3) uses these data for phylogenetic inferences of sister-group relationships, and (4) estimates timing of divergence events of identified lineages. Using 8055 base pairs from mitochondrial DNA protein coding genes, Pantosteus and Catostomus are reciprocally monophyletic, in contrast with morphological data. The only exception to a monophyletic Pantosteus is P. columbianus whose mtDNA is closely aligned with C. tahoensis because of introgression. Within Pantosteus, several species have deep genetic divergences among allopatric sister lineages, several of which are diagnosed and elevated to species, bringing the total diversity in the group to 11 species. Conflicting molecular and morphological data may be resolved when patterns of divergence are shown to be correlated with sympatry and evidence of introgression. PMID:24619087

  5. Comparative Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Eligma narcissus and other Lepidopteran Insects Reveals Conserved Mitochondrial Genome Organization and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Eligma narcissus and compared it with 18 other lepidopteran species. The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) was a circular molecule of 15,376 bp containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T) - rich region. The positive AT skew (0.007) indicated the occurrence of more As than Ts. The arrangement of 13 PCGs was similar to that of other sequenced lepidopterans. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which was initiated by the CGA sequence, as observed in other lepidopterans. The results of the codon usage analysis indicated that Asn, Ile, Leu, Tyr and Phe were the five most frequent amino acids. All tRNA genes were shown to be folded into the expected typical cloverleaf structure observed for mitochondrial tRNA genes. Phylogenetic relationships were analyzed based on the nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs from other insect mitogenomes, which confirmed that E. narcissus is a member of the Noctuidae superfamily. PMID:27222440

  6. Comparative Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Eligma narcissus and other Lepidopteran Insects Reveals Conserved Mitochondrial Genome Organization and Phylogenetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li-Shang; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Eligma narcissus and compared it with 18 other lepidopteran species. The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) was a circular molecule of 15,376 bp containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T) − rich region. The positive AT skew (0.007) indicated the occurrence of more As than Ts. The arrangement of 13 PCGs was similar to that of other sequenced lepidopterans. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which was initiated by the CGA sequence, as observed in other lepidopterans. The results of the codon usage analysis indicated that Asn, Ile, Leu, Tyr and Phe were the five most frequent amino acids. All tRNA genes were shown to be folded into the expected typical cloverleaf structure observed for mitochondrial tRNA genes. Phylogenetic relationships were analyzed based on the nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs from other insect mitogenomes, which confirmed that E. narcissus is a member of the Noctuidae superfamily. PMID:27222440

  7. Influence of introgression and geological processes on phylogenetic relationships of Western North American mountain suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Dowling, Thomas E; Laitinen, Nina J; Secor, Carol L; Mayden, Richard L; Shiozawa, Dennis K; Smith, Gerald R

    2014-01-01

    Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western USA and into northern Mexico. They are typically found in medium gradient, middle-elevation reaches of rivers over rocky substrates. This study (1) compares molecular data with morphological and paleontological data for proposed species of Pantosteus, (2) tests hypotheses of their monophyly, (3) uses these data for phylogenetic inferences of sister-group relationships, and (4) estimates timing of divergence events of identified lineages. Using 8055 base pairs from mitochondrial DNA protein coding genes, Pantosteus and Catostomus are reciprocally monophyletic, in contrast with morphological data. The only exception to a monophyletic Pantosteus is P. columbianus whose mtDNA is closely aligned with C. tahoensis because of introgression. Within Pantosteus, several species have deep genetic divergences among allopatric sister lineages, several of which are diagnosed and elevated to species, bringing the total diversity in the group to 11 species. Conflicting molecular and morphological data may be resolved when patterns of divergence are shown to be correlated with sympatry and evidence of introgression.

  8. Recurrent hybridization and recent origin obscure phylogenetic relationships within the 'white-headed' gull (Larus sp.) complex.

    PubMed

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Wilson, Robert E; Chesser, R Terry; Pons, Jean-Marc; Crochet, Pierre-Andre; Driskell, Amy; Dove, Carla

    2016-10-01

    Species complexes that have undergone recent radiations are often characterized by extensive allele sharing due to recent ancestry and (or) introgressive hybridization. This can result in discordant evolutionary histories of genes and heterogeneous genomes, making delineating species limits difficult. Here we examine the phylogenetic relationships among a complex group of birds, the white-headed gulls (Aves: Laridae), which offer a unique window into the speciation process due to their recent evolutionary history and propensity to hybridize. Relationships were examined among 17 species (61 populations) using a multilocus approach, including mitochondrial and nuclear intron DNA sequences and microsatellite genotype information. Analyses of microsatellite and intron data resulted in some species-based groupings, although most species were not represented by a single cluster. Considerable allele and haplotype sharing among white-headed gull species was observed; no locus contained a species-specific clade. Despite this, our multilocus approach provided better resolution among some species than previous studies. Interestingly, most clades appear to correspond to geographic locality: our BEAST analysis recovered strong support for a northern European/Icelandic clade, a southern European/Russian clade, and a western North American/canus clade, with weak evidence for a high latitude clade spanning North America and northwestern Europe. This geographical structuring is concordant with behavioral observations of pervasive hybridization in areas of secondary contact. The extent of allele and haplotype sharing indicates that ecological and sexual selection are likely not strong enough to complete reproductive isolation within several species in the white-headed gull complex. This suggests that just a few genes are driving the speciation process. PMID:27369453

  9. Recurrent hybridization and recent origin obscure phylogenetic relationships within the 'white-headed' gull (Larus sp.) complex.

    PubMed

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Wilson, Robert E; Chesser, R Terry; Pons, Jean-Marc; Crochet, Pierre-Andre; Driskell, Amy; Dove, Carla

    2016-10-01

    Species complexes that have undergone recent radiations are often characterized by extensive allele sharing due to recent ancestry and (or) introgressive hybridization. This can result in discordant evolutionary histories of genes and heterogeneous genomes, making delineating species limits difficult. Here we examine the phylogenetic relationships among a complex group of birds, the white-headed gulls (Aves: Laridae), which offer a unique window into the speciation process due to their recent evolutionary history and propensity to hybridize. Relationships were examined among 17 species (61 populations) using a multilocus approach, including mitochondrial and nuclear intron DNA sequences and microsatellite genotype information. Analyses of microsatellite and intron data resulted in some species-based groupings, although most species were not represented by a single cluster. Considerable allele and haplotype sharing among white-headed gull species was observed; no locus contained a species-specific clade. Despite this, our multilocus approach provided better resolution among some species than previous studies. Interestingly, most clades appear to correspond to geographic locality: our BEAST analysis recovered strong support for a northern European/Icelandic clade, a southern European/Russian clade, and a western North American/canus clade, with weak evidence for a high latitude clade spanning North America and northwestern Europe. This geographical structuring is concordant with behavioral observations of pervasive hybridization in areas of secondary contact. The extent of allele and haplotype sharing indicates that ecological and sexual selection are likely not strong enough to complete reproductive isolation within several species in the white-headed gull complex. This suggests that just a few genes are driving the speciation process.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of the species and biogeography of the characid genus Oligosarcus Günther, 1864 (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alexandre Cunha; Menezes, Naércio Aquino

    2015-04-23

    The characid genus Oligosarcus consists of 20 described species distributed throughout most of South American river basins below 14º south latitude. This study focus on the phylogenetic relationships of the species of Oligosarcus based on the analysis of osteological characters to provide data to discuss the biogeographic history of the genus. The analysis resulted in a single most parsimonious tree with 152 steps (CI= 0.355 and RI= 0.600). The 18 included Oligosarcus species were hierarchically organized into 17 clades. A minimal age of 15 Ma for the genus is suggested based on the putatively cladogenetic event represented by the continued shortening of the Eastern Cordillera that established the eastern boundary of the modern central Andean plateau and was responsible for cladogenesis between the common ancestor of O. schindleri + O. bolivianus versus the remaining congeners. There is a pronounced disjunction in the upland species distribution by the lowland areas of the Chaco-Pantanal basin. This indicates that upland habitats (headwater streams) are preferential habitats for a set of species including O. argenteus, O. bolivianus, O. brevioris, O. paranensis, O. perdido, O. pintoi, O. planaltinae, O. brevioris, and O. schindleri. Fragmentation of populations of O. pintoi and O. perdido are at least 2.5 Ma old, since the origin of the upper Paraguay depression clearly promoted the present-day observed disjunction in the distribution of these species. The lowland Oligosarcus species are all included in a single clade but the obtained results suggest that fragmentation of upland versus lowland components of the genus was not causally related to a single vicariant event. The available fossil record of Oligosarcus indicates that the genus already occurred in the coastal plain at about 2.3 to 1.25 Ma. The sister-group relationship between O. hepsetus and O. longirostris provided additional evidences of the so-called historical affinities between the SE Brazilian

  11. Morphological characterisation and phylogenetic relationships of Zschokkella candia n. sp. from the gall-bladder of Sparisoma cretense (L.) (Perciformes: Scaridae) in the Sea of Crete off Greece.

    PubMed

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2015-11-01

    A new myxosporean parasite, Zschokkella candia n. sp., from the gall-bladder of the wild parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (L.) (Perciformes: Scaridae) is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Mature spores are elliptical, with mean dimensions 11.2 ± 0.5 × 7.8 ± 0.1 μm and possess spherical polar capsules with mean diameter of 2.3 ± 0.3 μm. The new species is differentiated from other similar species of the genus based on spore morphology, its coelozoic life-style and molecular data. The phylogenetic tree constructed using maximum likelihood analysis of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequence data complements the characterisation of Zschokkella candia n. sp. by defining its phylogenetic position among the species of Zschokkella Auerbach, 1909 sequenced to date. The phylogenetic analysis supports the existing knowledge on the complicated polyphyletic relationships among the members of the genus Zschokkella. PMID:26446543

  12. The distribution of endogenous chicken retrovirus sequences in the DNA of galliform birds does not coincide with avian phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Frisby, D P; Weiss, R A; Roussel, M; Stehelin, D

    1979-07-01

    The chicken is a domesticated form of Red Jungle-fowl (Gallus gallus), which belongs to the Pheasant family (Phasianidae) within the order Galliformes. Domestic chickens carry the genome of the endogenous retrovirus RAV-O as DNA sequences integrated into host chromosomes transmitted through the germ line. We have examined the presence and distribution of RAV-O-related sequences in the DNA of Red Junglefowl and other closely related species of Junglefowl, as well as more distantly related Pheasants and Quail. DNA sequences homologous to RAV-O were analyzed by molecular hybridization in liquid and after electrophoresis of restriction endonuclease fragments. The presence of RAV-O-related sequences in avian DNA does not correlate with phylogenetic relationships. Under stringent conditions of hybridization in liquid, DNA sequences homologous to RAV-O cDNA were detected at high levels (greater than 80% homology( only in the genomes of the domestic chicken and its phylogenetic ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus). The DNA of two other species of Gallus (G. sonnerati, Sonnerat's Junglefowl and G. varius, Green Junglefowl), of Ring-necked Pheasant and of Japanese Quail contained sequences with less than 10% homology to RAV-O cDNA. Under conditions permitting mismatching, however, Ring-necked Pheasant DNA hybridized up to 50% of the RAV-O cDNA, and Quail DNA 24%, whereas the extent of hybridization to Sonnerat's and Green Junglefowl DNA was not markedly increased. Analysis of restriction enzyme digests revealed several distinct fragments of DNA hybridizing to chick retrovirus cDNA in both Red Junglefowl and domestic chicken, and multiple fragments in DNA from two species of Phasianus. No fragments with sequences related to chicken retroviruses were found, however, in digests of DNA prepared from Sonnerat's, Ceylonese and Green Junglefowl, from two other Pheasant genera (Chrysolophus and Lophura), or from one Quail genus (Coturnix). Thus the DNA of three Junglefowl

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data highlights uncertainty in the relationships of fossil and living species of Elopomorpha (Actinopterygii: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Dornburg, Alex; Friedman, Matt; Near, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Elopomorpha is one of the three main clades of living teleost fishes and includes a range of disparate lineages including eels, tarpons, bonefishes, and halosaurs. Elopomorphs were among the first groups of fishes investigated using Hennigian phylogenetic methods and continue to be the object of intense phylogenetic scrutiny due to their economic significance, diversity, and crucial evolutionary status as the sister group of all other teleosts. While portions of the phylogenetic backbone for Elopomorpha are consistent between studies, the relationships among Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes, and Anguilliformes remain contentious and difficult to evaluate. This lack of phylogenetic resolution is problematic as fossil lineages are often described and placed taxonomically based on an assumed sister group relationship between Albula and Pterothrissus. In addition, phylogenetic studies using morphological data that sample elopomorph fossil lineages often do not include notacanthiform or anguilliform lineages, potentially introducing a bias toward interpreting fossils as members of the common stem of Pterothrissus and Albula. Here we provide a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear genes that include representative taxa from Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes and Anguilliformes. We integrate our molecular dataset with a morphological character matrix that spans both living and fossil elopomorph lineages. Our results reveal substantial uncertainty in the placement of Pterothrissus as well as all sampled fossil lineages, questioning the stability of the taxonomy of fossil Elopomorpha. However, despite topological uncertainty, our integration of fossil lineages into a Bayesian time calibrated framework provides divergence time estimates for the clade that are consistent with previously published age estimates based on the elopomorph fossil record and molecular estimates resulting from traditional node-dating methods.

  14. Ancient phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gribaldo, Simonetta; Philippe, Hervé

    2002-06-01

    Traditional views on deep evolutionary events have been seriously challenged over the last few years, following the identification of major pitfalls affecting molecular phylogeny reconstruction. Here we describe the principally encountered artifacts, notably long branch attraction, and their causes (i.e., difference in evolutionary rates, mutational saturation, compositional biases). Additional difficulties due to phenomena of biological nature (i.e., lateral gene transfer, recombination, hidden paralogy) are also discussed. Moreover, contrary to common beliefs, we show that the use of rare genomic events can also be misleading and should be treated with the same caution as standard molecular phylogeny. The universal tree of life, as described in most textbooks, is partly affected by tree reconstruction artifacts, e.g. (i) the bacterial rooting of the universal tree of life; (ii) the early emergence of amitochondriate lineages in eukaryotic phylogenies; and (iii) the position of hyperthermophilic taxa in bacterial phylogenies. We present an alternative view of this tree, based on recent evidence obtained from reanalyses of ancient data sets and from novel analyses of large combination of genes.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic angiosperm family Podostemaceae inferred from 18S rDNA and rbcL sequence data.

    PubMed

    Soltis, D E; Mort, M E; Soltis, P S; Hibsch-Jetter, C; Zimmer, E A; Morgan, D

    1999-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of some angiosperm families have remained enigmatic despite broad phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences. One example is the aquatic family Podostemaceae, the relationships of which have long been controversial because of major morphological modifications associated with their aquatic habit. Podostemaceae have variously been associated with Piperaceae, Nepenthaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Rosaceae, Crassulaceae, and Saxifragaceae. Two recent analyses of rbcL sequences suggest a possible sister-group relationship of Podostemaceae to Crassulaceae (Saxifragales). However, the branch leading to Podostemaceae was long, and use of different outgroups resulted in alternative placements. We explored the phylogenetic relationships of Podostemaceae using 18S rDNA sequences and a combined rbcL + 18S rDNA matrix representing over 250 angiosperms. In analyses based on 18S rDNA data, Podostemaceae are not characterized by a long branch; the family consistently appears as part of a Malpighiales clade that also includes Malpighiaceae, Turneraceae, Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Violaceae, Linaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Trigoniaceae, Humiriaceae, and Ochnaceae. Phylogenetic analyses based on a combined 18S rDNA + rbcL data set (223 ingroup taxa) with basal angiosperms as the outgroup also suggest that Podostemaceae are part of a Malpighiales clade. These searches swapped to completion, and the shortest trees showed enhanced resolution and increased internal support compared to those based on 18S rDNA or rbcL alone. However, when Gnetales are used as the outgroup, Podostemaceae appear with members of the nitrogen fixing clade (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Ulmaceae, Rhamnaceae, Cannabaceae, Moraceae, and Urticaceae). None of the relationships suggested here for Podostemaceae receives strong bootstrap support. Our analyses indicate that Podostemaceae are not closely allied with Crassulaceae or with other members of the

  16. Arthropod Phylogenetics in Light of Three Novel Millipede (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) Mitochondrial Genomes with Comments on the Appropriateness of Mitochondrial Genome Sequence Data for Inferring Deep Level Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Michael S.; Swafford, Lynn; Spruill, Chad L.; Bond, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Arthropods are the most diverse group of eukaryotic organisms, but their phylogenetic relationships are poorly understood. Herein, we describe three mitochondrial genomes representing orders of millipedes for which complete genomes had not been characterized. Newly sequenced genomes are combined with existing data to characterize the protein coding regions of myriapods and to attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships within the Myriapoda and Arthropoda. Results The newly sequenced genomes are similar to previously characterized millipede sequences in terms of synteny and length. Unique translocations occurred within the newly sequenced taxa, including one half of the Appalachioria falcifera genome, which is inverted with respect to other millipede genomes. Across myriapods, amino acid conservation levels are highly dependent on the gene region. Additionally, individual loci varied in the level of amino acid conservation. Overall, most gene regions showed low levels of conservation at many sites. Attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships suffered from questionable relationships and low support values. Analyses of phylogenetic informativeness show the lack of signal deep in the trees (i.e., genes evolve too quickly). As a result, the myriapod tree resembles previously published results but lacks convincing support, and, within the arthropod tree, well established groups were recovered as polyphyletic. Conclusions The novel genome sequences described herein provide useful genomic information concerning millipede groups that had not been investigated. Taken together with existing sequences, the variety of compositions and evolution of myriapod mitochondrial genomes are shown to be more complex than previously thought. Unfortunately, the use of mitochondrial protein-coding regions in deep arthropod phylogenetics appears problematic, a result consistent with previously published studies. Lack of phylogenetic signal renders the

  17. 20 CFR 725.220 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.220... Determination of relationship; child. For purposes of determining whether an individual may qualify for benefits as the child of a deceased miner, the provisions of § 725.208 shall be applicable. As used in...

  18. 20 CFR 725.220 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.220... Determination of relationship; child. For purposes of determining whether an individual may qualify for benefits as the child of a deceased miner, the provisions of § 725.208 shall be applicable. As used in...

  19. 20 CFR 725.220 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.220... Determination of relationship; child. For purposes of determining whether an individual may qualify for benefits as the child of a deceased miner, the provisions of § 725.208 shall be applicable. As used in...

  20. 20 CFR 725.220 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.220... Determination of relationship; child. For purposes of determining whether an individual may qualify for benefits as the child of a deceased miner, the provisions of § 725.208 shall be applicable. As used in...

  1. 20 CFR 725.220 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.220... Determination of relationship; child. For purposes of determining whether an individual may qualify for benefits as the child of a deceased miner, the provisions of § 725.208 shall be applicable. As used in...

  2. Analysis of Comparative Sequence and Genomic Data to Verify Phylogenetic Relationship and Explore a New Subfamily of Bacterial Lipases

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2016-01-01

    Thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant enzymes have significant potential in a wide range of synthetic reactions in industry due to their inherent stability at high temperatures and their ability to endure harsh organic solvents. In this study, a novel gene encoding a true lipase was isolated by construction of a genomic DNA library of thermophilic Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus strain HZ into Escherichia coli plasmid vector. Sequence analysis revealed that HZ lipase had 62% identity to putative lipase from Bacillus pseudomycoides. The closely characterized lipases to the HZ lipase gene are from thermostable Bacillus and Geobacillus lipases belonging to the subfamily I.5 with ≤ 57% identity. The amino acid sequence analysis of HZ lipase determined a conserved pentapeptide containing the active serine, GHSMG and a Ca2+-binding motif, GCYGSD in the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that HZ lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold and a lid domain. Protein sequence alignment, conserved regions analysis, clustal distance matrix and amino acid composition illustrated differences between HZ lipase and other thermostable lipases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this lipase represented a new subfamily of family I of bacterial true lipases, classified as family I.9. The HZ lipase was expressed under promoter Plac using IPTG and was characterized. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 65°C and retained ≥ 97% activity after incubation at 50°C for 1h. The HZ lipase was stable in various polar and non-polar organic solvents. PMID:26934700

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among the Caribbean members of the Cliona viridis complex (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Dairo; Zea, Sven; Sánchez, Juan A

    2012-08-01

    Species complexes - groups of closely related species in which intraspecific and interspecific variability overlap - have generated considerable interest and study. Frequently, members of a species complex do not have complete reproductive isolation; therefore, the complex may go through extensive gene flow. In the Caribbean Sea, some encrusting and excavating sponges of the genus Cliona (Porifera, Hadromerida, Clionaidae) are grouped within the great "Cliona viridis" complex because of their morphological similarities. This study examined the evolutionary relationships of the Caribbean members of this complex (C. caribbaea, C. tenuis, C. aprica and C. varians) and related taxa based on nuclear (ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial (3' end of ND6) DNA sequences. The intragenomic ITS variation and its secondary structures were evaluated using a mixed approach of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), DNA sequencing and secondary structure prediction. Considerable intragenomic variation was found in all the species, with apparently functional ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures. Despite the subtle but clear morphological differentiation in these excavating sponges, the intragenomic copies of C. caribbaea, C. tenuis and C. aprica had a polyphyletic placement in the ITS1 and ITS2 genealogies and very low divergence. Therefore, it is clear that these species constitute a species complex (herein called Ct-complex). Genetic distances within the Ct-complex revealed that an important part of the interspecific variation overlapped with intraspecific variation, suggesting either incomplete lineage sorting or extensive gene flow. In contrast, C. varians and an unidentified "Pione" species emerged as monophyletic clades, being the closest sister groups to the Ct-complex. Additionally, our results support that C. laticavicola and C. delitrix conform a monophyletic group, but absence of reciprocal monophyly in these species suggests they may be life stages or ecophenotypes of

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among the Caribbean members of the Cliona viridis complex (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Dairo; Zea, Sven; Sánchez, Juan A

    2012-08-01

    Species complexes - groups of closely related species in which intraspecific and interspecific variability overlap - have generated considerable interest and study. Frequently, members of a species complex do not have complete reproductive isolation; therefore, the complex may go through extensive gene flow. In the Caribbean Sea, some encrusting and excavating sponges of the genus Cliona (Porifera, Hadromerida, Clionaidae) are grouped within the great "Cliona viridis" complex because of their morphological similarities. This study examined the evolutionary relationships of the Caribbean members of this complex (C. caribbaea, C. tenuis, C. aprica and C. varians) and related taxa based on nuclear (ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial (3' end of ND6) DNA sequences. The intragenomic ITS variation and its secondary structures were evaluated using a mixed approach of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), DNA sequencing and secondary structure prediction. Considerable intragenomic variation was found in all the species, with apparently functional ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures. Despite the subtle but clear morphological differentiation in these excavating sponges, the intragenomic copies of C. caribbaea, C. tenuis and C. aprica had a polyphyletic placement in the ITS1 and ITS2 genealogies and very low divergence. Therefore, it is clear that these species constitute a species complex (herein called Ct-complex). Genetic distances within the Ct-complex revealed that an important part of the interspecific variation overlapped with intraspecific variation, suggesting either incomplete lineage sorting or extensive gene flow. In contrast, C. varians and an unidentified "Pione" species emerged as monophyletic clades, being the closest sister groups to the Ct-complex. Additionally, our results support that C. laticavicola and C. delitrix conform a monophyletic group, but absence of reciprocal monophyly in these species suggests they may be life stages or ecophenotypes of

  5. 20 CFR 725.206 - Determination of relationship; divorced spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Conditions, and Duration of Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.206 Determination of relationship; divorced spouse. For the purposes of augmenting...

  6. 20 CFR 725.206 - Determination of relationship; divorced spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Duration of Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.206 Determination of relationship; divorced spouse. For the purposes of augmenting...

  7. The origin of land plants: phylogenetic relationships among charophytes, bryophytes, and vascular plants inferred from complete small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kranz, H D; Miks, D; Siegler, M L; Capesius, I; Sensen, C W; Huss, V A

    1995-07-01

    Complete nuclear-encoded small-subunit 18S rRNA (= SSU rRNA) gene sequences were determined for the prasinophyte green alga Mantoniella squamata; the charophycean green algae Chara foetida, Coleochaete scutata, Klebsormidium flaccidum, and Mougeotia scalaris; the bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha, Fossombronia pusilla, and Funaria hygrometrica; and the lycopod Selaginella galleottii to get a better insight into the sequential evolution from green algae to land plants. The sequences were aligned with several previously published SSU rRNA sequences from chlorophytic and charophytic algae as well as from land plants to infer the evolutionary relationships for major evolutionary lineages within the Chlorobionta by distance matrix, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood analyses. Phylogenetic trees created by the different methods consistently placed the Charophyceae on the branch leading to the land plants. The Charophyceae were shown to be polyphyletic with the Charales ("charalean" algae) diverging earlier than the Coleochaetales, Klebsormidiales, Chlorokybales, and Zygnematales ("charophycean" algae) which branch from a point closer to the land plants in most analyses. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses imply a successive evolution from "charophycean" algae, particularly Coleochaetales, to bryophytes, lycopods, and seed plants. In contrast, distance matrix methods group the bryophytes together with the "charophycean" algae, suggesting a separate evolution of these organisms compared with the club moss and the seed plants.

  8. A new myco-heterotrophic genus, Yunorchis, and the molecular phylogenetic relationships of the tribe Calypsoeae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae) inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Ming-He; Su, Yong-Yu; Chen, Li-Jun; Lan, Si-Ren; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2015-01-01

    We identified a new holomycotrophic orchid that is related to the myco-heterotrophic Calypsoeae. Because chloroplast genes are primarily lacking or are highly divergent, key morphological characters are either reduced or lost from many myco-heterotrophs, and the phylogenetic relationships of weakly supported paraphyletic Calypsoeae within Epidendroideae have been poorly understood in previous molecular systematic studies. Using chloroplast rbcL, psaB, and matK and nuclear Xdh and ITS sequences, we determined the circumscription and systematic positions of the new orchid and the tribe. The results indicate that the epidendroid taxa include most of the clades that are successively sister to the grade of clades representing previously recognized tribes. Calypsoeae comprising four well-supported clades with 12 genera (except for the previous temporarily placed Wullschlaegelia) is supported as a monophyletic and sister clade to Epidendreae (excluding Coeliinae). The new orchid is nested in Calypsoeae and is a sister to Dactylostalix and/or Calypso. This new holomycotrophic orchid presents a subumbel inflorescence that grows underground, and flower with a long pedicel reputing the ground to open and two fragments at the base of the hook, which are obviously morphologically different from those of Calypsoeae. To accommodate this species in the current generic circumscription, a new genus Yunorchis was created. PMID:25902264

  9. Assessment of phylogenetic relationship of rare plant species collected from Saudi Arabia using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A

    2013-01-01

    The rare and endangered plants of any country are important genetic resources that often require urgent conservation measures. Assessment of phylogenetic relationships and evaluation of genetic diversity is very important prior to implementation of conservation strategies for saving rare and endangered plant species. We used internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA for the evaluation of sequence identity from the available taxa in the GenBank database by using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Two rare plant species viz, Heliotropium strigosum claded with H. pilosum (98% branch support) and Pancratium tortuosum claded with P. tenuifolium (61% branch support) clearly. However, some species, viz Scadoxus multiflorus, Commiphora myrrha and Senecio hadiensis showed close relationships with more than one species. We conclude that nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences are useful markers for phylogenetic study of these rare plant species in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Revisiting the phylogeny of Bombacoideae (Malvaceae): Novel relationships, morphologically cohesive clades, and a new tribal classification based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Sobrinho, Jefferson G; Alverson, William S; Alcantara, Suzana; Queiroz, Luciano P; Mota, Aline C; Baum, David A

    2016-08-01

    Bombacoideae (Malvaceae) is a clade of deciduous trees with a marked dominance in many forests, especially in the Neotropics. The historical lack of a well-resolved phylogenetic framework for Bombacoideae hinders studies in this ecologically important group. We reexamined phylogenetic relationships in this clade based on a matrix of 6465 nuclear (ETS, ITS) and plastid (matK, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG) DNA characters. We used maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference to infer relationships among 108 species (∼70% of the total number of known species). We analyzed the evolution of selected morphological traits: trunk or branch prickles, calyx shape, endocarp type, seed shape, and seed number per fruit, using ML reconstructions of their ancestral states to identify possible synapomorphies for major clades. Novel phylogenetic relationships emerged from our analyses, including three major lineages marked by fruit or seed traits: the winged-seed clade (Bernoullia, Gyranthera, and Huberodendron), the spongy endocarp clade (Adansonia, Aguiaria, Catostemma, Cavanillesia, and Scleronema), and the Kapok clade (Bombax, Ceiba, Eriotheca, Neobuchia, Pachira, Pseudobombax, Rhodognaphalon, and Spirotheca). The Kapok clade, the most diverse lineage of the subfamily, includes sister relationships (i) between Pseudobombax and "Pochota fendleri" a historically incertae sedis taxon, and (ii) between the Paleotropical genera Bombax and Rhodognaphalon, implying just two bombacoid dispersals to the Old World, the other one involving Adansonia. This new phylogenetic framework offers new insights and a promising avenue for further evolutionary studies. In view of this information, we present a new tribal classification of the subfamily, accompanied by an identification key.

  11. Phylogenetic Relationships among the Colobine Monkeys Revisited: New Insights from Analyses of Complete mt Genomes and 44 Nuclear Non-Coding Markers

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Christian; Ting, Nelson; Chen, Cui Ping; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Ya Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic relationships among Asian and African colobine genera have been disputed and are not yet well established. In the present study, we revisit the contentious relationships within the Asian and African Colobinae by analyzing 44 nuclear non-coding genes (>23 kb) and mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences from 14 colobine and 4 non-colobine primates. Principal Findings The combined nuclear gene and the mt genome as well as the combined nuclear and mt gene analyses yielded different phylogenetic relationships among colobine genera with the exception of a monophyletic ‘odd-nosed’ group consisting of Rhinopithecus, Pygathrix and Nasalis, and a monophyletic African group consisting of Colobus and Piliocolobus. The combined nuclear data analyses supported a sister-grouping between Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus, and between Presbytis and the odd-nosed monkey group, as well as a sister-taxon association of Pygathrix and Rhinopithecus within the odd-nosed monkey group. In contrast, mt genome data analyses revealed that Semnopithecus diverged earliest among the Asian colobines and that the odd-nosed monkey group is sister to a Presbytis and Trachypithecus clade, as well as a close association of Pygathrix with Nasalis. The relationships among these genera inferred from the analyses of combined nuclear and mt genes, however, varied with the tree-building methods used. Another remarkable finding of the present study is that all of our analyses rejected the recently proposed African colobine paraphyly and hybridization hypothesis and supported reciprocal monophyly of the African and Asian groups. Significance The phylogenetic utility of large-scale new non-coding genes was assessed using the Colobinae as a model, We found that these markers were useful for distinguishing nodes resulting from rapid radiation episodes such as the Asian colobine radiation. None of these markers here have previously been used for colobine phylogenetic reconstruction

  12. Revisiting the phylogeny of Bombacoideae (Malvaceae): Novel relationships, morphologically cohesive clades, and a new tribal classification based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Sobrinho, Jefferson G; Alverson, William S; Alcantara, Suzana; Queiroz, Luciano P; Mota, Aline C; Baum, David A

    2016-08-01

    Bombacoideae (Malvaceae) is a clade of deciduous trees with a marked dominance in many forests, especially in the Neotropics. The historical lack of a well-resolved phylogenetic framework for Bombacoideae hinders studies in this ecologically important group. We reexamined phylogenetic relationships in this clade based on a matrix of 6465 nuclear (ETS, ITS) and plastid (matK, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG) DNA characters. We used maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference to infer relationships among 108 species (∼70% of the total number of known species). We analyzed the evolution of selected morphological traits: trunk or branch prickles, calyx shape, endocarp type, seed shape, and seed number per fruit, using ML reconstructions of their ancestral states to identify possible synapomorphies for major clades. Novel phylogenetic relationships emerged from our analyses, including three major lineages marked by fruit or seed traits: the winged-seed clade (Bernoullia, Gyranthera, and Huberodendron), the spongy endocarp clade (Adansonia, Aguiaria, Catostemma, Cavanillesia, and Scleronema), and the Kapok clade (Bombax, Ceiba, Eriotheca, Neobuchia, Pachira, Pseudobombax, Rhodognaphalon, and Spirotheca). The Kapok clade, the most diverse lineage of the subfamily, includes sister relationships (i) between Pseudobombax and "Pochota fendleri" a historically incertae sedis taxon, and (ii) between the Paleotropical genera Bombax and Rhodognaphalon, implying just two bombacoid dispersals to the Old World, the other one involving Adansonia. This new phylogenetic framework offers new insights and a promising avenue for further evolutionary studies. In view of this information, we present a new tribal classification of the subfamily, accompanied by an identification key. PMID:27154210

  13. Host defense peptides from Lithobates forreri, Hylarana luctuosa, and Hylarana signata (Ranidae): phylogenetic relationships inferred from primary structures of ranatuerin-2 and brevinin-2 peptides.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Mechkarska, Milena; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Nielsen, Per F; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D

    2014-03-01

    The primary structures of host-defense peptides present in frog skin secretions constitute useful molecular markers for establishing taxonomic classifications and investigating phylogenetic relationships between species within a particular genus. Peptidomic analysis has led to the characterization of multiple host-defense peptides in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of three species of frogs from the family Ranidae: Lithobates forreri (Boulenger, 1883), Hylarana luctuosa (Peters, 1871), and Hylarana signata (Günther, 1872). The L. forreri secretions contain ranatuerin-2 (2 peptides), brevinin-1 (4 peptides), and temporin (1 peptide). The H. luctuosa secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), esculentin-1 (1 peptide), esculentin-2 (1 peptide), palustrin-2 (2 peptides), and temporin (2 peptides). The H. signata secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), brevinin-1 (5 peptides), palustrin-2 (1 peptide), and temporin (2 peptides). Cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 44 ranatuerin-2 peptides from 20 Lithobates species indicates a close phylogenetic relationship between L. forreri, Lithobates onca, and Lithobates yavapaiensis. A similar cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 27 brevinin-2 peptides from 8 Hylarana species provides support for a close phylogenetic relationship between H. signata and Hylarana picturata, while showing that the species are not conspecific, with H. luctuosa more distantly related. PMID:24463457

  14. Host defense peptides from Lithobates forreri, Hylarana luctuosa, and Hylarana signata (Ranidae): phylogenetic relationships inferred from primary structures of ranatuerin-2 and brevinin-2 peptides.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Mechkarska, Milena; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Nielsen, Per F; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D

    2014-03-01

    The primary structures of host-defense peptides present in frog skin secretions constitute useful molecular markers for establishing taxonomic classifications and investigating phylogenetic relationships between species within a particular genus. Peptidomic analysis has led to the characterization of multiple host-defense peptides in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of three species of frogs from the family Ranidae: Lithobates forreri (Boulenger, 1883), Hylarana luctuosa (Peters, 1871), and Hylarana signata (Günther, 1872). The L. forreri secretions contain ranatuerin-2 (2 peptides), brevinin-1 (4 peptides), and temporin (1 peptide). The H. luctuosa secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), esculentin-1 (1 peptide), esculentin-2 (1 peptide), palustrin-2 (2 peptides), and temporin (2 peptides). The H. signata secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), brevinin-1 (5 peptides), palustrin-2 (1 peptide), and temporin (2 peptides). Cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 44 ranatuerin-2 peptides from 20 Lithobates species indicates a close phylogenetic relationship between L. forreri, Lithobates onca, and Lithobates yavapaiensis. A similar cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 27 brevinin-2 peptides from 8 Hylarana species provides support for a close phylogenetic relationship between H. signata and Hylarana picturata, while showing that the species are not conspecific, with H. luctuosa more distantly related.

  15. Disentangling the phylogenetic and ecological components of spider phenotypic variation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how the degree of phylogenetic relatedness influences the ecological similarity among species is crucial to inferring the mechanisms governing the assembly of communities. We evaluated the relative importance of spider phylogenetic relationships and ecological niche (plant morphological variables) to the variation in spider body size and shape by comparing spiders at different scales: (i) between bromeliads and dicot plants (i.e., habitat scale) and (ii) among bromeliads with distinct architectural features (i.e., microhabitat scale). We partitioned the interspecific variation in body size and shape into phylogenetic (that express trait values as expected by phylogenetic relationships among species) and ecological components (that express trait values independent of phylogenetic relationships). At the habitat scale, bromeliad spiders were larger and flatter than spiders associated with the surrounding dicots. At this scale, plant morphology sorted out close related spiders. Our results showed that spider flatness is phylogenetically clustered at the habitat scale, whereas it is phylogenetically overdispersed at the microhabitat scale, although phylogenic signal is present in both scales. Taken together, these results suggest that whereas at the habitat scale selective colonization affect spider body size and shape, at fine scales both selective colonization and adaptive evolution determine spider body shape. By partitioning the phylogenetic and ecological components of phenotypic variation, we were able to disentangle the evolutionary history of distinct spider traits and show that plant architecture plays a role in the evolution of spider body size and shape. We also discussed the relevance in considering multiple scales when studying phylogenetic community structure.

  16. 20 CFR 725.214 - Determination of relationship; surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; surviving... Benefits) § 725.214 Determination of relationship; surviving spouse. An individual shall be considered to be the surviving spouse of a miner if: (a) The courts of the State in which the miner was...

  17. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  18. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  19. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  20. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  1. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  2. 20 CFR 410.330 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 410.330 Section 410.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.330 Determination...

  3. 20 CFR 410.310 - Determination of relationship; wife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; wife. 410.310 Section 410.310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.310 Determination...

  4. 20 CFR 410.320 - Determination of relationship; widow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; widow. 410.320 Section 410.320 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.320 Determination...

  5. 20 CFR 410.330 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 410.330 Section 410.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.330 Determination...

  6. 20 CFR 410.310 - Determination of relationship; wife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; wife. 410.310 Section 410.310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.310 Determination...

  7. 20 CFR 410.320 - Determination of relationship; widow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; widow. 410.320 Section 410.320 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.320 Determination...

  8. Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Rasmussen, Claus; Schmitt, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Chemical compounds are highly important in the ecology of animals. In social insects, compounds on the body surface represent a particularly interesting trait, because they comprise different compound classes that are involved in different functions, such as communication, recognition and protection, all of which can be differentially affected by evolutionary processes. Here, we investigate the widely unknown and possibly antagonistic influence of phylogenetic and environmental factors on the composition of the cuticular chemistry of tropical stingless bees. We chose stingless bees because some species are unique in expressing not only self-produced compounds, but also compounds that are taken up from the environment. By relating the cuticular chemistry of 40 bee species from all over the world to their molecular phylogeny and geographical occurrence, we found that distribution patterns of different groups of compounds were differentially affected by genetic relatedness and biogeography. The ability to acquire environmental compounds was, for example, highly correlated with the bees' phylogeny and predominated in evolutionarily derived species. Owing to the presence of environmentally derived compounds, those species further expressed a higher chemical and thus functional diversity. In Old World species, chemical similarity of both environmentally derived and self-produced compounds was particularly high among sympatric species, even when they were less related to each other than to allopatric species, revealing a strong environmental effect even on largely genetically determined compounds. Thus, our findings do not only reveal an unexpectedly strong influence of the environment on the cuticular chemistry of stingless bees, but also demonstrate that even within one morphological trait (an insect's cuticular profile), different components (compound classes) can be differentially affected by different drivers (relatedness and biogeography), depending on the

  9. Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Rasmussen, Claus; Schmitt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are highly important in the ecology of animals. In social insects, compounds on the body surface represent a particularly interesting trait, because they comprise different compound classes that are involved in different functions, such as communication, recognition and protection, all of which can be differentially affected by evolutionary processes. Here, we investigate the widely unknown and possibly antagonistic influence of phylogenetic and environmental factors on the composition of the cuticular chemistry of tropical stingless bees. We chose stingless bees because some species are unique in expressing not only self-produced compounds, but also compounds that are taken up from the environment. By relating the cuticular chemistry of 40 bee species from all over the world to their molecular phylogeny and geographical occurrence, we found that distribution patterns of different groups of compounds were differentially affected by genetic relatedness and biogeography. The ability to acquire environmental compounds was, for example, highly correlated with the bees' phylogeny and predominated in evolutionarily derived species. Owing to the presence of environmentally derived compounds, those species further expressed a higher chemical and thus functional diversity. In Old World species, chemical similarity of both environmentally derived and self-produced compounds was particularly high among sympatric species, even when they were less related to each other than to allopatric species, revealing a strong environmental effect even on largely genetically determined compounds. Thus, our findings do not only reveal an unexpectedly strong influence of the environment on the cuticular chemistry of stingless bees, but also demonstrate that even within one morphological trait (an insect's cuticular profile), different components (compound classes) can be differentially affected by different drivers (relatedness and biogeography), depending on the

  10. Self-determination theory and romantic relationship processes.

    PubMed

    Knee, C Raymond; Hadden, Benjamin W; Porter, Ben; Rodriguez, Lindsey M

    2013-11-01

    Self-determination theory can be viewed as a theory of optimal relationship development and functioning. We examine the concept of self that is employed in self-determination theory and explain how its unique definition allows an important and novel characterization of investing one's "self" in romantic relationships. A self-determined perspective on romantic relationships integrates several theories on romantic relationship development, but also goes beyond them by explicitly articulating the personality, developmental, and situational factors that facilitate optimal self-investment and relational functioning. Self-determination promotes openness rather than defensiveness and facilitates perspective-taking, authenticity, and support of close others. The dyadic context of romantic relationships affords great opportunity for theoretical development and integration of self-determination theory with current theories of interdependence and relational well-being. PMID:23921674

  11. Self-determination theory and romantic relationship processes.

    PubMed

    Knee, C Raymond; Hadden, Benjamin W; Porter, Ben; Rodriguez, Lindsey M

    2013-11-01

    Self-determination theory can be viewed as a theory of optimal relationship development and functioning. We examine the concept of self that is employed in self-determination theory and explain how its unique definition allows an important and novel characterization of investing one's "self" in romantic relationships. A self-determined perspective on romantic relationships integrates several theories on romantic relationship development, but also goes beyond them by explicitly articulating the personality, developmental, and situational factors that facilitate optimal self-investment and relational functioning. Self-determination promotes openness rather than defensiveness and facilitates perspective-taking, authenticity, and support of close others. The dyadic context of romantic relationships affords great opportunity for theoretical development and integration of self-determination theory with current theories of interdependence and relational well-being.

  12. Genetic, morphological, geographical and ecological approaches reveal phylogenetic relationships in complex groups, an example of recently diverged pinyon pine species (Subsection Cembroides).

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Wegier, Ana; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Ortíz-Medrano, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel; Whipple, Amy V; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Domínguez, César A

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups is challenging for intrinsic and extrinsic (i.e., technical) reasons. Mexican pinyon pines are a complex group whose phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries have been widely studied but poorly resolved, partly due to intrinsic ecological and evolutionary features such as low morphological and genetic differentiation caused by recent divergence, hybridization and introgression. Extrinsic factors such as limited sampling and difficulty in selecting informative molecular markers have also impeded progress. Some of the Mexican pinyon pines are of conservation concern but others may remain unprotected because the species boundaries have not been established. In this study we combined approaches to resolve the phylogenetic relationships in this complex group and to establish species boundaries in four recently diverged taxa: P. discolor, P. johannis, P. culminicola and P. cembroides. We performed phylogenetic analyses using the chloroplast markers matK and psbA-trnH as well as complete and partial chloroplast genomes of species of Subsection Cembroides. Additionally, we performed a phylogeographic analysis combining genetic data (18 chloroplast markers), morphological data and geographical data to define species boundaries in four recently diverged taxa. Ecological divergence was supported by differences in climate among localities for distinct genetic lineages. Whereas the phylogenetic analysis inferred with matK and psbA-trnH was unable to resolve the relationships in this complex group, we obtained a resolved phylogeny with the use of the chloroplast genomes. The resolved phylogeny was concordant with a haplotype network obtained using chloroplast markers. In species with potential for recent divergence, hybridization or introgression, nonhierarchical network-based approaches are probably more appropriate to protect against misclassification due to incomplete

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Comamonadaceae, and description of Delftia acidovorans (den Dooren de Jong 1926 and Tamaoka et al. 1987) gen. nov., comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Wen, A; Fegan, M; Hayward, C; Chakraborty, S; Sly, L I

    1999-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among members of the family Comamonadaceae and several unclassified strains were studied by direct sequencing of their PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, members of the family formed a coherent group. The closest relatives are species of the Rubrivivax sub-group: Leptothrix discophora, Ideonella dechloratans and Rubrivivax gelatinosus. The genus Hydrogenophaga formed two subclusters, as did the species of Acidovorax, whereas the five species of the genus [Aquaspirillum] were polyphyletic. Comamonas acidovorans was phylogenetically distant from the type species of Comamonas, Comam